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Sample records for glutathione-conjugate transporters encoded

  1. ABCC6 does not transport vitamin K3-glutathione conjugate from the liver: relevance to pathomechanisms of pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fülöp, Krisztina; Jiang, Qiujie; Wetering, Koen V D; Pomozi, Viola; Szabó, Pál T; Arányi, Tamás; Sarkadi, Balázs; Borst, Piet; Uitto, Jouni; Váradi, András

    2011-11-25

    Vitamin K is a cofactor required for gamma-glutamyl carboxylation of several proteins regulating blood clotting, bone formation and soft tissue mineralization. Vitamin K3 is an important intermediate during conversion of the dietary vitamin K1 to the most abundant vitamin K2 form. It has been suggested that ABCC6 may have a role in transporting vitamin K or its derivatives from the liver to the periphery. This activity is missing in pseudoxanthoma elasticum, a genetic disorder caused by mutations in ABCC6 characterized by abnormal soft tissue mineralization. Here we examined the efflux of the glutathione conjugate of vitamin K3 (VK3GS) from the liver in wild type and Abcc6(-/-) mice, and in transport assays in vitro. We found in liver perfusion experiments that VK3GS is secreted into the inferior vena cava, but we observed no significant difference between wild type and Abcc6(-/-) animals. We overexpressed the human ABCC6 transporter in Sf9 insect and MDCKII cells and assayed its vitamin K3-conjugate transport activity in vitro. We found no measurable transport of VK3GS by ABCC6, whereas ABCC1 transported this compound at high rate in these assays. These results show that VK3GS is not the essential metabolite transported by ABCC6 from the liver and preventing the symptoms of pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. RLIP76, a glutathione-conjugate transporter, plays a major role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsana Singhal

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Characteristic hypoglycemia, hypotriglyceridemia, hypocholesterolemia, lower body mass, and fat as well as pronounced insulin-sensitivity of RLIP76⁻/⁻ mice suggested to us the possibility that elevation of RLIP76 in response to stress could itself elicit metabolic syndrome (MSy. Indeed, if it were required for MSy, drugs used to treat MSy should have no effect on RLIP76⁻/⁻ mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood glucose (BG and lipid measurements were performed in RLIP76⁺/⁺ and RLIP76⁻/⁻ mice, using Ascensia Elite Glucometer® for glucose and ID Labs kits for cholesterol and triglycerides assays. The ultimate effectors of gluconeogenesis are the three enzymes: PEPCK, F-1,6-BPase, and G6Pase, and their expression is regulated by PPARγ and AMPK. The activity of these enzymes was tested by protocols standardized by us. Expressions of RLIP76, PPARα, PPARγ, HMGCR, pJNK, pAkt, and AMPK were performed by Western-blot and tissue staining. RESULTS: The concomitant activation of AMPK and PPARγ by inhibiting transport activity of RLIP76, despite inhibited activity of key glucocorticoid-regulated hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes like PEPCK, G6Pase and F-1,6-BP in RLIP76⁻/⁻ mice, is a salient finding of our studies. The decrease in RLIP76 protein expression by rosiglitazone and metformin is associated with an up-regulation of PPARγ and AMPK. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All four drugs, rosiglitazone, metformin, gemfibrozil and atorvastatin failed to affect glucose and lipid metabolism in RLIP76⁻/⁻ mice. Studies confirmed a model in which RLIP76 plays a central role in the pathogenesis of MSy and RLIP76 loss causes profound and global alterations of MSy signaling functions. RLIP76 is a novel target for single-molecule therapeutics for metabolic syndrome.

  3. Inhibition of the MRP1-mediated transport of the menadione-glutathione conjugate (thiodione) in HeLa cells as studied by SECM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koley, Dipankar; Bard, Allen J

    2012-07-17

    Oxidative stress induced in live HeLa cells by menadione (2-methyl-1,4-napthaquinone) was studied in real time by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The hydrophobic molecule menadione diffuses through a living cell membrane where it is toxic to the cell. However, in the cell it is conjugated with glutathione to form thiodione. Thiodione is then recognized and transported across the cell membrane via the ATP-driven MRP1 pump. In the extracellular environment, thiodione was detected by the SECM tip at levels of 140, 70, and 35 µM upon exposure of the cells to menadione concentrations of 500, 250, and 125 µM, respectively. With the aid of finite element modeling, the kinetics of thiodione transport was determined to be 1.6 10(-7) m/s, about 10 times faster than menadione uptake. Selective inhibition of these MRP1 pumps inside live HeLa cells by MK571 produced a lower thiodione concentration of 50 µM in presence of 500 µM menadione and 50 µM MK571. A similar reduced (50% drop) thiodione efflux was observed in the presence of monoclonal antibody QCRL-4, a selective blocking agent of the MRP1 pumps. The reduced thiodione flux confirmed that thiodione was transported by MRP1, and that glutathione is an essential substrate for MRP1-mediated transport. This finding demonstrates the usefulness of SECM in quantitative studies of MRP1 inhibitors and suggests that monoclonal antibodies can be a useful tool in inhibiting the transport of these MDR pumps, and thereby aiding in overcoming multidrug resistance.

  4. Identification of quinone imine containing glutathione conjugates of diclofenac in rat bile.

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    Waldon, Daniel J; Teffera, Yohannes; Colletti, Adria E; Liu, Jingzhou; Zurcher, Danielle; Copeland, Katrina W; Zhao, Zhiyang

    2010-12-20

    High-resolution accurate MS with an LTQ-Orbitrap was used to identify quinone imine metabolites derived from the 5-hydroxy (5-OH) and 4 prime-hydroxy (4'-OH) glutathione conjugates of diclofenac in rat bile. The initial quinone imine metabolites formed by oxidation of diclofenac have been postulated to be reactive intermediates potentially involved in diclofenac-mediated hepatotoxicity; while these metabolites could be formed using in vitro systems, they have never been detected in vivo. This report describes the identification of secondary quinone imine metabolites derived from 5-OH and 4'-OH diclofenac glutathione conjugates in rat bile. To verify the proposed structures, the diclofenac quinone imine GSH conjugate standards were prepared synthetically and enzymatically. The novel metabolite peaks displayed the identical retention times, accurate mass MS/MS spectra, and the fragmentation patterns as the corresponding authentic standards. The formation of these secondary quinone metabolites occurs only under conditions where bile salt homeostasis was experimentally altered. Standard practice in biliary excretion experiments using bile duct-cannulated rats includes infusion of taurocholic acid and/or other bile acids to replace those lost due to continuous collection of bile; for this experiment, the rats received no replacement bile acid infusion. High-resolution accurate mass spectrometry data and comparison with chemically and enzymatically prepared quinone imines of diclofenac glutathione conjugates support the identification of these metabolites. A mechanism for the formation of these reactive quinone imine containing glutathione conjugates of diclofenac is proposed.

  5. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of menadione-glutathione conjugate export from yeast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauzeroll, Janine; Bard, Allen J.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), which is toxic to yeast cells, and its expulsion as a glutathione complex were studied by scanning electrochemical microscopy. The progression of the in vitro reaction between menadione and glutathione was monitored electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry and correlated with the spectroscopic (UV–visible) behavior. By observing the scanning electrochemical microscope tip current of yeast cells suspended in a menadione-containing solution, the export of the conjugate from the cells with time could be measured. Similar experiments were performed on immobilized yeast cell aggregates stressed by a menadione solution. From the export of the menadione-glutathione conjugate detected at a 1-μm-diameter electrode situated 10 μm from the cells, a flux of about 30,000 thiodione molecules per second per cell was extracted. Numerical simulations based on an explicit finite difference method further revealed that the observation of a constant efflux of thiodione from the cells suggested the rate was limited by the uptake of menadione and that the efflux through the glutathione-conjugate pump was at least an order of magnitude faster. PMID:15148374

  6. Development and characterization of glutathione-conjugated albumin nanoparticles for improved brain delivery of hydrophilic fluorescent marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prerak J; Acharya, Niyati S; Acharya, Sanjeev R

    2013-01-01

    The glutathione-conjugated bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles were constructed in the present exploration as a novel biodegradable carrier for brain-specific drug delivery with evaluation of its in vitro and in vivo delivery properties. BSA nanocarriers were activated and conjugated to the distal amine functions of the glutathione via carbodiimide chemistry using EDAC as a mediator. These nanoparticles were characterized for particle shape, average size, SPAN value, drug entrapment and in vitro drug release. Further, presence of glutathione on the surface of BSA nanoparticles was confirmed by Ellman's assay, which has suggested that approximately 750 units of glutathione were conjugated per BSA nanoparticle. To evaluate the brain delivery properties of the glutathione-conjugated BSA nanoparticles fluorescein sodium was used as a model hydrophilic compound. Permeability and neuronal uptake properties of developed formulations were evaluated against the MDCK-MDR1 endothelial and neuro-glial cells, respectively. The permeability of glutathione-conjugated BSA nanoparticles across the monolayer of MDCK-MDR1 endothelial tight junction was shown significantly higher than that of unconjugated nanoparticles and fluorescein sodium solution. Similarly, glutathione-conjugated nanoparticles exhibited considerably higher uptake by neuro-glial cells which was inferred by high fluorescence intensity under microscope in comparison to unconjugated nanoparticles and fluorescein sodium solution. Following an intravenous administration, nearly three folds higher fluorescein sodium was carried to the rat brain by glutathione-conjugated nanoparticles as compared to unconjugated nanoparticles. The significant in vitro and in vivo results suggest that glutathione-conjugated BSA nanoparticles is a promising brain drug delivery system with low toxicity.

  7. Human glutathione S-transferase-mediated glutathione conjugation of curcumin and efflux of these conjugates in caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Usta, M.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Vervoort, J.; Boersma, M.G.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Cnubben, N.H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin, an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound, reacts with glutathione, leading to the formation of two monoglutathionyl curcumin conjugates. In the present study, the structures of both glutathione conjugates of curcumin were identified by LC-MS and one- and two-dimensional 1H NMR analysis, and

  8. Human glutathione S-transferase-mediated glutathione conjugation of curcumin and efflux of these conjugates in Caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Usta, M.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Cnubben, N.H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin, an alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compound, reacts with glutathione, leading to the formation of two monoglutathionyl curcumin conjugates. In the present study, the structures of both glutathione conjugates of curcumin were identified by LC-MS and one- and two-dimensional H-1 NMR

  9. Metabolic fate of endogenous molecular damage: Urinary glutathione conjugates of DNA-derived base propenals as markers of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpathong, Watthanachai; Chan, Wan; Taghizadeh, Koli; Babu, I Ramesh; Dedon, Peter C

    2015-09-01

    Although mechanistically linked to disease, cellular molecules damaged by endogenous processes have not emerged as significant biomarkers of inflammation and disease risk, due in part to poor understanding of their pharmacokinetic fate from tissue to excretion. Here, we use systematic metabolite profiling to define the fate of a common DNA oxidation product, base propenals, to discover such a biomarker. Based on known chemical reactivity and metabolism in liver cell extracts, 15 candidate metabolites were identified for liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) quantification in urine and bile of rats treated with thymine propenal (Tp). Analysis of urine revealed three metabolites (6% of Tp dose): thymine propenoate and two mercapturate derivatives of glutathione conjugates. Bile contained an additional four metabolites (22% of Tp dose): cysteinylglycine and cysteine derivatives of glutathione adducts. A bis-mercapturate was observed in urine of untreated rats and increased approximately three- to fourfold following CCl4-induced oxidative stress or treatment with the DNA-cleaving antitumor agent, bleomycin. Systematic metabolite profiling thus provides evidence for a metabolized DNA damage product as a candidate biomarker of inflammation and oxidative stress in humans.

  10. ABCC6 does not transport vitamin K3-glutathione conjugate from the liver: relevance to pathomechanisms of pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fülöp, Krisztina; Jiang, Qiujie; van de Wetering, Koen; Pomozi, Viola; Szabó, Pál T.; Arányi, Tamás; Sarkadi, Balázs; Borst, Piet; Uitto, Jouni; Váradi, András

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin K is a cofactor required for gamma-glutamyl carboxylation of several proteins regulating blood clotting, bone formation and soft tissue mineralization. Vitamin K3 is an important intermediate during conversion of the dietary vitamin K1 to the most abundant vitamin K2 form. It has been

  11. Formation of the accumulative human metabolite and human-specific glutathione conjugate of diclofenac in TK-NOG chimeric mice with humanized livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Hidetaka; Ito, Satoshi; Nozawa, Kohei; Nakamura, Shota; Chijiwa, Hiroyuki; Nagatsuka, Shin-ichiro; Kuronuma, Miyuki; Ohnishi, Yasuyuki; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi

    2015-03-01

    3'-Hydroxy-4'-methoxydiclofenac (VI) is a human-specific metabolite known to accumulate in the plasma of patients after repeated administration of diclofenac sodium. Diclofenac also produces glutathione-conjugated metabolites, some of which are human-specific. In the present study, we investigated whether these metabolites could be generated in humanized chimeric mice produced from TK-NOG mice. After a single oral administration of diclofenac to humanized mice, the unchanged drug in plasma peaked at 0.25 hour and then declined with a half-life (t1/2) of 2.4 hours. 4'-Hydroxydiclofenac (II) and 3'-hydroxydiclofenac also peaked at 0.25 hour and were undetectable within 24 hours. However, VI peaked at 8 hours and declined with a t1/2 of 13 hours. When diclofenac was given once per day, peak and trough levels of VI reached plateau within 3 days. Studies with administration of II suggested VI was generated via II as an intermediate. Among six reported glutathione-conjugated metabolites of diclofenac, M1 (5-hydroxy-4-(glutathion-S-yl)diclofenac) to M6 (2'-(glutathion-S-yl)monoclofenac), we found three dichlorinated conjugates [M1, M2 (4'-hydroxy-3'-(glutathion-S-yl)diclofenac), and M3 (5-hydroxy-6-(glutathion-S-yl)diclofenac)], and a single monochlorinated conjugate [M4 (2'-hydroxy-3'-(glutathion-S-yl)monoclofenac) or M5 (4'-hydroxy-2'-(glutathion-S-yl)monoclofenac)], in the bile of humanized chimeric mice. M4 and M5 are positional isomers and have been previously reported as human-specific in vitro metabolites likely generated via arene oxide and quinone imine-type intermediates, respectively. The biliary monochlorinated metabolite exhibited the same mass spectrum as those of M4 and M5, and we discuss whether this conjugate corresponded to M4 or M5. Overall, humanized TK-NOG chimeric mice were considered to be a functional tool for the study of drug metabolism of diclofenac in humans. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental

  12. A neurotransmitter transporter encoded by the Drosophila inebriated gene

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    Soehnge, Holly; Huang, Xi; Becker, Marie; Whitley, Penn; Conover, Diana; Stern, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological studies on mutants defective in the Drosophila inebriated (ine) gene demonstrated increased excitability of the motor neuron. In this paper, we describe the cloning and sequence analysis of ine. Mutations in ine were localized on cloned DNA by restriction mapping and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) mapping of ine mutants. DNA from the ine region was then used to isolate an ine cDNA. In situ hybridization of ine transcripts to developing embryos revealed expression of this gene in several cell types, including the posterior hindgut, Malpighian tubules, anal plate, garland cells, and a subset of cells in the central nervous system. The ine cDNA contains an open reading frame of 658 amino acids with a high degree of sequence similarity to members of the Na+/Cl−-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family. Members of this family catalyze the rapid reuptake of neurotransmitters released into the synapse and thereby play key roles in controlling neuronal function. We conclude that ine mutations cause increased excitability of the Drosophila motor neuron by causing the defective reuptake of the substrate neurotransmitter of the ine transporter and thus overstimulation of the motor neuron by this neurotransmitter. From this observation comes a unique opportunity to perform a genetic dissection of the regulation of excitability of the Drosophila motor neuron. PMID:8917579

  13. Escherichia coli yjjPB genes encode a succinate transporter important for succinate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Keita; Nanatani, Kei; Hara, Yoshihiko; Yamakami, Suguru; Yahagi, Daiki; Chinen, Akito; Tokura, Mitsunori; Abe, Keietsu

    2017-09-01

    Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli produces succinate from glucose via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. To date, however, no genes encoding succinate exporters have been established in E. coli. Therefore, we attempted to identify genes encoding succinate exporters by screening an E. coli MG1655 genome library. We identified the yjjPB genes as candidates encoding a succinate transporter, which enhanced succinate production in Pantoea ananatis under aerobic conditions. A complementation assay conducted in Corynebacterium glutamicum strain AJ110655ΔsucE1 demonstrated that both YjjP and YjjB are required for the restoration of succinate production. Furthermore, deletion of yjjPB decreased succinate production in E. coli by 70% under anaerobic conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that YjjPB constitutes a succinate transporter in E. coli and that the products of both genes are required for succinate export.

  14. Impaired renal secretion of substrates for the multidrug resistance protein 2 in mutant transport-deficient (TR-) rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masereeuw, R.; Notenboom, S.; Smeets, P.H.E.; Wouterse, A.C.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies with mutant transport-deficient rats (TR(-)), in which the multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) is lacking, have emphasized the importance of this transport protein in the biliary excretion of a wide variety of glutathione conjugates, glucuronides, and other organic anions. Mrp2 is

  15. The Mimivirus Genome Encodes a Mitochondrial Carrier That Transports dATP and dTTP▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monné, Magnus; Robinson, Alan J.; Boes, Christoph; Harbour, Michael E.; Fearnley, Ian M.; Kunji, Edmund R. S.

    2007-01-01

    Members of the mitochondrial carrier family have been reported in eukaryotes only, where they transport metabolites and cofactors across the mitochondrial inner membrane to link the metabolic pathways of the cytosol and the matrix. The genome of the giant virus Mimiviridae mimivirus encodes a member of the mitochondrial carrier family of transport proteins. This viral protein has been expressed in Lactococcus lactis and is shown to transport dATP and dTTP. As the 1.2-Mb double-stranded DNA mimivirus genome is rich in A and T residues, we speculate that the virus is using this protein to target the host mitochondria as a source of deoxynucleotides for its replication. PMID:17229695

  16. Genes encoding novel lipid transporters and their use to increase oil production in vegetative tissues of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changcheng; Fan, Jilian; Yan, Chengshi; Shanklin, John

    2017-12-26

    The present invention discloses a novel gene encoding a transporter protein trigalactosyldiacylglycerol-5 (TGD5), mutations thereof and their use to enhance TAG production and retention in plant vegetative tissue.

  17. Reduction of antinutritional glucosinolates in Brassica oilseeds by mutation of genes encoding transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Madsen, Svend Roesen; Engelen, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional value of Brassica seed meals is reduced by the presence of glucosinolates, which are toxic compounds involved in plant defense. Mutation of the genes encoding two glucosinolate transporters (GTRs) eliminated glucosinolates from Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, but translation of loss......-of-function phenotypes into Brassica crops is challenging because Brassica is polyploid. We mutated one of seven and four of 12 GTR orthologs and reduced glucosinolate levels in seeds by 60-70% in two different Brassica species (Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea). Reduction in seed glucosinolates was stably inherited...... over multiple generations and maintained in field trials of two mutant populations at three locations. Successful translation of the gtr loss-of-function phenotype from model plant to two Brassica crops suggests that our transport engineering approach could be broadly applied to reduce seed...

  18. The Down regulated in Adenoma (dra) gene encodes an intestine-specific membrane sulfate transport protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, D G; Wang, W; Moseley, R H; Traber, P G

    1995-05-19

    A gene has been described, Down Regulated in Adenoma (dra), which is expressed in normal colon but is absent in the majority of colon adenomas and adenocarcinomas. However, the function of this protein is unknown. Because of sequence similarity to a recently cloned membrane sulfate transporter in rat liver, the transport function of Dra was examined. We established that dra encodes for a Na(+)-independent transporter for both sulfate and oxalate using microinjected Xenopus oocytes as an assay system. Sulfate transport was sensitive to the anion exchange inhibitor DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2' disulfonic acid stilbene). Using an RNase protection assay, we found that dra mRNA expression is limited to the small intestine and colon in mouse, therefore identifying Dra as an intestine-specific sulfate transporter. dra also had a unique pattern of expression during intestinal development. Northern blot analysis revealed a low level of expression in colon at birth with a marked increase in the first 2 postnatal weeks. In contrast, there was a lower, constant level of expression in small intestine in the postnatal period. Caco-2 cells, a colon carcinoma cell line that differentiates over time in culture, demonstrated a marked induction of dra mRNA as cells progressed from the preconfluent (undifferentiated) to the postconfluent (differentiated) state. These results show that Dra is an intestine-specific Na(+)-independent sulfate transporter that has differential expression during colonic development. This functional characterization provides the foundation for investigation of the role of Dra in intestinal sulfate transport and in the malignant phenotype.

  19. Genes Encoding Aluminum-Activated Malate Transporter II and their Association with Fruit Acidity in Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiquan Ma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A gene encoding aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT was previously reported as a candidate for the locus controlling acidity in apple ( × Borkh.. In this study, we found that apple genes can be divided into three families and the gene belongs to the family. Duplication of genes in apple is related to the polyploid origin of the apple genome. Divergence in expression has occurred between the gene and its homologs in the family and only the gene is significantly associated with malic acid content. The locus consists of two alleles, and . resides in the tonoplast and its ectopic expression in yeast was found to increase the influx of malic acid into yeast cells significantly, suggesting it may function as a vacuolar malate channel. In contrast, encodes a truncated protein because of a single nucleotide substitution of G with A in the last exon. As this truncated protein resides within the cell membrane, it is deemed to be nonfunctional as a vacuolar malate channel. The frequency of the genotype is very low in apple cultivars but is high in wild relatives, which suggests that apple domestication may be accompanied by selection for the gene. In addition, variations in the malic acid content of mature fruits were also observed between accessions with the same genotype in the locus. This suggests that the gene is not the only genetic determinant of fruit acidity in apple.

  20. Misonidazole-glutathione conjugates in CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, A.J.; Whitmore, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    Misonidazole, after reduction to the hydroxylamine derivative, reacts with glutathione (GSH) under physiological conditions. The reaction product has been identified as a mixture of two isomeric conjugates. When water soluble extracts of CHO cells exposed to misonidazole under hypoxic conditions are subjected to HPLC analysis, misonidazole derivatives, having the same chromatographic properties as the GSH-MISO conjugates, were detected. When CHO cells were incubated with misonidazole in the presence of added GSH, a substantial increase in the amount of the conjugate was detected. When extracts of CHO cells exposed to misonidazole under hypoxia were subsequently exposed to GSH, an increased formation of the conjugate was observed. A rearrangement product of the hydroxylamine derivative of misonidazole is postulated as the reactive intermediate responsible for the formation of the conjugate

  1. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe mam1 gene encodes an ABC transporter mediating secretion of M-factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P U; Davey, William John; Nielsen, O

    1997-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cells of opposite mating type communicate via diffusible peptide pheromones prior to mating. We have cloned the S. pombe mam1 gene, which encodes a 1336-amino acid protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. The mam1 gene is onl...

  2. The Human Gene SLC25A29, of Solute Carrier Family 25, Encodes a Mitochondrial Transporter of Basic Amino Acids*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Vito; Fiermonte, Giuseppe; Longo, Antonella; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport carboxylates, amino acids, nucleotides, and cofactors across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. In this work, a member of this family, SLC25A29, previously reported to be a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine- or ornithine-like carrier, has been thoroughly characterized biochemically. The SLC25A29 gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product was purified and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Its transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A29 transports arginine, lysine, homoarginine, methylarginine and, to a much lesser extent, ornithine and histidine. Carnitine and acylcarnitines were not transported by SLC25A29. This carrier catalyzed substantial uniport besides a counter-exchange transport, exhibited a high transport affinity for arginine and lysine, and was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. The main physiological role of SLC25A29 is to import basic amino acids into mitochondria for mitochondrial protein synthesis and amino acid degradation. PMID:24652292

  3. The human gene SLC25A29, of solute carrier family 25, encodes a mitochondrial transporter of basic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Vito; Fiermonte, Giuseppe; Longo, Antonella; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-05-09

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport carboxylates, amino acids, nucleotides, and cofactors across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. In this work, a member of this family, SLC25A29, previously reported to be a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine- or ornithine-like carrier, has been thoroughly characterized biochemically. The SLC25A29 gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product was purified and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Its transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A29 transports arginine, lysine, homoarginine, methylarginine and, to a much lesser extent, ornithine and histidine. Carnitine and acylcarnitines were not transported by SLC25A29. This carrier catalyzed substantial uniport besides a counter-exchange transport, exhibited a high transport affinity for arginine and lysine, and was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. The main physiological role of SLC25A29 is to import basic amino acids into mitochondria for mitochondrial protein synthesis and amino acid degradation.

  4. Differential expression of genes encoding phosphate transporters contributes to arsenic accumulation in shrub willow (Salix spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily E. Puckett; Michelle J. Serpiglia; Alyssa M. DeLeon; Stephanie Long; Rakesh Minocha; Lawrence B. Smart

    2012-01-01

    Studies of arsenate and phosphate uptake by plants in hydroponic and soil systems indicate a common transport mechanism via the phosphate transporters (PHTs) due to structural similarity of the anions. Typically, the presence of phosphate decreases plant uptake and translocation of arsenate in hydroponic solution. This study quantified arsenic (As) uptake related to...

  5. The arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 gene encodes a component of the polar-auxin-transport efflux carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R.; Hilson, P.; Sedbrook, J.; Rosen, E.; Caspar, T.; Masson, P. H.

    1998-01-01

    Auxins are plant hormones that mediate many aspects of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxins are polarly transported from sites of synthesis in the shoot apex to their sites of action in the basal regions of shoots and in roots. Polar auxin transport is an important aspect of auxin functions and is mediated by cellular influx and efflux carriers. Little is known about the molecular identity of its regulatory component, the efflux carrier [Estelle, M. (1996) Current Biol. 6, 1589-1591]. Here we show that mutations in the Arabidopsis thaliana AGRAVITROPIC 1 (AGR1) gene involved in root gravitropism confer increased root-growth sensitivity to auxin and decreased sensitivity to ethylene and an auxin transport inhibitor, and cause retention of exogenously added auxin in root tip cells. We used positional cloning to show that AGR1 encodes a putative transmembrane protein whose amino acid sequence shares homologies with bacterial transporters. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, AGR1 promotes an increased efflux of radiolabeled IAA from the cells and confers increased resistance to fluoro-IAA, a toxic IAA-derived compound. AGR1 transcripts were localized to the root distal elongation zone, a region undergoing a curvature response upon gravistimulation. We have identified several AGR1-related genes in Arabidopsis, suggesting a global role of this gene family in the control of auxin-regulated growth and developmental processes.

  6. Comparative genomic analyses of transport proteins encoded within the genomes of Leptospira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktimkin, Bora; Saier, Milton H

    2015-11-01

    Select species of the bacterial genus Leptospira are causative agents of leptospirosis, an emerging global zoonosis affecting nearly one million people worldwide annually. We examined two Leptospira pathogens, Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai str. 56601 and Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis str. L550, as well as the free-living leptospiral saprophyte, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc str. 'Patoc 1 (Ames)'. The transport proteins of these leptospires were identified and compared using bioinformatics to gain an appreciation for which proteins may be related to pathogenesis and saprophytism. L. biflexa possesses a disproportionately high number of secondary carriers for metabolite uptake and environmental adaptability as well as an increased number of inorganic cation transporters providing ionic homeostasis and effective osmoregulation in a rapidly changing environment. L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii possess far fewer transporters, but those that they have are remarkably similar, with near-equivalent representation in most transporter families. These two Leptospira pathogens also possess intact sphingomyelinases, holins, and virulence-related outer membrane porins. These virulence-related factors, in conjunction with decreased transporter substrate versatility, indicate that pathogenicity was accompanied by progressively narrowing ecological niches and the emergence of a limited set of proteins responsible for host invasion. The variability of host tropism and mortality rates by infectious leptospires suggests that small differences in individual sets of proteins play important physiological and pathological roles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative analyses of transport proteins encoded within the genomes of Leptospira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktimkin, Bora; Saier, Milton H

    2016-09-01

    Select species of the bacterial genus Leptospira are causative agents of leptospirosis, an emerging global zoonosis affecting nearly one million people worldwide annually. We examined two Leptospira pathogens, Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai str. 56601 and Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo-bovis str. L550, as well as the free-living leptospiral saprophyte, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc str. 'Patoc 1 (Ames)'. The transport proteins of these leptospires were identified and compared using bioinformatics to gain an appreciation for which proteins may be related to pathogenesis and saprophytism. L. biflexa possesses a disproportionately high number of secondary carriers for metabolite uptake and environmental adaptability as well as an increased number of inorganic cation transporters providing ionic homeostasis and effective osmoregulation in a rapidly changing environment. L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii possess far fewer transporters, but those that they all have are remarkably similar, with near-equivalent representation in most transporter families. These two Leptospira pathogens also possess intact sphingomyelinases, holins, and virulence-related outer membrane porins. These virulence-related factors, in conjunction with decreased transporter substrate versatility, indicate that pathogenicity arose in Leptospira correlating to progressively narrowing ecological niches and the emergence of a limited set of proteins responsible for host invasion. The variability of host tropism and mortality rates by infectious leptospires suggests that small differences in individual sets of proteins play important physiological and pathological roles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. An Optimized Version of a New Absolute Linear Encoder Dedicated to Intelligent Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2009-01-01

    made in the coding algorithm, in the ruler topology and in the dedicated software. The optimized ALE is a robust device able to work in industrial environment, with a high level of vibrations. By this reason it is ideal for the transport system control in automating manufacturing processes, intelligent...

  9. Functional expression in Lactobacillus plantarum of xylP encoding the isoprimeverose transporter of Lactobacillus pentosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaillou, S.; Postma, P.W.; Pouwels, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    The xylP gene of Lactobacillus pentosus, the first gene of the xylPQR operon, was recently found to be involved in isoprimeverose metabolism. By expression of xylP on a multicopy plasmid in Lactobacillus plantarum 80, a strain which lacks active isoprimeverose and D-xylose transport activities, it

  10. Some efficient Lagrangian mesh finite elements encoded in ZEPHYR for two dimensional transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordant, Maurice.

    1981-04-01

    To solve a multigroup stationary neutron transport equation in two-dimensional geometries (X-Y), (R-O) or (R-Z) generally on uses discrete ordinates and rectangular meshes. The way to do it is then well known, well documented and somewhat obvious. If one needs to treat awkward geometries or distorted meshes, things are not so easy and the way to do it is no longer straightforward. We have studied this problem at Limeil Nuclear Center and as an alternative to Monte Carlo methods and code we have implemented in ZEPHYR code at least two efficient finite element solutions for Lagrangian meshes involving any kind of triangles and quadrilaterals

  11. AtMRP1 gene of Arabidopsis encodes a glutathione S-conjugate pump: isolation and functional definition of a plant ATP-binding cassette transporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y P; Li, Z S; Rea, P A

    1997-07-22

    Because plants produce cytotoxic compounds to which they, themselves, are susceptible and are exposed to exogenous toxins (microbial products, allelochemicals, and agrochemicals), cell survival is contingent on mechanisms for detoxifying these agents. One detoxification mechanism is the glutathione S-transferase-catalyzed glutathionation of the toxin, or an activated derivative, and transport of the conjugate out of the cytosol. We show here that a transporter responsible for the removal of glutathione S-conjugates from the cytosol, a specific Mg2+-ATPase, is encoded by the AtMRP1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana. The sequence of AtMRP1 and the transport capabilities of membranes prepared from yeast cells transformed with plasmid-borne AtMRP1 demonstrate that this gene encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter competent in the transport of glutathione S-conjugates of xenobiotics and endogenous substances, including herbicides and anthocyanins.

  12. Molecular docking simulations provide insights in the substrate binding sites and possible substrates of the ABCC6 transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jakir Hosen

    Full Text Available The human ATP-binding cassette family C member 6 (ABCC6 gene encodes an ABC transporter protein (ABCC6, primarily expressed in liver and kidney. Mutations in the ABCC6 gene cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE, an autosomal recessive connective tissue disease characterized by ectopic mineralization of the elastic fibers. The pathophysiology underlying PXE is incompletely understood, which can at least partly be explained by the undetermined nature of the ABCC6 substrates as well as the unknown substrate recognition and binding sites. Several compounds, including anionic glutathione conjugates (N-ethylmaleimide; NEM-GS and leukotriene C4 (LTC4 were shown to be modestly transported in vitro; conversely, vitamin K3 (VK3 was demonstrated not to be transported by ABCC6. To predict the possible substrate binding pockets of the ABCC6 transporter, we generated a 3D homology model of ABCC6 in both open and closed conformation, qualified for molecular docking and virtual screening approaches. By docking 10 reported in vitro substrates in our ABCC6 3D homology models, we were able to predict the substrate binding residues of ABCC6. Further, virtual screening of 4651 metabolites from the Human Serum Metabolome Database against our open conformation model disclosed possible substrates for ABCC6, which are mostly lipid and biliary secretion compounds, some of which are found to be involved in mineralization. Docking of these possible substrates in the closed conformation model also showed high affinity. Virtual screening expands this possibility to explore more compounds that can interact with ABCC6, and may aid in understanding the mechanisms leading to PXE.

  13. [Cloning and expression analysis of a zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein encoding gene in Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Li, Yi-Min; Li, Biao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The zinc-regulated transporters (ZRT), iron-regulated transporter (IRT)-like protein (ZIP) plays an important role in the growth and development of plant. In this study, a full length cDNA of ZIP encoding gene, designed as DoZIP1 (GenBank accession KJ946203), was identified from Dendrobium officinale using RT-PCR and RACE. Bioinformatics analysis showed that DoZIP1 consisted of a 1,056 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoded a 351-aa protein with a molecular weight of 37.57 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.09. The deduced DoZIP1 protein contained the conserved ZIP domain, and its secondary structure was composed of 50.71% alpha helix, 11.11% extended strand, 36.18% random coil, and beta turn 1.99%. DoZIP1 protein exhibited a signal peptide and eight transmembrane domains, presumably locating in cell membrane. The amino acid sequence had high homology with ZIP proteins from Arabidopsis, alfalfa and rice. A phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated that DoZIP1 was closely related to AtZIP10 and OsZIP3, and they were clustered into one clade. Real time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcription level of DoZIP1 in D. officinale roots was the highest (4.19 fold higher than that of stems), followed by that of leaves (1.12 fold). Molecular characters of DoZIP1 will be useful for further functional determination of the gene involving in the growth and development of D. officinale.

  14. Phosphorus acquisition efficiency in arbuscular mycorrhizal maize is correlated with the abundance of root-external hyphae and the accumulation of transcripts encoding PHT1 phosphate transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawers, Ruairidh J H; Svane, Simon F; Quan, Clement

    2016-01-01

    content, abundance of intra-radical and root-external fungal structures, mycorrhizal phosphorus uptake, and accumulation of transcripts encoding plant PHT1 family phosphate transporters varied among lines. Larger growth responses in Oh43 were correlated with extensive development of root-external hyphae...

  15. Phosphorus acquisition efficiency in arbuscular mycorrhizal maize is correlated with the abundance of root-external hyphae and the accumulation of transcripts encoding PHT1 phosphate transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawers, Ruairidh J. H.; Svane, Simon; Quan, Clement

    2017-01-01

    -internal and -external fungal structures, mycorrhizal phosphorus uptake, and accumulation of transcripts encoding plant PHT1 family phosphate transporters varied among lines. Superior response in Oh43 is correlated with extensive development of root-external hyphae, accumulation of specific Pht1 transcripts and high...

  16. Identification and characterization of a novel Cut family cDNA that encodes human copper transporter protein CutC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jixi; Ji Chaoneng; Chen Jinzhong; Yang Zhenxing; Wang Yijing; Fei, Xiangwei; Zheng Mei; Gu Xing; Wen Ge; Xie Yi; Mao Yumin

    2005-01-01

    Copper is an essential heavy metal trace element that plays important roles in cell physiology. The Cut family was associated with the copper homeostasis and involved in several important metabolisms, such as uptake, storage, delivery, and efflux of copper. In this study, a novel Cut family cDNA was isolated from the human fetal brain library, which encodes a 273 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of about 29.3 kDa and a calculated pI of 8.17. It was named hCutC (human copper transporter protein CutC). The ORF of hCutC gene was cloned into pQE30 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli M15. The secreted hCutC protein was purified to a homogenicity of 95% by using the Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. RT-PCR analysis showed that the hCutC gene expressed extensively in human tissues. Subcellular location analysis of hCutC-EGFP fusion protein revealed that hCutC was distributed to cytoplasm of COS-7 cells, and both cytoplasm and nucleus of AD293 cells. The results suggest that hCutC may be one shuttle protein and play important roles in intracellular copper trafficking

  17. The Human SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 Genes of Solute Carrier Family 25 Encode Two Mitochondrial Pyrimidine Nucleotide Transporters*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Maria Antonietta; Todisco, Simona; Cirigliano, Angela; Rinaldi, Teresa; Agrimi, Gennaro; Iacobazzi, Vito; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport inorganic anions, amino acids, carboxylates, nucleotides, and coenzymes across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. Here two members of this family, SLC25A33 and SLC25A36, have been thoroughly characterized biochemically. These proteins were overexpressed in bacteria and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Their transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A33 transports uracil, thymine, and cytosine (deoxy)nucleoside di- and triphosphates by an antiport mechanism and SLC25A36 cytosine and uracil (deoxy)nucleoside mono-, di-, and triphosphates by uniport and antiport. Both carriers also transported guanine but not adenine (deoxy)nucleotides. Transport catalyzed by both carriers was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. In confirmation of their identity (i) SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 were found to be targeted to mitochondria and (ii) the phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking RIM2, the gene encoding the well characterized yeast mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide carrier, were overcome by expressing SLC25A33 or SLC25A36 in these cells. The main physiological role of SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 is to import/export pyrimidine nucleotides into and from mitochondria, i.e. to accomplish transport steps essential for mitochondrial DNA and RNA synthesis and breakdown. PMID:25320081

  18. The human SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 genes of solute carrier family 25 encode two mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Maria Antonietta; Todisco, Simona; Cirigliano, Angela; Rinaldi, Teresa; Agrimi, Gennaro; Iacobazzi, Vito; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2014-11-28

    The human genome encodes 53 members of the solute carrier family 25 (SLC25), also called the mitochondrial carrier family, many of which have been shown to transport inorganic anions, amino acids, carboxylates, nucleotides, and coenzymes across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby connecting cytosolic and matrix functions. Here two members of this family, SLC25A33 and SLC25A36, have been thoroughly characterized biochemically. These proteins were overexpressed in bacteria and reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles. Their transport properties and kinetic parameters demonstrate that SLC25A33 transports uracil, thymine, and cytosine (deoxy)nucleoside di- and triphosphates by an antiport mechanism and SLC25A36 cytosine and uracil (deoxy)nucleoside mono-, di-, and triphosphates by uniport and antiport. Both carriers also transported guanine but not adenine (deoxy)nucleotides. Transport catalyzed by both carriers was saturable and inhibited by mercurial compounds and other inhibitors of mitochondrial carriers to various degrees. In confirmation of their identity (i) SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 were found to be targeted to mitochondria and (ii) the phenotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking RIM2, the gene encoding the well characterized yeast mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide carrier, were overcome by expressing SLC25A33 or SLC25A36 in these cells. The main physiological role of SLC25A33 and SLC25A36 is to import/export pyrimidine nucleotides into and from mitochondria, i.e. to accomplish transport steps essential for mitochondrial DNA and RNA synthesis and breakdown. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Mapping the Binding Site for Escitalopram and Paroxetine in the Human Serotonin Transporter Using Genetically Encoded Photo-Cross-Linkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rannversson, Hafsteinn; Andersen, Jacob; Bang-Andersen, Benny

    2017-01-01

    amber codon suppression in hSERT to encode the photo-cross-linking unnatural amino acid p-azido-l-phenylalanine into the suggested high- and low-affinity binding sites. We then employ UV-induced cross-linking with azF to map the binding site of escitalopram and paroxetine, two prototypical selective...... serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We find that the two antidepressant drugs exclusively cross-link to azF incorporated at the high-affinity binding site of hSERT, while cross-linking is not observed at the low-affinity binding site. Combined with previous homology models and recent structural data on h...

  20. Application aware approach to compression and transmission of H.264 encoded video for automated and centralized transportation surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    In this report we present a transportation video coding and wireless transmission system specically tailored to automated : vehicle tracking applications. By taking into account the video characteristics and the lossy nature of the wireless channe...

  1. Gravistimulation changes expression of genes encoding putative carrier proteins of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, T.; Hitotsubashi, R.; Miyamoto, K.; Tanimoto, E.; Ueda, J.

    STS-95 space experiment has showed that auxin polar transport in etiolated epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings is controlled by gravistimulation. In Arabidopsis thaliana auxin polar transport has considered to be regulated by efflux and influx carrier proteins in plasma membranes, AtPIN1 and AtAUX1, respectively. In order to know how gravistimuli control auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls at molecular levels, strenuous efforts have been made, resulting in successful isolation of full-length cDNAs of a putative auxin efflux and influx carriers, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (accession no. AY222857, Chawla and DeMason, 2003) and AtPINs, and also among PsAUX1, AtAUX1 and their related genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 relating to lateral transport of auxin, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1 relating to auxin polar transport. In the present study, we examined the effects of gravistimuli on the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 in etiolated pea seedlings by northern blot analysis. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in hook region of 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat increased as compared with that of the seedlings grown under 1 g conditions. On the other hand, that of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the 1st internode region under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat also increased, while that of PsPIN2 was affected little. These results suggest that expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 regulating polar/lateral transport of auxin is substantially under the control of gravity. A possible role of PsPINs and PsAUX1 of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings will also be discussed.

  2. Constitutive synthesis of a transport function encoded by the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans merC gene cloned in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Tomonobu; Ji, Guangyong; Silver, S.; Inoue, Chihiro

    1990-01-01

    Mercuric reductase activity determined by the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans merA gene (cloned and expressed constitutively in Escherichia coli) was measured by volatilization of 203 Hg 2+ . (The absence of a merR regulatory gene in the cloned Thiobacillus mer determinant provides a basis for the constitutive synthesis of this system.) In the absence of the Thiobacillus merC transport gene, the mercury volatilization activity was cryptic and was not seen with whole cells but only with sonication-disrupted cells. The Thiobacillus merC transport function was compared with transport via the merT-merP system of plasmid pDU1358. Both systems, cloned and expressed in E. coli, governed enhanced uptake of 203 Hg 2+ in a temperature- and concentration-dependent fashion. Uptake via MerT-MerP was greater and conferred greater hypersensitivity to Hg 2+ than did uptake with MerC. Mercury uptake was inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide but not by EDTA. Ag + salts inhibited mercury uptake by the MerT-MerP system but did not inhibit uptake via MerC. Radioactive mercury accumulated by the MerT-MerP and by the MerC systems was exchangeable with nonradioactive Hg 2+

  3. The maize glossy13 gene, cloned via BSR-Seq and Seq-walking encodes a putative ABC transporter required for the normal accumulation of epicuticular waxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    Full Text Available Aerial plant surfaces are covered by epicuticular waxes that among other purposes serve to control water loss. Maize glossy mutants originally identified by their "glossy" phenotypes exhibit alterations in the accumulation of epicuticular waxes. By combining data from a BSR-Seq experiment and the newly developed Seq-Walking technology, GRMZM2G118243 was identified as a strong candidate for being the glossy13 gene. The finding that multiple EMS-induced alleles contain premature stop codons in GRMZM2G118243, and the one knockout allele of gl13, validates the hypothesis that gene GRMZM2G118243 is gl13. Consistent with this, GRMZM2G118243 is an ortholog of AtABCG32 (Arabidopsis thaliana, HvABCG31 (barley and OsABCG31 (rice, which encode ABCG subfamily transporters involved in the trans-membrane transport of various secondary metabolites. We therefore hypothesize that gl13 is involved in the transport of epicuticular waxes onto the surfaces of seedling leaves.

  4. Involvement of the VDE homing endonuclease and rapamycin in regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GSH11 gene encoding the high affinity glutathione transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Tsuyoshi; Hiraishi, Hiroyuki; Sammoto, Hiroyuki; Ono, Bun-Ichiro

    2003-10-10

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene HGT1/GSH11 encodes the high affinity glutathione transporter and is repressed by cysteine added to the culture medium. It has been found previously that a 5'-upstream cis-element, CCGCCACAC, is responsible for regulating GSH11 expression and that several proteins bind to this element (Miyake, T., Kanayama, M., Sammoto, H., and Ono, B. (2002) Mol. Genet. Genomics 266, 1004-1011). In this report we present evidence that the most prominent of these proteins is VDE, known previously as the homing endonuclease encoded by VMA1. We show also that GSH11 is not expressed in a VDE-deleted strain and that inability to express the GSH11 of this strain is overcome by introduction of the coding region of VDE or the entire VMA1 gene. It is also found that VDE does not cut DNA in the vicinity of the GSH11 cis-element. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of the target of rapamycin (TOR) signal-transduction system, is found to enhance expression of GSH11 in a VDE-dependent manner under conditions of sulfur starvation. These results indicate that GSH11 is regulated by a system sensitive to sulfur starvation (presumably via cysteine depletion) and a more general system involving the nutritional starvation signal mediated by the TOR system. Both systems need to be operational (inhibition of TOR and sulfur starvation) for full expression of GSH11.

  5. Regulatory domain or CpG site variation in SLC12A5, encoding the chloride transporter KCC2, in human autism and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy D Merner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many encoded gene products responsible for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs like autism spectrum disorders (ASD, schizophrenia (SCZ, intellectual disability (ID, and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE converge on networks controlling synaptic function. An increase in KCC2 (SLC12A5 Cl- transporter activity drives the developmental GABA excitatory-inhibitory sequence, but the role of KCC2 in human NDs is essentially unknown. Here, we report two rare, non-synonymous (NS, functionally-impairing variants in the KCC2 C-terminal regulatory domain (CTRD in human ASD (R952H and R1049C and SCZ (R952H previously linked with IGE and familial febrile seizures, and another novel NS KCC2 variant in ASD (R1048W with highly-predicted pathogenicity. Exome data from 2517 simplex families in the ASD Simon Simplex Collection revealed significantly more KCC2 CTRD variants in ASD cases than controls, and interestingly, these were more often synonymous and predicted to disrupt or introduce a CpG site. Furthermore, full gene analysis showed ASD cases are more likely to contain rare KCC2 variants affecting CpG sites than controls. These data suggest genetically-encoded dysregulation of KCC2-dependent GABA signaling may contribute to multiple human NDs.

  6. Displacement encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, T.G.

    1983-01-01

    In an optical encoder, light from an optical fibre input A is encoded by means of the encoding disc and is subsequently collected for transmission via optical fibre B. At some point in the optical path between the fibres A and B, the light is separated into component form by means of a filtering or dispersive system and each colour component is associated with a respective one of the coding channels of the disc. In this way, the significance of each bit of the coded information is represented by a respective colour thereby enabling the components to be re-combined for transmission by the fibre B without loss of information. (author)

  7. Expression analysis of two gene subfamilies encoding the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia reveals the major transport functions of this enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriau, L; Michelet, B; Bogaerts, P; Lambert, L; Michel, A; Oufattole, M; Boutry, M

    1999-07-01

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase couples ATP hydrolysis to proton transport, thereby establishing the driving force for solute transport across the plasma membrane. In Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, this enzyme is encoded by at least nine pma (plasma membrane H+-ATPase) genes. Four of these are classified into two gene subfamilies, pma1-2-3 and pma4, which are the most highly expressed in plant species. We have isolated genomic clones for pma2 and pma4. Mapping of their transcript 5' end revealed the presence of a long leader that contained small open reading frames, regulatory features typical of other pma genes. The gusA reporter gene was then used to determine the expression of pma2, pma3 and pma4 in N. tabacum. These data, together with those obtained previously for pma1, led to the following conclusions. (i) The four pma-gusA genes were all expressed in root, stem, leaf and flower organs, but each in a cell-type specific manner. Expression in these organs was confirmed at the protein level, using subfamily-specific antibodies. (ii) pma4-gusA was expressed in many cell types and notably in root hair and epidermis, in companion cells, and in guard cells, indicating that in N. plumbaginifolia the same H+-ATPase isoform might be involved in mineral nutrition, phloem loading and control of stomata aperture. (iii) The second gene subfamily is composed, in N. plumbaginifolia, of a single gene (pma4) with a wide expression pattern and, in Arabidopsis thaliana, of three genes (aha1, aha2, aha3), at least two of them having a more restrictive expression pattern. (iv) Some cell types expressed pma2 and pma4 at the same time, which encode H+-ATPases with different enzymatic properties.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the proline transporter protein in common bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jibao; Chen; Jing; Wu; Yunfeng; Lu; Yuannan; Cao; Hui; Zeng; Zhaoyuan; Zhang; Lanfen; Wang; Shumin; Wang

    2016-01-01

    As a typical compatible solute, proline is accumulated in plants under environmental stresses. Proline transporter(Pro T) plays an important role in proline distribution between plant organs. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned a c DNA sequence for Pro T from common bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and designated the gene Pv Pro T. The deduced amino acid sequence of Pv Pro T showed high similarity to Bet/Pro T proteins from other leguminous plants, and the highest similarity was observed with mothbean(Vigna aconitifolia L.) Vu Pro T.Relative quantification of the m RNA level of Pv Pro T using real-time PCR analysis showed that the Pv Pro T transcript level was higher in leaves than in stems and roots of common bean plants subjected to drought and salt stress. Under 20%(w/w) PEG-6000 treatment,drought-resistant plants expressed a higher level of Pv Pro T transcripts than droughtsensitive plants. Although heterologous expression of Pv Pro T in the Escherichia coli mutant mkh13 showed that Pv Pro T exhibited uptake activities for proline and betaine, no betaine content was detected in the common bean. These findings suggest that Pv Pro T plays an important role in the transportation of proline in common bean plants exposed to drought and salt stress.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding the proline transporter protein in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibao Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a typical compatible solute, proline is accumulated in plants under environmental stresses. Proline transporter (ProT plays an important role in proline distribution between plant organs. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned a cDNA sequence for ProT from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and designated the gene PvProT. The deduced amino acid sequence of PvProT showed high similarity to Bet/ProT proteins from other leguminous plants, and the highest similarity was observed with mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia L. VuProT. Relative quantification of the mRNA level of PvProT using real-time PCR analysis showed that the PvProT transcript level was higher in leaves than in stems and roots of common bean plants subjected to drought and salt stress. Under 20% (w/w PEG-6000 treatment, drought-resistant plants expressed a higher level of PvProT transcripts than drought-sensitive plants. Although heterologous expression of PvProT in the Escherichia coli mutant mkh13 showed that PvProT exhibited uptake activities for proline and betaine, no betaine content was detected in the common bean. These findings suggest that PvProT plays an important role in the transportation of proline in common bean plants exposed to drought and salt stress.

  10. Soybean SAT1 (Symbiotic Ammonium Transporter 1) encodes a bHLH transcription factor involved in nodule growth and NH4+ transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, David M; Loughlin, Patrick C; Mazurkiewicz, Danielle; Mohammadidehcheshmeh, Manijeh; Fedorova, Elena E; Okamoto, Mamoru; McLean, Elizabeth; Glass, Anthony D M; Smith, Sally E; Bisseling, Ton; Tyerman, Stephen D; Day, David A; Kaiser, Brent N

    2014-04-01

    Glycine max symbiotic ammonium transporter 1 was first documented as a putative ammonium (NH4(+)) channel localized to the symbiosome membrane of soybean root nodules. We show that Glycine max symbiotic ammonium transporter 1 is actually a membrane-localized basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) DNA-binding transcription factor now renamed Glycine max bHLH membrane 1 (GmbHLHm1). In yeast, GmbHLHm1 enters the nucleus and transcriptionally activates a unique plasma membrane NH4(+) channel Saccharomyces cerevisiae ammonium facilitator 1. Ammonium facilitator 1 homologs are present in soybean and other plant species, where they often share chromosomal microsynteny with bHLHm1 loci. GmbHLHm1 is important to the soybean rhizobium symbiosis because loss of activity results in a reduction of nodule fitness and growth. Transcriptional changes in nodules highlight downstream signaling pathways involving circadian clock regulation, nutrient transport, hormone signaling, and cell wall modification. Collectively, these results show that GmbHLHm1 influences nodule development and activity and is linked to a novel mechanism for NH4(+) transport common to both yeast and plants.

  11. Insight on specificity of uracil permeases of the NAT/NCS2 family from analysis of the transporter encoded in the pyrimidine utilization operon of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botou, Maria; Lazou, Panayiota; Papakostas, Konstantinos; Lambrinidis, George; Evangelidis, Thomas; Mikros, Emmanuel; Frillingos, Stathis

    2018-04-01

    The uracil permease UraA of Escherichia coli is a structurally known prototype for the ubiquitous Nucleobase-Ascorbate Transporter (NAT) or Nucleobase-Cation Symporter-2 (NCS2) family and represents a well-defined subgroup of bacterial homologs that remain functionally unstudied. Here, we analyze four of these homologs, including RutG of E. coli which shares 35% identity with UraA and is encoded in the catabolic rut (pyrimidine utilization) operon. Using amplified expression in E. coli K-12, we show that RutG is a high-affinity permease for uracil, thymine and, at low efficiency, xanthine and recognizes also 5-fluorouracil and oxypurinol. In contrast, UraA and the homologs from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Aeromonas veronii are permeases specific for uracil and 5-fluorouracil. Molecular docking indicates that thymine is hindered from binding to UraA by a highly conserved Phe residue which is absent in RutG. Site-directed replacement of this Phe with Ala in the three uracil-specific homologs allows high-affinity recognition and/or transport of thymine, emulating the RutG profile. Furthermore, all RutG orthologs from enterobacteria retain an Ala at this position, implying that they can use both uracil and thymine and, possibly, xanthine as substrates and provide the bacterial cell with a range of catabolizable nucleobases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The SlZRT1 Gene Encodes a Plasma Membrane-Located ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-Like Protein Transporter in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Suillus luteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Coninx

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn is an essential micronutrient but may become toxic when present in excess. In Zn-contaminated environments, trees can be protected from Zn toxicity by their root-associated micro-organisms, in particular ectomycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms of cellular Zn homeostasis in ectomycorrhizal fungi and their contribution to the host tree’s Zn status are however not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize transporters involved in Zn uptake in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus, a cosmopolitan pine mycobiont. Zn uptake in fungi is known to be predominantly governed by members of the ZIP (Zrt/IrtT-like protein family of Zn transporters. Four ZIP transporter encoding genes were identified in the S. luteus genome. By in silico and phylogenetic analysis, one of these proteins, SlZRT1, was predicted to be a plasma membrane located Zn importer. Heterologous expression in yeast confirmed the predicted function and localization of the protein. A gene expression analysis via RT-qPCR was performed in S. luteus to establish whether SlZRT1 expression is affected by external Zn concentrations. SlZRT1 transcripts accumulated almost immediately, though transiently upon growth in the absence of Zn. Exposure to elevated concentrations of Zn resulted in a significant reduction of SlZRT1 transcripts within the first hour after initiation of the exposure. Altogether, the data support a role as cellular Zn importer for SlZRT1 and indicate a key role in cellular Zn uptake of S. luteus. Further research is needed to understand the eventual contribution of SlZRT1 to the Zn status of the host plant.

  13. The SlZRT1 Gene Encodes a Plasma Membrane-Located ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-Like Protein) Transporter in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Suillus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coninx, Laura; Thoonen, Anneleen; Slenders, Eli; Morin, Emmanuelle; Arnauts, Natascha; Op De Beeck, Michiel; Kohler, Annegret; Ruytinx, Joske; Colpaert, Jan V

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient but may become toxic when present in excess. In Zn-contaminated environments, trees can be protected from Zn toxicity by their root-associated micro-organisms, in particular ectomycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms of cellular Zn homeostasis in ectomycorrhizal fungi and their contribution to the host tree's Zn status are however not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize transporters involved in Zn uptake in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus , a cosmopolitan pine mycobiont. Zn uptake in fungi is known to be predominantly governed by members of the ZIP (Zrt/IrtT-like protein) family of Zn transporters. Four ZIP transporter encoding genes were identified in the S. luteus genome. By in silico and phylogenetic analysis, one of these proteins, SlZRT1, was predicted to be a plasma membrane located Zn importer. Heterologous expression in yeast confirmed the predicted function and localization of the protein. A gene expression analysis via RT-qPCR was performed in S. luteus to establish whether SlZRT1 expression is affected by external Zn concentrations. SlZRT1 transcripts accumulated almost immediately, though transiently upon growth in the absence of Zn. Exposure to elevated concentrations of Zn resulted in a significant reduction of SlZRT1 transcripts within the first hour after initiation of the exposure. Altogether, the data support a role as cellular Zn importer for SlZRT1 and indicate a key role in cellular Zn uptake of S. luteus . Further research is needed to understand the eventual contribution of SlZRT1 to the Zn status of the host plant.

  14. ttm-1 encodes CDF transporters that excrete zinc from intestinal cells of C. elegans and act in a parallel negative feedback circuit that promotes homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Cheol Roh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential metal involved in a wide range of biological processes, and aberrant zinc metabolism is implicated in human diseases. The gastrointestinal tract of animals is a critical site of zinc metabolism that is responsible for dietary zinc uptake and distribution to the body. However, the role of the gastrointestinal tract in zinc excretion remains unclear. Zinc transporters are key regulators of zinc metabolism that mediate the movement of zinc ions across membranes. Here, we identified a comprehensive list of 14 predicted Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDF family zinc transporters in Caenorhabditis elegans and demonstrated that zinc is excreted from intestinal cells by one of these CDF proteins, TTM-1B. The ttm-1 locus encodes two transcripts, ttm-1a and ttm-1b, that use different transcription start sites. ttm-1b expression was induced by high levels of zinc specifically in intestinal cells, whereas ttm-1a was not induced by zinc. TTM-1B was localized to the apical plasma membrane of intestinal cells, and analyses of loss-of-function mutant animals indicated that TTM-1B promotes zinc excretion into the intestinal lumen. Zinc excretion mediated by TTM-1B contributes to zinc detoxification. These observations indicate that ttm-1 is a component of a negative feedback circuit, since high levels of cytoplasmic zinc increase ttm-1b transcript levels and TTM-1B protein functions to reduce the level of cytoplasmic zinc. We showed that TTM-1 isoforms function in tandem with CDF-2, which is also induced by high levels of cytoplasmic zinc and reduces cytoplasmic zinc levels by sequestering zinc in lysosome-related organelles. These findings define a parallel negative feedback circuit that promotes zinc homeostasis and advance the understanding of the physiological roles of the gastrointestinal tract in zinc metabolism in animals.

  15. Phosphorus acquisition efficiency in arbuscular mycorrhizal maize is correlated with the abundance of root-external hyphae and the accumulation of transcripts encoding PHT1 phosphate transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Ruairidh J H; Svane, Simon F; Quan, Clement; Grønlund, Mette; Wozniak, Barbara; Gebreselassie, Mesfin-Nigussie; González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Chávez Montes, Ricardo A; Baxter, Ivan; Goudet, Jerome; Jakobsen, Iver; Paszkowski, Uta

    2017-04-01

    Plant interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have long attracted interest for their potential to promote more efficient use of mineral resources in agriculture. Their use, however, remains limited by a lack of understanding of the processes that determine the outcome of the symbiosis. In this study, the impact of host genotype on growth response to mycorrhizal inoculation was investigated in a panel of diverse maize lines. A panel of 30 maize lines was evaluated with and without inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The line Oh43 was identified to show superior response and, along with five other reference lines, was characterized in greater detail in a split-compartment system, using 33 P to quantify mycorrhizal phosphorus uptake. Changes in relative growth indicated variation in host capacity to profit from the symbiosis. Shoot phosphate content, abundance of root-internal and -external fungal structures, mycorrhizal phosphorus uptake, and accumulation of transcripts encoding plant PHT1 family phosphate transporters varied among lines. Superior response in Oh43 is correlated with extensive development of root-external hyphae, accumulation of specific Pht1 transcripts and high phosphorus uptake by mycorrhizal plants. The data indicate that host genetic factors influence fungal growth strategy with an impact on plant performance. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. A genetic association study of the FXYD domain containing ion transport regulator 6 (FXYD6) gene, encoding phosphohippolin, in susceptibility to schizophrenia in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshihito; Nakamura, Yukako; Takahashi, Nagahide; Saito, Shinichi; Aleksic, Branko; Iwata, Nakao; Inada, Toshiya; Ozaki, Norio

    2008-06-13

    The FXYD domain containing ion transport regulator 6 (FXYD6) gene is located within a region of chromosome 11 (11q23.3) that has been shown by a number of genome scans to be one of the most well-established linkages to schizophrenia. FXYD6 encodes the protein phosphohippolin, which is primarily expressed in the brain. Phosphohippolin modulates the kinetic activity of Na,K-ATPase and has long-term physiological importance in maintaining cation homeostasis. A recent study reported that FXYD6 was associated with schizophrenia in the United Kingdom samples. Applying the gene-based association concept, we carried out an association study regarding FXYD6 and schizophrenia in a Japanese population, with a sample consisting of 2026 subjects (906 schizophrenics and 1120 controls). After linkage disequilibrium analysis, 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using 5'-exonuclease allelic discrimination assay. We found a significant association of two SNPs (rs11216573; genotypic P value: 0.022 and rs555577; genotypic P value: 0.026, allelic P value: 0.011, uncorrected). Nominal P values did not survive correction for multiple testing (rs11216573; genotypic P value: 0.47 and rs555577; genotypic P value: 0.55, allelic P value: 0.24, after SNPSpD correction). No association was observed between schizophrenia patients and controls in allelic, genotypic and haplotypic analyses. Our findings suggest that FXYD6 is unlikely to be related to the development of schizophrenia in a Japanese population.

  17. Effect of Promoter Region Mutations and mgrA Overexpression on Transcription of norA, Which Encodes a Staphylococcus aureus Multidrug Efflux Transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Kaatz, Glenn W.; Thyagarajan, Rama V.; Seo, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    NorA is a Staphylococcus aureus multidrug transporter that confers resistance to structurally distinct compounds. The MgrA global regulatory protein is reported to augment norA expression when mgrA is overexpressed from an undefined plasmid-based promoter. Further details about norA regulatory mechanisms are scant. A chromosomal norA::lacZ transcriptional fusion was constructed in different S. aureus strains, and allele replacement was used to define the relevance of promoter region sequences...

  18. Disruption of lolCDE, Encoding an ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter, Is Lethal for Escherichia coli and Prevents Release of Lipoproteins from the Inner Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Kimie; Matsuyama, Shin-ichi; Tokuda, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter LolCDE was previously identified, by using reconstituted proteoliposomes, as an apparatus catalyzing the release of outer membrane-specific lipoproteins from the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. Mutations resulting in defective LolD were previously shown to be lethal for E. coli. The amino acid sequences of LolC and LolE are similar to each other, but the necessity of both proteins for lipoprotein release has not been proved. Moreover, previous reconstituti...

  19. Experimental investigation of fast electron transport in solid density matter: Recent results from a new technique of X-ray energy-encoded 2D imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Labate, L.; Förster, E.; Giulietti, A.; Giulietti, D.; Höfer, S.; Kämpfer, T.; Köster, P.; Kozlová, Michaela; Levato, T.; Lötzsch, R.; Lübecke, A.; Mocek, Tomáš; Polan, Jiří; Rus, Bedřich; Uschmann, I.; Zamponi, F.; Gizzi, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2009), s. 643-649 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 12843 - TUIXS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : anisotropic Bremsstrahlung * fast electron diagnostics * fast electron transport * high-density matter * relativistic electrons Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.420, year: 2008

  20. AtALMT1, which encodes a malate transporter, is identified as one of several genes critical for aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekenga, Owen A.; Maron, Lyza G.; Piñeros, Miguel A.; Cançado, Geraldo M. A.; Shaff, Jon; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Ryan, Peter R.; Dong, Bei; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Sasaki, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Kochian, Leon V.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) tolerance in Arabidopsis is a genetically complex trait, yet it is mediated by a single physiological mechanism based on Al-activated root malate efflux. We investigated a possible molecular determinant for Al tolerance involving a homolog of the wheat Al-activated malate transporter, ALMT1. This gene, named AtALMT1 (At1g08430), was the best candidate from the 14-memberAtALMT family to be involved with Al tolerance based on expression patterns and genomic location. Physiological...

  1. Tetrahymena gene encodes a protein that is homologous with the liver-specific F-antigen and associated with membranes of the Golgi apparatus and transport vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, R; Nørgaard, P; Andreasen, P H

    1992-01-01

    The F-antigen is a prominent liver protein which has been extensively used in studies on natural and induced immunological tolerance. However, its intracellular localization and biological function have remained elusive. It has generally been assumed that the F-antigen is confined phylogenetically...... of the Golgi apparatus and transport vesicles pointing to a role of TF-ag in membrane trafficking. Transcription of the TF-ag gene, as determined by run-on analyses, was only detectable in growing cells, and following transfer to starvation condition pre-existing TF-ag mRNA was rapidly degraded. The abundance...

  2. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  3. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  4. Novel Mutation in the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A3 (ABCA3) Encoding Gene Causes Respiratory Distress Syndrome in A Term Newborn in Southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farideh; Shafiei, Mohammad; Shariati, Gholamreza; Dehdashtian, Ali; Mohebbi, Maryam; Galehdari, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction ABCA3 glycoprotein belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters, which utilize the energy derived from hydrolysis of ATP for the translocation of a wide variety of substrates across the plasma membrane. Mutations in the ABCA3 gene are knowingly causative for fatal surfactant deficiency, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in term babies. Case Presentation In this study, Sanger sequencing of the whole ABCA3 gene (NCBI NM_001089) was performed in a neonatal boy with severe RDS. A homozygous mutation has been identified in the patient. Parents were heterozygous for the same missense mutation GGA > AGA at position 202 in exon 6 of the ABCA3 gene (c.604G > A; p.G202R). Furthermore, 70 normal individuals have been analyzed for the mentioned change with negative results. Conclusions Regarding Human Genome Mutation Database (HGMD) and other literature recherche, the detected change is a novel mutation and has not been reported before. Bioinformatics mutation predicting tools prefer it as pathogenic. PMID:27437095

  5. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  6. Landscape encodings enhance optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Klemm

    Full Text Available Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state.

  7. Landscape Encodings Enhance Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Konstantin; Mehta, Anita; Stadler, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states) of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state. PMID:22496860

  8. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  9. Blind encoding into qudits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaari, J.S.; Wahiddin, M.R.B.; Mancini, S.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of encoding classical information into unknown qudit states belonging to any basis, of a maximal set of mutually unbiased bases, by one party and then decoding by another party who has perfect knowledge of the basis. Working with qudits of prime dimensions, we point out a no-go theorem that forbids 'shift' operations on arbitrary unknown states. We then provide the necessary conditions for reliable encoding/decoding

  10. Formation of glutathione conjugates by reactive metabolites of vinylidene chloride in microsomes and isolated hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebler, D.C.; Meredith, M.J.; Guengerich, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    Oxidation of the vinyl halide carcinogen and hepatotoxin vinylidene chloride (VDC) by microsomal cytochrome P-450 yields 2,2-dichloroacetaldehyde, 2-chloroacetyl chloride, 2-chloroacetic acid, and 1,1-dichloroethylene oxide. The roles of these metabolites in covalent modification of proteins and reduced glutathione (GSH) were examined. 2-Chloroacetyl chloride reacted with model thiols at least 10(3)-fold faster than did 1,1-dichloroethylene oxide and at least 10(5)-fold faster than did 2,2-dichloroacetaldehyde or 2-chloroacetic acid. Microsomal covalent binding of [ 14 C]VDC was inhibited by GSH but not by lysine, suggesting that protein thiols, rather than amino groups, are major targets. Liver microsomes catalyzed the formation of three GSH:VDC metabolite conjugates, identified as S-(2,2-dichloro-1-hydroxy)ethylglutathione, 2-(S-glutathionyl)acetate, and S-(2-glutathionyl)acetylglutathione, a novel conjugate containing both stable (thioether) and labile (thioester) linkages. The latter two conjugates also were formed in isolated rat hepatocytes and measurable amounts of 2-(S-glutathionyl)acetate were released into the incubation medium. Both 2-(S-glutathionyl)acetate and S-(2-glutathionyl)acetylglutathione were formed with [ 35 S]GSH added to the hepatic medium, indicating that reactive VDC metabolites are capable of crossing the plasma membrane to react with extracellular targets. Unlabeled S-(2-glutathionyl)-acetylglutathione underwent carbonyl substitution with added [ 35 S]GSH, suggesting that this conjugate may participate in modification of protein thiols. This conjugate also underwent hydrolysis with a half-life of approximately 3 hr. GSH:VDC metabolite conjugates may serve as accessible models for labile covalent adducts formed between VDC metabolites and protein thiols

  11. Activation of dihaloalkanes by glutathione conjugation and formation of DNA adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guengerich, F.P.; Peterson, L.A.; Cmarik, J.L.; Koga, N.; Inskeep, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    Ethylene dibromide (1,2-dibromoethane, EDB) can be activated to electrophilic species by either oxidative metabolism or conjugation with glutathione. Although conjugation is generally a route of detoxication, in this case it leads to genetic damage. The major DNA adduct has been identified as S-[2-(N 7 -guanyl)ethyl]glutathione, which is believed to arise via half-mustard and episulfonium ion intermediates. The adduct has a half-life of about 70 to 100 hr and does not appear to migrate to other DNA sites. Glutathione-dependent DNA damage by EDB was also demonstrated in human hepatocyte preparations. The possible relevance of this DNA adduct to genetic damage is discussed

  12. A glutathione conjugate of hepoxilin A3: Formation and action in the rat central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace-Asciak, C.R.; Laneuville, O.; Su, W.G.; Corey, E.J.; Gurevich, N.; Wu, P.; Carlen, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    Incubation of (8R)- and (8S)-[1-14C]hepoxilin A3 [where hepoxilin A3 is 8-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosa-(5Z,9E,14Z)-trienoic acid] and glutathione with homogenates of rat brain hippocampus resulted in a product that was identified as the (8R) and (8S) diastereomers of 11-glutathionyl hepoxilin A3 by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic comparison with the authentic standard made by total synthesis. Identity was further confirmed by cleavage of the isolated product with gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase to yield the corresponding cysteinylglycinyl conjugate that was identical by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic analysis with the enzymic cleavage product derived from the synthetic glutathionyl conjugate. The glutathionyl and cysteinylglycinyl conjugate are referred to as hepoxilin A3-C and hepoxilin A3-D, respectively, by analogy with the established leukotriene nomenclature. Formation of hepoxilin A3-C was greatly enhanced with a concomitant decrease in formation of the epoxide hydrolase product, trioxilin A3, when the epoxide hydrolase inhibitor trichloropropene oxide was added to the incubation mixture demonstrating the presence of a dual metabolic pathway in this tissue involving hepoxilin epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase processes. Hepoxilin A3-C was tested using intracellular electrophysiological techniques on hippocampal CA1 neurons and found to be active at concentrations as low as 16 nM in causing membrane hyperpolarization, enhanced amplitude and duration of the post-spike train afterhyperpolarization, a marked increase in the inhibitory postsynaptic potential, and a decrease in the spike threshold. These findings suggest that these products in the hepoxilin pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism formed by the rat brain may function as neuromodulators

  13. Two-dimensional J-resolved nuclear magnetic resonance spectral study of two bromobenzene glutathione conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, J.A.; Highet, R.J.; Pohl, L.R.; Monks, T.J.; Hinson, J.A.

    1985-09-01

    The application of two-dimensional J-resolved nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the structure of two bile metabolites isolated from rats injected interperitoneally with bromobenzene is described. The structures of the two molecules are obtained unambiguously from the proton-proton spin coupling constants. The paper discusses the fundamentals of the technique and demonstrates the resolution of small long-range coupling constants.

  14. An encoding device and a method of encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to an encoding device, such as an optical position encoder, for encoding input from an object, and a method for encoding input from an object, for determining a position of an object that interferes with light of the device. The encoding device comprises a light source...... in the area in the space and may interfere with the light, which interference may be encoded into a position or activation....

  15. Molecular evidence for the coordination of nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, revealed by a study on the transcriptional regulation of the agl3EFG operon that encodes a putative carbohydrate transporter in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Xu-Feng; Wang, Jing-Zhi; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Wang, Ying; Wang, Jin

    2016-03-18

    In the agl3EFGXYZ operon (SCO7167-SCO7162, abbreviated as agl3 operon) of Streptomyces coelicolor M145, agl3EFG genes encode a putative ABC-type carbohydrate transporter. The transcription of this operon has been proved to be repressed by Agl3R (SCO7168), a neighboring GntR-family regulator, and this repression can be released by growth on poor carbon sources. Here in this study, we prove that the transcription of agl3 operon is also directly repressed by GlnR, a central regulator governing the nitrogen metabolism in S. coelicolor. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) employing the agl3 promoter and mixtures of purified recombinant GlnR and Agl3R indicates that GlnR and Agl3R bind to different DNA sequences within the promoter region of agl3 operon, which is further confirmed by the DNase I footprinting assay. As Agl3R and GlnR have been demonstrated to sense the extracellular carbon and nitrogen supplies, respectively, it is hypothesized that the transcription of agl3 operon is stringently governed by the availabilities of extracellular carbon and nitrogen sources. Consistent with the hypothesis, the agl3 operon is further found to be derepressed only under the condition of poor carbon and rich nitrogen supplies, when both regulators are inactivated. It is believed that activation of the expression of agl3 operon may facilitate the absorption of extracellular carbohydrates to balance the ratio of intracellular carbon to nitrogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of fasting and refeeding on gene expression of slc15a1a, a gene encoding an oligopeptide transporter (PepT1), in the intestine of Mozambique tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Zenith Gaye A; Soma, Satoshi; Kaneko, Toyoji; Watanabe, Soichi

    2017-01-01

    The tissue distribution of slc15a1a, a gene that encodes an oligopeptide transporter, PepT1, and its response to fasting and refeeding were investigated in the intestinal epithelium of Mozambique tilapia for a better understanding of its role on nutrient absorption. The slc15a1a was predominantly expressed in the absorptive epithelia of the anterior part of the intestine, suggesting that digested oligopeptides are primarily absorbed in the anterior intestine. The response of slc15a1a to fasting was evaluated at 1, 2, 4, 7 and 14days after the last feeding. Fasting revealed a biphasic effect, where short-term fasting significantly upregulated slc15a1a expression and long-term fasting resulted in downregulation. The expression level continued to decrease and fell below the pre-fasted level from day 4 to 14. Proximal (the hepatic loop, HL) and distal parts (the proximal major coil, PMC) of the anterior intestine showed different magnitudes of responses to fasting; slc15a1a expression in the PMC showed greater upregulation and downregulation than that in the HL. Refeeding significantly stimulated slc15a1a expression at day 3, although the expression did not exceed the pre-fasted level. Observed responses of slc15a1a to fasting and refeeding suggest that the expression level of this gene can serve as a sensitive indicator of the changes that may occur in altering nutritional conditions. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the role of PepT1 in nutrition and of the complex mechanisms underlying the absorption of oligopeptides and amino acids in the intestine, and may lead to development of possible means to manipulate the absorption processes for the improvement of growth and other metabolic and physiological conditions in fish. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. a permutation encoding te algorithm solution of reso tation encoding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Genetic algorithm, resource constrained. 1. INTRODUCTION. 1. .... Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 34, No. 1, January 2015. 128 ... 4. ENCODING OF CHROMOSOME. ENCODING OF CHROMOSOME .... International Multi conference of Engineers and ... method”, Naval Research Logistics, vol 48, issue 2,.

  18. Parallel encoders for pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikityuk, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of fast encoding and determining the multiplicity and coordinates of fired pixels is described. A specific example construction of parallel encodes and MCC for n=49 and t=2 is given. 16 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  19. Selecting Operations for Assembler Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Praczyk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembler Encoding is a neuro-evolutionary method in which a neural network is represented in the form of a simple program called Assembler Encoding Program. The task of the program is to create the so-called Network Definition Matrix which maintains all the information necessary to construct the network. To generate Assembler Encoding Programs and the subsequent neural networks evolutionary techniques are used.
    The performance of Assembler Encoding strongly depends on operations used in Assembler Encoding Programs. To select the most effective operations, experiments in the optimization and the predator-prey problem were carried out. In the experiments, Assembler Encoding Programs equipped with different types of operations were tested. The results of the tests are presented at the end of the paper.

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_001144 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... unconjugated bilirubin and in heavy metal detoxification ... via glutathione conjugates, al...mbrane transporter of MRP/CFTR family, found in ... vacuolar membrane, involved in the transport of ...

  1. Genome-wide identification and expression characterization of ABCC-MRP transporters in hexaploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Kaushal K; Sharma, Shivani; Aggarwal, Sipla; Kaur, Mandeep; Shukla, Vishnu; Kaur, Jagdeep; Mantri, Shrikant; Pandey, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    The ABCC multidrug resistance associated proteins (ABCC-MRP), a subclass of ABC transporters are involved in multiple physiological processes that include cellular homeostasis, metal detoxification, and transport of glutathione-conjugates. Although they are well-studied in humans, yeast, and Arabidopsis, limited efforts have been made to address their possible role in crop like wheat. In the present work, 18 wheat ABCC-MRP proteins were identified that showed the uniform distribution with sub-families from rice and Arabidopsis. Organ-specific quantitative expression analysis of wheat ABCC genes indicated significantly higher accumulation in roots (TaABCC2, TaABCC3, and TaABCC11 and TaABCC12), stem (TaABCC1), leaves (TaABCC16 and TaABCC17), flag leaf (TaABCC14 and TaABCC15), and seeds (TaABCC6, TaABCC8, TaABCC12, TaABCC13, and TaABCC17) implicating their role in the respective tissues. Differential transcript expression patterns were observed for TaABCC genes during grain maturation speculating their role during seed development. Hormone treatment experiments indicated that some of the ABCC genes could be transcriptionally regulated during seed development. In the presence of Cd or hydrogen peroxide, distinct molecular expression of wheat ABCC genes was observed in the wheat seedlings, suggesting their possible role during heavy metal generated oxidative stress. Functional characterization of the wheat transporter, TaABCC13 a homolog of maize LPA1 confirms its role in glutathione-mediated detoxification pathway and is able to utilize adenine biosynthetic intermediates as a substrate. This is the first comprehensive inventory of wheat ABCC-MRP gene subfamily.

  2. Analysing and Comparing Encodability Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Peters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Encodings or the proof of their absence are the main way to compare process calculi. To analyse the quality of encodings and to rule out trivial or meaningless encodings, they are augmented with quality criteria. There exists a bunch of different criteria and different variants of criteria in order to reason in different settings. This leads to incomparable results. Moreover it is not always clear whether the criteria used to obtain a result in a particular setting do indeed fit to this setting. We show how to formally reason about and compare encodability criteria by mapping them on requirements on a relation between source and target terms that is induced by the encoding function. In particular we analyse the common criteria full abstraction, operational correspondence, divergence reflection, success sensitiveness, and respect of barbs; e.g. we analyse the exact nature of the simulation relation (coupled simulation versus bisimulation that is induced by different variants of operational correspondence. This way we reduce the problem of analysing or comparing encodability criteria to the better understood problem of comparing relations on processes.

  3. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R

    2001-01-01

    expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets.......A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...

  5. Encoding information into precipitation structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A + + B – → C reaction–diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction–diffusion–precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm

  6. Hall effect encoding of brushless dc motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, C. A.; Furia, T. J.; Goldberg, E. A.; Greene, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    Encoding mechanism integral to the motor and using the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor eliminates the need for external devices to encode information relating the position and velocity of the rotating member.

  7. Flipped-Adversarial AutoEncoders

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiyi; Dang, Hung; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Chang, Ee-Chien

    2018-01-01

    We propose a flipped-Adversarial AutoEncoder (FAAE) that simultaneously trains a generative model G that maps an arbitrary latent code distribution to a data distribution and an encoder E that embodies an "inverse mapping" that encodes a data sample into a latent code vector. Unlike previous hybrid approaches that leverage adversarial training criterion in constructing autoencoders, FAAE minimizes re-encoding errors in the latent space and exploits adversarial criterion in the data space. Exp...

  8. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  9. Tagging, Encoding, and Jones Optimality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Lopez, Pablo E. Martinez

    2003-01-01

    A partial evaluator is said to be Jones-optimal if the result of specializing a self-interpreter with respect to a source program is textually identical to the source program, modulo renaming. Jones optimality has already been obtained if the self-interpreter is untyped. If the selfinterpreter...... is typed, however, residual programs are cluttered with type tags. To obtain the original source program, these tags must be removed. A number of sophisticated solutions have already been proposed. We observe, however, that with a simple representation shift, ordinary partial evaluation is already Jones......-optimal, modulo an encoding. The representation shift amounts to reading the type tags as constructors for higherorder abstract syntax. We substantiate our observation by considering a typed self-interpreter whose input syntax is higher-order. Specializing this interpreter with respect to a source program yields...

  10. Emotional arousal and memory after deep encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Camacho, Gabriela L; Ramos Rojas, Maria D; Ruedas, Angelica

    2018-05-22

    Emotion often enhances long-term memory. One mechanism for this enhancement is heightened arousal during encoding. However, reducing arousal, via emotion regulation (ER) instructions, has not been associated with reduced memory. In fact, the opposite pattern has been observed: stronger memory for emotional stimuli encoded with an ER instruction to reduce arousal. This pattern may be due to deeper encoding required by ER instructions. In the current research, we examine the effects of emotional arousal and deep-encoding on memory across three studies. In Study 1, adult participants completed a writing task (deep-encoding) for encoding negative, neutral, and positive picture stimuli, whereby half the emotion stimuli had the ER instruction to reduce the emotion. Memory was strong across conditions, and no memory enhancement was observed for any condition. In Study 2, adult participants completed the same writing task as Study 1, as well as a shallow-encoding task for one-third of negative, neutral, and positive trials. Memory was strongest for deep vs. shallow encoding trials, with no effects of emotion or ER instruction. In Study 3, adult participants completed a shallow-encoding task for negative, neutral, and positive stimuli, with findings indicating enhanced memory for negative emotional stimuli. Findings suggest that deep encoding must be acknowledged as a source of memory enhancement when examining manipulations of emotion-related arousal. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. SnoVault and encodeD: A novel object-based storage system and applications to ENCODE metadata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C Hitz

    Full Text Available The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE project is an ongoing collaborative effort to create a comprehensive catalog of functional elements initiated shortly after the completion of the Human Genome Project. The current database exceeds 6500 experiments across more than 450 cell lines and tissues using a wide array of experimental techniques to study the chromatin structure, regulatory and transcriptional landscape of the H. sapiens and M. musculus genomes. All ENCODE experimental data, metadata, and associated computational analyses are submitted to the ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC for validation, tracking, storage, unified processing, and distribution to community resources and the scientific community. As the volume of data increases, the identification and organization of experimental details becomes increasingly intricate and demands careful curation. The ENCODE DCC has created a general purpose software system, known as SnoVault, that supports metadata and file submission, a database used for metadata storage, web pages for displaying the metadata and a robust API for querying the metadata. The software is fully open-source, code and installation instructions can be found at: http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/snovault/ (for the generic database and http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/encoded/ to store genomic data in the manner of ENCODE. The core database engine, SnoVault (which is completely independent of ENCODE, genomic data, or bioinformatic data has been released as a separate Python package.

  12. NMDA receptors and memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard G M

    2013-11-01

    It is humbling to think that 30 years have passed since the paper by Collingridge, Kehl and McLennan showing that one of Jeff Watkins most interesting compounds, R-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (d-AP5), blocked the induction of long-term potentiation in vitro at synapses from area CA3 of the hippocampus to CA1 without apparent effect on baseline synaptic transmission (Collingridge et al., 1983). This dissociation was one of the key triggers for an explosion of interest in glutamate receptors, and much has been discovered since that collectively contributes to our contemporary understanding of glutamatergic synapses - their biophysics and subunit composition, of the agonists and antagonists acting on them, and their diverse functions in different networks of the brain and spinal cord. It can be fairly said that Collingridge et al.'s (1983) observation was the stimulus that has led, on the one hand, to structural biological work at the atomic scale describing the key features of NMDA receptors that enables their coincidence function to happen; and, on the other, to work with whole animals investigating the contributions that calcium signalling via this receptor can have on rhythmical activities controlled by spinal circuits, memory encoding in the hippocampus (the topic of this article), visual cortical plasticity, sensitization in pain, and other functions. In this article, I lay out how my then interest in long-term potentiation (LTP) as a model of memory enabled me to recognise the importance of Collingridge et al.'s discovery - and how I and my colleagues endeavoured to take things forward in the area of learning and memory. This is in some respects a personal story, and I tell it as such. The idea that NMDA receptor activation is essential for memory encoding, though not for storage, took time to develop and to be accepted. Along the way, there have been confusions, challenges, and surprises surrounding the idea that activation of NMDA receptors can

  13. Encoder designed to work in harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toop, L.

    2007-05-15

    Dynapar has developed the Acuro AX71 absolute encoder for use on offshore or land-based oil rig operations. It provides feedback on the operation of automated systems such as draw works, racking systems, rotary tables and top drives. By ensuring that automated systems function properly, this encoder responds to a need by the oil and gas industry to keep workers safe and improve efficiency, particularly for operations in rugged situations. The encoder provides feedback from motor systems to controllers, giving information about position and speed of downhole drill bits. This newly developed encoder is better than commonly used incremental encoders which are not precise in strong electrical noise environments. Rather, the absolute encoder uses a different method of reporting to the controller. A digital signal is transmitted constantly as the device operates. It is less susceptible to noise issues. It is highly accurate, tolerant of noise and is not affected by power outages. However, the absolute encoder is generally more delicate in drilling applications with high ambient temperatures and shock levels. Dynapar addressed this issue by developing compact stainless steel housing that is useful for corrosion resistance in marine applications. The AX71 absolute encoder can withstand up to 100 G of mechanical shock and ambient temperatures of up to 60 degrees C. The encoder is ATEX certified without barriers, and offers the high resolution feedback of 4,000 counts of multiturn rotation and 16,000 counts of position. 1 fig.

  14. The Arabic Diatessaron Project: Digitalizing, Encoding, Lemmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Lancioni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabic Diatessaron Project (henceforth ADP is an international research project in Digital Humanities that aims to collect, digitalise and encode all known manuscripts of the Arabic Diatessaron (henceforth AD, a text that has been relatively neglected in scholarly research. ADP’s final goal is to provide a number of tools that can enable scholars to effectively query, compare and investigate all known variants of the text that will be encoded as far as possible in compliance with the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI guidelines. The paper addresses a number of issues involved in the process of digitalising manuscripts included in the two existing editions (Ciasca 1888 and Marmardji 1935, adding variants in unedited manuscripts, encoding and lemmatising the text. Issues involved in the design of the ADP include presentation of variants, choice of the standard text, applicability of TEI guidelines, automatic translation between different encodings, cross-edition concordances and principles of lemmatisation.

  15. Functional characterisation of three zinc transporters in Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukdar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is a poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. In the research described in this thesis, genes encoding Zn transporters of Thlaspi

  16. A model for visual memory encoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Nenert

    Full Text Available Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA. All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN. Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.

  17. A model for visual memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenert, Rodolphe; Allendorfer, Jane B; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2014-01-01

    Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA) with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA). All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions) and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN). Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s) of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.

  18. Transport and activation of S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine in rat kidney proximal tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.H.; Stevens, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    An important step in understanding the mechanism underlying the tubular specificity of the nephrotoxicity of toxic cysteine conjugates is to identify the rate-limiting steps in their activation. The rate-limiting steps in the activation of toxic cysteine conjugates were characterized using isolated proximal tubules from the rat and 35S-labeled S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) and N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (NAC-DCVC) as model compounds. The accumulation by tubules of 35S radiolabel from both DCVC and NAC-DCVC was time and temperature dependent and was mediated by both Na+-dependent and independent processes. Kinetic studies with DCVC in the presence of sodium revealed the presence of two components with apparent Km and Vmax values of (1) 46 microM and 0.21 nmol/mg min and (2) 2080 microM and 7.3 nmol/mg.min. NAC-DVVC uptake was via a single system with apparent Km and Vmax values of 157 microM and 0.65 nmol/mg.min, respectively. Probenecid, an inhibitor of the renal organic anion transport system, inhibited accumulation of radiolabel from NAC-DCVC, but not from DCVC. The covalent binding of 35S label to cellular macromolecules was much greater from [35S]DCVC than from NAC-[35S]DCVC. Analysis of metabolites showed that a substantial amount of the cellular NAC-[35S]DCVC was unmetabolized while [35S]DCVC was rapidly metabolized to bound 35S-labeled material and unidentified products. The data suggest that DCVC is rapidly metabolized following transport, but that activation of NAC-DCVC depends on a slower rate of deacetylation. The results are discussed with regard to the segment specificity of cysteine conjugate toxicity and the role of disposition in vivo in the nephrotoxicity of glutathione conjugates

  19. Encoding of coordination complexes with XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, P; Sankar, P

    2017-09-01

    An in-silico system to encode structure, bonding and properties of coordination complexes is developed. The encoding is achieved through a semantic XML markup frame. Composition of the coordination complexes is captured in terms of central atom and ligands. Structural information of central atom is detailed in terms of electron status of valence electron orbitals. The ligands are encoded with specific reference to the electron environment of ligand centre atoms. Behaviour of ligands to form low or high spin complexes is accomplished by assigning a Ligand Centre Value to every ligand based on the electronic environment of ligand centre atom. Chemical ontologies are used for categorization purpose and to control different hybridization schemes. Complexes formed by the central atoms of transition metal, non-transition elements belonging to s-block, p-block and f-block are encoded with a generic encoding platform. Complexes of homoleptic, heteroleptic and bridged types are also covered by this encoding system. Utility of the encoded system to predict redox electron transfer reaction in the coordination complexes is demonstrated with a simple application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Porters and neurotransmitter transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N; Lill, H

    1994-11-01

    Uptake of neurotransmitters involves multiple transporters acting in different brain locations under different physiological conditions. The vesicular transporters are driven by a proton-motive force generated by a V-ATPase and their substrates are taken up via proton/substrate exchange. The plasma membrane transporters are driven by an electrochemical gradient of sodium generated by a Na+/K(+)-ATPase. Two distinct families of transporters were identified in this group. One cotransports sodium with glutamate and other amino acids and requires additionally an outwardly directed potassium gradient. The second cotransports sodium, chloride and a variety of neurotransmitters, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine and monoamines. Genes and cDNA encoding several members of the latter family have been cloned and studied in detail. The structure and function as well as the evolutionary relationships among these neurotransmitter transporters are discussed.

  1. Encoding entanglement-assisted quantum stabilizer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun-Jiang; Bai Bao-Ming; Li Zhuo; Xiao He-Ling; Peng Jin-Ye

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of encoding entanglement-assisted (EA) quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) and of the corresponding complexity. We present an iterative algorithm from which a quantum circuit composed of CNOT, H, and S gates can be derived directly with complexity O(n 2 ) to encode the qubits being sent. Moreover, we derive the number of each gate consumed in our algorithm according to which we can design EA QECCs with low encoding complexity. Another advantage brought by our algorithm is the easiness and efficiency of programming on classical computers. (general)

  2. Chemical Space of DNA-Encoded Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Raphael M; Randolph, Cassie

    2016-07-28

    In recent years, DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) have attracted considerable attention as a potential discovery tool in drug development. Screening encoded libraries may offer advantages over conventional hit discovery approaches and has the potential to complement such methods in pharmaceutical research. As a result of the increased application of encoded libraries in drug discovery, a growing number of hit compounds are emerging in scientific literature. In this review we evaluate reported encoded library-derived structures and identify general trends of these compounds in relation to library design parameters. We in particular emphasize the combinatorial nature of these libraries. Generally, the reported molecules demonstrate the ability of this technology to afford hits suitable for further lead development, and on the basis of them, we derive guidelines for DECL design.

  3. Encoding information using laguerre gaussian modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trichili, A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors experimentally demonstrate an information encoding protocol using the two degrees of freedom of Laguerre Gaussian modes having different radial and azimuthal components. A novel method, based on digital holography, for information...

  4. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzius, Jed J. W.; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B.; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David

    2013-01-01

    Strains are phenotypic variants, encoded by nucleic acid sequences in chromosomal inheritance and by protein “conformations” in prion inheritance and transmission. But how is a protein “conformation” stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms? Here new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins offer structural mechanisms for prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packings (polymorphs) of β-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in a second mechanism, segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct β-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring “conformations,” capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of information by nucleic acid inheritance, including sequence specificity and recognition by non-covalent bonds. PMID:19684598

  5. Quantum Logical Operations on Encoded Qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.H.; Laflamme, R.

    1996-01-01

    We show how to carry out quantum logical operations (controlled-not and Toffoli gates) on encoded qubits for several encodings which protect against various 1-bit errors. This improves the reliability of these operations by allowing one to correct for 1-bit errors which either preexisted or occurred in the course of operation. The logical operations we consider allow one to carry out the vast majority of the steps in the quantum factoring algorithm. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lyttleton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. Materials and Methods: We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. Results: We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. Conclusions: All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs.

  7. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, Oliver; Wright, Alexander; Treanor, Darren; Lewis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs.

  8. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, Oliver; Wright, Alexander; Treanor, Darren; Lewis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. Materials and Methods: We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. Results: We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. Conclusions: All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs. PMID:21969921

  9. ERP Correlates of Encoding Success and Encoding Selectivity in Attention Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Long-term memory encoding depends critically on effective processing of incoming information. The degree to which participants engage in effective encoding can be indexed in electroencephalographic (EEG) data by studying event-related potential (ERP) subsequent memory effects. The current study investigated ERP correlates of memory success operationalised with two different measures—memory selectivity and global memory—to assess whether previously observed ERP subsequent memory effects reflect focused encoding of task-relevant information (memory selectivity), general encoding success (global memory), or both. Building on previous work, the present study combined an attention switching paradigm—in which participants were presented with compound object-word stimuli and switched between attending to the object or the word across trials—with a later recognition memory test for those stimuli, while recording their EEG. Our results provided clear evidence that subsequent memory effects resulted from selective attentional focusing and effective top-down control (memory selectivity) in contrast to more general encoding success effects (global memory). Further analyses addressed the question of whether successful encoding depended on similar control mechanisms to those involved in attention switching. Interestingly, differences in the ERP correlates of attention switching and successful encoding, particularly during the poststimulus period, indicated that variability in encoding success occurred independently of prestimulus demands for top-down cognitive control. These results suggest that while effects of selective attention and selective encoding co-occur behaviourally their ERP correlates are at least partly dissociable. PMID:27907075

  10. Multichannel compressive sensing MRI using noiselet encoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh Pawar

    Full Text Available The incoherence between measurement and sparsifying transform matrices and the restricted isometry property (RIP of measurement matrix are two of the key factors in determining the performance of compressive sensing (CS. In CS-MRI, the randomly under-sampled Fourier matrix is used as the measurement matrix and the wavelet transform is usually used as sparsifying transform matrix. However, the incoherence between the randomly under-sampled Fourier matrix and the wavelet matrix is not optimal, which can deteriorate the performance of CS-MRI. Using the mathematical result that noiselets are maximally incoherent with wavelets, this paper introduces the noiselet unitary bases as the measurement matrix to improve the incoherence and RIP in CS-MRI. Based on an empirical RIP analysis that compares the multichannel noiselet and multichannel Fourier measurement matrices in CS-MRI, we propose a multichannel compressive sensing (MCS framework to take the advantage of multichannel data acquisition used in MRI scanners. Simulations are presented in the MCS framework to compare the performance of noiselet encoding reconstructions and Fourier encoding reconstructions at different acceleration factors. The comparisons indicate that multichannel noiselet measurement matrix has better RIP than that of its Fourier counterpart, and that noiselet encoded MCS-MRI outperforms Fourier encoded MCS-MRI in preserving image resolution and can achieve higher acceleration factors. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed noiselet encoding scheme, a pulse sequences with tailored spatially selective RF excitation pulses was designed and implemented on a 3T scanner to acquire the data in the noiselet domain from a phantom and a human brain. The results indicate that noislet encoding preserves image resolution better than Fouirer encoding.

  11. Cloud-based uniform ChIP-Seq processing tools for modENCODE and ENCODE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Quang M; Jen, Fei-Yang Arthur; Zhou, Ziru; Chu, Kar Ming; Perry, Marc D; Kephart, Ellen T; Contrino, Sergio; Ruzanov, Peter; Stein, Lincoln D

    2013-07-22

    Funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the aim of the Model Organism ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) project is to provide the biological research community with a comprehensive encyclopedia of functional genomic elements for both model organisms C. elegans (worm) and D. melanogaster (fly). With a total size of just under 10 terabytes of data collected and released to the public, one of the challenges faced by researchers is to extract biologically meaningful knowledge from this large data set. While the basic quality control, pre-processing, and analysis of the data has already been performed by members of the modENCODE consortium, many researchers will wish to reinterpret the data set using modifications and enhancements of the original protocols, or combine modENCODE data with other data sets. Unfortunately this can be a time consuming and logistically challenging proposition. In recognition of this challenge, the modENCODE DCC has released uniform computing resources for analyzing modENCODE data on Galaxy (https://github.com/modENCODE-DCC/Galaxy), on the public Amazon Cloud (http://aws.amazon.com), and on the private Bionimbus Cloud for genomic research (http://www.bionimbus.org). In particular, we have released Galaxy workflows for interpreting ChIP-seq data which use the same quality control (QC) and peak calling standards adopted by the modENCODE and ENCODE communities. For convenience of use, we have created Amazon and Bionimbus Cloud machine images containing Galaxy along with all the modENCODE data, software and other dependencies. Using these resources provides a framework for running consistent and reproducible analyses on modENCODE data, ultimately allowing researchers to use more of their time using modENCODE data, and less time moving it around.

  12. Noise level and MPEG-2 encoder statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungwoo

    1997-01-01

    Most software in the movie and broadcasting industries are still in analog film or tape format, which typically contains random noise that originated from film, CCD camera, and tape recording. The performance of the MPEG-2 encoder may be significantly degraded by the noise. It is also affected by the scene type that includes spatial and temporal activity. The statistical property of noise originating from camera and tape player is analyzed and the models for the two types of noise are developed. The relationship between the noise, the scene type, and encoder statistics of a number of MPEG-2 parameters such as motion vector magnitude, prediction error, and quant scale are discussed. This analysis is intended to be a tool for designing robust MPEG encoding algorithms such as preprocessing and rate control.

  13. Indirect Encoding in Neuroevolutionary Ship Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Lacki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author compares the efficiency of two encoding schemes for artificial intelligence methods used in the neuroevolutionary ship maneuvering system. This may be also be seen as the ship handling system that simulates a learning process of a group of artificial helmsmen - autonomous control units, created with an artificial neural network. The helmsman observes input signals derived form an enfironment and calculates the values of required parameters of the vessel maneuvering in confined waters. In neuroevolution such units are treated as individuals in population of artificial neural networks, which through environmental sensing and evolutionary algorithms learn to perform given task efficiently. The main task of this project is to evolve a population of helmsmen with indirect encoding and compare results of simulation with direct encoding method.

  14. An Information Theoretic Characterisation of Auditory Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overath, Tobias; Cusack, Rhodri; Kumar, Sukhbinder; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Warren, Jason D; Grube, Manon; Carlyon, Robert P; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2007-01-01

    The entropy metric derived from information theory provides a means to quantify the amount of information transmitted in acoustic streams like speech or music. By systematically varying the entropy of pitch sequences, we sought brain areas where neural activity and energetic demands increase as a function of entropy. Such a relationship is predicted to occur in an efficient encoding mechanism that uses less computational resource when less information is present in the signal: we specifically tested the hypothesis that such a relationship is present in the planum temporale (PT). In two convergent functional MRI studies, we demonstrated this relationship in PT for encoding, while furthermore showing that a distributed fronto-parietal network for retrieval of acoustic information is independent of entropy. The results establish PT as an efficient neural engine that demands less computational resource to encode redundant signals than those with high information content. PMID:17958472

  15. Incremental phonological encoding during unscripted sentence production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian T Jaeger

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate phonological encoding during unscripted sentence production, focusing on the effect of phonological overlap on phonological encoding. Previous work on this question has almost exclusively employed isolated word production or highly scripted multiword production. These studies have led to conflicting results: some studies found that phonological overlap between two words facilitates phonological encoding, while others found inhibitory effects. One worry with many of these paradigms is that they involve processes that are not typical to everyday language use, which calls into question to what extent their findings speak to the architectures and mechanisms underlying language production. We present a paradigm to investigate the consequences of phonological overlap between words in a sentence while leaving speakers much of the lexical and structural choices typical in everyday language use. Adult native speakers of English described events in short video clips. We annotated the presence of disfluencies and the speech rate at various points throughout the sentence, as well as the constituent order. We find that phonological overlap has an inhibitory effect on phonological encoding. Specifically, if adjacent content words share their phonological onset (e.g., hand the hammer, they are preceded by production difficulty, as reflected in fluency and speech rate. We also find that this production difficulty affects speakers’ constituent order preferences during grammatical encoding. We discuss our results and previous works to isolate the properties of other paradigms that resulted in facilitatory or inhibitory results. The data from our paradigm also speak to questions about the scope of phonological planning in unscripted speech and as to whether phonological and grammatical encoding interact.

  16. Optical encoder based on a nondiffractive beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutenberg, Ariel; Perez-Quintian, Fernando; Rebollo, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    Optical encoders are used in industrial and laboratory motion equipment to measure rotations and linear displacements. We introduce a design of an optical encoder based on a nondiffractive beam. We expect that the invariant profile and radial symmetry of the nondiffractive beam provide the design with remarkable tolerance to mechanical perturbations. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed design generates a suitable output sinusoidal signal with low harmonic distortion. Moreover, we present a numerical model of the system based on the angular spectrum approximation whose predictions are in excellent agreement with the experimental results

  17. Transport processes in pea seed coats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, Joost Thomas van

    2001-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns transport processes in coats of developing pea seeds. The scope of the investigation ranges from seed coat anatomy, via transport studies to the cloning of cDNA encoding proteinaceous membrane pores, and the heterologous expression of these

  18. RNAi suppressors encoded by pathogenic human viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Walter; Berkhout, Ben

    2008-01-01

    RNA silencing or RNAi interference (RNAi) serves as an innate antiviral mechanism in plants, fungi and animals. Human viruses, like plant viruses, encode suppressor proteins or RNAs that block or modulate the RNAi pathway. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which pathogenic human viruses

  19. Visual Memory : The Price of Encoding Details

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenstein, Mark; Kromm, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Studies on visual long-term memory have shown that we have a tremendous capacity for remembering pictures of objects, even at a highly detailed level. What remains unclear, however, is whether encoding objects at such a detailed level comes at any cost. In the current study, we examined how the

  20. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus to encode message input symbols in accordance with an accumulate-repeat-accumulate code with repetition three or four are disclosed. Block circulant matrices are used. A first method and apparatus make use of the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. A second method and apparatus use block-circulant generator matrices.

  1. 47 CFR 11.32 - EAS Encoder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11... operation. (vi) Indicator Display. The encoder shall be provided with a visual and/or aural indicator which... to +50 degrees C and a range of relative humidity of up to 95%. (c) Primary Supply Voltage Variation...

  2. Toward Chemical Implementation of Encoded Combinatorial Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Janda, Kim D.

    1994-01-01

    The recent application of "combinatorial libraries" to supplement existing drug screening processes might simplify and accelerate the search for new lead compounds or drugs. Recently, a scheme for encoded combinatorial chemistry was put forward to surmount a number of the limitations possessed...

  3. Datacube Interoperability, Encoding Independence, and Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Peter; Hirschorn, Eric; Maso, Joan

    2017-04-01

    representations. Further, CIS 1.1 offers a unified model for any kind of regular and irregular grids, also allowing sensor models as per SensorML. Encodings include ASCII formats like GML, JSON, RDF as well as binary formats like GeoTIFF, NetCDF, JPEG2000, and GRIB2; further, a container concept allows mixed representations within one coverage file utilizing zip or other convenient package formats. Through the tight integration with the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE), a lossless "transport" from sensor into coverage world is ensured. The corresponding service model of WCS supports datacube operations ranging from simple data extraction to complex ad-hoc analytics with WPCS. Notably, W3C is working has set out on a coverage model as well; it has been designed relatively independently from the abovementioned standards, but there is informal agreement to link it into the CIS universe (which allows for different, yet interchangeable representations). Particularly interesting in the W3C proposal is the detailed semantic modeling of metadata; as CIS 1.1 supports RDF, a tight coupling seems feasible.

  4. Characterization of inter-tissue and inter-strain variability of TCE glutathione conjugation metabolites DCVG, DCVC, and NAcDCVC in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu-Syuan; Furuya, Shinji; Chiu, Weihsueh; Rusyn, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant that is a liver and kidney carcinogen. Conjugation of TCE with glutathione (GSH) leads to formation of nepthrotoxic and mutagenic metabolites postulated to be critical for kidney cancerdevelopment; however, relatively little is known regarding their tissue levels as previous analytical methods for their detection lacked sensitivity. Here, an LC-MS/MS-based method for simultaneous detection of S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-glutathione (DCVG), S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), and N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (NAcDCVC) in multiple mouse tissues was developed. This analytical method is rapid, sensitive (limits of detection (LOD) 3-30 fmol across metabolites and tissues), and robust to quantify all three metabolites in liver, kidneys, and serum. The method was used to characterize inter-tissue and inter-strain variability in formation of conjugative metabolites of TCE. Single oral dose of TCE (24, 240 or 800 mg/kg) was administered to male mice from 20 inbred strains of Collaborative Cross. Inter-strain variability in the levels of DCVG, DCVC, and NAcDCVC (GSD = 1.6-2.9) was observed. Whereas NAcDCVC was distributed equally among analyzed tissues, highest levels of DCVG were detected in liver and DCVC in kidneys. Evidence indicated that inter-strain variability in conjugative metabolite formation of TCE might affect susceptibility to adverse health effects and that this method might aid in filling data gaps in human health assessment of TCE.

  5. The promising anticancer drug 3-bromopyruvate is metabolized through glutathione conjugation which affects chemoresistance and clinical practice: An evidence-based view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Salah Mohamed; Baghdadi, Hussam; Zolaly, Mohammed; Almaramhy, Hamdi H; Ayat, Mongi; Donki, Jagadish G

    2017-03-01

    3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) is a promising effective anticancer drug against many different tumors in children and adults. 3BP exhibited strong anticancer effects in both preclinical and human studies e.g. energy depletion, oxidative stress, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastatic effects, targeting cancer stem cells and antagonizing the Warburg effect. There is no report about 3BP metabolism to guide researchers and oncologists to improve clinical practice and prevent drug resistance. In this article, we provide evidences that 3BP is metabolized through glutathione (GSH) conjugation as a novel report where 3BP was confirmed to be attached to GSH followed by permanent loss of pharmacological effects in a picture similar to cisplatin. Both cisplatin and 3BP are alkylating agents. Reported decrease in endogenous cellular GSH content upon 3BP treatment was confirmed to be due to the formation of 3BP-GSH complex i.e. GSH consumption for conjugation with 3BP. Cancer cells having high endogenous GSH exhibit resistance to 3BP while 3BP sensitive cells acquire resistance upon adding exogenous GSH. Being a thiol blocker, 3BP may attack thiol groups in tissues and serum proteins e.g. albumin and GSH. That may decrease 3BP-induced anticancer effects and the functions of those proteins. We proved here that 3BP metabolism is different from metabolism of hydroxypyruvate that results from metabolism of D-serine using D-amino acid oxidase. Clinically, 3BP administration should be monitored during albumin infusion and protein therapy where GSH should be added to emergency medications. GSH exerts many physiological effects and is safe for human administration both orally and intravenously. Based on that, reported GSH-induced inhibition of 3BP effects makes 3BP effects reversible, easily monitored and easily controlled. This confers a superiority of 3BP over many anticancer agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Intensional Concurrent Faithful Encoding of Turing Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Given-Wilson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The benchmark for computation is typically given as Turing computability; the ability for a computation to be performed by a Turing Machine. Many languages exploit (indirect encodings of Turing Machines to demonstrate their ability to support arbitrary computation. However, these encodings are usually by simulating the entire Turing Machine within the language, or by encoding a language that does an encoding or simulation itself. This second category is typical for process calculi that show an encoding of lambda-calculus (often with restrictions that in turn simulates a Turing Machine. Such approaches lead to indirect encodings of Turing Machines that are complex, unclear, and only weakly equivalent after computation. This paper presents an approach to encoding Turing Machines into intensional process calculi that is faithful, reduction preserving, and structurally equivalent. The encoding is demonstrated in a simple asymmetric concurrent pattern calculus before generalised to simplify infinite terms, and to show encodings into Concurrent Pattern Calculus and Psi Calculi.

  7. Temporal information encoding in dynamic memristive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Wen; Chen, Lin; Du, Chao; Lu, Wei D., E-mail: wluee@eecs.umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    We show temporal and frequency information can be effectively encoded in memristive devices with inherent short-term dynamics. Ag/Ag{sub 2}S/Pd based memristive devices with low programming voltage (∼100 mV) were fabricated and tested. At weak programming conditions, the devices exhibit inherent decay due to spontaneous diffusion of the Ag atoms. When the devices were subjected to pulse train inputs emulating different spiking patterns, the switching probability distribution function diverges from the standard Poisson distribution and evolves according to the input pattern. The experimentally observed switching probability distributions and the associated cumulative probability functions can be well-explained using a model accounting for the short-term decay effects. Such devices offer an intriguing opportunity to directly encode neural signals for neural information storage and analysis.

  8. DNA-Encoded Dynamic Combinatorial Chemical Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddavide, Francesco V; Lin, Weilin; Lehnert, Sarah; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-06-26

    Dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) explores the thermodynamic equilibrium of reversible reactions. Its application in the discovery of protein binders is largely limited by difficulties in the analysis of complex reaction mixtures. DNA-encoded chemical library (DECL) technology allows the selection of binders from a mixture of up to billions of different compounds; however, experimental results often show low a signal-to-noise ratio and poor correlation between enrichment factor and binding affinity. Herein we describe the design and application of DNA-encoded dynamic combinatorial chemical libraries (EDCCLs). Our experiments have shown that the EDCCL approach can be used not only to convert monovalent binders into high-affinity bivalent binders, but also to cause remarkably enhanced enrichment of potent bivalent binders by driving their in situ synthesis. We also demonstrate the application of EDCCLs in DNA-templated chemical reactions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong,; Pak C. , Wong; Kwong K. , Foote; Harlan, P [Richland, WA

    2006-06-06

    Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

  10. Bacillus caldolyticus prs gene encoding phosphoribosyldiphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    The prs gene, encoding phosphoribosyl-diphosphate (PRPP) synthase, as well as the flanking DNA sequences were cloned and sequenced from the Gram-positive thermophile, Bacillus caldolyticus. Comparison with the homologous sequences from the mesophile, Bacillus subtilis, revealed a gene (gca......D) encoding N-acetylglucosamine-l-phosphate uridyltransferase upstream of prs, and a gene homologous to ctc downstream of prs. cDNA synthesis with a B. caldolyticus gcaD-prs-ctc-specified mRNA as template, followed by amplification utilising the polymerase chain reaction indicated that the three genes are co......-transcribed. Comparison of amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity among PRPP synthases across a wide phylogenetic range. An E. coli strain harbouring the B. caldolyticus prs gene in a multicopy plasmid produced PRPP synthase activity 33-fold over the activity of a haploid B. caldolyticus strain. B. caldolyticus...

  11. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  12. Asymmetric synthesis using chiral-encoded metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutthalekha, Thittaya; Wattanakit, Chularat; Lapeyre, Veronique; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of chiral compounds is of crucial importance in many areas of society and science, including medicine, biology, chemistry, biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, there is a fundamental interest in developing new approaches for the selective production of enantiomers. Here we report the use of mesoporous metal structures with encoded geometric chiral information for inducing asymmetry in the electrochemical synthesis of mandelic acid as a model molecule. The chiral-encoded mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and the chiral template molecule, perfectly retains the chiral information after removal of the template. Starting from a prochiral compound we demonstrate enantiomeric excess of the (R)-enantiomer when using (R)-imprinted electrodes and vice versa for the (S)-imprinted ones. Moreover, changing the amount of chiral cavities in the material allows tuning the enantioselectivity.

  13. Optimal Achievable Encoding for Brain Machine Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-22

    dictionary-based encoding approach to translate a visual image into sequential patterns of electrical stimulation in real time , in a manner that...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...networks, and by applying linear decoding to complete recorded populations of retinal ganglion cells for the first time . Third, we developed a greedy

  14. Encoded libraries of chemically modified peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinis, Christian; Winter, Greg

    2015-06-01

    The use of powerful technologies for generating and screening DNA-encoded protein libraries has helped drive the development of proteins as pharmaceutical ligands. However the development of peptides as pharmaceutical ligands has been more limited. Although encoded peptide libraries are typically several orders of magnitude larger than classical chemical libraries, can be more readily screened, and can give rise to higher affinity ligands, their use as pharmaceutical ligands is limited by their intrinsic properties. Two of the intrinsic limitations include the rotational flexibility of the peptide backbone and the limited number (20) of natural amino acids. However these limitations can be overcome by use of chemical modification. For example, the libraries can be modified to introduce topological constraints such as cyclization linkers, or to introduce new chemical entities such as small molecule ligands, fluorophores and photo-switchable compounds. This article reviews the chemistry involved, the properties of the peptide ligands, and the new opportunities offered by chemical modification of DNA-encoded peptide libraries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Encoding and decoding messages with chaotic lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsing, P.M.; Gavrielides, A.; Kovanis, V.; Roy, R.; Thornburg, K.S. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the strange attractor of a chaotic loss-modulated solid-state laser utilizing return maps based on a combination of intensity maxima and interspike intervals, as opposed to those utilizing Poincare sections defined by the intensity maxima of the laser (I=0,Ie<0) alone. We find both experimentally and numerically that a simple, intrinsic relationship exists between an intensity maximum and the pair of preceding and succeeding interspike intervals. In addition, we numerically investigate encoding messages on the output of a chaotic transmitter laser and its subsequent decoding by a similar receiver laser. By exploiting the relationship between the intensity maxima and the interspike intervals, we demonstrate that the method utilized to encode the message is vital to the system close-quote s ability to hide the signal from unwanted deciphering. In this work alternative methods are studied in order to encode messages by modulating the magnitude of pumping of the transmitter laser and also by driving its loss modulation with more than one frequency. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. ABC transporters in Arthropods: genomic comparison and role in insecticide transport and resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dermauw, W.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2014-01-01

    About a 100 years ago, the Drosophila white mutant marked the birth of Drosophila genetics. The white gene turned out to encode the first well studied ABC transporter in arthropods. The ABC gene family is now recognized as one of the largest transporter families in all kingdoms of life. The majority

  17. PHOTO ENCODING OF ANALOG WATER METER FOR USER ACCESS AND PAYMENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GODFREY A. MILLS; MOSES A. ACQUAH; APPAH BREMANG

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents design reconfiguration of analog water meter to provide remote access to user water consumption and billing records, payments, and meter device monitoring using photo-encoding as the detecting method for water consumption, a PIC18F2423 microcontroller for data processing, and SMS (short message service) technology for data transportation. To validate the system design, an analog water meter was converted into a digital equivalent and interfaced to the cellular network to t...

  18. Transport of nonmetabolizable opines by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, M.; Burgner, J.W.; Chilton, W.S.; Gelvin, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the uptake of [ 14 C]octopine and [ 14 C]nopaline by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing the C58 chromosomal background in medium suitable for the induction of vir genes. All strains tested could transport both of these opines, regardless of the presence or type of Ti plasmid (octopine or nopaline) present in the bacterium. The transport of these opines required active cellular metabolism. Nonradioactive octopine, nopaline, and arginine competed effectively with [ 14 C]octopine and [ 14 C]nopaline for transport into A. tumefaciens A136, suggesting that the transport of these opines occurs via an arginine transport pathway not encoded by the Ti plasmid

  19. Superconducting magnetic Wollaston prism for neutron spin encoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, F., E-mail: fankli@indiana.edu; Parnell, S. R.; Wang, T.; Baxter, D. V. [Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Hamilton, W. A. [Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Maranville, B. B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Semerad, R. [Ceraco Ceramic Coating GmbH, Ismaning 85737 (Germany); Cremer, J. T. [Adelphi Technology Inc., Redwood City, California 94063 (United States); Pynn, R. [Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    A magnetic Wollaston prism can spatially split a polarized neutron beam into two beams with different neutron spin states, in a manner analogous to an optical Wollaston prism. Such a Wollaston prism can be used to encode the trajectory of neutrons into the Larmor phase associated with their spin degree of freedom. This encoding can be used for neutron phase-contrast radiography and in spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME). In this paper, we show that magnetic Wollaston prisms with highly uniform magnetic fields and low Larmor phase aberration can be constructed to preserve neutron polarization using high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. The Meissner effect of HTS films is used to confine magnetic fields produced electromagnetically by current-carrying HTS tape wound on suitably shaped soft iron pole pieces. The device is cooled to ∼30 K by a closed cycle refrigerator, eliminating the need to replenish liquid cryogens and greatly simplifying operation and maintenance. A HTS film ensures that the magnetic field transition within the prism is sharp, well-defined, and planar due to the Meissner effect. The spin transport efficiency across the device was measured to be ∼98.5% independent of neutron wavelength and energizing current. The position-dependent Larmor phase of neutron spins was measured at the NIST Center for Neutron Research facility and found to agree well with detailed simulations. The phase varies linearly with horizontal position, as required, and the neutron beam shows little depolarization. Consequently, the device has advantages over existing devices with similar functionality and provides the capability for a large neutron beam (20 mm × 30 mm) and an increase in length scales accessible to SESAME to beyond 10 μm. With further improvements of the external coupling guide field in the prototype device, a larger neutron beam could be employed.

  20. Superconducting magnetic Wollaston prism for neutron spin encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Parnell, S. R.; Hamilton, W. A.; Maranville, B. B.; Wang, T.; Semerad, R.; Baxter, D. V.; Cremer, J. T.; Pynn, R.

    2014-05-01

    A magnetic Wollaston prism can spatially split a polarized neutron beam into two beams with different neutron spin states, in a manner analogous to an optical Wollaston prism. Such a Wollaston prism can be used to encode the trajectory of neutrons into the Larmor phase associated with their spin degree of freedom. This encoding can be used for neutron phase-contrast radiography and in spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME). In this paper, we show that magnetic Wollaston prisms with highly uniform magnetic fields and low Larmor phase aberration can be constructed to preserve neutron polarization using high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. The Meissner effect of HTS films is used to confine magnetic fields produced electromagnetically by current-carrying HTS tape wound on suitably shaped soft iron pole pieces. The device is cooled to ˜30 K by a closed cycle refrigerator, eliminating the need to replenish liquid cryogens and greatly simplifying operation and maintenance. A HTS film ensures that the magnetic field transition within the prism is sharp, well-defined, and planar due to the Meissner effect. The spin transport efficiency across the device was measured to be ˜98.5% independent of neutron wavelength and energizing current. The position-dependent Larmor phase of neutron spins was measured at the NIST Center for Neutron Research facility and found to agree well with detailed simulations. The phase varies linearly with horizontal position, as required, and the neutron beam shows little depolarization. Consequently, the device has advantages over existing devices with similar functionality and provides the capability for a large neutron beam (20 mm × 30 mm) and an increase in length scales accessible to SESAME to beyond 10 μm. With further improvements of the external coupling guide field in the prototype device, a larger neutron beam could be employed.

  1. Evaluating standard terminologies for encoding allergy information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Foster R; Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph M; Broverman, Carol; Robinson, George; Middleton, Blackford; Rocha, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    Allergy documentation and exchange are vital to ensuring patient safety. This study aims to analyze and compare various existing standard terminologies for representing allergy information. Five terminologies were identified, including the Systemized Nomenclature of Medical Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), National Drug File-Reference Terminology (NDF-RT), Medication Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA), Unique Ingredient Identifier (UNII), and RxNorm. A qualitative analysis was conducted to compare desirable characteristics of each terminology, including content coverage, concept orientation, formal definitions, multiple granularities, vocabulary structure, subset capability, and maintainability. A quantitative analysis was also performed to compare the content coverage of each terminology for (1) common food, drug, and environmental allergens and (2) descriptive concepts for common drug allergies, adverse reactions (AR), and no known allergies. Our qualitative results show that SNOMED CT fulfilled the greatest number of desirable characteristics, followed by NDF-RT, RxNorm, UNII, and MedDRA. Our quantitative results demonstrate that RxNorm had the highest concept coverage for representing drug allergens, followed by UNII, SNOMED CT, NDF-RT, and MedDRA. For food and environmental allergens, UNII demonstrated the highest concept coverage, followed by SNOMED CT. For representing descriptive allergy concepts and adverse reactions, SNOMED CT and NDF-RT showed the highest coverage. Only SNOMED CT was capable of representing unique concepts for encoding no known allergies. The proper terminology for encoding a patient's allergy is complex, as multiple elements need to be captured to form a fully structured clinical finding. Our results suggest that while gaps still exist, a combination of SNOMED CT and RxNorm can satisfy most criteria for encoding common allergies and provide sufficient content coverage.

  2. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  3. 2D Barcode for DNA Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Purcaru; Cristian Toma

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding DNA information in 2D barcodes. First part focuses on the existing techniques and symbologies in 2D barcodes field. The 2D barcode PDF417 is presented as starting point. The adaptations and optimizations on PDF417 and on DataMatrix lead to the solution - DNA2DBC - DeoxyriboNucleic Acid Two Dimensional Barcode. The second part shows the DNA2DBC encoding/decoding process step by step. In conclusions are enumerated the most important features ...

  4. Dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform security ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes a simple method for making dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform (EFRT) security holograms. The hologram possesses different stages of encoding so that security features are concealed and remain invisible to the counterfeiter. These concealed and encoded anticounterfeit ...

  5. Optimal higher-order encoder time-stamping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, R.J.E.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    Optical incremental encoders are used to measure the position of motion control systems. The accuracy of the position measurement is determined and bounded by the number of slits on the encoder. The position measurement is affected by quantization errors and encoder imperfections. In this paper, an

  6. Encoding of electrophysiology and other signals in MR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Lars G; Lund, Torben E; Hanson, Christian G

    2007-01-01

    to the "magstripe" technique used for encoding of soundtracks in motion pictures, the electrical signals are in this way encoded as artifacts appearing in the MR images or spectra outside the region of interest. The encoded signals are subsequently reconstructed from the signal recorded by the scanner. RESULTS...

  7. Edwardsiella ictaluri Encodes an Acid Activated Urease that is Required for Intracellular Replication in Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic analysis indicated that Edwardsiella ictaluri encodes a putative ureasepathogenicity island containing 9 open reading frames, including urea and ammonium transporters. In vitro studies with the wild-type E. ictaluri and a ureG::kan urease mutant strain indicated that E. ictaluri is significa...

  8. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  9. V123 Beam Synchronous Encoder Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, T.; Conkling, C. R.; Oerter, B.

    1999-01-01

    The V123 Synchronous Encoder Module transmits events to distributed trigger modules and embedded decoders around the RHIC rings where they are used to provide beam instrumentation triggers [1,2,3]. The RHIC beam synchronous event link hardware is mainly comprised of three VMEbus board designs, the central input modules (V201), and encoder modules (V123), and the distributed trigger modules (V124). Two beam synchronous links, one for each ring, are distributed via fiberoptic and fanned out via twisted wire pair cables. The V123 synchronizes with the RF system clock derived from the beam bucket frequency and a revolution fiducial pulse. The RF system clock is used to create the beam synchronous event link carrier and events are synchronized with the rotation fiducial. A low jitter RF clock is later recovered from this carrier by phase lock loops in the trigger modules. Prioritized hardware and software triggers fill up to 15 beam event code transmission slots per revolution while tracking the ramping RF acceleration frequency and storage frequency. The revolution fiducial event is always the first event transmitted which is used to synchronize the firing of the abort kicker and to locate the first bucket for decoders distributed about the ring

  10. Place field assembly distribution encodes preferred locations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mamad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampus is the main locus of episodic memory formation and the neurons there encode the spatial map of the environment. Hippocampal place cells represent location, but their role in the learning of preferential location remains unclear. The hippocampus may encode locations independently from the stimuli and events that are associated with these locations. We have discovered a unique population code for the experience-dependent value of the context. The degree of reward-driven navigation preference highly correlates with the spatial distribution of the place fields recorded in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. We show place field clustering towards rewarded locations. Optogenetic manipulation of the ventral tegmental area demonstrates that the experience-dependent place field assembly distribution is directed by tegmental dopaminergic activity. The ability of the place cells to remap parallels the acquisition of reward context. Our findings present key evidence that the hippocampal neurons are not merely mapping the static environment but also store the concurrent context reward value, enabling episodic memory for past experience to support future adaptive behavior.

  11. How can survival processing improve memory encoding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meng; Geng, Haiyan

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the psychological mechanism of survival processing advantage from the perspective of false memory in two experiments. Using a DRM paradigm in combination with analysis based on signal detection theory, we were able to separately examine participants' utilization of verbatim representation and gist representation. Specifically, in Experiment 1, participants rated semantically related words in a survival scenario for a survival condition but rated pleasantness of words in the same DRM lists for a non-survival control condition. The results showed that participants demonstrated more gist processing in the survival condition than in the pleasantness condition; however, the degree of item-specific processing in the two encoding conditions did not significantly differ. In Experiment 2, the control task was changed to a category rating task, in which participants were asked to make category ratings of words in the category lists. We found that the survival condition involved more item-specific processing than did the category condition, but we found no significant difference between the two encoding conditions at the level of gist processing. Overall, our study demonstrates that survival processing can simultaneously promote gist and item-specific representations. When the control tasks only promoted either item-specific representation or gist representation, memory advantages of survival processing occurred.

  12. Negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlee, C.; Casasent, D.

    1986-01-01

    In the digital multiplication by analog convolution algorithm, the bits of two encoded numbers are convolved to form the product of the two numbers in mixed binary representation; this output can be easily converted to binary. Attention is presently given to negative base encoding, treating base -2 initially, and then showing that the negative base system can be readily extended to any radix. In general, negative base encoding in optical linear algebra processors represents a more efficient technique than either sign magnitude or 2's complement encoding, when the additions of digitally encoded products are performed in parallel.

  13. Encoding circuit for transform coding of a picture signal and decoding circuit for encoding said signal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1991-01-01

    Encoding circuit for transforming a picture signal into blocks of, for example, 8*8 coefficients, in which each block of coefficients is read motion-adaptively. In the case of motion within a sub-picture, the block of coefficients is read in such an order that the obtained series of coefficients

  14. Video encoder/decoder for encoding/decoding motion compensated images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    Video encoder and decoder, provided with a motion compensator for motion-compensated video coding or decoding in which a picture is coded or decoded in blocks in alternately horizontal and vertical steps. The motion compensator is provided with addressing means (160) and controlled multiplexers

  15. Transport processes of the legume symbiosome membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Clarke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The symbiosome membrane (SM is a physical barrier between the host plant and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis, and represents a regulated interface for the movement of solutes between the symbionts that is under plant control. The primary nutrient exchange across the SM is the transport of a carbon energy source from plant to bacteroid in exchange for fixed nitrogen. At a biochemical level two channels have been implicated in movement of fixed nitrogen across the SM and a uniporter that transports monovalent dicarboxylate ions has been characterized that would transport fixed carbon. The aquaporin NOD26 may provide a channel for ammonia, but the genes encoding the other transporters have not been identified. Transport of several other solutes, including calcium and potassium, have been demonstrated in isolated symbiosomes, and genes encoding transport systems for the movement of iron, nitrate, sulfate and zinc in nodules have been identified. However, definitively matching transport activities with these genes has proved difficult and many further transport processes are expected on the SM to facilitate the movement of nutrients between the symbionts. Recently, work detailing the SM proteome in soybean has been completed, contributing significantly to the database of known SM proteins. This represents a valuable resource for the identification of transporter protein candidates, some of which may correspond to transport processes previously described, or to novel transport systems in the symbiosis. Putative transporters identified from the proteome include homologues of transporters of sulfate, calcium, peptides and various metal ions. Here we review current knowledge of transport processes of the SM and discuss the requirements for additional transport routes of other nutrients exchanged in the symbiosis, with a focus on transport systems identified through the soybean SM proteome.

  16. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher W; Porreca, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward-predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), activation of midbrain dopamine neurons, and the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute or chronic pain.

  17. Premotor and Motor Cortices Encode Reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Ramkumar

    Full Text Available Rewards associated with actions are critical for motivation and learning about the consequences of one's actions on the world. The motor cortices are involved in planning and executing movements, but it is unclear whether they encode reward over and above limb kinematics and dynamics. Here, we report a categorical reward signal in dorsal premotor (PMd and primary motor (M1 neurons that corresponds to an increase in firing rates when a trial was not rewarded regardless of whether or not a reward was expected. We show that this signal is unrelated to error magnitude, reward prediction error, or other task confounds such as reward consumption, return reach plan, or kinematic differences across rewarded and unrewarded trials. The availability of reward information in motor cortex is crucial for theories of reward-based learning and motivational influences on actions.

  18. Radiofrequency encoded angular-resolved light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, Brandon W.; Akbari, Najva; Diebold, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    The sensitive, specific, and label-free classification of microscopic cells and organisms is one of the outstanding problems in biology. Today, instruments such as the flow cytometer use a combination of light scatter measurements at two distinct angles to infer the size and internal complexity...... of cells at rates of more than 10,000 per second. However, by examining the entire angular light scattering spectrum it is possible to classify cells with higher resolution and specificity. Current approaches to performing these angular spectrum measurements all have significant throughput limitations...... Encoded Angular-resolved Light Scattering (REALS), this technique multiplexes angular light scattering in the radiofrequency domain, such that a single photodetector captures the entire scattering spectrum from a particle over approximately 100 discrete incident angles on a single shot basis. As a proof...

  19. Endogenous opioids encode relative taste preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Sharif A; Norsted, Ebba; Lee, Lillian S; Lang, Penelope D; Lee, Brian S; Woolley, Joshua D; Fields, Howard L

    2006-08-01

    Endogenous opioid signaling contributes to the neural control of food intake. Opioid signaling is thought to regulate palatability, the reward value of a food item as determined by orosensory cues such as taste and texture. The reward value of a food reflects not only these sensory properties but also the relative value of competing food choices. In the present experiment, we used a consummatory contrast paradigm to manipulate the relative value of a sucrose solution for two groups of rats. Systemic injection of the nonspecific opioid antagonist naltrexone suppressed sucrose intake; for both groups, however, this suppression was selective, occurring only for the relatively more valuable sucrose solution. Our results indicate that endogenous opioid signaling contributes to the encoding of relative reward value.

  20. Measurement strategy for spatially encoded photonic qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a measurement strategy which can, probabilistically, reproduce the statistics of any observable for spatially encoded photonic qubits. It comprises the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measure followed by a detection in a fixed transverse position, making the displacement of the detection system unnecessary, unlike previous methods. This strategy generalizes a scheme recently demonstrated by one of us and co-workers, restricted to measurement of observables with equatorial eigenvectors only. The method presented here can be implemented with the current technology of programmable multipixel liquid-crystal displays. In addition, it can be straightforwardly extended to high-dimensional qudits and may be a valuable tool in optical implementations of quantum information protocols with spatial qubits and qudits.

  1. MPEG-1 low-cost encoder solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueger, Klaus; Schirrmeister, Frank; Filor, Lutz; von Reventlow, Christian; Schneider, Ulrich; Mueller, Gerriet; Sefzik, Nicolai; Fiedrich, Sven

    1995-02-01

    A solution for real-time compression of digital YCRCB video data to an MPEG-1 video data stream has been developed. As an additional option, motion JPEG and video telephone streams (H.261) can be generated. For MPEG-1, up to two bidirectional predicted images are supported. The required computational power for motion estimation and DCT/IDCT, memory size and memory bandwidth have been the main challenges. The design uses fast-page-mode memory accesses and requires only one single 80 ns EDO-DRAM with 256 X 16 organization for video encoding. This can be achieved only by using adequate access and coding strategies. The architecture consists of an input processing and filter unit, a memory interface, a motion estimation unit, a motion compensation unit, a DCT unit, a quantization control, a VLC unit and a bus interface. For using the available memory bandwidth by the processing tasks, a fixed schedule for memory accesses has been applied, that can be interrupted for asynchronous events. The motion estimation unit implements a highly sophisticated hierarchical search strategy based on block matching. The DCT unit uses a separated fast-DCT flowgraph realized by a switchable hardware unit for both DCT and IDCT operation. By appropriate multiplexing, only one multiplier is required for: DCT, quantization, inverse quantization, and IDCT. The VLC unit generates the video-stream up to the video sequence layer and is directly coupled with an intelligent bus-interface. Thus, the assembly of video, audio and system data can easily be performed by the host computer. Having a relatively low complexity and only small requirements for DRAM circuits, the developed solution can be applied to low-cost encoding products for consumer electronics.

  2. Current View on Phytoplasma Genomes and Encoded Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kube

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplasmas are specialised bacteria that are obligate parasites of plant phloem tissue and insects. These bacteria have resisted all attempts of cell-free cultivation. Genome research is of particular importance to analyse the genetic endowment of such bacteria. Here we review the gene content of the four completely sequenced ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’ genomes that include those of ‘Ca. P. asteris’ strains OY-M and AY-WB, ‘Ca. P. australiense,’ and ‘Ca. P. mali’. These genomes are characterized by chromosome condensation resulting in sizes below 900 kb and a G + C content of less than 28%. Evolutionary adaption of the phytoplasmas to nutrient-rich environments resulted in losses of genetic modules and increased host dependency highlighted by the transport systems and limited metabolic repertoire. On the other hand, duplication and integration events enlarged the chromosomes and contribute to genome instability. Present differences in the content of membrane and secreted proteins reflect the host adaptation in the phytoplasma strains. General differences are obvious between different phylogenetic subgroups. ‘Ca. P. mali’ is separated from the other strains by its deviating chromosome organization, the genetic repertoire for recombination and excision repair of nucleotides or the loss of the complete energy-yielding part of the glycolysis. Apart from these differences, comparative analysis exemplified that all four phytoplasmas are likely to encode an alternative pathway to generate pyruvate and ATP.

  3. Modular verification of chemical reaction network encodings via serializability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Matthew R.; Stefanovic, Darko; Phillips, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Chemical reaction networks are a powerful means of specifying the intended behaviour of synthetic biochemical systems. A high-level formal specification, expressed as a chemical reaction network, may be compiled into a lower-level encoding, which can be directly implemented in wet chemistry and may itself be expressed as a chemical reaction network. Here we present conditions under which a lower-level encoding correctly emulates the sequential dynamics of a high-level chemical reaction network. We require that encodings are transactional, such that their execution is divided by a “commit reaction” that irreversibly separates the reactant-consuming phase of the encoding from the product-generating phase. We also impose restrictions on the sharing of species between reaction encodings, based on a notion of “extra tolerance”, which defines species that may be shared between encodings without enabling unwanted reactions. Our notion of correctness is serializability of interleaved reaction encodings, and if all reaction encodings satisfy our correctness properties then we can infer that the global dynamics of the system are correct. This allows us to infer correctness of any system constructed using verified encodings. As an example, we show how this approach may be used to verify two- and four-domain DNA strand displacement encodings of chemical reaction networks, and we generalize our result to the limit where the populations of helper species are unlimited. PMID:27325906

  4. Transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de

  5. Encoding plaintext by Fourier transform hologram in double random phase encoding using fingerprint keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Masafumi; Nakano, Kazuya; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-09-01

    It has been shown that biometric information can be used as a cipher key for binary data encryption by applying double random phase encoding. In such methods, binary data are encoded in a bit pattern image, and the decrypted image becomes a plain image when the key is genuine; otherwise, decrypted images become random images. In some cases, images decrypted by imposters may not be fully random, such that the blurred bit pattern can be partially observed. In this paper, we propose a novel bit coding method based on a Fourier transform hologram, which makes images decrypted by imposters more random. Computer experiments confirm that the method increases the randomness of images decrypted by imposters while keeping the false rejection rate as low as in the conventional method.

  6. Encoding plaintext by Fourier transform hologram in double random phase encoding using fingerprint keys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Masafumi; Nakano, Kazuya; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that biometric information can be used as a cipher key for binary data encryption by applying double random phase encoding. In such methods, binary data are encoded in a bit pattern image, and the decrypted image becomes a plain image when the key is genuine; otherwise, decrypted images become random images. In some cases, images decrypted by imposters may not be fully random, such that the blurred bit pattern can be partially observed. In this paper, we propose a novel bit coding method based on a Fourier transform hologram, which makes images decrypted by imposters more random. Computer experiments confirm that the method increases the randomness of images decrypted by imposters while keeping the false rejection rate as low as in the conventional method. (paper)

  7. Agrobacterium T-DNA-encoded protein Atu6002 interferes with the host auxin response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Benoît; Gizatullina, Diana I.; Babst, Benjamin A.; Gifford, Andrew N.; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Summary Several genes in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens transferred (T) DNA encode proteins that are involved in developmental alterations leading to the formation of tumors in infected plants. We investigated the role of the protein encoded by the Atu6002 gene, the function of which is completely unknown. The Atu6002 expression occurs in Agrobacterium-induced tumors, and is also activated upon activation of plant cell division by growth hormones. Within the expressing plant cells, the Atu6002 protein is targeted to the plasma membrane. Interestingly, constitutive ectopic expression of Atu6002 in transgenic tobacco plants lead to a severe developmental phenotype characterized by stunted growth, shorter internodes, lanceolate leaves, increased branching, and modified flower morphology. These Atu6002-expressing plants also displayed impaired response to auxin. However, auxin cellular uptake and polar transport were not significantly inhibited in these plants, suggesting that Atu6002 interferes with auxin perception or signaling pathways. PMID:24128370

  8. Structural Encoding of Static Single Assignment Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Static Single Assignment (SSA) form is often used as an intermediate representation during code optimization in Java Virtual Machines. Recently, SSA has successfully been used for bytecode verification. However, constructing SSA at the code consumer is costly. SSAbased mobile code transport formats...... Java bytecode. While the resulting bytecode sequence can still be directly executed by traditional Virtual Machines, our novel VM can infer SSA form and confirm its safety with virtually no overhead....... have been shown to eliminate this cost by shifting SSA creation to the code producer. These new formats, however, are not backward compatible with the established Java class-file format. We propose a novel approach to transport SSA information implicitly through structural code properties of standard...

  9. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  10. Source-constrained retrieval influences the encoding of new information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, Stacey L; MacLeod, Colin M; Fernandes, Myra A

    2011-11-01

    Jacoby, Shimizu, Daniels, and Rhodes (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 852-857, 2005) showed that new words presented as foils among a list of old words that had been deeply encoded were themselves subsequently better recognized than new words presented as foils among a list of old words that had been shallowly encoded. In Experiment 1, by substituting a deep-versus-shallow imagery manipulation for the levels-of-processing manipulation, we demonstrated that the effect is robust and that it generalizes, also occurring with a different type of encoding. In Experiment 2, we provided more direct evidence for context-related encoding during tests of deeply encoded words, showing enhanced priming for foils presented among deeply encoded targets when participants made the same deep-encoding judgments on those items as had been made on the targets during study. In Experiment 3, we established that the findings from Experiment 2 are restricted to this specific deep judgment task and are not a general consequence of these foils being associated with deeply encoded items. These findings provide support for the source-constrained retrieval hypothesis of Jacoby, Shimizu, Daniels, and Rhodes: New information can be influenced by how surrounding items are encoded and retrieved, as long as the surrounding items recruit a coherent mode of processing.

  11. Exploring the influence of encoding format on subsequent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Indira C; Dennis, Nancy A; Maillet, David; Rajah, M Natasha

    2017-05-01

    Distinctive encoding is greatly influenced by gist-based processes and has been shown to suffer when highly similar items are presented in close succession. Thus, elucidating the mechanisms underlying how presentation format affects gist processing is essential in determining the factors that influence these encoding processes. The current study utilised multivariate partial least squares (PLS) analysis to identify encoding networks directly associated with retrieval performance in a blocked and intermixed presentation condition. Subsequent memory analysis for successfully encoded items indicated no significant differences between reaction time and retrieval performance and presentation format. Despite no significant behavioural differences, behaviour PLS revealed differences in brain-behaviour correlations and mean condition activity in brain regions associated with gist-based vs. distinctive encoding. Specifically, the intermixed format encouraged more distinctive encoding, showing increased activation of regions associated with strategy use and visual processing (e.g., frontal and visual cortices, respectively). Alternatively, the blocked format exhibited increased gist-based processes, accompanied by increased activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Together, results suggest that the sequence that information is presented during encoding affects the degree to which distinctive encoding is engaged. These findings extend our understanding of the Fuzzy Trace Theory and the role of presentation format on encoding processes.

  12. Temporal encoding in a nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zane N Aldworth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the extent to which temporal encoding may be implemented by single neurons in the cercal sensory system of the house cricket Acheta domesticus. We found that these neurons exhibit a greater-than-expected coding capacity, due in part to an increased precision in brief patterns of action potentials. We developed linear and non-linear models for decoding the activity of these neurons. We found that the stimuli associated with short-interval patterns of spikes (ISIs of 8 ms or less could be predicted better by second-order models as compared to linear models. Finally, we characterized the difference between these linear and second-order models in a low-dimensional subspace, and showed that modification of the linear models along only a few dimensions improved their predictive power to parity with the second order models. Together these results show that single neurons are capable of using temporal patterns of spikes as fundamental symbols in their neural code, and that they communicate specific stimulus distributions to subsequent neural structures.

  13. Chaotic digital communication by encoding initial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaofeng, Gong; Xingang, Wang; Meng, Zhan; Lai, C H

    2004-06-01

    We investigate the possibility to improve the noise performance of a chaotic digital communication scheme by utilizing further dynamical information. We show that by encoding the initial information of the chaotic carrier according to the transmitting bits, extra redundance can be introduced into the segments of chaotic signals corresponding to the consecutive bits. Such redundant information can be exploited effectively at the receiver end to improve the noise performance of the system. Compared to other methods (e.g., differential chaos shift keying), straightforward application of the proposed modulation/demodulation scheme already provides significant performance gain in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region. Furthermore, maximum likelihood precleaning procedure based on the Viterbi algorithm can be applied before the demodulation step to overcome the performance degradation in the high SNR region. The study indicates that it is possible to improve the noise performance of the chaotic digital communication scheme if further dynamics information is added to the system. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics

  14. Peafowl antipredator calls encode information about signalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L

    2014-02-01

    Animals emit vocalizations that convey information about external events. Many of these vocalizations, including those emitted in response to predators, also encode information about the individual that produced the call. The relationship between acoustic features of antipredator calls and information relating to signalers (including sex, identity, body size, and social rank) were examined in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). The "bu-girk" antipredator calls of male and female peafowl were recorded and 20 acoustic parameters were automatically extracted from each call. Both the bu and girk elements of the antipredator call were individually distinctive and calls were classified to the correct signaler with over 90% and 70% accuracy in females and males, respectively. Females produced calls with a higher fundamental frequency (F0) than males. In both females and males, body size was negatively correlated with F0. In addition, peahen rank was related to the duration, end mean frequency, and start harmonicity of the bu element. Peafowl antipredator calls contain detailed information about the signaler and can potentially be used by receivers to respond to dangerous situations.

  15. Dynamical encoding of looming, receding, and focussing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longtin, Andre; Clarke, Stephen Elisha; Maler, Leonard; CenterNeural Dynamics Collaboration

    This talk will discuss a non-conventional neural coding task that may apply more broadly to many senses in higher vertebrates. We ask whether and how a non-visual sensory system can focus on an object. We present recent experimental and modeling work that shows how the early sensory circuitry of electric sense can perform such neuronal focusing that is manifested behaviorally. This sense is the main one used by weakly electric fish to navigate, locate prey and communicate in the murky waters of their natural habitat. We show that there is a distance at which the Fisher information of a neuron's response to a looming and receding object is maximized, and that this distance corresponds to a behaviorally relevant one chosen by these animals. Strikingly, this maximum occurs at a bifurcation between tonic firing and bursting. We further discuss how the invariance of this distance to signal attributes can arise, a process that first involves power-law spike frequency adaptation. The talk will also highlight the importance of expanding the classic dual neural encoding of contrast using ON and OFF cells in the context of looming and receding stimuli. The authors acknowledge support from CIHR and NSERC.

  16. Beyond initial encoding: Measures of the post-encoding status of memory traces predict long-term recall in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Pathman, Thanujeni; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    The first years of life are witness to rapid changes in long-term recall ability. In the present research, we contributed to explanation of the changes by testing the absolute and relative contributions to long-term recall of encoding and post-encoding processes. Using elicited imitation, we sampled the status of 16-, 20-, and 24-month-old infants’ memory representations at various time points after experience of events. In Experiment 1, infants were tested immediately, 1 week after encoding,...

  17. Stress as a mnemonic filter: Interactions between medial temporal lobe encoding processes and post-encoding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; McCullough, Andrew M; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-01-01

    Acute stress has been shown to modulate memory for recently learned information, an effect attributed to the influence of stress hormones on medial temporal lobe (MTL) consolidation processes. However, little is known about which memories will be affected when stress follows encoding. One possibility is that stress interacts with encoding processes to selectively protect memories that had elicited responses in the hippocampus and amygdala, two MTL structures important for memory formation. There is limited evidence for interactions between encoding processes and consolidation effects in humans, but recent studies of consolidation in rodents have emphasized the importance of encoding "tags" for determining the impact of consolidation manipulations on memory. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans to test the hypothesis that the effects of post-encoding stress depend on MTL processes observed during encoding. We found that changes in stress hormone levels were associated with an increase in the contingency of memory outcomes on hippocampal and amygdala encoding responses. That is, for participants showing high cortisol reactivity, memories became more dependent on MTL activity observed during encoding, thereby shifting the distribution of recollected events toward those that had elicited relatively high activation. Surprisingly, this effect was generally larger for neutral, compared to emotionally negative, memories. The results suggest that stress does not uniformly enhance memory, but instead selectively preserves memories tagged during encoding, effectively acting as mnemonic filter. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  19. Boron transport in plants: co-ordinated regulation of transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Kyoko; Fujiwara, Toru

    2010-01-01

    Background The essentiality of boron (B) for plant growth was established >85 years ago. In the last decade, it has been revealed that one of the physiological roles of B is cross-linking the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II in primary cell walls. Borate cross-linking of pectic networks serves both for physical strength of cell walls and for cell adhesion. On the other hand, high concentrations of B are toxic to plant growth. To avoid deficiency and toxicity problems, it is important for plants to maintain their tissue B concentrations within an optimum range by regulating transport processes. Boron transport was long believed to be a passive, unregulated process, but the identification of B transporters has suggested that plants sense and respond to the B conditions and regulate transporters to maintain B homeostasis. Scope Transporters responsible for efficient B uptake by roots, xylem loading and B distribution among leaves have been described. These transporters are required under B limitation for efficient acquisition and utilization of B. Transporters important for tolerating high B levels in the environment have also been identified, and these transporters export B from roots back to the soil. Two types of transporters are involved in these processes: NIPs (nodulin-26-like intrinsic proteins), boric acid channels, and BORs, B exporters. It is demonstrated that the expression of genes encoding these transporters is finely regulated in response to B availability in the environment to ensure tissue B homeostasis. Furthermore, plants tolerant to stress produced by low B or high B in the environment can be generated through altered expression of these transporters. Conclusions The identification of the first B transporter led to the discovery that B transport was a process mediated not only by passive diffusion but also by transporters whose activity was regulated in response to B conditions. Now it is evident that plants sense internal and external B

  20. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister U Nicol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odours and whether they can be investigated under anaesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odour smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anaesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odour under anaesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and GABA in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anaesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odour was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odour during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odour. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50% of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odours prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odour many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anaesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odours as well as in evoked glutamate and

  1. Encoding and Decoding Models in Cognitive Electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Holdgraf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience has seen rapid growth in the size and complexity of data recorded from the human brain as well as in the computational tools available to analyze this data. This data explosion has resulted in an increased use of multivariate, model-based methods for asking neuroscience questions, allowing scientists to investigate multiple hypotheses with a single dataset, to use complex, time-varying stimuli, and to study the human brain under more naturalistic conditions. These tools come in the form of “Encoding” models, in which stimulus features are used to model brain activity, and “Decoding” models, in which neural features are used to generated a stimulus output. Here we review the current state of encoding and decoding models in cognitive electrophysiology and provide a practical guide toward conducting experiments and analyses in this emerging field. Our examples focus on using linear models in the study of human language and audition. We show how to calculate auditory receptive fields from natural sounds as well as how to decode neural recordings to predict speech. The paper aims to be a useful tutorial to these approaches, and a practical introduction to using machine learning and applied statistics to build models of neural activity. The data analytic approaches we discuss may also be applied to other sensory modalities, motor systems, and cognitive systems, and we cover some examples in these areas. In addition, a collection of Jupyter notebooks is publicly available as a complement to the material covered in this paper, providing code examples and tutorials for predictive modeling in python. The aim is to provide a practical understanding of predictive modeling of human brain data and to propose best-practices in conducting these analyses.

  2. Stereoscopic radiographic images with gamma source encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strocovsky, S.G.; Otero, D

    2012-01-01

    Conventional radiography with X-ray tube has several drawbacks, as the compromise between the size of the focal spot and the fluence. The finite dimensions of the focal spot impose a limit to the spatial resolution. Gamma radiography uses gamma-ray sources which surpass in size, portability and simplicity to X-ray tubes. However, its low intrinsic fluence forces to use extended sources that also degrade the spatial resolution. In this work, we show the principles of a new radiographic technique that overcomes the limitations associated with the finite dimensions of X-ray sources, and that offers additional benefits to conventional techniques. The new technique called coding source imaging (CSI), is based on the use of extended sources, edge-encoding of radiation and differential detection. The mathematical principles and the method of images reconstruction with the new proposed technique are explained in the present work. Analytical calculations were made to determine the maximum spatial resolution and the variables on which it depends. The CSI technique was tested by means of Monte Carlo simulations with sets of spherical objects. We show that CSI has stereoscopic capabilities and it can resolve objects smaller than the source size. The CSI decoding algorithm reconstructs simultaneously four different projections from the same object, while conventional radiography produces only one projection per acquisition. Projections are located in separate image fields on the detector plane. Our results show it is possible to apply an extremely simple radiographic technique with extended sources, and get 3D information of the attenuation coefficient distribution for simple geometry objects in a single acquisition. The results are promising enough to evaluate the possibility of future research with more complex objects typical of medical diagnostic radiography and industrial gamma radiography (author)

  3. The role of depth of encoding in attentional capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasin, Edyta; Nieuwenstein, Mark; Johnson, Addie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether depth of encoding influences attentional capture by recently attended objects. In Experiment 1, participants first had to judge whether a word referred to a living or a nonliving thing (deep encoding condition) or whether the word was written in

  4. Encoding Effects on First-Graders' Use of Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osana, Helena P.; Przednowek, Katarzyna; Cooperman, Allyson; Adrien, Emmanuelle

    2018-01-01

    The effects of prior encodings of manipulatives (red and blue plastic chips) on children's ability to use them as representations of quantity were tested. First graders (N = 73) were assigned to four conditions in which the encoding of plastic chips was experimentally manipulated. All children then participated in an addition activity that relied…

  5. The Contribution of Encoding and Retrieval Processes to Proactive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegl, Oliver; Pastötter, Bernhard; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2015-01-01

    Proactive interference (PI) refers to the finding that memory for recently studied (target) material can be impaired by the prior study of other (nontarget) material. Previous accounts of PI differed in whether they attributed PI to impaired retrieval or impaired encoding. Here, we suggest an integrated encoding-retrieval account, which assigns a…

  6. Evaluation of color encodings for high dynamic range pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitard, Ronan; Mantiuk, Rafal K.; Pouli, Tania

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Low Dynamic Range (LDR) color spaces encode a small fraction of the visible color gamut, which does not encompass the range of colors produced on upcoming High Dynamic Range (HDR) displays. Future imaging systems will require encoding much wider color gamut and luminance range. Such wide color gamut can be represented using floating point HDR pixel values but those are inefficient to encode. They also lack perceptual uniformity of the luminance and color distribution, which is provided (in approximation) by most LDR color spaces. Therefore, there is a need to devise an efficient, perceptually uniform and integer valued representation for high dynamic range pixel values. In this paper we evaluate several methods for encoding colour HDR pixel values, in particular for use in image and video compression. Unlike other studies we test both luminance and color difference encoding in a rigorous 4AFC threshold experiments to determine the minimum bit-depth required. Results show that the Perceptual Quantizer (PQ) encoding provides the best perceptual uniformity in the considered luminance range, however the gain in bit-depth is rather modest. More significant difference can be observed between color difference encoding schemes, from which YDuDv encoding seems to be the most efficient.

  7. Interaction Between Encoding and Retrieval Operations in Cued Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ronald P.; Craik, Fergus I. M.

    1977-01-01

    Three experiments are described in which the qualitative nature of memorial processing was manipulated at both input (encoding) and output (retrieval). As in earlier research, it was found that retention levels were highest when the same type of information was used as a retrieval cue. Concludes that the notions of encoding specificity and depth…

  8. On The Designed And Constructed Feedback Shift-Register Encoder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An encoder capable of cyclical shifting of data, and which can therefore be used for Bose-Chaudhuri and Hocquenghem (BCH) coding, has been designed and constructed using discrete components. It comprises basically four bistable multivibrators and an exclusive-OR device. On completion, the encoder performed ...

  9. Distinctiveness of Encoding and Memory for Learning Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, John A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A distinctiveness of encoding hypothesis, as applied to the facilitative effects that higher order objectives have on readers' prose recall, was evaluated in three experiments. Results suggest that distinctiveness of encoding may offer a theoretical basis for the effects of adjunct aids as well as a guide to their construction. (Author/GK)

  10. Decoding and Encoding Facial Expressions in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Miron; Przewuzman, Sylvia J.

    1979-01-01

    Preschool-age children drew, decoded, and encoded facial expressions depicting five different emotions. Accuracy of drawing, decoding and encoding each of the five emotions was consistent across the three tasks; decoding ability was correlated with drawing ability among female subjects, but neither of these abilities was correlated with encoding…

  11. On The Designed And Constructed Feedback Shift-Register Encoder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information transmission in noisy channels can be achieved with vanishingly small probability of error by proper coding of the information as long as the encoding rate is less than the channel capacity. An encoder capable of cyclical shifting of data, and which can therefore be used for Bose-Chaudhuri and Hocquenghem ...

  12. Novel nuclear-encoded proteins interacting with a plastid sigma factor, Sig1, in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Kazuya; Shiina, Takashi; Murakami, Shinya; Toyoshima, Yoshinori

    2002-03-13

    Sigma factor binding proteins are involved in modifying the promoter preferences of the RNA polymerase in bacteria. We found the nuclear encoded protein (SibI) that is transported into chloroplasts and interacts specifically with the region 4 of Sig1 in Arabidopsis. SibI and its homologue, T3K9.5 are novel proteins, which are not homologous to any protein of known function. The expression of sibI was tissue specific, light dependent, and developmentally timed. We suggest the transcriptional regulation by sigma factor binding proteins to function in the plastids of higher plant.

  13. A SSVEP Stimuli Encoding Method Using Trinary Frequency-Shift Keying Encoded SSVEP (TFSK-SSVEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available SSVEP is a kind of BCI technology with advantage of high information transfer rate. However, due to its nature, frequencies could be used as stimuli are scarce. To solve such problem, a stimuli encoding method which encodes SSVEP signal using Frequency Shift–Keying (FSK method is developed. In this method, each stimulus is controlled by a FSK signal which contains three different frequencies that represent “Bit 0,” “Bit 1” and “Bit 2” respectively. Different to common BFSK in digital communication, “Bit 0” and “Bit 1” composited the unique identifier of stimuli in binary bit stream form, while “Bit 2” indicates the ending of a stimuli encoding. EEG signal is acquired on channel Oz, O1, O2, Pz, P3, and P4, using ADS1299 at the sample rate of 250 SPS. Before original EEG signal is quadrature demodulated, it is detrended and then band-pass filtered using FFT-based FIR filtering to remove interference. Valid peak of the processed signal is acquired by calculating its derivative and converted into bit stream using window method. Theoretically, this coding method could implement at least 2n−1 (n is the length of bit command stimulus while keeping the ITR the same. This method is suitable to implement stimuli on a monitor and where the frequency and phase could be used to code stimuli is limited as well as implementing portable BCI devices which is not capable of performing complex calculations.

  14. Grammatical constraints on phonological encoding in speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jordana R; Goldrick, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    To better understand the influence of grammatical encoding on the retrieval and encoding of phonological word-form information during speech production, we examine how grammatical class constraints influence the activation of phonological neighbors (words phonologically related to the target--e.g., MOON, TWO for target TUNE). Specifically, we compare how neighbors that share a target's grammatical category (here, nouns) influence its planning and retrieval, assessed by picture naming latencies, and phonetic encoding, assessed by word productions in picture names, when grammatical constraints are strong (in sentence contexts) versus weak (bare naming). Within-category (noun) neighbors influenced planning time and phonetic encoding more strongly in sentence contexts. This suggests that grammatical encoding constrains phonological processing; the influence of phonological neighbors is grammatically dependent. Moreover, effects on planning times could not fully account for phonetic effects, suggesting that phonological interaction affects articulation after speech onset. These results support production theories integrating grammatical, phonological, and phonetic processes.

  15. Convolutional over Recurrent Encoder for Neural Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakwale Praveen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural machine translation is a recently proposed approach which has shown competitive results to traditional MT approaches. Standard neural MT is an end-to-end neural network where the source sentence is encoded by a recurrent neural network (RNN called encoder and the target words are predicted using another RNN known as decoder. Recently, various models have been proposed which replace the RNN encoder with a convolutional neural network (CNN. In this paper, we propose to augment the standard RNN encoder in NMT with additional convolutional layers in order to capture wider context in the encoder output. Experiments on English to German translation demonstrate that our approach can achieve significant improvements over a standard RNN-based baseline.

  16. Improved entropy encoding for high efficient video coding standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Sunil Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC has better coding efficiency, but the encoding performance has to be improved to meet the growing multimedia applications. This paper improves the standard entropy encoding by introducing the optimized weighing parameters, so that higher rate of compression can be accomplished over the standard entropy encoding. The optimization is performed using the recently introduced firefly algorithm. The experimentation is carried out using eight benchmark video sequences and the PSNR for varying rate of data transmission is investigated. Comparative analysis based on the performance statistics is made with the standard entropy encoding. From the obtained results, it is clear that the originality of the decoded video sequence is preserved far better than the proposed method, though the compression rate is increased. Keywords: Entropy, Encoding, HEVC, PSNR, Compression

  17. Review of Random Phase Encoding in Volume Holographic Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Su

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Random phase encoding is a unique technique for volume hologram which can be applied to various applications such as holographic multiplexing storage, image encryption, and optical sensing. In this review article, we first review and discuss diffraction selectivity of random phase encoding in volume holograms, which is the most important parameter related to multiplexing capacity of volume holographic storage. We then review an image encryption system based on random phase encoding. The alignment of phase key for decryption of the encoded image stored in holographic memory is analyzed and discussed. In the latter part of the review, an all-optical sensing system implemented by random phase encoding and holographic interconnection is presented.

  18. Beyond Initial Encoding: Measures of the Post-Encoding Status of Memory Traces Predict Long-Term Recall during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathman, Thanujeni; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    The first years of life are witness to rapid changes in long-term recall ability. In the current research we contributed to an explanation of the changes by testing the absolute and relative contributions to long-term recall of encoding and post-encoding processes. Using elicited imitation, we sampled the status of 16-, 20-, and 24-month-old…

  19. Can natural selection encode Bayesian priors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan Camilo; Marshall, James A R

    2017-08-07

    The evolutionary success of many organisms depends on their ability to make decisions based on estimates of the state of their environment (e.g., predation risk) from uncertain information. These decision problems have optimal solutions and individuals in nature are expected to evolve the behavioural mechanisms to make decisions as if using the optimal solutions. Bayesian inference is the optimal method to produce estimates from uncertain data, thus natural selection is expected to favour individuals with the behavioural mechanisms to make decisions as if they were computing Bayesian estimates in typically-experienced environments, although this does not necessarily imply that favoured decision-makers do perform Bayesian computations exactly. Each individual should evolve to behave as if updating a prior estimate of the unknown environment variable to a posterior estimate as it collects evidence. The prior estimate represents the decision-maker's default belief regarding the environment variable, i.e., the individual's default 'worldview' of the environment. This default belief has been hypothesised to be shaped by natural selection and represent the environment experienced by the individual's ancestors. We present an evolutionary model to explore how accurately Bayesian prior estimates can be encoded genetically and shaped by natural selection when decision-makers learn from uncertain information. The model simulates the evolution of a population of individuals that are required to estimate the probability of an event. Every individual has a prior estimate of this probability and collects noisy cues from the environment in order to update its prior belief to a Bayesian posterior estimate with the evidence gained. The prior is inherited and passed on to offspring. Fitness increases with the accuracy of the posterior estimates produced. Simulations show that prior estimates become accurate over evolutionary time. In addition to these 'Bayesian' individuals, we also

  20. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    During january and february 2003, a unique event concerning nuclear transport was reported and rated 1 on the INES scale. This event concerns the absence of a maintenance operation on a shipping cask. This shipping cask was used for several years for nuclear transport inside La-hague site before being re-assigned to transport on public thoroughfare. The re-assignment of the cask should have been preceded and conditioned by a maintenance operation whose purpose is to check the efficiency of its radiation shield. During this period 2 on-site inspections concerning the transport of nuclear materials were performed. (A.C.)

  1. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  2. The cataract and glucosuria associated monocarboxylate transporter MCT12 is a new creatine transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abplanalp, Jeannette; Laczko, Endre; Philp, Nancy J.; Neidhardt, John; Zuercher, Jurian; Braun, Philipp; Schorderet, Daniel F.; Munier, Francis L.; Verrey, François; Berger, Wolfgang; Camargo, Simone M.R.; Kloeckener-Gruissem, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Creatine transport has been assigned to creatine transporter 1 (CRT1), encoded by mental retardation associated SLC6A8. Here, we identified a second creatine transporter (CRT2) known as monocarboxylate transporter 12 (MCT12), encoded by the cataract and glucosuria associated gene SLC16A12. A non-synonymous alteration in MCT12 (p.G407S) found in a patient with age-related cataract (ARC) leads to a significant reduction of creatine transport. Furthermore, Slc16a12 knockout (KO) rats have elevated creatine levels in urine. Transport activity and expression characteristics of the two creatine transporters are distinct. CRT2 (MCT12)-mediated uptake of creatine was not sensitive to sodium and chloride ions or creatine biosynthesis precursors, breakdown product creatinine or creatine phosphate. Increasing pH correlated with increased creatine uptake. Michaelis–Menten kinetics yielded a Vmax of 838.8 pmol/h/oocyte and a Km of 567.4 µm. Relative expression in various human tissues supports the distinct mutation-associated phenotypes of the two transporters. SLC6A8 was predominantly found in brain, heart and muscle, while SLC16A12 was more abundant in kidney and retina. In the lens, the two transcripts were found at comparable levels. We discuss the distinct, but possibly synergistic functions of the two creatine transporters. Our findings infer potential preventive power of creatine supplementation against the most prominent age-related vision impaired condition. PMID:23578822

  3. High-Efficient Parallel CAVLC Encoders on Heterogeneous Multicore Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents two high-efficient parallel realizations of the context-based adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC based on heterogeneous multicore processors. By optimizing the architecture of the CAVLC encoder, three kinds of dependences are eliminated or weaken, including the context-based data dependence, the memory accessing dependence and the control dependence. The CAVLC pipeline is divided into three stages: two scans, coding, and lag packing, and be implemented on two typical heterogeneous multicore architectures. One is a block-based SIMD parallel CAVLC encoder on multicore stream processor STORM. The other is a component-oriented SIMT parallel encoder on massively parallel architecture GPU. Both of them exploited rich data-level parallelism. Experiments results show that compared with the CPU version, more than 70 times of speedup can be obtained for STORM and over 50 times for GPU. The implementation of encoder on STORM can make a real-time processing for 1080p @30fps and GPU-based version can satisfy the requirements for 720p real-time encoding. The throughput of the presented CAVLC encoders is more than 10 times higher than that of published software encoders on DSP and multicore platforms.

  4. Transportomics: screening for substrates of ABC transporters in body fluids using vesicular transport assays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krumpochova, P; Sapthu, S.; Brouwers, J.F.H.M.; de Haas, M.; de Vos, R.; Borst, P.; van de Wetering, K.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) genes encode the largest family of transmembrane proteins. ABC transporters translocate a wide variety of substrates across membranes, but their physiological function is often incompletely understood. We describe a new method to study the substrate spectrum

  5. Extreme expansion of NBS-encoding genes in Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, YanXiao; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Yanchun; Yang, Sihai; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2015-05-03

    Nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR) genes encode a large class of disease resistance (R) proteins in plants. Extensive studies have been carried out to identify and investigate NBS-encoding gene families in many important plant species. However, no comprehensive research into NBS-encoding genes in the Rosaceae has been performed. In this study, five whole-genome sequenced Rosaceae species, including apple, pear, peach, mei, and strawberry, were analyzed to investigate the evolutionary pattern of NBS-encoding genes and to compare them to those of three Cucurbitaceae species, cucumber, melon, and watermelon. Considerable differences in the copy number of NBS-encoding genes were observed between Cucurbitaceae and Rosaceae species. In Rosaceae species, a large number and a high proportion of NBS-encoding genes were observed in peach (437, 1.52%), mei (475, 1.51%), strawberry (346, 1.05%) and pear (617, 1.44%), and apple contained a whopping 1303 (2.05%) NBS-encoding genes, which might be the highest number of R-genes in all of these reported diploid plant. However, no more than 100 NBS-encoding genes were identified in Cucurbitaceae. Many more species-specific gene families were classified and detected with the signature of positive selection in Rosaceae species, especially in the apple genome. Taken together, our findings indicate that NBS-encoding genes in Rosaceae, especially in apple, have undergone extreme expansion and rapid adaptive evolution. Useful information was provided for further research on the evolutionary mode of disease resistance genes in Rosaceae crops.

  6. Thought probes during prospective memory encoding: Evidence for perfunctory processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Dasse, Michelle N.; Lee, Ji hae; Kurinec, Courtney A.; Tami, Claudina; Krueger, Madison L.

    2018-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, psychologists have studied prospective memory, or the ability to execute delayed intentions. Yet, there remains a gap in understanding as to whether initial encoding of the intention must be elaborative and strategic, or whether some components of successful encoding can occur in a perfunctory, transient manner. In eight studies (N = 680), we instructed participants to remember to press the Q key if they saw words representing fruits (cue) during an ongoing lexical decision task. They then typed what they were thinking and responded whether they encoded fruits as a general category, as specific exemplars, or hardly thought about it at all. Consistent with the perfunctory view, participants often reported mind wandering (42.9%) and hardly thinking about the prospective memory task (22.5%). Even though participants were given a general category cue, many participants generated specific category exemplars (34.5%). Bayesian analyses of encoding durations indicated that specific exemplars came to mind in a perfunctory manner rather than via strategic, elaborative mechanisms. Few participants correctly guessed the research hypotheses and changing from fruit category cues to initial-letter cues eliminated reports of specific exemplar generation, thereby arguing against demand characteristics in the thought probe procedure. In a final experiment, encoding duration was unrelated to prospective memory performance; however, specific-exemplar encoders outperformed general-category encoders with no ongoing task monitoring costs. Our findings reveal substantial variability in intention encoding, and demonstrate that some components of prospective memory encoding can be done “in passing.” PMID:29874277

  7. Benzoate transport in Pseudomonas putida CSV86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Alpa; Purohit, Hemant; Phale, Prashant S

    2017-07-03

    Pseudomonas putida strain CSV86 metabolizes variety of aromatic compounds as the sole carbon source. Genome analysis revealed the presence of genes encoding putative transporters for benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, phenylacetate, p-hydroxyphenylacetate and vanillate. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that benzoate transport and metabolism genes are clustered at the ben locus as benK-catA-benE-benF. Protein topology prediction suggests that BenK (aromatic acid-H+ symporter of major facilitator superfamily) has 12 transmembrane α-helices with the conserved motif LADRXGRKX in loop 2, while BenE (benzoate-H+ symporter protein) has 11 predicted transmembrane α-helices. benF and catA encode benzoate specific porin, OprD and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, respectively. Biochemical studies suggest that benzoate was transported by an inducible and active process. Inhibition (90%-100%) in the presence of dinitrophenol suggests that the energy for the transport process is derived from the proton motive force. The maximum rate of benzoate transport was 484 pmole min-1 mg-1 cells with an affinity constant, Kmof 4.5 μM. Transcriptional analysis of the benzoate and glucose-grown cells showed inducible expression of benF, benK and benE, suggesting that besides outer membrane porin, both inner membrane transporters probably contribute for the benzoate transport in P. putida strain CSV86. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Latency Performance of Encoding with Random Linear Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Hansen, René Rydhof; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique

    2018-01-01

    the encoding process can be parallelized based on system requirements to reduce data access time within the system. Using a counting argument, we focus on predicting the effect of changes of generation (number of original packets) and symbol size (number of bytes per data packet) configurations on the encoding...... latency on full vector and on-the-fly algorithms. We show that the encoding latency doubles when either the generation size or the symbol size double and confirm this via extensive simulations. Although we show that the theoretical speed gain of on-the-fly over full vector is two, our measurements show...

  9. Wavelength-encoded OCDMA system using opto-VLSI processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Alameh, Kamal

    2007-07-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a 2.5 Gbits/sper user wavelength-encoded optical code-division multiple-access encoder-decoder structure based on opto-VLSI processing. Each encoder and decoder is constructed using a single 1D opto-very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) processor in conjunction with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array of different Bragg wavelengths. The FBG array spectrally and temporally slices the broadband input pulse into several components and the opto-VLSI processor generates codewords using digital phase holograms. System performance is measured in terms of the autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions as well as the eye diagram.

  10. Wavelength-encoded OCDMA system using opto-VLSI processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Alameh, Kamal

    2007-07-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a 2.5 Gbits/sper user wavelength-encoded optical code-division multiple-access encoder-decoder structure based on opto-VLSI processing. Each encoder and decoder is constructed using a single 1D opto-very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) processor in conjunction with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array of different Bragg wavelengths. The FBG array spectrally and temporally slices the broadband input pulse into several components and the opto-VLSI processor generates codewords using digital phase holograms. System performance is measured in terms of the autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions as well as the eye diagram.

  11. Neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, Georges; Ducros, Gerard; Feron, Damien; Guerin, Yannick; Latge, Christian; Limoge, Yves; Santarini, Gerard; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Vernaz, Etienne; Coste-Delclaux, Mireille; M'Backe Diop, Cheikh; Nicolas, Anne; Andrieux, Catherine; Archier, Pascal; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Bernard, David; Biaise, Patrick; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Bonin, Bernard; Bouland, Olivier; Bourganel, Stephane; Calvin, Christophe; Chiron, Maurice; Damian, Frederic; Dumonteil, Eric; Fausser, Clement; Fougeras, Philippe; Gabriel, Franck; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Hudelot, Jean-Pascal; Hugot, Francois-Xavier; Dat Huynh, Tan; Jouanne, Cedric; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Laye, Frederic; Lee, Yi-Kang; Lenain, Richard; Leray, Sylvie; Litaize, Olivier; Magnaud, Christine; Malvagi, Fausto; Mijuin, Dominique; Mounier, Claude; Naury, Sylvie; Nicolas, Anne; Noguere, Gilles; Palau, Jean-Marc; Le Pallec, Jean-Charles; Peneliau, Yannick; Petit, Odile; Poinot-Salanon, Christine; Raepsaet, Xavier; Reuss, Paul; Richebois, Edwige; Roque, Benedicte; Royer, Eric; Saint-Jean, Cyrille de; Santamarina, Alain; Serot, Olivier; Soldevila, Michel; Tommasi, Jean; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Tsilanizara, Aime; Behar, Christophe; Provitina, Olivier; Lecomte, Michael; Forestier, Alain; Bender, Alexandra; Parisot, Jean-Francois; Finot, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    This bibliographical note presents a reference book which addresses the study of neutron transport in matter, the study of conditions for a chain reaction and the study of modifications of matter composition due to nuclear reactions. This book presents the main nuclear data, their measurement, assessment and processing, and the spallation. It proposes an overview of methods applied for the study of neutron transport: basic equations and their derived forms, deterministic methods and Monte Carlo method of resolution of the Boltzmann equation, methods of resolution of generalized Bateman equations, methods of time resolution of space kinetics coupled equations. It presents the main calculation codes, discusses the qualification and experimental aspects, and gives an overview of neutron transport applications: neutron transport calculation of reactors, neutron transport coupled with other disciplines, physics of fuel cycle, criticality

  12. Peptide Selectivity of the Proton-Coupled Oligopeptide Transporter from Neisseria meningitidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Neha; Aduri, Nanda G; Iqbal, Anna

    2016-01-01

    POT). It has been shown that the gene encoding this transporter is upregulated during infection. NmPOT conformed to the typical chain length preference as observed in prototypical transporters of this family. In contrast to prototypical transporters, it was unable to accommodate a positively charged peptide...

  13. ABC transporters from Aspergillus nidulans are involved in protection against cytotoxic agents and antibiotic production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade, A.C.; Nistelrooy, van J.G.M.; Peery, R.B.; Skatrud, P.L.; Waard, de M.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the characterization of atrC and atrD (ABC transporters C and D), two novel ABC transporter-encoding genes from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, and provides evidence for the involvement of atrD in multidrug transport and antibiotic production. BLAST analysis of the

  14. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  15. Emotion experienced during encoding enhances odor retrieval cue effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, R S

    1997-01-01

    Emotional potentiation may be a key variable in the formation of odor-associated memory. Two experiments were conducted in which a distinctive ambient odor was present or absent during encoding and retrieval sessions and subjects were in an anxious or neutral mood during encoding. Subjects' mood at retrieval was not manipulated. The laboratory mood induction used in Experiment 1 suggested that anxiety might increase the effectiveness of an odor retrieval cue. This trend was confirmed in Experiment 2 by capturing a naturally stressful situation. Subjects who had an ambient odor cue available and were in a preexam state during encoding recalled more words than subjects in any other group. These data are evidence that heightened emotion experienced during encoding with an ambient odor can enhance the effectiveness of an odor as a cue to memory.

  16. Color Image Authentication and Recovery via Adaptive Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an authentication and recovery scheme for color image protection based on adaptive encoding. The image blocks are categorized based on their contents and different encoding schemes are applied according to their types. Such adaptive encoding results in better image quality and more robust image authentication. The approximations of the luminance and chromatic channels are carefully calculated, and for the purpose of reducing the data size, differential coding is used to encode the channels with variable size according to the characteristic of the block. The recovery data which represents the approximation and the detail of the image is embedded for data protection. The necessary data is well protected by using error correcting coding and duplication. The experimental results demonstrate that our technique is able to identify and localize image tampering, while preserving high quality for both watermarked and recovered images.

  17. Suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by tomato leaf curl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-01-06

    Jan 6, 2013 ... Virus encoded RNA-silencing suppressors (RSSs) are the key components evolved by the viruses to ... severe disease symptom in the host (Briddon et al. ..... Voinnet O 2001 RNA silencing as a plant immune system against.

  18. Two Genes Encoding Uracil Phosphoribosyltransferase Are Present in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Glaser, Philippe; Andersen, Paal S.

    1995-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase) catalyzes the key reaction in the salvage of uracil in many microorganisms. Surprisingly, two genes encoding UPRTase activity were cloned from Bacillus subtilis by complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant. The genes were sequenced, and the putative...

  19. What is a "good" encoding of guarded choice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nestmann, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    into the latter that preserves divergence-freedom and symmetries. This paper argues that there are nevertheless "good" encodings between these calculi. In detail, we present a series of encodings for languages with (1) input-guarded choice, (2) both input and output-guarded choice, and (3) mixed-guarded choice......, and investigate them with respect to compositionality and divergence-freedom. The first and second encoding satisfy all of the above criteria, but various "good" candidates for the third encoding-inspired by an existing distributed implementation-invalidate one or the other criterion, While essentially confirming...... Palamidessi's result, our study suggests that the combination of strong compositionality and divergence-freedom is too strong for more practical purposes. (C) 2000 Academic Press....

  20. Cloning, sequencing and expression of cDNA encoding growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of medicine, animal husbandry, fish farming and animal ..... northern pike (Esox lucius) growth hormone; Mol. Mar. Biol. ... prolactin 1-luciferase fusion gene in African catfish and ... 1988 Cloning and sequencing of cDNA that encodes goat.

  1. Noise and neuronal populations conspire to encode simple waveforms reliably

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnas, B. R.

    1996-01-01

    Sensory systems rely on populations of neurons to encode information transduced at the periphery into meaningful patterns of neuronal population activity. This transduction occurs in the presence of intrinsic neuronal noise. This is fortunate. The presence of noise allows more reliable encoding of the temporal structure present in the stimulus than would be possible in a noise-free environment. Simulations with a parallel model of signal processing at the auditory periphery have been used to explore the effects of noise and a neuronal population on the encoding of signal information. The results show that, for a given set of neuronal modeling parameters and stimulus amplitude, there is an optimal amount of noise for stimulus encoding with maximum fidelity.

  2. Universal Quantum Computing with Arbitrary Continuous-Variable Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B

    2016-09-02

    Implementing a qubit quantum computer in continuous-variable systems conventionally requires the engineering of specific interactions according to the encoding basis states. In this work, we present a unified formalism to conduct universal quantum computation with a fixed set of operations but arbitrary encoding. By storing a qubit in the parity of two or four qumodes, all computing processes can be implemented by basis state preparations, continuous-variable exponential-swap operations, and swap tests. Our formalism inherits the advantages that the quantum information is decoupled from collective noise, and logical qubits with different encodings can be brought to interact without decoding. We also propose a possible implementation of the required operations by using interactions that are available in a variety of continuous-variable systems. Our work separates the "hardware" problem of engineering quantum-computing-universal interactions, from the "software" problem of designing encodings for specific purposes. The development of quantum computer architecture could hence be simplified.

  3. Toward a Better Compression for DNA Sequences Using Huffman Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Okaily, Anas; Almarri, Badar; Al Yami, Sultan; Huang, Chun-Hsi

    2017-04-01

    Due to the significant amount of DNA data that are being generated by next-generation sequencing machines for genomes of lengths ranging from megabases to gigabases, there is an increasing need to compress such data to a less space and a faster transmission. Different implementations of Huffman encoding incorporating the characteristics of DNA sequences prove to better compress DNA data. These implementations center on the concepts of selecting frequent repeats so as to force a skewed Huffman tree, as well as the construction of multiple Huffman trees when encoding. The implementations demonstrate improvements on the compression ratios for five genomes with lengths ranging from 5 to 50 Mbp, compared with the standard Huffman tree algorithm. The research hence suggests an improvement on all such DNA sequence compression algorithms that use the conventional Huffman encoding. The research suggests an improvement on all DNA sequence compression algorithms that use the conventional Huffman encoding. Accompanying software is publicly available (AL-Okaily, 2016 ).

  4. Polypeptides having catalase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan

    2017-05-02

    Provided are isolated polypeptides having catalase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  5. Cloning, expression and characterisation of a novel gene encoding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    微软用户

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... ... characterisation of a novel gene encoding a chemosensory protein from Bemisia ... The genomic DNA sequence comparisons revealed a 1490 bp intron ... have several conserved sequence motifs, including the. N-terminal ...

  6. Multiple-stage pure phase encoding with biometric information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, many optical systems have been developed for securing information, and optical encryption/encoding has attracted more and more attention due to the marked advantages, such as parallel processing and multiple-dimensional characteristics. In this paper, an optical security method is presented based on pure phase encoding with biometric information. Biometric information (such as fingerprint) is employed as security keys rather than plaintext used in conventional optical security systems, and multiple-stage phase-encoding-based optical systems are designed for generating several phase-only masks with biometric information. Subsequently, the extracted phase-only masks are further used in an optical setup for encoding an input image (i.e., plaintext). Numerical simulations are conducted to illustrate the validity, and the results demonstrate that high flexibility and high security can be achieved.

  7. Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2018-02-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  8. Data Encoding using Periodic Nano-Optical Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoogh-Grayli, Siamack

    Successful trials have been made through a designed algorithm to quantize, compress and optically encode unsigned 8 bit integer values in the form of images using Nano optical features. The periodicity of the Nano-scale features (Nano-gratings) have been designed and investigated both theoretically and experimentally to create distinct states of variation (three on states and one off state). The use of easy to manufacture and machine readable encoded data in secured authentication media has been employed previously in bar-codes for bi-state (binary) models and in color barcodes for multiple state models. This work has focused on implementing 4 states of variation for unit information through periodic Nano-optical structures that separate an incident wavelength into distinct colors (variation states) in order to create an encoding system. Compared to barcodes and magnetic stripes in secured finite length storage media the proposed system encodes and stores more data. The benefits of multiple states of variation in an encoding unit are 1) increased numerically representable range 2) increased storage density and 3) decreased number of typical set elements for any ergodic or semi-ergodic source that emits these encoding units. A thorough investigation has targeted the effects of the use of multi-varied state Nano-optical features on data storage density and consequent data transmission rates. The results show that use of Nano-optical features for encoding data yields a data storage density of circa 800 Kbits/in2 via the implementation of commercially available high resolution flatbed scanner systems for readout. Such storage density is far greater than commercial finite length secured storage media such as Barcode family with maximum practical density of 1kbits/in2 and highest density magnetic stripe cards with maximum density circa 3 Kbits/in2. The numerically representable range of the proposed encoding unit for 4 states of variation is [0 255]. The number of

  9. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Pengyu; Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content ...

  10. Security enhanced BioEncoding for protecting iris codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Osama; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya

    2011-06-01

    Improving the security of biometric template protection techniques is a key prerequisite for the widespread deployment of biometric technologies. BioEncoding is a recently proposed template protection scheme, based on the concept of cancelable biometrics, for protecting biometric templates represented as binary strings such as iris codes. The main advantage of BioEncoding over other template protection schemes is that it does not require user-specific keys and/or tokens during verification. Besides, it satisfies all the requirements of the cancelable biometrics construct without deteriorating the matching accuracy. However, although it has been shown that BioEncoding is secure enough against simple brute-force search attacks, the security of BioEncoded templates against more smart attacks, such as record multiplicity attacks, has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, a rigorous security analysis of BioEncoding is presented. Firstly, resistance of BioEncoded templates against brute-force attacks is revisited thoroughly. Secondly, we show that although the cancelable transformation employed in BioEncoding might be non-invertible for a single protected template, the original iris code could be inverted by correlating several templates used in different applications but created from the same iris. Accordingly, we propose an important modification to the BioEncoding transformation process in order to hinder attackers from exploiting this type of attacks. The effectiveness of adopting the suggested modification is validated and its impact on the matching accuracy is investigated empirically using CASIA-IrisV3-Interval dataset. Experimental results confirm the efficacy of the proposed approach and show that it preserves the matching accuracy of the unprotected iris recognition system.

  11. Theory of multisource crosstalk reduction by phase-encoded statics

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2011-03-01

    Formulas are derived that relate the strength of the crosstalk noise in supergather migration images to the variance of time, amplitude and polarity shifts in encoding functions. A supergather migration image is computed by migrating an encoded supergather, where the supergather is formed by stacking a large number of encoded shot gathers. Analysis reveals that for temporal source static shifts in each shot gather, the crosstalk noise is exponentially reduced with increasing variance of the static shift and the square of source frequency. This is not too surprising because larger time shifts lead to less correlation between traces in different shot gathers, and so should tend to reduce the crosstalk noise. Analysis also reveals that combining both polarity and time statics is a superior encoding strategy compared to using either polarity statics or time statics alone. Signal-to-noise (SNR) estimates show that for a standard migration image and for an image computed by migrating a phase-encoded supergather; here, G is the number of traces in a shot gather, I is the number of stacking iterations in the supergather and S is the number of encoded/blended shot gathers that comprise the supergather. If the supergather can be uniformly divided up into Q unique sub-supergathers, then the resulting SNR of the final image is, which means that we can enhance image quality but at the expense of Q times more cost. The importance of these formulas is that they provide a precise understanding between different phase encoding strategies and image quality. Finally, we show that iterative migration of phase-encoded supergathers is a special case of passive seismic interferometry. We suggest that the crosstalk noise formulas can be helpful in designing optimal strategies for passive seismic interferometry and efficient extraction of Green\\'s functions from simulated supergathers. © 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2011 RAS.

  12. Encoding and Retrieval Interference in Sentence Comprehension: Evidence from Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Villata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance verb-argument dependencies generally require the integration of a fronted argument when the verb is encountered for sentence interpretation. Under a parsing model that handles long-distance dependencies through a cue-based retrieval mechanism, retrieval is hampered when retrieval cues also resonate with non-target elements (retrieval interference. However, similarity-based interference may also stem from interference arising during the encoding of elements in memory (encoding interference, an effect that is not directly accountable for by a cue-based retrieval mechanism. Although encoding and retrieval interference are clearly distinct at the theoretical level, it is difficult to disentangle the two on empirical grounds, since encoding interference may also manifest at the retrieval region. We report two self-paced reading experiments aimed at teasing apart the role of each component in gender and number subject-verb agreement in Italian and English object relative clauses. In Italian, the verb does not agree in gender with the subject, thus providing no cue for retrieval. In English, although present tense verbs agree in number with the subject, past tense verbs do not, allowing us to test the role of number as a retrieval cue within the same language. Results from both experiments converge, showing similarity-based interference at encoding, and some evidence for an effect at retrieval. After having pointed out the non-negligible role of encoding in sentence comprehension, and noting that Lewis and Vasishth’s (2005 ACT-R model of sentence processing, the most fully developed cue-based retrieval approach to sentence processing does not predict encoding effects, we propose an augmentation of this model that predicts these effects. We then also propose a self-organizing sentence processing model (SOSP, which has the advantage of accounting for retrieval and encoding interference with a single mechanism.

  13. Encoding and Retrieval Interference in Sentence Comprehension: Evidence from Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villata, Sandra; Tabor, Whitney; Franck, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Long-distance verb-argument dependencies generally require the integration of a fronted argument when the verb is encountered for sentence interpretation. Under a parsing model that handles long-distance dependencies through a cue-based retrieval mechanism, retrieval is hampered when retrieval cues also resonate with non-target elements (retrieval interference). However, similarity-based interference may also stem from interference arising during the encoding of elements in memory (encoding interference), an effect that is not directly accountable for by a cue-based retrieval mechanism. Although encoding and retrieval interference are clearly distinct at the theoretical level, it is difficult to disentangle the two on empirical grounds, since encoding interference may also manifest at the retrieval region. We report two self-paced reading experiments aimed at teasing apart the role of each component in gender and number subject-verb agreement in Italian and English object relative clauses. In Italian, the verb does not agree in gender with the subject, thus providing no cue for retrieval. In English, although present tense verbs agree in number with the subject, past tense verbs do not, allowing us to test the role of number as a retrieval cue within the same language. Results from both experiments converge, showing similarity-based interference at encoding, and some evidence for an effect at retrieval. After having pointed out the non-negligible role of encoding in sentence comprehension, and noting that Lewis and Vasishth’s (2005) ACT-R model of sentence processing, the most fully developed cue-based retrieval approach to sentence processing does not predict encoding effects, we propose an augmentation of this model that predicts these effects. We then also propose a self-organizing sentence processing model (SOSP), which has the advantage of accounting for retrieval and encoding interference with a single mechanism. PMID:29403414

  14. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the gene encoding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we report for the first time the cloning of a full-length cDNA encoding GGPPS (Jc-GGPPS) from Jatropha curcas L. The full-length cDNA was 1414 base pair (bp), with an 1110-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 370- amino-acids polypeptide. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that Jc-GGPPS is a member of the ...

  15. Universal Quantum Computing with Arbitrary Continuous-Variable Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B.

    2016-01-01

    Implementing a qubit quantum computer in continuous-variable systems conventionally requires the engineering of specific interactions according to the encoding basis states. In this work, we present a unified formalism to conduct universal quantum computation with a fixed set of operations but arbitrary encoding. By storing a qubit in the parity of two or four qumodes, all computing processes can be implemented by basis state preparations, continuous-variable exponential-swap operations, and ...

  16. Encoding specificity manipulations do affect retrieval from memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, René

    2005-05-01

    In a recent article, P.A. Higham (2002) [Strong cues are not necessarily weak: Thomson and Tulving (1970) and the encoding specificity principle revisited. Memory &Cognition, 30, 67-80] proposed a new way to analyze cued recall performance in terms of three separable aspects of memory (retrieval, monitoring, and report bias) by comparing performance under both free-report and forced-report instructions. He used this method to derive estimates of these aspects of memory in an encoding specificity experiment similar to that reported by D.M. Thomson and E. Tulving (1970) [Associative encoding and retrieval: weak and strong cues. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 86, 255-262]. Under forced-report instructions, the encoding specificity manipulation did not affect performance. Higham concluded that the manipulation affected monitoring and report bias, but not retrieval. I argue that this interpretation of the results is problematic because the Thomson and Tulving paradigm is confounded, and show in three experiments using a more appropriate design that encoding specificity manipulations do affect performance in forced-report cued recall. Because in Higham's framework forced-report performance provides a measure of retrieval that is uncontaminated by monitoring and report bias it is concluded that encoding specificity manipulations do affect retrieval from memory.

  17. Analysis of Program Obfuscation Schemes with Variable Encoding Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kazuhide; Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Program analysis techniques have improved steadily over the past several decades, and software obfuscation schemes have come to be used in many commercial programs. A software obfuscation scheme transforms an original program or a binary file into an obfuscated program that is more complicated and difficult to analyze, while preserving its functionality. However, the security of obfuscation schemes has not been properly evaluated. In this paper, we analyze obfuscation schemes in order to clarify the advantages of our scheme, the XOR-encoding scheme. First, we more clearly define five types of attack models that we defined previously, and define quantitative resistance to these attacks. Then, we compare the security, functionality and efficiency of three obfuscation schemes with encoding variables: (1) Sato et al.'s scheme with linear transformation, (2) our previous scheme with affine transformation, and (3) the XOR-encoding scheme. We show that the XOR-encoding scheme is superior with regard to the following two points: (1) the XOR-encoding scheme is more secure against a data-dependency attack and a brute force attack than our previous scheme, and is as secure against an information-collecting attack and an inverse transformation attack as our previous scheme, (2) the XOR-encoding scheme does not restrict the calculable ranges of programs and the loss of efficiency is less than in our previous scheme.

  18. Aerobic Exercise During Encoding Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Keishi; Kamijo, Keita; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    We investigated how aerobic exercise during encoding affects hippocampus-dependent memory through a source memory task that assessed hippocampus-independent familiarity and hippocampus-dependent recollection processes. Using a within-participants design, young adult participants performed a memory-encoding task while performing a cycling exercise or being seated. The subsequent retrieval phase was conducted while sitting on a chair. We assessed behavioral and event-related brain potential measures of familiarity and recollection processes during the retrieval phase. Results indicated that source accuracy was lower for encoding with exercise than for encoding in the resting condition. Event-related brain potential measures indicated that the parietal old/new effect, which has been linked to recollection processing, was observed in the exercise condition, whereas it was absent in the rest condition, which is indicative of exercise-induced hippocampal activation. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise during encoding impairs hippocampus-dependent memory, which may be attributed to inefficient source encoding during aerobic exercise.

  19. Low Complexity HEVC Encoder for Visual Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqing Pan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual sensor networks (VSNs can be widely applied in security surveillance, environmental monitoring, smart rooms, etc. However, with the increased number of camera nodes in VSNs, the volume of the visual information data increases significantly, which becomes a challenge for storage, processing and transmitting the visual data. The state-of-the-art video compression standard, high efficiency video coding (HEVC, can effectively compress the raw visual data, while the higher compression rate comes at the cost of heavy computational complexity. Hence, reducing the encoding complexity becomes vital for the HEVC encoder to be used in VSNs. In this paper, we propose a fast coding unit (CU depth decision method to reduce the encoding complexity of the HEVC encoder for VSNs. Firstly, the content property of the CU is analyzed. Then, an early CU depth decision method and a low complexity distortion calculation method are proposed for the CUs with homogenous content. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves 71.91% on average encoding time savings for the HEVC encoder for VSNs.

  20. Multiplex immunoassay for persistent organic pollutants in tilapia: comparison of imaging- and flow cytometry-based platforms using spectrally encoded paramagnetic microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meimaridou, A.; Haasnoot, W.; Shelver, W.L.; Franek, M.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in spectrally encoded microspheres (SEMs)-based technologies provide high multiplexing possibilities. Most SEMs-based assays require a flow cytometer with sophisticated fluidics and optics. A new imaging super-paramagnetic SEMs-based alternative platform transports SEMs with

  1. The Golgi localized bifunctional UDP-rhamnose/UDP-galactose transporter family of Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Moreno, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of nucleotide sugar substrates into the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum for processes such as cell wall biosynthesis and protein glycosylation is critical for plant growth and development. Plant genomes encode large families of uncharacterized nucleotide sugar transporters that...

  2. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... The discussion of technology considers the ocean transportation system as a whole, and the composite subsystems such as hull, outfit, propulsion, cargo handling, automation, and control and interface technology...

  3. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  4. Nicaragua - Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation examines impacts of the Transportation Project in three ways. First, we calculate economic rates of return associated with reduced user costs for each...

  5. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  6. RF transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques of transport of high-power radiofrequency (RF) power from a RF power source to the cavities of an accelerator. Since the theory of electromagnetic waves in waveguides and of waveguide components is very well explained in a number of excellent text books it will limit itself on special waveguide distributions and on a number of, although not complete list of, special problems which sometimes occur in RF power transportation systems. (author)

  7. Public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Public transport plays an essential role in enabling people from low income and other disadvantaged groups to access employment and services. It also contributes to the development of social networks and social capital, by helping people to visit friends and relatives and take part in community and other social activities. Public policy makers have begun to recognise that adequate public transport provision can play an important role in reducing social exclusion. [Taken from introductory para...

  8. Post-Golgi anterograde transport requires GARP-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Fujita, Morihisa; Nakamura, Shota; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2015-01-01

    The importance of endosome-to–trans-Golgi network (TGN) retrograde transport in the anterograde transport of proteins is unclear. In this study, genome-wide screening of the factors necessary for efficient anterograde protein transport in human haploid cells identified subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, a tethering factor involved in endosome-to-TGN transport. Knockout (KO) of each of the four GARP subunits, VPS51–VPS54, in HEK293 cells caused severely defective anterograde transport of both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the TGN. Overexpression of VAMP4, v-SNARE, in VPS54-KO cells partially restored not only endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport, but also anterograde transport of both GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins. Further screening for genes whose overexpression normalized the VPS54-KO phenotype identified TMEM87A, encoding an uncharacterized Golgi-resident membrane protein. Overexpression of TMEM87A or its close homologue TMEM87B in VPS54-KO cells partially restored endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport and anterograde transport. Therefore GARP- and VAMP4-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport is required for recycling of molecules critical for efficient post-Golgi anterograde transport of cell-surface integral membrane proteins. In addition, TMEM87A and TMEM87B are involved in endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport. PMID:26157166

  9. Least-squares reverse time migration of marine data with frequency-selection encoding

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei; Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    The phase-encoding technique can sometimes increase the efficiency of the least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) by more than one order of magnitude. However, traditional random encoding functions require all the encoded shots to share

  10. THE LACTOCOCCAL LMRP GENE ENCODES A PROTON MOTIVE FORCE-DEPENDENT DRUG TRANSPORTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, H; Poelarends, G.J.; van Veen, H.W.; Poolman, B.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Konings, W.N

    1995-01-01

    To genetically dissect the drug extrusion systems of Lactococcus lactis, a chromosomal. DNA library was made in Escherichia coli and recombinant strains were selected for resistance to high concentrations of ethidium bromide. Recombinant strains were found to be resistant not only to ethidium

  11. Quantum control mechanism analysis through field based Hamiltonian encoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Abhra; Rabitz, Herschel

    2006-01-01

    Optimal control of quantum dynamics in the laboratory is proving to be increasingly successful. The control fields can be complex, and the mechanisms by which they operate have often remained obscure. Hamiltonian encoding (HE) has been proposed as a method for understanding mechanisms in quantum dynamics. In this context mechanism is defined in terms of the dominant quantum pathways leading to the final state of the controlled system. HE operates by encoding a special modulation into the Hamiltonian and decoding its signature in the dynamics to determine the dominant pathway amplitudes. Earlier work encoded the modulation directly into the Hamiltonian operators. This present work introduces the alternative scheme of field based HE, where the modulation is encoded into the control field and not directly into the Hamiltonian operators. This distinct form of modulation yields a new perspective on mechanism and is computationally faster than the earlier approach. Field based encoding is also an important step towards a laboratory based algorithm for HE as it is the only form of encoding that may be experimentally executed. HE is also extended to cover systems with noise and uncertainty and finally, a hierarchical algorithm is introduced to reveal mechanism in a stepwise fashion of ever increasing detail as desired. This new hierarchical algorithm is an improvement over earlier approaches to HE where the entire mechanism was determined in one stroke. The improvement comes from the use of less complex modulation schemes, which leads to fewer evaluations of Schroedinger's equation. A number of simulations are presented on simple systems to illustrate the new field based encoding technique for mechanism assessment

  12. Dynamic Information Encoding With Dynamic Synapses in Neural Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Luozheng; Mi, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Wenhao; Wang, Da-Hui; Wu, Si

    2018-01-01

    Adaptation refers to the general phenomenon that the neural system dynamically adjusts its response property according to the statistics of external inputs. In response to an invariant stimulation, neuronal firing rates first increase dramatically and then decrease gradually to a low level close to the background activity. This prompts a question: during the adaptation, how does the neural system encode the repeated stimulation with attenuated firing rates? It has been suggested that the neural system may employ a dynamical encoding strategy during the adaptation, the information of stimulus is mainly encoded by the strong independent spiking of neurons at the early stage of the adaptation; while the weak but synchronized activity of neurons encodes the stimulus information at the later stage of the adaptation. The previous study demonstrated that short-term facilitation (STF) of electrical synapses, which increases the synchronization between neurons, can provide a mechanism to realize dynamical encoding. In the present study, we further explore whether short-term plasticity (STP) of chemical synapses, an interaction form more common than electrical synapse in the cortex, can support dynamical encoding. We build a large-size network with chemical synapses between neurons. Notably, facilitation of chemical synapses only enhances pair-wise correlations between neurons mildly, but its effect on increasing synchronization of the network can be significant, and hence it can serve as a mechanism to convey the stimulus information. To read-out the stimulus information, we consider that a downstream neuron receives balanced excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the network, so that the downstream neuron only responds to synchronized firings of the network. Therefore, the response of the downstream neuron indicates the presence of the repeated stimulation. Overall, our study demonstrates that STP of chemical synapse can serve as a mechanism to realize dynamical neural

  13. MRP3, an organic anion transporter able to transport anti-cancer drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Kool, Marcel; van der Linden, Marcel; de Haas, Marcel; Scheffer, George L.; de Vree, J. Marleen L.; Smith, Alexander J.; Jansen, Gerrit; Peters, Godefridus J.; Ponne, Nico; Scheper, Rik J.; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Baas, Frank; Borst, Piet

    1999-01-01

    The human multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) gene family contains at least six members: MRP1, encoding the multidrug-resistance protein; MRP2 or cMOAT, encoding the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter; and four homologs, called MRP3, MRP4, MRP5, and MRP6. In this report, we characterize MRP3, the closest homolog of MRP1. Cell lines were retrovirally transduced with MRP3 cDNA, and new monoclonal antibodies specific for MRP3 were generated. We show that MRP3 is an organic anion ...

  14. Orbital transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, H. Jr.; Koerner, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Third Aerospace Symposium in Braunschweig presented, for the first time, the possibility of bringing together the classical disciplines of aerospace engineering and the natural science disciplines of meteorology and air chemistry in a european setting. In this way, aspects of environmental impact on the atmosphere could be examined quantitatively. An essential finding of the european conference, is the unrestricted agreement of the experts that the given launch frequencies of the present orbital transport result in a negligible amount of pollutants being released in the atmosphere. The symposium does, however, call attention to the increasing need to consider the effect of orbital and atmospheric environmental impact of a future increase in launch frequencies of orbital transport in connection with future space stations. The Third Aerospace Symposium, 'Orbital Transport, Technical, Meteorological and Chemical Aspects', constituted a first forum of discussion for engineers and scientists. Questions of new orbital transport technologies and their environmental impact were to be discussed towards a first consensus. Through the 34 reports and articles, the general problems of space transportation and environmental protection were addressed, as well as particular aspects of high temperatures during reentry in the atmosphere of the earth, precision navigation of flight vehicles or flow behavior and air chemistry in the stratosphere. (orig./CT). 342 figs

  15. Next-Generation Theranostic Agents Based on Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules Encoded with Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Development and Functional Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifontova, Galina; Zvaigzne, Maria; Baryshnikova, Maria; Korostylev, Evgeny; Ramos-Gomes, Fernanda; Alves, Frauke; Nabiev, Igor; Sukhanova, Alyona

    2018-01-01

    Fabrication of polyelectrolyte microcapsules and their use as carriers of drugs, fluorescent labels, and metal nanoparticles is a promising approach to designing theranostic agents. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are characterized by extremely high brightness and photostability that make them attractive fluorescent labels for visualization of intracellular penetration and delivery of such microcapsules. Here, we describe an approach to design, fabricate, and characterize physico-chemical and functional properties of polyelectrolyte microcapsules encoded with water-solubilized and stabilized with three-functional polyethylene glycol derivatives core/shell QDs. Developed microcapsules were characterized by dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, scanning electronic microscopy, and fluorescence and confocal microscopy approaches, providing exact data on their size distribution, surface charge, morphological, and optical characteristics. The fluorescence lifetimes of the QD-encoded microcapsules were also measured, and their dependence on time after preparation of the microcapsules was evaluated. The optimal content of QDs used for encoding procedure providing the optimal fluorescence properties of the encoded microcapsules was determined. Finally, the intracellular microcapsule uptake by murine macrophages was demonstrated, thus confirming the possibility of efficient use of developed system for live cell imaging and visualization of microcapsule transportation and delivery within the living cells.

  16. Task-selective memory effects for successfully implemented encoding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshikar, Eric D; Duarte, Audrey; Hertzog, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Previous behavioral evidence suggests that instructed strategy use benefits associative memory formation in paired associate tasks. Two such effective encoding strategies--visual imagery and sentence generation--facilitate memory through the production of different types of mediators (e.g., mental images and sentences). Neuroimaging evidence suggests that regions of the brain support memory reflecting the mental operations engaged at the time of study. That work, however, has not taken into account self-reported encoding task success (i.e., whether participants successfully generated a mediator). It is unknown, therefore, whether task-selective memory effects specific to each strategy might be found when encoding strategies are successfully implemented. In this experiment, participants studied pairs of abstract nouns under either visual imagery or sentence generation encoding instructions. At the time of study, participants reported their success at generating a mediator. Outside of the scanner, participants further reported the quality of the generated mediator (e.g., images, sentences) for each word pair. We observed task-selective memory effects for visual imagery in the left middle occipital gyrus, the left precuneus, and the lingual gyrus. No such task-selective effects were observed for sentence generation. Intriguingly, activity at the time of study in the left precuneus was modulated by the self-reported quality (vividness) of the generated mental images with greater activity for trials given higher ratings of quality. These data suggest that regions of the brain support memory in accord with the encoding operations engaged at the time of study.

  17. Two Pathways to Stimulus Encoding in Category Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Category learning theorists tacitly assume that stimuli are encoded by a single pathway. Motivated by theories of object recognition, we evaluate a dual-pathway account of stimulus encoding. The part-based pathway establishes mappings between sensory input and symbols that encode discrete stimulus features, whereas the image-based pathway applies holistic templates to sensory input. Our experiments use rule-plus-exception structures in which one exception item in each category violates a salient regularity and must be distinguished from other items. In Experiment 1, we find that discrete representations are crucial for recognition of exceptions following brief training. Experiments 2 and 3 involve multi-session training regimens designed to encourage either part or image-based encoding. We find that both pathways are able to support exception encoding, but have unique characteristics. We speculate that one advantage of the part-based pathway is the ability to generalize across domains, whereas the image-based pathway provides faster and more effortless recognition. PMID:19460948

  18. Direct encoding of orientation variance in the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Liam J; Heywood, Charles A; Kentridge, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Our perception of regional irregularity, an example of which is orientation variance, seems effortless when we view two patches of texture that differ in this attribute. Little is understood, however, of how the visual system encodes a regional statistic like orientation variance, but there is some evidence to suggest that it is directly encoded by populations of neurons tuned broadly to high or low levels. The present study shows that selective adaptation to low or high levels of variance results in a perceptual aftereffect that shifts the perceived level of variance of a subsequently viewed texture in the direction away from that of the adapting stimulus (Experiments 1 and 2). Importantly, the effect is durable across changes in mean orientation, suggesting that the encoding of orientation variance is independent of global first moment orientation statistics (i.e., mean orientation). In Experiment 3 it was shown that the variance-specific aftereffect did not show signs of being encoded in a spatiotopic reference frame, similar to the equivalent aftereffect of adaptation to the first moment orientation statistic (the tilt aftereffect), which is represented in the primary visual cortex and exists only in retinotopic coordinates. Experiment 4 shows that a neuropsychological patient with damage to ventral areas of the cortex but spared intact early areas retains sensitivity to orientation variance. Together these results suggest that orientation variance is encoded directly by the visual system and possibly at an early cortical stage.

  19. The new INRIM rotating encoder angle comparator (REAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisani, Marco; Astrua, Milena

    2017-01-01

    A novel angle comparator has been built and tested at INRIM. The device is based on a double air bearing structure embedding a continuously rotating encoder, which is read by two heads: one fixed to the base of the comparator and a second fixed to the upper moving part of the comparator. The phase measurement between the two heads’ signals is proportional to the relative angle suspended between them (and, therefore, the angle between the base and the upper, movable part of the comparator). The advantage of this solution is to reduce the encoder graduation errors and to cancel the cyclic errors due to the interpolation of the encoder lines. By using only two pairs of reading heads, we have achieved an intrinsic accuracy of  ±0.04″ (rectangular distribution) that can be reduced through self-calibration. The residual cyclic errors have shown to be less than 0.01″ peak-to-peak. The random fluctuations are less than 0.01″ rms on a 100 s time interval. A further advantage of the rotating encoder is the intrinsic knowledge of the absolute position without the need of a zeroing procedure. Construction details of the rotating encoder angle comparator (REAC), characterization tests, and examples of practical use are given. (paper)

  20. Graph Regularized Auto-Encoders for Image Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiyi Liao; Yue Wang; Yong Liu

    2017-06-01

    Image representation has been intensively explored in the domain of computer vision for its significant influence on the relative tasks such as image clustering and classification. It is valuable to learn a low-dimensional representation of an image which preserves its inherent information from the original image space. At the perspective of manifold learning, this is implemented with the local invariant idea to capture the intrinsic low-dimensional manifold embedded in the high-dimensional input space. Inspired by the recent successes of deep architectures, we propose a local invariant deep nonlinear mapping algorithm, called graph regularized auto-encoder (GAE). With the graph regularization, the proposed method preserves the local connectivity from the original image space to the representation space, while the stacked auto-encoders provide explicit encoding model for fast inference and powerful expressive capacity for complex modeling. Theoretical analysis shows that the graph regularizer penalizes the weighted Frobenius norm of the Jacobian matrix of the encoder mapping, where the weight matrix captures the local property in the input space. Furthermore, the underlying effects on the hidden representation space are revealed, providing insightful explanation to the advantage of the proposed method. Finally, the experimental results on both clustering and classification tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our GAE as well as the correctness of the proposed theoretical analysis, and it also suggests that GAE is a superior solution to the current deep representation learning techniques comparing with variant auto-encoders and existing local invariant methods.

  1. Feedback-tuned, noise resilient gates for encoded spin qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, Hendrik

    Spin 1/2 particles form native two level systems and thus lend themselves as a natural qubit implementation. However, encoding a single qubit in several spins entails benefits, such as reducing the resources necessary for qubit control and protection from certain decoherence channels. While several varieties of such encoded spin qubits have been implemented, accurate control remains challenging, and leakage out of the subspace of valid qubit states is a potential issue. Optimal performance typically requires large pulse amplitudes for fast control, which is prone to systematic errors and prohibits standard control approaches based on Rabi flopping. Furthermore, the exchange interaction typically used to electrically manipulate encoded spin qubits is inherently sensitive to charge noise. I will discuss all-electrical, high-fidelity single qubit operations for a spin qubit encoded in two electrons in a GaAs double quantum dot. Starting from a set of numerically optimized control pulses, we employ an iterative tuning procedure based on measured error syndromes to remove systematic errors.Randomized benchmarking yields an average gate fidelity exceeding 98 % and a leakage rate into invalid states of 0.2 %. These gates exhibit a certain degree of resilience to both slow charge and nuclear spin fluctuations due to dynamical correction analogous to a spin echo. Furthermore, the numerical optimization minimizes the impact of fast charge noise. Both types of noise make relevant contributions to gate errors. The general approach is also adaptable to other qubit encodings and exchange based two-qubit gates.

  2. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  3. [Cloning, mutagenesis and symbiotic phenotype of three lipid transfer protein encoding genes from Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanan; Zeng, Xiaobo; Zhou, Xuejuan; Li, Youguo

    2016-12-04

    Lipid transfer protein superfamily is involved in lipid transport and metabolism. This study aimed to construct mutants of three lipid transfer protein encoding genes in Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R, and to study the phenotypes and function of mutations during symbiosis with Astragalus sinicus. We used bioinformatics to predict structure characteristics and biological functions of lipid transfer proteins, and conducted semi-quantitative and fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR to analyze the expression levels of target genes in free-living and symbiotic conditions. Using pK19mob insertion mutagenesis to construct mutants, we carried out pot plant experiments to observe symbiotic phenotypes. MCHK-5577, MCHK-2172 and MCHK-2779 genes encoding proteins belonged to START/RHO alpha_C/PITP/Bet_v1/CoxG/CalC (SRPBCC) superfamily, involved in lipid transport or metabolism, and were identical to M. loti at 95% level. Gene relative transcription level of the three genes all increased compared to free-living condition. We obtained three mutants. Compared with wild-type 7653R, above-ground biomass of plants and nodulenitrogenase activity induced by the three mutants significantly decreased. Results indicated that lipid transfer protein encoding genes of Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R may play important roles in symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and the mutations significantly affected the symbiotic phenotypes. The present work provided a basis to study further symbiotic function mechanism associated with lipid transfer proteins from rhizobia.

  4. Encoding, storage and judgment of experienced frequency and duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilmann Betsch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines conditions that do or do not lead to accurate judgments of frequency (JOF and judgments of duration (JOD. In three experiments, duration and frequency of visually presented stimuli are varied orthogonally in a within-subjects design. Experiment 1 reveals an asymmetric judgment pattern. JOFs reflected actual presentation frequency quite accurately and were unbiased by exposure duration. Conversely, JODs were almost insensitive to actual exposure duration and were systematically biased by presentation frequency. We show, however, that a tendency towards a symmetric judgment pattern can be obtained by manipulating encoding conditions. Sustaining attention during encoding (Experiment 2 or enhancing richness of the encoded stimuli (Experiment 3 increases judgment sensitivity in JOD and yields biases in both directions (JOF biased by exposure duration, JOD biased by presentation frequency. The implications of these findings for underlying memory mechanisms are discussed.

  5. Encoding, training and retrieval in ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanni; Xia, Yidong; Xu, Bo; Yin, Jiang; Yuan, Guoliang; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) are quantum nanostructures that have great potential in the hardware basis for future neuromorphic applications. Among recently proposed possibilities, the artificial cognition has high hopes, where encoding, training, memory solidification and retrieval constitute a whole chain that is inseparable. However, it is yet envisioned but experimentally unconfirmed. The poor retention or short-term store of tunneling electroresistance, in particular the intermediate states, is still a key challenge in FTJs. Here we report the encoding, training and retrieval in BaTiO3 FTJs, emulating the key features of information processing in terms of cognitive neuroscience. This is implemented and exemplified through processing characters. Using training inputs that are validated by the evolution of both barrier profile and domain configuration, accurate recalling of encoded characters in the retrieval stage is demonstrated.

  6. DNA-encoded chemical libraries - achievements and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, Nicholas; Bassi, Gabriele; Scheuermann, Jörg; Neri, Dario

    2018-04-23

    DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) are collections of compounds, individually coupled to DNA tags serving as amplifiable identification barcodes. Since individual compounds can be identified by the associated DNA tag, they can be stored as a mixture, allowing the synthesis and screening of combinatorial libraries of unprecedented size, facilitated by the implementation of split-and-pool synthetic procedures or other experimental methodologies. In this review, we briefly present relevant concepts and technologies, which are required for the implementation and interpretation of screening procedures with DNA-encoded chemical libraries. Moreover, we illustrate some success stories, detailing how novel ligands were discovered from encoded libraries. Finally, we critically review what can realistically be achieved with the technology at the present time, highlighting challenges and opportunities for the future. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Human Transcriptome and Chromatin Modifications: An ENCODE Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A decade-long project, led by several international research groups, called the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE, recently released an unprecedented amount of data. The ambitious project covers transcriptome, cistrome, epigenome, and interactome data from more than 1,600 sets of experiments in human. To make use of this valuable resource, it is important to understand the information it represents and the techniques that were used to generate these data. In this review, we introduce the data that ENCODE generated, summarize the observations from the data analysis, and revisit a computational approach that ENCODE used to predict gene expression, with a focus on the human transcriptome and its association with chromatin modifications.

  8. Audiovisual semantic congruency during encoding enhances memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Alho, Kimmo; Hyvönen, Heidi; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Studies of memory and learning have usually focused on a single sensory modality, although human perception is multisensory in nature. In the present study, we investigated the effects of audiovisual encoding on later unisensory recognition memory performance. The participants were to memorize auditory or visual stimuli (sounds, pictures, spoken words, or written words), each of which co-occurred with either a semantically congruent stimulus, incongruent stimulus, or a neutral (non-semantic noise) stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent memory performance was overall better when the stimulus to be memorized was initially accompanied by a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than when it was accompanied by a neutral stimulus. These results suggest that semantically congruent multisensory experiences enhance encoding of both nonverbal and verbal materials, resulting in an improvement in their later recognition memory.

  9. Distinctiveness and encoding effects in online sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eHofmeister

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In explicit memory recall and recognition tasks, elaboration and contextual isolation both facilitate memory performance. Here, we investigate these effects in the context of sentence processing: targets for retrieval during online sentence processing of English object relative clause constructions differ in the amount of elaboration associated with the target noun phrase, or the homogeneity of superficial features (text color. Experiment 1 shows that greater elaboration for targets during the encoding phase reduces reading times at retrieval sites, but elaboration of non-targets has considerably weaker effects. Experiment 2 illustrates that processing isolated superficial features of target noun phrases --- here, a green word in a sentence with words colored white --- does not lead to enhanced memory performance, despite triggering longer encoding times. These results are interpreted in the light of the memory models of Nairne 1990, 2001, 2006, which state that encoding remnants contribute to the set of retrieval cues that provide the basis for similarity-based interference effects.

  10. Comparison between different encoding schemes for synthetic aperture imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    and spatio-temporal encoding was investigated. Experiments on wire phantom in water were carried out to quantify the gain from the different encodings. The gain in SNR using an FM modulated pulse is 12 dB. The penetration depth of the images was studied using tissue mimicking phantom with frequency dependent......Synthetic transmit aperture ultrasound (STAU) imaging can create images with as low as 2 emissions, making it attractive for 3D real-time imaging. Two are the major problems to be solved: (1) complexity of the hardware involved, and (2) poor image quality due to low signal to noise ratio (SNR). We...... attenuation of 0.5 dB/(cm MHz). The combination of spatial and temporal encoding have highest penetration depth. Images to a depth of 110 mm, can successfully be made with contrast resolution comparable to that of a linear array image. The in-vivo scans show that the motion artifacts do not significantly...

  11. Validation of a Real-time AVS Encoder on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Fang Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A whole I frame AVS real-time video encoder is designed and implemented on FPGA platform in this paper. The system uses the structure of the flow calculation, coupled with a dual-port RAM memory between/among the various functional modules. Reusable design and pipeline design are used to optimize various encoding module and to ensure the efficient operation of the pipeline. Through the simulation of ISE software and the verification of Xilinx Vritex-4 pro platform, it can be seen that the highest working frequency can be up to 110 MHz, meeting the requirements of the whole I frame real- time encoding of AVS in CIF resolution.

  12. Enzymes and Enzyme Activity Encoded by Nonenveloped Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Kimi; Banerjee, Manidipa; Johnson, John E

    2017-09-29

    Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that rely on host cell machineries for their replication and survival. Although viruses tend to make optimal use of the host cell protein repertoire, they need to encode essential enzymatic or effector functions that may not be available or accessible in the host cellular milieu. The enzymes encoded by nonenveloped viruses-a group of viruses that lack any lipid coating or envelope-play vital roles in all the stages of the viral life cycle. This review summarizes the structural, biochemical, and mechanistic information available for several classes of enzymes and autocatalytic activity encoded by nonenveloped viruses. Advances in research and development of antiviral inhibitors targeting specific viral enzymes are also highlighted.

  13. Automatic Encoding and Language Detection in the GSDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otakar Pinkas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Automatic detection of encoding and language of the text is part of the Greenstone Digital Library Software (GSDL for building and distributing digital collections. It is developed by the University of Waikato (New Zealand in cooperation with UNESCO. The automatic encoding and language detection in Slavic languages is difficult and it sometimes fails. The aim is to detect cases of failure. The automatic detection in the GSDL is based on n-grams method. The most frequent n-grams for Czech are presented. The whole process of automatic detection in the GSDL is described. The input documents to test collections are plain texts encoded in ISO-8859-1, ISO-8859-2 and Windows-1250. We manually evaluated the quality of automatic detection. To the causes of errors belong the improper language model predominance and the incorrect switch to Windows-1250. We carried out further tests on documents that were more complex.

  14. Performance study of large area encoding readout MRPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Chen, G.; Han, D.; Wang, X.; Zeng, M.; Zeng, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Guo, B.

    2018-02-01

    Muon tomography system built by the 2-D readout high spatial resolution Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) detector is a project of Tsinghua University. An encoding readout method based on the fine-fine configuration has been used to minimize the number of the readout electronic channels resulting in reducing the complexity and the cost of the system. In this paper, we provide a systematic comparison of the MRPC detector performance with and without fine-fine encoding readout. Our results suggest that the application of the fine-fine encoding readout leads us to achieve a detecting system with slightly worse spatial resolution but dramatically reduce the number of electronic channels.

  15. Fluorescence-Based Multiplex Protein Detection Using Optically Encoded Microbeads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Hong Jeong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential utilization of proteins for early detection and diagnosis of various diseases has drawn considerable interest in the development of protein-based multiplex detection techniques. Among the various techniques for high-throughput protein screening, optically-encoded beads combined with fluorescence-based target monitoring have great advantages over the planar array-based multiplexing assays. This review discusses recent developments of analytical methods of screening protein molecules on microbead-based platforms. These include various strategies such as barcoded microbeads, molecular beacon-based techniques, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based techniques. Their applications for label-free protein detection are also addressed. Especially, the optically-encoded beads such as multilayer fluorescence beads and SERS-encoded beads are successful for generating a large number of coding.

  16. Encoding qubits into oscillators with atomic ensembles and squeezed light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motes, Keith R.; Baragiola, Ben Q.; Gilchrist, Alexei; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-05-01

    The Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP) encoding of a qubit within an oscillator provides a number of advantages when used in a fault-tolerant architecture for quantum computing, most notably that Gaussian operations suffice to implement all single- and two-qubit Clifford gates. The main drawback of the encoding is that the logical states themselves are challenging to produce. Here we present a method for generating optical GKP-encoded qubits by coupling an atomic ensemble to a squeezed state of light. Particular outcomes of a subsequent spin measurement of the ensemble herald successful generation of the resource state in the optical mode. We analyze the method in terms of the resources required (total spin and amount of squeezing) and the probability of success. We propose a physical implementation using a Faraday-based quantum nondemolition interaction.

  17. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  18. Prefrontal activity and impaired memory encoding strategies in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Synthia; Hawco, Colin; Lepage, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Schizophrenia patients have significant memory difficulties that have far-reaching implications in their daily life. These impairments are partly attributed to an inability to self-initiate effective memory encoding strategies, but its core neurobiological correlates remain unknown. The current study addresses this critical gap in our knowledge of episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients (n = 35) and healthy controls (n = 23) underwent a Semantic Encoding Memory Task (SEMT) during an fMRI scan. Brain activity was examined for conditions where participants were a) prompted to use semantic encoding strategies, or b) not prompted but required to self-initiate such strategies. When prompted to use semantic encoding strategies, schizophrenia patients exhibited similar recognition performance and brain activity as healthy controls. However, when required to self-initiate these strategies, patients had significant reduced recognition performance and brain activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as in the left temporal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule, and cerebellum. When patients were divided based on performance on the SEMT, the subgroup with more severe deficits in self-initiation also showed greater reduction in left dorsolateral prefrontal activity. These results suggest that impaired self-initiation of elaborative encoding strategies is a driving feature of memory deficits in schizophrenia. We also identified the neural correlates of impaired self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies, in which a failure to activate the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a key role. These findings provide important new targets in the development of novel treatments aiming to improve memory and ultimately patients' outcome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Negative affect promotes encoding of and memory for details at the expense of the gist: affect, encoding, and false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin

    2013-01-01

    I investigated whether negative affective states enhance encoding of and memory for item-specific information reducing false memories. Positive, negative, and neutral moods were induced, and participants then completed a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false-memory task. List items were presented in unique spatial locations or unique fonts to serve as measures for item-specific encoding. The negative mood conditions had more accurate memories for item-specific information, and they also had fewer false memories. The final experiment used a manipulation that drew attention to distinctive information, which aided learning for DRM words, but also promoted item-specific encoding. For the condition that promoted item-specific encoding, false memories were reduced for positive and neutral mood conditions to a rate similar to that of the negative mood condition. These experiments demonstrated that negative affective cues promote item-specific processing reducing false memories. People in positive and negative moods encode events differently creating different memories for the same event.

  20. Accelerated radial Fourier-velocity encoding using compressed sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilbert, Fabian; Han, Dietbert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a tool for non-invasive determination of flow velocities inside blood vessels. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time. For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Materials and Methods:We imaged the femoral artery of healthy volunteers with ECG - triggered, radial CINE acquisition. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding. By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Results:Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a 12.6 - fold retrospective undersampling, a data set was generated equal to 3:10 min acquisition time, which is similar to a conventional Phase Contrast measurement. Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements. Conclusion: Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity

  1. Ordering of diagnostic information in encoded medical images. Accuracy progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przelaskowski, A.; Jóźwiak, R.; Krzyżewski, T.; Wróblewska, A.

    2008-03-01

    A concept of diagnostic accuracy progression for embedded coding of medical images was presented. Implementation of JPEG2000 encoder with a modified PCRD optimization algorithm was realized and initially verified as a tool for accurate medical image streaming. Mean square error as a distortion measure was replaced by other numerical measures to revise quality progression according to diagnostic importance of successively encoded image information. A faster increment of image diagnostic importance during reconstruction of initial packets of code stream was reached. Modified Jasper code was initially tested on a set of mammograms containing clusters of microcalcifications and malignant masses, and other radiograms. Teleradiologic applications were considered as the first area of interests.

  2. Development and Synthesis of DNA-Encoded Benzimidazole Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yun; Chai, Jing; Centrella, Paolo A; Gondo, Chenaimwoyo; DeLorey, Jennifer L; Clark, Matthew A

    2018-04-25

    Encoded library technology (ELT) is an effective approach to the discovery of novel small-molecule ligands for biological targets. A key factor for the success of the technology is the chemical diversity of the libraries. Here we report the development of DNA-conjugated benzimidazoles. Using 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzoic acid as a key synthon, we synthesized a 320 million-member DNA-encoded benzimidazole library using Fmoc-protected amino acids, amines and aldehydes as diversity elements. Affinity selection of the library led to the discovery of a novel, potent and specific antagonist of the NK3 receptor.

  3. Accelerated radial Fourier-velocity encoding using compressed sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, Fabian; Han, Dietbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Wech, Tobias; Koestler, Herbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Comprehensive Heart Failure Center (CHFC)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose:Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a tool for non-invasive determination of flow velocities inside blood vessels. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time. For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Materials and Methods:We imaged the femoral artery of healthy volunteers with ECG - triggered, radial CINE acquisition. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding. By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Results:Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a 12.6 - fold retrospective undersampling, a data set was generated equal to 3:10 min acquisition time, which is similar to a conventional Phase Contrast measurement. Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements. Conclusion: Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity

  4. Authentication of gold nanoparticle encoded pharmaceutical tablets using polarimetric signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Artur; Arteaga, Oriol; Suñé-Negre, Josep M; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-10-01

    The counterfeiting of pharmaceutical products represents concerns for both industry and the safety of the general public. Falsification produces losses to companies and poses health risks for patients. In order to detect fake pharmaceutical tablets, we propose producing film-coated tablets with gold nanoparticle encoding. These coated tablets contain unique polarimetric signatures. We present experiments to show that ellipsometric optical techniques, in combination with machine learning algorithms, can be used to distinguish genuine and fake samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report using gold nanoparticles encoded with optical polarimetric classifiers to prevent the counterfeiting of pharmaceutical products.

  5. Accelerated radial Fourier-velocity encoding using compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Fabian; Wech, Tobias; Hahn, Dietbert; Köstler, Herbert

    2014-09-01

    Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a tool for non-invasive determination of flow velocities inside blood vessels. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time. For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. We imaged the femoral artery of healthy volunteers with ECG-triggered, radial CINE acquisition. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding. By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a 12.6-fold retrospective undersampling, a data set was generated equal to 3:10 min acquisition time, which is similar to a conventional Phase Contrast measurement. Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements. Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity distribution in vessels in the order of the voxel size. Thus

  6. Total sleep deprivation does not significantly degrade semantic encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honn, K A; Grant, D A; Hinson, J M; Whitney, P; Van Dongen, Hpa

    2018-01-17

    Sleep deprivation impairs performance on cognitive tasks, but it is unclear which cognitive processes it degrades. We administered a semantic matching task with variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and both speeded and self-paced trial blocks. The task was administered at the baseline and 24 hours later after 30.8 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or matching well-rested control. After sleep deprivation, the 20% slowest response times (RTs) were significantly increased. However, the semantic encoding time component of the RTs remained at baseline level. Thus, the performance impairment induced by sleep deprivation on this task occurred in cognitive processes downstream of semantic encoding.

  7. Non-deterministic quantum CNOT gate with double encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueddana, Amor; Attia, Moez; Chatta, Rihab

    2013-09-01

    We define an Asymmetric Partially Polarizing Beam Splitter (APPBS) to be a linear optical component having different reflectivity (transmittance) coefficients, on the upper and the lower arms, for horizontally and vertically Polarized incident photons. Our CNOT model is composed by two APPBSs, one Half Wave Plate (HWP), two Polarizing Beam Splitters (PBSs), a Beam Splitter (BS) and a -phase rotator for specific wavelength. Control qubit operates with dual rail encoding while target qubit is based on polarization encoding. To perform CNOT operation in 4/27 of the cases, input and target incoming photons are injected with different wavelengths.

  8. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  9. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  10. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Here is given the decree (2001/1199) of the 10. of december 2001 relative to the passing of safety rules concerning the maritime transport of spent fuels, plutonium and high-level radioactive wastes contained in packages. (O.M.)

  11. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  12. A high-affinity inhibitor of yeast carboxypeptidase Y is encoded by TFS1 and shows homology to a family of lipid binding proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, A W; Svendsen, I; Sørensen, S O

    1998-01-01

    signals for transport into the endoplasmic reticulum. Surprisingly, Ic is encoded by TFS1, which has previously been isolated as a high-copy suppressor of cdc25-1. CDC25 encodes the putative GTP exchange factor for Ras1p/Ras2p in yeast. In an attempt to rationalize this finding, we looked...... degree of specificity, showing a 200-fold higher Ki toward a carboxypeptidase from Candida albicans which is highly homologous to carboxypeptidase Y. The TFS1 gene product shows extensive similarity to a class of proteins termed "21-23-kDa lipid binding proteins", members of which are found in several...

  13. Transcriptional modulation of genes encoding nitrate reductase in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The free aluminum (Al) content in soil can reach levels that are toxic to plants, and this has frequently limited increased productivity of cultures. Four genes encoding nitrate reductase (NR) were identified, named ZmNR1–4. With the aim of evaluating NR activity and the transcriptional modulation of the ZmNR1, ZmNR2, ...

  14. Encoding, Memory, and Transcoding Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Strand, Edythe A.; Jakielski, Kathy J.

    2012-01-01

    A central question in Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) is whether the core phenotype is limited to transcoding (planning/programming) deficits or if speakers with CAS also have deficits in auditory-perceptual "encoding" (representational) and/or "memory" (storage and retrieval of representations) processes. We addressed this and other questions…

  15. Encoded low swing for ultra low power interconnect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, R.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.

    2003-01-01

    We present a novel encoded-low swing technique for ultra low power interconnect. Using this technique and an efficient circuit implementation, we achieve an average of 45.7% improvement in the power-delay product over the schemes utilizing low swing techniques alone, for random bit streams. Also, we

  16. Learning from Number Board Games: You Learn What You Encode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, Elida V.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that encoding the numerical-spatial relations in a number board game is a key process in promoting learning from playing such games. Experiment 1 used a microgenetic design to examine the effects on learning of the type of counting procedure that children use. As predicted, having kindergartners count-on from their current…

  17. Conventions and nomenclature for double diffusion encoding NMR and MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shemesh, Noam; Jespersen, Sune N; Alexander, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    , such as double diffusion encoding (DDE) NMR and MRI, may provide novel quantifiable metrics that are less easily inferred from conventional diffusion acquisitions. Despite the growing interest on the topic, the terminology for the pulse sequences, their parameters, and the metrics that can be derived from them...

  18. Resource-aware complexity scalability for mobile MPEG encoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mietens, S.O.; With, de P.H.N.; Hentschel, C.; Panchanatan, S.; Vasudev, B.

    2004-01-01

    Complexity scalability attempts to scale the required resources of an algorithm with the chose quality settings, in order to broaden the application range. In this paper, we present complexity-scalable MPEG encoding of which the core processing modules are modified for scalability. Scalability is

  19. Chimeric polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogulis, Mark; Sweeney, Matthew; Heu, Tia

    2017-06-14

    The present invention relates to chimeric GH61 polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the chimeric GH61 polypeptides; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the chimeric GH61 polypeptides.

  20. Neural Activity during Encoding Predicts False Memories Created by Misinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2005-01-01

    False memories are often demonstrated using the misinformation paradigm, in which a person's recollection of a witnessed event is altered after exposure to misinformation about the event. The neural basis of this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. The authors used fMRI to investigate encoding processes during the viewing of an event and…

  1. False memory and importance: can we prioritize encoding without consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Dung C; Friedman, Michael C; McDonough, Ian M; Castel, Alan D

    2013-10-01

    Given the large amount of information that we encounter, we often must prioritize what information we attempt to remember. Although critical for everyday functioning, relatively little research has focused on how people prioritize the encoding of information. Recent research has shown that people can and do selectively remember information assigned with higher, relative to lower, importance. However, the mechanisms underlying this prioritization process and the consequences of these processes are still not well understood. In the present study, we sought to better understand these prioritization processes and whether implementing these processes comes at the cost of memory accuracy, by increasing false memories. We used a modified form of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, in which participants studied DRM lists, with each list paired with low, medium, or high point values. In Experiment 1, encoding higher values led to more false memories than did encoding lower values, possibly because prioritizing information enhanced relational processing among high-value words. In Experiment 2, disrupting relational processing selectively reduced false memories for high-value words. Finally, in Experiment 3, facilitating relational processing selectively increased false memories for low-value words. These findings suggest that while prioritizing information can enhance true memory, this process concomitantly increases false memories. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying these prioritization processes depends on the ability to successfully engage in relational processing. Thus, how we prioritize the encoding of incoming information can come at a cost in terms of accurate memory.

  2. Extraordinarily Adaptive Properties of the Genetically Encoded Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilardo, Melissa; Meringer, Markus; Freeland, Stephen; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Cleaves II, H. James

    2015-01-01

    Using novel advances in computational chemistry, we demonstrate that the set of 20 genetically encoded amino acids, used nearly universally to construct all coded terrestrial proteins, has been highly influenced by natural selection. We defined an adaptive set of amino acids as one whose members thoroughly cover relevant physico-chemical properties, or “chemistry space.” Using this metric, we compared the encoded amino acid alphabet to random sets of amino acids. These random sets were drawn from a computationally generated compound library containing 1913 alternative amino acids that lie within the molecular weight range of the encoded amino acids. Sets that cover chemistry space better than the genetically encoded alphabet are extremely rare and energetically costly. Further analysis of more adaptive sets reveals common features and anomalies, and we explore their implications for synthetic biology. We present these computations as evidence that the set of 20 amino acids found within the standard genetic code is the result of considerable natural selection. The amino acids used for constructing coded proteins may represent a largely global optimum, such that any aqueous biochemistry would use a very similar set. PMID:25802223

  3. SAMPEG: a scene-adaptive parallel MPEG-2 software encoder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farin, D.S.; Mache, N.; With, de P.H.N.; Girod, B.; Bouman, C.A.; Steinbach, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a fully software-based MPEG-2 encoder architecture, which uses scene-change detection to optimize the Group-of-Picture (GOP) structure for the actual video sequence. This feature enables easy, lossless edit cuts at scene-change positions and it also improves overall picture

  4. Imagining Another Context during Encoding Offsets Context-Dependent Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masicampo, E. J.; Sahakyan, Lili

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether imagining another context during encoding would offset context-dependent forgetting. All participants studied a list of words in Context A. Participants who remained in Context A during the test recalled more than participants who were tested in another context (Context B), demonstrating the standard context-dependent forgetting…

  5. A Neural Signature Encoding Decisions under Perceptual Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sai; Yu, Rongjun; Wang, Shuo

    2017-01-01

    People often make perceptual decisions with ambiguous information, but it remains unclear whether the brain has a common neural substrate that encodes various forms of perceptual ambiguity. Here, we used three types of perceptually ambiguous stimuli as well as task instructions to examine the neural basis for both stimulus-driven and task-driven perceptual ambiguity. We identified a neural signature, the late positive potential (LPP), that encoded a general form of stimulus-driven perceptual ambiguity. In addition to stimulus-driven ambiguity, the LPP was also modulated by ambiguity in task instructions. To further specify the functional role of the LPP and elucidate the relationship between stimulus ambiguity, behavioral response, and the LPP, we employed regression models and found that the LPP was specifically associated with response latency and confidence rating, suggesting that the LPP encoded decisions under perceptual ambiguity. Finally, direct behavioral ratings of stimulus and task ambiguity confirmed our neurophysiological findings, which could not be attributed to differences in eye movements either. Together, our findings argue for a common neural signature that encodes decisions under perceptual ambiguity but is subject to the modulation of task ambiguity. Our results represent an essential first step toward a complete neural understanding of human perceptual decision making.

  6. Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Shaghasi, Tarana

    2017-06-20

    The present invention relates to polypeptides having xylanase activity, catalytic domains, and carbohydrate binding domains, and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides, catalytic domains, and carbohydrate binding domains. The present invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides, catalytic domains, and carbohydrate binding domains.

  7. Amount of Postcue Encoding Predicts Amount of Directed Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastotter, Bernhard; Bauml, Karl-Heinz

    2010-01-01

    In list-method directed forgetting, participants are cued to intentionally forget a previously studied list (List 1) before encoding a subsequently presented list (List 2). Compared with remember-cued participants, forget-cued participants typically show impaired recall of List 1 and improved recall of List 2, referred to as List 1 forgetting and…

  8. Quantum-dots-encoded-microbeads based molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yixi; Liu, Le; He, Yonghong; He, Qinghua; Ma, Hui

    2016-03-15

    Quantum dots encoded microbeads have various advantages such as large surface area, superb optical properties and the ability of multiplexing. Molecularly imprinted polymer that can mimic the natural recognition entities has high affinity and selectivity for the specific analyte. Here, the concept of utilizing the quantum dots encoded microbeads as the supporting material and the polydopamine as the functional monomer to form the core-shell molecular imprinted polymer was proposed for the first time. The resulted imprinted polymer can provide various merits: polymerization can complete in aqueous environment; fabrication procedure is facile and universal; the obvious economic advantage; the thickness of the imprinting layer is highly controllable; polydopamine coating can improve the biocompatibility of the quantum dot encoded microbeads. The rabbit IgG binding and flow cytometer experiment result showed the distinct advantages of this strategy: cost-saving, facile and fast preparation procedure. Most importantly, the ability for the multichannel detection, which makes the imprinted polydopamine modified encoded-beads very attractive in protein pre-concentration, recognition, separation and biosensing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. How Does Intentionality of Encoding Affect Memory for Episodic Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael; Butterworth, Karla; Nilsson, Jonna; Hamilton, Colin J.; Gallagher, Peter; Smulders, Tom V.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory enables the detailed and vivid recall of past events, including target and wider contextual information. In this paper, we investigated whether/how encoding intentionality affects the retention of target and contextual episodic information from a novel experience. Healthy adults performed (1) a "What-Where-When"…

  10. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

  11. Utilizing encoding in scalable linear optics quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, A J F; Gilchrist, A; Myers, C R; Ralph, T C

    2004-01-01

    We present a scheme which offers a significant reduction in the resources required to implement linear optics quantum computing. The scheme is a variation of the proposal of Knill, Laflamme and Milburn, and makes use of an incremental approach to the error encoding to boost probability of success

  12. Encoding color information for visual tracking: Algorithms and benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pengpeng; Blasch, Erik; Ling, Haibin

    2015-12-01

    While color information is known to provide rich discriminative clues for visual inference, most modern visual trackers limit themselves to the grayscale realm. Despite recent efforts to integrate color in tracking, there is a lack of comprehensive understanding of the role color information can play. In this paper, we attack this problem by conducting a systematic study from both the algorithm and benchmark perspectives. On the algorithm side, we comprehensively encode 10 chromatic models into 16 carefully selected state-of-the-art visual trackers. On the benchmark side, we compile a large set of 128 color sequences with ground truth and challenge factor annotations (e.g., occlusion). A thorough evaluation is conducted by running all the color-encoded trackers, together with two recently proposed color trackers. A further validation is conducted on an RGBD tracking benchmark. The results clearly show the benefit of encoding color information for tracking. We also perform detailed analysis on several issues, including the behavior of various combinations between color model and visual tracker, the degree of difficulty of each sequence for tracking, and how different challenge factors affect the tracking performance. We expect the study to provide the guidance, motivation, and benchmark for future work on encoding color in visual tracking.

  13. Error-backpropagation in temporally encoded networks of spiking neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bohte (Sander); J.A. La Poutré (Han); J.N. Kok (Joost)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFor a network of spiking neurons that encodes information in the timing of individual spike-times, we derive a supervised learning rule, emph{SpikeProp, akin to traditional error-backpropagation and show how to overcome the discontinuities introduced by thresholding. With this algorithm,

  14. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Namhai Chua; Kush, A.

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids.

  15. Identification and characterization of a gene encoding a putative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-30

    Oct 30, 2012 ... Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430062, China. 2Institute of ... Its encoding gene is an essential candidate for oil crops to .... higher level in leaves than in other organs (Kim and Huang. 2004) ...

  16. RNAi-based silencing of genes encoding the vacuolar- ATPase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RNAi-based silencing of genes encoding the vacuolar- ATPase subunits a and c in pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Ahmed M. A. Mohammed. Abstract. RNA interference is a post- transcriptional gene regulation mechanism that is predominantly found in eukaryotic organisms. RNAi demonstrated a successful ...

  17. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel [Los Gatos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA; Yao, Jian [Sunnyvale, CA

    2009-05-05

    The present invention provides an endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  18. Extraordinarily adaptive properties of the genetically encoded amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilardo, Melissa; Meringer, Markus; Freeland, Stephen; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Cleaves, H James

    2015-03-24

    Using novel advances in computational chemistry, we demonstrate that the set of 20 genetically encoded amino acids, used nearly universally to construct all coded terrestrial proteins, has been highly influenced by natural selection. We defined an adaptive set of amino acids as one whose members thoroughly cover relevant physico-chemical properties, or "chemistry space." Using this metric, we compared the encoded amino acid alphabet to random sets of amino acids. These random sets were drawn from a computationally generated compound library containing 1913 alternative amino acids that lie within the molecular weight range of the encoded amino acids. Sets that cover chemistry space better than the genetically encoded alphabet are extremely rare and energetically costly. Further analysis of more adaptive sets reveals common features and anomalies, and we explore their implications for synthetic biology. We present these computations as evidence that the set of 20 amino acids found within the standard genetic code is the result of considerable natural selection. The amino acids used for constructing coded proteins may represent a largely global optimum, such that any aqueous biochemistry would use a very similar set.

  19. Beta-glucosidase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogulis, Mark; Harris, Paul; Osborn, David

    2017-06-27

    The present invention relates to beta-glucosidase variants, e.g. beta-glucosidase variants of a parent Family GH3A beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus fumigatus. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the beta-glucosidase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the beta-glucosidase variants.

  20. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Golightly, Elizabeth

    2012-11-27

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  1. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc D.; Harris, Paul

    2015-10-13

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  2. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiyuran, Suchindra; Kramer, Randall; Harris, Paul

    2013-10-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  3. Polynucleotides encoding polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Golightly, Elizabeth

    2010-03-02

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  4. A spoonful of sugar: encoding and publishing in the classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spadini, E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper pursues the use of text encoding and digital publication in teaching textual criticism. A number of concepts and rules of textual criticism can be put into practice during a course thanks to the use of digital resources and tools. In dealing with original materials (text sources), the

  5. The implications of alternative splicing in the ENCODE protein complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tress, Michael L.; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Frankish, Adam

    2007-01-01

    suggested as one explanation for the discrepancy between the number of human genes and functional complexity. Here, we carry out a detailed study of the alternatively spliced gene products annotated in the ENCODE pilot project. We find that alternative splicing in human genes is more frequent than has...

  6. Plasmid-encoded diacetyl (acetoin) reductase in Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattray, Fergal P; Myling-Petersen, Dorte; Larsen, Dianna

    2003-01-01

    A plasmid-borne diacetyl (acetoin) reductase (butA) from Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides CHCC2114 was sequenced and cloned. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame encoding a protein of 257 amino acids which had high identity at the amino acid level to diacetyl (acetoin...

  7. RNAi-based silencing of genes encoding the vacuolar- ATPase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-09

    Nov 9, 2016 ... Spodoptera exigua larval development by silencing chitin synthase gene with RNA interference. Bull. Entomol. Res. 98:613-619. Dow JAT (1999). The Multifunctional Drosophila melanogaster V-. ATPase is encoded by a multigene family. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 31:75-83. Fire A, Xu SQ, Montgomery MK, ...

  8. Method of implementing frequency-encoded NOT, OR and NOR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 5. Method of implementing frequency-encoded NOT, OR and NOR logic operations using lithium niobate waveguide and reflecting semiconductor optical amplifiers. Sisir Kumar Garai Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay. Volume 73 Issue 5 November 2009 pp 901- ...

  9. Effects of TCDD on the expression of nuclear encoded mitochondrial genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgacs, Agnes L.; Burgoon, Lyle D.; Lynn, Scott G.; LaPres, John J.; Zacharewski, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be perturbed following exposure to environmental chemicals such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Reports indicate that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates TCDD-induced sustained hepatic oxidative stress by decreasing hepatic ATP levels and through hyperpolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane. To further elucidate the effects of TCDD on the mitochondria, high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR (HTP-QRTPCR) was used to evaluate the expression of 90 nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins involved in electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation, uncoupling, and associated chaperones. HTP-QRTPCR analysis of time course (30 μg/kg TCDD at 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 72, and 168 h) liver samples obtained from orally gavaged immature, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice identified 54 differentially expressed genes (|fold change| > 1.5 and P-value < 0.1). Of these, 8 exhibited a sigmoidal or exponential dose-response profile (0.03 to 300 μg/kg TCDD) at 4, 24 or 72 h. Dose-responsive genes encoded proteins associated with electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I (NADH dehydrogenase), III (cytochrome c reductase), IV (cytochrome c oxidase), and V (ATP synthase) and could be generally categorized as having proton gradient, ATP synthesis, and chaperone activities. In contrast, transcript levels of ETC complex II, succinate dehydrogenase, remained unchanged. Putative dioxin response elements were computationally found in the promoter regions of all 8 dose-responsive genes. This high-throughput approach suggests that TCDD alters the expression of genes associated with mitochondrial function which may contribute to TCDD-elicited mitochondrial toxicity.

  10. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 1 event has been reported and classified at the first level of the INES scale. This incident concerns the violation of the European regulation that imposes to any driver of radioactive matter of being the holder of a certificate asserting that he attended a special training. During this period, 13 in-site inspections have been made in places related to nuclear transport. (A.C.)

  11. Identification and validation of human papillomavirus encoded microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Qian

    Full Text Available We report here identification and validation of the first papillomavirus encoded microRNAs expressed in human cervical lesions and cell lines. We established small RNA libraries from ten human papillomavirus associated cervical lesions including cancer and two human papillomavirus harboring cell lines. These libraries were sequenced using SOLiD 4 technology. We used the sequencing data to predict putative viral microRNAs and discovered nine putative papillomavirus encoded microRNAs. Validation was performed for five candidates, four of which were successfully validated by qPCR from cervical tissue samples and cell lines: two were encoded by HPV 16, one by HPV 38 and one by HPV 68. The expression of HPV 16 microRNAs was further confirmed by in situ hybridization, and colocalization with p16INK4A was established. Prediction of cellular target genes of HPV 16 encoded microRNAs suggests that they may play a role in cell cycle, immune functions, cell adhesion and migration, development, and cancer. Two putative viral target sites for the two validated HPV 16 miRNAs were mapped to the E5 gene, one in the E1 gene, two in the L1 gene and one in the LCR region. This is the first report to show that papillomaviruses encode their own microRNA species. Importantly, microRNAs were found in libraries established from human cervical disease and carcinoma cell lines, and their expression was confirmed in additional tissue samples. To our knowledge, this is also the first paper to use in situ hybridization to show the expression of a viral microRNA in human tissue.

  12. Human visual system automatically encodes sequential regularities of discrete events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Motohiro; Schröger, Erich; Czigler, István; Ohira, Hideki

    2010-06-01

    For our adaptive behavior in a dynamically changing environment, an essential task of the brain is to automatically encode sequential regularities inherent in the environment into a memory representation. Recent studies in neuroscience have suggested that sequential regularities embedded in discrete sensory events are automatically encoded into a memory representation at the level of the sensory system. This notion is largely supported by evidence from investigations using auditory mismatch negativity (auditory MMN), an event-related brain potential (ERP) correlate of an automatic memory-mismatch process in the auditory sensory system. However, it is still largely unclear whether or not this notion can be generalized to other sensory modalities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the visual sensory system to the automatic encoding of sequential regularities using visual mismatch negativity (visual MMN), an ERP correlate of an automatic memory-mismatch process in the visual sensory system. To this end, we conducted a sequential analysis of visual MMN in an oddball sequence consisting of infrequent deviant and frequent standard stimuli, and tested whether the underlying memory representation of visual MMN generation contains only a sensory memory trace of standard stimuli (trace-mismatch hypothesis) or whether it also contains sequential regularities extracted from the repetitive standard sequence (regularity-violation hypothesis). The results showed that visual MMN was elicited by first deviant (deviant stimuli following at least one standard stimulus), second deviant (deviant stimuli immediately following first deviant), and first standard (standard stimuli immediately following first deviant), but not by second standard (standard stimuli immediately following first standard). These results are consistent with the regularity-violation hypothesis, suggesting that the visual sensory system automatically encodes sequential

  13. Task-selective memory effects for successfully implemented encoding strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Leshikar

    Full Text Available Previous behavioral evidence suggests that instructed strategy use benefits associative memory formation in paired associate tasks. Two such effective encoding strategies--visual imagery and sentence generation--facilitate memory through the production of different types of mediators (e.g., mental images and sentences. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that regions of the brain support memory reflecting the mental operations engaged at the time of study. That work, however, has not taken into account self-reported encoding task success (i.e., whether participants successfully generated a mediator. It is unknown, therefore, whether task-selective memory effects specific to each strategy might be found when encoding strategies are successfully implemented. In this experiment, participants studied pairs of abstract nouns under either visual imagery or sentence generation encoding instructions. At the time of study, participants reported their success at generating a mediator. Outside of the scanner, participants further reported the quality of the generated mediator (e.g., images, sentences for each word pair. We observed task-selective memory effects for visual imagery in the left middle occipital gyrus, the left precuneus, and the lingual gyrus. No such task-selective effects were observed for sentence generation. Intriguingly, activity at the time of study in the left precuneus was modulated by the self-reported quality (vividness of the generated mental images with greater activity for trials given higher ratings of quality. These data suggest that regions of the brain support memory in accord with the encoding operations engaged at the time of study.

  14. Electroencephalographic brain dynamics of memory encoding in emotionally arousing context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique eUribe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional content/context enhances declarative memory through modulation of encoding and retrieval mechanisms. At encoding, neurophysiological data have consistently demonstrated the subsequent memory effect in theta and gamma oscillations. Yet, the existing studies were focused on the emotional content effect and let the emotional context effect unexplored. We hypothesized that theta and gamma oscillations show higher evoked/induced activity during the encoding of visual stimuli when delivered in an emotionally arousing context. Twenty-five healthy volunteers underwent evoked potentials recordings using a 21 scalp electrodes montage. They attended to an audiovisual test of emotional declarative memory being randomly assigned to either emotionally arousing or neutral context. Visual stimulus presentation was used as the time-locking event. Grand-averages of the evoked potentials and evoked spectral perturbations were calculated for each volunteer. Evoked potentials showed a higher negative deflection from 80 to 140 ms for the emotional condition. Such effect was observed over central, frontal and prefrontal locations bilaterally. Evoked theta power was higher in left parietal, central, frontal and prefrontal electrodes from -50 to 300 ms in the emotional condition. Evoked gamma power was higher in the emotional condition with a spatial distribution that overlapped at some points with the theta topography. The early theta power increase could be related to expectancy induced by auditory information processing that facilitates visual encoding in emotional contexts. Together, our results suggest that declarative memory enhancement for both emotional content and emotional context are supported by similar neural mechanisms at encoding, and offer new evidence about the brain processing of relevant environmental stimuli.

  15. MicroRNA-encoding long non-coding RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xiaopeng

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent analysis of the mouse transcriptional data has revealed the existence of ~34,000 messenger-like non-coding RNAs (ml-ncRNAs. Whereas the functional properties of these ml-ncRNAs are beginning to be unravelled, no functional information is available for the large majority of these transcripts. Results A few ml-ncRNA have been shown to have genomic loci that overlap with microRNA loci, leading us to suspect that a fraction of ml-ncRNA may encode microRNAs. We therefore developed an algorithm (PriMir for specifically detecting potential microRNA-encoding transcripts in the entire set of 34,030 mouse full-length ml-ncRNAs. In combination with mouse-rat sequence conservation, this algorithm detected 97 (80 of them were novel strong miRNA-encoding candidates, and for 52 of these we obtained experimental evidence for the existence of their corresponding mature microRNA by microarray and stem-loop RT-PCR. Sequence analysis of the microRNA-encoding RNAs revealed an internal motif, whose presence correlates strongly (R2 = 0.9, P-value = 2.2 × 10-16 with the occurrence of stem-loops with characteristics of known pre-miRNAs, indicating the presence of a larger number microRNA-encoding RNAs (from 300 up to 800 in the ml-ncRNAs population. Conclusion Our work highlights a unique group of ml-ncRNAs and offers clues to their functions.

  16. Metabolism and transport of tamoxifen in relation to its effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Damkier, Per; Lash, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    Tamoxifen reduces the rate of breast cancer recurrence by approximately a half. Tamoxifen is metabolized to more active metabolites by enzymes encoded by polymorphic genes, including cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Tamoxifen is a substrate for ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins. We review ta...

  17. The nodal discrete-ordinate transport calculation of anisotropy scattering problem in three-dimensional cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongchun; Xie Zhongsheng; Zhu Xuehua

    1994-01-01

    The nodal discrete-ordinate transport calculating model of anisotropy scattering problem in three-dimensional cartesian geometry is given. The computing code NOTRAN/3D has been encoded and the satisfied conclusion is gained

  18. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  19. Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport development in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria. ... A good transportation system planning and management is considered vital for ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  20. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  1. Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Auxin Efflux Carrier Differentially Expressed in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Li Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin regulates various developmental programs in plants, including cell growth, cell division and cell differentiation. The auxin efflux carriers are essential for the auxin transport. To show an involvement of auxin transporters in the coordination of fruit development in bitter gourd, a juicy fruit, we isolated novel cDNAs (referred as McPIN encoding putative auxin efflux carriers, including McPIN1, McPIN2 (allele of McPIN1 and McPIN3, from developing fruits of bitter gourd. Both McPIN1 and McPIN3 genes possess six exons and five introns. Hydropathy analysis revealed that both polypeptides have two hydrophobic regions with five transmembrane segments and a predominantly hydrophilic core. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that McPIN1 shared the highest homology to the group of Arabidopsis, cucumber and tomato PIN1, while McPIN3 belonged to another group, including Arabidopsis and tomato PIN3 as well as PIN4. This suggests different roles for McPIN1 and McPIN3 in auxin transport involved in the fruit development of bitter gourd. Maximum mRNA levels for both genes were detected in staminate and pistillate flowers. McPIN1 is expressed in a particular period of early fruit development but McPIN3 continues to be expressed until the last stage of fruit ripening. Moreover, these two genes are auxin-inducible and qualified as early auxin-response genes. Their expression patterns suggest that these two auxin transporter genes play a pivotal role in fruit setting and development.

  2. Multidrug ATP-binding cassette transporters are essential for hepatic development of Plasmodium sporozoites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, S.R.; Velden, M. van der; Gonzalez-Pons, M.; Annoura, T.; Schaijk, B.C.L. van; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Heuvel, J.M.W. van den; Ramesar, J.; Chevalley-Maurel, S.; Ploemen, I.H.; Khan, S.M.; Franetich, J.F.; Mazier, D.; Wilt, J.H.W. de; Serrano, A.E.; Russel, F.G.; Janse, C.J.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Koenderink, J.B.; Franke-Fayard, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) belong to the C-family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins and are known to transport a variety of physiologically important compounds and to be involved in the extrusion of pharmaceuticals. Rodent malaria parasites encode a single ABC

  3. Growth rate-regulated expression of the hexose transporter HXT5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, René

    2003-01-01

    Glucose, which is the most preferred carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is transported across the plasma membrane into cells by hexose transporter (Hxt) proteins. The Hxt proteins are encoded by a multigene family consisting of 20 members. It was shown previously that HXT1-4 and

  4. X-Linked Creatine Transporter Deficiency Presenting as a Mitochondrial Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hathaway, S.C.; Friez, M.; Limbo, K.; Parker, C.; Salomons, G.S.; Vockley, J.; Wood, T.; Abdul-Rahman, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    X-linked creatine transporter defect is caused by mutations in SLC6A8 at Xq28, which encodes the sodium-dependent creatine transporter. Reduction in creatine uptake results in elevated urine creatine and CSF creatine deficiency, which can be detected on magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We report a

  5. Dissociative effects of true and false recall as a function of different encoding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Kerri A

    2007-01-01

    Goodwin, Meissner, and Ericsson (2001) proposed a path model in which elaborative encoding predicted the likelihood of verbalisation of critical, nonpresented words at encoding, which in turn predicted the likelihood of false recall. The present study tested this model of false recall experimentally with a manipulation of encoding strategy and the implementation of the process-tracing technique of protocol analysis. Findings indicated that elaborative encoding led to more verbalisations of critical items during encoding than rote rehearsal of list items, but false recall rates were reduced under elaboration conditions (Experiment 2). Interestingly, false recall was more likely to occur when items were verbalised during encoding than not verbalised (Experiment 1), and participants tended to reinstate their encoding strategies during recall, particularly after elaborative encoding (Experiment 1). Theoretical implications for the interplay of encoding and retrieval processes of false recall are discussed.

  6. Energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of primary interaction cross sections and the incorporation of these data into Monte Carlo calculations provide detailed information about the initial spatial distribution of absorbed dose. Our theoretical energy transport studies have focused on the use of this information to predict the evolution of chemical species formed as a result of the energy deposition. This effort has led to a stochastic approach to diffusion kinetics that can account for the influence of track structure on the yield of free radicals in the radiolysis of water. Fluorescence studies with pulsed alpha particle and proton beams provided the first experimental test of our stochastic model of tract structure effects. Our experimental studies use time-resolved emission spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism of energy transport in nonpolar liquids. Studies of the concentration dependence of time-resolved emission from solutions of benzene in cyclohexane also show the importance of using low benzene concentrations to minimize the influence of benzene dimers on the emission kinetics

  7. Efficiency turns the table on neural encoding, decoding and noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneve, Sophie; Chalk, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Sensory neurons are usually described with an encoding model, for example, a function that predicts their response from the sensory stimulus using a receptive field (RF) or a tuning curve. However, central to theories of sensory processing is the notion of 'efficient coding'. We argue here that efficient coding implies a completely different neural coding strategy. Instead of a fixed encoding model, neural populations would be described by a fixed decoding model (i.e. a model reconstructing the stimulus from the neural responses). Because the population solves a global optimization problem, individual neurons are variable, but not noisy, and have no truly invariant tuning curve or receptive field. We review recent experimental evidence and implications for neural noise correlations, robustness and adaptation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Temporal texture of associative encoding modulates recall processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibon, Roni; Levy, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    Binding aspects of an experience that are distributed over time is an important element of episodic memory. In the current study, we examined how the temporal complexity of an experience may govern the processes required for its retrieval. We recorded event-related potentials during episodic cued recall following pair associate learning of concurrently and sequentially presented object-picture pairs. Cued recall success effects over anterior and posterior areas were apparent in several time windows. In anterior locations, these recall success effects were similar for concurrently and sequentially encoded pairs. However, in posterior sites clustered over parietal scalp the effect was larger for the retrieval of sequentially encoded pairs. We suggest that anterior aspects of the mid-latency recall success effects may reflect working-with-memory operations or direct access recall processes, while more posterior aspects reflect recollective processes which are required for retrieval of episodes of greater temporal complexity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Direct Pathogenic Effects of HERV-encoded Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Tranberg; Møller-Larsen, Anné; Petersen, Thor

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). MS is mediated by the immune system but the etiology of the disease remains unknown. Retroviral envelope (Env) proteins, encoded by human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), are expressed...... in increased amounts on B cells from MS patients. Furthermore, the amount of anti-HERV antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid from patients with MS is increased when compared with healthy controls. Aim: The overall aim of this project is to investigate the potential role of HERVs in the development of MS...... and the possible direct pathogenic effects of HERV-encoded Env proteins on the CNS. Methods: Construction and characterization of a panel of recombinant Env-proteins is initiated and their pathogenic potential will be investigated: Fusiogenic potential analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Analysis...

  10. Encoded diffractive optics for full-spectrum computational imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2016-09-16

    Diffractive optical elements can be realized as ultra-thin plates that offer significantly reduced footprint and weight compared to refractive elements. However, such elements introduce severe chromatic aberrations and are not variable, unless used in combination with other elements in a larger, reconfigurable optical system. We introduce numerically optimized encoded phase masks in which different optical parameters such as focus or zoom can be accessed through changes in the mechanical alignment of a ultra-thin stack of two or more masks. Our encoded diffractive designs are combined with a new computational approach for self-calibrating imaging (blind deconvolution) that can restore high-quality images several orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art without pre-calibration of the optical system. This co-design of optics and computation enables tunable, full-spectrum imaging using thin diffractive optics.

  11. A Novel Audio Cryptosystem Using Chaotic Maps and DNA Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Sheela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaotic maps have good potential in security applications due to their inherent characteristics relevant to cryptography. This paper introduces a new audio cryptosystem based on chaotic maps, hybrid chaotic shift transform (HCST, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA encoding rules. The scheme uses chaotic maps such as two-dimensional modified Henon map (2D-MHM and standard map. The 2D-MHM which has sophisticated chaotic behavior for an extensive range of control parameters is used to perform HCST. DNA encoding technology is used as an auxiliary tool which enhances the security of the cryptosystem. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated for various speech signals using different encryption/decryption quality metrics. The simulation and comparison results show that the algorithm can achieve good encryption results and is able to resist several cryptographic attacks. The various types of analysis revealed that the algorithm is suitable for narrow band radio communication and real-time speech encryption applications.

  12. Power calculation of linear and angular incremental encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofev, Aleksandr V.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Mednikov, Sergey V.; Sycheva, Elena A.

    2016-04-01

    Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and transmit the measured values back to the control unit. The capabilities of these systems are undergoing continual development in terms of their resolution, accuracy and reliability, their measuring ranges, and maximum speeds. This article discusses the method of power calculation of linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders, to find the optimum parameters for its components, such as light emitters, photo-detectors, linear and angular scales, optical components etc. It analyzes methods and devices that permit high resolutions in the order of 0.001 mm or 0.001°, as well as large measuring lengths of over 100 mm. In linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders optical beam is usually formulated by a condenser lens passes through the measuring unit changes its value depending on the movement of a scanning head or measuring raster. Past light beam is converting into an electrical signal by the photo-detecter's block for processing in the electrical block. Therefore, for calculating the energy source is a value of the desired value of the optical signal at the input of the photo-detecter's block, which reliably recorded and processed in the electronic unit of linear and angular incremental optoelectronic encoders. Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and

  13. Compression of surface myoelectric signals using MP3 encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adrian D C

    2011-01-01

    The potential of MP3 compression of surface myoelectric signals is explored in this paper. MP3 compression is a perceptual-based encoder scheme, used traditionally to compress audio signals. The ubiquity of MP3 compression (e.g., portable consumer electronics and internet applications) makes it an attractive option for remote monitoring and telemedicine applications. The effects of muscle site and contraction type are examined at different MP3 encoding bitrates. Results demonstrate that MP3 compression is sensitive to the myoelectric signal bandwidth, with larger signal distortion associated with myoelectric signals that have higher bandwidths. Compared to other myoelectric signal compression techniques reported previously (embedded zero-tree wavelet compression and adaptive differential pulse code modulation), MP3 compression demonstrates superior performance (i.e., lower percent residual differences for the same compression ratios).

  14. Intonational speech prosody encoding in the human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C; Hamilton, L S; Chang, E F

    2017-08-25

    Speakers of all human languages regularly use intonational pitch to convey linguistic meaning, such as to emphasize a particular word. Listeners extract pitch movements from speech and evaluate the shape of intonation contours independent of each speaker's pitch range. We used high-density electrocorticography to record neural population activity directly from the brain surface while participants listened to sentences that varied in intonational pitch contour, phonetic content, and speaker. Cortical activity at single electrodes over the human superior temporal gyrus selectively represented intonation contours. These electrodes were intermixed with, yet functionally distinct from, sites that encoded different information about phonetic features or speaker identity. Furthermore, the representation of intonation contours directly reflected the encoding of speaker-normalized relative pitch but not absolute pitch. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  15. Encoded diffractive optics for full-spectrum computational imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Yifan; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Diffractive optical elements can be realized as ultra-thin plates that offer significantly reduced footprint and weight compared to refractive elements. However, such elements introduce severe chromatic aberrations and are not variable, unless used in combination with other elements in a larger, reconfigurable optical system. We introduce numerically optimized encoded phase masks in which different optical parameters such as focus or zoom can be accessed through changes in the mechanical alignment of a ultra-thin stack of two or more masks. Our encoded diffractive designs are combined with a new computational approach for self-calibrating imaging (blind deconvolution) that can restore high-quality images several orders of magnitude faster than the state of the art without pre-calibration of the optical system. This co-design of optics and computation enables tunable, full-spectrum imaging using thin diffractive optics.

  16. Method for making an improved magnetic encoding device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    A magnetic encoding device and method for making the same are provided for use as magnetic storage mediums in identification control applications which give output signals from a reader that are of shorter duration and substantially greater magnitude than those of the prior art. Magnetic encoding elements are produced by uniformly bending wire or strip stock of a magnetic material longitudinally about a common radius to exceed the elastic limit of the material and subsequently mounting the material so that it is restrained in an unbent position on a substrate of nonmagnetic material. The elements are spot weld attached to a substrate to form a binary coded array of elements according to a desired binary code. The coded substrate may be enclosed in a plastic laminate structure. Such devices may be used for security badges, key cards, and the like and may have many other applications.

  17. Local Patch Vectors Encoded by Fisher Vectors for Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is image classification, whose purpose is to group images into corresponding semantic categories. Four contributions are made as follows: (i For computational simplicity and efficiency, we directly adopt raw image patch vectors as local descriptors encoded by Fisher vector (FV subsequently; (ii For obtaining representative local features within the FV encoding framework, we compare and analyze three typical sampling strategies: random sampling, saliency-based sampling and dense sampling; (iii In order to embed both global and local spatial information into local features, we construct an improved spatial geometry structure which shows good performance; (iv For reducing the storage and CPU costs of high dimensional vectors, we adopt a new feature selection method based on supervised mutual information (MI, which chooses features by an importance sorting algorithm. We report experimental results on dataset STL-10. It shows very promising performance with this simple and efficient framework compared to conventional methods.

  18. Enhanced tactile encoding and memory recognition in congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Waraich, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Several behavioural studies have shown that early-blind persons possess superior tactile skills. Since neurophysiological data show that early-blind persons recruit visual as well as somatosensory cortex to carry out tactile processing (cross-modal plasticity), blind persons' sharper tactile skills may be related to cortical re-organisation resulting from loss of vision early in their life. To examine the nature of blind individuals' tactile superiority and its implications for cross-modal plasticity, we compared the tactile performance of congenitally totally blind, low-vision and sighted children on raised-line picture identification test and re-test, assessing effects of task familiarity, exploratory strategy and memory recognition. What distinguished the blind from the other children was higher memory recognition and higher tactile encoding associated with efficient exploration. These results suggest that enhanced perceptual encoding and recognition memory may be two cognitive correlates of cross-modal plasticity in congenital blindness.

  19. The olfactory tubercle encodes odor valence in behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A; Tylicki, Kate A; Christian, Diana L; Wesson, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Sensory information acquires meaning to adaptively guide behaviors. Despite odors mediating a number of vital behaviors, the components of the olfactory system responsible for assigning meaning to odors remain unclear. The olfactory tubercle (OT), a ventral striatum structure that receives monosynaptic input from the olfactory bulb, is uniquely positioned to transform odor information into behaviorally relevant neural codes. No information is available, however, on the coding of odors among OT neurons in behaving animals. In recordings from mice engaged in an odor discrimination task, we report that the firing rate of OT neurons robustly and flexibly encodes the valence of conditioned odors over identity, with rewarded odors evoking greater firing rates. This coding of rewarded odors occurs before behavioral decisions and represents subsequent behavioral responses. We predict that the OT is an essential region whereby odor valence is encoded in the mammalian brain to guide goal-directed behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354515-13$15.00/0.

  20. National transportation statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including : its physical components, safety reco...

  1. National Transportation Statistics 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-08

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportations Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record...

  2. State Transportation Statistics 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2012, a statistical profile of transportation ...

  3. National Transportation Statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, ...

  4. State Transportation Statistics 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) presents State Transportation Statistics 2014, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This is the 12th annual edition of State Transportation Statistics, a ...

  5. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairs encoding but not retrieval of verbal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Mohini; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Addy, Peter H; Schnakenberg-Martin, Ashley M; Williams, Ashley H; Carbuto, Michelle; Elander, Jacqueline; Pittman, Brian; Andrew Sewell, R; Skosnik, Patrick D; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2017-10-03

    Cannabis and agonists of the brain cannabinoid receptor (CB 1 R) produce acute memory impairments in humans. However, the extent to which cannabinoids impair the component processes of encoding and retrieval has not been established in humans. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether the administration of Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis, impairs encoding and/or retrieval of verbal information. Healthy subjects were recruited from the community. Subjects were administered the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) either before administration of THC (experiment #1) (n=38) or while under the influence of THC (experiment #2) (n=57). Immediate and delayed recall on the RAVLT was compared. Subjects received intravenous THC, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized manner at doses known to produce behavioral and subjective effects consistent with cannabis intoxication. Total immediate recall, short delayed recall, and long delayed recall were reduced in a statistically significant manner only when the RAVLT was administered to subjects while they were under the influence of THC (experiment #2) and not when the RAVLT was administered prior. THC acutely interferes with encoding of verbal memory without interfering with retrieval. These data suggest that learning information prior to the use of cannabis or cannabinoids is not likely to disrupt recall of that information. Future studies will be necessary to determine whether THC impairs encoding of non-verbal information, to what extent THC impairs memory consolidation, and the role of other cannabinoids in the memory-impairing effects of cannabis. Cannabinoids, Neural Synchrony, and Information Processing (THC-Gamma) http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00708994 NCT00708994 Pharmacogenetics of Cannabinoid Response http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00678730 NCT00678730. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Encoding model of temporal processing in human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigliani, Anthony; Jeska, Brianna; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2017-12-19

    How is temporal information processed in human visual cortex? Visual input is relayed to V1 through segregated transient and sustained channels in the retina and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). However, there is intense debate as to how sustained and transient temporal channels contribute to visual processing beyond V1. The prevailing view associates transient processing predominately with motion-sensitive regions and sustained processing with ventral stream regions, while the opposing view suggests that both temporal channels contribute to neural processing beyond V1. Using fMRI, we measured cortical responses to time-varying stimuli and then implemented a two temporal channel-encoding model to evaluate the contributions of each channel. Different from the general linear model of fMRI that predicts responses directly from the stimulus, the encoding approach first models neural responses to the stimulus from which fMRI responses are derived. This encoding approach not only predicts cortical responses to time-varying stimuli from milliseconds to seconds but also, reveals differential contributions of temporal channels across visual cortex. Consistent with the prevailing view, motion-sensitive regions and adjacent lateral occipitotemporal regions are dominated by transient responses. However, ventral occipitotemporal regions are driven by both sustained and transient channels, with transient responses exceeding the sustained. These findings propose a rethinking of temporal processing in the ventral stream and suggest that transient processing may contribute to rapid extraction of the content of the visual input. Importantly, our encoding approach has vast implications, because it can be applied with fMRI to decipher neural computations in millisecond resolution in any part of the brain. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  7. Fungicidal activity of peptides encoded by immunoglobulin genes

    OpenAIRE

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Sperind?, Martina; Giovati, Laura; D?Adda, Tiziana; Galati, Serena; Travassos, Luiz R.; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Evidence from previous works disclosed the antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-tumour and/or immunomodulatory activity exerted, through different mechanisms of action, by peptides expressed in the complementarity-determining regions or even in the constant region of antibodies, independently from their specificity and isotype. Presently, we report the selection, from available databases, of peptide sequences encoded by immunoglobulin genes for the evaluation of their potential biological activitie...

  8. A deep auto-encoder model for gene expression prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rui; Wen, Jia; Quitadamo, Andrew; Cheng, Jianlin; Shi, Xinghua

    2017-11-17

    Gene expression is a key intermediate level that genotypes lead to a particular trait. Gene expression is affected by various factors including genotypes of genetic variants. With an aim of delineating the genetic impact on gene expression, we build a deep auto-encoder model to assess how good genetic variants will contribute to gene expression changes. This new deep learning model is a regression-based predictive model based on the MultiLayer Perceptron and Stacked Denoising Auto-encoder (MLP-SAE). The model is trained using a stacked denoising auto-encoder for feature selection and a multilayer perceptron framework for backpropagation. We further improve the model by introducing dropout to prevent overfitting and improve performance. To demonstrate the usage of this model, we apply MLP-SAE to a real genomic datasets with genotypes and gene expression profiles measured in yeast. Our results show that the MLP-SAE model with dropout outperforms other models including Lasso, Random Forests and the MLP-SAE model without dropout. Using the MLP-SAE model with dropout, we show that gene expression quantifications predicted by the model solely based on genotypes, align well with true gene expression patterns. We provide a deep auto-encoder model for predicting gene expression from SNP genotypes. This study demonstrates that deep learning is appropriate for tackling another genomic problem, i.e., building predictive models to understand genotypes' contribution to gene expression. With the emerging availability of richer genomic data, we anticipate that deep learning models play a bigger role in modeling and interpreting genomics.

  9. Rapid de novo shape encoding: a challenge to connectionist modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Ernest

    2018-01-01

    Neural network (connectionist) models are designed to encode image features and provide the building blocks for object and shape recognition. These models generally call for: a) initial diffuse connections from one neuron population to another, and b) training to bring about a functional change in those connections so that one or more high-tier neurons will selectively respond to a specific shape stimulus. Advanced models provide for translation, size, and rotation invariance. The present dis...

  10. Perceptual priming versus explicit memory: dissociable neural correlates at encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Björn; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Düzel, Emrah

    2002-05-15

    We addressed the hypothesis that perceptual priming and explicit memory have distinct neural correlates at encoding. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants studied visually presented words at deep versus shallow levels of processing (LOPs). The ERPs were sorted by whether or not participants later used studied words as completions to three-letter word stems in an intentional memory test, and by whether or not they indicated that these completions were remembered from the study list. Study trials from which words were later used and not remembered (primed trials) and study trials from which words were later used and remembered (remembered trials) were compared to study trials from which words were later not used (forgotten trials), in order to measure the ERP difference associated with later memory (DM effect). Primed trials involved an early (200-450 msec) centroparietal negative-going DM effect. Remembered trials involved a late (900-1200 msec) right frontal, positive-going DM effect regardless of LOP, as well as an earlier (600-800 msec) central, positive-going DM effect during shallow study processing only. All three DM effects differed topographically, and, in terms of their onset or duration, from the extended (600-1200 msec) fronto-central, positive-going shift for deep compared with shallow study processing. The results provide the first clear evidence that perceptual priming and explicit memory have distinct neural correlates at encoding, consistent with Tulving and Schacter's (1990) distinction between brain systems concerned with perceptual representation versus semantic and episodic memory. They also shed additional light on encoding processes associated with later explicit memory, by suggesting that brain processes influenced by LOP set the stage for other, at least partially separable, brain processes that are more directly related to encoding success.

  11. Practical Programming with Higher-Order Encodings and Dependent Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poswolsky, Adam; Schürmann, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    , tedious, and error-prone. In this paper, we describe the underlying calculus of Delphin. Delphin is a fully implemented functional-programming language supporting reasoning over higher-order encodings and dependent types, while maintaining the benefits of HOAS. More specifically, just as representations...... for instantiation from those that will remain uninstantiated, utilizing a variation of Miller and Tiu’s ∇-quantifier [1]....

  12. Creativity within constraints: Encoding, production, and representation in Battlestar Galactica

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Philippa Rush

    2015-01-01

    Using the lens of feminist production studies, I examine the television show Battlestar Galactica through interviews with show creators to explore the contexts of production. Writers, actors, and producers experience constraints on their creativity. Media producers encode meaning into the texts they create and form their own understandings of social issues and stories. I examine the day-to-day processes and constraints operating in the work lives of television creators as well as their politi...

  13. Wavelength encoding technique for particle analyses in hematology analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongeat, Nelly; Brunel, Patrick; Gineys, Jean-Philippe; Cremien, Didier; Couderc, Vincent; Nérin, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study is to combine multiple excitation wavelengths in order to improve accuracy of fluorescence characterization of labeled cells. The experimental demonstration is realized with a hematology analyzer based on flow cytometry and a CW laser source emitting two visible wavelengths. A given optical encoding associated to each wavelength allows fluorescence identification coming from specific fluorochromes and avoiding the use of noisy compensation method.

  14. Exhaustive search of linear information encoding protein-peptide recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelil, Abdellali; Dubreuil, Benjamin; Levy, Emmanuel D; Michnick, Stephen W

    2017-04-01

    High-throughput in vitro methods have been extensively applied to identify linear information that encodes peptide recognition. However, these methods are limited in number of peptides, sequence variation, and length of peptides that can be explored, and often produce solutions that are not found in the cell. Despite the large number of methods developed to attempt addressing these issues, the exhaustive search of linear information encoding protein-peptide recognition has been so far physically unfeasible. Here, we describe a strategy, called DALEL, for the exhaustive search of linear sequence information encoded in proteins that bind to a common partner. We applied DALEL to explore binding specificity of SH3 domains in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using only the polypeptide sequences of SH3 domain binding proteins, we succeeded in identifying the majority of known SH3 binding sites previously discovered either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, we discovered a number of sites with both non-canonical sequences and distinct properties that may serve ancillary roles in peptide recognition. We compared DALEL to a variety of state-of-the-art algorithms in the blind identification of known binding sites of the human Grb2 SH3 domain. We also benchmarked DALEL on curated biological motifs derived from the ELM database to evaluate the effect of increasing/decreasing the enrichment of the motifs. Our strategy can be applied in conjunction with experimental data of proteins interacting with a common partner to identify binding sites among them. Yet, our strategy can also be applied to any group of proteins of interest to identify enriched linear motifs or to exhaustively explore the space of linear information encoded in a polypeptide sequence. Finally, we have developed a webserver located at http://michnick.bcm.umontreal.ca/dalel, offering user-friendly interface and providing different scenarios utilizing DALEL.

  15. Polarization encoded all-optical multi-valued shift operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jitendra Nath; Bhowmik, Panchatapa

    2014-08-01

    Polarization encoded multi-valued (both ternary and quaternary logic) shift operators have been designed using linear optical devices only. There are six ternary and 24 quaternary shift operators in multi-valued system. These are also known as reversible literals. This circuit will be useful in future all-optical multi-valued logic based information processing system. Different states of polarization of light are taken as different logic states.

  16. Fast multiwire proportional chamber data encoding system for proton tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.

    1979-01-01

    A data encoding system that rapidly generates the binary address of an active wire in a 512-wire multiwire proportional chamber has been developed. It can accept a second event on a different wire after a deadtime of 130 ns. The system incorporates preprocessing of the wire data to reject events that would require more than one wire address. It also includes a first-in, first-out memory to buffer the data flow

  17. Chaotically encoded particle swarm optimization algorithm and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alatas, Bilal; Akin, Erhan

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, chaotically encoded particle swarm optimization algorithm (CENPSOA), based on the notion of chaos numbers that have been recently proposed for a novel meaning to numbers. In this paper, various chaos arithmetic and evaluation measures that can be used in CENPSOA have been described. Furthermore, CENPSOA has been designed to be effectively utilized in data mining applications.

  18. Soybean phytase and nucleic acid encoding the same

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Isolated soybean phytase polypeptides and isolated nucleic acids encoding soybean phytases are provided. The invention is also directed to nucleic acid expression constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the isolated soybean phytase nucleic acids, as well as methods for producing recombinant and non-recombinant purified soybean phytase. The invention also relates to transgenic plants expressing the soybean phytase, particularly expression under seed-specific expression control elements.

  19. Encoding of Spatial Attention by Primate Prefrontal Cortex Neuronal Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treue, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Single neurons in the primate lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) encode information about the allocation of visual attention and the features of visual stimuli. However, how this compares to the performance of neuronal ensembles at encoding the same information is poorly understood. Here, we recorded the responses of neuronal ensembles in the LPFC of two macaque monkeys while they performed a task that required attending to one of two moving random dot patterns positioned in different hemifields and ignoring the other pattern. We found single units selective for the location of the attended stimulus as well as for its motion direction. To determine the coding of both variables in the population of recorded units, we used a linear classifier and progressively built neuronal ensembles by iteratively adding units according to their individual performance (best single units), or by iteratively adding units based on their contribution to the ensemble performance (best ensemble). For both methods, ensembles of relatively small sizes (n decoding performance relative to individual single units. However, the decoder reached similar performance using fewer neurons with the best ensemble building method compared with the best single units method. Our results indicate that neuronal ensembles within the LPFC encode more information about the attended spatial and nonspatial features of visual stimuli than individual neurons. They further suggest that efficient coding of attention can be achieved by relatively small neuronal ensembles characterized by a certain relationship between signal and noise correlation structures. PMID:29568798

  20. Attention promotes episodic encoding by stabilizing hippocampal representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Mariam; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Attention influences what is later remembered, but little is known about how this occurs in the brain. We hypothesized that behavioral goals modulate the attentional state of the hippocampus to prioritize goal-relevant aspects of experience for encoding. Participants viewed rooms with paintings, attending to room layouts or painting styles on different trials during high-resolution functional MRI. We identified template activity patterns in each hippocampal subfield that corresponded to the attentional state induced by each task. Participants then incidentally encoded new rooms with art while attending to the layout or painting style, and memory was subsequently tested. We found that when task-relevant information was better remembered, the hippocampus was more likely to have been in the correct attentional state during encoding. This effect was specific to the hippocampus, and not found in medial temporal lobe cortex, category-selective areas of the visual system, or elsewhere in the brain. These findings provide mechanistic insight into how attention transforms percepts into memories. PMID:26755611

  1. New Complexity Scalable MPEG Encoding Techniques for Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Mietens

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Complexity scalability offers the advantage of one-time design of video applications for a large product family, including mobile devices, without the need of redesigning the applications on the algorithmic level to meet the requirements of the different products. In this paper, we present complexity scalable MPEG encoding having core modules with modifications for scalability. The interdependencies of the scalable modules and the system performance are evaluated. Experimental results show scalability giving a smooth change in complexity and corresponding video quality. Scalability is basically achieved by varying the number of computed DCT coefficients and the number of evaluated motion vectors but other modules are designed such they scale with the previous parameters. In the experiments using the “Stefan” sequence, the elapsed execution time of the scalable encoder, reflecting the computational complexity, can be gradually reduced to roughly 50% of its original execution time. The video quality scales between 20 dB and 48 dB PSNR with unity quantizer setting, and between 21.5 dB and 38.5 dB PSNR for different sequences targeting 1500 kbps. The implemented encoder and the scalability techniques can be successfully applied in mobile systems based on MPEG video compression.

  2. Copyright Protection of Color Imaging Using Robust-Encoded Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cedillo-Hernandez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a robust-encoded watermarking method applied to color images for copyright protection, which presents robustness against several geometric and signal processing distortions. Trade-off between payload, robustness and imperceptibility is a very important aspect which has to be considered when a watermark algorithm is designed. In our proposed scheme, previously to be embedded into the image, the watermark signal is encoded using a convolutional encoder, which can perform forward error correction achieving better robustness performance. Then, the embedding process is carried out through the discrete cosine transform domain (DCT of an image using the image normalization technique to accomplish robustness against geometric and signal processing distortions. The embedded watermark coded bits are extracted and decoded using the Viterbi algorithm. In order to determine the presence or absence of the watermark into the image we compute the bit error rate (BER between the recovered and the original watermark data sequence. The quality of the watermarked image is measured using the well-known indices: Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, Visual Information Fidelity (VIF and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM. The color difference between the watermarked and original images is obtained by using the Normalized Color Difference (NCD measure. The experimental results show that the proposed method provides good performance in terms of imperceptibility and robustness. The comparison among the proposed and previously reported methods based on different techniques is also provided.

  3. Towards predicting the encoding capability of MR fingerprinting sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, K; Amthor, T; Doneva, M; Koken, P; Meineke, J; Börnert, P

    2017-09-01

    Sequence optimization and appropriate sequence selection is still an unmet need in magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF). The main challenge in MRF sequence design is the lack of an appropriate measure of the sequence's encoding capability. To find such a measure, three different candidates for judging the encoding capability have been investigated: local and global dot-product-based measures judging dictionary entry similarity as well as a Monte Carlo method that evaluates the noise propagation properties of an MRF sequence. Consistency of these measures for different sequence lengths as well as the capability to predict actual sequence performance in both phantom and in vivo measurements was analyzed. While the dot-product-based measures yielded inconsistent results for different sequence lengths, the Monte Carlo method was in a good agreement with phantom experiments. In particular, the Monte Carlo method could accurately predict the performance of different flip angle patterns in actual measurements. The proposed Monte Carlo method provides an appropriate measure of MRF sequence encoding capability and may be used for sequence optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioinformatics analysis and detection of gelatinase encoded gene in Lysinibacillussphaericus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repin, Rul Aisyah Mat; Mutalib, Sahilah Abdul; Shahimi, Safiyyah; Khalid, Rozida Mohd.; Ayob, Mohd. Khan; Bakar, Mohd. Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we performed bioinformatics analysis toward genome sequence of Lysinibacillussphaericus (L. sphaericus) to determine gene encoded for gelatinase. L. sphaericus was isolated from soil and gelatinase species-specific bacterium to porcine and bovine gelatin. This bacterium offers the possibility of enzymes production which is specific to both species of meat, respectively. The main focus of this research is to identify the gelatinase encoded gene within the bacteria of L. Sphaericus using bioinformatics analysis of partially sequence genome. From the research study, three candidate gene were identified which was, gelatinase candidate gene 1 (P1), NODE_71_length_93919_cov_158.931839_21 which containing 1563 base pair (bp) in size with 520 amino acids sequence; Secondly, gelatinase candidate gene 2 (P2), NODE_23_length_52851_cov_190.061386_17 which containing 1776 bp in size with 591 amino acids sequence; and Thirdly, gelatinase candidate gene 3 (P3), NODE_106_length_32943_cov_169.147919_8 containing 1701 bp in size with 566 amino acids sequence. Three pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed and namely as, F1, R1, F2, R2, F3 and R3 were targeted short sequences of cDNA by PCR. The amplicons were reliably results in 1563 bp in size for candidate gene P1 and 1701 bp in size for candidate gene P3. Therefore, the results of bioinformatics analysis of L. Sphaericus resulting in gene encoded gelatinase were identified.

  5. Face and object encoding under perceptual load: ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Markus F; Mohamed, Tarik N; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2011-02-14

    According to the perceptual load theory, processing of a task-irrelevant distractor is abolished when attentional resources are fully consumed by task-relevant material. As an exception, however, famous faces have been shown to elicit repetition modulations in event-related potentials - an N250r - despite high load at initial presentation, suggesting preserved face-encoding. Here, we recorded N250r repetition modulations by unfamiliar faces, hands, and houses, and tested face specificity of preserved encoding under high load. In an immediate (S1-S2) repetition priming paradigm, participants performed a letter identification task on S1 by indicating whether an "X" vs. "N" was among 6 different (high load condition) or 6 identical (low load condition) letters. Letter strings were superimposed on distractor faces, hands, or houses. Subsequent S2 probes were either identical repetitions of S1 distractors, non-repeated exemplars from the same category, or infrequent butterflies, to which participants responded. Independent of attentional load at S1, an occipito-temporal N250r was found for unfamiliar faces. In contrast, no repetition-related neural modulation emerged for houses or hands. This strongly suggests that a putative face-selective attention module supports encoding under high load, and that similar mechanisms are unavailable for other natural or artificial objects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Adult ADHD and working memory: neural evidence of impaired encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyeon; Liu, Zhongxu; Glizer, Daniel; Tannock, Rosemary; Woltering, Steven

    2014-08-01

    To investigate neural and behavioural correlates of visual encoding during a working memory (WM) task in young adults with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A sample of 30 college students currently meeting a diagnosis of ADHD and 25 typically developing students, matched on age and gender, performed a delayed match-to-sample task with low and high memory load conditions. Dense-array electroencephalography was recorded. Specifically, the P3, an event related potential (ERP) associated with WM, was examined because of its relation with attentional allocation during WM. Task performance (accuracy, reaction time) as well as performance on other neuropsychological tasks of WM was analyzed. Neural differences were found between the groups. Specifically, the P3 amplitude was smaller in the ADHD group compared to the comparison group for both load conditions at parietal-occipital sites. Lower scores on behavioural working memory tasks were suggestive of impaired behavioural WM performance in the ADHD group. Findings from this study provide the first evidence of neural differences in the encoding stage of WM in young adults with ADHD, suggesting ineffective allocation of attentional resources involved in encoding of information in WM. These findings, reflecting alternate neural functioning of WM, may explain some of the difficulties related to WM functioning that college students with ADHD report in their every day cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distinct Reward Properties are Encoded via Corticostriatal Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David V; Rigney, Anastasia E; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2016-02-02

    The striatum serves as a critical brain region for reward processing. Yet, understanding the link between striatum and reward presents a challenge because rewards are composed of multiple properties. Notably, affective properties modulate emotion while informative properties help obtain future rewards. We approached this problem by emphasizing affective and informative reward properties within two independent guessing games. We found that both reward properties evoked activation within the nucleus accumbens, a subregion of the striatum. Striatal responses to informative, but not affective, reward properties predicted subsequent utilization of information for obtaining monetary reward. We hypothesized that activation of the striatum may be necessary but not sufficient to encode distinct reward properties. To investigate this possibility, we examined whether affective and informative reward properties were differentially encoded in corticostriatal interactions. Strikingly, we found that the striatum exhibited dissociable connectivity patterns with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, with increasing connectivity for affective reward properties and decreasing connectivity for informative reward properties. Our results demonstrate that affective and informative reward properties are encoded via corticostriatal interactions. These findings highlight how corticostriatal systems contribute to reward processing, potentially advancing models linking striatal activation to behavior.

  8. Learning Spatiotemporally Encoded Pattern Transformations in Structured Spiking Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Brian; Sporea, Ioana; Grüning, André

    2015-12-01

    Information encoding in the nervous system is supported through the precise spike timings of neurons; however, an understanding of the underlying processes by which such representations are formed in the first place remains an open question. Here we examine how multilayered networks of spiking neurons can learn to encode for input patterns using a fully temporal coding scheme. To this end, we introduce a new supervised learning rule, MultilayerSpiker, that can train spiking networks containing hidden layer neurons to perform transformations between spatiotemporal input and output spike patterns. The performance of the proposed learning rule is demonstrated in terms of the number of pattern mappings it can learn, the complexity of network structures it can be used on, and its classification accuracy when using multispike-based encodings. In particular, the learning rule displays robustness against input noise and can generalize well on an example data set. Our approach contributes to both a systematic understanding of how computations might take place in the nervous system and a learning rule that displays strong technical capability.

  9. ENCODE: A Sourcebook of Epigenomes and Chromatin Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yavartanoo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, since the Human Genome Project, the general view has been that the majority of the human genome is composed of junk DNA and has little or no selective advantage to the organism. Now we know that this conclusion is an oversimplification. In April 2003, the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI launched an international research consortium called Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE to uncover non-coding functional elements in the human genome. The result of this project has identified a set of new DNA regulatory elements, based on novel relationships among chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, DNA methylation, transcription, and the occupancy of sequence-specific factors. The project gives us new insights into the organization and regulation of the human genome and epigenome. Here, we sought to summarize particular aspects of the ENCODE project and highlight the features and data that have recently been released. At the end of this review, we have summarized a case study we conducted using the ENCODE epigenome data.

  10. Contribution of stress and sex hormones to memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christian J

    2017-08-01

    Distinct stages of the menstrual cycle and the intake of oral contraceptives (OC) affect sex hormone levels, stress responses, and memory processes critically involved in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. To characterize the interaction of sex and stress hormones on memory encoding, 30 men, 30 women in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (FO), 30 women in the luteal phase (LU), and 30 OC women were exposed to either a stress (socially evaluated cold-pressor test) or a control condition prior to memory encoding and immediate recall of neutral, positive, and negative words. On the next day, delayed free and cued recall was tested. Sex hormone levels verified distinct estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone levels between groups. Stress increased blood pressure, cortisol concentrations, and ratings of stress appraisal in all four groups as well as cued recall performance of negative words in men. Stress exposure in OC women led to a blunted cortisol response and rather enhanced cued recall of neutral words. Thus, pre-encoding stress facilitated emotional cued recall performance in men only, but not women with different sex hormone statuses pointing to the pivotal role of circulating sex hormones in modulation of learning and memory processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Three-dimensional imagery by encoding sources of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, Isabelle

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the theoretical and practical study of X ray coded sources, and thus notably aims at exploring whether it would be possible to transform a standard digital radiography apparatus (as those operated in radiology hospital departments) into a low cost three-dimensional imagery system. The author first recalls the principle of conventional tomography and improvement attempts, and describes imagery techniques based on the use of encoding openings and source encoding. She reports the modelling of an imagery system based on encoded sources of X ray, and addresses the original notion of three-dimensional response for such a system. The author then addresses the reconstruction method by considering the reconstruction of a plane object, of a multi-plane object, and of real three-dimensional object. The frequency properties and the tomographic capacities of various types of source codes are analysed. She describes a prototype tomography apparatus, and presents and discusses three-dimensional actual phantom reconstructions. She finally introduces a new principle of dynamic three-dimensional radiography which implements an acquisition technique by 'gating code'. The acquisition principle should allow the reconstruction of volumes animated by periodic deformations, such as the heart for example [fr

  12. Muscle synergies evoked by microstimulation are preferentially encoded during behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Alexander Overduin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical microstimulation studies provide some of the most direct evidence for the neural representation of muscle synergies. These synergies, i.e. coordinated activations of groups of muscles, have been proposed as building blocks for the construction of motor behaviors by the nervous system. Intraspinal or intracortical microstimulation has been shown to evoke muscle patterns that can be resolved into a small set of synergies similar to those seen in natural behavior. However, questions remain about the validity of microstimulation as a probe of neural function, particularly given the relatively long trains of supratheshold stimuli used in these studies. Here, we examined whether muscle synergies evoked during intracortical microstimulation in two rhesus macaques were similarly encoded by nearby motor cortical units during a purely voluntary behavior involving object reach, grasp, and carry movements. At each microstimulation site we identified the synergy most strongly evoked among those extracted from muscle patterns evoked over all microstimulation sites. For each cortical unit recorded at the same microstimulation site, we then identified the synergy most strongly encoded among those extracted from muscle patterns recorded during the voluntary behavior. We found that the synergy most strongly evoked at an intracortical microstimulation site matched the synergy most strongly encoded by proximal units more often than expected by chance. These results suggest a common neural substrate for microstimulation-evoked motor responses and for the generation of muscle patterns during natural behaviors.

  13. Imaging dynamic redox processes with genetically encoded probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeriņa, Daria; Morgan, Bruce; Dick, Tobias P

    2014-08-01

    Redox signalling plays an important role in many aspects of physiology, including that of the cardiovascular system. Perturbed redox regulation has been associated with numerous pathological conditions; nevertheless, the causal relationships between redox changes and pathology often remain unclear. Redox signalling involves the production of specific redox species at specific times in specific locations. However, until recently, the study of these processes has been impeded by a lack of appropriate tools and methodologies that afford the necessary redox species specificity and spatiotemporal resolution. Recently developed genetically encoded fluorescent redox probes now allow dynamic real-time measurements, of defined redox species, with subcellular compartment resolution, in intact living cells. Here we discuss the available genetically encoded redox probes in terms of their sensitivity and specificity and highlight where uncertainties or controversies currently exist. Furthermore, we outline major goals for future probe development and describe how progress in imaging methodologies will improve our ability to employ genetically encoded redox probes in a wide range of situations. This article is part of a special issue entitled "Redox Signalling in the Cardiovascular System." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. QR encoded smart oral dosage forms by inkjet printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Magnus; Bar-Shalom, Daniel; Sandler, Niklas; Rantanen, Jukka; Genina, Natalja

    2018-01-30

    The use of inkjet printing (IJP) technology enables the flexible manufacturing of personalized medicine with the doses tailored for each patient. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, the applicability of IJP in the production of edible dosage forms in the pattern of a quick response (QR) code. This printed pattern contains the drug itself and encoded information relevant to the patient and/or healthcare professionals. IJP of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-containing ink in the pattern of QR code was performed onto a newly developed porous and flexible, but mechanically stable substrate with a good absorption capacity. The printing did not affect the mechanical properties of the substrate. The actual drug content of the printed dosage forms was in accordance with the encoded drug content. The QR encoded dosage forms had a good print definition without significant edge bleeding. They were readable by a smartphone even after storage in harsh conditions. This approach of efficient data incorporation and data storage combined with the use of smart devices can lead to safer and more patient-friendly drug products in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of a Novel UTY‐Encoded Minor Histocompatibility Antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, B. K.; Rasmussen, A. H.; Larsen, Malene Erup

    2012-01-01

    Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags) encoded by the Y‐chromosome (H‐Y‐mHags) are known to play a pivotal role in allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) involving female donors and male recipients. We present a new H‐Y‐mHag, YYNAFHWAI (UTY139–147), encoded by the UTY gene...... obtained post‐HCT from male recipients of female donor grafts. In one of these recipients, a CD8+ T cell response was observed against a peptide stretch encoded by the UTY gene. Another bioinformatics tool, HLArestrictor, was used to identify the optimal peptide and HLA‐restriction element. Using peptide....../HLA tetramers, the specificity of the CD8+ T cell response was successfully validated as being HLA‐A*24:02‐restricted and directed against the male UTY139–147 peptide. Functional analysis of these T cells demonstrated male UTY139–147 peptide‐specific cytokine secretion (IFNγ, TNFα and MIP‐1β) and cytotoxic...

  16. Genome-wide analysis reveals loci encoding anti-macrophage factors in the human pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J Dowling

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is an important human pathogen whose infection biology is still poorly understood. The bacterium is endemic to tropical regions, including South East Asia and Northern Australia, where it causes melioidosis, a serious disease associated with both high mortality and antibiotic resistance. B. pseudomallei is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that is able to replicate in macrophages. However despite the critical nature of its interaction with macrophages, few anti-macrophage factors have been characterized to date. Here we perform a genome-wide gain of function screen of B. pseudomallei strain K96243 to identify loci encoding factors with anti-macrophage activity. We identify a total of 113 such loci scattered across both chromosomes, with positive gene clusters encoding transporters and secretion systems, enzymes/toxins, secondary metabolite, biofilm, adhesion and signal response related factors. Further phenotypic analysis of four of these regions shows that the encoded factors cause striking cellular phenotypes relevant to infection biology, including apoptosis, formation of actin 'tails' and multi-nucleation within treated macrophages. The detailed analysis of the remaining host of loci will facilitate genetic dissection of the interaction of this important pathogen with host macrophages and thus further elucidate this critical part of its infection cycle.

  17. Human proton/oligopeptide transporter (POT) genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botka, C. W.; Wittig, T. W.; Graul, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    The proton-dependent oligopeptide transporters (POT) gene family currently consists of approximately 70 cloned cDNAs derived from diverse organisms. In mammals, two genes encoding peptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2 have been cloned in several species including humans, in addition to a rat...... histidine/peptide transporter (rPHT1). Because the Candida elegans genome contains five putative POT genes, we searched the available protein and nucleic acid databases for additional mammalian/human POT genes, using iterative BLAST runs and the human expressed sequence tags (EST) database. The apparent...... and introns of the likely human orthologue (termed hPHT2). Northern analyses with EST clones indicated that hPHT1 is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and spleen, whereas hPHT2 is found in spleen, placenta, lung, leukocytes, and heart. These results suggest considerable complexity of the human POT gene...

  18. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  19. Shape signature based on Ricci flow and optimal mass transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Su, Zengyu; Zhang, Min; Zeng, Wei; Dai, Junfei; Gu, Xianfeng

    2014-11-01

    A shape signature based on surface Ricci flow and optimal mass transportation is introduced for the purpose of surface comparison. First, the surface is conformally mapped onto plane by Ricci flow, which induces a measure on the planar domain. Second, the unique optimal mass transport map is computed that transports the new measure to the canonical measure on the plane. The map is obtained by a convex optimization process. This optimal transport map encodes all the information of the Riemannian metric on the surface. The shape signature consists of the optimal transport map, together with the mean curvature, which can fully recover the original surface. The discrete theories of surface Ricci flow and optimal mass transportation are explained thoroughly. The algorithms are given in detail. The signature is tested on human facial surfaces with different expressions accquired by structured light 3-D scanner based on phase-shifting method. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of the method.

  20. Yeast PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase controls the expression of CHO1-encoded phosphatidylserine synthase for membrane phospholipid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M

    2017-08-11

    The PAH1 -encoded phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP), which catalyzes the committed step for the synthesis of triacylglycerol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , exerts a negative regulatory effect on the level of phosphatidate used for the de novo synthesis of membrane phospholipids. This raises the question whether PAP thereby affects the expression and activity of enzymes involved in phospholipid synthesis. Here, we examined the PAP-mediated regulation of CHO1 -encoded phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS), which catalyzes the committed step for the synthesis of major phospholipids via the CDP-diacylglycerol pathway. The lack of PAP in the pah1 Δ mutant highly elevated PSS activity, exhibiting a growth-dependent up-regulation from the exponential to the stationary phase of growth. Immunoblot analysis showed that the elevation of PSS activity results from an increase in the level of the enzyme encoded by CHO1 Truncation analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the CHO1 promoter indicated that Cho1 expression in the pah1 Δ mutant is induced through the inositol-sensitive upstream activation sequence (UAS INO ), a cis -acting element for the phosphatidate-controlled Henry (Ino2-Ino4/Opi1) regulatory circuit. The abrogation of Cho1 induction and PSS activity by a CHO1 UAS INO mutation suppressed pah1 Δ effects on lipid synthesis, nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane morphology, and lipid droplet formation, but not on growth at elevated temperature. Loss of the DGK1 -encoded diacylglycerol kinase, which converts diacylglycerol to phosphatidate, partially suppressed the pah1 Δ-mediated induction of Cho1 and PSS activity. Collectively, these data showed that PAP activity controls the expression of PSS for membrane phospholipid synthesis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Deep and shallow encoding effects on face recognition: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Tessa; Viggiano, Maria Pia

    2010-12-01

    Event related potentials (ERPs) were employed to investigate whether and when brain activity related to face recognition varies according to the processing level undertaken at encoding. Recognition was assessed when preceded by a "shallow" (orientation judgement) or by a "deep" study task (occupation judgement). Moreover, we included a further manipulation by presenting at encoding faces either in the upright or inverted orientation. As expected, deeply encoded faces were recognized more accurately and more quickly with respect to shallowly encoded faces. The ERP showed three main findings: i) as witnessed by more positive-going potentials for deeply encoded faces, at early and later processing stage, face recognition was influenced by the processing strategy adopted during encoding; ii) structural encoding, indexed by the N170, turned out to be "cognitively penetrable" showing repetition priming effects for deeply encoded faces; iii) face inversion, by disrupting configural processing during encoding, influenced memory related processes for deeply encoded faces and impaired the recognition of faces shallowly processed. The present study adds weight to the concept that the depth of processing during memory encoding affects retrieval. We found that successful retrieval following deep encoding involved both familiarity- and recollection-related processes showing from 500 ms a fronto-parietal distribution, whereas shallow encoding affected only earlier processing stages reflecting perceptual priming. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression pattern of a nuclear encoded mitochondrial arginine-ornithine translocator gene from Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Anja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arginine and citrulline serve as nitrogen storage forms, but are also involved in biosynthetic and catabolic pathways. Metabolism of arginine, citrulline and ornithine is distributed between mitochondria and cytosol. For the shuttle of intermediates between cytosol and mitochondria transporters present on the inner mitochondrial membrane are required. Yeast contains a mitochondrial translocator for ornithine and arginine, Ort1p/Arg11p. Ort1p/Arg11p is a member of the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF essential for ornithine export from mitochondria. The yeast arg11 mutant, which is deficient in Ort1p/Arg11p grows poorly on media lacking arginine. Results High-level expression of a nuclear encoded Arabidopsis thaliana homolog (AtmBAC2 of Ort1p/Arg11p was able to suppress the growth deficiency of arg11. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated expression of AtmBAC2 in all tissues with highest levels in flowers. Promoter-GUS fusions showed preferential expression in flowers, i.e. pollen, in the vasculature of siliques and in aborted seeds. Variable expression was observed in leaf vasculature. Induction of the promoter was not observed during the first two weeks in seedlings grown on media containing NH4NO3, arginine or ornithine as sole nitrogen sources. Conclusion AtmBAC2 was isolated as a mitochondrial transporter for arginine in Arabidopsis. The absence of expression in developing seeds and in cotyledons of seedlings indicates that other transporters are responsible for storage and mobilization of arginine in seeds.

  3. New recombinant bacterium comprises a heterologous gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase and/or an up-regulated native gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase, useful for producing ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    dehydrogenase encoding region of the bacterium, or is inserted into a phosphotransacetylase encoding region of the bacterium, or is inserted into an acetate kinase encoding region of the bacterium. It is operably linked to an inducible, a regulated or a constitutive promoter. The up-regulated glycerol......TECHNOLOGY FOCUS - BIOTECHNOLOGY - Preparation (claimed): Producing recombinant bacterium having enhanced ethanol production characteristics when cultivated in growth medium comprising glycerol comprises: (a) transforming a parental bacterium by (i) the insertion of a heterologous gene encoding...... glycerol dehydrogenase; and/or (ii) up-regulating a native gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase; and (b) obtaining the recombinant bacterium. Preferred Bacterium: In the recombinant bacterium above, the inserted heterologous gene and/or the up-regulated native gene is encoding a glycerol dehydrogenase...

  4. Effect of tobacco craving cues on memory encoding and retrieval in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishman, Stephen J; Boas, Zachary P; Hager, Marguerite C; Taylor, Richard C; Singleton, Edward G; Moolchan, Eric T

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that cue-elicited tobacco craving disrupted performance on cognitive tasks; however, no study has examined directly the effect of cue-elicited craving on memory encoding and retrieval. A distinction between encoding and retireval has been reported such that memory is more impaired when attention is divided at encoding than at retrieval. This study tested the hypothesis that active imagery of smoking situations would impair encoding processes, but have little effect on retrieval. Imagery scripts (cigarette craving and neutral content) were presented either before presentation of a word list (encoding trials) or before word recall (retrieval trials). A working memory task at encoding and free recall of words were assessed. Results indicated that active imagery disrupted working memory on encoding trials, but not on retrieval trials. There was a trend toward impaired working memory following craving scripts compared with neutral scripts. These data support the hypothesis that the cognitive underpinnings of encoding and retrieval processes are distinct.

  5. Dynein Heavy Chain, Encoded by Two Genes in Agaricomycetes, Is Required for Nuclear Migration in Schizophyllum commune.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Brunsch

    Full Text Available The white-rot fungus Schizophyllum commune (Agaricomycetes was used to study the cell biology of microtubular trafficking during mating interactions, when the two partners exchange nuclei, which are transported along microtubule tracks. For this transport activity, the motor protein dynein is required. In S. commune, the dynein heavy chain is encoded in two parts by two separate genes, dhc1 and dhc2. The N-terminal protein Dhc1 supplies the dimerization domain, while Dhc2 encodes the motor machinery and the microtubule binding domain. This split motor protein is unique to Basidiomycota, where three different sequence patterns suggest independent split events during evolution. To investigate the function of the dynein heavy chain, the gene dhc1 and the motor domain in dhc2 were deleted. Both resulting mutants were viable, but revealed phenotypes in hyphal growth morphology and mating behavior as well as in sexual development. Viability of strain Δdhc2 is due to the higher expression of kinesin-2 and kinesin-14, which was proven via RNA sequencing.

  6. Impact of a Computer System and the Encoding Staff Organization on the Encoding Stays and on Health Institution Financial Production in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Marianne; El Merini, Amine; Staccini, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    In France, medicalization of information systems program (PMSI) is an essential tool for the management planning and funding of health. The performance of encoding data inherent to hospital stays has become a major challenge for health institutions. Some studies have highlighted the impact of organizations set up on encoding quality and financial production. The aim of this study is to evaluate a computerized information system and new staff organization impact for treatment of the encoded information.

  7. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  8. Low-dose Propofol–induced Amnesia Is Not due to a Failure of Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Veselis, Robert A.; Pryor, Kane O.; Reinsel, Ruth A.; Mehta, Meghana; Pan, Hong; Johnson, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Background—Propofol may produce amnesia by affecting encoding. The hypothesis that propofol weakens encoding was tested by measuring regional cerebral blood flow during verbal encoding. Methods—17 volunteer participants (12 M, 30.4±6.5 years old) had regional cerebral blood flow measured using H2O15 positron emission tomography during complex and simple encoding tasks (deep vs. shallow level of processing), to identify a region of interest in the left inferior prefrontal cortex...

  9. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Considerable experience has now been gained with the various beam transport lines, and a number of minor changes have been made to improve the ease of operation. These include: replacement of certain little-used slits by profile monitors (harps or scanners); relocation of steering magnets, closer to diagnostic harps or profile scanners; installation of a scanner inside the isocentric neutron therapy system; and conversion of a 2-doublet quadrupole telescope (on the neutron therapy beamline) to a 2-triplet telescope. The beam-swinger project has been delayed by very late delivery of the magnet iron to the manufacturer, but is now progressing smoothly. The K=600 spectrometer magnets have now been delivered and are being assembled for field mapping. The x,y-table with its associated mapping equipment is complete, together with the driver software. One of the experimental areas has been dedicated to the production of collimated neutron beams and has been equipped with a bending magnet and beam dump, together with steel collimators fixed at 4 degrees intervals from 0 degrees to 16 degrees. Changes to the target cooling and shielding system for isotope production have led to a request for much smaller beam spot sizes on target, and preparations have been made for rearrangement of the isotope beamline to permit installation of quadrupole triplets on the three beamlines after the switching magnet. A practical system of quadrupoles for matching beam properties to the spectrometer has been designed. 6 figs

  10. An Unusual Phage Repressor Encoded by Mycobacteriophage BPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie M Villanueva

    Full Text Available Temperate bacteriophages express transcription repressors that maintain lysogeny by down-regulating lytic promoters and confer superinfection immunity. Repressor regulation is critical to the outcome of infection-lysogenic or lytic growth-as well as prophage induction into lytic replication. Mycobacteriophage BPs and its relatives use an unusual integration-dependent immunity system in which the phage attachment site (attP is located within the repressor gene (33 such that site-specific integration leads to synthesis of a prophage-encoded product (gp33103 that is 33 residues shorter at its C-terminus than the virally-encoded protein (gp33136. However, the shorter form of the repressor (gp33103 is stable and active in repression of the early lytic promoter PR, whereas the longer virally-encoded form (gp33136 is inactive due to targeted degradation via a C-terminal ssrA-like tag. We show here that both forms of the repressor bind similarly to the 33-34 intergenic regulatory region, and that BPs gp33103 is a tetramer in solution. The BPs gp33103 repressor binds to five regulatory regions spanning the BPs genome, and regulates four promoters including the early lytic promoter, PR. BPs gp33103 has a complex pattern of DNA recognition in which a full operator binding site contains two half sites separated by a variable spacer, and BPs gp33103 induces a DNA bend at the full operator site but not a half site. The operator site structure is unusual in that one half site corresponds to a 12 bp palindrome identified previously, but the other half site is a highly variable variant of the palindrome.

  11. Vessel encoded arterial spin labeling with cerebral perfusion: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bing; Xiao Jiangxi; Xie Cheng; Wang Xiaoying; Jiang Xuexiang; Wong, E.C.; Wang Jing; Guo Jia; Zhang Beiru; Zhang Jue; Fang Jing

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a noninvasive vessel encoded imaging for selective mapping of the flow territories of the left and fight internal carotid arteries and vertebral-basilar arteries. Methods: Seven volunteers [(33.5 ± 4.1) years; 3 men, 4 women] and 6 patients [(55.2 ± 3.2) years; 2 men, 4 women] were given written informed consent approved by the institutional review board before participating in the study. A pseudo-continuous tagging pulse train is modified to encode all vessels of interest. The selectivity of this method was demonstrated. Regional perfusion imaging was developed on the same arterial spin labeling sequence. Perfusion-weighted images of the selectively labeled cerebral arteries were obtained by subtraction of the labeled from control images. The CBF values of hemisphere, white matter, and gray matter of volunteers were calculated. The vessel territories on patients were compared with DSA. The low perfusion areas were compared with high signal areas on T 2 -FLAIR. Results: High SNR maps of left carotid, right carotid, and basilar territories were generated in 8 minutes of scan time. Cerebral blood flow values measured with regional perfusion imaging in the complete hemisphere (32.6 ± 4.3) ml·min -1 · 100 g -1 , white matter (10.8 ± 0.9) ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 , and gray matter (55.6±2.9) ml·min -1 · 100 g -1 were in agreement with data in the literature. Vessel encoded imaging in patients had a good agreement with DSA. The low perfusion areas were larger than high signal areas on T 2 -FLAIR. Conclusion: We present a new method capable of evaluating both quantitatively and qualitatively the individual brain- feeding arteries in vivo. (authors)

  12. Joint-layer encoder optimization for HEVC scalable extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ming; He, Yuwen; Dong, Jie; Ye, Yan; Xiu, Xiaoyu; He, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Scalable video coding provides an efficient solution to support video playback on heterogeneous devices with various channel conditions in heterogeneous networks. SHVC is the latest scalable video coding standard based on the HEVC standard. To improve enhancement layer coding efficiency, inter-layer prediction including texture and motion information generated from the base layer is used for enhancement layer coding. However, the overall performance of the SHVC reference encoder is not fully optimized because rate-distortion optimization (RDO) processes in the base and enhancement layers are independently considered. It is difficult to directly extend the existing joint-layer optimization methods to SHVC due to the complicated coding tree block splitting decisions and in-loop filtering process (e.g., deblocking and sample adaptive offset (SAO) filtering) in HEVC. To solve those problems, a joint-layer optimization method is proposed by adjusting the quantization parameter (QP) to optimally allocate the bit resource between layers. Furthermore, to make more proper resource allocation, the proposed method also considers the viewing probability of base and enhancement layers according to packet loss rate. Based on the viewing probability, a novel joint-layer RD cost function is proposed for joint-layer RDO encoding. The QP values of those coding tree units (CTUs) belonging to lower layers referenced by higher layers are decreased accordingly, and the QP values of those remaining CTUs are increased to keep total bits unchanged. Finally the QP values with minimal joint-layer RD cost are selected to match the viewing probability. The proposed method was applied to the third temporal level (TL-3) pictures in the Random Access configuration. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed joint-layer optimization method can improve coding performance by 1.3% for these TL-3 pictures compared to the SHVC reference encoder without joint-layer optimization.

  13. Dynamic encoding of speech sequence probability in human temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Matthew K; Bouchard, Kristofer E; Tang, Claire; Chang, Edward F

    2015-05-06

    Sensory processing involves identification of stimulus features, but also integration with the surrounding sensory and cognitive context. Previous work in animals and humans has shown fine-scale sensitivity to context in the form of learned knowledge about the statistics of the sensory environment, including relative probabilities of discrete units in a stream of sequential auditory input. These statistics are a defining characteristic of one of the most important sequential signals humans encounter: speech. For speech, extensive exposure to a language tunes listeners to the statistics of sound sequences. To address how speech sequence statistics are neurally encoded, we used high-resolution direct cortical recordings from human lateral superior temporal cortex as subjects listened to words and nonwords with varying transition probabilities between sound segments. In addition to their sensitivity to acoustic features (including contextual features, such as coarticulation), we found that neural responses dynamically encoded the language-level probability of both preceding and upcoming speech sounds. Transition probability first negatively modulated neural responses, followed by positive modulation of neural responses, consistent with coordinated predictive and retrospective recognition processes, respectively. Furthermore, transition probability encoding was different for real English words compared with nonwords, providing evidence for online interactions with high-order linguistic knowledge. These results demonstrate that sensory processing of deeply learned stimuli involves integrating physical stimulus features with their contextual sequential structure. Despite not being consciously aware of phoneme sequence statistics, listeners use this information to process spoken input and to link low-level acoustic representations with linguistic information about word identity and meaning. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357203-12$15.00/0.

  14. Automatic encoding of polyphonic melodies in musicians and nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takako; Trainor, Laurel J; Ross, Bernhard; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo

    2005-10-01

    In music, multiple musical objects often overlap in time. Western polyphonic music contains multiple simultaneous melodic lines (referred to as "voices") of equal importance. Previous electrophysiological studies have shown that pitch changes in a single melody are automatically encoded in memory traces, as indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN) and its magnetic counterpart (MMNm), and that this encoding process is enhanced by musical experience. In the present study, we examined whether two simultaneous melodies in polyphonic music are represented as separate entities in the auditory memory trace. Musicians and untrained controls were tested in both magnetoencephalogram and behavioral sessions. Polyphonic stimuli were created by combining two melodies (A and B), each consisting of the same five notes but in a different order. Melody A was in the high voice and Melody B in the low voice in one condition, and this was reversed in the other condition. On 50% of trials, a deviant final (5th) note was played either in the high or in the low voice, and it either went outside the key of the melody or remained within the key. These four deviations occurred with equal probability of 12.5% each. Clear MMNm was obtained for most changes in both groups, despite the 50% deviance level, with a larger amplitude in musicians than in controls. The response pattern was consistent across groups, with larger MMNm for deviants in the high voice than in the low voice, and larger MMNm for in-key than out-of-key changes, despite better behavioral performance for out-of-key changes. The results suggest that melodic information in each voice in polyphonic music is encoded in the sensory memory trace, that the higher voice is more salient than the lower, and that tonality may be processed primarily at cognitive stages subsequent to MMN generation.

  15. Encoding of temporal intervals in the rat hindlimb sensorimotor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Bean Knudsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The gradual buildup of neural activity over experimentally imposed delay periods, termed climbing activity, is well documented and is a potential mechanism by which interval time is encoded by distributed cortico-thalamico-striatal networks in the brain. Additionally, when multiple delay periods are incorporated, this activity has been shown to scale its rate of climbing proportional to the delay period. However, it remains unclear whether these patterns of activity occur within areas of motor cortex dedicated to hindlimb movement. Moreover, the effects of behavioral training (e.g. motor tasks under different reward conditions but with similar behavioral output are not well addressed. To address this, we recorded activity from the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex (HLSMC of two groups of rats performing a skilled hindlimb press task. In one group, rats were trained only to a make a valid press within a finite window after cue presentation for reward (non-interval trained, nIT; n=5, while rats in the second group were given duration-specific cues in which they had to make presses of either short or long duration to receive reward (interval trained, IT; n=6. Using PETH analyses, we show that cells recorded from both groups showed climbing activity during the task in similar proportions (35% IT and 47% nIT, however only climbing activity from IT rats was temporally scaled to press duration. Furthermore, using single trial decoding techniques (Wiener filter, we show that press duration can be inferred using climbing activity from IT animals (R=0.61 significantly better than nIT animals (R=0.507, p<0.01, suggesting IT animals encode press duration through temporally scaled climbing activity. Thus, if temporal intervals are behaviorally relevant then the activity of climbing neurons is temporally scaled to encode the passage of time.

  16. Reducing constraints on quantum computer design by encoded selective recoupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidar, D.A.; Wu, L.-A.

    2002-01-01

    The requirement of performing both single-qubit and two-qubit operations in the implementation of universal quantum logic often leads to very demanding constraints on quantum computer design. We show here how to eliminate the need for single-qubit operations in a large subset of quantum computer proposals: those governed by isotropic and XXZ , XY -type anisotropic exchange interactions. Our method employs an encoding of one logical qubit into two physical qubits, while logic operations are performed using an analogue of the NMR selective recoupling method

  17. Spatio-Temporal Encoding in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation two methods for spatio-temporal encoding in medical ultrasound imaging are investigated. The first technique is based on a frequency division approach. Here, the available spectrum of the transducer is divided into a set of narrow bands. A waveform is designed for each band...... the signal to noise ratio and simultaneously the penetration depth so that the medical doctor can image deeper lying structures. The method is tested both experimentally and in simulation and has also evaluated for the purpose of blood flow estimation. The work presented is based on four papers which...

  18. Trinary signed-digit arithmetic using an efficient encoding scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, W. Y.; Alam, M. S.; Fyath, R. S.; Ali, S. A.

    2000-09-01

    The trinary signed-digit (TSD) number system is of interest for ultrafast optoelectronic computing systems since it permits parallel carry-free addition and borrow-free subtraction of two arbitrary length numbers in constant time. In this paper, a simple coding scheme is proposed to encode the decimal number directly into the TSD form. The coding scheme enables one to perform parallel one-step TSD arithmetic operation. The proposed coding scheme uses only a 5-combination coding table instead of the 625-combination table reported recently for recoded TSD arithmetic technique.

  19. Encoding of natural and artificial stimuli in the auditory midbrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzwa, Dominika

    How complex acoustic stimuli are encoded in the main center of convergence in the auditory midbrain is not clear. Here, the representation of neural spiking responses to natural and artificial sounds across this subcortical structure is investigated based on neurophysiological recordings from the mammalian midbrain. Neural and stimulus correlations of neuronal pairs are analyzed with respect to the neurons' distance, and responses to different natural communication sounds are discriminated. A model which includes linear and nonlinear neural response properties of this nucleus is presented and employed to predict temporal spiking responses to new sounds. Supported by BMBF Grant 01GQ0811.

  20. Dynamical Encoding by Networks of Competing Neuron Groups: Winnerless Competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovich, M.; Volkovskii, A.; Lecanda, P.; Huerta, R.; Abarbanel, H. D. I.; Laurent, G.

    2001-01-01

    Following studies of olfactory processing in insects and fish, we investigate neural networks whose dynamics in phase space is represented by orbits near the heteroclinic connections between saddle regions (fixed points or limit cycles). These networks encode input information as trajectories along the heteroclinic connections. If there are N neurons in the network, the capacity is approximately e(N-1) ! , i.e., much larger than that of most traditional network structures. We show that a small winnerless competition network composed of FitzHugh-Nagumo spiking neurons efficiently transforms input information into a spatiotemporal output

  1. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a pu GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

  2. Space-time encoding for high frame rate ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanssis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2002-01-01

    dynamically focused in both transmit and receive with only two firings. This reduces the problem of motion artifacts. The method has been tested with extensive simulations using Field II. Resolution and SNR are compared with uncoded STA imaging and conventional phased-array imaging. The range resolution...... remains the same for coded STA imaging with four emissions and is slightly degraded for STA imaging with two emissions due to the −55 dB cross-talk between the signals. The additional proposed temporal encoding adds more than 15 dB on the SNR gain, yielding a SNR at the same order as in phased-array...

  3. Advanced Encoding for Multilingual Access in a Terminological Data Base

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick; L'Homme, Marie-Claude; Robichaud, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes new functionalities implemented in a terminological database (TDB) in order to allow efficient editing of and access to multilingual data. The functionalities are original in the sense that they allow users of the database to retrieve the equivalents not only of headwords...... between equivalents can be established automatically. Examples are taken from the fields of computing and the Internet and focus on English and French. However, the model can easily be extended to other fields and languages provided that the data is available and encoded properly....

  4. Generation of Path-Encoded Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, N.; Menotti, M.; Sipe, J. E.; Liscidini, M.

    2017-11-01

    We study the generation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states of three path-encoded photons. Inspired by the seminal work of Bouwmeester et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1345 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.1345] on polarization-entangled GHZ states, we find a corresponding path representation for the photon states of an optical circuit, identify the elements required for the state generation, and propose a possible implementation of our strategy. Besides the practical advantage of employing an integrated system that can be fabricated with proven lithographic techniques, our example suggests that it is possible to enhance the generation efficiency by using microring resonators.

  5. On the number of encoder states for a type of RLL codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, K.; Schouhamer Immink, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the number of encoder states and the probable size of certain runlength-limited (RLL) codes is derived analytically. By associating the number of encoder states with (generalized) Fibonacci numbers, the minimum number of encoder states is obtained, which maximizes the rate

  6. Design and implementation of parallel video encoding strategies using divisible load analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Ping; Veeravalli, Bharadwaj; Kassim, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    The processing time needed for motion estimation usually accounts for a significant part of the overall processing time of the video encoder. To improve the video encoding speed, reducing the execution time for motion estimation process is essential. Parallel implementation of video encoding systems

  7. Equal Learning Does Not Result in Equal Remembering: The Importance of Post-Encoding Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Guler, O. Evren; Starr, Rebecca M.; Pathman, Thanujeni

    2011-01-01

    Explanations of variability in long-term recall typically appeal to encoding and/or retrieval processes. However, for well over a century, it has been apparent that for memory traces to be stored successfully, they must undergo a post-encoding process of stabilization and integration. Variability in post-encoding processes is thus a potential…

  8. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  9. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  10. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  11. Cardiovascular change during encoding predicts the nonconscious mere exposure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Sandra L; Toscano, William B; Cowings, Patricia S; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-01-01

    These studies examined memory encoding to determine whether the mere exposure effect could be categorized as a form of conceptual or perceptual implicit priming and, if it was not conceptual or perceptual, whether cardiovascular psychophysiology could reveal its nature. Experiment 1 examined the effects of study phase level of processing on recognition, the mere exposure effect, and word identification implicit priming. Deep relative to shallow processing improved recognition but did not influence the mere exposure effect for nonwords or word identification implicit priming for words. Experiments 2 and 3 examined the effect of study-test changes in font and orientation, respectively, on the mere exposure effect and word identification implicit priming. Different study-test font and orientation reduced word identification implicit priming but had no influence on the mere exposure effect. Experiments 4 and 5 developed and used, respectively, a cardiovascular psychophysiological implicit priming paradigm to examine whether stimulus-specific cardiovascular reactivity at study predicted the mere exposure effect at test. Blood volume pulse change at study was significantly greater for nonwords that were later preferred than for nonwords that were not preferred at test. There was no difference in blood volume pulse change for words at study that were later either identified or not identified at test. Fluency effects, at encoding or retrieval, are an unlikely explanation for these behavioral and cardiovascular findings. The relation of blood volume pulse to affect suggests that an affective process that is not conceptual or perceptual contributes to the mere exposure effect.

  12. Object recognition memory: neurobiological mechanisms of encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Tests of object recognition memory, or the judgment of the prior occurrence of an object, have made substantial contributions to our understanding of the nature and neurobiological underpinnings of mammalian memory. Only in recent years, however, have researchers begun to elucidate the specific brain areas and neural processes involved in object recognition memory. The present review considers some of this recent research, with an emphasis on studies addressing the neural bases of perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory processes. We first briefly discuss operational definitions of object recognition and the common behavioural tests used to measure it in non-human primates and rodents. We then consider research from the non-human primate and rat literature examining the anatomical basis of object recognition memory in the delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) and spontaneous object recognition (SOR) tasks, respectively. The results of these studies overwhelmingly favor the view that perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical region for object recognition memory. We then discuss the involvement of PRh in the different stages--encoding, consolidation, and retrieval--of object recognition memory. Specifically, recent work in rats has indicated that neural activity in PRh contributes to object memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes. Finally, we consider the pharmacological, cellular, and molecular factors that might play a part in PRh-mediated object recognition memory. Recent studies in rodents have begun to indicate the remarkable complexity of the neural substrates underlying this seemingly simple aspect of declarative memory.

  13. Encoder-decoder optimization for brain-computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merel, Josh; Pianto, Donald M; Cunningham, John P; Paninski, Liam

    2015-06-01

    Neuroprosthetic brain-computer interfaces are systems that decode neural activity into useful control signals for effectors, such as a cursor on a computer screen. It has long been recognized that both the user and decoding system can adapt to increase the accuracy of the end effector. Co-adaptation is the process whereby a user learns to control the system in conjunction with the decoder adapting to learn the user's neural patterns. We provide a mathematical framework for co-adaptation and relate co-adaptation to the joint optimization of the user's control scheme ("encoding model") and the decoding algorithm's parameters. When the assumptions of that framework are respected, co-adaptation cannot yield better performance than that obtainable by an optimal initial choice of fixed decoder, coupled with optimal user learning. For a specific case, we provide numerical methods to obtain such an optimized decoder. We demonstrate our approach in a model brain-computer interface system using an online prosthesis simulator, a simple human-in-the-loop pyschophysics setup which provides a non-invasive simulation of the BCI setting. These experiments support two claims: that users can learn encoders matched to fixed, optimal decoders and that, once learned, our approach yields expected performance advantages.

  14. Controlled encoding strategies in memory tests in lithium patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opgenoorth, E; Karlick-Bolten, E

    1986-03-01

    The "levels of processing" theory (Craik and Lockhart) and "dual coding" theory (Paivio) provide new aspects for clinical memory research work. Therefore, an incidental learning paradigm on the basis of these two theoretical approaches was chosen to test aspects of memory performances with lithium therapy. Results of two experiments, with controlled non-semantic processing (rating experiment "comparison of size") and additive semantic processing (rating "living--non-living") indicate a slight reduction in recall (Fig. 1) and recognition performance (Fig. 2) in lithium patients. Effects on encoding strategies are of equal quality in patients and healthy subjects (Tab. 1, 2) but performance differs between both groups: poorer systematic benefit from within code repetitions ("word-word" items, "picture-picture" items) and dual coding (repeated variable item presentation "picture-word") is obtained. The less efficient encoding strategies in the speeded task are discussed with respect to cognitive rigidity and slowing of performance by emotional states. This investigation of so-called "memory deficits" with lithium is an attempt to explore impairments at an early stage of processing; the characterization of the perceptual cognitive analysis seems useful for further clinical research work on this topic.

  15. Retention interval affects visual short-term memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankó, Eva M; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    Humans can efficiently store fine-detailed facial emotional information in visual short-term memory for several seconds. However, an unresolved question is whether the same neural mechanisms underlie high-fidelity short-term memory for emotional expressions at different retention intervals. Here we show that retention interval affects the neural processes of short-term memory encoding using a delayed facial emotion discrimination task. The early sensory P100 component of the event-related potentials (ERP) was larger in the 1-s interstimulus interval (ISI) condition than in the 6-s ISI condition, whereas the face-specific N170 component was larger in the longer ISI condition. Furthermore, the memory-related late P3b component of the ERP responses was also modulated by retention interval: it was reduced in the 1-s ISI as compared with the 6-s condition. The present findings cannot be explained based on differences in sensory processing demands or overall task difficulty because there was no difference in the stimulus information and subjects' performance between the two different ISI conditions. These results reveal that encoding processes underlying high-precision short-term memory for facial emotional expressions are modulated depending on whether information has to be stored for one or for several seconds.

  16. Encoder-decoder optimization for brain-computer interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Merel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprosthetic brain-computer interfaces are systems that decode neural activity into useful control signals for effectors, such as a cursor on a computer screen. It has long been recognized that both the user and decoding system can adapt to increase the accuracy of the end effector. Co-adaptation is the process whereby a user learns to control the system in conjunction with the decoder adapting to learn the user's neural patterns. We provide a mathematical framework for co-adaptation and relate co-adaptation to the joint optimization of the user's control scheme ("encoding model" and the decoding algorithm's parameters. When the assumptions of that framework are respected, co-adaptation cannot yield better performance than that obtainable by an optimal initial choice of fixed decoder, coupled with optimal user learning. For a specific case, we provide numerical methods to obtain such an optimized decoder. We demonstrate our approach in a model brain-computer interface system using an online prosthesis simulator, a simple human-in-the-loop pyschophysics setup which provides a non-invasive simulation of the BCI setting. These experiments support two claims: that users can learn encoders matched to fixed, optimal decoders and that, once learned, our approach yields expected performance advantages.

  17. Novel Intermode Prediction Algorithm for High Efficiency Video Coding Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-seob Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint collaborative team on video coding (JCT-VC is developing the next-generation video coding standard which is called high efficiency video coding (HEVC. In the HEVC, there are three units in block structure: coding unit (CU, prediction unit (PU, and transform unit (TU. The CU is the basic unit of region splitting like macroblock (MB. Each CU performs recursive splitting into four blocks with equal size, starting from the tree block. In this paper, we propose a fast CU depth decision algorithm for HEVC technology to reduce its computational complexity. In 2N×2N PU, the proposed method compares the rate-distortion (RD cost and determines the depth using the compared information. Moreover, in order to speed up the encoding time, the efficient merge SKIP detection method is developed additionally based on the contextual mode information of neighboring CUs. Experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm achieves the average time-saving factor of 44.84% in the random access (RA at Main profile configuration with the HEVC test model (HM 10.0 reference software. Compared to HM 10.0 encoder, a small BD-bitrate loss of 0.17% is also observed without significant loss of image quality.

  18. Alpha oscillations and early stages of visual encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eKlimesch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For a long time alpha oscillations have been functionally linked to the processing of visual information. Here we propose an new theory about the functional meaning of alpha. The central idea is that synchronized alpha reflects a basic processing mode that controls access to information stored in a complex long-term memory system, which we term knowledge system (KS in order to emphasize that it comprises not only declarative memories but any kind of knowledge comprising also procedural information. Based on this theoretical background, we assume that during early stages of perception, alpha ‘directs the flow of information’ to those neural structures which represent information that is relevant for encoding. The physiological function of alpha is interpreted in terms of inhibition. We assume that alpha enables access to stored information by inhibiting task irrelevant neuronal structures and by timing cortical activity in task relevant neuronal structures. We discuss a variety findings showing that evoked alpha and phase locking reflect successful encoding of global stimulus features in an early poststimulus interval of about 0 - 150 ms.

  19. How the visual brain encodes and keeps track of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvioni, Paolo; Murray, Micah M; Kalmbach, Lysiann; Bueti, Domenica

    2013-07-24

    Time is embedded in any sensory experience: the movements of a dance, the rhythm of a piece of music, the words of a speaker are all examples of temporally structured sensory events. In humans, if and how visual cortices perform temporal processing remains unclear. Here we show that both primary visual cortex (V1) and extrastriate area V5/MT are causally involved in encoding and keeping time in memory and that this involvement is independent from low-level visual processing. Most importantly we demonstrate that V1 and V5/MT come into play simultaneously and seem to be functionally linked during interval encoding, whereas they operate serially (V1 followed by V5/MT) and seem to be independent while maintaining temporal information in working memory. These data help to refine our knowledge of the functional properties of human visual cortex, highlighting the contribution and the temporal dynamics of V1 and V5/MT in the processing of the temporal aspects of visual information.

  20. Shot-Noise Limited Time-Encoded Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Karpf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman scattering, an inelastic scattering mechanism, provides information about molecular excitation energies and can be used to identify chemical compounds. Albeit being a powerful analysis tool, especially for label-free biomedical imaging with molecular contrast, it suffers from inherently low signal levels. This practical limitation can be overcome by nonlinear enhancement techniques like stimulated Raman scattering (SRS. In SRS, an additional light source stimulates the Raman scattering process. This can lead to orders of magnitude increase in signal levels and hence faster acquisition in biomedical imaging. However, achieving a broad spectral coverage in SRS is technically challenging and the signal is no longer background-free, as either stimulated Raman gain (SRG or loss (SRL is measured, turning a sensitivity limit into a dynamic range limit. Thus, the signal has to be isolated from the laser background light, requiring elaborate methods for minimizing detection noise. Here, we analyze the detection sensitivity of a shot-noise limited broadband stimulated time-encoded Raman (TICO-Raman system in detail. In time-encoded Raman, a wavelength-swept Fourier domain mode locking (FDML laser covers a broad range of Raman transition energies while allowing a dual-balanced detection for lowering the detection noise to the fundamental shot-noise limit.

  1. Encoding audio motion: spatial impairment in early blind individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eFinocchietti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The consequence of blindness on auditory spatial localization has been an interesting issue of research in the last decade providing mixed results. Enhanced auditory spatial skills in individuals with visual impairment have been reported by multiple studies, while some aspects of spatial hearing seem to be impaired in the absence of vision. In this study, the ability to encode the trajectory of a 2 dimensional sound motion, reproducing the complete movement, and reaching the correct end-point sound position, is evaluated in 12 early blind individuals, 8 late blind individuals, and 20 age-matched sighted blindfolded controls. Early blind individuals correctly determine the direction of the sound motion on the horizontal axis, but show a clear deficit in encoding the sound motion in the lower side of the plane. On the contrary, late blind individuals and blindfolded controls perform much better with no deficit in the lower side of the plane. In fact the mean localization error resulted 271 ± 10 mm for early blind individuals, 65 ± 4 mm for late blind individuals, and 68 ± 2 mm for sighted blindfolded controls.These results support the hypothesis that i it exists a trade-off between the development of enhanced perceptual abilities and role of vision in the sound localization abilities of early blind individuals, and ii the visual information is fundamental in calibrating some aspects of the representation of auditory space in the brain.

  2. How does cognitive load influence speech perception? An encoding hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterer, Holger; Mattys, Sven L

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the conditions under which cognitive load exerts an effect on the acuity of speech perception. These experiments extend earlier research by using a different speech perception task (four-interval oddity task) and by implementing cognitive load through a task often thought to be modular, namely, face processing. In the cognitive-load conditions, participants were required to remember two faces presented before the speech stimuli. In Experiment 1, performance in the speech-perception task under cognitive load was not impaired in comparison to a no-load baseline condition. In Experiment 2, we modified the load condition minimally such that it required encoding of the two faces simultaneously with the speech stimuli. As a reference condition, we also used a visual search task that in earlier experiments had led to poorer speech perception. Both concurrent tasks led to decrements in the speech task. The results suggest that speech perception is affected even by loads thought to be processed modularly, and that, critically, encoding in working memory might be the locus of interference.

  3. Multi-Temporal Land Cover Classification with Sequential Recurrent Encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rußwurm, Marc; Körner, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Earth observation (EO) sensors deliver data with daily or weekly temporal resolution. Most land use and land cover (LULC) approaches, however, expect cloud-free and mono-temporal observations. The increasing temporal capabilities of today's sensors enables the use of temporal, along with spectral and spatial features. Domains, such as speech recognition or neural machine translation, work with inherently temporal data and, today, achieve impressive results using sequential encoder-decoder structures. Inspired by these sequence-to-sequence models, we adapt an encoder structure with convolutional recurrent layers in order to approximate a phenological model for vegetation classes based on a temporal sequence of Sentinel 2 (S2) images. In our experiments, we visualize internal activations over a sequence of cloudy and non-cloudy images and find several recurrent cells, which reduce the input activity for cloudy observations. Hence, we assume that our network has learned cloud-filtering schemes solely from input data, which could alleviate the need for tedious cloud-filtering as a preprocessing step for many EO approaches. Moreover, using unfiltered temporal series of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance data, we achieved in our experiments state-of-the-art classification accuracies on a large number of crop classes with minimal preprocessing compared to other classification approaches.

  4. Environmental cycle of antibiotic resistance encoded genes: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. ghanbari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes enter the environment in different ways. The release of these factors into the environment has increased concerns related to public health. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in the environmental resources. In this systematic review, the data were extracted from valid sources of information including ScienceDirect, PubMed, Google Scholar and SID. Evaluation and selection of articles were conducted on the basis of the PRISMA checklist. A total of 39 articles were included in the study, which were chosen from a total of 1249 papers. The inclusion criterion was the identification of genes encoding antibiotic resistance against the eight important groups of antibiotics determined by using the PCR technique in the environmental sources including municipal and hospital wastewater treatment plants, animal and agricultural wastes, effluents from treatment plants, natural waters, sediments, and drinking waters. In this study, 113 genes encoding antibiotic resistance to eight groups of antibiotics (beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, macrolides, sulfonamides, chloramphenicol, glycopeptides and quinolones were identified in various environments. Antibiotic resistance genes were found in all the investigated environments. The investigation of microorganisms carrying these genes shows that most of the bacteria especially gram-negative bacteria are effective in the acquisition and the dissemination of these pollutants in the environment. Discharging the raw wastewaters and effluents from wastewater treatments acts as major routes in the dissemination of ARGs into environment sources and can pose hazards to public health.

  5. Functional mining of transporters using synthetic selections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genee, Hans Jasper; Bali, Anne Pihl; Petersen, Søren Dalsgård

    2016-01-01

    transporters, PnuT, which is widely distributed across multiple bacterial phyla. We demonstrate that with modular replacement of the biosensor, we could expand our method to xanthine and identify xanthine permeases from gut and soil metagenomes. Our results demonstrate how synthetic-biology approaches can......-responsive biosensor systems that enable selective growth of cells only if they encode a ligand-specific importer. We developed such a synthetic selection system for thiamine pyrophosphate and mined soil and gut metagenomes for thiamine-uptake functions. We identified several members of a novel class of thiamine...

  6. QualityML: a dictionary for quality metadata encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninyerola, Miquel; Sevillano, Eva; Serral, Ivette; Pons, Xavier; Zabala, Alaitz; Bastin, Lucy; Masó, Joan

    2014-05-01

    The scenario of rapidly growing geodata catalogues requires tools focused on facilitate users the choice of products. Having quality fields populated in metadata allow the users to rank and then select the best fit-for-purpose products. In this direction, we have developed the QualityML (http://qualityml.geoviqua.org), a dictionary that contains hierarchically structured concepts to precisely define and relate quality levels: from quality classes to quality measurements. Generically, a quality element is the path that goes from the higher level (quality class) to the lowest levels (statistics or quality metrics). This path is used to encode quality of datasets in the corresponding metadata schemas. The benefits of having encoded quality, in the case of data producers, are related with improvements in their product discovery and better transmission of their characteristics. In the case of data users, particularly decision-makers, they would find quality and uncertainty measures to take the best decisions as well as perform dataset intercomparison. Also it allows other components (such as visualization, discovery, or comparison tools) to be quality-aware and interoperable. On one hand, the QualityML is a profile of the ISO geospatial metadata standards providing a set of rules for precisely documenting quality indicator parameters that is structured in 6 levels. On the other hand, QualityML includes semantics and vocabularies for the quality concepts. Whenever possible, if uses statistic expressions from the UncertML dictionary (http://www.uncertml.org) encoding. However it also extends UncertML to provide list of alternative metrics that are commonly used to quantify quality. A specific example, based on a temperature dataset, is shown below. The annual mean temperature map has been validated with independent in-situ measurements to obtain a global error of 0.5 ° C. Level 0: Quality class (e.g., Thematic accuracy) Level 1: Quality indicator (e.g., Quantitative

  7. Structure, mechanism and cooperation of bacterial multidrug transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dijun; van Veen, Hendrik W; Murakami, Satoshi; Pos, Klaas M; Luisi, Ben F

    2015-08-01

    Cells from all domains of life encode energy-dependent trans-membrane transporters that can expel harmful substances including clinically applied therapeutic agents. As a collective body, these transporters perform as a super-system that confers tolerance to an enormous range of harmful compounds and consequently aid survival in hazardous environments. In the Gram-negative bacteria, some of these transporters serve as energy-transducing components of tripartite assemblies that actively efflux drugs and other harmful compounds, as well as deliver virulence agents across the entire cell envelope. We draw together recent structural and functional data to present the current models for the transport mechanisms for the main classes of multi-drug transporters and their higher-order assemblies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Transportation librarian's toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The Transportation Librarians Toolkit is a product of the Transportation Library Connectivity pooled fund study, TPF- 5(105), a collaborative, grass-roots effort by transportation libraries to enhance information accessibility and professional expert...

  9. Advanced Transportation Institute 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The seventh version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-08) was conducted in 2008 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered wit...

  10. Advanced Transportation Institute 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The eighth version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-09) was conducted in 2009 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered with...

  11. Innovative Technologies in Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    An historical overview of the transportation infrastructure of the United States and Texas is provided. Data for trends in transportation is analyzed and projections for the future are postulated. A survey of current technologies in transportation is...

  12. State Transportation Statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2010, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  13. State transportation statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and : Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation : Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the : District ...

  14. State Transportation Statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2011, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  15. State Transportation Statistics 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2013, a statistical profile of transportatio...

  16. An electrophysiological investigation of memory encoding, depth of processing, and word frequency in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunyan; Zhu, Ying; Ding, Jinhong; Fan, Silu; Paller, Ken A

    2004-02-12

    Memory encoding can be studied by monitoring brain activity correlated with subsequent remembering. To understand brain potentials associated with encoding, we compared multiple factors known to affect encoding. Depth of processing was manipulated by requiring subjects to detect animal names (deep encoding) or boldface (shallow encoding) in a series of Chinese words. Recognition was more accurate with deep than shallow encoding, and for low- compared to high-frequency words. Potentials were generally more positive for subsequently recognized versus forgotten words; for deep compared to shallow processing; and, for remembered words only, for low- than for high-frequency words. Latency and topographic differences between these potentials suggested that several factors influence the effectiveness of encoding and can be distinguished using these methods, even with Chinese logographic symbols.

  17. Low Complexity Encoder of High Rate Irregular QC-LDPC Codes for Partial Response Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMTAWIL, V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available High rate irregular QC-LDPC codes based on circulant permutation matrices, for efficient encoder implementation, are proposed in this article. The structure of the code is an approximate lower triangular matrix. In addition, we present two novel efficient encoding techniques for generating redundant bits. The complexity of the encoder implementation depends on the number of parity bits of the code for the one-stage encoding and the length of the code for the two-stage encoding. The advantage of both encoding techniques is that few XOR-gates are used in the encoder implementation. Simulation results on partial response channels also show that the BER performance of the proposed code has gain over other QC-LDPC codes.

  18. Neutral details associated with emotional events are encoded: evidence from a cued recall paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Knight, Aubrey G; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    Enhanced emotional memory often comes at the cost of memory for surrounding background information. Narrowed-encoding theories suggest that this is due to narrowed attention for emotional information at encoding, leading to impaired encoding of background information. Recent work has suggested that an encoding-based theory may be insufficient. Here, we examined whether cued recall-instead of previously used recognition memory tasks-would reveal evidence that non-emotional information associated with emotional information was effectively encoded. Participants encoded positive, negative, or neutral objects on neutral backgrounds. At retrieval, they were given either the item or the background as a memory cue and were asked to recall the associated scene element. Counter to narrowed-encoding theories, emotional items were more likely than neutral items to trigger recall of the associated background. This finding suggests that there is a memory trace of this contextual information and that emotional cues may facilitate retrieval of this information.

  19. Information transfer via implicit encoding with delay time modulation in a time-delay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kye, Won-Ho, E-mail: whkye@kipo.go.kr [Korean Intellectual Property Office, Government Complex Daejeon Building 4, 189, Cheongsa-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-20

    A new encoding scheme for information transfer with modulated delay time in a time-delay system is proposed. In the scheme, the message is implicitly encoded into the modulated delay time. The information transfer rate as a function of encoding redundancy in various noise scales is presented and it is analyzed that the implicit encoding scheme (IES) has stronger resistance against channel noise than the explicit encoding scheme (EES). In addition, its advantages in terms of secure communication and feasible applications are discussed. -- Highlights: ► We propose new encoding scheme with delay time modulation. ► The message is implicitly encoded with modulated delay time. ► The proposed scheme shows stronger resistance against channel noise.

  20. The herpesvirus 8-encoded chemokine vMIP-II, but not the poxvirus-encoded chemokine MC148, inhibits the CCR10 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüttichau, H R; Lewis, I C; Gerstoft, J

    2001-01-01

    The viral chemokine antagonist vMIP-II encoded by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) and MC148 encoded by the poxvirus - Molluscum contagiosum - were tested against the newly identified chemokine receptor CCR10. As the CCR10 ligand ESkine / CCL27 had the highest identity to MC148 and because both...

  1. The effect of encoding strategy on the neural correlates of memory for faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Lori J; Beig, Sania; Siegenthaler, Amy L; Grady, Cheryl L

    2002-01-01

    Encoding and recognition of unfamiliar faces in young adults were examined using positron emission tomography to determine whether different encoding strategies would lead to encoding/retrieval differences in brain activity. Three types of encoding were compared: a 'deep' task (judging pleasantness/unpleasantness), a 'shallow' task (judging right/left orientation), and an intentional learning task in which subjects were instructed to learn the faces for a subsequent memory test but were not provided with a specific strategy. Memory for all faces was tested with an old/new recognition test. A modest behavioral effect was obtained, with deeply-encoded faces being recognized more accurately than shallowly-encoded or intentionally-learned faces. Regardless of encoding strategy, encoding activated a primarily ventral system including bilateral temporal and fusiform regions and left prefrontal cortices, whereas recognition activated a primarily dorsal set of regions including right prefrontal and parietal areas. Within encoding, the type of strategy produced different brain activity patterns, with deep encoding being characterized by left amygdala and left anterior cingulate activation. There was no effect of encoding strategy on brain activity during the recognition conditions. Posterior fusiform gyrus activation was related to better recognition accuracy in those conditions encouraging perceptual strategies, whereas activity in left frontal and temporal areas correlated with better performance during the 'deep' condition. Results highlight three important aspects of face memory: (1) the effect of encoding strategy was seen only at encoding and not at recognition; (2) left inferior prefrontal cortex was engaged during encoding of faces regardless of strategy; and (3) differential activity in fusiform gyrus was found, suggesting that activity in this area is not only a result of automatic face processing but is modulated by controlled processes.

  2. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  3. Neoclassical transport in NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Beidler, C.D.; Maassberg, H.; Houlberg, W.A.; Spong, D.A.; Tribaldos, V.

    2003-01-01

    Methods for calculating neoclassical transport in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) are discussed, with particular attention to developing computationally inexpensive predictions of neoclassical transport. (orig.)

  4. Journal of transportation engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    The Journal of Transportation Engineering contains technical and professional articles on the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of air, highway, rail, and urban transportation...

  5. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    .... Because the defense sector relies on commercial transportation for both peacetime activities and for power projection, senior military leaders must understand the global transportation industry...

  6. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  7. Properties of virion transactivator proteins encoded by primate cytomegaloviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Peter A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a betaherpesvirus that causes severe disease in situations where the immune system is immature or compromised. HCMV immediate early (IE gene expression is stimulated by the virion phosphoprotein pp71, encoded by open reading frame (ORF UL82, and this transactivation activity is important for the efficient initiation of viral replication. It is currently recognized that pp71 acts to overcome cellular intrinsic defences that otherwise block viral IE gene expression, and that interactions of pp71 with the cell proteins Daxx and ATRX are important for this function. A further property of pp71 is the ability to enable prolonged gene expression from quiescent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 genomes. Non-human primate cytomegaloviruses encode homologs of pp71, but there is currently no published information that addresses their effects on gene expression and modes of action. Results The UL82 homolog encoded by simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV, strain Colburn, was identified and cloned. This ORF, named S82, was cloned into an HSV-1 vector, as were those from baboon, rhesus monkey and chimpanzee cytomegaloviruses. The use of an HSV-1 vector enabled expression of the UL82 homologs in a range of cell types, and permitted investigation of their abilities to direct prolonged gene expression from quiescent genomes. The results show that all UL82 homologs activate gene expression, and that neither host cell type nor promoter target sequence has major effects on these activities. Surprisingly, the UL82 proteins specified by non-human primate cytomegaloviruses, unlike pp71, did not direct long term expression from quiescent HSV-1 genomes. In addition, significant differences were observed in the intranuclear localization of the UL82 homologs, and in their effects on Daxx. Strikingly, S82 mediated the release of Daxx from nuclear domain 10 substructures much more rapidly than pp71 or the other proteins tested. All

  8. Are animacy effects in episodic memory independent of encoding instructions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelin, Margaux; Bugaiska, Aurélia; Méot, Alain; Bonin, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The adaptive view of human memory [Nairne, J. S. 2010. Adaptive memory: Evolutionary constraints on remembering. In B. H. Ross (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 53 pp. 1-32). Burlington: Academic Press; Nairne, J. S., & Pandeirada, J. N. S. 2010a. Adaptive memory: Ancestral priorities and the mnemonic value of survival processing. Cognitive Psychology, 61, 1-22, 2010b; Memory functions. In The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral science, (Vol 3, 4th ed. pp. 977-979). Hokoben, NJ: John Wiley & Sons] assumes that animates (e.g., baby, rabbit presented as words or pictures) are better remembered than inanimates (e.g., bottle, mountain) because animates are more important for fitness than inanimates. In four studies, we investigated whether the animacy effect in episodic memory (i.e., the better remembering of animates over inanimates) is independent of encoding instructions. Using both a factorial (Studies 1 and 3) and a multiple regression approach (Study 2), three studies tested whether certain contexts drive people to attend to inanimate more than to animate things (or the reverse), and therefore lead to differential animacy effects. The findings showed that animacy effects on recall performance were observed in the grassland-survival scenario used by Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada (2007. Adaptive memory: Survival processing enhances retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 33, 263-273) (Studies 1-3), when words were rated for their pleasantness (Study 2), and in explicit learning (Study 3). In the non-survival scenario of moving to a foreign land (Studies 1-2), animacy effects on recall rates were not reliable in Study 1, but were significant in Study 2, whereas these effects were reliable in the non-survival scenario of planning a trip as a tour guide (Study 3). A final (control) study (Study 4) was conducted to test specifically whether animacy effects are related to the more organised

  9. Constructing LDPC Codes from Loop-Free Encoding Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Jones, Christopher; Thorpe, Jeremy; Andrews, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    A method of constructing certain low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes by use of relatively simple loop-free coding modules has been developed. The subclasses of LDPC codes to which the method applies includes accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes, accumulate-repeat-check-accumulate codes, and the codes described in Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes (NPO-41305), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 9 (September 2007), page 90. All of the affected codes can be characterized as serial/parallel (hybrid) concatenations of such relatively simple modules as accumulators, repetition codes, differentiators, and punctured single-parity check codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. These codes can also be characterized as hybrid turbolike codes that have projected graph or protograph representations (for example see figure); these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The present method comprises two related submethods for constructing LDPC codes from simple loop-free modules with circulant permutations. The first submethod is an iterative encoding method based on the erasure-decoding algorithm. The computations required by this method are well organized because they involve a parity-check matrix having a block-circulant structure. The second submethod involves the use of block-circulant generator matrices. The encoders of this method are very similar to those of recursive convolutional codes. Some encoders according to this second submethod have been implemented in a small field-programmable gate array that operates at a speed of 100 megasymbols per second. By use of density evolution (a computational- simulation technique for analyzing performances of LDPC codes), it has been shown through some examples that as the block size goes to infinity, low iterative decoding thresholds close to

  10. Vibrio Phage KVP40 Encodes a Functional NAD+ Salvage Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yun; Li, Zhiqun; Miller, Eric S

    2017-05-01

    The genome of T4-type Vibrio bacteriophage KVP40 has five genes predicted to encode proteins of pyridine nucleotide metabolism, of which two, nadV and natV , would suffice for an NAD + salvage pathway. NadV is an apparent nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAmPRTase), and NatV is an apparent bifunctional nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNATase) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide pyrophosphatase (Nudix hydrolase). Genes encoding the predicted salvage pathway were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli , the proteins were purified, and their enzymatic properties were examined. KVP40 NadV NAmPRTase is active in vitro , and a clone complements a Salmonella mutant defective in both the bacterial de novo and salvage pathways. Similar to other NAmPRTases, the KVP40 enzyme displayed ATPase activity indicative of energy coupling in the reaction mechanism. The NatV NMNATase activity was measured in a coupled reaction system demonstrating NAD + biosynthesis from nicotinamide, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, and ATP. The NatV Nudix hydrolase domain was also shown to be active, with preferred substrates of ADP-ribose, NAD + , and NADH. Expression analysis using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and enzyme assays of infected Vibrio parahaemolyticus cells demonstrated nadV and natV transcription during the early and delayed-early periods of infection when other KVP40 genes of nucleotide precursor metabolism are expressed. The distribution and phylogeny of NadV and NatV proteins among several large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) myophages, and also those from some very large siphophages, suggest broad relevance of pyridine nucleotide scavenging in virus-infected cells. NAD + biosynthesis presents another important metabolic resource control point by large, rapidly replicating dsDNA bacteriophages. IMPORTANCE T4-type bacteriophages enhance DNA precursor synthesis through reductive reactions that use NADH/NADPH as the electron donor and NAD

  11. Structural model of a putrescine-cadaverine permease from Trypanosoma cruzi predicts residues vital for transport and ligand binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soysa, R.; Venselaar, H.; Poston, J.; Ullman, B.; Hasne, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    The TcPOT1.1 gene from Trypanosoma cruzi encodes a high affinity putrescine-cadaverine transporter belonging to the APC (amino acid/polyamine/organocation) transporter superfamily. No experimental three-dimensional structure exists for any eukaryotic member of the APC family, and thus the structural

  12. Identification of rare high-risk copy number variants affecting the dopamine transporter gene in mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeffding, Louise Kristine Enggaard; Duong, Linh T T; Ingason, Andres

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dopamine transporter, also known as solute carrier 6A3 (SLC6A3), plays an important role in synaptic transmission by regulating the reuptake of dopamine in the synapses. In line with this, variations in the gene encoding this transporter have been linked to both schizophrenia and ...

  13. The neural encoding of guesses in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Stefan; Bogler, Carsten; Soon, Chun Siong; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2012-01-16

    Human perception depends heavily on the quality of sensory information. When objects are hard to see we often believe ourselves to be purely guessing. Here we investigated whether such guesses use brain networks involved in perceptual decision making or independent networks. We used a combination of fMRI and pattern classification to test how visibility affects the signals, which determine choices. We found that decisions regarding clearly visible objects are predicted by signals in sensory brain regions, whereas different regions in parietal cortex became predictive when subjects were shown invisible objects and believed themselves to be purely guessing. This parietal network was highly overlapping with regions, which have previously been shown to encode free decisions. Thus, the brain might use a dedicated network for determining choices when insufficient sensory information is available. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression analysis of a ''Cucurbita'' cDNA encoding endonuclease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, J.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear matrices of plant cell nuclei display intrinsic nuclease activity which consists in nicking supercoiled DNA. A cDNA encoding a 32 kDa endonuclease has been cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and deduced amino-acid sequences show high homology to known 14-3-3-protein sequences from other sources. The amino-acid sequence shows agreement with consensus sequences for potential phosphorylation by protein kinase A and C and for calcium, lipid and membrane-binding sites. The nucleotide-binding site is also present within the conserved part of the sequence. By Northern blot analysis, the differential expression of the corresponding mRNA was detected; it was the strongest in sink tissues. The endonuclease activity found on DNA-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coincided with mRNA content and was the highest in tuber. (author). 22 refs, 6 figs

  15. Bacteriophages encode factors required for protection in a symbiotic mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kerry M; Degnan, Patrick H; Hunter, Martha S; Moran, Nancy A

    2009-08-21

    Bacteriophages are known to carry key virulence factors for pathogenic bacteria, but their roles in symbiotic bacteria are less well understood. The heritable symbiont Hamiltonella defensa protects the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum from attack by the parasitoid Aphidius ervi by killing developing wasp larvae. In a controlled genetic background, we show that a toxin-encoding bacteriophage is required to produce the protective phenotype. Phage loss occurs repeatedly in laboratory-held H. defensa-infected aphid clonal lines, resulting in increased susceptibility to parasitism in each instance. Our results show that these mobile genetic elements can endow a bacterial symbiont with benefits that extend to the animal host. Thus, phages vector ecologically important traits, such as defense against parasitoids, within and among symbiont and animal host lineages.

  16. Cloning of Salmonella typhimurium DNA encoding mutagenic DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.M.; Sedgwick, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    Mutagenic DNA repair in Escherichia coli is encoded by the umuDC operon. Salmonella typhimurium DNA which has homology with E. coli umuC and is able to complement E. coli umuC122::Tn5 and umuC36 mutations has been cloned. Complementation of umuD44 mutants and hybridization with E. coli umuD also occurred, but these activities were much weaker than with umuC. Restriction enzyme mapping indicated that the composition of the cloned fragment is different from the E. coli umuDC operon. Therefore, a umu-like function of S. typhimurium has been found; the phenotype of this function is weaker than that of its E. coli counterpart, which is consistent with the weak mutagenic response of S. typhimurium to UV compared with the response in E. coli

  17. Rapid Automatic Motor Encoding of Competing Reach Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Gallivan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mounting neural evidence suggests that, in situations in which there are multiple potential targets for action, the brain prepares, in parallel, competing movements associated with these targets, prior to implementing one of them. Central to this interpretation is the idea that competing viewed targets, prior to selection, are rapidly and automatically transformed into corresponding motor representations. Here, by applying target-specific, gradual visuomotor rotations and dissociating, unbeknownst to participants, the visual direction of potential targets from the direction of the movements required to reach the same targets, we provide direct evidence for this provocative idea. Our results offer strong empirical support for theories suggesting that competing action options are automatically represented in terms of the movements required to attain them. The rapid motor encoding of potential targets may support the fast optimization of motor costs under conditions of target uncertainty and allow the motor system to inform decisions about target selection.

  18. Designing waveforms for temporal encoding using a frequency sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    was compared to a linear frequency modulated signal with amplitude tapering, previously used in clinical studies for synthetic transmit aperture imaging. The latter had a relatively flat spectrum which implied that the waveform tried to excite all frequencies including ones with low amplification. The proposed......In this paper a method for designing waveforms for temporal encoding in medical ultrasound imaging is described. The method is based on least squares optimization and is used to design nonlinear frequency modulated signals for synthetic transmit aperture imaging. By using the proposed design method...... waveform, on the other hand, was designed so that only frequencies where the transducer had a large amplification were excited. Hereby, unnecessary heating of the transducer could be avoided and the signal-tonoise ratio could be increased. The experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS was used to evaluate...

  19. Synthesis and nanoscale thermal encoding of phase-change nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xuhui; Yu Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Low-dimensional phase-change nanostructures provide a valuable research platform for understanding the phase-transition behavior and thermal properties at nanoscale and their potential in achieving superdense data storage. Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 nanowires have been grown using a vapor-liquid-solid technique and shown to exhibit distinctive properties that may overcome the present data storage scaling barrier. Local heating of an individual nanowire with a focused electron beam was used to shape a nano-bar-code on a Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 nanowire. The data encoding on Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 nanowire may promote novel device concepts to implement ultrahigh density, low energy, high speed data storage using phase-change nanomaterials with diverse thermal-programing strategies

  20. Feature-specific encoding flexibility in visual working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Kondo

    Full Text Available The current study examined selective encoding in visual working memory by systematically investigating interference from task-irrelevant features. The stimuli were objects defined by three features (color, shape, and location, and during a delay period, any of the features could switch between two objects. Additionally, single- and whole-probe trials were randomized within experimental blocks to investigate effects of memory retrieval. A series of relevant-feature switch detection tasks, where one feature was task-irrelevant, showed that interference from the task-irrelevant feature was only observed in the color-shape task, suggesting that color and shape information could be successfully filtered out, but location information could not, even when location was a task-irrelevant feature. Therefore, although location information is added to object representations independent of task demands in a relatively automatic manner, other features (e.g., color, shape can be flexibly added to object representations.

  1. Acquiring, encoding, and re-using clinical knowledge in PRODIGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hall

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The development, implementation and maintenance of computer-executable clinical guidelines encompass a series of complex processes. As they are often performed by more than one organisation, this introduces further complexity. Within the PRODIGY project we attempt to control as many aspects of the process as possible, in order to increase the likelihood of achieving success. To illustrate the complexity of the process and many of the inherent problems and solutions, this paper describes the evolution of the PRODIGY knowledge base, describing the steps from acquiring knowledge, through encoding, to the execution of guidelines, and 'closing the loop' by discussing an approach to knowledge re-use. We will also consider some of the wider implications of our work and propose directions for future research and development activities.

  2. Multiple genes encode the major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, J A; Powell, F; Edman, J C

    1993-01-01

    hydrophobic region at the carboxyl terminus. The presence of multiple related msg genes encoding the major surface glycoprotein of P. carinii suggests that antigenic variation is a possible mechanism for evading host defenses. Further characterization of this family of genes should allow the development......The major surface antigen of Pneumocystis carinii, a life-threatening opportunistic pathogen in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, is an abundant glycoprotein that functions in host-organism interactions. A monoclonal antibody to this antigen is protective in animals, and thus...... blot studies using chromosomal or restricted DNA, the major surface glycoproteins are the products of a multicopy family of genes. The predicted protein has an M(r) of approximately 123,000, is relatively rich in cysteine residues (5.5%) that are very strongly conserved, and contains a well conserved...

  3. Genetically encoded probes for NAD+/NADH monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilan, Dmitry S; Belousov, Vsevolod V

    2016-11-01

    NAD + and NADH participate in many metabolic reactions. The NAD + /NADH ratio is an important parameter reflecting the general metabolic and redox state of different types of cells. For a long time, in situ and in vivo NAD + /NADH monitoring has been hampered by the lack of suitable tools. The recent development of genetically encoded indicators based on fluorescent proteins linked to specific nucleotide-binding domains has already helped to address this monitoring problem. In this review, we will focus on four available indicators: Peredox, Frex family probes, RexYFP and SoNar. Each indicator has advantages and limitations. We will also discuss the most important points that should be considered when selecting a suitable indicator for certain experimental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical demodulation system for digitally encoded suspension array in fluoroimmunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Li, Dongmei; He, Yonghong; Guan, Tian; Zhang, Yilong; Shen, Zhiyuan; Chen, Xuejing; Liu, Siyu; Lu, Bangrong; Ji, Yanhong

    2017-09-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy-coupled optical system is reported to demodulate digitally encoded suspension array in fluoroimmunoassay. It takes advantage of the plasma emissions of assembled elemental materials to digitally decode the suspension array, providing a more stable and accurate recognition to target biomolecules. By separating the decoding procedure of suspension array and adsorption quantity calculation of biomolecules into two independent channels, the cross talk between decoding and label signals in traditional methods had been successfully avoided, which promoted the accuracy of both processes and realized more sensitive quantitative detection of target biomolecules. We carried a multiplexed detection of several types of anti-IgG to verify the quantitative analysis performance of the system. A limit of detection of 1.48×10-10 M was achieved, demonstrating the detection sensitivity of the optical demodulation system.

  5. Feature-specific encoding flexibility in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Aki; Saiki, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined selective encoding in visual working memory by systematically investigating interference from task-irrelevant features. The stimuli were objects defined by three features (color, shape, and location), and during a delay period, any of the features could switch between two objects. Additionally, single- and whole-probe trials were randomized within experimental blocks to investigate effects of memory retrieval. A series of relevant-feature switch detection tasks, where one feature was task-irrelevant, showed that interference from the task-irrelevant feature was only observed in the color-shape task, suggesting that color and shape information could be successfully filtered out, but location information could not, even when location was a task-irrelevant feature. Therefore, although location information is added to object representations independent of task demands in a relatively automatic manner, other features (e.g., color, shape) can be flexibly added to object representations.

  6. Coupled generative adversarial stacked Auto-encoder: CoGASA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiasari, Mohammad Ahangar; Moirangthem, Dennis Singh; Lee, Minho

    2018-04-01

    Coupled Generative Adversarial Network (CoGAN) was recently introduced in order to model a joint distribution of a multi modal dataset. The CoGAN model lacks the capability to handle noisy data as well as it is computationally expensive and inefficient for practical applications such as cross-domain image transformation. In this paper, we propose a new method, named the Coupled Generative Adversarial Stacked Auto-encoder (CoGASA), to directly transfer data from one domain to another domain with robustness to noise in the input data as well to as reduce the computation time. We evaluate the proposed model using MNIST and the Large-scale CelebFaces Attributes (CelebA) datasets, and the results demonstrate a highly competitive performance. Our proposed models can easily transfer images into the target domain with minimal effort. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Method of generating ploynucleotides encoding enhanced folding variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Kiss, Csaba; Waldo, Geoffrey S.

    2017-05-02

    The invention provides directed evolution methods for improving the folding, solubility and stability (including thermostability) characteristics of polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention provides a method for generating folding and stability-enhanced variants of proteins, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins, chromophoric proteins and enzymes. In another aspect, the invention provides methods for generating thermostable variants of a target protein or polypeptide via an internal destabilization baiting strategy. Internally destabilization a protein of interest is achieved by inserting a heterologous, folding-destabilizing sequence (folding interference domain) within DNA encoding the protein of interest, evolving the protein sequences adjacent to the heterologous insertion to overcome the destabilization (using any number of mutagenesis methods), thereby creating a library of variants. The variants in the library are expressed, and those with enhanced folding characteristics selected.

  8. Information encoding of a qubit into a multilevel environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, A.

    2010-01-01

    I consider the interaction of a small quantum system (a qubit) with a structured environment consisting of many levels. The qubit will experience a decoherence process, which implies that part of its initial information will be encoded into correlations between system and environment. I investigate how this information is distributed on a given subset of levels as a function of its size, using the mutual information between both entities, in the spirit of the partial-information plots studied by Zurek and co-workers. In this case we can observe some differences, which arise from the fact that I am partitioning just one quantum system and not a collection of them. However, some similar features, like redundancy (in the sense that a given amount of information is shared by many subsets), which increases with the size of the environment, are also found here.

  9. Polymeric peptide pigments with sequence-encoded properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampel, Ayala; McPhee, Scott A.; Park, Hang-Ah; Scott, Gary G.; Humagain, Sunita; Hekstra, Doeke R.; Yoo, Barney; Frederix, Pim W. J. M.; Li, Tai-De; Abzalimov, Rinat R.; Greenbaum, Steven G.; Tuttle, Tell; Hu, Chunhua; Bettinger, Christopher J.; Ulijn, Rein V.

    2017-06-08

    Melanins are a family of heterogeneous polymeric pigments that provide ultraviolet (UV) light protection, structural support, coloration, and free radical scavenging. Formed by oxidative oligomerization of catecholic small molecules, the physical properties of melanins are influenced by covalent and noncovalent disorder. We report the use of tyrosine-containing tripeptides as tunable precursors for polymeric pigments. In these structures, phenols are presented in a (supra-)molecular context dictated by the positions of the amino acids in the peptide sequence. Oxidative polymerization can be tuned in a sequence-dependent manner, resulting in peptide sequence–encoded properties such as UV absorbance, morphology, coloration, and electrochemical properties over a considerable range. Short peptides have low barriers to application and can be easily scaled, suggesting near-term applications in cosmetics and biomedicine.

  10. Design studies of a depth encoding large aperture PET camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisan, C.; Rogers, J.G.; Buckley, K.R.; Ruth, T.J.; Stazyk, M.W.; Tsang, G.

    1994-10-01

    The feasibility of a wholebody PET tomograph with the capacity to correct for the parallax error induced by the Depth-Of-Interaction of γ-rays is assessed through simulation. The experimental energy, depth, and transverse position resolutions of BGO block detector candidates are the main inputs to a simulation that predicts the point source resolution of the Depth Encoding Large Aperture Camera (DELAC). The results indicate that a measured depth resolution of 7 mm (FWHM) is sufficient to correct a substantial part of the parallax error for a point source at the edge of the Field-Of-View. A search for the block specifications and camera ring radius that would optimize the spatial resolution and its uniformity across the Field-Of-View is also presented. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  11. 3-D reconstruction using an efficient Octree encoding scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.J.; Jagadeesh, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Reconstruction of a three dimensional (3-D) model of biological objects from their thin section 2-D slices is a valuable tool for biomedical research. The goal of a 3-D reconstruction routine is to find the 3-D structure from a set of sliced images and display the 3-D view on a 2-D screen. Octree has been widely used as a powerful data structure to represent 3-D objects in computer. The encoding technique is specially useful for the representation of objects with irregular shape, such as biomedical objects. A method called level-wise pointerless representation which can offer much less storage requirement has been developed. In addition, a complete software package has been designed using the efficient data structure to reconstruct 3-D objects from 2-D sliced images and to display the 3-D objects on 2-D screen

  12. Natural biased coin encoded in the genome determines cell strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Dorri

    Full Text Available Decision making at a cellular level determines different fates for isogenic cells. However, it is not yet clear how rational decisions are encoded in the genome, how they are transmitted to their offspring, and whether they evolve and become optimized throughout generations. In this paper, we use a game theoretic approach to explain how rational decisions are made in the presence of cooperators and competitors. Our results suggest the existence of an internal switch that operates as a biased coin. The biased coin is, in fact, a biochemical bistable network of interacting genes that can flip to one of its stable states in response to different environmental stimuli. We present a framework to describe how the positions of attractors in such a gene regulatory network correspond to the behavior of a rational player in a competing environment. We evaluate our model by considering lysis/lysogeny decision making of bacteriophage lambda in E. coli.

  13. Monitoring thioredoxin redox with a genetically encoded red fluorescent biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yichong; Makar, Merna; Wang, Michael X; Ai, Hui-Wang

    2017-09-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is one of the two major thiol antioxidants, playing essential roles in redox homeostasis and signaling. Despite its importance, there is a lack of methods for monitoring Trx redox dynamics in live cells, hindering a better understanding of physiological and pathological roles of the Trx redox system. In this work, we developed the first genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor for Trx redox by engineering a redox relay between the active-site cysteines of human Trx1 and rxRFP1, a redox-sensitive red fluorescent protein. We used the resultant biosensor-TrxRFP1-to selectively monitor perturbations of Trx redox in various mammalian cell lines. We subcellularly localized TrxRFP1 to image compartmentalized Trx redox changes. We further combined TrxRFP1 with a green fluorescent Grx1-roGFP2 biosensor to simultaneously monitor Trx and glutathione redox dynamics in live cells in response to chemical and physiologically relevant stimuli.

  14. Recombinant vectors construction for cellobiohydrolase encoding gene constitutive expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina GURGU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cellobiohydrolases (EC 3.2.1.91 are important exo enzymes involved in cellulose hydrolysis alongside endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4 and β-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21. Heterologous cellobiohydrolase gene expression under constitutive promoter control using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host system is of great importance for a successful SSF process. From this point of view, the main objective of the work was to use Yeplac181 expression vector as a recipient for cellobiohdrolase - cbhB encoding gene expression under the control of the actin promoter, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two hybridvectors, YEplac-Actp and YEplac-Actp-CbhB, were generated usingEscherichia coli XLI Blue for the cloning experiments. Constitutive cbhB gene expression was checked by proteine gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE after insertion of these constructs into Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  15. A simulation to model position encoding multicrystal PET detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, G; Moisan, C; Rogers, J G

    1995-05-01

    We have developed a simulation to model position encoding multicrystal detectors for positron emission tomography. The simulation is designed to treat the interactions of energetic photons in a scintillator, the geometry of the multicrystal array, as well as the propagation and detection of individual scintillation photons. The simulation is tested with a model of the EXACT HR PLUS block detector manufactured by Siemens-CTI. Position and energy responses derived from the simulation are compared to measured ones. Line-spread-functions, for four columns of crystals, are reproduced with an accuracy of {+-}0.5 mm. The crystal-by-crystal photopeak pulse heights and FWHMs are also predicted within a range of {+-}14%, and {sub -6}{sup +9}% respectively. (author). 21 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. Bubble masks for time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Steele, John T.; Sweany, Melinda; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2013-09-01

    Time-encoded imaging is an approach to directional radiation detection that is being developed at SNL with a focus on fast neutron directional detection. In this technique, a time modulation of a detected neutron signal is inducedtypically, a moving mask that attenuates neutrons with a time structure that depends on the source position. An important challenge in time-encoded imaging is to develop high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capabilities; building a mechanically moving high-resolution mask presents challenges both theoretical and technical. We have investigated an alternative to mechanical masks that replaces the solid mask with a liquid such as mineral oil. Instead of fixed blocks of solid material that move in pre-defined patterns, the oil is contained in tubing structures, and carefully introduced air gapsbubblespropagate through the tubing, generating moving patterns of oil mask elements and air apertures. Compared to current moving-mask techniques, the bubble mask is simple, since mechanical motion is replaced by gravity-driven bubble propagation; it is flexible, since arbitrary bubble patterns can be generated by a software-controlled valve actuator; and it is potentially high performance, since the tubing and bubble size can be tuned for high-resolution imaging requirements. We have built and tested various single-tube mask elements, and will present results on bubble introduction and propagation as a function of tubing size and cross-sectional shape; real-time bubble position tracking; neutron source imaging tests; and reconstruction techniques demonstrated on simple test data as well as a simulated full detector system.

  17. Artificial theta stimulation impairs encoding of contextual fear memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Lipponen

    Full Text Available Several experiments have demonstrated an intimate relationship between hippocampal theta rhythm (4-12 Hz and memory. Lesioning the medial septum or fimbria-fornix, a fiber track connecting the hippocampus and the medial septum, abolishes the theta rhythm and results in a severe impairment in declarative memory. To assess whether there is a causal relationship between hippocampal theta and memory formation we investigated whether restoration of hippocampal theta by electrical stimulation during the encoding phase also restores fimbria-fornix lesion induced memory deficit in rats in the fear conditioning paradigm. Male Wistar rats underwent sham or fimbria-fornix lesion operation. Stimulation electrodes were implanted in the ventral hippocampal commissure and recording electrodes in the septal hippocampus. Artificial theta stimulation of 8 Hz was delivered during 3-min free exploration of the test cage in half of the rats before aversive conditioning with three foot shocks during 2 min. Memory was assessed by total freezing time in the same environment 24 h and 28 h after fear conditioning, and in an intervening test session in a different context. As expected, fimbria-fornix lesion impaired fear memory and dramatically attenuated hippocampal theta power. Artificial theta stimulation produced continuous theta oscillations that were almost similar to endogenous theta rhythm in amplitude and frequency. However, contrary to our predictions, artificial theta stimulation impaired conditioned fear response in both sham and fimbria-fornix lesioned animals. These data suggest that restoration of theta oscillation per se is not sufficient to support memory encoding after fimbria-fornix lesion and that universal theta oscillation in the hippocampus with a fixed frequency may actually impair memory.

  18. Hexagonal pixel detector with time encoded binary readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedlmoser, H.; Varner, G.; Cooney, M.

    2009-01-01

    The University of Hawaii is developing continuous acquisition pixel (CAP) detectors for vertexing applications in lepton colliding experiments such as SuperBelle or ILC. In parallel to the investigation of different technology options such as MAPS or SOI, both analog and binary readout concepts have been tested. First results with a binary readout scheme in which the hit information is time encoded by means of a signal shifting mechanism have recently been published. This paper explains the hit reconstruction for such a binary detector with an emphasis on fake hit reconstruction probabilities in order to evaluate the rate capability in a high background environment such as the planned SuperB factory at KEK. The results show that the binary concept is at least comparable to any analog readout strategy if not better in terms of occupancy. Furthermore, we present a completely new binary readout strategy in which the pixel cells are arranged in a hexagonal grid allowing the use of three independent output directions to reduce reconstruction ambiguities. The new concept uses the same signal shifting mechanism for time encoding, however, in dedicated transfer lines on the periphery of the detector, which enables higher shifting frequencies. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of full size pixel matrices including hit and BG generation, signal generation, and data reconstruction show that by means of multiple signal transfer lines on the periphery the pixel can be made smaller (higher resolution), the number of output channels and the data volume per triggered event can be reduced dramatically, fake hit reconstruction is lowered to a minimum and the resulting effective occupancies are less than 10 -4 . A prototype detector has been designed in the AMS 0.35μm Opto process and is currently under fabrication.

  19. A novel high-frequency encoding algorithm for image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddeq, Mohammed M.; Rodrigues, Marcos A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new method for image compression is proposed whose quality is demonstrated through accurate 3D reconstruction from 2D images. The method is based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT) together with a high-frequency minimization encoding algorithm at compression stage and a new concurrent binary search algorithm at decompression stage. The proposed compression method consists of five main steps: (1) divide the image into blocks and apply DCT to each block; (2) apply a high-frequency minimization method to the AC-coefficients reducing each block by 2/3 resulting in a minimized array; (3) build a look up table of probability data to enable the recovery of the original high frequencies at decompression stage; (4) apply a delta or differential operator to the list of DC-components; and (5) apply arithmetic encoding to the outputs of steps (2) and (4). At decompression stage, the look up table and the concurrent binary search algorithm are used to reconstruct all high-frequency AC-coefficients while the DC-components are decoded by reversing the arithmetic coding. Finally, the inverse DCT recovers the original image. We tested the technique by compressing and decompressing 2D images including images with structured light patterns for 3D reconstruction. The technique is compared with JPEG and JPEG2000 through 2D and 3D RMSE. Results demonstrate that the proposed compression method is perceptually superior to JPEG with equivalent quality to JPEG2000. Concerning 3D surface reconstruction from images, it is demonstrated that the proposed method is superior to both JPEG and JPEG2000.

  20. Supervised Learning in Spiking Neural Networks for Precise Temporal Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Brian; Grüning, André

    2016-01-01

    Precise spike timing as a means to encode information in neural networks is biologically supported, and is advantageous over frequency-based codes by processing input features on a much shorter time-scale. For these reasons, much recent attention has been focused on the development of supervised learning rules for spiking neural networks that utilise a temporal coding scheme. However, despite significant progress in this area, there still lack rules that have a theoretical basis, and yet can be considered biologically relevant. Here we examine the general conditions under which synaptic plasticity most effectively takes place to support the supervised learning of a precise temporal code. As part of our analysis we examine two spike-based learning methods: one of which relies on an instantaneous error signal to modify synaptic weights in a network (INST rule), and the other one relying on a filtered error signal for smoother synaptic weight modifications (FILT rule). We test the accuracy of the solutions provided by each rule with respect to their temporal encoding precision, and then measure the maximum number of input patterns they can learn to memorise using the precise timings of individual spikes as an indication of their storage capacity. Our results demonstrate the high performance of the FILT rule in most cases, underpinned by the rule's error-filtering mechanism, which is predicted to provide smooth convergence towards a desired solution during learning. We also find the FILT rule to be most efficient at performing input pattern memorisations, and most noticeably when patterns are identified using spikes with sub-millisecond temporal precision. In comparison with existing work, we determine the performance of the FILT rule to be consistent with that of the highly efficient E-learning Chronotron rule, but with the distinct advantage that our FILT rule is also implementable as an online method for increased biological realism.