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Sample records for glucose tolerance lipids

  1. Abnormal glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities in Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucose tolerance and lipid levels in a random sample of 103 Indian patients (96 males and 7 females) with coronary artery disease (CAD) aged between 20 and 55 years were compared with those in a healthy Indian control group matched as regards age and sex. Previous episodes of myocardial infarction were taken as ...

  2. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Exercise effects on fitness, lipids, glucose tolerance and insulin levels in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, R G; Davidson, P C; Albrink, M J; Krall, J M

    1981-07-01

    The effect of 3 different physical training programs on cardiorespiratory (cr) fitness, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, and scapular skinfold thickness was assessed in 64 healthy college men. Training sessions were held 4 times a week for 5 weeks. The cr fitness improved significantly and skinfold thickness decreased following the aerobic, the pulse workout (interval training), and the anaerobic training compared to the control group. Skinfold thickness, plasma insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were significantly intercorrelated before and after training. The exercise programs had no significant effect on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, glucose tolerance, or insulin levels. Change in adipose mass was thus dissociated from change in plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations. It was concluded that in young men plasma triglycerides, the lipid component mostly readily reduced by exercise, were too low to be reduced further by a physical training program.

  4. Raised concentrations of lipid peroxidation products (LPO in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof C. Lewandowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Lipid peroxidation (LPO results from oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Whereas LPO rises in normal pregnancy, the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on this process has not been clearly defined. materials and method. Fasting blood concentrations of malondialdehyde+4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA+4-HDA, as LPO index, TNFa soluble receptors (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2, and soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, were measured in 51 women at 28 weeks of gestation. The women were divided according to the results of 50.0 g glucose challenge test (GCT and 75.0 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT: Controls (n=20, normal responses to both GCT and OGTT; Intermediate Group (IG (n=15, abnormal GCT but normal OGTT; GDM group (n=16, abnormal both GCT and OGTT. results. Glucose concentrations in women diagnosed with GDM were within the range of impaired glucose tolerance. There were no significant differences in concentrations of either TNF a soluble receptors R1 and R2, or sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1. LPO concentrations [MDA+4-HDA (nmol/mg protein] were significantly higher in women with GDM than in the other two groups [64.1±24.3 (mean±SD, 39.3±23.1, 47.0±18.1, for GDM, IG and Controls, respectively; p<0.05]. In multivariate analysis, the only significant independent correlation was between LPO level and glucose at 120 minutes of OGTT (rs=0.42; p=0.009. conclusions. Oxidative damage to membrane lipids is increased in GDM and might result directly from hyperglycaemia. Physiological significance of this phenomenon remains to be elucidated.

  5. Effect of chromium chloride supplementation on glucose tolerance and serum lipids including high-density lipoprotein of adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riales, R; Albrink, M J

    1981-12-01

    Chromium deficiency may cause insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and hyperlipidemia, recovered by chromium supplementation. The effect of chromium supplementation on serum lipids and glucose tolerance was tested in a double-blind 12-wk study of 23 healthy adult men aged 31 to 60 yr. Either 200 micrograms trivalent chromium in 5 ml water (Cr) or 5 ml plain water (W) was ingested daily 5 days each week. Half the subjects volunteered for glucose tolerance tests with insulin levels. At 12 wk high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in the Cr group from 35 to 39 mg/dl (p less than 0.05) but did not change in the water group (34 mg/dl). The largest increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreases in insulin and glucose were found in those subjects having normal glucose levels together with elevated insulin levels at base-line. The data are thus consistent with the hypothesis that Cr supplementation raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improves insulin sensitivity in those with evidence of insulin resistance but normal glucose tolerance.

  6. Glucose Tolerance, Lipids, and GLP-1 Secretion in JCR:LA-cp Rats Fed a High Protein Fiber Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Raylene A.; Russell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Background We have shown that individually, dietary fiber and protein increase secretion of the anorexigenic and insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Objective Our objective was to combine, in one diet, high levels of fiber and protein to maximize GLP-1 secretion, improve glucose tolerance, and reduce weight gain. Methods and Procedures Lean (+/?) and obese (cp/cp) male James C Russell corpulent (JCR:LA-cp) rats lacking a functional leptin receptor were fed one of four experimental diets (control, high protein (HP), high fiber (HF, prebiotic fiber inulin), or combination (CB)) for 3 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to evaluate plasma GLP-1, insulin and glucose. Plasma lipids and intestinal proglucagon mRNA expression were determined. Results Energy intake was lower with the HF diet in lean and obese rats. Weight gain did not differ between diets. Higher colonic proglucagon mRNA in lean rats fed a CB diet was associated with higher GLP-1 secretion during OGTT. The HP diet significantly reduced plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC) during OGTT in obese rats, which reflected both an increased GLP-1 AUC and higher fasting insulin. Diets containing inulin resulted in the lowest plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Discussion Overall, combining HP with HF in the diet increased GLP-1 secretion in response to oral glucose, but did not improve glucose tolerance or lipid profiles more than the HF diet alone did. We also suggest that glycemic and insulinemic response to prebiotics differ among rat models and future research work should examine their role in improving glucose tolerance in diet-induced vs. genetic obesity with overt hyperleptinemia. PMID:18223610

  7. Long-term feeding of red algae (Gelidium amansii ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism in a high fructose diet-impaired glucose tolerance rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hshuan-Chen Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of Gelidium amansii (GA on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats with high fructose (HF diet (57.1% w/w. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HF diet to induce glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The experiment was divided into three groups: (1 control diet group (Con; (2 HF diet group (HF; and (3 HF with GA diet group (HF + 5% GA. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 23 weeks. The results showed that GA significantly decreased retroperitoneal fat mass weight of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of GA caused a decrease in plasma glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin. HF diet increased hepatic lipid content. However, intake of GA reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride contents. GA elevated the excretion of fecal lipids and bile acid in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, GA significantly decreased plasma TC, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein plus very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in HF diet-fed rats. HF diet induced an in plasma glucose and an impaired glucose tolerance, but GA supplementation decreased homeostasis model assessment equation-insulin resistance and improved impairment of glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation of GA can improve the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in an HF diet-fed rat model.

  8. Long-term feeding of red algae (Gelidium amansii) ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism in a high fructose diet-impaired glucose tolerance rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hshuan-Chen; Chang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Tsung-Han; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of Gelidium amansii (GA) on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats with high fructose (HF) diet (57.1% w/w). Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HF diet to induce glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The experiment was divided into three groups: (1) control diet group (Con); (2) HF diet group (HF); and (3) HF with GA diet group (HF + 5% GA). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 23 weeks. The results showed that GA significantly decreased retroperitoneal fat mass weight of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of GA caused a decrease in plasma glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin. HF diet increased hepatic lipid content. However, intake of GA reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids including total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride contents. GA elevated the excretion of fecal lipids and bile acid in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, GA significantly decreased plasma TC, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein plus very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in HF diet-fed rats. HF diet induced an in plasma glucose and an impaired glucose tolerance, but GA supplementation decreased homeostasis model assessment equation-insulin resistance and improved impairment of glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation of GA can improve the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in an HF diet-fed rat model. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A randomised study on the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose tolerance, lipids and body composition in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikøren, Linn A; Nygård, Ottar K; Lied, Einar; Rostrup, Espen; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2013-02-28

    The popularity of high-protein diets for weight reduction is immense. However, the potential benefits from altering the source of dietary protein rather than the amount is scarcely investigated. In the present study, we examined the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose and lipid metabolism in overweight adults. A total of thirty-four overweight adults were randomised to 8 weeks' supplementation with fish protein or placebo tablets (controls). The intake of fish protein supplement was 3 g/d for the first 4 weeks and 6 g/d for the last 4 weeks. In this study, 8 weeks of fish protein supplementation resulted in lower values of fasting glucose (Pfish protein supplementation compared to controls. Glucose-AUC was decreased after 8 weeks with fish protein supplement compared to baseline (Pfish protein may have beneficial effects on blood levels of glucose and LDL-cholesterol as well as glucose tolerance and body composition in overweight adults. The long-term effects of fish protein supplementation is of interest in the context of using more fish as a protein source in the diet, and the effects of inclusion of fish in the diet of individuals with low glucose tolerance should be evaluated.

  10. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing-Hwa Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF diet (63.1%. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1 normal group (normal; (2 HF group; (3 chitosan + HF group (HF + C. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 105 Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8% significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4 protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment

  11. Insulin resistance and lipid profile during an oral glucose tolerance test in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zx; Wu, Y; Zhu, Xy; Fang, Q; Chen, Dq

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare changes in insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during pregnancy and those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Overall, 105 pregnant women between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation, 50 with NGT and 55 with GDM according to NDDG standard, were enrolled into the study. The levels of fasting blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) and the insulin levels, blood glucose levels at 1, 2 and 3 hours post oral glucose administration during an OGTT (5.8, 10.6, 9.2 and 8.1 mmol/L, respectively) were measured. Then, insulin resistance (IR) index was calculated. There was no significant difference in fasting, 3-h insulin levels and 3-h blood glucose levels between those with NGT and those with GDM (P > 0.05). However, 1-h and 2-h insulin levels, fasting and 1-h and 2-h blood glucose levels in women with GDM were significantly higher than those in the NGT group (P < 0.05). Fasting TC and TG levels in the GDM group were significantly higher than those with NGT (P = 0.031 and P = 0.025, respectively). Correlation analysis showed that TG and TC levels were positively correlated with homoeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.67 and r = 0.78, respectively; P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that insulin sensitivity in women with GDM was significantly lower than that observed in those with NGT. Reducing IR and blood lipids in women with GDM could potentially improve maternal and foetal outcomes.

  12. Effects of xylitol on blood glucose, glucose tolerance, serum insulin and lipid profile in a type 2 diabetes model of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Indrajit, Mitesh

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the antidiabetic effects of xylitol in a type 2 diabetes rat model. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DBC) and xylitol (XYL). Diabetes was induced only in the DBC and XYL animal groups by feeding them a 10% fructose solution for 2 weeks followed by an injection (i.p.) of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight). One week after the streptozotocin injection, the animals with a nonfasting blood glucose level of >300 mg/dl were considered to be diabetic. The XYL group was fed further with a 10% xylitol solution, whereas the NC and DBC groups were supplied with normal drinking water. After 5 weeks of intervention, food and fluid intake, body weight, blood glucose, serum fructosamine and most of the serum lipids were significantly decreased, and serum insulin concentration and glucose tolerance ability was significantly increased in the XYL group compared to the DBC group. Liver weight, liver glycogen and serum triglycerides were not influenced by feeding with xylitol. The data of this study suggest that xylitol can be used not only as a sugar substitute but also as a supplement to antidiabetic food and other food products. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in men with impaired glucose tolerance : impact of insulin stimulation and weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, E.; Corpeleijn, E.; Bouwman, F.G.; Mariman, E.C.; Blaak, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) state is characterized by insulin resistance. Disturbances in fatty acid (FA) metabolism may underlie this reduced insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the prediabetic state is accompanied by changes in the expression

  14. Glucose tolerance and lipid profile in longterm exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and the effects of restoration of euthyroidism, a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, K. A.; Smit, J. W. A.; Eustatia-Rutten, C. F. A.; Heijboer, A. C.; Frölich, M.; Romijn, J. A.; Corssmit, E. P. M.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of prolonged subclinical hyperthyroidism on glucose and lipid metabolism is unclear. Therefore, we evaluated glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) on TSH suppressive thyroxine therapy as a model for subclinical hyperthyroidism and

  15. Prediction of Glucose Tolerance without an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Babbar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionImpaired glucose tolerance (IGT is diagnosed by a standardized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. However, the OGTT is laborious, and when not performed, glucose tolerance cannot be determined from fasting samples retrospectively. We tested if glucose tolerance status is reasonably predictable from a combination of demographic, anthropometric, and laboratory data assessed at one time point in a fasting state.MethodsGiven a set of 22 variables selected upon clinical feasibility such as sex, age, height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, serum potassium, fasting levels of insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, proinsulin, prolactin, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, HDL, uric acid, liver transaminases, and ferritin, we used supervised machine learning to estimate glucose tolerance status in 2,337 participants of the TUEF study who were recruited before 2012. We tested the performance of 10 different machine learning classifiers on data from 929 participants in the test set who were recruited after 2012. In addition, reproducibility of IGT was analyzed in 78 participants who had 2 repeated OGTTs within 1 year.ResultsThe most accurate prediction of IGT was reached with the recursive partitioning method (accuracy = 0.78. For all classifiers, mean accuracy was 0.73 ± 0.04. The most important model variable was fasting glucose in all models. Using mean variable importance across all models, fasting glucose was followed by NEFA, triglycerides, HbA1c, and C-peptide. The accuracy of predicting IGT from a previous OGTT was 0.77.ConclusionMachine learning methods yield moderate accuracy in predicting glucose tolerance from a wide set of clinical and laboratory variables. A substitution of OGTT does not currently seem to be feasible. An important constraint could be the limited reproducibility of glucose tolerance status during a

  16. Natto and viscous vegetables in a Japanese-style breakfast improved insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi-Fukatsu, Akiko; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Naniwa-Kuroki, Yuko; Nishida, Yuka; Yamamoto, Hironori; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji

    2012-04-01

    We previously suggested that the consumption of natto and viscous vegetables as part of a Japanese-style meal based on white rice (WR) reduced postprandial glucose and insulin levels in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a single breakfast of natto and viscous vegetables or the same breakfast consumed for 2 weeks could improve glucose control, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of eleven free-living subjects with IGT followed a randomised, crossover breakfast intervention for 2 weeks. The test meal included boiled WR with natto (viscous fermented soyabeans), Japanese yam and okra. The control meal included WR with non-viscous boiled soyabeans, potatoes and broccoli. Both meals contained comparable amounts of carbohydrate, fat, protein and fibre. The test meal reduced acute glucose and insulin responses compared to the control meal in the study participants. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the composite insulin sensitivity index (CISI) after both the test and control meal periods. The test meal resulted in improvements in CISI compared to the baseline, whereas no significant changes were observed after the control meal period. Serum levels of both total and LDL-cholesterol were assessed before and after the test meal period and found to decrease significantly. There was also a tendency towards reduced serum malondialdehyde-modified LDL and N(ɛ)-carboxymethyllysine. No differences were observed in the measures of chronic glycaemic control. Thus, we conclude that a breakfast of natto and viscous vegetables consumed for 2 weeks improves insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and oxidative stress.

  17. Atorvastatin 10 mg plus ezetimibe 10mg compared with atorvastatin 20 mg: impact on the lipid profile in Japanese patients with abnormal glucose tolerance and coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Yusuke; Watarai, Masato; Ishii, Hideki; Koyasu, Masayoshi; Takemoto, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Daiji; Shibata, Rei; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2012-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a sensitive lipid marker for predicting atherosclerosis. Ezetimibe and statins are reported to decrease both LDL cholesterol and oxidized LDL cholesterol. This prospective randomized open-label crossover study compared combination therapy with atorvastatin plus ezetimibe versus high-dose atorvastatin monotherapy. Changes in serum lipids, including malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL) as a representative form of oxidized LDL cholesterol, and glucose metabolism were assessed. The subjects were 39 Japanese patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance who were taking 10 mg/day of atorvastatin (30 men and 9 women with a mean age of 67.8 years). They were randomized to a group that first received add-on ezetimibe (10 mg/day) or a group that first received atorvastatin monotherapy at a higher dose of 20 mg/day. Both treatments were given for 12 weeks each in a crossover fashion. Add-on ezetimibe significantly decreased MDA-LDL (109.0 ± 31.9 mg/dl to 87.7 ± 29.4 mg/dl, p=0.0009), while up-titration of atorvastatin did not. The decrease with add-on ezetimibe was significantly greater than with up-titration of atorvastatin (p=0.0006). Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were significantly decreased by both treatments, but the percent reduction with add-on ezetimibe was significantly greater (pHigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased by both treatments and there was no significant difference between them. The apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio and remnant-like particle cholesterol were only significantly decreased by add-on ezetimibe. Both treatments caused similar elevation of hemoglobin A(1c). In Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance and coronary artery disease, adding ezetimibe (10 mg/day) to atorvastatin (10 mg/day) significantly improved the lipid profile compared with atorvastatin monotherapy at 20 mg

  18. Effects of exercise training and diet on lipid kinetics during free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in older obese humans with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Marchetti, Christine M

    2009-01-01

    Elevated free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated with insulin resistance at the cellular level. However, the contribution of whole body lipid kinetics to FFA-induced insulin resistance is not well understood, and the effect of exercise and diet on this metabolic defect is not known. We investigated...... the effect of 12 wk of exercise training with and without caloric restriction on FFA turnover and oxidation (FFA(ox)) during acute FFA-induced insulin resistance. Sixteen obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to either a hypocaloric (n = 8; -598 +/- 125 kcal/day, 66 +/- 1 yr, 32.......8 +/- 1.8 kg/m(2)) or a eucaloric (n = 8; 67 +/- 2 yr, 35.3 +/- 2.1 kg/m(2)) diet and aerobic exercise (1 h/day at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake) regimen. Lipid kinetics ([1-(14)C]palmitate) were assessed throughout a 7-h, 40 mU x m(-2) x min(-1) hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, during which insulin...

  19. Brain Glucose Metabolism Controls Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Tony K.T.

    2007-01-01

    Brain glucose-sensing mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and hypoglycemic-induced hormonal counter-regulation. This commentary discusses recent findings indicating that the brain senses glucose to regulate both hepatic glucose and lipid production.

  20. Role of PTP1B in POMC neurons during chronic high-fat diet: sex differences in regulation of liver lipids and glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberdein, Nicola; Dambrino, Robert J; do Carmo, Jussara M; Wang, Zhen; Mitchell, Laura E; Drummond, Heather A; Hall, John E

    2018-03-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a negative regulator of leptin receptor signaling and may contribute to leptin resistance in diet-induced obesity. Although PTP1B inhibition has been suggested as a potential weight loss therapy, the role of specific neuronal PTP1B signaling in cardiovascular and metabolic regulation and the importance of sex differences in this regulation are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neuronal PTP1B deficiency in cardiometabolic regulation in male and female mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). When compared with control mice (PTP1B flox/flox ), male and female mice deficient in POMC neuronal PTP1B (PTP1B flox/flox /POMC-Cre) had attenuated body weight gain (males: -18%; females: -16%) and fat mass (males: -33%; female: -29%) in response to HFD. Glucose tolerance was improved by 40%, and liver lipid accumulation was reduced by 40% in PTP1B/POMC-Cre males but not in females. When compared with control mice, deficiency of POMC neuronal PTP1B did not alter mean arterial pressure (MAP) in male or female mice (males: 112 ± 1 vs. 112 ± 1 mmHg in controls; females: 106 ± 3 vs. 109 ± 3 mmHg in controls). Deficiency of POMC neuronal PTP1B also did not alter MAP response to acute stress in males or females compared with control mice (males: Δ32 ± 0 vs. Δ29 ± 4 mmHg; females: Δ22 ± 2 vs. Δ27 ± 4 mmHg). These data demonstrate that POMC-specific PTP1B deficiency improved glucose tolerance and attenuated diet-induced fatty liver only in male mice and attenuated weight gain in males and females but did not enhance the MAP and HR responses to a HFD or to acute stress.

  1. Impaired glucose tolerance in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradat, Pierre-Francois; Bruneteau, Gaelle; Gordon, Paul H; Dupuis, Luc; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Simon, Dominique; Salachas, Francois; Corcia, Philippe; Frochot, Vincent; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Jardel, Claude; Coussieu, Christiane; Le Forestier, Nadine; Lacomblez, Lucette; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Meininger, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Our objectives were to analyse carbohydrate metabolism in a series of ALS patients and to examine potential association with parameters of lipid metabolism and clinical features. Glucose tolerance was assessed by the oral glucose tolerance test in 21 non-diabetic ALS patients and compared with 21 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. Lipids and lactate/pyruvate ratio, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6) and adipocytokines (leptin and adiponectin) were also measured in ALS patients. Mann-Whitney U-tests analysed continuous data and Fisher's exact tests assessed categorical data. Blood glucose determined 120 min after the glucose bolus was significantly higher in patients with ALS (7.41 mmol/l+/-1.68) compared to controls (6.05+/-1.44, p=0.006). ALS patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) according to WHO criteria (n=7, 33%) were more likely to have elevated free fatty acids (FFA) levels compared to patients with normal glucose tolerance (0.77 nmol/l+/-0.30 vs. 0.57+/-0.19, p=0.04). IGT was not associated with disease duration or severity. In conclusion, patients with ALS show abnormal glucose tolerance that could be associated with increased FFA levels, a key determinant of insulin resistance. The origin of glucose homeostasis abnormalities in ALS may be multifactorial and deserves further investigation.

  2. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  3. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Dansinger, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at approximately 20-25% of energy over a 4- to 6-wk period, dietary fructose caused significant increases in fasting TG and LDL cholesterol concentrations, whereas dietary glucose did not, but dietary glucose did increase serum glucose and insulin concentrations in the postprandial state whereas dietary fructose did not. When fructose at 30-60 g ( approximately 4-12% of energy) was added to the diet in the free-living state, there were no significant effects on lipid or glucose biomarkers. Sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose and no metabolic differences between them have been noted. Controlled feeding studies at more physiologic dietary intakes of fructose and glucose need to be conducted. In our view, to decrease the current high prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes, the focus should be on restricting the intake of excess energy, sucrose, HFCS, and animal and trans fats and increasing exercise and the intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, fish, fruit, whole grains, and fiber.

  4. Berberine Moderates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism through Multipathway Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberine is known to improve glucose and lipid metabolism disorders, but the mechanism is still under investigation. In this paper, we explored the effects of berberine on the weight, glucose levels, lipid metabolism, and serum insulin of KKAy mice and investigated its possible glucose and lipid-regulating mechanism. We randomly divided KKAy mice into two groups: berberine group (treated with 250 mg/kg/d berberine and control group. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, weight, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and fasting serum insulin were measured in both groups. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed. RT2 PCR array gene expression analysis was performed using skeletal muscle of KKAy mice. Our data demonstrated that berberine significantly decreased FBG, area under the curve (AUC, fasting serum insulin (FINS, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, TC, and TG, compared with those of control group. RT2 profiler PCR array analysis showed that berberine upregulated the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14, MAPK8(c-jun N-terminal kinase, JNK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2, and hepatic nuclear factor 4α(HNF4α, whereas it downregulated the expression of PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP, PPARγ coactivator 1α(PGC 1α, and resistin. These results suggest that berberine moderates glucose and lipid metabolism through a multipathway mechanism that includes AMP-activated protein kinase-(AMPK- p38 MAPK-GLUT4, JNK pathway, and PPARα pathway.

  5. Successful strategy to improve glucose tolerance in Thai obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbenjapon, Nawaporn; Nakavachara, Pairunyar; Santiprabhob, Jeerunda; Kiattisakthavee, Pornpimol; Wongarn, Renu; Likitmaskul, Supawadee

    2010-11-01

    Childhood obesity is an emerging national health problem in Thailand. Our previous study found that one third of obese children and adolescents had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 2.6 percent had already developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. An immediate strategy needs to be established in order to improve these metabolic problems. To determine whether diet and exercise education for lifestyle modification with or without metformin therapy in our diabetes clinic is enable to improve these metabolic problems. Twenty-six Thai obese children and adolescents with IGT, who received at least 6 months of treatment consisting of lifestyle modification alone or lifestyle modification and metformin (combined treatment) were enrolled into this study. Each patient underwent the second 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose, insulin levels, HbA1C and lipid profiles were measured. The results were compared with historical pre-treatment data. Approximately 1 year after intervention, 19 out of 26 patients with IGT completed the second 2-hour OGTT. Sixteen patients (84.2%) successfully reversed to be normal glucose tolerance whereas 3 patients (15.8%) remained IGT. Body mass index (BMI), BMISDS, 2-hour plasma glucose, basal insulin level, 2-hour insulin level were significantly decreased after treatment in normal OGTT group (Ps youth is a reversible abnormality by lifestyle modification with or without metformin.

  6. CREBH Regulates Systemic Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Nakagawa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP-responsive element-binding protein H (CREBH, encoded by CREB3L3 is a membrane-bound transcriptional factor that primarily localizes in the liver and small intestine. CREBH governs triglyceride metabolism in the liver, which mediates the changes in gene expression governing fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and apolipoproteins related to lipoprotein lipase (LPL activation. CREBH in the small intestine reduces cholesterol transporter gene Npc1l1 and suppresses cholesterol absorption from diet. A deficiency of CREBH in mice leads to severe hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver, and atherosclerosis. CREBH, in synergy with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, has a crucial role in upregulating Fgf21 expression, which is implicated in metabolic homeostasis including glucose and lipid metabolism. CREBH binds to and functions as a co-activator for both PPARα and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα in regulating gene expression of lipid metabolism. Therefore, CREBH has a crucial role in glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver and small intestine.

  7. The lipid accumulation product as a useful index for identifying abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J-Y; Sung, Y-A; Lee, H J

    2013-04-01

    The lipid accumulation product, a combination of waist circumference and triglycerides concentration, has been suggested as a better marker for abnormal glucose regulation than BMI. We aimed to compare the lipid accumulation product and BMI as useful markers for abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women. The lipid accumulation product was calculated using the formula [waist circumference (cm) - 58] × triglycerides (mmol/l). Glucose tolerance status was determined using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 2810 Korean women aged 18-39 years from the general population. The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation was 6.8% (isolated impaired fasting glucose 1.8%, isolated impaired glucose tolerance 4.0%; impaired fasting glucose + impaired glucose tolerance 0.4% and diabetes mellitus 0.6%). According to the quintile distributions of the lipid accumulation product and BMI, women with a lipid accumulation product quintile greater than their BMI quintile exhibited significantly greater areas under the curve and higher levels of 2-h post-load glucose, insulin, homeostasis model analysis of insulin resistance and lipid profiles than did women with a BMI quintile greater than their lipid accumulation product quintile. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the lipid accumulation product exhibited a higher odds ratio for abnormal glucose regulation than did BMI after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, previous history of gestational diabetes and family history of diabetes (odds ratios 3.5 and 2.6 of the highest vs. the lowest quintiles of lipid accumulation product and BMI, respectively). The lipid accumulation product could be useful for identifying the young Korean women with abnormal glucose regulation. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  8. Insulin dynamics and biochemical markers for predicting impaired glucose tolerance in obese Thai youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabanchasak, Sirapassorn; Siripunthana, Sukumarn; Supornsilchai, Vichit; Wacharasindhu, Suttipong; Sahakitrungruang, Taninee

    2015-09-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. The predictors of IGT in obese youth are not well described. We studied 115 obese Thai children who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose and insulin levels were calculated for assessment of β-cell function. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profile, and clinical parameters were also used to determine predictors of IGT. We found that three patients had T2DM and 30 subjects had IGT. IGT patients had significantly higher fasting glucose (FG), 1-h postload glucose, 2-h postload insulin, and lower whole-body insulin sensitivity indices than in normal glucose tolerance subjects whereas other indices were comparable. By ROC curve analyses, 1-h postload glucose was the best predictor of IGT, but FG or HbA1c represented a poor diagnostic tool for prediabetes screening. Subjects with 1-h OGTT glucose > 155 mg/dL had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein levels, lower insulin sensitivity, and more insulin resistance than those with 1-h postload glucose of ≤ 155 mg/dL. Abnormal glucose tolerance is highly prevalent in obese Thai youth. Several fasting indices and HbA1c fail to predict IGT. An 1-h OGTT glucose of > 155 mg/dL appears to be more associated with adverse insulin dynamics and metabolic profile than 2-h postload glucose.

  9. The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K

    2014-01-01

    We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty-four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age......: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m(2), P > 0.05) underwent a 180-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and ingestion of [U-(13)C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials......OGTT, and Rd (all P value in NGT subjects when compared to IGT and T2D subjects. Accordingly, following exercise, the plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT was increased in NGT subjects (P

  10. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Ghergherechi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Robabeh Ghergherechi1, Ali Tabrizi21Department of Pediatrics Endocrinology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Students’ Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranPurpose: Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders in the world which has an obvious relationship with the incidence of metabolic diseases. Obesity prevalence has increased among children and adolescents during recent decades, leading to a rise in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM II prevalence in these two age brackets. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and gather metabolic findings in obese children and adolescents.Methods and materials: We studied 110 obese children and adolescents (body mass index > 95th percentile for age and gender 4–18 years of age referred to the endocrine clinic of the Children’s Hospital at Tabriz University in a descriptive cross-sectional study. ­Fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in all subjects were determined. Oral glucose tolerance test after eating 75 g/kg glucose was performed. Homeostatic model assessment was used to ­estimate insulin resistance.Results: Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance prevalence in 68 obese adolescents was 14.7% and 31.8%, respectively. Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was not seen in 23.8% of 42 obese children. No case of DM II was seen. There was a significant statistical difference in glucose (P = 0.003 and insulin (P < 0.001 level at minute 120 in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance compared to obese children and adolescents without impaired glucose tolerance. Rate of insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance was greater and had a significant statistical difference (P = 0.03.Conclusion: Obesity has a close relationship with increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in children and adolescents. Oral glucose

  11. Daidzin decreases blood glucose and lipid in streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hyperglycemic mice and improved oral glucose tolerance. The serum and ... Inhibition of α-glucosidase and stimulation of glucose consumption by muscles may account for ..... induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and fibrinolysis ...

  12. Circulating Betatrophin Correlates with Triglycerides and Postprandial Glucose among Different Glucose Tolerance Statuses--A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Jin, Kairui; Chen, Peihong; Jin, Hua; Yang, Lili; Xie, Xinmiao; Yang, Meili; Hu, Cheng; Yu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Previous researches of betatrophin on glucose and lipids metabolism under insulin-resistant condition have reached controversial conclusions. To further identify the possible impact of betatrophin, we measured the circulating betatrophin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, and in subjects with both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and investigated the relationship between serum betatrophin and other clinical parameters in these patients with different glucose tolerance statuses. A total of 460 permanent residents of the Fengxian District, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled. Based on the results of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, we selected newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 50) patients and subjects with IGT (n = 51) and NGT (n = 50) according to their age, gender and body mass index (18-28 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood lipids and fasting insulin were measured. Serum betatrophin concentrations were determined via ELISA. Serum betatrophin levels in T2DM patients were increased significantly compared with IGT and NGT groups, and decreased in subjects with better islet beta cell function. Serum betatrophin was positively correlated with triglyceride, 2-hour postprandial glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index in all subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that 2-hour postprandial glucose was independently associated with serum betatrophin significantly. Circulating betatrophin is increased in newly-diagnosed T2DM patients and positively correlated with the triglycerides and postprandial glucose levels. The results suggest that betatrophin may participate in glucose and triglycerides metabolism.

  13. Circulating Betatrophin Correlates with Triglycerides and Postprandial Glucose among Different Glucose Tolerance Statuses—A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peihong; Jin, Hua; Yang, Lili; Xie, Xinmiao; Yang, Meili; Hu, Cheng; Yu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous researches of betatrophin on glucose and lipids metabolism under insulin-resistant condition have reached controversial conclusions. To further identify the possible impact of betatrophin, we measured the circulating betatrophin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, and in subjects with both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and investigated the relationship between serum betatrophin and other clinical parameters in these patients with different glucose tolerance statuses. Methods A total of 460 permanent residents of the Fengxian District, aged 40–60 years, were enrolled. Based on the results of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, we selected newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 50) patients and subjects with IGT (n = 51) and NGT (n = 50) according to their age, gender and body mass index (18–28 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood lipids and fasting insulin were measured. Serum betatrophin concentrations were determined via ELISA. Results Serum betatrophin levels in T2DM patients were increased significantly compared with IGT and NGT groups, and decreased in subjects with better islet beta cell function. Serum betatrophin was positively correlated with triglyceride, 2-hour postprandial glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index in all subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that 2-hour postprandial glucose was independently associated with serum betatrophin significantly. Conclusions Circulating betatrophin is increased in newly-diagnosed T2DM patients and positively correlated with the triglycerides and postprandial glucose levels. The results suggest that betatrophin may participate in glucose and triglycerides metabolism. PMID:26247824

  14. Intake of Lactobacillus reuteri Improves Incretin and Insulin Secretion in Glucose-Tolerant Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Marie-Christine; Strassburger, Klaus; Nowotny, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    production. Muscle and hepatic lipid contents were assessed by (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and immune status, cytokines, and endotoxin were measured with specific assays. RESULTS: In glucose-tolerant volunteers, daily administration of L. reuteri SD5865 increased glucose-stimulated GLP-1 and GLP-2....... reuteri SD5865 or placebo over 4 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance and isoglycemic glucose infusion tests were used to assess incretin effect and GLP-1 and GLP-2 secretion, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with [6,6-(2)H2]glucose were used to measure peripheral insulin sensitivity and endogenous glucose...... cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Enrichment of gut microbiota with L. reuteri increases insulin secretion, possibly due to augmented incretin release, but does not directly affect insulin sensitivity or body fat distribution. This suggests that oral ingestion of one specific strain may serve as a novel therapeutic...

  15. Continuous glucose monitoring, oral glucose tolerance, and insulin - glucose parameters in adolescents with simple obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Awwa, A; Soliman, A; Al-Ali, M; Yassin, M; De Sanctis, V

    2012-09-01

    In obese adolescents pancreatic beta-cells may not be able to cope with insulin resistance leading to hyperglycemia and type2 diabetes (T2DM To assess oral glucose tolerance, 72-h continuous blood glucose concentrations (CGM) and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) in 13 adolescents with simple obesity (BMI SDS=4 ± 1.06). OGTT performed in 13 obese adolescents (13.47 ± 3 years) revealed 3 cases (23%) with impaired fasting glucose (IFG: fasting glucose >5.6 mmol/L), 4 cases (30%) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT: 2h blood glucose >7.8 continuous glucose monitoring system ( CGMS), IFG was detected in 4 cases, the maximum serum blood glucose (BG : 2h or more after meal) was >7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L (diabetes) in one case (7.6%). Five cases had a minimum BG recorded of 2.6 and QUICKI values obese adolescents, CGMS is superior to OGTT and HbA1C in detecting glycemic abnormalities, which appears to be secondary to insulin resistance.

  16. Assessment of the effects of feed restriction and amino acid supplementation on glucose tolerance in llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebra, Christopher K; Tornquist, Susan J; Jester, Rebecca M; Stelletta, Calogero

    2004-07-01

    To assess the effects of prolonged feed deprivation on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and lipid homeostasis in llamas. 9 adult female llamas. On each of 2 consecutive days, food was withheld from the llamas for 8 hours. Blood samples were collected before and 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after IV injection of dextrose (0.5 g/kg) for determination of plasma insulin and serum glucose, triglyceride, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Between experimental periods, the llamas received supplemental amino acids IV (185 mg/kg in solution). The llamas were then fed a limited diet (grass hay, 0.25% of body weight daily) for 23 days, after which the experimental procedures were repeated. Feed restriction decreased glucose tolerance and had slight effects on insulin secretion in llamas. Basal lipid fractions were higher after feed restriction, but dextrose administration resulted in similar reductions in serum lipid concentrations with and without feed restriction. Insulin secretion was decreased on the second day of each study period, which lessened reduction of serum lipid concentrations but did not affect glucose tolerance. Despite having a comparatively competent pancreatic response, feed-restricted llamas assimilated dextrose via an IV bolus more slowly than did llamas on full rations. However, repeated administration of dextrose reduced insulin secretion and could promote hyperglycemia and fat mobilization. These findings suggested that veterinarians should use alternative methods of supplying energy to camelids with long-term reduced feed intake or consider administering agents to improve the assimilation of glucose.

  17. The prevalence ofdiabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adjusted body mass indices (BMIs) of diabetic (31,3 ± 1,9) and. IGT (29,7 ± 1,9) subjects were significantly higher than those ofthe group with normal glucose toler- ance (28 ± 0,5). Female subjects with all types of glucose tolerance had significantly ...

  18. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was determined in 479 urbanised South African blacks (141 men and 338 women) of Zulu descent selected by cluster sampling in a suburb of Durban. All subjects underwent a modified glucose tolerance test whereby fasting and 2-hour postglucose ...

  19. Sluggish glucose tolerance in tuberculosis patients | Bell | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were performed in both groups in the morning after an overnight fast. Anticoagulant-treated blood was analysed for glucose and insulin using Peridochrome Glucose (Boehringer Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) (Diagnostic Products Corporation, ...

  20. Clinical Observations of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ja; Lee, Hong Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1969-09-15

    Plasma glucose levels before and after oral glucose administration have been compared in g group of 76 thyrotoxic subjects and a group of 8 normal control subjects in order to study the effect of glucose loading in thyrotoxicosis. Following were the results: 1) The mean fasting plasma glucose level was elevated in thyrotoxic group (95.5 mg%) compared to normal control group (88 mg%). 2) The peak of glucose tolerance curve is at 30 minutes after glucose administration in both groups, but its mean value was 44 mg% higher in thyrotoxic group than in control group. 3) The plasma glucose levels returned towards the fasting level in the later stage of the test more rapidly in thyrotoxic group than in control group. 4) 69.6% of oral glucose tolerance tests were impaired in the thyrotoxic group, and the occurrence of abnormal glucose tolerance could be related to the degree of thyrotoxicity, sex and age. 5) The mechanisms of the impaired glucose tolerance in thyrotoxicosis are thought to be related to an increased rate of glucose absorption from gastrointestinal tract, abnormal liver function with decreased hepatic glycogenesis, increased glucose oxidation, decreased pancreatic release of insulin, and genetic relationship between diabetes and thyrotoxicosis.

  1. Heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test and associated cardiometabolic risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca Kate; Vistisen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    patterns of plasma glucose change during the oral glucose tolerance test. Cardiometabolic risk factor profiles were compared between the identified groups. Using latent class trajectory analysis, five glucose response curves were identified. Despite similar fasting and 2-h values, glucose peaks and peak......We aimed to examine heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test with multiple measurements and to compare cardiometabolic risk profiles between identified glucose response curve groups. We analyzed data from 1,267 individuals without diabetes from five studies...... in Denmark, the Netherlands and the USA. Each study included between 5 and 11 measurements at different time points during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, resulting in 9,602 plasma glucose measurements. Latent class trajectories with a cubic specification for time were fitted to identify different...

  2. Effects of indigestible dextrin on glucose tolerance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, S; Kishimoto, Y; Matsuoka, A

    1995-03-01

    A recently developed indigestible dextrin (IDex) was studied for its effects on glucose tolerance in male Sprague-Dawley rats. IDex is a low viscosity, water-soluble dietary fibre obtained by heating and enzyme treatment of potato starch. It has an average molecular weight of 1600. An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted with 8-week-old rats to evaluate the effects of IDex on the increase in plasma glucose and insulin levels after a single administration of various sugars (1.5 g/kg body weight). The increase in both plasma glucose and insulin levels following sucrose, maltose and maltodextrin loading was significantly reduced by IDex (0.15 g/kg body weight). This effect was not noted following glucose, high fructose syrup and lactose loading. To evaluate the effects of continual IDex ingestion on glucose tolerance, 5-week-old rats were kept for 8 weeks on a stock diet, a high sucrose diet or an IDex-supplemented high sucrose diet. An oral glucose (1.5 g/kg body weight) tolerance test was conducted in week 8. Increases in both plasma glucose and insulin levels following glucose loading were higher in the rats given a high sucrose diet than in the rats fed a stock diet. However, when IDex was included in the high sucrose diet, the impairment of glucose tolerance was alleviated. Moreover, IDex feeding also significantly reduced accumulation of body fat, regardless of changes in body weight. These findings suggest that IDex not only improves glucose tolerance following sucrose, maltose and maltodextrin loading but also stops progressive decrease in glucose tolerance by preventing a high sucrose diet from causing obesity.

  3. Relation of Adiponectin to Glucose Tolerance Status, Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wolfson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adiponectin has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the influence of adiponectin on glucose tolerance status, adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs. Design and Patients. Study consisted of 107 subjects: 55 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and 52 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR who were divided into two groups: 24 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG Group and 28 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM Group. In additional analysis, study participants were divided into two groups, according to CVRFs: low and high risk. Measurements: Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Measurements. Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Results. Adiponectin was significantly higher in NGT group than in IFG (=0.003 and DM (=0.01 groups. Adiponectin was significantly, positively associated with HDL and inversely associated with glucose, HbA1c, ALT, AST, TG, HOMA-IR. Patients with higher CVRFs load have lesser adiponectin compared to patients with low cardiovascular risk <0.0001. Adiponectin was inversely associated with the number of risk factors (=−0.430, =0.0001. Conclusions. Circulating adiponectin was significantly lower in subjects with different degree of IGR compared to subjects with normal glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin was significantly lower in high risk group than low risk group and decreased concurrently with increased number of CVRFs.

  4. Effects of Insulin on Brain Glucose Metabolism in Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Jussi; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hannukainen, Jarna C.; Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Nesterov, Sergey V.; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha; Iozzo, Patricia; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin stimulates brain glucose metabolism, but this effect of insulin is already maximal at fasting concentrations in healthy subjects. It is not known whether insulin is able to stimulate glucose metabolism above fasting concentrations in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied the effects of insulin on brain glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow in 13 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and nine healthy subjects using positron emission tomography (PET). All subjects underwent PET with both [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (for brain glucose metabolism) and [15O]H2O (for cerebral blood flow) in two separate conditions (in the fasting state and during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp). Arterial blood samples were acquired during the PET scans to allow fully quantitative modeling. RESULTS The hyperinsulinemic clamp increased brain glucose metabolism only in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (whole brain: +18%, P = 0.001) but not in healthy subjects (whole brain: +3.9%, P = 0.373). The hyperinsulinemic clamp did not alter cerebral blood flow in either group. CONCLUSIONS We found that insulin stimulates brain glucose metabolism at physiological postprandial levels in patients with impaired glucose tolerance but not in healthy subjects. These results suggest that insulin stimulation of brain glucose metabolism is maximal at fasting concentrations in healthy subjects but not in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:21270256

  5. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for energy. People with untreated diabetes have high blood glucose levels. Most often, the first tests used to diagnose ... in people who are not pregnant are: Fasting blood glucose level: diabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than ...

  6. Adipokine pattern in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in comparison to normal glucose tolerance and diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Tönjes

    Full Text Available AIM: Altered adipokine serum concentrations early reflect impaired adipose tissue function in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. It is not entirely clear whether these adipokine alterations are already present in prediabetic states and so far there is no comprehensive adipokine panel available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess distinct adipokine profiles in patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or T2D. METHODS: Based on 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests, 124 individuals were divided into groups of IFG (n = 35, IGT (n = 45, or NGT (n = 43. Furthermore, 56 subjects with T2D were included. Serum concentrations of adiponectin, chemerin, fetuin-A, leptin, interleukin (IL-6, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, vaspin, progranulin, and soluble leptin receptor (sOBR were measured by ELISAs. RESULTS: Chemerin, progranulin, fetuin-A, and RBP4, IL-6, adiponectin and leptin serum concentrations were differentially regulated among the four investigated groups but only circulating chemerin was significantly different in patients with IGT compared to those with IFG. Compared to T2D the IFG subjects had higher serum chemerin, progranulin, fetuin-A and RBP4 levels which was not detectable in the comparison of the T2D and IGT group. CONCLUSION: Alterations in adipokine serum concentrations are already detectable in prediabetic states, mainly for chemerin, and may reflect adipose tissue dysfunction as an early pathogenetic event in T2D development. In addition, distinct adipokine serum patterns in individuals with IFG and IGT suggest a specific role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of these prediabetic states.

  7. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among Adolescents with Impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Oral glucose tolerance test was done for a cohort of 68 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years with impaired fasting blood glucose detected at a school screening. Age, sex, anthropometric measures (height, weight, BMI and BMI percentiles were determined using appropriate methods. Blood pressure and family ...

  8. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat-free ...

  9. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Revisted | Mshelia | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The present review was undertaken to create the required utilization of oral glucose tolerance test in a developing country with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Sources of data: This review is primarily based on available literature on local and international studies on oral glucose ...

  10. Further studies of the influence of apolipoprotein B alleles on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J.; Poulsen, P.; Vaag, A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of five genetic polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B gene on parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism was assessed in 564 Danish mono- and dizygotic twins. Genotypes in apolipoprotein B T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), L2712P (MvaI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (Eco...... on the insulin-to-glucose ratio (p = 0.04), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) influenced HOMAbeta (p = 0.04). Significant interactions were observed between genotype in T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) and glucose tolerance on lipid-related parameters (0.03

  11. Glucose tolerance during pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Widger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF are relatively insulinopenic and are at risk of diabetes, especially during times of stress. There is a paucity of data in the literature describing glucose tolerance during CF pulmonary exacerbations. We hypothesised that glucose tolerance would be worse during pulmonary exacerbations in children with CF than during clinical stability. METHODS: Patients with CF, 10 years or older, admitted with a pulmonary exacerbation underwent an OGTT within 48 hours of admission. A repeat OGTT was performed 4 to 6 weeks post discharge when the patients were well. RESULTS: Nine patients completed the study. Four patients were found to have normal glucose tolerance, 3 with impaired and 2 with CF related diabetes during the exacerbation. Mean change in 2-hour glucose was 1.1 mmol (SD = 0.77. At the follow up OGTT, 8 of 9 (89% remained within their respective glucose tolerance status groupings. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that there is little difference in glucose tolerance during CF exacerbations compared to clinical stability in the majority of patients.

  12. [Prevalence of postpartum impaired glucose tolerance after gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Gutiérrez, Gustavo; Macias Rocha, Ana Laura; Puente Alvarez, Erika Isela

    2012-10-01

    gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects 2 to 10% of pregnancies and it has been postulated as a variant of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) because they share a similar pathophysioiogy. Approximately in 90% the carbohydrate intolerance resolves after pregnancy, however after 5 to 16 years after delivery women will have a risk of 17 to 63% to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. to determine the frequency of postpartum impaired glucose tolerance in women with previous GDM. 125 patients with diagnosis of GMD were included, general data were captured, type of control during pregnancy and complications occurred. The women were instructed to undergo a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test of 75 g and 2 h, 6 weeks after their delivery date and they were classified into five groups: normal patients, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose and combined both. after follow up 13 women (10.4%) were diagnosed as DM2; 14 patients (11.2%) were classified as glucose intolerance; 16 (12.8%) were catalogued with impaired fasting glucose; 6 (4.8%) had both disorders; and 76 (60.8%) were diagnosed as healthy women. the detection with a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test is necessary for the identification of the various types of disorders of the carbohydrate metabolism including DM2.

  13. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Patients with Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during Pregnancy: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Tonoike

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy is associated with perinatal complications. We used continuous glucose monitoring (CGM in pregnant women with glucose intolerance to achieve better glycemic control and to evaluate the maternal glucose fluctuations. We also used CGM in women without glucose intolerance (the control cases. Furthermore, the standard deviation (SD and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE were calculated for each case. For the control cases, the glucose levels were tightly controlled within a very narrow range; however, the SD and MAGE values in pregnant women with glucose intolerance were relativity high, suggesting postprandial hyperglycemia. Our results demonstrate that pregnant women with glucose intolerance exhibited greater glucose fluctuations compared with the control cases. The use of CGM may help to improve our understanding of glycemic patterns and may have beneficial effects on perinatal glycemic control, such as the detection of postprandial hyperglycemia in pregnant women.

  14. Zinc dosing and glucose tolerance in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenley, S.; Taylor, M.

    1986-01-01

    Animal data suggest the existence of a physiologic relationship between glucoregulatory hormones and zinc metabolism. In order to investigate this proposed relationship in humans, they examined the effect of moderately elevated plasma zinc levels on blood glucose clearance. Eight women (24-37 yrs) served as subjects for the study. Fasted volunteers were tested under two experimental conditions (a) ingestion of 50 g D-glucose (b) ingestion of 25 mg zinc followed 60 min later by ingestion of 50 g D-glucose. Five ml venous blood was drawn into trace-metal-free, fluoride-containing vacutainer tubes prior to and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after glucose ingestion. Plasma was analyzed for glucose and zinc; glycemic responses were quantified by computing areas under the curves and times to peak concentration. Their human data indicate varied glycemic responses to the acute elevation of plasma zinc: 4 subjects showed little apparent effect; 3 subjects marginally increased either the area under the curve or time to peak and 1 subject (classified as suspect diabetic in the non-zinc condition) showed marked improvement in glycemic response following zinc ingestion. Their preliminary results suggest that blood glucose clearance may be affected in some individuals by the acute elevation of plasma zinc

  15. Tesaglitazar, a dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonist, ameliorates glucose and lipid intolerance in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Nicholas D; Thalén, Pia; Hultstrand, Therese; Jacinto, Severina; Camejo, Germán; Wallin, Boel; Ljung, Bengt

    2005-10-01

    Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, high circulating levels of free fatty acids (FFA), and postprandial hyperlipidemia are associated with the metabolic syndrome, which has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We studied the metabolic responses to an oral glucose/triglyceride (TG) (1.7/2.0 g/kg lean body mass) load in three groups of conscious 7-h fasted Zucker rats: lean healthy controls, obese insulin-resistant/dyslipidemic controls, and obese rats treated with the dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/gamma agonist, tesaglitazar, 3 mumol.kg(-1).day(-1) for 4 wk. Untreated obese Zucker rats displayed marked insulin resistance, as well as glucose and lipid intolerance in response to the glucose/TG load. The 2-h postload area under the curve values were greater for glucose (+19%), insulin (+849%), FFA (+53%), and TG (+413%) compared with untreated lean controls. Treatment with tesaglitazar lowered fasting plasma glucose, improved glucose tolerance, substantially reduced fasting and postload insulin levels, and markedly lowered fasting TG and improved lipid tolerance. Fasting FFA were not affected, but postprandial FFA suppression was restored to levels seen in lean controls. Mechanisms of tesaglitazar-induced lowering of plasma TG were studied separately using the Triton WR1339 method. In anesthetized, 5-h fasted, obese Zucker rats, tesaglitazar reduced hepatic TG secretion by 47%, increased plasma TG clearance by 490%, and reduced very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apolipoprotein CIII content by 86%, compared with obese controls. In conclusion, the glucose/lipid tolerance test in obese Zucker rats appears to be a useful model of the metabolic syndrome that can be used to evaluate therapeutic effects on impaired postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism. The present work demonstrates that tesaglitazar ameliorates these abnormalities and enhances insulin sensitivity in this animal model.

  16. Upper intestinal lipids regulate energy and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Grace W C; Kokorovic, Andrea; Lam, Tony K T

    2009-09-01

    Upon the entry of nutrients into the small intestine, nutrient sensing mechanisms are activated to allow the body to adapt appropriately to the incoming nutrients. To date, mounting evidence points to the existence of an upper intestinal lipid-induced gut-brain neuronal axis to regulate energy homeostasis. Moreover, a recent discovery has also revealed an upper intestinal lipid-induced gut-brain-liver neuronal axis involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In this mini-review, we will focus on the mechanisms underlying the activation of these respective neuronal axes by upper intestinal lipids.

  17. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEWe studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin......, reflected the differences for these parameters between those with normal and impaired glucose regulation as measured by gold-standard tests.CONCLUSIONSGlucose absorption patterns during an OGTT are significantly related to plasma glucose levels and body size, which should be taken into account when.......RESULTSMore rapid glucose absorption (P 0.036) and reduced late glucose absorption (P 0.039) were observed in the i-IFG group relative to NGT and i-IGT groups. Women with i-IGT had a lower early glucose absorption than did men with i-IGT (P = 0.041); however, this difference did not persist when differences in body...

  18. Clofibrate improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed rats but decreases hepatic glucose consumption capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustafson, LA; Kuipers, F; Wiegman, C; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA; Meijer, AJ

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: High-fat (HF) diets cause glucose intolerance. Fibrates improve glucose tolerance. We have tried to obtain information on possible hepatic mechanisms contributing to this effect. Methods: Rats were fed a HF diet, isocaloric with the control diet, for 3 weeks without or with

  19. Relationships between obesity, lipids and fasting glucose in the menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netjasov, Aleksandra Simoncig; Vujović, Svetlana; Ivović, Miomira; Tancić-Gajić, Milina; Marina, Ljiljana; Barać, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Menopause leads to the development of central adiposity, a more atherogenic lipid profile and increased incidence of metabolic syndrome independent of age and other factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between anthropometric characteristics, sex hormones, lipids and fasting glucose in menopausal women. The study included 87 menopausal women, who where divided into groups according to two criteria: BMI > or = 26.7 kg/m2 and BMI > or = 25 kg/m2. Anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure were measured. Blood was taken at 08.00 h for fasting glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, apolipoprotein A, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Significant differences between groups were found for weight, BMI, waist, hips circumference, waist/hip ratio (WHR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Lp(a), FSH, LH, PRL (for systolic blood pressure p fasting glucose (p obese and overweight women with BMI > or = 26.7 kg/m2 significant negative correlations were found for FSH and glucose, SHBG and LDL, SHBG and total cholesterol, SHBG and glucose, BMI and HDL, WC and HDL. In obese and overweight women with BMI > or = 25 kg/m2 significant negative correlations were found for BMI and HDL, waist circumference (WC) and HDL, WHR and HDL, FSH and glucose, SHBG and glucose; significant positive correlations were between BMI and glucose, WC and glucose and WHR with triglycerides. Gaining weight and decreased SHBG are related to dyslipidemia and increased fasting glucose confirming increased incidence of metabolic abnormalities in the menopause.

  20. Changes in blood glucose and plasma lipids during gestation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten female Chinchilla rabbits with mean weight (1.9±0.1kg) were randomly assigned into two groups comprising of five each, to evaluate the changes in blood glucose and lipid profile during pregnancy. Control Group A was mated without prior synchronization, while rabbits in group B were synchronized with 0.15mg/kg ...

  1. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Tvede, Michael

    2013-01-01

    and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism....

  2. Impaired glucose tolerance in healthy men with low body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmoller André

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and high body mass index (BMI are recognized risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, data suggest that also underweight predisposes people to develop T2DM. Here, we experimentally tested if already moderate underweight is associated with impaired glucose tolerance as compared to normal weight controls. Obese subjects were included as additional reference group. Method We included three groups of low weight, normal weight, and obese subjects comprising 15 healthy male participants each. All participants underwent a standardized hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamp intervention to determine glucose tolerance. In addition, insulin sensitivity index (ISI was calculated by established equation. Results ISI values were higher in low and normal weight than in obese subjects (P P = 0.303. Comparable to obese participants (P = 0.178, glucose tolerance was found decreased in low weight as compared with normal weight subjects (P = 0.007. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between glucose tolerance and BMI in low (P = 0.043 and normal weight subjects (P = 0.021, an effect that was found inverse in obese participants (P = 0.028. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that not only obese but also healthy people with moderate underweight display glucose intolerance. It is therefore suggested that all deviations from normal BMI may be accompanied by an increased risk of developing T2DM in later life indicating that the maintenance of body weight within the normal range has first priority in the prevention of this disease.

  3. Using Ice Cream for Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: An Alternative to the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanprasertpinyo, Wandee; Bhirommuang, Nattapimon; Surawattanawiset, Titiporn; Tangsermwong, Thanwarin; Phanachet, Pariya; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn

    2017-12-01

    Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a sensitive and reliable test for diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). However, poor patient tolerance of glucose solutions is common. We aim to compare the diagnostic value of an ice cream test with a standard OGTT. A total of 104 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either 75-g OGTT or ice cream, followed by a crossover to the other test. Most patients were females (71%). Mean age was 37 ± 12 years, and body mass index was 24.2 ± 3.9kg/m 2 . Diabetes mellitus and IGT, as diagnosed by 75-g OGTT, were 4.8% and 6.7%, respectively. The 2-hour plasma glucose levels were 110 ± 55.5mg/dL with 75-g glucose and 97.52 ± 40.7mg/dL with ice cream. The correlation coefficient of 2-hour plasma glucose for the 2 tests was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87; P ice cream test would have missed 5.76% of those at high risk for diabetes mellitus (impaired fasting glucose and IGT) or diabetes. An ice cream test may serve as an alternative to a 75-g OGTT. Before applying this test in clinical practice, it needs to be validated in a larger population. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Miglitol, an α-Glucosidase Inhibitor, on Postprandial Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    KANEKO Yukiyo; KUBOKI Koji; HIROI Naoki; WATANABE Takehiko; NISHIMURA Chiaki; YOSHINO Gen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The effects of miglitol on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with diet alone. Subjects and Methods: A meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed in 26 diabetic patients before and 2 weeks after 150 mg/day miglitol treatment, with the second MTT performed in patients after they had taken a dose of 50 mg miglitol. Results: Miglitol treatment decreased postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin levels 30...

  5. Improved glucose tolerance after intensive life style intervention occurs without changes in muscle ceramide or triacylglycerol in morbidly obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, J. W.; Stallknecht, B.; Drachmann, Tue

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the effect of a 15-week life style intervention (hypocaloric diet and regular exercise) on glucose tolerance, skeletal muscle lipids and muscle metabolic adaptations in 14 female and 9 male morbidly obese subjects (age: 32.5 +/- 2.3 years, BMI: 46.1 +/- 1.9 kg m(-2...

  6. Natural History of Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Japanese Americans: Change in Visceral Adiposity is Associated with Remission from Impaired Glucose Tolerance to Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Yukiko; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Sato, Kyoko K; Leonetti, Donna L; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Boyko, Edward J

    2018-05-30

    To describe the roles of intra-abdominal fat and its change in the remission of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to normal glucose tolerance (NGT). We followed 157 Japanese Americans with IGT at baseline for 10-11 years without external intervention. We measured intra-abdominal and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (IAFA and ASFA) by computed tomography at baseline and at 5-6 years of follow-up. Change in IAFA and ASFA (ΔIAFA and ΔASFA) were calculated by subtracting baseline fat area from 5-6 year follow-up fat area. Glucose and insulin at fasting and during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, insulinogenic index (IGI [Δinsulin/Δglucose (30-0 min)]) and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured at baseline. Fourty-four subjects remitted to NGT. Among those with lower IAFA (≤median 91.31 cm 2 ) and the lowest tertile of ΔIAFA, 45% remitted, while with higher IAFA (>91.31 cm 2 ) and the highest tertile of ΔIAFA, only 12.5% remitted. ΔIAFA was significantly associated with remission to NGT (multiple-adjusted odd ratio [1-SD decrease] 1.93, 95% CI 1.10-3.36) independent of IAFA, ASFA, ΔASFA, IGI, HOMA-IR, age, sex, and family history of diabetes. In the natural history of IGT, change in intra-abdominal fat was associated with remission to NGT. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Oral glucose tolerance test and continuous glucose monitoring to assess diabetes development in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente León, María; Bilbao Gassó, Laura; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Campos Martorrell, Ariadna; Gartner Tizzano, Silvia; Yeste Fernández, Diego; Carrascosa Lezcano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) undergo a slow and progressive process toward diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is recommended to diagnose impaired glucose levels in these patients. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) measures glucose profiles under real-life conditions. To compare OGTT and CGM results in CF patients. Paired OGTT and 6-day CGM profiles (146.2±9.1h/patient) were performed in 30 CF patients aged 10-18 years. According to OGTT, 14 patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 14 abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT), and two cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD). In 27 patients (13 NGT, 13 AGT, 1 CFRD), CGM showed glucose values ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL during similar monitoring times (2%-14% with NGT, 1%-16.9% with AGT, and 3% with CFRD). Glucose peak levels ≥200mg/dL were seen in seven patients (3 NGT, 3 AGT, 1 CFRD). According to CGM, two patients had all glucose values under 140mg/dL (1 NGT, 1 AGT). Seventeen patients had glucose levels ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL (10 NGT, 6 AGT, 1 CFRD). Ten patients (3 NGT, 7 AGT) had glucose values ≥200mg/dL for ≤1% of the monitoring time and one (CFRD) for >1% of the monitoring time. OGTT results did not agree with those of the CGM. CGM allows for diagnosis of glucose changes not detected by OGTT. Such changes may contribute to optimize pre-diabetes management in CF patients. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Dysregulation of glucose metabolism even in Chinese PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiping; Li, Qifu

    2012-01-01

    To clarify the necessity of improving glucose metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women as early as possible, 111 PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance and 92 healthy age-matched controls were recruited to investigate glucose levels distribution, insulin sensitivity and β cell function. 91 PCOS women and 33 controls underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to assess their insulin sensitivity, which was expressed as M value. β cell function was estimated by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-β index after adjusting insulin sensitivity (HOMA-βad index). Compared with lean controls, lean PCOS women had similar fasting plasma glucose (FPG), higher postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) (6.03±1.05 vs. 5.44±0.97 mmol/L, PPCOS women had higher levels of both FPG (5.24±0.58 vs. 4.90±0.39, PPCOS women separately, and the cutoff of BMI indicating impaired β cell function of PCOS women was 25.545kg/m². In conclusion, insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose metabolism were common in Chinese PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance. BMI ≥ 25.545kg/m² indicated impaired β cell function in PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance.

  9. Postprandial glucose response to selected tropical fruits in normal glucose-tolerant Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo, A; Eregie, A; Adediran, O; Ohwovoriole, A; Ebengho, S

    2011-01-01

    The glycemic response to commonly eaten fruits in Nigeria has not been reported. Therefore, this study assessed the plasma glucose response to selected fruits in Nigeria. Ten normal glucose-tolerant subjects randomly consumed 50 g carbohydrate portions of three fruits: banana (Musa paradisiaca), pineapple (Ananus comosus), and pawpaw (Carica papaya), and a 50-g glucose load at 1-week intervals. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state and half-hourly over a 2-h period post-ingestion of the fruits or glucose. The samples were analyzed for plasma glucose concentrations. Plasma glucose responses were assessed by the peak plasma glucose concentration, maximum increase in plasma glucose, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose level, and incremental area under the glucose curve and glycemic index (GI). The results showed that the blood glucose response to these three fruits was similar in terms of their incremental areas under the glucose curve, maximum increase in plasma glucose, and glycemic indices (GIs). The 2-h postprandial plasma glucose level of banana was significantly higher than that of pineapple, P < 0.025. The mean ± SEM GI values were as follows: pawpaw; 86 ± 26.8%; banana, 75.1 ± 21.8%; pineapple, 64.5 ± 11.3%. The GI of glucose is taken as 100. The GI of pineapple was significantly lower than that of glucose (P < 0.05). Banana, pawpaw, and pineapple produced a similar postprandial glucose response. Measured portions of these fruits may be used as fruit exchanges with pineapple having the most favorable glycemic response.

  10. Glucose in vaginal secretions before and after oral glucose tolerance testing in women with and without recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrström, Sophia; Yu, Anna; Rylander, Eva

    2006-12-01

    To measure the change of glucose in vaginal secretions during glucose tolerance testing in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and in healthy control subjects. Thirty-eight women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and 45 healthy, age-matched controls completed a health questionnaire regarding general and gynecologic health and food and alcohol habits. They all underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and a vaginal examination. Vaginal secretion was collected from the proximal part of the vagina. Glucose in plasma and in vaginal secretions were measured at fasting and after 2 hours and analyzed with the hexokinase method. A sample size analysis showed that the number of subjects included in the study was sufficient for a beta value of 0.80, at the significance level of alpha=.05, at a difference in glucose in vaginal secretions of 30% after oral glucose tolerance test. In healthy women, the median level of glucose in vaginal secretions was 5.2 mM before and 3.7 mM after oral glucose tolerance test, and plasma glucose was 5.0 mM before and 5.8 mM after oral glucose tolerance test. No significant difference was seen regarding change of glucose level in vaginal secretions and plasma glucose after testing, compared with before oral glucose tolerance testing. There were no differences between women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and control subjects regarding change in glucose level in vaginal secretions or in plasma during oral glucose tolerance test. II-2.

  11. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  12. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu

    2012-11-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  13. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among Adolescents with Impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Tamunopriye Jaja, Boma Okoh. Department of Paediatrics, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers. State ... history of diabetes mellitus and 17(25%) had hypertension. Seven (10.3%) of the ... Oral Glucose Tolerance among Adolescents - Jaja T, Okoh B degree of insulin resistance leading to ...

  14. Association of curry consumption with blood lipids and glucose levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Youngjoo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, an active ingredient in turmeric, is highly consumed in South Asia. However, curry that contains turmeric as its main spice might be the major source of curcumin in most other countries. Although curcumin consumption is not as high in these countries as South Asia, the regular consumption of curcumin may provide a significant health-beneficial effect. This study evaluated whether the moderate consumption of curry can affect blood glucose and lipid levels that b...

  15. Stable-label intravenous glucose tolerance test minimal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avogaro, A.; Bristow, J.D.; Bier, D.M.; Cobelli, C.; Toffolo, G.

    1989-01-01

    The minimal model approach to estimating insulin sensitivity (Sl) and glucose effectiveness in promoting its own disposition at basal insulin (SG) is a powerful tool that has been underutilized given its potential applications. In part, this has been due to its inability to separate insulin and glucose effects on peripheral uptake from their effects on hepatic glucose inflow. Prior enhancements, with radiotracer labeling of the dosage, permit this separation but are unsuitable for use in pregnancy and childhood. In this study, we labeled the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) dosage with [6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose, [2- 2 H]glucose, or both stable isotopically labeled glucose tracers and modeled glucose kinetics in six postabsorptive, nonobese adults. As previously found with the radiotracer model, the tracer-estimated S*l derived from the stable-label IVGTT was greater than Sl in each case except one, and the tracer-estimated SG* was less than SG in each instance. More importantly, however, the stable-label IVGTT estimated each parameter with an average precision of +/- 5% (range 3-9%) compared to average precisions of +/- 74% (range 7-309%) for SG and +/- 22% (range 3-72%) for Sl. In addition, because of the different metabolic fates of the two deuterated tracers, there were minor differences in basal insulin-derived measures of glucose effectiveness, but these differences were negligible for parameters describing insulin-stimulated processes. In conclusion, the stable-label IVGTT is a simple, highly precise means of assessing insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness at basal insulin that can be used to measure these parameters in individuals of all ages, including children and pregnant women

  16. Glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase retrieved from the metagenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku eUchiyama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available β-glucosidases (BGLs hydrolyze cellooligosaccharides to glucose and play a crucial role in the enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic biomass. Despite their significance for the production of glucose, most identified BGLs are commonly inhibited by low (~mM concentrations of glucose. Therefore, BGLs that are insensitive to glucose inhibition have great biotechnological merit. We applied a metagenomic approach to screen for such rare glucose-tolerant BGLs. A metagenomic library was created in Escherichia coli (approximately 10,000 colonies and grown on LB agar plates containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucoside, yielding 828 positive (blue colonies. These were then arrayed in 96-well plates, grown in LB, and secondarily screened for activity in the presence of 10% (w/v glucose. Seven glucose-tolerant clones were identified, each of which contained a single bgl gene. The genes were classified into two groups, differing by two nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of these genes were identical (452 aa and found to belong to the glycosyl hydrolase family 1. The recombinant protein (Ks5A7 was overproduced in E. coli as a C-terminal 6 × His-tagged protein and purified to apparent homogeneity. The molecular mass of the purified Ks5A7 was determined to be 54 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and 160 kDa by gel filtration analysis. The enzyme was optimally active at 45°C and pH 5.0–6.5 and retained full or 1.5–2-fold enhanced activity in the presence of 0.1–0.5 M glucose. It had a low KM (78 µM with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 0.36 mM with cellobiose and high Vmax (91 µmol min-1 mg-1 with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 155 µmol min-1 mg-1 with cellobiose among known glucose-tolerant BGLs and was free from substrate (0.1 M cellobiose inhibition. The efficient use of Ks5A7 in conjunction with Trichoderma reesei cellulases in enzymatic saccharification of alkaline-treated rice straw was demonstrated by increased production of glucose.

  17. Effects of Cr methionine on glucose metabolism, plasma metabolites, meat lipid peroxidation, and tissue chromium in Mahabadi goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, A; Ganjkhanlou, M; Zali, A

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of chromium methionine (Cr-Met) on glucose metabolism, blood metabolites, meat lipid peroxidation, and tissue chromium (Cr) in Mahabadi goat kids. Thirty-two male kids (16.5 ± 2.8 kg BW, 4-5 months of age) were fed for 90 days in a completely randomized design with four treatments. Treatments were supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mg Cr as Cr-Met/animal/daily. Blood samples were collected via heparin tubes from the jugular vein on 0, 21, 42, 63, and 90 days of experiment. On day 70, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was conducted. At the end of the feeding trial, the kids were slaughtered, and the liver, kidney, and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle samples were collected. Plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were decreased by Cr supplementation (P glucose concentrations at 30 and 60 min after glucose infusion were lower in the kids fed 1.5 mg Cr diet than the kids fed control diet (P glucose clearance rate (K) and lower glucose half-life (T½; P Glucose area under the response curve (AUC) from 0 to 180 min after glucose infusion was decreased linearly (P glucose utilization and lipid oxidation of meat in fattening kid.

  18. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-Lin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Su, Wei-Juan; Chen, Ning-Ning; Lu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu

    2016-10-05

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granules three times daily (JLD group, n = 34) or no drug intervention (control group, n = 31) for 12 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body mass index, blood lipids levels, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance calculated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) of all the patients were observed and compared before and after the treatment. Sixty-one participants completed the trial (32 in JLD group and 29 in the control group). There were statistically significant decreases in HbA1c (P < 0.001), 2-h plasma glucose (P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (P = 0.029) in JLD group compared with the control group after 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, two (6.9%) patients returned to normal blood glucose, and five (17.2%) patients turned into DM in control group, while in the JLD group, 14 (43.8%) returned to normal blood glucose and 2 (6.2%) turned into DM. There was a significant difference in the number of subjects who had normal glucose at the end of the study between two groups (P = 0.001). JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT.

  19. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in urban adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Rodrigues Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in the urban population aged between 30 and 69 years in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October/2009 and February/2011. The investigation included the determination of fasting glucose and participants with blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Nondiabetic patients, which showed blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to investigate whether they had DM or IGT. Results: 1.429 individuals participated in this investigation. The general prevalence, adjusted for sex and age, were: 12.3% for DM (95%CI: 10.5 to 13.9% and 7.1% for IGT (95%CI: 5.7 to 8.4%. There was a higher prevalence of DM with increasing age in people with low educational level, family history of diabetes, overweight, obesity and central obesity. Among diabetic patients (n = 195, 25% were unaware they had the disease and were diagnosed through investigation. Among patients who already knew they had DM (n = 146, 37% were unaware of the potential chronic complications. Conclusion: This study confirms the increased prevalence of DM in Brazil and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis, as well as the importance of strict adherence to medical treatment in order to prevent its much feared complications.

  20. Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-05-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] - 149.6; R (2) = 0.54, p Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels.

  1. Plasma Volume Expansion Resulting from Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Hahn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To quantify the degree of plasma volume expansion that occurs during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT. Methods. Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age, 28 years underwent IVGTTs in which 0.3 g/kg of glucose 30% was injected as a bolus over 1 min. Twelve blood samples were collected over 75 min. The plasma glucose and blood hemoglobin concentrations were used to calculate the volume distribution (Vd and the clearance (CL of both the exogenous glucose and the injected fluid volume. Results. The IVGTT caused a virtually instant plasma volume expansion of 10%. The half-life of the glucose averaged 15 min and the plasma volume expansion 16 min. Correction of the fluid kinetic model for osmotic effects after injection reduced CL for the infused volume by 85%, which illustrates the strength of osmosis in allocating fluid back to the intracellular fluid space. Simulations indicated that plasma volume expansion can be reduced to 60% by increasing the injection time from 1 to 5 min and reducing the glucose load from 0.3 to 0.2 g/kg. Conclusion. A regular IVGTT induced an acute plasma volume expansion that peaked at 10% despite the fact that only 50–80 mL of fluid were administered.

  2. Contraction-mediated glucose uptake is increased in men with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Jensen, Camilla; Skovbro, Mette; Flint, Anne

    2007-01-01

    stimulation alone and with superimposed exercise. Patients with type 2 diabetes, subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), healthy controls, and endurance-trained subjects were studied. The groups were matched for age and lean body mass (LBM), and differed in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), body fat...

  3. Changes in blood glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests and blood biochemical values in adult female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    The metabolic mechanisms to circannual changes in body mass of bears have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) has a metabolic mechanism that efficiently converts carbohydrates into body fat by altering insulin sensitivity during the hyperphagic stage before hibernation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in blood biochemical values and glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) during the active season (August, early and late November). Four, adult, female bears (5-17 years old) were anesthetized with 6 mg/kg TZ (tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl) in combination with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine maleate. The bears were injected intravenously with glucose (0.5 g/kg of body mass), and blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection. The basal triglycerides concentration decreased significantly with increase in body mass from August to November. Basal levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were not significantly different among groups. The results of IVGTT demonstrated the increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in early November. In contrast, peripheral insulin resistance was indicated by the exaggerated insulin response in late November. Our findings suggest that bears shift their glucose and lipid metabolism from the stage of normal activity to the hyperphagic stage in which they show lipogenic-predominant metabolism and accelerate glucose uptake by increasing the peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  4. [Effects of coca chewing on the glucose tolerance test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza Guzmán, M; Peñaloza Imaña, R; Echalar Afcha, L; Aguilar Valerio, M; Spielvogel, H; Sauvain, M

    1997-01-01

    The effects of coca chewing on the glucose tolerance test were measured. The subjects were 14 habitual coca chewers and 14 non-chewers. All were of Aymara ancestry and came from a rural community from the "Altiplano" close to the city of La Paz. The coca users chewed coca leaves during 3 1/2 hours of the test. The non-chewers showed a significant hypoglycemia at 120 minutes of the test. This effect was not observed in the coca chewers. The hormonal counter-regulation response to hypoglycemia worked perfectly in non-chewers, since glucose levels reached normal values at 180 minutes of the test. These results suggest that coca chewers, at high altitude do not present hypoglycemia, due to an antagonic action of coca metabolites on insulin; allowing a greater availability of glucose in the organism. This would have a positive effect on metabolism in an environment of hypobaric hypoxia, known to lead to situations of hypoglycemia.

  5. Effects of intermittent fasting on glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2017-08-01

    Two intermittent fasting variants, intermittent energy restriction (IER) and time-restricted feeding (TRF), have received considerable interest as strategies for weight-management and/or improving metabolic health. With these strategies, the pattern of energy restriction and/or timing of food intake are altered so that individuals undergo frequently repeated periods of fasting. This review provides a commentary on the rodent and human literature, specifically focusing on the effects of IER and TRF on glucose and lipid metabolism. For IER, there is a growing evidence demonstrating its benefits on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the short-to-medium term; however, more long-term safety studies are required. Whilst the metabolic benefits of TRF appear quite profound in rodents, findings from the few human studies have been mixed. There is some suggestion that the metabolic changes elicited by these approaches can occur in the absence of energy restriction, and in the context of IER, may be distinct from those observed following similar weight-loss achieved via modest continuous energy restriction. Mechanistically, the frequently repeated prolonged fasting intervals may favour preferential reduction of ectopic fat, beneficially modulate aspects of adipose tissue physiology/morphology, and may also impinge on circadian clock regulation. However, mechanistic evidence is largely limited to findings from rodent studies, thus necessitating focused human studies, which also incorporate more dynamic assessments of glucose and lipid metabolism. Ultimately, much remains to be learned about intermittent fasting (in its various forms); however, the findings to date serve to highlight promising avenues for future research.

  6. Regulation of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism by Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye Won; Wei, Jie; Cohen, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP, a.k.a. StARD2) binds phosphatidylcholines and catalyzes their intermembrane transfer and exchange in vitro. The structure of PC-TP comprises a hydrophobic pocket and a well-defined head-group binding site, and its gene expression is regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α. Recent studies have revealed key regulatory roles for PC-TP in lipid and glucose metabolism. Notably, Pctp−/− mice are sensitized to insulin action and exhibit more efficient brown fat-mediated thermogenesis. PC-TP appears to limit access of fatty acids to mitochondria by stimulating the activity of thioesterase superfamily member 2, a newly characterized long-chain fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase. Because PC-TP discriminates among phosphatidylcholines within lipid bilayers, it may function as a sensor that links metabolic regulation to membrane composition. PMID:20338778

  7. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost; Tvede, Michael

    2013-01-01

    and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism.......New gene sequencing-based techniques and the large worldwide sequencing capacity have introduced a new era within the field of gut microbiota. Animal and human studies have shown that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with changes in the composition of the gut microbiota...

  8. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost; Tvede, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New gene sequencing-based techniques and the large worldwide sequencing capacity have introduced a new era within the field of gut microbiota. Animal and human studies have shown that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with changes in the composition of the gut microbiota...... and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism....

  9. Arrhythmia causes lipid accumulation and reduced glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Matthias; Schleider, Gregor; Kohlhaas, Michael; Adrian, Lucas; Adam, Oliver; Tian, Qinghai; Kaestner, Lars; Lipp, Peter; Lehrke, Michael; Maack, Christoph; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by irregular contractions of atrial cardiomyocytes and increased energy demand. The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of arrhythmia on glucose and fatty acid (FA) metabolism in cardiomyocytes, mice and human left atrial myocardium. Compared to regular pacing, irregular (pseudo-random variation at the same number of contractions/min) pacing of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes induced shorter action potential durations and effective refractory periods and increased diastolic [Ca(2+)]c. This was associated with the activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Membrane expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) and (14)C-palmitic acid uptake were augmented while membrane expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT-4) as well as (3)H-glucose uptake were reduced. Inhibition of AMPK and CaMKII prevented these arrhythmia-induced metabolic changes. Similar alterations of FA metabolism were observed in a transgenic mouse model (RacET) for spontaneous AF. Consistent with these findings samples of left atrial myocardium of patients with AF compared to matched samples of patients with sinus rhythm showed up-regulation of CaMKII and AMPK and increased membrane expression of FAT/CD36, resulting in lipid accumulation. These changes of FA metabolism were accompanied by decreased membrane expression of GLUT-4, increased glycogen content and increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein bax. Irregular pacing of cardiomyocytes increases diastolic [Ca(2+)]c and activation of CaMKII and AMPK resulting in lipid accumulation, reduced glucose uptake and increased glycogen synthesis. These metabolic changes are accompanied by an activation of pro-apoptotic signalling pathways.

  10. Occurrence and predictors of persistent impaired glucose tolerance after acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack

    OpenAIRE

    Fonville, Susanne; Hertog, Heleen; Zandbergen, Adrienne; Koudstaal, Peter Jan; Lingsma, Hester

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Impaired glucose tolerance is often present in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke and doubles the risk of recurrent stroke. This impaired glucose tolerance can be transient, reflecting an acute stress response, or persistent, representing undiagnosed impaired glucose metabolism possibly requiring treatment. We aimed to assess the occurrence of persistent impaired glucose tolerance after a stroke or TIA and to develop a prediction model to...

  11. Glucose and Lipid Dysmetabolism in a Rat Model of Prediabetes Induced by a High-Sucrose Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgeiro, Ana; Cerqueira, Manuela G.; Varela-Rodríguez, Bárbara M.; Nunes, Sara; Neto, Paula; Pereira, Frederico C.; Reis, Flávio; Carvalho, Eugénia

    2017-01-01

    Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity are key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but their molecular nature during the early stages of the disease remains to be elucidated. We aimed to characterize glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-target organs (liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue) in a rat model treated with a high-sucrose (HSu) diet. Two groups of 16-week-old male Wistar rats underwent a 9-week protocol: HSu diet (n = 10)—received 35% of sucrose in drinking water; Control (n = 12)—received vehicle (water). Body weight, food, and beverage consumption were monitored and glucose, insulin, and lipid profiles were measured. Serum and liver triglyceride concentrations, as well as the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis were assessed. The insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis were also measured in freshly isolated adipocytes. Even in the absence of obesity, this rat model already presented the main features of prediabetes, with fasting normoglycemia but reduced glucose tolerance, postprandial hyperglycemia, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, as well as decreased insulin sensitivity (resistance) and hypertriglyceridemia. In addition, impaired hepatic function, including altered gluconeogenic and lipogenic pathways, as well as increased expression of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase 1 and fatty acid synthase in the liver, were observed, suggesting that liver glucose and lipid dysmetabolism may play a major role at this stage of the disease. PMID:28635632

  12. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not...... with a specific radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Minimal Model and glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Serum lipid concentrations were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The gallbladder volume in the fasting state increased with increasing intra-abdominal fat...... mass (P=0.006) and was increased in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (41 vs 27 ml, P=0.001). The lithogenic index was > 1 in all subjects and correlated with total fat mass (P=0.04). CONCLUSION: Gallstone pathogenesis in obesity seems to be influenced by the total body fat mass and its regional...

  13. Overexpression of SIRT1 in mouse forebrain impairs lipid/glucose metabolism and motor function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Wu

    Full Text Available SIRT1 plays crucial roles in glucose and lipid metabolism, and has various functions in different tissues including brain. The brain-specific SIRT1 knockout mice display defects in somatotropic signaling, memory and synaptic plasticity. And the female mice without SIRT1 in POMC neuron are more sensitive to diet-induced obesity. Here we created transgenic mice overexpressing SIRT1 in striatum and hippocampus under the control of CaMKIIα promoter. These mice, especially females, exhibited increased fat accumulation accompanied by significant upregulation of adipogenic genes in white adipose tissue. Glucose tolerance of the mice was also impaired with decreased Glut4 mRNA levels in muscle. Moreover, the SIRT1 overexpressing mice showed decreased energy expenditure, and concomitantly mitochondria-related genes were decreased in muscle. In addition, these mice showed unusual spontaneous physical activity pattern, decreased activity in open field and rotarod performance. Further studies demonstrated that SIRT1 deacetylated IRS-2, and upregulated phosphorylation level of IRS-2 and ERK1/2 in striatum. Meanwhile, the neurotransmitter signaling in striatum and the expression of endocrine hormones in hypothalamus and serum T3, T4 levels were altered. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that SIRT1 in forebrain regulates lipid/glucose metabolism and motor function.

  14. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  15. Characterization of the intravenous glucose tolerance test and the combined glucose-insulin test in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, F J; Aguilera-Aguilera, R; Gonzalez-De Cara, C A; Toribio, R E; Estepa, J C; Perez-Ecija, A

    2015-12-01

    Glucose-insulin dynamic challenges such as the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) have not been described in donkeys. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the IVGTT and CGIT in healthy adult donkeys, and (2) to establish normal glucose-insulin proxies. Sixteen donkeys were used and body morphometric variables obtained each. For the IVGTT, glucose (300 mg/kg) was given IV. For the CGIT, glucose (150 mg/kg) followed by recombinant insulin (0.1 IU/kg) were administered IV. Blood samples for glucose and insulin determinations were collected over 300 min. In the IVGTT the positive phase lasted 160.9 ± 13.3 min, glucose concentration peaked at 323.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL and declined at a rate of 1.28 ± 0.15 mg/dL/min. The glucose area under the curve (AUC) was 21.4 ± 1.9 × 10(3) mg/dL/min and the insulin AUC was 7.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) µIU/mL/min. The positive phase of the CGIT curve lasted 44 ± 3 min, with a glucose clearance rate of 2.01 ± 0.18 mg/dL/min. The negative phase lasted 255.9 ± 3 min, decreasing glucose concentration at rate of -0.63 ± 0.06 mg/dL/min, and reaching a nadir (33.1 ± 3.6 mg/dL) at 118.3 ± 6.3 min. The glucose and insulin AUC values were 15.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) mg/dL/min and 13.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) µIU/mL/min. This is the first study characterizing CGIT and IVGTT, and glucose-insulin proxies in healthy adult donkeys. Distinct glucose dynamics, when compared with horses, support the use of species-specific protocols to assess endocrine function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Coexistence of insulin resistance and increased glucose tolerance in pregnant rats: a physiological mechanism for glucose maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Marcia Aparecida; Batista, Márcia Regina; Saruhashi, Tiago Ribeiro; Felisberto, Antonio Machado; Guilhermetti, Marcio; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

    2012-06-06

    The contribution of insulin resistance (IR) and glucose tolerance to the maintenance of blood glucose levels in non diabetic pregnant Wistar rats (PWR) was investigated. PWR were submitted to conventional insulin tolerance test (ITT) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) using blood sample collected 0, 10 and 60 min after intraperitoneal insulin (1 U/kg) or oral (gavage) glucose (1g/kg) administration. Moreover, ITT, GTT and the kinetics of glucose concentration changes in the fed and fasted states were evaluated with a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS) technique. Furthermore, the contribution of the liver glucose production was investigated. Conventional ITT and GTT at 0, 7, 14 and 20 days of pregnancy revealed increased IR and glucose tolerance after 20 days of pregnancy. Thus, this period of pregnancy was used to investigate the kinetics of glucose changes with the RT-CGMS technique. PWR (day 20) exhibited a lower (pinsulin sensitivity and/or glucose tolerance during late pregnancy. In contrast to the general view that IR is a pathological process associated with gestational diabetes, a certain degree of IR may represent an important physiological mechanism for blood glucose maintenance during fasting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of vigorous physical activity on blood lipid and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyoung-Jeong; Lee, Han-Joon

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate how the participation of vigorous physical activities in the health examination contributes to blood lipid and blood glucose. A total of 56,810 workers from the Ulsan University Hospital in Ulsan, Subjects were tested for health checkups from February to November in 2016. The subject is those who does not have medical history, current ailments, and medication histories, and selected those who conducted the study of subjects tested to research. And this study did not consider their drinking and smoking. The final selected population was 11,557 and categorized as a vigorous physical activity of the health survey items. In this study, the group participated by the vigorous physical activity activities, group 1 (n= 70) had more than 6 days of vigorous physical activity, group 2 (n= 2,960) is 3 to 5 days of vigorous physical activity, the group 3 (n= 7,389) is 1 to 2 days of vigorous physical activity. The group 4 (n= 1,138) were classified as those who did not perform vigorous physical activity. To achieve the purpose of the study, the questionnaire examined blood lipid and blood glucose, using questions related to physical activity related to health examination in the Ulsan University Hospital. We obtained the mean and standard deviation for each group and conducted the one-way analysis of variance as an independent variable. Post hoc is least significant difference test and significant level is 0.05. Vigorous physical activity more than 3 days of participation had a positive affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride. But participation in vigorous physical activity did not affect blood glucose.

  18. Visfatin and retinol-binding protein 4 concentrations in lean, glucose-tolerant women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bulent O; Bozdag, Gurkan; Otegen, Umit; Harmanci, Ayla; Boynukalin, Kubra; Vural, Zehra; Kirazli, Serafettin; Yarali, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Since insulin resistance is accepted to be a common feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the exact molecular mechanism(s) involved in glucose and lipid metabolism have been under investigation in the syndrome. Recently, two novel adipokines, namely visfatin and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), have been suggested to play a role in insulin resistance and diabetes. This study sought to determine whether plasma concentrations of visfatin and RBP4 are altered in PCOS by comparing a total of 27 lean, normal glucose-tolerant PCOS patients with 19 age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls. The mean plasma visfatin concentrations were higher in PCOS patients than those in healthy subjects (37.9+/-18.2 versus 19.8+/-17.5, PPCOS (r=0.52, Plean, glucose-tolerant women with PCOS have increased circulating visfatin and unaltered RBP4 concentrations compared with healthy lean women. In order to clarify overlapping effects and their potential contribution to the pathophysiology of PCOS, further studies are needed. Copyright (c) 2009 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of ezetimibe on lipid and glucose metabolism after a fat and glucose load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramitsu, Shinya; Miyagishima, Kenji; Ishii, Junichi; Matsui, Shigeru; Naruse, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Kenji; Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Ozaki, Yukio

    2012-11-01

    The clinical benefit of ezetimibe, an intestinal cholesterol transporter inhibitor, for treatment of postprandial hyperlipidemia was assessed in subjects who ingested a high-fat and high-glucose test meal to mimic westernized diet. We enrolled 20 male volunteers who had at least one of the following: waist circumference ≥ 85 cm, body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), or triglycerides (TG) from 150 to 400mg/dL. After 4 weeks of treatment with ezetimibe (10mg/day), the subjects ingested a high-fat and high-glucose meal. Then changes in serum lipid and glucose levels were monitored after 0, 2, 4, and 6h, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for the change in each parameter. At 4 and 6h postprandially, TG levels were decreased (pAUC for TG was also decreased (pAUC for apo-B48 was also significantly decreased (pBlood glucose and insulin levels at 2h postprandially were significantly decreased by ezetimibe (pAUCs for blood glucose and insulin were also significantly decreased (pglucose metabolism, this drug is likely to be beneficial for dyslipidemia in patients with postprandial metabolic abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonsuppressed Glucagon After Glucose Challenge as a Potential Predictor for Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Róbert; Hakaste, Liisa H; Ahlqvist, Emma; Heni, Martin; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel; Stefan, Norbert; Gallwitz, Baptist; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Groop, Leif; Fritsche, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Glucagon levels are classically suppressed after glucose challenge. It is still not clear as to whether a lack of suppression contributes to hyperglycemia and thus to the development of diabetes. We investigated the association of postchallenge change in glucagon during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), hypothesizing that higher postchallenge glucagon levels are observed in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Glucagon levels were measured during OGTT in a total of 4,194 individuals without diabetes in three large European cohorts. Longitudinal changes in glucagon suppression were investigated in 50 participants undergoing a lifestyle intervention. Only 66-79% of participants showed suppression of glucagon at 120 min (fold change glucagon 120/0 change glucagon 120/0 ≥1). Participants with nonsuppressed glucagon 120 had a lower risk of IGT in all cohorts (odds ratio 0.44-0.53, P change glucagon 120/0 was associated with an improvement in insulin sensitivity ( P = 0.003). We characterize nonsuppressed glucagon 120 during the OGTT. Lower glucagon suppression after oral glucose administration is associated with a metabolically healthier phenotype, suggesting that it is not an adverse phenomenon. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Morning cortisol is lower in obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen EP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Edavan P Praveen1, Jaya Prakash Sahoo1, Bindu Kulshreshtha2, Madan L Khurana3, Nandita Gupta1, Sada Nand Dwivedi3, Guresh Kumar3, Ariachery C Ammini11Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, 3Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaBackground: There is no consensus on the role of cortisol in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the relationship of morning plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels with body mass index (BMI and glucose tolerance.Subjects and methods: The sample frame was the “Offspring of individuals with diabetes study” database. A total of 358 offspring of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 287 individuals without a known family history of T2DM were recruited for the study. Subjects who were ≥10 years of age were selected from the database for analysis. Subjects with T2DM were excluded. All participants underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes for glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Plasma cortisol, ACTH, and lipid profile were estimated from the fasting sample.Results: Four hundred and ninety-five participants (305 males [62%] and 190 females [38%] were included in the analysis. ACTH and cortisol levels were higher in normal-weight subjects than in overweight/obese subjects. Both ACTH and cortisol increased as fasting plasma glucose increased. Cortisol levels were significantly lower in offspring of T2DM subjects with MS than in offspring of T2DM subjects without MS. When adjusted for BMI, the significance was marginal. In males, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with early insulin secretion during OGTT (insulinogenic index [0–30] and positively with waist circumference and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In females, fasting

  2. Improved glucose tolerance after high-load strength training in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølsted, Stig; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Eidemak, Inge

    2013-01-01

    glucose tolerance (n = 9). Conclusion: The conducted strength training was associated with a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes undergoing dialysis. The effect was apparently not associated with muscle hypertrophy, whereas the muscle...... a week. Muscle fiber size, composition and capillary density were analyzed in biopsies obtained in the vastus lateralis muscle. Glucose tolerance and the insulin response were measured by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results: All outcome measures remained unchanged during the control period....... After strength training the relative area of type 2X fibers was decreased. Muscle fiber size and capillary density remained unchanged. After the strength training, insulin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes (n = 14) (fasting insulin...

  3. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bonito, P; Pacifico, L; Chiesa, C; Valerio, G; Miraglia Del Giudice, E; Maffeis, C; Morandi, A; Invitti, C; Licenziati, M R; Loche, S; Tornese, G; Franco, F; Manco, M; Baroni, M G

    2017-04-01

    To investigate in a large sample of overweight/obese (OW/OB) children and adolescents the prevalence of prediabetic phenotypes such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and to assess their association with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hepatic steatosis (HS). Population data were obtained from the CARdiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents in ITALY study. Between 2003 and 2013, 3088 youths (972 children and 2116 adolescents) received oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were included in the study. In 798 individuals, abdominal ultrasound for identification of HS was available. The prevalence of IFG (3.2 vs. 3.3%) and IGT (4.6 vs. 5.0%) was similar between children and adolescents. Children with isolated IGT had a 2-11 fold increased risk of high LDL-C, non-HDL-C, Tg/HDL-C ratio, and low insulin sensitivity, when compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). No significant association of IFG with any CMR factor was found in children. Among adolescents, IGT subjects, and to a lesser extent those with IFG, showed a worse CMR profile compared to NGT subgroup. In the overall sample, IGT phenotype showed a twofold increased risk of HS compared to NGT subgroup. Our study shows an unexpected similar prevalence of IFG and IGT between children and adolescents with overweight/obesity. The IGT phenotype was associated with a worse CMR profile in both children and adolescents. Phenotyping prediabetes conditions by OGTT should be done as part of prediction and prevention of cardiometabolic diseases in OW/OB youth since early childhood.

  4. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study......, either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder. RESULTS: The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours...

  5. Biochemical studies on gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in Sudanese pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalayel, Mohammed Helmy Faris

    1998-01-01

    To detect the effect of some maternal risk factors such as age, parity, previous heavy babies and family history of diabetes, in glucose tolerance impairment and to stand on the state of insulin resistance which occurs in pregnancy and the possible role of cortisol, human placental lactogen and prolactin in augmentation of this state of insulin resistance as well as to show the effect of glucose tolerance deterioration on lipid metabolism, a study was carried out on Sudanese pregnant women. The study included thirty gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnant women, thirty impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and thirty women with normal glucose tolerance as a control group. The GDM, IGT and the control group were screened from about 2000 Sudanese pregnant women in the different gestational weeks. The GDM and IGT women were all discovered in the third trimester of pregnancy, they found to be significantly older than the control group. The IGT group was found to have a first degree family history of diabetes incidence significantly more than that of the control group while the GDM group has significantly much higher results when compared with the normal control group. The incidence of previous heavy babies was significantly higher in the IGT group when compared with the control while that of GDM was significantly much higher. The GDM group was found to have significantly higher mean levels of fasting blood plasma glucose sugar than that of the IGT and the control groups. It was found that the serum cholestrol mean level and the serum triglycerides mean level of the IGT and that of the GDM were significantly higher than that of the control group. Also, there were no significant differences among serum fasting insulin mean levels of the three studied groups. Results of serum anti-insulin antibodies of the three studied groups were significantly different. Results of serum cortisol of the control group in the first, second and third trimesters revealed that cortisol

  6. Using Glucose Tolerance Tests to Model Insulin Secretion and Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Shannon

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies described in this paper is to develop theoretically and to validate experimentally mathematical compartment models which can be used to predict plasma insulin levels in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. In the case of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, the C-peptide levels in the plasma were measured as part of routine glucose tolerance tests in order to estimate the prehepatic insulin secretion rates. In the case of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM, a radioactive labelled insulin was used to measure the absorption rate of insulin after a subcutaneous injection of insulin. Both models gave close fits between theoretical estimates and experimental data, and, unlike other models, it is not necessary to seed these models with initial estimates.

  7. Metabolic profile of normal glucose-tolerant subjects with elevated 1-h plasma glucose values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyparambil Aravindakshan Pramodkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profiles of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT with and without elevated 1-h postglucose (1HrPG values during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Methodology: The study group comprised 996 subjects without known diabetes seen at tertiary diabetes center between 2010 and 2014. NGT was defined as fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L and 2-h plasma glucose <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L after an 82.5 g oral glucose (equivalent to 75 g of anhydrous glucose OGTT. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical investigations were done using standardized methods. The prevalence rate of generalized and central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MS was determined among the NGT subjects stratified based on their 1HrPG values as <143 mg/dl, ≥143-<155 mg/dl, and ≥155 mg/dl, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history of diabetes. Results: The mean age of the 996 NGT subjects was 48 ± 12 years and 53.5% were male. The mean glycated hemoglobin for subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl was 5.5%, for those with 1HrPG ≥143-<155 mg/dl, 5.6% and for those with 1HrPG ≥155 mg/dl, 5.7%. NGT subjects with 1HrPG ≥143-<155 mg/dl and ≥155 mg/dl had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL ratio, triglyceride/HDL ratio, leukocyte count, and gamma glutamyl aminotransferase (P < 0.05 compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl. The odds ratio for MS for subjects with 1HrPG ≥143 mg/dl was 1.84 times higher compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl taken as the reference. Conclusion: NGT subjects with elevated 1HrPG values have a worse metabolic profile than those with normal 1HrPG during an OGTT.

  8. Effects of dietary carbohydrates on glucose and lipid metabolism in golden Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim-Karakas, S E; Vriend, H; Almario, R; Chow, L C; Goodman, M N

    1996-08-01

    Frequent coexistence of insulin resistance, central obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in the same individual suggests an underlying common pathogenesis. Insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia can be induced by carbohydrate feeding in rats. Golden Syrian hamsters are believed to be resistant to the metabolic effects of dietary carbohydrates. We investigated the effects of diets containing 60% fructose or sucrose on glucose and lipid metabolism in hamsters, both in the fasting state and during an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Fructose caused obesity (weight after treatment: 131 +/- 7 gm in the control group, 155 +/- 5 gm in the fructose group, 136 +/- 7 gm in sucrose group, p < 0.04). Fructose also reduced glucose disappearance rate (KG: 2.69% +/- 0.39% in the control group, 1.45% +/- 0.18% in the fructose group, p < 0.02). Sucrose caused a marginal decrease in glucose disappearance (KG: 1.93% +/- 0.21%, p = 0.08 vs the control group). Only fructose feeding increased fasting plasma nonesterified fatty acids (0.645 +/- 0.087 mEq/L in the control group, 1.035 +/- 0.083 mEq/L in the fructose group, 0.606 +/- 0.061 mEq/L in the sucrose group, p < 0.002), plasma triglycerides (84 +/- 6 mg/dl in the control group, 270 +/- 65 mg/dl in the fructose group, 94 +/- 16 mg/dl in the sucrose group, p < 0.0002), and liver triglycerides (1.88 +/- 0.38 mg/gm liver weight in the control group, 2.35 =/- 0.24 mg/gm in the fructose group, 1.41 +/- 0.13 mg/gm in the sucrose group, p < 0.04). Previous studies in the rat have suggested that dietary carbohydrates induce insulin resistance by increasing plasma nonesterified fatty acids and triglycerides, which are preferentially used by the muscles. The present report shows that sucrose also can cause some decrease in glucose disappearance in the hamster without causing hypertriglyceridemia or increasing plasma nonesterified fatty acids. Thus other mechanisms may also contribute to the insulin resistance in the hamster. These

  9. A case of spontaneous hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the same patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thabit, Hood

    2012-01-31

    We present a rare case of an insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2)-secreting tumour of the thorax. This patient demonstrated the combination of fasting hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance on oral glucose tolerance testing, which has not been previously described in this condition. A review of the literature of IGF-2-secreting intrathoracic tumours is presented here.

  10. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  11. St. John's wort impairs glucose tolerance by reducing insulin response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  12. Occurrence and predictors of persistent impaired glucose tolerance after acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Fonville (Susanne); H.M. den Hertog (Heleen); A.A.M. Zandbergen (Adrienne); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); H.F. Lingsma (Hester)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Impaired glucose tolerance is often present in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke and doubles the risk of recurrent stroke. This impaired glucose tolerance can be transient, reflecting an acute stress response, or persistent, representing

  13. Radioimmunoassay of Plasma Insulin during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thyrotoxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-03-15

    Blood glucose and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) were measured during oral glucose tolerance test in 15 thyrotoxic patients and 8 normal controls, to study the glucose metabolism in thyrotoxicosis. Following were the results;1) In thyrotoxicosis, there is noticed late rise and late fall of plasma IRI during oral glucose tolerance test, like as phenomenon of mild diabetes mellitus. 2) When the thyrotoxic patients were divided into normal and abnormal responsive groups after the level of blood glucose by Wilkerson Criteria, no significant difference in plasma IRI levels were noticed between two groups. 3) This result may be interpreted as relative deficiency of insulin secretion from panaceas and suggest genetically related defects.

  14. In women with PCOS, waist circumference is a better surrogate of glucose and lipid metabolism than disease status per se.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazderska, Agnieszka; Kyaw Tun, Tommy; Phelan, Niamh; McGowan, Anne; Sherlock, Mark; Behan, LucyAnn; Boran, Gerard; Gibney, James

    2018-04-01

    Cardiometabolic abnormalities are recognized in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, over-emphasis on PCOS as a risk factor potentially results in over-investigation and treatment of some women with and under-recognition of cardiometabolic risk in obese women without PCOS. Our objective was to explore the association between waist circumference (WC) and indices of glucose and lipid metabolism in women with and without PCOS. (i) An exploratory cross-sectional study investigating association of potential cardiometabolic risk markers (PCOS status, anthropometric measures, hsCRP, HOMA-IR, SHBG, testosterone) with indices of glucose (frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) and lipid metabolism (postprandial studies and lipoprotein particle size) in 61 women with (n = 29) and without (n = 32) PCOS; (ii) a cross-sectional study in 103 PCOS women and 102 BMI-matched controls to explore if between-group differences in indices of lipid and glucose metabolism persist after adjusting for WC. NIH criteria were used for PCOS diagnosis. Study 1: Univariate correlations and stepwise regression modelling identified waist circumference (WC), as a better surrogate than PCOS status, independently predicting multiple variables of glucose and lipid metabolism. Study 2: Fasting insulin and triglyceride, hsCRP and insulin resistance (according to HOMA-IR and SiM [Avignon index]) were greater, while fasting HDL was lower in women with PCOS compared to BMI-matched women without PCOS. None of these differences persisted when a subset of 80 women with PCOS was compared with 80 women without PCOS, pair-matched for WC. Some cardiometabolic abnormalities in PCOS are related to central obesity, and following adjustment for WC does not differ from normal subjects. Waist circumference measurement has potential to take precedence over PCOS status as part of the assessment of cardiometabolic risk in reproductive-age women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A Study on the Glucose and Immunoreactive Insulin Response during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mu Ho

    1973-01-01

    The blood glucose and plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels were measured during aral glucose tolerance test in 7 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic liver diseases. The glucose tolerance was impaired in 5 of the 6 patients and normal in I. Plasma IRI responses were markedly increased and delayed in all patients, suggesting endogenous insulin resistance. Patients with more glucose intolerance showed less increase in plasma IRI than the group with less intolerance. lt is suggested that some insulin antagonists may decrease the peripheral insulin sensitivity and stimulate compensatory hyperactivity of pancreatic islets. If the compensatory hyperactivity is inadequate due to gemetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus or exhaustion of β-cells of pancreatic islets, the glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus may ensue.

  16. A Study on the Glucose and Immunoreactive Insulin Response during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mu Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The blood glucose and plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels were measured during aral glucose tolerance test in 7 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic liver diseases. The glucose tolerance was impaired in 5 of the 6 patients and normal in I. Plasma IRI responses were markedly increased and delayed in all patients, suggesting endogenous insulin resistance. Patients with more glucose intolerance showed less increase in plasma IRI than the group with less intolerance. lt is suggested that some insulin antagonists may decrease the peripheral insulin sensitivity and stimulate compensatory hyperactivity of pancreatic islets. If the compensatory hyperactivity is inadequate due to gemetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus or exhaustion of beta-cells of pancreatic islets, the glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus may ensue.

  17. Korean Red Ginseng Improves Glucose Control in Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, or Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Hyangju; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Ahn, Hyeon Yeong; Shin, Dong Yeob; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) supplementation on glucose control in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study was a 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled (5 g of KRG [n=21] or placebo [n=20] in tablet form) trial. Glucose-related biomarkers, including serum and whole blood levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, were measured by 2...

  18. Inorganic phosphorus decrease after intravenous glucose tolerance test is associated with insulin resistance in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Cincović, Marko R.; Djoković, Radojica; Belić, Branislavav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Toholj, Bojan; Stojanac, Nenad; Stevančević, Ognjen; Starič, Jože

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentration in blood decreases during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) due to the increase in the level of insulin and glucose. The objective of the present study was to determine the relationship between the intensity of Pi decrease with a dynamic change of insulin and glucose during IVGTT (AUC - total area under curve, AUC increment - area under curve from start of IVGTT to time of maximal response and glucose CR-clearance rate), as well as RQUICKI (...

  19. Serum lipid profiles, total tract nutrient digestibility, and gastrointestinal tolerance by dogs of α-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, M A; Bauer, L L; Garleb, K A; Fahey, G C; de Godoy, M R C

    2015-05-01

    The objectives were to quantify gastrointestinal tolerance, total tract nutrient digestibility, and serum lipid profiles of dogs as affected by α-cyclodextrin (ACD) supplementation and to validate the accuracy of fat analyses techniques using novel ACD-fat complexes. The ACD was hydrolyzed and free sugars and hydrolyzed monosaccharides were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Known amount of fats were complexed with ACD, and fat content of complexes were determined using the ether extraction and acid-hydrolyzed fat methods. Nine mixed-breed hounds were used in a crossover design with 3 periods of 10 d each, including 6 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for fecal collection. Dogs were fed twice daily a diet with poultry byproduct meal and brewer's rice as the main ingredients, and chromic oxide (0.2%) was included as a digestion marker. Dogs were supplemented with either 0, 3, or 6 g of ACD diluted in 15 mL of water twice per day for a total of 0, 6, and 12 g ACD per day. The ACD had a very low free sugar concentration and, once hydrolyzed, released only glucose, as expected. Average daily food intake, fecal output (DM basis), and fecal scores were not significantly different among treatments. Body weight and condition score and serum triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations remained unaltered throughout the duration of the experiment. Dry matter, OM, and fat digestibility coefficients were lower (P < 0.05) for both treatment groups compared to the control. The acid-hydrolyzed fat method was valid to measure fat that was bound to ACD. Intake of ACD lowered fat digestibility somewhat but not to the extent previously reported, without affecting serum lipid concentrations or outcomes related to tolerance. Therefore, ACD supplementation resulted in a small decrease in fat digestibility, but ACD supplementation might have potential in modifying serum lipid profiles.

  20. Roles of Chlorogenic Acid on Regulating Glucose and Lipids Metabolism: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxi Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular glucose and lipid metabolic homeostasis is vital for maintaining basic life activities of a cell or an organism. Glucose and lipid metabolic disorders are closely related with the occurrence and progression of diabetes, obesity, hepatic steatosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Chlorogenic acid (CGA, one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in the human diet, is a group of phenolic secondary metabolites produced by certain plant species and is an important component of coffee. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that CGA exerts many biological properties, including antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic activities. Recently, the roles and applications of CGA, particularly in relation to glucose and lipid metabolism, have been highlighted. This review addresses current studies investigating the roles of CGA in glucose and lipid metabolism.

  1. Assessment of circulating betatrophin concentrations in lean glucose-tolerant women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Onur; Özel, Mustafa Kemal; Ellidağ, Hamit Yaşar; Toptaş, Tayfun; Derbent, Aysel Uysal; Yılmaz, Necat

    2017-07-01

    The aims of the current study were to investigate the betatrophin levels in lean glucose-tolerant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to explore the relationships between these levels and antropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters. The study population consisted of 50 lean (body mass index [BMI] production and improved glucose tolerance. Few studies have investigated the association between PCOS and betatrophin. However, in contrast to our study, the authors included overweight/obese patients and glucose tolerance was not evaluated before recruitment. What the results of this study add: Our results showed that serum betatrophin levels were significantly higher in lean glucose-tolerant PCOS women than in age- and BMI-matched healthy controls. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: Elevated betatrophin levels in PCOS women, in the absence of obesity and glucose intolerance, may reflect a compensatory mechanism in order to counteract metabolic syndrome-related risk factors.

  2. An imidazopyridine anxiolytic alters glucose tolerance in patients: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottaï, T; Cartault, F; Pouget, R; Blayac, J P; Petit, P

    1995-02-01

    We have recently shown that compounds with high affinity for peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion in vitro. We therefore performed an oral glucose tolerance test in anxious inpatients treated with the imidazopyridine derivative alpidem, which has been shown to display high affinity for these binding sites. The test was performed before and after 1 week of daily administration of the drug. As compared with pretreatment values, a significant alteration of the insulin response to glucose was observed. It is suggested that daily administration of alpidem, at therapeutically effective doses for the treatment of anxiety, may alter glucose tolerance.

  3. Evidence for an association between the Leu162Val polymorphism of the PPARalpha gene and decreased fasting serum triglyceride levels in glucose tolerant subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva-Maria D; Hansen, Lars; Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether genetic variation in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) is associated with type 2 diabetes and altered lipid or carbohydrate metabolism in glucose tolerant subjects. Mutation analyses of PPARalpha were performed in 56...... type 2 diabetic patients. Six variants were identified: IVS3 + 76T>C, IVS3-19C>T, IVS4 + 35C>T, Leu162Val, Arg178Gly and Ala268Val. In a case-control study comprising 738 type 2 diabetic patients and 524 glucose tolerant subjects, the three exon variants did not show any significant differences...... in allele frequencies between type 2 diabetic patients and control subjects. The functional Leu162Val polymorphism was further investigated in genotype-phenotype studies involving 340 young, healthy subjects and 502 middle-aged glucose tolerant subjects. The young, healthy subjects who were heterozygous...

  4. Serum glucose and lipid levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Aloe barbadensis Miller juice extract on serum glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 150mg/kg alloxan in 5% solution. Diabetes was confirmed 72 hours after alloxan injection, if fasting blood glucose (FBG) was equal to or greater ...

  5. Exercise Training Reduces Intrathoracic Fat Regardless of Defective Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Sanna M; Motiani, Kumail K; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Savolainen, Anna; Saunavaara, Virva; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Kapanen, Jukka; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-07-01

    Epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat masses and myocardial triglyceride content (MTC) are enlarged in obesity and insulin resistance. We studied whether the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) similarly decrease ectopic fat in and around the heart and whether the decrease is similar in healthy subjects and subjects with defective glucose tolerance (DGT). A total of 28 healthy men (body mass index = 20.7-30.0 kg·m, age = 40-55 yr) and 16 men with DGT (body mass index = 23.8-33.5 kg·m, age = 43-53 yr) were randomized into HIIT and MICT interventions for 2 wk. EAT and PAT were determined by computed tomography and MTC by H-MRS. At baseline, DGT subjects had impaired aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity and higher levels of whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT (P < 0.05, all) compared with healthy subjects. In the whole group, HIIT increased aerobic capacity (HIIT = 6%, MICT = 0.3%; time × training P = 0.007) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (HIIT = 24%, MICT = 8%) as well as reduce MTC (HIIT = -42%, MICT = +23%) (time × training P = 0.06, both) more efficiently compared with MICT, and without differences in the training response between the healthy and the DGT subjects. However, both training modes decreased EAT (-5%) and PAT (-6%) fat (time P < 0.05) and not differently between the healthy and the DGT subjects. Whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT masses are enlarged in DGT. Both HIIT and MICT effectively reduce EAT and PAT in healthy and DGT subjects, whereas HIIT seems to be superior as regards improving aerobic capacity, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and MTC.

  6. Proposed diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus according to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, P; Sørensen, B

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To study if established diagnostic threshold values for gestational diabetes based on a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test can be supported by maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Historical cohort study of 3260 pregnant women examined for gestational diabetes on the basis of risk...... indicators. Information on oral glucose tolerance test results and clinical outcomes were collected from medical records. RESULTS: There was an increased risk of delivering a macrosomic infant in women with 2-h capillary blood glucose of 7.8-8.9 mmol/l compared with women with 2-h glucose ... mellitus. Until these results are available, a 2-h threshold level of 9.0 mmol/l after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test seems acceptable....

  7. Ambient but not local lactate underlies neuronal tolerance to prolonged glucose deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieski, Courtney; Shu, Hong-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Neurons require a nearly constant supply of ATP. Glucose is the predominant source of brain ATP, but the direct effects of prolonged glucose deprivation on neuronal viability and function remain unclear. In sparse rat hippocampal microcultures, neurons were surprisingly resilient to 16 h glucose removal in the absence of secondary excitotoxicity. Neuronal survival and synaptic transmission were unaffected by prolonged removal of exogenous glucose. Inhibition of lactate transport decreased microculture neuronal survival during concurrent glucose deprivation, suggesting that endogenously released lactate is important for tolerance to glucose deprivation. Tandem depolarization and glucose deprivation also reduced neuronal survival, and trace glucose concentrations afforded neuroprotection. Mass cultures, in contrast to microcultures, were insensitive to depolarizing glucose deprivation, a difference attributable to increased extracellular lactate levels. Removal of local astrocyte support did not reduce survival in response to glucose deprivation or alter evoked excitatory transmission, suggesting that on-demand, local lactate shuttling is not necessary for neuronal tolerance to prolonged glucose removal. Taken together, these data suggest that endogenously produced lactate available globally in the extracellular milieu sustains neurons in the absence of glucose. A better understanding of resilience mechanisms in reduced preparations could lead to therapeutic strategies aimed to bolster these mechanisms in vulnerable neuronal populations. PMID:29617444

  8. Impact of a high intensity training program on glucose tolerance in people with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Patyn, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recent research reported a higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in MS patients than in healthy people. The influence of high intensity exercise on IGT in MS was never investigated before. Objective: To investigate the effect of high intensity aerobic interval (HIIT) or continuous endurance (CT) training, both in combination with resistance training, on glucose tolerance muscle strength and body composition. Methods: 34 subjects were randomly as...

  9. Dietary Fructose and Glucose Differentially Affect Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis1–3

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Ernst J.; Gleason, Joi A.; Dansinger, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at ∼20–25% ...

  10. To Assess the Association between Glucose Metabolism and Ectopic Lipid Content in Different Clinical Classifications of PCOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbl, Christian S.; Ott, Johannes; Bozkurt, Latife; Feichtinger, Michael; Rehmann, Victoria; Cserjan, Anna; Heinisch, Maike; Steinbrecher, Helmut; JustKukurova, Ivica; Tuskova, Radka; Leutner, Michael; Vytiska-Binstorfer, Elisabeth; Kurz, Christine; Weghofer, Andrea; Tura, Andrea; Egarter, Christian; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Aims There are emerging data indicating an association between PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) and metabolic derangements with potential impact on its clinical presentation. This study aims to evaluate the pathophysiological processes beyond PCOS with particular focus on carbohydrate metabolism, ectopic lipids and their possible interaction. Differences between the two established classifications of the disease should be additionally evaluated. Methods A metabolic characterization was performed in 53 untreated PCOS patients as well as 20 controls including an extended oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, to assess insulin sensitivity, secretion and ß-cell function) in addition to a detailed examination of ectopic lipid content in muscle and liver by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results Women with PCOS classified by the original NIH 1990 definition showed a more adverse metabolic risk profile compared to women characterized by the additional Rotterdam 2003 phenotypes. Subtle metabolic derangements were observed in both subgroups, including altered shapes of OGTT curves, impaired insulin action and hyperinsulinemia due to increased secretion and attenuated hepatic extraction. No differences were observed for ectopic lipids between the groups. However, particularly hepatocellular lipid content was significantly related to clinical parameters of PCOS like whole body insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia and free androgen index. Conclusions Subtle alterations in carbohydrate metabolism are present in both PCOS classifications, but more profound in subjects meeting the NIH 1990 criteria. Females with PCOS and controls did not differ in ectopic lipids, however, liver fat was tightly related to hyperandrogenism and an adverse metabolic risk profile. PMID:27505055

  11. Interrelationship of growth hormone, glucose and lipid metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After an overnight fast (10-12 hours), blood was taken from the subjects into heparinised tubes, centrifuged at 5,000rpm for 5 minutes and the plasma separated. Fasting plasma glucose (FBS)was determined by glucose oxidase method,, total cholesterol ,LDL, HDL and, Triglyceride were determined by enzymatic methods.

  12. Defective glucose and lipid metabolism in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy involve liver, muscle tissue and pancreatic beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Dela, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    .01. Disposition index (i.e. first-phase insulin response to intravenous glucose multiplied by incremental glucose disposal) was reduced by 46% (P = 0.05) in LIPO compared with the combined groups of NONLIPO and NAIVE, indicating an impaired adaptation of beta-cell function to insulin resistance in LIPO...... of glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and beta-cell function in lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients. METHODS: [3-3H]glucose was applied during euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamps in association with indirect calorimetry in 43 normoglycaemic HIV-infected patients (18 lipodystrophic patients on HAART (LIPO......), 18 patients without lipodystrophy on HAART (NONLIPO) and seven patients who were naive to antiretroviral therapy (NAIVE) respectively). beta-cell function was evaluated by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Compared with NONLIPO and NAIVE separately, LIPO displayed markedly reduced ratio...

  13. Progression from impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in a high-risk screening programme in general practice: the ADDITION Study, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Signe Sætre; Glümer, Charlotte; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2007-01-01

    -examination after 1 year. Glucose tolerance classification was based on the 1999 WHO definition. At follow-up, diabetes was based on one diabetic glucose value of fasting blood glucose or 2-h blood glucose. RESULTS: At baseline, 308 persons had IFG and 503 had IGT. The incidence of diabetes was 17.6 and 18.8 per...

  14. Impaired glucose tolerance in first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia: relationships with clinical phenotypes and cognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D C; Du, X D; Yin, G Z; Yang, K B; Nie, Y; Wang, N; Li, Y L; Xiu, M H; He, S C; Yang, F D; Cho, R Y; Kosten, T R; Soares, J C; Zhao, J P; Zhang, X Y

    2016-11-01

    Schizophrenia patients have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) than normals. We examined the relationship between IGT and clinical phenotypes or cognitive deficits in first-episode, drug-naïve (FEDN) Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. A total of 175 in-patients were compared with 31 healthy controls on anthropometric measures and fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin and lipids. They were also compared using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Neurocognitive functioning was assessed using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Patient psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Of the patients, 24.5% had IGT compared with none of the controls, and they also had significantly higher levels of fasting blood glucose and 2-h glucose after an oral glucose load, and were more insulin resistant. Compared with those patients with normal glucose tolerance, the IGT patients were older, had a later age of onset, higher waist or hip circumference and body mass index, higher levels of low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides and higher insulin resistance. Furthermore, IGT patients had higher PANSS total and negative symptom subscale scores, but no greater cognitive impairment except on the emotional intelligence index of the MCCB. IGT occurs with greater frequency in FEDN schizophrenia, and shows association with demographic and anthropometric parameters, as well as with clinical symptoms but minimally with cognitive impairment during the early course of the disorder.

  15. High passage MIN6 cells have impaired insulin secretion with impaired glucose and lipid oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Cheng

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by the inability of beta-cells to secrete enough insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis. MIN6 cells secrete insulin in response to glucose and other secretagogues, but high passage (HP MIN6 cells lose their ability to secrete insulin in response to glucose. We hypothesized that metabolism of glucose and lipids were defective in HP MIN6 cells causing impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS. HP MIN6 cells had no first phase and impaired second phase GSIS indicative of global functional impairment. This was coupled with a markedly reduced ATP content at basal and glucose stimulated states. Glucose uptake and oxidation were higher at basal glucose but ATP content failed to increase with glucose. HP MIN6 cells had decreased basal lipid oxidation. This was accompanied by reduced expressions of Glut1, Gck, Pfk, Srebp1c, Ucp2, Sirt3, Nampt. MIN6 cells represent an important model of beta cells which, as passage numbers increased lost first phase but retained partial second phase GSIS, similar to patients early in type 2 diabetes onset. We believe a number of gene expression changes occurred to produce this defect, with emphasis on Sirt3 and Nampt, two genes that have been implicated in maintenance of glucose homeostasis.

  16. The Added Value of Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in Pre-Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijf, Yoeri M.; Hermanides, Jeroen; Serlie, Mireille J.; Hoekstra, Joost B.; Soeters, Maarten R.

    2011-01-01

    With the increased acceptance of glycated hemoglobin measurement as the test of choice for the diagnosis and detection of diabetes, doubts which surround the use of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in detecting disturbances in glucose levels have become even more apparent. Metabolically, there

  17. A Novel EPO Receptor Agonist Improves Glucose Tolerance via Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle in a Mouse Model of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Scully

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients treated with recombinant human Epo demonstrate an improvement in insulin sensitivity. We aimed to investigate whether CNTO 530, a novel Epo receptor agonist, could affect glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. A single administration of CNTO 530 significantly and dose-dependently reduced the area under the curve in a glucose tolerance test in diet-induced obese and diabetic mice after 14, 21, and 28 days. HOMA analysis suggested an improvement in insulin sensitivity, and this effect was confirmed by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Uptake of 14C-2-deoxy-D-glucose indicated that animals dosed with CNTO 530 transported more glucose into skeletal muscle and heart relative to control animals. In conclusion, CNTO530 has a profound effect on glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant rodents likely because of improving peripheral insulin sensitivity. This effect was observed with epoetin-α and darbepoetin-α, suggesting this is a class effect, but the effect with these compounds relative to CNTO530 was decreased in duration and magnitude.

  18. Glucose tolerance, insulin release, and insulin binding to monocytes in kidney transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, W.A.; Wielechowski, K.S.; Mahajan, S.K.; Migdal, S.D.; McDonald, F.D.

    1982-01-01

    In order to evaluate glucose tolerance following renal transplantation, intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT), with evaluation of hormonal responses to the intravenous glucose load and percent specific 125 I-insulin binding to peripheral blood monocytes, were studied in eight clinically stable kidney transplant recipients. For comparison purposes, identical studies were done in eight control subjects and seven clinically stable hemodialysis patients. One transplant recipient was glucose intolerant, with fasting hyperglycemia, elevated HbA1C, and abnormal glucose decay constant. Impaired pancreatic insulin release appeared to be the major factor accounting for his glucose intolerance. The seven glucose-tolerant transplant recipients had significantly increased insulin release during IVGTT compared to control subjects, and significant correlations were found among insulin release, glucose decay constant, and fasting blood sugar in those patients. Insulin binding to monocytes was significantly greater in transplant recipients than control subjects due to an increase in insulin binding capacity per cell. A significant correlation was found between percent specific 125 I-insulin binding and steroid dose, expressed as mg/kg body weight/day, in those patients. Thus, chronic steroid administration does not cause glucose intolerance in transplant recipients who manifest steroid-associated increases in pancreatic insulin release and cellular insulin binding capacity

  19. Effect of brewer’s yeast supplementation on serum glucose and lipids in type II diabetic patients with dislipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sh. Ravanshad; H. Khosvani Borujeni; M. Soveid; B. Zeighami

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose : Chromium deficiency leads to impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. Chromium supplementation in type II diabetic patients improves glucose and lipid profiles. Organic chromium, such as found in brewer’s yeast, is much better absorbed than inorganic chromium. In this study, the effect of chromium supplementation in the form of brewer’s yeast on glucose and lipid profile of diabetic patients were evaluated.Materials and methods : In a clinical trial study (before and af...

  20. Association of serum orosomucoid with 30-min plasma glucose and glucose excursion during oral glucose tolerance tests in non-obese young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Ayaka; Minato, Satomi; Yano, Megumu; Takeuchi, Mika; Kitaoka, Kaori; Kurata, Miki; Yoshino, Gen; Wu, Bin; Kazumi, Tsutomu; Fukuo, Keisuke

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory markers are elevated in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. We tested whether serum orosomucoid (ORM) is associated with postload glucose, β-cell dysfunction and IR inferred from plasma insulin kinetics during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). 75 g OGTTs were performed with multiple postload glucose and insulin measurements over a 30-120 min period in 168 non-obese Japanese women (aged 18-24 years). OGTT responses, serum adiponectin and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) were cross-sectionally analyzed by analysis of variance and then Bonferroni's multiple comparison procedure. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify most important determinants of ORM. Of 168 women, 161 had normal glucose tolerance. Postload glucose levels and the area under the glucose curve (AUCg) increased in a stepwise fashion from the first through the third ORM tertile. In contrast, there was no or modest, if any, association with fat mass index, trunk/leg fat ratio, adiponectin, hsCRP, postload insulinemia, the Matsuda index and homeostasis model assessment IR. In multivariable models, which incorporated the insulinogenic index, the Matsuda index and HOMA-IR, 30 min glucose (standardized β: 0.517) and AUCg (standardized β: 0.495) explained 92.8% of ORM variations. Elevated circulating orosomucoid was associated with elevated 30 min glucose and glucose excursion in non-obese young Japanese women independently of adiposity, IR, insulin secretion, adiponectin and other investigated markers of inflammation. Although further research is needed, these results may suggest a clue to identify novel pathways that may have utility in monitoring dysglycemia within normal glucose tolerance.

  1. Significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1C in impaired glucose tolerant Pakistani subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasat, Tasnim; Sharif, Saima; Naz, Shagufta; Fazal, Sabiha

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the serum concentration of creatinine and determine its relationship with potential risk factors of diabetes in Impaired Glucose tolerance subjects. This cross sectional study was conducted on 100 IGT patients who attended Amin Hayat diabetic center in Lahore from January 2011- June 2011. Patients with age group 34-67 years, (both sexes) were included in the study. Different demographic parameters as age, BMI, WHR, B.P, personal history and socioeconomic status were recorded. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed. The biochemical parameters including HbA1c, lipid profile, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin level were measured by chemistry analyzer. A strong correlation between creatinine and HbA1c was observed. The level of creatinine was also significantly associated with age in IGT subjects. Creatinine is non-significantly correlated with Cholesterol, LDL-Chol and TG while negatively significantly associated with BMI, fasting blood glucose and HDL-Chol. The present study concluded significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1c, BMI and HDL cholesterol.

  2. Insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral glucose in non-obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, E; Olsson, T; Söderberg, S

    2004-01-01

    of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, and GIP. Insulin secretion (TIS) and insulin sensitivity (OGIS) were assessed using models describing the relationship between glucose, insulin and C-peptide data. These models allowed estimation also of the hepatic extraction of insulin. The age (54.2 +/- 9.7 [mean......Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are usually overweight and exhibit insulin resistance with a defective compensation of insulin secretion. In this study, we sought to establish the interrelation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity after oral glucose in non-obese subjects...... over the whole 180-minute period was higher in IGT (26.2 +/- 2.4 v 20.0 +/- 2.0 nmol/L; P =.035). Hepatic insulin extraction correlated linearly with OGIS (r = 0.71; P

  3. Glucose tolerance in two unacculturated Indian tribes of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, R S; Fajans, S S; Neel, J V; Pek, S; Floyd, J C; Oliver, W J

    1982-08-01

    Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, growth hormone, and pancreatic polypeptide in response to a standard oral glucose load were studied in the Yanomama and the Marubo, two relatively unacculturated Amerindian tribes of the Brazilian Amazon. The findings in the two tribes differed significantly from each other and in the degree of deviation from control subjects. The average responses in both tribes differed significantly from those of age- and sex-matched Caucasoid control subjects studied in Ann Arbor, Michigan; however, of the two tribes, the Marubo, the more acculturated group, resembled the controls more closely. Plasma concentrations of glucose and the hormones at three time points (fasting, 1 h, 2 h) were compared by means of a multivariate analysis. When the Marubo were compared with the control subjects, the only highly significant difference was in the plasma glucose concentrations (all three points were higher in the Marubo); however, the Yanomama differed significantly from the control subjects with respect to all four plasma indicators (p less than 0.05). Unlike the Marubo, the Yanomama showed no significant rise in plasma glucose at 1 h and no decrease at 2 h. Neither tribe exhibited the bimodality of the 2 h glucose value characteristic of acculturated Amerindians, such as the Pima, but the samples studied were small.

  4. Evaluation of Total Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Hypertension and Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Cherniavska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Timely reveal of the patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases for whom earlier intervention for cardiovascular risk correction is the most effective. Materials and methods. Seventy patients aged 30–55 years old with stage 2 hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and high cardiovascular risk were examined according to Framingham criteria. Cardiovascular risk was compared by SCORE and PROCAM results. Results. Percentage ratio of males with high cardiovascular risk was higher by 52.3 % in comparison to females by SCORE and by 2.3 % in comparison to females by PROCAM. Males did not present any significant discrepancy by evaluation of cardiovascular risk by both scores unlike females. Obtained results showed that total cardiovascular risk in females was twofold higher by PROCAM compared to SCORE scale. Conclusions. Total cardiovascular risk level in patients with stage 2 hypertension and IGT is influenced by age, systolic blood pressure level, smoking, lipid storage disease and carbohydrate metabolism disorder. When we evaluate total cardiovascular risk, we should not be limited only by determination of factors determined in SCORE. It is reasonable to evaluate risk factors by PROCAM, too, especially for females.

  5. Response of plasma glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous glucose tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Moate, P J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated the metabolic response of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation to a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. The experiment used 12 multiparous Holstein cows that calved in late winter in a seasonally calving pasture-based system and were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. In each of four 5-wk experimental periods commencing at approximately 73, 217, 422, and 520 (±9.1) days in milk (DIM), cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM) supplemented with 1kg of DM grain (control; CON) or 6kg of DM grain (GRN) as a ration. Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for the CON and GRN treatments, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated minimum daily total intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. The standard intravenous glucose tolerance test using 0.3g of glucose per kilogram of body weight was performed on each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) responses were measured. Milk yield, milk solids yield, body weight, and basal plasma glucose were greater in the GRN compared with the CON treatment. The area under the plasma response curve relative to baseline (AUC) for glucose, insulin, and NEFA and their apparent fractional clearance rates indicated varied whole body responsiveness to insulin in terms of glucose metabolism throughout the 670-d lactation. The glucose AUC 0 to 20 min postinfusion was increased at 560 DIM, indicating reduced utilization of glucose by the mammary gland at this stage of lactation. The NEFA clearance rate, 6 to 30 min postinfusion, was greater at 460 and 560 DIM. These data indicated an

  6. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. Results: T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (Pterrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women. PMID:27840471

  7. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-05-01

    Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (Pterrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women.

  8. Autonomic Neuropathy—a Prospective Cohort Study of Symptoms and E/I Ratio in Normal Glucose Tolerance, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Zimmerman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAutonomic neuropathy in diabetes, in addition to causing a range of symptoms originating from the autonomic nervous system, may increase cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to study the progression of autonomic neuropathy, based on symptom score and evaluation of an autonomic test, in persons with normal and impaired glucose tolerance and in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D.MethodsParticipants were recruited in 2003/2004 with a follow-up in 2014. The participants’ glucose tolerance was categorized using oral glucose tolerance tests. Symptoms were evaluated using an autonomic symptom score (ASS, ECG was used to test cardiac autonomic function based on the expiration/inspiration ratio (E/I ratio, and blood samples were taken on both occasions.ResultsASSs were higher at follow-up in the T2D patients than in the normal glucose tolerance group (mean 1.21 ± 1.30 vs. 0.79 ± 0.7; p < 0.05. E/I ratio did not deteriorate more than could be expected as an aging effect in well-controlled T2D. No relationship was found between E/I ratio and HbA1c or ASS.ConclusionThe presence of autonomic symptoms increased over time in T2D patients, but the symptoms did not correlate with the E/I ratio in this metabolically well-controlled cohort. ASSs can be a useful clinical tool when assessing the progression of autonomic dysfunction in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism.

  9. Effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose level and lipid profile in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Khurshid, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cinnamon has been shown to potentiate the hypoglycaemic effect of insulin through up regulation of the glucose uptake in cultured adipocytes of rats. This study tried to find out the effect of Cinnamon alone or in combination with Insulin in diabetic albino rats. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups, A and B. Group A were given cinnamon extract 200 mg/Kg body weight daily orally and group B rats were given cinnamon extract 400 mg/Kg body weight daily. After six weeks blood glucose and lipid profile levels were evaluated in all the groups. Results: Group of rats given 200 mg cinnamon extract showed significant decrease of blood glucose concentration but there was slight or no change in the level of lipid parameters including serum cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoproteins (HDL, LDL-chol). On the other hand group of rats given 400 mg extract of cinnamon showed a better but non significant change in level of lipid related parameter while blood glucose level was significantly decreased. Conclusion: The cinnamon at a dose of 400 mg showed same effects on blood glucose level but better effects on lipid profiles especially of serum cholesterol level of group of rats compared to 200 mg of cinnamon extract. Cinnamon may be recommended as hypoglycaemic herb but not as hypolipidaemic herb. (author)

  10. Adipocytokines and insulin resistance across various degrees of glucose tolerance in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvarca, A; Tomazic, M; Krhin, B; Blagus, R; Janez, A

    2012-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is characterized by progressive insulin resistance. Adipocytokines are thought to be associated with insulin resistance. This cross-sectional study evaluated the associations between serum concentrations of several adipocytokines and insulin resistance at different stages of glucose tolerance in pregnancy, using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as a reference. According to oral glucose tolerance test results, 74 pregnant women were divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (n = 25); intermediate glucose tolerance (n = 19); gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 30). Adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays. Groups were comparable regarding age, week of gestation and body mass index before gestation. There were statistically significant between-group differences in HOMA-IR, but no significant differences regarding serum adipocytokine concentrations. Adipo nectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin and RBP4 were not associated with the degree of glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Concentrations of these adipocytokines are not sufficiently sensitive to replace HOMA- IR in pregnancy.

  11. Limited OXPHOS capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of obesity in laboratory mice irrespective of the glucose tolerance status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Schöttl

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of murine obesity irrespective of the glucose tolerance status. Impaired respiratory capacity in white adipocytes solely is not sufficient for the development of systemic glucose intolerance.

  12. Acute and second-meal effects of almond form in impaired glucose tolerant adults: a randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Considine Robert V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nut consumption may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to measure the acute and second-meal effects of morning almond consumption and determine the contribution of different nut fractions. Methods Fourteen impaired glucose tolerant (IGT adults participated in a randomized, 5-arm, crossover design study where whole almonds (WA, almond butter (AB, defatted almond flour (AF, almond oil (AO or no almonds (vehicle - V were incorporated into a 75 g available carbohydrate-matched breakfast meal. Postprandial concentrations of blood glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and appetitive sensations were assessed after treatment breakfasts and a standard lunch. Results WA significantly attenuated second-meal and daylong blood glucose incremental area under the curve (AUCI and provided the greatest daylong feeling of fullness. AB and AO decreased blood glucose AUCI in the morning period and daylong blood glucose AUCI was attenuated with AO. WA and AO elicited a greater second-meal insulin response, particularly in the early postprandial phase, and concurrently suppressed the second-meal NEFA response. GLP-1 concentrations did not vary significantly between treatments. Conclusions Inclusion of almonds in the breakfast meal decreased blood glucose concentrations and increased satiety both acutely and after a second-meal in adults with IGT. The lipid component of almonds is likely responsible for the immediate post-ingestive response, although it cannot explain the differential second-meal response to AB versus WA and AO.

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs-independent functions of fish oil on glucose and lipid metabolism in diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakutsu Masaki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish oil is known to improve lifestyle-related diseases. These effects occur partly via activation of PPARs by the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids included abundantly in fish oil. We investigated fish oil functions on glucose and lipid metabolism that are both dependent on and independent of PPARs pathway. Methods Mice were fed a diet containing 30 en% beef tallow (B diet for twelve weeks to induce obesity. The mice were then divided into two groups which were fed either a B diet or a diet containing 30 en% fish oil (F diet. Each group was further divided into two groups which were administered PPARα and γ antagonists or vehicle once a day for three weeks. Results The F diet groups showed lower triglyceride levels in plasma and liver than the B diet groups, but PPARs antagonists did not affect the triglyceride levels in either diet groups. The F diet groups also showed improvement of glucose tolerance compared with the B diet groups. However, PPARs antagonists made glucose tolerance worse in the F diet group but improved it in the B diet group. Therefore, by the administration of antagonists, glucose tolerance was inversely regulated between the B and F diets, and hypolipidemic action in the plasma and liver of the F diet group was not affected. Conclusion These results suggest that fish oil decreases lipid levels in plasma and liver via PPARs pathway-independent mechanism, and that glucose tolerance is inversely regulated by PPARs antagonists under diets containing different oils.

  14. Assessment of time to glucose peak during an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel R; Vistisen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    We read with interest the article from Chung et al. on the association between time to glucose peak and prediabetes.(1) We agree with the authors in that the morphology of the glucose curve is worth investigating as an additional indicator of prediabetes and diabetes risk. This is a rather well...

  15. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rahbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and methods: To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated

  16. Chromium supplementation alters both glucose and lipid metabolism in feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossbred steers (n = 20; 235 +/- 4 kg) were fed 53 days during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0...

  17. Chromium supplementation alters the glucose and lipid metabolism of feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossbreed steers (n = 20; 235 ± 4 kg) were fed 53 d during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brand Chromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0 (C...

  18. Co-ordination of hepatic and adipose tissue lipid metabolism after oral glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Simonsen, L; Wiggins, D

    1999-01-01

    The integration of lipid metabolism in the splanchnic bed and in subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after ingestion of a 75 g glucose load was studied by Fick's principle in seven healthy subjects. Six additional subjects were studied during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Release of non...

  19. Adverse effects during the oral glucose tolerance test in post-bariatric surgery patients

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Heliana Fernanda de Albuquerque; Pedrosa,William; Diniz,Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Passos,Valéria Maria Azeredo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is used in the screening of gestational diabetes, in diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in conjunction with fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and risk factors of adverse effects of OGTT in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, in addition to proposing standardization for ordering the OGTT in these patients. Subjects and methods This study assessed the incidence of adverse ...

  20. Elevated 1-hour postload plasma glucose levels identify subjects with normal glucose tolerance but impaired β-cell function, insulin resistance, and worse cardiovascular risk profile: the GENFIEV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Cristina; Miccoli, Roberto; Trombetta, Maddalena; Giorgino, Francesco; Frontoni, Simona; Faloia, Emanuela; Marchesini, Giulio; Dolci, Maria A; Cavalot, Franco; Cavallo, Gisella; Leonetti, Frida; Bonadonna, Riccardo C; Del Prato, Stefano

    2013-05-01

    In subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) 1-hour postload plasma glucose (1-h oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT]) of >155 mg/dL predicts type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate β-cell function, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk profile in subjects with NGT with a 1-h OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL. The GENFIEV (Genetics, PHYsiopathology, and Evolution of Type 2 diabetes) study is a multicenter study recruiting individuals at high risk of T2DM. A total of 926 subjects underwent a 75-g OGTT for assessment of plasma glucose and C-peptide for mathematical modeling of β-cell function (derivative and proportional control). Fasting insulin, lipid profile, and clinical parameters were determined as well. A 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL was found in 39% of subjects with NGT, 76% with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 90% with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 99% and 98% with IFG + IGT or newly diagnosed T2DM, respectively. Among subjects with NGT (n = 474), those with 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL were more insulin-resistant and had worse β-cell function than those with 1-hour OGTT glucose of ≤155 mg/dL. Moreover, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were higher in subjects with NGT with 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower compared with that in subjects with NGT with 1-hour OGTT glucose of ≤155 mg/dL. Compared with subjects with IGT, those with NGT with 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL had comparable cardiovascular risk profile and insulin resistance but slightly better β-cell function. Among subjects with NGT, those with 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL showed lower insulin sensitivity, impaired β-cell function, and worse cardiovascular risk profile and therefore are at greater risk of developing T2DM and cardiovascular disease.

  1. Oral glucose tolerance test predicts increased carotid plaque burden in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorarinn A Bjarnason

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are established risk factors for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the atherosclerotic plaque burden in the carotid arteries of patients with acute coronary syndrome according to their glycemic status.Patients with acute coronary syndrome and no previous history of type 2 diabetes were consecutively included in the study. Glucose metabolism was evaluated with fasting glucose in plasma, HbA1c and a standard two-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was evaluated with a standardized ultrasound examination where total plaque area was measured and patients classified as having no plaque or a significant plaque formation.A total of 245 acute coronary syndrome patients (male 78%, 64 years (SD: 10.9 were included. The proportion diagnosed with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 28.6%, 64.1% and 7.3%, respectively. A significant atherosclerotic plaque was found in 48.5%, 66.9% and 72.2% of patients with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, respectively. An incremental increase in total plaque area was found from normal glucose metabolism to prediabetes (25.5% and from normal glucose metabolism to type 2 diabetes (35.9% (p = 0.04. When adjusted for conventional cardiovascular risk factors the OR of having significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was 2.17 (95% CI 1.15-4.15 for patients with newly diagnosed dysglycemia compared to patients with normal glucose metabolism. When additionally adjusted for the 2-hour plasma glucose after glucose loading (2hPG the OR attenuated to 1.77 (95% CI 0.83-3.84.Newly detected dysglycemia is an independent predictor of significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries with oral glucose tolerance test as a major determinant of carotid plaque burden in this group of individuals with acute coronary syndrome.

  2. Effect of Linagliptin Versus Metformin on Glycemic Variability in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Heredia, Tonatiuh; Hernández-Corona, Diana M; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza

    2017-08-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and glycemic variability may be associated with increased risk of micro- and macrovascular complications. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of linagliptin versus metformin on glycemic variability in patients with IGT. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial with parallel groups was carried out in 16 adult patients with IGT, overweight or obesity. All patients signed an informed consent. The therapies were randomly assigned: (a) metformin 500 mg bid (n = 8) or (b) linagliptin 5 mg a.m. and placebo p.m. (n = 8), both for 90 days. At the beginning of the trial and 3 months later, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and glycemic variability [area under the curve (AUC) of glucose, mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE), standard deviation (SD) of glucose, coefficient of variation (CV) of glucose, and mean blood glucose (MBG)] were measured. Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, and Fisher exact tests were used for statistical analyses. Both groups were similar in basal characteristics. After linagliptin administration, a significant decrease in glucose levels at 120 min of OGTT (9.0 ± 0.9 vs. 6.9 ± 2.2 mmol/L, P = 0.012) was observed. Glycemic variability showed a similar behavior and there were no significant differences in the AUC, MAGE, SD of glucose, CV of glucose, and MBG between groups. Linagliptin administration resulted in better glycemic control according to the decrease of glucose levels by the OGTT at 120 min in patients with IGT. Meanwhile, glycemic variability was not modified in any of the study groups.

  3. Chromium and vanadium effects on glucose and lipid metabolism of guinea pigs and obese and diabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    Severe chromium deficiency in experimental animals may contribute to insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and elevated serum cholesterol concentration. Vanadium also has been reported to be a nutritionally important element for both chicks and rats, but its function and even its essentiality are still in question. Chromium absorption even from supplemented diets is poor, thus efforts were made to study the site of absorption of 51 Cr from CrCl 3 . 51 Cr was found to move very rapidly through the GI tract and appears to flow with dietary and secreted water. It was not absorbed from the stomach. In a study with guinea pigs, vanadate supplementation appeared to affect cholesterol fraction. Chromium supplementation lowered serum triacylglycerol concentrations at the end of an 18-week study. Since the previous study and others have indicated a role for chromium and vanadium in lipid carbohydrate metabolism, experiments were designed to compare effects of chromium and vanadium supplements on related parameters

  4. Acute effects of light and dark roasted coffee on glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakvaag, Elin; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epidemiological evidence suggests that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Coffee contains caffeine and several other components that may modulate glucose regulation. The chlorogenic acids (CGA) in coffee have been indicated as constituents that may help...... to normalize the acute glucose response after a carbohydrate challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two coffee beverages that differ in CGA content due to different roasting degrees will differentially affect glucose regulation. METHODS: In a controlled crossover trial, 11 healthy fasted...... volunteers consumed 300 mL of either light (LIR) or dark (DAR) roasted coffee, or water, followed 30 min later by a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 30, 60, and 120 min. Differences in glucose and insulin responses and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were...

  5. Progression from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes in obese children and adolescents: a 3-6-year cohort study in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruratanasirikul, Somchit; Thammaratchuchai, Sudarat; Puwanant, Maneerat; Mo-Suwan, Ladda; Sriplung, Hutcha

    2016-11-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with abnormal glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study evaluated the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in asymptomatic obese children and adolescents, and determined the percentage of T2DM development after 3-6 years of follow-up. During 2007-2013, 177 obese children and adolescents who had normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG100 mg/dL) were given an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The participants were classified into four groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), NGT-hyperinsulinemia (NGT-HI), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes mellitus (DM). Blood chemistries, including FPG, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profiles, and liver function test were performed every 6-12 months or when the patient developed any symptom or sign indicative of diabetes. Glucose metabolism alterations were detected in 81.4% of the participants: 63.8% with NGT-HI, 15.3% with IGT, and 2.3% with T2DM. The median levels of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in patients with IGT (8.63) were significantly greater than those in the patients with NGT (4.04) (p1). During the follow-up, 22 patients (14.4%) developed T2DM significantly more from the IGT group (nine of 33 cases, 27.3%) than the NGT-HI group (12 of 108 cases, 11.1%) (p=0.022). The predicting parameters for T2DM conversion were weight status, body mass index (BMI), FBG, fasting insulin, alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, and HOMA-IR. Glucose metabolism alteration was commonly found among obese adolescents. Factors associated with T2DM development were greater weight status and the severity of insulin resistance as shown by higher HOMA-IR levels.

  6. Consumption of Honey, Sucrose, and High-Fructose Corn Syrup Produces Similar Metabolic Effects in Glucose-Tolerant and -Intolerant Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Public health recommendations call for a reduction in added sugars; however, controversy exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. The objective was to compare the effects of the chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners [honey, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup containing 55% fructose (HFCS55)] on circulating glucose, insulin, lipids, and inflammatory markers; body weight; and blood pressure in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (GT) and those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In a crossover design, participants consumed daily, in random order, 50 g carbohydrate from assigned sweeteners for 2 wk with a 2- to 4-wk washout period between treatments. Participants included 28 GT and 27 IGT volunteers with a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.6 y and 52.1 ± 2.7 y, respectively, and a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26 ± 0.8 and 31.5 ± 1.0, respectively. Body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum inflammatory markers, lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, and oral-glucose-tolerance tests (OGTTs) were completed pre- and post-treatment. The OGTT incremental areas under the curve (iAUCs) for glucose and insulin were determined and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were calculated. Body weight and serum glucose, insulin, inflammatory markers, and total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the IGT group than in the GT group at baseline. Glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and the OGTT iAUC for glucose or insulin did not differ by treatment, but all responses were significantly higher in the IGT group compared with the GT group. Body weight was unchanged by treatment. Systolic BP was unchanged, whereas diastolic BP was significantly lower in response to sugar intake across all treatments. An increase in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was observed in the IGT group in response to all sugars. No treatment effect was observed for interleukin 6. HDL cholesterol did not

  7. Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Sex Influence Glucose Tolerance in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela J. Hanson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucose intolerance and apolipoprotein ε4 allele (E4+ are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD. Insulin sensitizers show promise for treating AD, but are less effective in E4+ individuals. Little is known about how the APOE genotype influences glucose metabolism. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 319 older adults who underwent oral glucose tolerance tests; a subset had insulin, amyloid beta (Aβ42, and Mini Mental Status Examination. Glucose and insulin patterns with respect to cognitive diagnosis, E4 status, and sex were examined with analysis of covariance and Pearson correlation. Results: People with cognitive impairment had higher fasting insulin levels. E4 status did not affect fasting glucose values, whereas men had higher fasting glucose levels than women. E4+ men had the lowest and E4+ women had the highest glucose levels, compared to E4- groups; insulin did not differ by sex or E4 group. E4 status and sex moderated correlations between metabolic measures and AD risk factors including age and Aβ. Conclusions: Insulin resistance was associated with cognitive impairment, and sex, E4 status, and glucose values are interrelated in older adults at risk of AD. Understanding glucose metabolism for different APOE and sex groups may help elucidate differences in therapeutic responses.

  8. Rapid and Weight-Independent Improvement of Glucose Tolerance Induced by a Peptide Designed to Elicit Apoptosis in Adipose Tissue Endothelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Sartor, Maureen A.; Bain, James R.; Sandoval, Darleen; Stevens, Robert D.; Medvedovic, Mario; Newgard, Christopher B.; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.

    2012-01-01

    A peptide designed to induce apoptosis of endothelium in white adipose tissue (WAT) decreases adiposity. The goal of this work is to determine whether targeting of WAT endothelium results in impaired glucose regulation as a result of impaired WAT function. Glucose tolerance tests were performed on days 2 and 3 of treatment with vehicle (HF-V) or proapoptotic peptide (HF-PP) and mice pair-fed to HF-PP (HF-PF) in obese mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Serum metabolic variables, including lipid profile, adipokines, individual fatty acids, and acylcarnitines, were measured. Microarray analysis was performed in epididymal fat of lean or obese mice treated with vehicle or proapoptotic peptide (PP). PP rapidly and potently improved glucose tolerance of obese mice in a weight- and food intake–independent manner. Serum insulin and triglycerides were decreased in HF-PP relative to HF-V. Levels of fatty acids and acylcarnitines were distinctive in HF-PP compared with HF-V or HF-PF. Microarray analysis in AT revealed that pathways involved in mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative phosphorylation, and branched-chain amino acid degradation were changed by exposure to HFD and were reversed by PP administration. These studies suggest a novel role of the AT vasculature in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. PMID:22733798

  9. Effect of Artemisia dracunculus Administration on Glycemic Control, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Del Villar, Miriam; Puebla-Pérez, Ana M; Sánchez-Peña, María J; González-Ortiz, Luis J; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; González-Ortiz, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of Artemisia dracunculus on glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 24 patients with diagnosis of IGT. Before and after the intervention, glucose and insulin levels were measured every 30 min for 2 h after a 75-g dextrose load, along with glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and lipid profile. Twelve patients received A. dracunculus (1000 mg) before breakfast and dinner for 90 days; the remaining 12 patients received placebo. Area under the curve (AUC) of glucose and insulin, total insulin secretion, first phase of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity were calculated. Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were used for statistical analyses. The institutional ethics committee approved the protocol. After A. dracunculus administration, there were significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (SBP; 120.0 ± 11.3 vs. 113.0 ± 11.2 mmHg, P AUC of insulin (56,136.0 ± 27,426.0 vs. 44,472.0 ± 23,370.0 pmol/L, P AUC of insulin, and total insulin secretion with a significant increase in HDL-C levels.

  10. Modulating the gut microbiota improves glucose tolerance, lipoprotein profile and atherosclerotic plaque development in ApoE-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, Ida; Rolin, Bidda; Larsen, Christian Schiøth

    2016-01-01

    cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to increase CVD risk factors. Popular interest in the role of the intestine in a variety of disease states has now resulted in a significant proportion of individuals without coeliac disease switching to gluten-free diets. The effect of gluten-free diets...... on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors is largely unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of a gluten-free high-fat cholesterol-rich diet, as compared to the same diet in which the gluten peptide gliadin had been added back, on atherosclerosis and several cardiovascular risk factors...... in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice. The gluten-free diet transiently altered GM composition in these mice, as compared to the gliadin-supplemented diet, but did not alter body weights, glucose tolerance, insulin levels, plasma lipids, or atherosclerosis. In parallel, other Apoe-/- mice fed the same diets...

  11. Effect of Global ATGL Knockout on Murine Fasting Glucose Kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, M.; Nunes, P.; Mendes, V.M.; Manadas, B.; Heerschap, A.; Jones, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Mice deficient in adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL(-/-)) present elevated ectopic lipid levels but are paradoxically glucose-tolerant. Measurement of endogenous glucose production (EGP) and Cori cycle activity provide insights into the maintenance of glycemic control in these animals. These

  12. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate...

  13. Effect of a Prolonged Altitude Expedition on Glucose Tolerance and Abdominal Fatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Tsung; Lee, Wen-Chih; Chen, Shih-Chang; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Chen, Chung-Yu; Lee, Shin-Da; Jensen, Jorgen; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of a long-term mountain expedition on glucose tolerance and insulin action. Twelve registered mountaineers ages 31 years (SD = 1.1) participated in a 25-day expedition at a 2,200-3,800-m altitude with an average duration of 8 hr per day. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO[subscript 2]) was…

  14. Abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular risk in men and women with different levels of glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Stine H.; Færch, Kristine; Philipsen, Annelotte

    2015-01-01

    ) with cardiovascular risk factors in a Caucasian population ofmenand women with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or screen-detected diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was based on cross-sectional analysis of data from 1412adults age 45– 80 years. VAT and SAT were assessed by ultrasound...

  15. Skin Autofluorescence Based Decision Tree in Detection of Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Andries J.; Smit, Jitske M.; Botterblom, Gijs J.; Mulder, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) detection are conventionally based on glycemic criteria. Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive proxy of tissue accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) which are considered to be a carrier of glycometabolic memory. We

  16. Butter improves glucose tolerance compared with at highly polyunsaturated diet in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    in epidemiological studies, where the typical fatty acid composition of milk-fat, i.e. a high level of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and low concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been correlated to increased insulin-resistance. It is therefore essential to characterize the impact of milk......-fat on glucose-tolerance in intervention studies. Methods: 16 rats were divided into two groups and fed a semisynthetic diet containing 31 E-% fat, either as butter or highly polyunsaturated grapeseed oil. After 12 weeks on the diets, glucose-tolerance was assayed with the oral-glucose tolerance test (OGTT......). Results and Discussion: The OGTT revealed that the rats on the butter-containing diet, had a substantially higher glucose tolerance than the rats, which were fed grapeseed oil (area under the curve =195  31 mM*min-2 vs. 310  13 mM*min-2, n= 8, p=0.004). There were no differences in serum triacylglycerol...

  17. Incorporation of glucose carbons into rat lung lipids after exposure to 0.6 ppm ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, D.J.; Rabinowitz, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous exposure to low concentrations of ozone has previously been associated with proliferation of lung alveolar type II epithelial cells. In this study, 14 C incorporation into tissue lipids was determined in isolated rat lungs by perfusion with [U- 14 C]glucose, at a time of maximal hyperplasia brought about by 3 days continuous exposure to 0.6 ppm ozone. Ozone exposed lungs exhibited increased rates of glycolytic energy production, indicated by an 89% increase in 3 H 2 O generation on perfusion with [5-3H]glucose. Ozone exposure resulted in enhanced 14 C incorporations into glyceride-glycerol and fatty acid moieties of lung lipids of 95 and 180%, respectively, with a greater proportion of label being recovered in shorter chain fatty acids. Although increased labeling was observed in both neutral and phospholipids, the pattern of 14 C recovery suggested a relative increased glucose carbon incorporation into lung free fatty acids, phosphatidic acid, and such membrane associated lipids as phosphatidylinositol and those containing sphingosine. These results are consistent with the needs of a dividing cell population for enhanced energy production and synthesis of new lipids

  18. Lipid and carotenoid synthesis by Rhodosporidium diobovatum, grown on glucose versus glycerol, and its biodiesel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, Nima; Mirzaie, Maryam; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B

    2018-04-01

    Relationships between lipid and carotenoid synthesis by Rhodosporidium diobovatum were investigated for cell cultures in nitrogen-limited medium (GMY) containing equimolar amounts of carbon of glucose or glycerol. The cultures were also supplemented with additional substrate at 120 h postinoculation (pi) and during a fed-batch experiment. Growth of R. diobovatum on glucose resulted in higher yields of triacyglycerides (TAGs) and carotenoid than when grown on glycerol, even though the cultures contained equimolar amounts of carbon. After the addition of fresh substrate at 120 h pi, total carotenoid concentrations were significantly different from the concentrations measured at 120 h pi in both glucose and glycerol cultures, with no concomitant increase in lipid concentrations, suggesting that carotenoid synthesis is linked to exponential-phase growth, while lipid synthesis is linked to stationary phase. We also compared the calculated properties of biodiesel that could be made with TAGs derived from R. diobovatum with properties of biodiesel made from TAGs of other oleaginous yeasts, microalgae, vegetable oils, and animal fats. This study shows that R. diobovatum can be an effective strain for production of neutral lipids containing high percentages of oleic acid, palmitic acid, and linoleic acid, as well as carotenoids.

  19. Ghrelin Alleviates MDMA-Induced Disturbance of Serum Glucose and Lipids Levels in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravieh Golchoobian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatotoxicity is one of the clinically adverse effects of ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA consumption. The detoxification tissue, liver, plays a central role in maintaining circulating levels of glucose and lipid. Hypoglycemia and hypotriglyceridemia have been reported due to ecstasy abuse. Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide secreted predominantly from the stomach. It has been demonstrated that ghrelin has hepatoprotective effects and is able to increase blood glucose concentration. In the current study, we explored the effect of hepatotoxic dose of MDMA and therapeutic use of exogenous ghrelin on the serum levels of glucose and lipids in four groups of rats. MDMA caused a severe and transient reduction in circulating levels of glucose and triglyceride and increased serum LDL. However, cholesterol and HDL levels remained unchanged. Meanwhile, altered hepatic architecture was observed with intracellular vacuolation that may indicate intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets. In addition, following ghrelin administration, the blood sugar levels improved and LDL levels returned to the baseline value, and ghrelin treatment did not improve triglycerides levels. These results showed that MDMA causes hypoglycemia, hypotriglyceridemia, and hyper LDL-cholesterolemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing ghrelin administration could improve hypoglycemia and normalize LDL levels induced by MDMA and partially restore hepatic architecture.

  20. Insulin secretion and insulin resistance in Korean women with gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sae Jeong; Kim, Tae Nyun; Baik, Sei Hyun; Kim, Tae Sun; Lee, Kwan Woo; Nam, Moonsuk; Park, Yong Soo; Woo, Jeong-Teak; Kim, Young Seol; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-05-01

    The aim was to compare the insulin sensitivity and secretion index of pregnant Korean women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT; only one abnormal value according to the Carpenter and Coustan criteria), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,163 pregnant women with positive (1-hour plasma glucose ≥ 7.2 mmol/L) in a 50-g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT). The 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to stratify the participants into three groups: NGT (n = 588), GIGT (n = 294), and GDM (n = 281). The GDM group had higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and lower insulin sensitivity index (ISOGTT), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, homeostasis model assessment for estimation of index β-cell secretion (HOMA-B), first and second phase insulin secretion, and insulin secretion-sensitivity index (ISSI) than the NGT group (p ≤ 0.001 for all). Moreover, the GIGT group had lower ISOGTT, HOMA-B, first and second phase insulin secretion, and ISSI than the NGT group (p insulin secretion status than the 3-hour abnormal levels group. Korean women with GDM show impairments of both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. In addition, GIGT is associated with both β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance.

  1. Oral L-Arginine Stimulates GLP-1 Secretion to Improve Glucose Tolerance in Male Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Smith, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological and surgical interventions that increase glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) action are effective to improve glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In light of this, nutritional strategies to enhance postprandial GLP-1 secretion, particularly in the context of diet......-induced obesity, may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. Importantly, recent evidence suggests the amino acid l-arginine, a well-known insulin secretagogue, can also stimulate release of GLP-1 from isolated rat intestine. Here we tested the hypothesis that oral l-arginine acts as a GLP-1 secretagogue...... in vivo, to augment postprandial insulin secretion and improve glucose tolerance. To test this, we administered l-arginine or vehicle by oral gavage, immediately prior to an oral glucose tolerance test in lean and diet-induced obese mice. In both lean and obese mice oral l-arginine increased plasma GLP-1...

  2. Characteristics of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Across the Spectrum of Glucose Tolerance in Obese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara S. Hannon

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is not known if dysglycemia and sleep-disordered breathing are linked in adolescents, as in adults.ObjectiveTo perform a pilot study evaluating measures of sleep-disordered breathing across the spectrum of glucose tolerance in obese adolescents. We hypothesized that dysglycemia would be associated with sleep-disordered breathing.Participants/methodsThis was a prospective, cross-sectional clinical pilot study that included 57 adolescents [body mass index (BMI 38.9 ± 8.4 kg/m2] aged 12–18 years (14.5 ± 1.6 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, or dysglycemia [impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or type 2 diabetes (T2D].MeasuresAnthropometrics, overnight polysomnogram, and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Participant characteristics and outcome measures were compared by glucose tolerance status. Correlational analyses were conducted to assess the associations between variables of interest.ResultsParticipants with dysglycemia (n = 21 were not different from those with NGT (n = 36 for BMI, waist circumference, body fat, or sleep characteristics. Nocturnal oxygen desaturation was associated with higher BMI (r = −0.334, p = 0.012. The apnea–hypopnea index (AHI was not associated with physical and metabolic parameters. Although participants with dysglycemia tended to have higher AHIs (median 3.2, 2.2, and 1.6 events/h for T2D, IGT, and NGT, respectively, there was not a linear relationship between measures of glycemia and AHI.ConclusionFurther study with a larger proportion of youth with prediabetes and T2D is necessary to determine whether evaluation for sleep-disordered breathing is uniformly warranted.

  3. Response to glucose and lipid infusions in sepsis: a kinetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, J.H.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics and oxidation of glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism were assessed in control and Escherichia coli septicemic dogs by using primed, constant infusions of U- 14 C-glucose and 1,2, 13 C-palmitic acid. In the controls, the infusion of glucose suppressed endogenous glucose production completely, whereas, in the septic dogs, only a 30% suppression of glucose production occurred. The ability of the septic dogs to oxidize endogenous or exogenous glucose was decreased significantly. The basal rate of appearance of FFA was significantly higher in the septic dogs, but their ability to oxidize FFA was comparable to that of the control dogs; therefore, the basal rate of FFA oxidation was higher in the septic dogs. These studies indicate that septic dogs have a decreased capacity to oxidize glucose, but that they retain their ability to oxidize long-chain fatty acids. Because the rate of lipolysis was increased in sepsis, lipid was the predominate energy substrate in this septic model

  4. Genetic ablation of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein/StarD2 in ob/ob mice improves glucose tolerance without increasing energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisko, Tibor I; LeClair, Katherine B; Cohen, David E

    2017-03-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP; synonym StarD2) is highly expressed in liver and oxidative tissues. PC-TP promotes hepatic glucose production during fasting and aggravates glucose intolerance in high fat fed mice. However, because PC-TP also suppresses thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), its direct contribution to obesity-associated diabetes in mice remains unclear. Here we examined the effects of genetic PC-TP ablation on glucose homeostasis in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, which exhibit both diabetes and altered thermoregulation. Mice lacking both PC-TP and leptin (Pctp -/- ;ob/ob) were prepared by crossing Pctp -/- with ob/+ mice. Glucose homeostasis was assessed by standard assays, and energy expenditure was determined by indirect calorimetry using a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system, which also recorded physical activity and food intake. Body composition was determined by NMR and hepatic lipids by enzymatic assays. Core body temperature was measured using a rectal thermocouple probe. Pctp -/- ;ob/ob mice demonstrated improved glucose homeostasis, as evidenced by markedly improved glucose and pyruvate tolerance tests, without changes in insulin tolerance. However, there were no differences in EE at any ambient temperature. There were also no effects of PC-TP expression on physical activity, food intake or core body temperature. Improved glucose tolerance in Pctp -/- ;ob/ob mice in the absence of increases in energy expenditure or core body temperature indicates a direct pathogenic role for PC-TP in diabetes in leptin deficient mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intermittent hypoxia training in prediabetes patients: Beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis, hypoxia tolerance and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrovska, Tetiana V; Portnychenko, Alla G; Drevytska, Tetiana I; Portnichenko, Vladimir I; Xi, Lei; Egorov, Egor; Gavalko, Anna V; Naskalova, Svitlana; Chizhova, Valentina; Shatylo, Valeriy B

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed at examining beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) under prediabetic conditions. We investigate the effects of three-week IHT on blood glucose level, tolerance to acute hypoxia, and leukocyte mRNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and its target genes, i.e. insulin receptor, facilitated glucose transporter-solute carrier family-2, and potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily J. Seven healthy and 11 prediabetic men and women (44-70 years of age) were examined before, next day and one month after three-week IHT (3 sessions per week, each session consisting 4 cycles of 5-min 12% O 2 and 5-min room air breathing). We found that IHT afforded beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis in patients with prediabetes reducing fasting glucose and during standard oral glucose tolerance test. The most pronounced positive effects were observed at one month after IHT termination. IHT also significantly increased the tolerance to acute hypoxia (i.e. SaO 2 level at 20th min of breathing with 12% O 2 ) and improved functional parameters of respiratory and cardiovascular systems. IHT stimulated HIF-1α mRNA expression in blood leukocytes in healthy and prediabetic subjects, but in prediabetes patients the maximum increase was lagged. The greatest changes in mRNA expression of HIF-1α target genes occurred a month after IHT and coincided with the largest decrease in blood glucose levels. The higher expression of HIF-1α was positively associated with higher tolerance to hypoxia and better glucose homeostasis. In conclusion, our results suggest that IHT may be useful for preventing the development of type 2 diabetes. Impact statement The present study investigated the beneficial effects of intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) in humans under prediabetic conditions. We found that three-week moderate IHT induced higher HIF-1α mRNA expressions as well as its target genes, which were positively correlated with higher tolerance

  6. Acute effects of feeding fructose, glucose and sucrose on blood lipid levels and systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Faizan; Phang, Melinda; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L

    2014-12-16

    Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between fructose consumption and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Mechanisms by which dietary fructose mediates metabolic changes are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of fructose, glucose and sucrose consumption on post-postprandial lipemia and low grade inflammation measured as hs-CRP. This was a randomized, single blinded, cross-over trial involving healthy subjects (n=14). After an overnight fast, participants were given one of 3 different isocaloric drinks, containing 50 g of either fructose or glucose or sucrose dissolved in water. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30, 60 and 120 minutes post intervention for the analysis of blood lipids, glucose, insulin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Glucose and sucrose supplementation initially resulted in a significant increase in glucose and insulin levels compared to fructose supplementation and returned to near baseline values within 2 hours. Change in plasma cholesterol, LDL and HDL-cholesterol (measured as area under curve, AUC) was significantly higher when participants consumed fructose compared with glucose or sucrose (PAUC for plasma triglyceride levels however remained unchanged regardless of the dietary intervention. Change in AUC for hs-CRP was also significantly higher in subjects consuming fructose compared with those consuming glucose (P<0.05), but not sucrose (P=0.07). This study demonstrates that fructose as a sole source of energy modulates plasma lipids and hsCRP levels in healthy individuals. The significance of increase in HDL-cholesterol with a concurrent increase in LDL-cholesterol and elevated hs-CRP levels remains to be delineated when considering health effects of feeding fructose-rich diets. ACTRN12614000431628.

  7. Enhanced Predictive Capability of a 1-Hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Bhatt, Deepak L; Nielsen, Mette L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the 1-h blood glucose measurement would be a more suitable screening tool for assessing the risk of diabetes and its complications than the 2-h measurement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study of 4,867 men, randomly...... selected from prespecified birth cohorts between 1921 and 1949, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with blood glucose measurements at 0, 1, and 2 h. Subjects were followed for up to 39 years, with registry-based recording of events. Discriminative abilities of elevated 1-h (≥8.6 mmol/L) versus 2......-h (≥7.8 mmol/L) glucose for predicting incident type 2 diabetes, vascular complications, and mortality were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression, and net reclassification improvement. RESULTS: Median age was 48 years (interquartile range [IQR] 48-49). During...

  8. Mitochondrial Sirtuin 4 Resolves Immune Tolerance in Monocytes by Rebalancing Glycolysis and Glucose Oxidation Homeostasis

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    Jie Tao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this investigation was to define the molecular mechanism underlying physiologic conversion of immune tolerance to resolution of the acute inflammatory response, which is unknown. An example of this knowledge gap and its clinical importance is the broad-based energy deficit and immunometabolic paralysis in blood monocytes from non-survivors of human and mouse sepsis that precludes sepsis resolution. This immunometabolic dysregulation is biomarked by ex vivo endotoxin tolerance to increased glycolysis and TNF-α expression. To investigate how tolerance switches to resolution, we adapted our previously documented models associated with acute inflammatory, immune, and metabolic reprogramming that induces endotoxin tolerance as a model of sepsis in human monocytes. We report here that mitochondrial sirtuin 4 (SIRT4 physiologically breaks tolerance and resolves acute inflammation in human monocytes by coordinately reprogramming of metabolism and bioenergetics. We find that increased SIRT4 mRNA and protein expression during immune tolerance counters the increase in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1 and SIRT1 that promote tolerance by switching glucose-dependent support of immune resistance to fatty acid oxidation support of immune tolerance. By decreasing PDK1, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex reactivation rebalances mitochondrial respiration, and by decreasing SIRT1, SIRT4 represses fatty acid oxidation. The precise mechanism for the mitochondrial SIRT4 nuclear feedback is unclear. Our findings are consistent with a new concept in which mitochondrial SIRT4 directs the axis that controls anabolic and catabolic energy sources.

  9. The effects of acute and chronic estrogen deficiency on glucose and lipid profile in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rabie P; Namjoo AR

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Ovariectomy is a standard experimental model of menopause in rodent to investigate postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects acute and chronic estrogen deficiency on lipid profile and glucose serum in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: In this experimental study, Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight rats. The first group: sham-control, Second group: ovariectomized rats (for five weeks), Third group: Ova...

  10. Plasma kinetics of an LDL-like nanoemulsion and lipid transfer to HDL in subjects with glucose intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina P Bertato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Glucose intolerance is frequently associated with an altered plasma lipid profile and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Nonetheless, lipid metabolism is scarcely studied in normolipidemic glucose-intolerant patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether important lipid metabolic parameters, such as the kinetics of LDL free and esterified cholesterol and the transfer of lipids to HDL, are altered in glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids. METHODS: Fourteen glucose-intolerant patients and 15 control patients were studied; none of the patients had cardiovascular disease manifestations, and they were paired for age, sex, race and co-morbidities. A nanoemulsion resembling a LDL lipid composition (LDE labeled with 14C-cholesteryl ester and ³H-free cholesterol was intravenously injected, and blood samples were collected over a 24-h period to determine the fractional clearance rate of the labels by compartmental analysis. The transfer of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids from the LDE to HDL was measured by the incubation of the LDE with plasma and radioactivity counting of the supernatant after chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions. RESULTS: The levels of LDL, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apo A1 and apo B were equal in both groups. The 14C-esterified cholesterol fractional clearance rate was not different between glucose-intolerant and control patients, but the ³H-free-cholesterol fractional clearance rate was greater in glucose-intolerant patients than in control patients. The lipid transfer to HDL was equal in both groups. CONCLUSION: In these glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids, a faster removal of LDE free cholesterol was the only lipid metabolic alteration detected in our study. This finding suggests that the dissociation of free cholesterol from lipoprotein particles occurs in normolipidemic glucose intolerance and may participate in

  11. MicroRNA Expression Varies according to Glucose Tolerance, Measurement Platform, and Biological Source

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    S. Dias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA expression is observed during type 2 diabetes (T2D, although the consistency of miRNA expression across measurement platform and biological source is uncertain. Here we report miRNA profiling in the whole blood and serum of South African women with different levels of glucose tolerance, using next generation sequencing (NGS and quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR. Whole blood-derived miRNAs from women with newly diagnosed T2D (n=4, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (n=4, and normal glucose tolerance (NGT (n=4 were subjected to NGS, whereafter transcript levels of selected miRNAs were quantified in the whole blood and serum of these women using qRT-PCR. Of the five significantly differentially expressed miRNAs identified by NGS, only the directional increase of miR-27b in women with IGT compared to NGT was confirmed in whole blood and serum, using qRT-PCR. Functional enrichment of miR-27b gene targets identified biological pathways associated with glucose transport and insulin regulation. In conclusion, this study showed poor correlation in miRNA expression profiled using NGS and qRT-PCR and in whole blood and serum. The consistent increased expression of miR-27b in women with IGT compared to NGT across measurement platform and biological source holds potential as a biomarker for risk stratification in our population.

  12. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Insulin Sensitivity, Beta Cell Function, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Rose Malamug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection, for example, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Our aim was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in glucose metabolism in an American cohort. We examined data from 4,136 non-Hispanic white (NHW, non-Hispanic black (NHB, and Mexican Americans (MA aged 18 and over from the NHANES 1999-2000 cohort. We calculated the odds ratios for states of glucose tolerance based on the H. pylori status. We calculated and compared homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-B in subjects without diabetes based on the H. pylori status. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, poverty index, education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and physical activity. The H. pylori status was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age and BMI and also adjustment for all covariates, no difference was found in either HOMA-IR or HOMA-B in all ethnic and gender groups except for a marginally significant difference in HOMA-IR in NHB females. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance, nor plays a major role in insulin resistance or beta cell dysfunction.

  13. Cocoa and Whey Protein Differentially Affect Markers of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism and Satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Caroline L; Foegeding, E Allen; Harris, G Keith

    2016-03-01

    Food formulation with bioactive ingredients is a potential strategy to promote satiety and weight management. Whey proteins are high in leucine and are shown to decrease hunger ratings and increase satiety hormone levels; cocoa polyphenolics moderate glucose levels and slow digestion. This study examined the effects of cocoa and whey proteins on lipid and glucose metabolism and satiety in vitro and in a clinical trial. In vitro, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 0.5-100 μg/mL cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) and/or 1-15 mM leucine (Leu) and assayed for lipid accumulation and leptin production. In vivo, a 6-week clinical trial consisted of nine panelists (age: 22.6 ± 1.7; BMI: 22.3 ± 2.1) consuming chocolate-protein beverages once per week, including placebo, whey protein isolate (WPI), low polyphenolic cocoa (LP), high polyphenolic cocoa (HP), LP-WPI, and HP-WPI. Measurements included blood glucose and adiponectin levels, and hunger ratings at baseline and 0.5-4.0 h following beverage consumption. At levels of 50 and 100 μg/mL, CPE significantly inhibited preadipocyte lipid accumulation by 35% and 50%, respectively, and by 22% and 36% when combined with 15 mM Leu. Leu treatment increased adipocyte leptin production by 26-37%. In the clinical trial, all beverages significantly moderated blood glucose levels 30 min postconsumption. WPI beverages elicited lowest peak glucose levels and HP levels were significantly lower than LP. The WPI and HP beverage treatments significantly increased adiponectin levels, but elicited no significant changes in hunger ratings. These trends suggest that combinations of WPI and cocoa polyphenols may improve markers of metabolic syndrome and satiety.

  14. Glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase retrieved from a Kusaya gravy metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Taku; Yaoi, Katusro; Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    β-glucosidases (BGLs) hydrolyze cello-oligosaccharides to glucose and play a crucial role in the enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic biomass. Despite their significance for the production of glucose, most identified BGLs are commonly inhibited by low (∼mM) concentrations of glucose. Therefore, BGLs that are insensitive to glucose inhibition have great biotechnological merit. We applied a metagenomic approach to screen for such rare glucose-tolerant BGLs. A metagenomic library was created in Escherichia coli (∼10,000 colonies) and grown on LB agar plates containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucoside, yielding 828 positive (blue) colonies. These were then arrayed in 96-well plates, grown in LB, and secondarily screened for activity in the presence of 10% (w/v) glucose. Seven glucose-tolerant clones were identified, each of which contained a single bgl gene. The genes were classified into two groups, differing by two nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of these genes were identical (452 aa) and found to belong to the glycosyl hydrolase family 1. The recombinant protein (Ks5A7) was overproduced in E. coli as a C-terminal 6 × His-tagged protein and purified to apparent homogeneity. The molecular mass of the purified Ks5A7 was determined to be 54 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and 160 kDa by gel filtration analysis. The enzyme was optimally active at 45°C and pH 5.0-6.5 and retained full or 1.5-2-fold enhanced activity in the presence of 0.1-0.5 M glucose. It had a low KM (78 μM with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 0.36 mM with cellobiose) and high V max (91 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 155 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) with cellobiose) among known glucose-tolerant BGLs and was free from substrate (0.1 M cellobiose) inhibition. The efficient use of Ks5A7 in conjunction with Trichoderma reesei cellulases in enzymatic saccharification of alkaline-treated rice straw was demonstrated by increased production of glucose.

  15. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on glucose tolerance in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Duplessis, M; Wakshlag, J J; Overton, T R; Cummings, B P; Nydam, D V

    2016-01-01

    Overfeeding energy in the dry period can affect glucose metabolism and the energy balance of transition dairy cows with potential detrimental effects on the ability to successfully adapt to early lactation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on glucose tolerance and on resting concentrations of blood glucose, glucagon, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the peripartum period. Cows entering second or greater lactation were enrolled at dry-off (57 d before expected parturition) into 1 of 3 treatment groups following a randomized block design: cows that received a total mixed ration (TMR) formulated to meet but not exceed energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, controlled energy); cows that received a TMR supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, high energy); and cows that were fed the same diet as the controlled energy group for the first 28 d, after which the TMR was formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements until calving (n=28, intermediate energy). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) with rapid administration of 0.25 g of glucose/kg of body weight were performed 28 and 10d before expected parturition, as well as at 4 and 21 d after calving. Area under the curve for insulin and glucose, maximal concentration and time to half-maximal concentration of insulin and glucose, and clearance rates were calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) indices were calculated from baseline samples obtained during IVGTT and Spearman rank correlations determined between IVGTT parameters and IR indices. Treatment did not affect IVGTT parameters at any of the 4 time points. Correlation between IR indices and IVGTT parameters was generally poor. Overfeeding cows energy in excess of predicted requirements by approximately 50% during the entire dry period resulted in decreased postpartum basal plasma glucose and

  16. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rabbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated (n = 10) groups. After diabetes induction, the animals were investigated for daily glucose measurements for 35 days. Serum lipid profile and haemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)) were assayed at the baseline (before induction of diabetes) and at 35-day follow-up. The glycaemia levels in the rats treated with opium were similar to the levels measured in the control rats (544.8 +/- 62.2 mg/dl v. 524.6 +/- 50.0 mg/dl, P = 0.434). In addition, there was no difference between the opium-treated rats and control rats in HbA(1c) (6.5 +/- 0.5% v. 6.6 +/- 0.2%, P = 0.714). Compared to the control rats, the serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride and lipoprotein (a) in the test animals were similar. Opium use has no significant effect on glucose metabolism and serum lipid profile in rats with induced diabetes.

  17. The Effect of Hippocampal Cognitive Impairment and XIAP on Glucose and Lipids Metabolism in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunbo Xia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the effect of cognitive impairment and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP on glucolipid metabolism. Materials and Methods: β-amyloid (Aβ 1-42 was injected into the hippocampus of rats to establish a cognitive impairment model. Trans-activator of transcription (TAT-XIAP fusion protein (the TAT-XIAP group, PBS (the model group, or XIAP antisense oligonucleotides (the ASODN group was injected into the lateral ventricles of the rats to increase and decrease the activity of XIAP in the hippocampus. To determine the level of blood glucose and lipids, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK expression of liver and hipppocamual neuronal apoptosis. Results: The levels of FPG, TG, TC and LDL were significantly higher in the TAT-XIAP group, the model group and the ASODN group than in the blank group (P Conclusion: Cognitive impairment and hippocampal neuron apoptosis can cause glucose and lipids metabolic abnormalities, possibly by regulating gastrointestinal motility and AMPK expression in the liver. The changes in the function of XIAP, which is an anti-apoptotic protein in the hippocampus, may affect the metabolism of glucose and lipids.

  18. Correlations between blood glucose,lipid,oxidative stress and pancreatic β-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-ling LI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationship between glucose,lipid,oxidative stress and the first-phase of pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion in individuals with different degrees of glucose tolerance.Methods The intravenous glucose tolerance test(IVGTT was performed in 40 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM group,37 patients with impaired glucose tolerance(IGT group,and 43 subjects with normal glucose tolerance(NGT group.Glucose,lipid,fasting plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosin(8-OHdG,malondialdehyde(MDA and the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD were measured.0-10 minutes of insulin area under the curve(AUC,acute insulin response(AIR3-5,homeostasis model assessment(HOMA-IR and homeostasis model assessment-B(HOMA-B were calculated to analyze the relationship between oxidative stress and the fasting plasma glucose(FPG,high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C,low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C,triglyceride(TG,total cholesterol(TC,AUC,AIR3-5,HOMA-B and HOMA-IR.Results SOD,AIR3-5 and AUC were significantly lower in DM and IGT group than in NGT group(P < 0.05;LDL-C,TG,8-OHdG and MDA were significantly higher in IGT and DM group than in NGT group(P < 0.05;SOD,AIR3-5 and AUC were significantly lower in DM group than in IGT group(P < 0.05;LDL-C,TG,8-OHdG and MDA were significantly higher in DM group than in IGT group(P < 0.05.MDA and 8-OHdG were positively correlated with FPG,TG and LDL-C,and negatively correlated with FINS,HOMA-B,AUC and AIR3-5.SOD was positively correlated with FINS,HOMA-B,AUC and AIR3-5,and negatively correlated with FPG,TG and LDL-C.Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that FPG and LDL-C were the independent factors of plasma 8-OHdG and SOD,while 8-OHdG and SOD were the independent factors of AIR3-5.Conclusion Patients with type 2 diabetes have obvious glycometabolic disorder,lipoidosis and oxidative stress.Oxidative stress takes a significant effect on the first phase of pancreatic β cell insulin

  19. Follow-up of Impaired Glucose Tolerance Basic Health Survey 2007 in Jakarta in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentia Mihardja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKLatar Belakang:Toleransi Glukosa Terganggu (TGT atau Pre Diabetes merupakan keadaan yang belum termasuk kategori diabetes tetapi glukosa darah lebih tinggi dari normal. TGT merupakan faktor risiko terjadinya diabetes mellitus (DM, penyakit jantung koroner, stroke. Metode: Dilakukan penelitian follow up responden TGT Riskesdas 2007 pada tahun 2009 untuk mengetahui status hiperglikemianya apakah telah menjadi DM, tetap TGT atau Normal. Hasil:Didapatkan setelah 2 tahun 7,2% telah menjadi DM, 47,8% tetap TGT, 4,3% berubah menjadi gangguan glukosa puasa dan 40,7% menjadi normal toleransi glukosa. Kebiasaan perilaku, keadaan biologis seperti indeks massa tubuh, obesitas sentral, dislipidemia tidak berbeda signifikan antara tahun 2009 dibandingkan 2007. Dari analisis didapatkan pada kelompok TGT yang menjadi DM lingkar pinggang meningkat tapi tidak signifikan dan Homa IR (resistensi insulin lebih tinggi (p < 0,05 dibandingkan kelompok lainnya. Saran:Disarankan agar pembuat program melakukan intervensi pada kelompok TGT agar tidak menjadi DM dan mencegah timbulnya komplikasi penyakit degeneratif.Kata kunci: Toleransi Glukosa Terganggu, obesitas sentral, DKI JakartaABSTRACTBackground: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or pre diabetes is not categorized as diabetes yet but blood glucose level is more than normal. IGT is the risk factor for diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and stroke. Methods: In 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted in DKI Jakarta to follow up 78 subjects identified as IGT in Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas 2007. It aimed to assess the hyperglycemia status of the IGT subjects, whether developing into diabetes mellitus or becoming normal glucose tolerance or just remained IGT. Results: We found over two years for IGT subjects, 7.2% progressed to diabetes mellitus, 47.8% remained impaired glucose tolerance, 4.3% changed to impaired fasting glucose and 40.7% reverted to normal glucose tolerance. Life style and biological factors

  20. [Effect of autogenic training on glucose regulation and lipid status in non-insulin dependent diabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, N; Secen, S

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the benefits of autogenic training in patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 diabetics treated with oral antidiabetic agents were assigned to receive autogenic training. Treatment effects on GHb levels, glycemia, lipids and lipid peroxidases were evaluated after 12 weeks. Subjects demonstrated significant improvements of GHb level (8.94 +/- 2.21% vs. 7.9 +/- 2.395) (p autogenic training (1.21 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.36 +/- 1.42) (p training (6.63 +/- 1.66 mmol/l vs. 6.10 +/- 1.12 mmol/l) (p Autogenic training in selected patients, especially those who are most responsive to stress would provide benefits for glucosE control and lipid metabolism that are not always achieved by conventional treatment.

  1. Insulin sensitivity, insulin release and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in persons with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance in the EUGENE2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laakso, M; Zilinskaite, J; Hansen, T

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We examined the phenotype of individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) with regard to insulin release and insulin resistance. METHODS: Non-diabetic offspring (n=874; mean age 40+/-10.4 years; BMI 26.6+/-4.9 kg/m(2)) of type 2 diabetic...

  2. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice...... in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine...... regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice....

  3. Association of glycated hemoglobin with carotid intimal medial thickness in Asian Indians with normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Vijayachandrika; Amutha, Anandakumar; Anbalagan, Viknesh Prabu; Deepa, Mohan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Vamsi, Mamilla; Mohan, Viswananthan

    2012-01-01

    To assess the association of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels with carotid intimal medial thickness (CIMT) in Asian Indians with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Subjects with NGT were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study carried out on a representative population of Chennai, South India. All subjects had fasting plasma glucose right common carotid artery using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. The study group included 1383 NGT subjects, of whom 760 (54.9%) were women. The mean CIMT value in the 1st quartile of HbA1c (5.8) (prights reserved.

  4. Dietary Fat and Sugar Induce Obesity and Impair Glucose Tolerance in Prepubertal Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    van Eyk, Gregory Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Fat and Sugar Induce Obesity and Impair Glucose Tolerance in Prepubertal Pigs Abstract A pig model of childhood obesity was used to study the effects of dietary energy on body adiposity, and blood parameters associated with impaired glucose clearance. Prepubertal female pigs weaned at 21 d of age were fed control (CON), refined sugar (SUG), fat (FAT), and sugar-fat (SUGFAT) diets in a completely randomized arrangement for 16 wk. Calories from fat were 8.9% for CON, 5.6% for SU...

  5. Assessment of insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, Dale William; Bailey, Amelia Purser; Pastore, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    To analyze insulin resistance (IR) and determine the need for a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the identification of IR and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in lean nondiabetic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This was a cross-sectional analysis of treatment-naive women with PCOS who enrolled in a university-based clinical trial. Nondiabetic women with PCOS based on the Eunice Kennedy Shriven National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) definition, aged 18-43 years and weighing ≤113 kg, were evaluated. Glucose and insulin levels were assessed at times 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after a 75-g glucose load. Lean was defined as body mass index (BMI) women was studied. The prevalence of IR was 0% among lean women vs. 21% among nonlean subjects based on fasting insulin I(0) and 40%-68% based on two different homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) cutoff points (p women with IR had a BMI ≥ 28. Controlling for age and race, BMI explained over 57% of the variation in insulin fasting (I(o)), glucose fasting/Io (G(o)/I(o)), the qualitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and HOMA and was a highly significant predictor of these outcomes (p lean PCOS women had IGT based on a 2-hour OGTT, and no lean subjects had IGT based on their fasting blood glucose. Diabetes mellitus, IGT, and IR are far less common in young lean women with PCOS compared with obese women with PCOS. These data imply that it is unnecessary to routinely perform either IR testing or 2-hour OGTT in lean women with PCOS; however, greater subject accumulation is needed to determine if OGTT is necessary in lean women with PCOS. BMI is highly predictive of both insulin and glucose levels in women with PCOS.

  6. [Lipid and glucose profile in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular accidents in Dakar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousmane, Cisse; Lemine, Dadah Samy Mohamed; Fatoumata, Ba; Makhtar, Ba El Hadji; Soda, Diop Marieme; Side, Diagne Ngor; Dieynaba, Sow Adjaratou; Modji, Basse Anna; Kamadore, Touré; Moustapha, Ndiaye; Gallo, Diop Amadou; Mansour, Ndiaye Mouhamadou

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is defined as the rapid development of localized or global clinical signs of neurological dysfunction with no apparent cause other than that of vascular origin. A variety of risk factors have been identified and associated with the occurrence of Ischemic CVA, including glucose and lipid metabolism disturbances. We conducted a retrospective study at the Clinic of Neurology, Fann. Our study focused on medical records of patients with ICVA confirmed by imaging, hospitalized from January 1 to December 31 2010. All patients underwent complete lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL; LDL level was calculated using Friedwald formula), kidney function tests and fasting blood sugar test were performed within 48 hours of admission. Data were analysed using univariate technique and then using bivariate technique tanks to SPSS 16.0 software. We collected 235 files. We here report a case series of patients between ages 10-99 years, with an average age of 67,06 years. Males were 42,55%, sex-ratio was 0,74 in favour of women. 26% of cases had impaired fasting glucose levels during the acute phase of ICVA. The lipid profile showed an increase in total cholesterol level in 52.34% of patients. Low levels of HDL cholesterol were found in 34.47% of patients. Hypertriglyceridemia was only observed in 3% of patients. LDL levels were high in 12,76% of patients. Atherogenicity index was high in 25,53% of patients. Disturbances of blood glucose and lipid profile are often associated with ICVA and should be taken into account to ensure better secondary prevention.

  7. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Ya-Lin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Su, Wei-Juan; Chen, Ning-Ning; Lu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Methods: Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granu...

  8. Frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naheed, F.; Narijo, S.; Kammeruddin, K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). A total of 50 high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus were selected through outpatient department of obstetrics. Data was collected according to certain obstetric and non-obstetric risk factors for GDM as inclusion criteria through a designed proforma i.e. family history of diabetes, macrosomia (i.e, wt > 3.5 kg), abortions, grand multiparity, a sudden increase in weight (>1 kg/wk) during pregnancy, age > 35 years, early neonatal deaths/sudden IUDS, polyhydramnios, urogenital infections (vulvo-vaginal candidiasis and UTI), previous history of GDM, congenital abnormalities (with or without polyhydramnios) and multiple pregnancy. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and analyzed according to American Diabetic Association criteria, 2004. The most frequent risk factors were family history of diabetes mellitus in 1st degree relative and large for dates babies in 18 patients. Similarly, high risk factors such as history of abortions and grand multiparity were present in 16 and 14 pregnant women respectively. Least common factors, which contributed for GDM, were polyhydramnios in 4 cases and perinatal mortality (due to congenital anomalies of foetus, intrauterine deaths or neonatal deaths) seen only in 5 cases. Overall impaired oral glucose tolerance test was found in 24%. Most patients had one (17%) or two risk factors commonly (23%). Only 2% had shown five or more risk factors. Oral glucose tolerance test is a useful diagnostic tool to detect GDM in high risk pregnancies, depending upon the high frequency of number of risk factors in each individual. (author)

  9. Periodic 48 h feed withdrawal improves glucose tolerance in growing pigs by enhancing adipogenesis and lipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Priya S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipocyte numbers and peroxisome proliferators activated receptorγ (PPARγ expression of retroperitoneal tissue increased while area under the curve (AUC during the glucose tolerance test (GTT was reduced in rats subjected to certain feed withdrawal (FW regimens. Thus, using pigs as the experimental model, the hypothesis that FW regimens influence glucose tolerance by influencing fat cell function was evaluated with the objective of determining the effect of a single (FWx1; at age of 19 wk for 48 h or periodic, multiple (FWx4; 24 h FW at 7 and 11 wk of age and 48 h FW at 15 and 19 wk of age FW on AUC of glucose and insulin during the GTT relative to pigs that did not experience FW (Control. Methods Growth, body composition, adipocyte numbers, PPARγ expression, lipogenic potential as glucose uptake into fat of adipocytes of varying diameter in omental (OM and subcutaneous (SQ fat as affected by FW regimens were determined in pigs initiated into the study at 5 wk of age and fed the same diet, ad libitum. Results Blood glucose concentrations for prior to and 120 min post glucose meal tended to be lower (p = 0.105 and 0.097, respectively in pigs in FW treatments. In OM fat; cell numbers, glucose Universal14C [U14C] incorporation into fat and rate of incorporation per 104 cells was greatest for cells with diameters of 90-119 μm. Pigs undergoing FWx4 tended to have greater (p = 0.0685; by 191% number of adipocytes, increased (p = 0.0234 glucose U14C incorporation into adipocytes and greater (p = 0.0872 rate of glucose uptake into cells of 119-150 μm diameter than of cells from control or FWx1 pigs. Subcutaneous adipocyte numbers in 22-60 and 61-90 μm diameter ranges from pigs in FWx1 tended to be greater (p = 0.08 and 0.06, respectively than for those in FWx4 treatment, yet PPARγ expression and total cell number were not affected by treatment. Conclusions Results suggest that FW regimens influence fat cell function or

  10. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  11. Pleiotropic effects of lipid genes on plasma glucose, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Naishi; van der Sijde, Marijke R; Bakker, Stephan J L; Dullaart, Robin P F; van der Harst, Pim; Gansevoort, Ron T; Elbers, Clara C; Wijmenga, Cisca; Snieder, Harold; Hofker, Marten H; Fu, Jingyuan

    Dyslipidemia is strongly associated with raised plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance (IR), and genome-wide association studies have identified 95 loci that explain a substantial proportion of the variance in blood lipids. However, the loci's effects on glucose-related traits are largely

  12. Effect of Andrographolide‭ Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Rats with Secondary Iron Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    َArash Mehri Pirayvatlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron overload is involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases including diabetes. In fact, the excess iron by creating free radicals makes damage to pancreas and leads to insulin resistance and diabetes. Andrographolide extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. This study has surveyed the effects of andrographolide on blood glucose and lipid profile in rats with secondary iron overload. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the healthy control group, secondary iron overload group, secondary iron overload groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of andrographolide extract, and andrographolide groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of extract. Iron and extract were injected for 6 and 12 days, respectively. Blood samples were taken for measurement of blood glucose and lipid profiles. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: The pathological results of samples from liver of animals receiving iron showed that the iron was deposited in the liver tissues. Iron injection significantly increased blood glucose levels compared to healthy control group (p<0.05. In the iron overload group, andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg or 7 mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05. Iron injections did not increase the serum triglyceride and cholesterollevels. Injections of andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg and 7 mg/kg, significantly decreased the cholesterol levels compared to iron receiving group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the andrographolide with different doses may be effective in the treatment of diabetes by reducing serum glucose and cholesterol levels.

  13. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Holst

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1 as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of

  14. In vitro antioxidant, hypoglycemic and oral glucose tolerance test of banana peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Navghare

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Banana fruit is claimed to have antidiabetic effects despite its high calorie content, and its peels also contain vital phytoconstituents including gallocatechin. Previously banana pulp has been studied for antihyperglycemic effects, and in the present investigation antihyperglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of inner peels of Musa sapientum (EMS, Musa paradisiaca (EMP, Musa cavendish (EMC and Musa acuminata (EMA fruit was evaluated using oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic rats. In vitro antioxidant study was conducted using DPPH, H2O2 radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing power assay. Wistar rats were divided into fourteen groups and twelve groups received different doses of aforementioned extracts, while control group received gum acacia solution and remaining group received standard drug, glimepiride. All the rats received glucose load at a dose of 2 g/kg body weight. Groups treated with EMC and EMA showed significant decrease in glucose level (p < 0.01 at 150 min as compared to control group. In hypoglycemic study, only EMP 500 mg/kg, p.o. treated group revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in glucose level at 120 min, while other groups did not show any sign of hypoglycemia. In glucose tolerance test, animals treated with EMC and EMA depicted dose dependent antihyperglycemic effect at 150 min while EMS and EMP showed significant reduction in plasma glucose at higher doses. In a similar fashion, EMA i.e. M. acuminata demonstrated highest antioxidant activity followed by EMC against DPPH radical. In ferric reducing power and H2O2 scavenging assay, EMA demonstrated maximal antioxidant activity when compared with other extracts.

  15. Salinity stress effects on [14C-1]- and [14C-6]-glucose metabolism of a salt-tolerant and salt-susceptible variety of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaraj, S.; Thorpe, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of salt (sodium sulfate) on carbohydrate metabolism was studied in a salt-tolerant (Kharchia-65) variety and a salt-susceptible (Fielder) variety of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by comparing their responses under control and stress conditions. Leaf segments of Kharchia-65 showed increased activity through both the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and the glycolytic pathway of glucose oxidation, with the former being comparatively more active in response to salt. In Fielder, there was an increase in PPP activity at the expense of glycolytic pathway activity. Label from glucose was found in the lipid, neutral sugar, amino acid, organic acid, and phosphate ester fractions in all treatments. On the basis of the label distribution patterns, it appears that Fielder leaves incubated with [ 14 C-6]-glucose were not able to utilize glucose efficiently under saline conditions. This finding was further supported by decreased label incorporation into all the fractions, especially the amino acid and organic acid fractions. Adenosine phosphate and reduced pyridine nucleotide concentrations were consistent with these observations. We conclude therefore that the salt-tolerant variety had an enhanced metabolic activity compared with the salt-susceptible variety, which contributed to its ability to overcome the adverse effects of salt. (author)

  16. Valine pyrrolidide preserves intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and improves abnormal glucose tolerance in minipigs with reduced beta-cell mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Olholm; Rolin, Bidda; Ribel, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    levels of intact GLP-1 but increased levels of intact GIP (from 4543 +/- 1880 to 9208 +/- 3267 pM x min; P glucose tolerance (area under the curve [AUC] for glucose reduced from 1904 +/- 480 to 1582 +/- 353 mM x min; P =.05). VP did not increase insulin levels during the oral......The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are important in blood glucose regulation. However, both incretin hormones are rapidly degraded by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV). The concept of DPPIV inhibition as a treatment...... glucose tolerance test (OGTT) but increased the insulinogenic index in normal animals (from 83 +/- 42 to 192 +/- 108; P

  17. Dual specificity phosphatase 6 deficiency is associated with impaired systemic glucose tolerance and reversible weight retardation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Pfuhlmann

    Full Text Available Here, we aimed to investigate the potential role of DUSP6, a dual specificity phosphatase, that specifically inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, for the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. We further assessed whether metabolic challenges affect Dusp6 expression in selected brain areas or white adipose tissue. Hypothalamic Dusp6 mRNA levels remained unchanged in chow-fed lean vs. high fat diet (HFD fed obese C57Bl/6J mice, and in C57Bl/6J mice undergoing prolonged fasting or refeeding with fat free diet (FFD or HFD. Similarly, Dusp6 expression levels were unchanged in selected brain regions of Lepob mice treated with 1 mg/kg of leptin for 6 days, compared to pair-fed or saline-treated Lepob controls. Dusp6 expression levels remained unaltered in vitro in primary adipocytes undergoing differentiation, but were increased in eWAT of HFD-fed obese C57Bl/6J mice, compared to chow-fed lean controls. Global chow-fed DUSP6 KO mice displayed reduced body weight and lean mass and slightly increased fat mass at a young age, which is indicative for early-age weight retardation. Subsequent exposure to HFD led to a significant increase in lean mass and body weight in DUSP6 deficient mice, compared to WT controls. Nevertheless, after 26 weeks of high-fat diet exposure, we observed comparable body weight, fat and lean mass in DUSP6 WT and KO mice, suggesting overall normal susceptibility to develop obesity. In line with the increased weight gain to compensate for early-age weight retardation, HFD-fed DUSP6 KO displayed increased expression levels of anabolic genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism in the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT, compared to WT controls. Glucose tolerance was perturbed in both chow-fed lean or HFD-fed obese DUSP6 KO, compared to their respective WT controls. Overall, our data indicate that DUSP6 deficiency has limited impact on the regulation of energy metabolism, but impairs systemic

  18. Effect of Consumption of Tribulus Terrestris on Serum Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Roghani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT on serum glucose and lipid levels was investigated in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus in rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into control, TT-treated control, diabetic, glibenclamide-treated, and TT-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered (60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, TT-treated groups received TT mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6.25% for 6 weeks. Serum glucose and lipid levels were determined before the study and at the 3rd and 4th week after the study. Results: Serum glucose was significantly lower in TT-treated diabetic rats at 3rd and 6th weeks as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.01 and p<0.005, respectively. In addition, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol showed a significant reduction in TT-treated diabetic rats as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.05. On the other hand, HDL-cholesterol level did not change significantly in TT-treated diabetic group as compared to untreated diabetic group. Conclusions: Oral administration of TT has a significant hypoglycemic effect and in long term leads to appropriate changes in serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, but does not affect HDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic rats.

  19. Anti-hyperglycemic effect and glucose tolerance of guajava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf ethanol extract in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanis Musdja, Muhammad; Mahendra, Feizar; Musir, Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally guava (Psidium guajava L) leaf is used for treatment of various ailments like diarrhea, wounds, rheumatism, anti-allergy, ant-spasmodic, etc, as folk medicine. The aim of this research is to know the effect of hypoglycemia and glucose tolerance of ethanol extract of guava leaf against male white rat. The guajava leaf was obtained from Balitro Bogor. Preparation of guajava leaf extract was done by cold maceration extraction technique using ethanol 70%. Male albino rats were made into diabetics using the alloxan method. Rats were divided into 6 groups, as a comparative drug for anti-hyperglycemic used glibenclamid and as a comparative drug for glucose tolerance used acarbose. The result of blood glucometer test showed that ethanol extract 70% of guajava leaf had effect as anti-hyperglycemic and glucose tolerance with no significant difference with glibenclamid drug as anti-hyperglycemic and acarbose as glucose tolerance drug.

  20. Adipose tissue insulin receptor and glucose transporter 4 expression, and blood glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance tests in transition Holstein cows with different body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakson, H; Karis, P; Ling, K; Ilves-Luht, A; Samarütel, J; Henno, M; Jõudu, I; Waldmann, A; Reimann, E; Pärn, P; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J; Kaart, T; Kass, M; Ots, M

    2018-01-01

    Glucose uptake in tissues is mediated by insulin receptor (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of body condition during the dry period on adipose tissue mRNA and protein expression of INSR and GLUT4, and on the dynamics of glucose and insulin following the i.v. glucose tolerance test in Holstein cows 21 d before (d -21) and after (d 21) calving. Cows were grouped as body condition score (BCS) ≤3.0 (thin, T; n = 14), BCS = 3.25 to 3.5 (optimal, O; n = 14), and BCS ≥3.75 (overconditioned, OC; n = 14). Blood was analyzed for glucose, insulin, fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Adipose tissue was analyzed for INSR and GLUT4 mRNA and protein concentrations. During the glucose tolerance test 0.15 g/kg of body weight glucose was infused; blood was collected at -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min, and analyzed for glucose and insulin. On d -21 the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose was smallest in group T (1,512 ± 33.9 mg/dL × min) and largest in group OC (1,783 ± 33.9 mg/dL × min), and different between all groups. Basal insulin on d -21 was lowest in group T (13.9 ± 2.32 µU/mL), which was different from group OC (24.9 ± 2.32 µU/mL. On d -21 the smallest AUC 5-60 of insulin in group T (5,308 ± 1,214 µU/mL × min) differed from the largest AUC in group OC (10,867 ± 1,215 µU/mL × min). Time to reach basal concentration of insulin in group OC (113 ± 14.1 min) was longer compared with group T (45 ± 14.1). The INSR mRNA abundance on d 21 was higher compared with d -21 in groups T (d -21: 3.3 ± 0.44; d 21: 5.9 ± 0.44) and O (d -21: 3.7 ± 0.45; d 21: 4.7 ± 0.45). The extent of INSR protein expression on d -21 was highest in group T (7.3 ± 0.74 ng/mL), differing from group O (4.6 ± 0.73 ng/mL), which had the lowest expression. The amount of GLUT4 protein on d -21 was lowest in group OC (1.2 ± 0.14 ng/mL), different from group O (1.8 ± 0.14 ng/mL), which had the highest amount

  1. Retrospective study on the efficacy of a low-carbohydrate diet for impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maekawa S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Maekawa,1 Tetsuya Kawahara,2 Ryosuke Nomura,1 Takayuki Murase,1 Yasuyoshi Ann,1 Masayuki Oeholm,1 Masaru Harada31Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Japan Labor Health and Welfare Organization, Niigata Rosai Hospital, Joetsu, Niigata, Japan; 3Third Department of Internal Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, JapanBackground: In recent years, the number of people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT has increased steadily worldwide. It is clear that the prevention of diabetes is important from the perspective of public health, medical care, and economics. It was recently reported that a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD is useful for achieving weight loss and glycemic control, but there is no information about the effects of the LCD on IGT. We designed a 7-day in-hospital educational program focused on the LCD for IGT.Methods: The subjects were 72 patients with IGT (36 in the LCD group and 36 in the control group who were enrolled from April 2007–March 2012 and followed for 12 months. We retrospectively compared the LCD group with the control group.Results: In 69.4% of the LCD group, blood glucose was normalized at 12 months and the 2-hour plasma glucose level in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was reduced by 33 mg/dL. In addition, the incidence of diabetes was significantly lower in the LCD group than in the control group at 12 months (0% versus 13.9%, P=0.02. The LCD group showed a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance value, body weight and serum triglycerides (TGs at 12 months, while there was a significant increase of the serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol level.Conclusion: The LCD is effective for normalizing blood glucose and preventing progression to type 2 diabetes in

  2. How Tom Moon's research highlighted the question of glucose tolerance in carnivorous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakof, S; Panserat, S

    2016-09-01

    Fifteen years ago, Tom Moon wrote a review on this journal in order to propose some explanations to the exacerbated glycaemic response after a glucose load or a carbohydrate meal intake observed in fish, the so-called intolerance to glucose. Before, but in most of cases after this paper, several laboratories worldwide started to make important efforts in order to better understand this strange phenotype observed in fish and that so far seemed to belong to diabetic humans only. Tom had been worked on fish metabolism for at least 30years when he proposed that mini-review and the paths opened by him in 2001 were followed by tens of fish researchers, making this paper a breaking point on the field. Fifteen years later, we propose not only to have a look to the answers given to the questions rose in that paper, but also to summarize how his career over all these years impacted the domain of glucose metabolism in fish. In the review, we will show how Tom Moon analysed at different levels (from genes up to the whole organism), using distinct experimental tools (cells, hormone or glucose injection, pumps, drugs) the questions of glucose metabolism, tolerance and nutrition in fish species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trace glucose and lipid metabolism in high androgen and high-fat diet induced polycystic ovary syndrome rats

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    Zhai Hua-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of different metabolic pathways in the development of diabetes mellitus in high-androgen female mice fed with a high-fat diet. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group(C, n = 10; the andronate-treated group (Andronate, n = 10 (treated with andronate, 1 mg/100 g body weight/day for 8 weeks; and the andronate-treated and high-fat diet group (Andronate+HFD, n = 10. The rate of glucose appearance (Ra of glucose, gluconeogenesis (GNG, and the rate of glycerol appearance (Ra of glycerol were assessed with a stable isotope tracer. The serum sex hormone levels, insulin levels, glucose concentration, and the lipid profile were also measured. Results Compared with control group, both andronate-treated groups exhibited obesity with higher insulin concentrations (P P Conclusions Andronate with HFD rat model showed ovarian and metabolic features of PCOS, significant increase in glucose Ra, GNG, and lipid profiles, as well as normal blood glucose levels. Therefore, aberrant IR, increased glucose Ra, GNG, and lipid metabolism may represent the early-stage of glucose and lipid kinetics disorder, thereby might be used as potential early-stage treatment targets for PCOS.

  4. Fasting plasma glucose and serum uric acid levels in a general Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance: A U-shaped curve.

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    Yunyang Wang

    Full Text Available Although several epidemiological studies assessed the relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG and serum uric acid (SUA levels, the results were inconsistent. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate this relationship in Chinese individuals with normal glucose tolerance.A total of 5,726 women and 5,457 men with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Generalized additive models and two-piecewise linear regression models were applied to assess the relationship.A U-shaped relationship between FPG and SUA was observed. After adjusting for potential confounders, the inflection points of FPG levels in the curves were 4.6 mmol/L in women and 4.7 mmol/L in men respectively. SUA levels decreased with increasing fasting plasma glucose concentrations before the inflection points (regression coefficient [β] = -36.4, P < 0.001 for women; β = -33.5, P < 0.001 for men, then SUA levels increased (β = 17.8, P < 0.001 for women; β = 13.9, P < 0.001 for men. Additionally, serum insulin levels were positively associated with FPG and SUA (P < 0.05.A U-shaped relationship between FPG and SUA levels existed in Chinese individuals with normal glucose tolerance. The association is partly mediated through serum insulin levels.

  5. Changes in glucose-elicited blood metabolite responses following weight loss and long term weight maintenance in obese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidenstam, Nina; Danielsson, Anders P H; Spégel, Peter; Ridderstråle, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), but the long term dynamic effects on blood metabolites other than glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), are largely unknown. Here, we studied changes in OGTT-elicited metabolite patterns in obese subjects during a diet-induced weight loss study. Blood samples from 14 obese individuals with IGT were collected at 0, 30 and 120 min during a standard 75 g OGTT at baseline (BMI 44 ± 2 kg/m(2)), after weight loss (BMI 36 ± 2 kg/m(2)) and after weight maintenance (BMI 35 ± 2 kg/m(2)). Serum metabolite levels were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and compared to a lean glucose tolerant group. Changes in the OGTT-elicited metabolite patterns occurred differentially during weight loss and weight maintenance. Enhanced suppression of aromatic amino acids were associated with decreased insulinogenic index observed after weight loss (tyrosine: r=0.72, p=0.013; phenylalanine: r=0.63, p=0.039). The OGTT-elicited suppression and/or lack of increase in levels of glutamate, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, and the fatty acids laurate, oleate and palmitate, improved towards the lean profile after weight maintenance, paralleling an improvement in glucose tolerance. The greater heterogeneity in the response before and after weight loss in the obese, compared to lean subjects, was markedly reduced after weight maintenance. Diet-induced weight loss followed by weight maintenance results in changes in metabolite profiles associated with either hepatic insulin sensitivity or peripheral glucose tolerance. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating the effects of weight loss and weight maintenance separately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Increasing ICA512 autoantibody titers predict development of abnormal oral glucose tolerance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanda, Srinath

    2018-03-01

    Determine if autoantibody titer magnitude and variability predict glucose abnormalities in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes. Demographic information, longitudinal autoantibody titers, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) data were obtained from the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study. Subjects (first and second degree relatives of individuals with type 1 diabetes) with at least 2 diabetes autoantibodies were selected for analysis. Autoantibody titer means were calculated for each subject for the duration of study participation and the relationship between titer tertiles and glucose value tertiles from OGTTs (normal, impaired, and diabetes) was assessed with a proportional odds ordinal regression model. A matched pairs analysis was used to examine the relationship between changes in individual autoantibody titers and 120-minute glucose values. Titer variability was quantified using cumulative titer standard deviations. We studied 778 subjects recruited in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study between 2006 and 2014. Increased cumulative mean titer values for both ICA512 and GAD65 (estimated increase in proportional odds = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.39, 1.87, P < 1 × 10 -9 and 1.17, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.32, P = .016, respectively) were associated with peak 120-minute glucose values. While fluctuating titer levels were observed in some subjects, no significant relationship between titer standard deviation and glucose values was observed. ICA512 autoantibody titers associate with progressive abnormalities in glucose metabolism in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes. Fluctuations in autoantibody titers do not correlate with lower rates of progression to clinical disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with schizophrenia, before and after antipsychotic treatment

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    Rayees Ahmad Wani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment with antipsychotics increases the risk of developing diabetes in patients of schizophrenia but this diabetogenic potential of different antipsychotics seems to be different. Moreover, there may be an independent link between schizophrenia and diabetes. So we plan to study the prevalence of glucose dysregulation in patients of schizophrenia before and after treatment with various antipsychotics. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (32 males and 18 females diagnosed with schizophrenia were evaluated for glucose dysregulation using oral glucose tolerance test, initially (drug naive and after antipsychotic treatment. Age- and sex-matched healthy volunteer group of 50 subjects (35 males and 15 females was taken for comparison. Results were interpreted using American Diabetic Association criteria. Results: Though the glycemic status of the patient group was comparable with healthy controls initially but antipsychotic treatment was associated with glucose dysregulation. For first 6 weeks the antipsychotic (olanzapine, risperidone, haloperidol and aripiprazole-induced glucose dysregulation was comparable, which was seen to be maximum with the olanzapine-treated group at the end of this study, 14 weeks. Conclusion: We conclude that antipsychotic treatment of nondiabetic drug naive schizophrenia patients was associated with adverse effects on glucose regulation. For initial 6 weeks the antipsychotic-induced glucose dysregulation was comparable, which was seen to be maximum with olanzapine at the end of study, i.e. 14 weeks. Keeping this at the back of mind we can stabilize a patient initially with a more effective drug, olanzapine, and later on shift to one with less metabolic side effects.

  8. Effects of coumestrol on lipid and glucose metabolism as a farnesoid X receptor ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Miki; Kanayama, Tomohiko; Yashiro, Takuya; Kondo, Hidehiko; Murase, Takatoshi; Hase, Tadashi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2008-01-01

    In the course of an effort to identify novel agonists of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), coumestrol was determined to be one such ligand. Reporter and in vitro coactivator interaction assays revealed that coumestrol bound and activated FXR. Treatment of Hep G2 cells with coumestrol stimulated the expression of FXR target genes, thereby regulating the expression of target genes of the liver X receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α. Through these actions, coumestrol is expected to exert beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism

  9. Glucose and lipid profile of obese dogs fed with different starchy sources

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    Mariana Lorenção Feitosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Among the health disorders caused by obesity in dogs stand out hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Glycemic responses are directly related to the amount and type of starch. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different sources of starch on glycemic and lipid levels in obese dogs. These dogs were distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial 3x2x2 (three sources starchy - corn (60%, sorghum (60% and corn: sorghum (30:30%, two breeds - Beagle and Dachshund and males and females. After 28 days of experiment, dogs fed with corn had higher amounts of glucose (93.79A mg dL-1 (P0.05. Thus, dogs that consumed corn had a higher glycemic peak in a shorter time compared with dogs that ingested sorghum. Furthermore, the dogs fed with diet containing sorghum showed lower levels of fructosamine that dogs that ingested corn diet (P<0.05 demonstrating that the diet containing sorghum maintained blood glucose over a longer time period that reduces the fluctuation of glucose in dogs. At 56 and 112 days of the experiment, a positive correlation between glucose levels and body weight (P<0.05 was also observed. At 28, 56, 84 and 112 days, Beagle dogs showed higher serum concentrations of total cholesterol compared with Dachshund dogs (P<0.05. It was concluded that the starchy source and breed can interfere with metabolic rates of obese dogs.

  10. Chronic benzylamine administration in the drinking water improves glucose tolerance, reduces body weight gain and circulating cholesterol in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffiú-Soltész, Zsuzsa; Wanecq, Estelle; Lomba, Almudena; Portillo, Maria P; Pellati, Federica; Szöko, Eva; Bour, Sandy; Woodley, John; Milagro, Fermin I; Alfredo Martinez, J; Valet, Philippe; Carpéné, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Benzylamine is found in Moringa oleifera, a plant used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine. In mammals, benzylamine is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) to benzaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. This latter product has insulin-mimicking action, and is involved in the effects of benzylamine on human adipocytes: stimulation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis. This study examined whether chronic, oral administration of benzylamine could improve glucose tolerance and the circulating lipid profile without increasing oxidative stress in overweight and pre-diabetic mice. The benzylamine diffusion across the intestine was verified using everted gut sacs. Then, glucose handling and metabolic markers were measured in mice rendered insulin-resistant when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and receiving or not benzylamine in their drinking water (3600micromol/(kgday)) for 17 weeks. HFD-benzylamine mice showed lower body weight gain, fasting blood glucose, total plasma cholesterol and hyperglycaemic response to glucose load when compared to HFD control. In adipocytes, insulin-induced activation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis remained unchanged. In aorta, benzylamine treatment partially restored the nitrite levels that were reduced by HFD. In liver, lipid peroxidation markers were reduced. Resistin and uric acid, surrogate plasma markers of metabolic syndrome, were decreased. In spite of the putative deleterious nature of the hydrogen peroxide generated during amine oxidation, and in agreement with its in vitro insulin-like actions found on adipocytes, the SSAO-substrate benzylamine could be considered as a potential oral agent to treat metabolic syndrome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Smoking during pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance: a prospective cohort study

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    Haskins Amy E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbances in glucose metabolism during pregnancy are associated with negative sequalae for both mother and infant. The association between smoking and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT remains controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between smoking prior to and during pregnancy and risk of AGT. Methods We utilized data from a prospective cohort of 1,006 Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican prenatal care patients in Western Massachusetts. Women reported pre- and early pregnancy smoking at recruitment (mean = 15 weeks and mid pregnancy smoking at a second interview (mean = 28 weeks. AGT was defined as > 135 mg/dL on the routine 1-hour glucose tolerance test (1-hr OGTT. We used multivariable regression to assess the effect of pre, early, and mid-pregnancy smoking on risk of AGT and screening plasma glucose value from the 1-hr OGTT. Results In age-adjusted models, women who smoked > 0-9 cigarettes/day in pre-pregnancy had an increased risk of AGT (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.02-3.55 compared to non-smokers; this was attenuated in multivariable models. Smoking in early (OR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.21-1.10 and mid pregnancy (OR = 0.38; 95% CI 0.13-1.11 were not associated with AGT in multivariable models. Smoking during early and mid pregnancy were independently associated with lower glucose screening values, while smoking in pre-pregnancy was not. Conclusions In this prospective cohort of Hispanic women, we did not observe an association between smoking prior to or during pregnancy and risk of AGT. Findings from this study, although based on small numbers of cases, extend prior research to the Hispanic population.

  12. Effect of Parenteral Antioxidant Supplementation During the Dry Period on Postpartum Glucose Tolerance in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Alves-Nores, V; Hernandez, J; Muiño, R; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2016-05-01

    Exacerbated postparturient insulin resistance (IR) has been associated with several pathologic conditions in dairy cattle. Oxidative stress (OS) plays a causative role in IR in humans, and an association, but not direct relationship, between OS and IR recently has been reported in transition dairy cattle. Supplementation with antioxidants shortly before calving improves glucose tolerance after parturition in dairy cattle. Ten late-pregnant Holstein cows entering their 2nd to 5th lactation. Randomized placebo-controlled trial: 15 ± 2 days before expected calving, the treatment group received an injection of DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate at a dosage of 6 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 0.06 mg/kg BW of sodium selenite, and the control group was injected with isotonic saline. During the first week after calving, both groups underwent glucose tolerance testing (0.25 g glucose/kg BW). Commercial assays were used to quantify the concentrations of glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate, and markers of redox status in blood. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test (α = 0.05). Supplemented cows showed a lower risk for OS, as reflected by a lower OS index (P = .036), different areas under the curve for the concentrations of glucose (P insulin (P = .043), and NEFA (P = .041), more rapid elimination rates (P = .080, insulin sensitivity after calving, thereby suggesting the role of OS in the development of IR in cattle and the potential benefits of antioxidant supplementation in minimizing the consequences of negative energy balance. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Differential relationship between physical activity and progression to diabetes by glucose tolerance status: the Inter99 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, S; Glümer, C; Witte, D R

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse how strongly commuting and leisure-time physical activity affect progression to diabetes and to study whether this relationship is different in individuals with isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG) and isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT)....

  14. Dehydration-induced redistribution of amphiphilic molecules between cytoplasm and lipids is associated with desiccation tolerance in seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitink, J.; Leprince, O.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study establishes a relationship between desiccation tolerance and the transfer of amphiphilic molecules from the cytoplasm into lipids during drying, using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of amphiphilic spin probes introduced into imbibed radicles of pea (Pisum sativum) and

  15. Assessment of insulin resistance in Chinese PCOS patients with normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Zhou, Li; Hong, Jie; Chen, Chen

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to investigate insulin resistance (IR) status in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), and further to evaluate feasible diagnostic method for those patients. Three hundred and twenty-five PCOS women with NGT and ninety-five healthy age-matched controls were recruited with Rotterdam criterion and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). IR status was estimated following a glycemic and insulinemic OGTT (0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min). A modified HOMA-IR formula was applied to each time-course value of glycemia and insulinemia. The predictive performance of each IR index was analyzed with the use of ROC curves. Compared with healthy controls, both non-obese and obese PCOS patients with NGT had a higher BMI, serum glucose, insulin value (p PCOS-NGT was a HOMA-M30 value of 20.36 or more (AUC: 0.753). In obese PCOS-NGT population, the best predictive performance was obtained by a HOMA-M60 value of 32.17 or more (AUC: 0.868). IR was common in Chinese PCOS women with NGT, and the early assessment of IR should be heeded. We recommended HOMA-M30 (Cutoff: 20.36) and HOMA-M60 (Cutoff: 32.17) as the best predictive parameters for non-obese and obese PCOS-NGT patients, respectively.

  16. Chronic variable stress improves glucose tolerance in rats with sucrose-induced prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Amy E. B.; Ghosal, Sriparna; Herman, James P.; Woods, Stephen C.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of type-2 diabetes (T2D) and the burden it places on individuals, as well as society as a whole, compels research into the causes, factors and progression of this disease. Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic stress exposure may contribute to the development and progression of T2D in human patients. To address the interaction between chronic stress and the progression of T2D, we developed a dietary model of the prediabetic state in rats utilizing unlimited access to 30% sucrose solution (in addition to unlimited access to normal chow and water), which led to impaired glucose tolerance despite elevated insulin levels. We then investigated the effects of a chronic variable stress paradigm (CVS; twice daily exposure to an unpredictable stressor for 2 weeks) on metabolic outcomes in this prediabetic model. Chronic stress improved glucose tolerance in prediabetic rats following a glucose challenge. Importantly, pair-fed control groups revealed that the beneficial effect of chronic stress did not result from the decreased food intake or body weight gain that occurred during chronic stress. The present work suggests that chronic stress in rodents can ameliorate the progression of diet-induced prediabetic disease independent of chronic stress-induced decreases in food intake and body weight. PMID:25001967

  17. Risk of impaired glucose tolerance in normal weight hirsute women during four years observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Magdalene; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder affecting 5-20% of women in reproductive age. Only limited follow-up data exist regarding the prognosis for glucose tolerance and metabolic risk factors in hirsutism. Sixty-nine Caucasian hirsute women underwent a clinical examination and an oral glucose tolerance...... test (OGTT) during 1997-2002 (baseline) and during 2003-2004 (re-evaluation). The observation period was (median; range) 4 (2-7) years. During re-evaluation, body mass index (BMI) was 24.9 (22.4-29.0) kg/m(2) and total Ferriman-Gallwey score was 10 (7-15) (median; 25-75% quartile). The women had...... unchanged BMI compared to baseline but increased fasting and 2 hour glucose levels. Impaired OGTT outcome during follow-up was seen in 14/66 (21.2%) women, 5/66 (7.6%) developed diabetes. Women who took oral contraceptives had a significantly decreased area under the curve (AUC) for insulin during follow...

  18. Oscillatory dynamics of an intravenous glucose tolerance test model with delay interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangyun; Kuang, Yang; Makroglou, Athena; Mokshagundam, Sriprakash; Li, Jiaxu

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become prevalent pandemic disease in view of the modern life style. Both diabetic population and health expenses grow rapidly according to American Diabetes Association. Detecting the potential onset of T2DM is an essential focal point in the research of diabetes mellitus. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) is an effective protocol to determine the insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and pancreatic β-cell functionality, through the analysis and parameter estimation of a proper differential equation model. Delay differential equations have been used to study the complex physiological phenomena including the glucose and insulin regulations. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to model the time delay in IVGTT modeling. This novel approach uses two parameters to simulate not only both discrete time delay and distributed time delay in the past interval, but also the time delay distributed in a past sub-interval. Normally, larger time delay, either a discrete or a distributed delay, will destabilize the system. However, we find that time delay over a sub-interval might not. We present analytically some basic model properties, which are desirable biologically and mathematically. We show that this relatively simple model provides good fit to fluctuating patient data sets and reveals some intriguing dynamics. Moreover, our numerical simulation results indicate that our model may remove the defect in well known Minimal Model, which often overestimates the glucose effectiveness index.

  19. Effects of ambient temperature on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity test outcomes in normal and obese C57 male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudele, Anete; Rasmussen, Gitte Marie; Mayntz, David; Malte, Hans; Lund, Sten; Wang, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Mice are commonly used as animal models to study human metabolic diseases, but experiments are typically performed at room temperature, which is far below their thermoneutral zone and is associated with elevated heart rate, food intake, and energy expenditure. We set out to study how ambient temperature affects glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in control and obese male mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were housed at room temperature (23°C) for 6 weeks and fed either control or high fat diet. They were then fasted for 6 h before glucose or insulin tolerance tests were performed at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C. To ensure that behavioral thermoregulation did not counterbalance the afflicted ambient temperatures, oxygen consumption was determined on mice with the same thermoregulatory opportunities as during the tests. Decreasing ambient temperatures increased oxygen consumption and body mass loss during fasting in both groups. Mice fed high fat diet had improved glucose tolerance at 30°C and increased levels of fasting insulin followed by successive decrease of fasting glucose. However, differences between control and high-fat diet mice were present at all temperatures. Ambient temperature did not affect glucose tolerance in control group and insulin tolerance in either of the groups. Ambient temperature affects glucose metabolism in mice and this effect is phenotype specific. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  20. Postprandial Reactive Hypoglycaemia: Varying Presentation Patterns on Extended Glucose Tolerance Tests and Possible Therapeutic Approaches

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    Kevin Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive hypoglycemia is a state characterised by sympathetic or neuroglycopenic symptoms associated with hypoglycaemia in the postprandial state resulting in considerable distress to the patient. It is our practice to carry out either extended glucose tolerance tests (eGTTs or mixed meal tests in these patients. We describe two patients who experienced hypoglycaemic symptoms early and late during eGTT. The patient who experienced symptoms early, in contrast to the patient who presented with late symptoms, did not possess any characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Based on clinical symptoms, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA levels, we speculate on possible mechanisms that may have accounted for each of their presentation patterns. We then discuss low glycaemic index diet which will be the mainstay of management.

  1. Diabetes Incidence and Glucose Tolerance after Termination of Pioglitazone Therapy: Results from ACT NOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Devjit; Schwenke, Dawn C; Banerji, MaryAnn; Bray, George A; Buchanan, Thomas A; Clement, Stephen C; Henry, Robert R; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E; Stentz, Frankie B; Musi, Nicolas; Reaven, Peter D; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2016-05-01

    Thiazolidinediones have proven efficacy in preventing diabetes in high-risk individuals. However, the effect of thiazolidinediones on glucose tolerance after cessation of therapy is unclear. To examine the effect of pioglitazone (PIO) on incidence of diabetes after discontinuing therapy in ACT NOW. Design, Settings and Patients: Two-hundred ninety-three subjects (placebo [PLAC], n = 138; PIO, n = 152) completed a median followup of 11.7 mo after study medication was stopped. Diabetes developed in 138 (12.3%) of PLAC vs 17 of 152 PIO patients (11.2%; P = not significant, PIO vs PLAC). However, the cumulative incidence of diabetes from start of study medication to end of washout period remained significantly lower in PIO vs PLAC (10.7 vs 22.3%; P < .005). After therapy was discontinued, 23.0% (35/152) of PIO-treated patients remained normal-glucose tolerant (NGT) vs 13.8% (19/138) of PLAC-treated patients (P = .04). Insulin secretion/insulin resistance index (I0-120/G0-120 × Matsuda index) was markedly lower in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who converted to diabetes during followup vs those who remained IGT or NGT. The decline in-cell function (insulin secretion/insulin resistance index) was similar in subjects with IGT who developed diabetes, irrespective of whether they were treated with PIO or PLAC. 1) The protective effect of PIO on incidence of diabetes attenuates after discontinuation of therapy, 2) cumulative incidence of diabetes in individuals exposed to PIO remained significantly (56%) lower than PLAC and a greater number of PIO-treated individuals maintained NGT after median followup of 11.4 mo, and 3) low insulin secretion/insulin resistance index is a strong predictor of future diabetes following PIO discontinuation.

  2. Sweet taste disorder and vascular complications in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Imai, Kenjiro; Kanda, Sayaka; Kakei, Masafumi; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2016-10-15

    It remains unknown whether taste disorders can be a risk factor for micro- and macro-vascular diseases in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance. A cross-sectional study in a nationally representative samples of 848 and 849 US adults (aged ≥40years) with diabetes or prediabetes who had sweet and salt taste disorders, respectively, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012. Among the study population, 5.7% had sweet taste disorder and 8.6% had salt taste disorder. These data correspond to approximately 1.5 million and 1.8 million individuals with abnormal glucose tolerance aged 40years or older in the US population, respectively. In the adjusted model, sweet taste disorder was significantly associated with complication of ischemic heart disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-5.81; P=0.04). Moreover, sweet taste disorder in patients with diabetes was significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy (adjusted OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.09-7.69; P=0.03) and diabetic nephropathy (adjusted OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.07-9.36; P=0.03). Meanwhile, salt taste disorder was not significantly associated with diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, ischemic heart disease, or stroke. Total sugar intake was significantly higher in patients with sweet taste disorder than in those without it, whereas total daily intake of carbohydrate did not differ significantly. No significant association was observed between salt taste disorder and daily intake of sodium after multivariate analysis. Sweet taste disorder in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance was associated with increased sugar intake and vascular complications. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of PCSK1 variants on waist, waist-hip ratio and glucose metabolism is modified by sex and glucose tolerance status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Anette P; Vestmar, Marie A; Jørgensen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the effects of the G-allele of rs6232 and the C-allele of rs6235 within PCSK1 on measures of body fat and glucose homeostasis in Danish individuals and to assess interactions of genotypes with age, sex and glucose tolerance status. Data were included in meta.......008) and increased waist-to-hip ratio of 0.004 (0.0005–0.008, p = 0.027). In the meta-analyses where men and women were combined, the rs6232 G-allele associated with increased waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.02) and the rs6235 C-allele associated with increased waist circumference (p = 0.01). Furthermore, the rs6235 C......-allele was associated nominally with a 0.6% (0.1–1%, p = 0.01) reduction in fasting glucose, it interacted with glucose tolerance status for traits related to glucose metabolism and analysis among individuals having abnormal glucose tolerance revealed a 5% (20.7–9%, p = 0.02) elevated level of acute insulin response...

  4. Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Determinants of Glycemic Control Across the Entire Glucose Tolerance Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Malin, Steven K.; Karstoft, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) is associated with glycemic control, yet the relationship between VO2max and the underlying determinants of glycemic control is less clear. Our aim was to determine whether VO2max is associated with insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and the disp...... fitness and compromised pancreatic β-cell compensation across the entire glucose tolerance continuum provides additional evidence highlighting the importance of fitness in protection against the onset of a fundamental pathophysiological event that leads to type 2 diabetes....

  5. Skin autofluorescence based decision tree in detection of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries J Smit

    Full Text Available Diabetes (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT detection are conventionally based on glycemic criteria. Skin autofluorescence (SAF is a noninvasive proxy of tissue accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE which are considered to be a carrier of glycometabolic memory. We compared SAF and a SAF-based decision tree (SAF-DM with fasting plasma glucose (FPG and HbA1c, and additionally with the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC questionnaire±FPG for detection of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT- or HbA1c-defined IGT and diabetes in intermediate risk persons.Participants had ≥1 metabolic syndrome criteria. They underwent an OGTT, HbA1c, SAF and FINDRISC, in adition to SAF-DM which includes SAF, age, BMI, and conditional questions on DM family history, antihypertensives, renal or cardiovascular disease events (CVE.218 persons, age 56 yr, 128M/90F, 97 with previous CVE, participated. With OGTT 28 had DM, 46 IGT, 41 impaired fasting glucose, 103 normal glucose tolerance. SAF alone revealed 23 false positives (FP, 34 false negatives (FN (sensitivity (S 68%; specificity (SP 86%. With SAF-DM, FP were reduced to 18, FN to 16 (5 with DM (S 82%; SP 89%. HbA1c scored 48 FP, 18 FN (S 80%; SP 75%. Using HbA1c-defined DM-IGT/suspicion ≥6%/42 mmol/mol, SAF-DM scored 33 FP, 24 FN (4 DM (S76%; SP72%, FPG 29 FP, 41 FN (S71%; SP80%. FINDRISC≥10 points as detection of HbA1c-based diabetes/suspicion scored 79 FP, 23 FN (S 69%; SP 45%.SAF-DM is superior to FPG and non-inferior to HbA1c to detect diabetes/IGT in intermediate-risk persons. SAF-DM's value for diabetes/IGT screening is further supported by its established performance in predicting diabetic complications.

  6. Lipid environment modulates the development of acute tolerance to ethanol in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill C Bettinger

    Full Text Available The development of tolerance to a drug at the level of the neuron reflects a homeostatic mechanism by which neurons respond to perturbations of their function by external stimuli. Acute functional tolerance (AFT to ethanol is a fast compensatory response that develops within a single drug session and normalizes neuronal function despite the continued presence of the drug. We performed a genetic screen to identify genes required for the development of acute functional tolerance to ethanol in the nematode C. elegans. We identified mutations affecting multiple genes in a genetic pathway known to regulate levels of triacylglycerols (TAGs via the lipase LIPS-7, indicating that there is an important role for TAGs in the development of tolerance. Genetic manipulation of lips-7 expression, up or down, produced opposing effects on ethanol sensitivity and on the rate of development of AFT. Further, decreasing cholesterol levels through environmental manipulation mirrored the effects of decreased TAG levels. Finally, we found that genetic alterations in the levels of the TAG lipase LIPS-7 can modify the phenotype of gain-of-function mutations in the ethanol-inducible ion channel SLO-1, the voltage- and calcium-sensitive BK channel. This study demonstrates that the lipid milieu modulates neuronal responses to ethanol that include initial sensitivity and the development of acute tolerance. These results lend new insight into studies of alcohol dependence, and suggest a model in which TAG levels are important for the development of AFT through alterations of the action of ethanol on membrane proteins.

  7. The Effects of Dietary Iron and Capsaicin on Hemoglobin, Blood Glucose, Insulin Tolerance, Cholesterol, and Triglycerides, in Healthy and Diabetic Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Ibarra, Adriana; Huerta, Miguel; Villalpando-Hernández, Salvador; Ríos-Silva, Mónica; Díaz-Reval, María I; Cruzblanca, Humberto; Mancilla, Evelyn; Trujillo, Xóchitl

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the effects of dietary iron, and the compound capsaicin, on hemoglobin as well as metabolic indicators including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Our animal model was the Wistar rat, fed a chow diet, with or without experimentally induced diabetes. Diabetic males were fed control, low, or high-iron diets, the latter, with or without capsaicin. Healthy rats were fed identical diets, but without the capsaicin supplement. We then measured the parameters listed above, using the Student t-test and ANOVA, to compare groups. Healthy rats fed a low-iron diet exhibited significantly reduced total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, compared with rats fed a control diet. Significantly reduced blood lipid was also provoked by low dietary iron in diabetic rats, compared with those fed a control diet. Insulin, and glucose tolerance was only improved in healthy rats fed the low-iron diet. Significant increases in total cholesterol were found in diabetic rats fed a high-iron diet, compared with healthy rats fed the same diet, although no statistical differences were found for triglycerides. Hemoglobin levels, which were not statistically different in diabetic versus healthy rats fed the high-iron diet, fell when capsaicin was added. Capsaicin also provoked a fall in the level of cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic animals, versus diabetics fed with the high iron diet alone. In conclusion, low levels of dietary iron reduced levels of serum triglycerides, hemoglobin, and cholesterol, and significantly improved insulin, and glucose tolerance in healthy rats. In contrast, a high-iron diet increased cholesterol significantly, with no significant changes to triglyceride concentrations. The addition of capsaicin to the high-iron diet (for diabetic rats) further reduced levels of hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triglycerides. These results suggest that capsaicin, may be suitable for the treatment of elevated hemoglobin

  8. Lipid and glucose metabolism of broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLC Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and glucose metabolism of 76 ten-day-old Cobb male broilers, experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, was studied for 30 days. Birds were distributed in 2 groups: one infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina sporulated oocysts, and the other inoculated with distilled water. Pathological e biochemical liver changes were assessed, as well as plasma glucose concentrations and total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, fatty-acid, and triglyceride levels in the serum. The infected broilers presented hypoglycemia associated with a reduction in liver glycogen. In addition, these birds developed fatty liver, and there were changes in all lipid classes in the serum. Lipid and glucose metabolism was dramatically changed in broilers experimentally infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina oocysts.

  9. Metformin modifies the exercise training effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in impaired glucose tolerant adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K.; Nightingale, Joy; Choi, Sung-Eun; Chipkin, Stuart R.; Braun, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerant (IGT) adults are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise or metformin reduce CVD risk, but the efficacy of combining treatments is unclear. To determine the effects of exercise training plus metformin, compared to each treatment alone, on CVD risk factors in IGT adults. Subjects were assigned to: placebo (P), metformin (M), exercise plus placebo (EP), or exercise plus metformin (EM) (8/group). In a double-blind design, P or 2000mg/d of M were administered for 12 weeks and half performed aerobic and resistance training 3 days/week for approximately 60 minutes/day at 70% pre-training heart rate peak. Outcomes included: adiposity, blood pressure (BP), lipids and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Z-scores were calculated to determine metabolic syndrome severity. M and EM, but not EP, decreased body weight compared to P (p metabolic syndrome Z-score compared to baseline (EP; trend p = 0.07 and EM or M; p exercise and/or metformin improve some CVD risk factors, only training or metformin alone lowered hs-CRP and BP. Thus, metformin may attenuate the effects of training on some CVD risk factors and metabolic syndrome severity in IGT adults. PMID:23505172

  10. The human hepatocyte cell lines IHH and HepaRG: models to study glucose, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanez, Carolina Huaman; Caron, Sandrine; Briand, Olivier; Dehondt, Hélène; Duplan, Isabelle; Kuipers, Folkert; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Clavey, Véronique; Staels, Bart

    2012-07-01

    Metabolic diseases reach epidemic proportions. A better knowledge of the associated alterations in the metabolic pathways in the liver is necessary. These studies need in vitro human cell models. Several human hepatoma models are used, but the response of many metabolic pathways to physiological stimuli is often lost. Here, we characterize two human hepatocyte cell lines, IHH and HepaRG, by analysing the expression and regulation of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Our results show that the glycolysis pathway is activated by glucose and insulin in both lines. Gluconeogenesis gene expression is induced by forskolin in IHH cells and inhibited by insulin in both cell lines. The lipogenic pathway is regulated by insulin in IHH cells. Finally, both cell lines secrete apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, an effect promoted by increasing glucose concentrations. These two human cell lines are thus interesting models to study the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism.

  11. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  12. Review of Pre-Analytical Errors in Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Rachita; Patel, Suprava; Sahoo, Sibashish; Mohapatra, Eli

    2018-03-13

    The pre-pre-analytical and pre-analytical phases form a major chunk of the errors in a laboratory. The process has taken into consideration a very common procedure which is the oral glucose tolerance test to identify the pre-pre-analytical errors. Quality indicators provide evidence of quality, support accountability and help in the decision making of laboratory personnel. The aim of this research is to evaluate pre-analytical performance of the oral glucose tolerance test procedure. An observational study that was conducted overa period of three months, in the phlebotomy and accessioning unit of our laboratory using questionnaire that examined the pre-pre-analytical errors through a scoring system. The pre-analytical phase was analyzed for each sample collected as per seven quality indicators. About 25% of the population gave wrong answer with regard to the question that tested the knowledge of patient preparation. The appropriateness of test result QI-1 had the most error. Although QI-5 for sample collection had a low error rate, it is a very important indicator as any wrongly collected sample can alter the test result. Evaluating the pre-analytical and pre-pre-analytical phase is essential and must be conducted routinely on a yearly basis to identify errors and take corrective action and to facilitate their gradual introduction into routine practice.

  13. ATLANTIC DIP: the impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Owens, Lisa A

    2010-03-01

    OBJECTIVE A prospective study of the impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Irish Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy network advocates universal screening for gestational diabetes. Women with normoglycemia and a recorded booking BMI were included. Maternal and infant outcomes correlated with booking BMI are reported. RESULTS A total of 2,329 women fulfilled the criteria. Caesarean deliveries increased in overweight (OW) (odds ratio 1.57 [95% CI 1.24-1.98]) and obese (OB) (2.65 [2.03-3.46]) women. Hypertensive disorders increased in OW (2.30 [1.55-3.40]) and OB (3.29 [2.14-5.05]) women. Reported miscarriages increased in OB (1.4 [1.11-1.77]) women. Mean birth weight was 3.46 kg in normal BMI (NBMI), 3.54 kg in OW, and 3.62 kg in OB (P < 0.01) mothers. Macrosomia occurred in 15.5, 21.4, and 27.8% of babies of NBMI, OW, and OB mothers, respectively (P < 0.01). Shoulder dystocia occur in 4% (>4 kg) compared with 0.2% (<4 kg) babies (P < 0.01). Congenital malformation risk increased for OB (2.47 [1.09-5.60]) women. CONCLUSIONS OW and OB glucose-tolerant women have greater adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  14. Association between ghrelin gene variations and blood pressure in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Ursula; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Lindström, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G; Valle, Timo T; Hämäläinen, Helena; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko O; Pulkkinen, Leena; Uusitupa, Matti I

    2006-09-01

    Ghrelin is a gut-brain hormone, which stimulates food intake and controls energy balance. Recently, it has been shown that ghrelin may also play a role in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) by acting at the sympathetic nervous system. In the present study we genotyped six variants of the ghrelin gene and its promoter, and tested whether these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with BP levels in participants of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study was a longitudinal study where 522 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized into either an intervention or control group. DNA was available from 507 subjects (mean body mass index [BMI] 31.2+/-4.5 kg/m2, age 55+/-7 years). All six SNPs were screened by the restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Subjects with the most common genotype combination of the following four SNPs, -604G/A, -501A/C, Leu72Met, and Gln90Leu, had the lowest systolic (131+/-11 v 137+/-13 mm Hg, P=.003) and diastolic BP levels (79+/-7 v 83+/-7 mm Hg, P=.004) at the baseline of the study and during 3 years of follow-up compared to all other genotypes. Adjustments for age, gender, antihypertensive medication, BMI, waist circumference, and alcohol intake did not change this association. Several ghrelin gene variations were associated with BP levels in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

  15. Gestational Weight Gain and Pregnancy Outcomes in 481 Obese Glucose-Tolerant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of gestational weight gain in obese glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a historical cohort study of 481 women with prepregnancy BMI > or = 30 kg/m2 and a normal 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during the third trimester......-weight women (3,478 g). In multivariate analyses, increasing weight gain was associated with significantly higher rates of hypertension (OR 4.8 [95% CI for group 4 vs. group 1: 1.7-13.1]), cesarean section (3.5 [1.6-7.8]), induction of labor (3.7 [1.7-8.0]), and large-for-gestational-age infants (4.7 [2.......0-11.0]). There was no difference in rates of small-for-gestational-age infants. Significant predictors for birth weight (determined by multiple linear regression) were gestational weight gain, 2-h OGTT result, pre-gestational BMI, maternal age, gestational age, and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing weight gain in obese women...

  16. Diagnosing impaired glucose tolerance using direct infusion mass spectrometry of blood plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr G Lokhov

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the capacity for mass spectrometry of blood plasma to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. For this study, blood plasma samples from control subjects (n = 30 and patients with IGT (n = 20 were treated with methanol and low molecular weight fraction were then analyzed by direct infusion mass spectrometry. A total of 51 metabolite ions strongly associated with IGT were detected. The area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC for diagnosing IGT that was based on an analysis of all these metabolites was 0.93 (accuracy 90%, specificity 90%, and sensitivity 90%. The associated reproducibility was 85%. The metabolites identified were also consistent with risk factors previously associated with the development of diabetes. Thus, direct infusion mass spectrometry of blood plasma metabolites represents a rapid, single-step, and reproducible method for the analysis of metabolites. Moreover, this method has the potential to serve as a prototype for clinical analyses that could replace the currently used glucose tolerance test with a more patient-friendly assay.

  17. Oral glucose tolerance test performance in olanzapine-treated schizophrenia-spectrum patients is predicted by BMI and triglycerides but not olanzapine dose or duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Jeffrey; Roy, Sayon; Gupta, Ankur; Langleben, Daniel D; Elman, Igor

    2017-07-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is associated with glucoregulatory abnormalities, but the nature of this link is not fully elucidated. This is the first olanzapine oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) study to consider treatment dose and duration, and to compare complementary indices respectively assessing insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Body mass index (BMI), body composition, plasma lipids, and oGTT were measured in olanzapine-treated nondiabetic patients with DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 35). While only one previously undiagnosed participant met diabetes criteria based on fasting plasma glucose alone (≥126 mg/dL), seven were diagnosed with oGTT (2-hr plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL). Multiple regression analyses revealed that the Matsuda index correlated with BMI (p triglycerides (p = 0.01), but not with age, olanzapine dose, olanzapine treatment duration, or plasma cholesterol. Homeostasis model assessment and fasting plasma glucose correlated with triglycerides only (p triglycerides may be implicated in olanzapine-related glucoregulatory abnormalities. The lack of correlation between glucoregulatory abnormalities and olanzapine dose or treatment duration suggests preexisting metabolic disturbances and/or disturbances arising early in the course of treatment. Clinicians prescribing antipsychotics should consider oGTT, especially in patients with obesity and/or hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Insulin resistance according to β-cell function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Do Kyeong; Hong, Young Sun; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Lee, Hyejin

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. IR is recognized as a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, few studies have investigated IR in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance. The objective of this study was to evaluate IR and β-cell function in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance. Additionally, we sought to evaluate the usefulness of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-derived IR indices in lean women with PCOS. We recruited 100 women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance and 100 age- and BMI-matched women as controls. IR and insulin secretory indices, including the homeostasis-model assessment (HOMA)-IR, HOMA-M120, HOMA-F and the Stumvoll index, were calculated from an OGTT. Increased β-cell function was defined as>75th percentile for the HOMA-F in control women. Women with PCOS had higher values for post-load 2-hour glucose, fasting insulin, post-load 2-hour insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-M120, HOMA-F and lower values for the Stumvoll index than the controls (all PsWomen with PCOS and increased β-cell function showed lower Stumvoll index values than the matched controls (Plean women with PCOS (all PsWomen with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance showed higher IR than controls matched for age, BMI, and β-cell function. β-cell function was increased in women with PCOS when compared to the matched controls, but not when the lean subjects were compared to the matched controls separately. Therefore, early evaluation of IR in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance may be needed.

  19. A comparison between the minimal model and the glucose clamp in the assessment of insulin sensitivity across the spectrum of glucose tolerance. Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, M F; Anderson, R L; Laws, A; Watanabe, R M; Kades, W W; Chen, Y D; Sands, R E; Pei, D; Savage, P J; Bergman, R N

    1994-09-01

    An insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) with minimal model analysis was compared with the glucose clamp in 11 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 20 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 24 with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated from FSIGTT using 22- and 12-sample protocols (SI(22) and SI(12), respectively). Insulin sensitivity from the clamp was expressed as SI(clamp) and SIP(clamp). Minimal model parameters were similar when calculated with SI(22) and SI(12). SI could not be distinguished from 0 in approximately 50% of diabetic patients with either protocol. SI(22) correlated significantly with SI(clamp) in the whole group (r = 0.62), and in the NGT (r = 0.53), IGT (r = 0.48), and NIDDM (r = 0.41) groups (P SIP(clamp) were expressed in the same units, SI(22) was 66 +/- 5% (mean +/- SE) and 50 +/- 8% lower than SI(clamp) and SIP(clamp), respectively. Thus, minimal model analysis of the insulin-modified FSIGTT provides estimates of insulin sensitivity that correlate significantly with those from the glucose clamp. The correlation was weaker, however, in NIDDM. The insulin-modified FSIGTT can be used as a simple test for assessment of insulin sensitivity in population studies involving nondiabetic subjects. Additional studies are needed before using this test routinely in patients with NIDDM.

  20. Proinflammatory and Prothrombotic State in Subjects with Different Glucose Tolerance Status before Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Isordia-Salas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and atherothrombosis. Aim. To determine differences in levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and fibrinogen in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, prediabetes, and T2DM and to establish their relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors before clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease. Methods. We conducted a nonrandomized, cross-sectional assay in a hospital at México City. The levels of hs-CRP and fibrinogen were measured and compared according to glucose tolerance status. Results. We enrolled 1047 individuals and they were distributed into NGT n=473, pre-DM n=250, and T2DM n=216. There was a statistical difference between NGT and T2DM groups for fibrinogen (P=0.01 and hs-CRP (P=0.05. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP showed a significant positive correlation coefficient (r=0.53, P<0.0001. In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, the variability in fibrinogen levels was explained by age, HbA1c, and hs-CRP (adjusted R2=0.31, P<0.0001, and for hs-CRP it was explained by BMI and fibrinogen (adjusted R2=0.33, P<0.0001. Conclusion. Inflammation and prothrombotic state are present in people with T2DM lacking cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen and Hs-CRP are positively correlated. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP concentrations are predominantly determined by BMI rather than glucose levels.

  1. A dual role of lipasin (betatrophin) in lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis: consensus and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren; Abou-Samra, Abdul B

    2014-09-13

    Metabolic syndrome includes glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia, both of which are strong risk factors for developing diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Recently, multiple groups independently studied a previously uncharacterized gene, officially named C19orf80 (human) and Gm6484 (mouse), but more commonly known as RIFL, Angptl8, betatrophin and lipasin. Both exciting and conflicting results have been obtained, and significant controversy is ongoing. Accumulating evidence from genome wide association studies and mouse genetic studies convincingly shows that lipasin is involved in lipid regulation. However, the mechanism of action, the identity of transcription factors mediating its nutritional regulation, circulating levels, and relationship among lipasin, Angptl3 and Angptl4, remain elusive. Betatrophin represents a promising drug target for replenishing β-cell mass, but current results have not been conclusive regarding its potency and specificity. Here, we summarize the consensus and controversy regarding functions of lipasin/betatrophin based on currently available evidence.

  2. Sensing the fuels: glucose and lipid signaling in the CNS controlling energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sabine D; Könner, A Christine; Brüning, Jens C

    2010-10-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is capable of gathering information on the body's nutritional state and it implements appropriate behavioral and metabolic responses to changes in fuel availability. This feedback signaling of peripheral tissues ensures the maintenance of energy homeostasis. The hypothalamus is a primary site of convergence and integration for these nutrient-related feedback signals, which include central and peripheral neuronal inputs as well as hormonal signals. Increasing evidence indicates that glucose and lipids are detected by specialized fuel-sensing neurons that are integrated in these hypothalamic neuronal circuits. The purpose of this review is to outline the current understanding of fuel-sensing mechanisms in the hypothalamus, to integrate the recent findings in this field, and to address the potential role of dysregulation in these pathways in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Effect of aluminum chloride on blood glucose level and lipid profile in normal, diabetic and treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Venugopala Rao; Eerike, Madhavi; Chary, R Prasanth; Arunachalam, Ruckmani; Yeddula, Venkata Ramana; Meti, Vinayak; Devi, T Sobita

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess evaluate the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) on blood glucose and lipid levels in normal, diabetic, and glibenclamide-treated diabetic rats. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of six each. Group I was normal control, Groups II and III were given AlCl 3 50 and 100 mg/kg, and Group IV to VII were administered with streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Group IV was diabetic control, Group V in addition was given AlCl 3 50 mg/kg, Group VI glibenclamide (10 mg/kg), and Group VII glibenclamide and AlCl 3 (50 mg/kg) per-oral daily for 28 days. Blood glucose and lipid levels were estimated at base line, after diabetes was set in and on the last day of study. Histopathological changes in pancreas, liver, and kidney were studied. No significant change was observed in blood glucose and lipid levels in Group I. Group II and III showed a dose-dependent significant increase in blood glucose was observed. Group V had a reduction in blood glucose but not to the nondiabetic level. Group VI had significant reduction in blood sugar. In Group VII, treated with glibenclamide and AlCl 3 , there was no significant change in blood glucose reduction compared to Group VI. Lipid levels were reduced in groups treated with AlCl 3 and glibenclamide and not in other groups. Gross tissue damage was seen in pancreas in STZ group and in liver and kidney in AlCl 3 groups. AlCl 3 administration in Wistar rats caused in significant hyperglycemia in normal rats, hypoglycemia in diabetic rats, and did not influenced hypoglycemic effect of glibenclamide and in addition, resulted in reduction in lipid levels.

  4. Comparative study of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose vs the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis of diabetes in people with tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aftab, H.; Ambreen, A.; Jamil, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To compare HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose assessment, with the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test as reference, in screening for diabetes in people with turberculosis. Methods: Individuals (N=268) with newly diagnosed smear-positive tuberculosis were screened for diabetes at a tertiary hospital...... in Lahore, Pakistan. Diabetes diagnosis was based on WHO criteria: thresholds were ≥48 mmol/mol (≥6.5%) for HbA1c and ≥7.0mmol/l for fasting plasma glucose. Results: The proportion of participants diagnosed with diabetes was 4.9% (n =13) by oral glucose tolerance test, while 11.9% (n =32) and 14.6% (n =39...... the two tests (P=0.07). Conclusions: HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose performed equally in terms of diagnosing new diabetes cases in individuals with tuberculosis, but the proportion of participants falsely classified as positive was higher for fasting plasma glucose. This may be explained by acute blood...

  5. Glucose tolerance in Papua New Guinea: ethnic differences, association with environmental and behavioural factors and the possible emergence of glucose intolerance in a highland community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, H; Finch, C; Collins, A; Koki, G; King, L F; Heywood, P; Zimmet, P

    1989-08-21

    That Melanesians of non-Austronesian genetic ancestry may be relatively resistant to glucose intolerance was supported by the results of a study of two semitraditional non-Austronesian villages in the Papua New Guinean highlands in 1983, in which an absence of diabetes and a high degree of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were observed. The second of this series of surveys was conducted in 1985 in three non-traditional communities: a periurban, non-Austronesian village in the highlands, and rural and periurban Austronesian villages in coastal locations. Although an absence of diabetes was demonstrated once again in the highlanders, these periurban subjects showed an unexpectedly high insulin response which may be a precursor of glucose intolerance. The notion that highland communities that are living in non-traditional circumstances in Papua New Guinea presently are in "metabolic transition" towards diabetes and other non-communicable diseases, if correct, is of importance to the public health of the nation. In the periurban, coastal-dwelling Austronesians, diabetes with severe hyperglycaemia was demonstrated, and there was some evidence of a secular trend towards increasing glucose intolerance. The two-hour plasma glucose concentrations were shown to be associated with obesity, modernity and Seventh-Day Adventist religious persuasion. However, important and unexplained differences in glucose tolerance remained between rural and periurban coastal dwellers after taking these factors into account.

  6. Continuous glucose monitoring and its relationship to hemoglobin A1c and oral glucose tolerance testing in obese and prediabetic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christine L; Pyle, Laura; Newnes, Lindsey; Nadeau, Kristen J; Zeitler, Philip S; Kelsey, Megan M

    2015-03-01

    The optimal screening test for diabetes and prediabetes in obese youth is controversial. We examined whether glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) or the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a better predictor of free-living glycemia as measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). This was a cross-sectional study of youth 10-18 years old, body mass index (BMI) 85th percentile or greater, with diabetes risk factors. Participants (n = 118) with BMI 85th percentile or greater, not on medications for glucose management, were recruited from primary care and pediatric endocrinology clinics around Denver, Colorado. HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour glucose were collected and all participants wore a blinded CGM for 72 hours. CGM outcomes were determined and descriptive statistics calculated. Performance characteristics at current American Diabetes Association cutpoints were compared with CGM outcomes. CGM data were successfully collected on 98 obese youth. Those with prediabetes had significantly higher average glucose, area under the curve (AUC), peak glucose, and time greater than 120 and greater than 140 mg/dL (P obese youth, HbA1c and 2-hour glucose performed equally well at predicting free-living glycemia on CGM, suggesting that both are valid tests for dysglycemia screening.

  7. Short-term effect of red wine (consumed during meals) on insulin requirement and glucose tolerance in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, H; Morlat, P; Ragnaud, J M; Aubertin, J

    1992-04-01

    To determine the effect of wine on insulin requirement or glucose tolerance. Five men with insulin-treated diabetes and 10 men with non-insulin-treated diabetes ate the same lunch with the same volume of either water or red wine (2 glasses). Insulin requirement was determined with an artificial pancreas (Biostator). Glucose tolerance was evaluated from the postprandial glycemic level. There was no significant difference in insulin requirement determined with an artificial pancreas in the insulin-treated patients after the two meals (31.5 +/- 4.21 U with water and 31.8 +/- 4.3 U with wine). Glucose tolerance in the non-insulin-treated patients was lower after the meal with wine. Moderate prandial wine consumption has no adverse effect on the glycemic control of diabetic patients. Thus, it appears unnecessary to proscribe the consumption of red wine in moderation with meals to diabetic patients. Wine contains tannins and phytates that can explain its action.

  8. Trunk muscle quality assessed by computed tomography: Association with adiposity indices and glucose tolerance in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais, Alexandre; Alméras, Natalie; Lemieux, Isabelle; Tremblay, Angelo; Bergeron, Jean; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2018-04-12

    Thigh muscle attenuation measured by computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a reliable and useful index of skeletal muscle fat infiltration. Thigh muscle fat content assessed by CT has been linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes and is a correlate of insulin resistance in sedentary individuals. However, as measurement of mid-thigh fat content requires the assessment of another region of interest beyond the usual abdominal scan required to measure levels of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, this study aimed at testing the hypothesis that skeletal muscle fat measured from a single abdominal scan (L 4 -L 5 ) would also provide information relevant to the estimation of muscle fat infiltration as it relates to cardiometabolic risk. Abdominal (L 4 -L 5 ) and mid-thigh CT scans were performed in a sample of 221 sedentary men covering a wide range of adiposity values. Trunk muscles on the L 4 -L 5 scan were classified into 2 groups: 1) psoas and 2) core muscles. The two scans were segmented to calculate muscle areas, mean attenuation values as well as low-attenuation muscle (LAM) areas, the latter being considered as an index of skeletal muscle fat infiltration. Body mass index (BMI), body composition and waist circumference were assessed and a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Mid-thigh, psoas and core LAM areas were all significantly associated with body composition indices (0.46 ≤ r ≤ 0.71, p < 0.0001) whereas trunk muscle indices were more strongly associated with visceral adiposity and waist circumference (0.54 ≤ r ≤ 0.79, p < 0.0001) than were mid-thigh muscle variables (0.44 ≤ r ≤ 0.62, p < 0.0001). Mid-thigh LAM area as well as psoas and core LAM areas were significantly associated with fasting glucose, 2-h plasma glucose levels, the glucose area under the curve and with the HOMA-IR index (mid-thigh LAM area: 0.18 ≤ r ≤ 0.25, p < 0.01; psoas LAM area: 0

  9. A novel insulin resistance index to monitor changes in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance: the ACT NOW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Devjit; Cobb, Jeff E; Gall, Walter; Adam, Klaus-Peter; George, Tabitha; Schwenke, Dawn C; Banerji, MaryAnn; Bray, George A; Buchanan, Thomas A; Clement, Stephen C; Henry, Robert R; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E; Stentz, Frankie B; Reaven, Peter D; Musi, Nicolas; Ferrannini, Ele; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to test the clinical utility of Quantose M(Q) to monitor changes in insulin sensitivity after pioglitazone therapy in prediabetic subjects. Quantose M(Q) is derived from fasting measurements of insulin, α-hydroxybutyrate, linoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, and oleate, three nonglucose metabolites shown to correlate with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Participants were 428 of the total of 602 ACT NOW impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects randomized to pioglitazone (45 mg/d) or placebo and followed for 2.4 years. At baseline and study end, fasting plasma metabolites required for determination of Quantose, glycated hemoglobin, and oral glucose tolerance test with frequent plasma insulin and glucose measurements to calculate the Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity were obtained. Pioglitazone treatment lowered IGT conversion to diabetes (hazard ratio = 0.25; 95% confidence interval = 0.13-0.50; P < .0001). Although glycated hemoglobin did not track with insulin sensitivity, Quantose M(Q) increased in pioglitazone-treated subjects (by 1.45 [3.45] mg·min(-1)·kgwbm(-1)) (median [interquartile range]) (P < .001 vs placebo), as did the Matsuda index (by 3.05 [4.77] units; P < .0001). Quantose M(Q) correlated with the Matsuda index at baseline and change in the Matsuda index from baseline (rho, 0.85 and 0.79, respectively; P < .0001) and was progressively higher across closeout glucose tolerance status (diabetes, IGT, normal glucose tolerance). In logistic models including only anthropometric and fasting measurements, Quantose M(Q) outperformed both Matsuda and fasting insulin in predicting incident diabetes. In IGT subjects, Quantose M(Q) parallels changes in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with pioglitazone therapy. Due to its strong correlation with improved insulin sensitivity and its ease of use, Quantose M(Q) may serve as a useful clinical test to identify and monitor therapy in insulin-resistant patients.

  10. The Impact of opium consumption on blood glucose, serum lipids and blood pressure, and related mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisisin our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (77 articles. Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms, but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  11. CD36 expression and lipid metabolism following an oral glucose challenge in South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jeetesh V; Banerjee, Amitava; Montoro-Garcia, Silvia; Shantsila, Eduard; Alam, Mushfique; Flinders, Paul; Houlton, Kathleen Al; Hughes, Elizabeth A; Lip, Gregory Yh; Gill, Paramjit S

    2015-07-10

    To investigate lipid metabolism and the relationship with monocyte expression of the fatty acid translocase CD36 in South Asians. An observational study of South Asians whom as an ethnic group have - a higher risk of developing diabetes. The susceptibility to diabetes is coupled with an earlier and more rapid progression of micro-, and macro-vascular complications. Twenty-nine healthy South Asian participants [mean age 34.6 (8.9) years, 76.2% male, mean body-mass index 25.0 (5.2) kg/m(2)] were recruited from an urban residential area of central Birmingham (United Kingdom). The main outcomes measured were post prandial (30 min) and post absorptive (120 min) changes from fasting (0 min) in circulating lipoproteins, lipds and hormones, and monocyte expression of CD36 post injection of a 75 g oral glucose challenge. The inducements of variations of monocyte CD36 expression were analysed. Our results showed evident changes in monocyte CD36 expression following the glucose challenge (P challenge (P lifestyle exposures have a role in moderating the expression of CD36.

  12. Sesame and flaxseed oil: nutritional quality and effects on serum lipids and glucose in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the nutritional value of sesame and flaxseed oils and their effects on the lipid and glucose profile of rats fed diets containing different fat combinations. Fatty acid composition, refractive index, and iodine and saponification values were analyzed to characterize the oils. In the biological assay, Wistar rats were fed different diets, whose fat composition consisted of varying combinations of flaxseed oil, sesame oil, and animal fat. The primary constituents of the sesame oil were oleic (28.6%, linoleic (28.4%, and lauric acid (14.6%; for the flaxseed oil they were alpha-linolenic (39.90%, oleic (17.97% and linoleic acid (12.25%. The iodine and saponification values of the oils were within the reference range. Rats fed flaxseed oil-based diets had the lowest serum cholesterol values, whereas rats fed diets with flaxseed oil + sesame oil + animal fat had the highest glucose levels. HDL levels decreased significantly with flaxseed oil. Sesame and flaxseed oils are sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and the flaxseed oil-based diet had a hypocholesterolemic effect, whereas sesame oil showed oxidative stability since it contains high levels of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids.

  13. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption. PMID:27790151

  14. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  15. Guar gum effects on food intake, blood serum lipids and glucose levels of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, A C; Sgarbieri, V C

    1998-01-01

    The effects of guar gum derived from the endosperm of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (75% soluble fiber, 7.6% insoluble fiber, 2.16% crude protein, 0.78% total lipids, 0.54% ash and 9.55% moisture) on food intake, levels of blood serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols, glucose and LDL and HDL-cholesterol were studied. The effects of guar gum on indices of protein absorption and utilization were also investigated. Diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% (w/w) guar gum or 10% and 20% cellulose powder (reference) were fed to normal rats for 60 days. The rats fed the guar gum diets showed significantly (p Guar gum decreased blood serum glucose only during the first month of the experiment, and no changes in the indices of protein absorption and utilization were found. The guar gum caused a 10% increase in the small intestine length and a 25% retardation in the intestinal transit. The results of this research suggested that guar gum could potentially be effective in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and obesity in humans.

  16. [Disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism. Long-term adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, N; Goebel, F D

    2002-04-09

    In addition to readily controllable short-term side effects, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) also has long-term side effects: lipodystrophy syndrome, hyperlipoproteinemia, insulin resistance, elevated glucose tolerance sometimes leading to diabetes mellitus and lactic acidosis. The pathogenesis remains uncertain although various hypotheses have been advanced. A number of approaches for the treatment of lipodystrophy are available, the effects of which, however, have not been confirmed by study results. Hyperlipoproteinemia probably means an increased cardiovascular risk, but a final pronouncement on this is not yet possible. Fibrates and statins are currently applied for treatment, but interactions with HAART medicaments have to be considered. HAART-induced diabetes mellitus presents clinically as type 2 diabetes, and is treated accordingly.

  17. Effects on lipid and glucose metabolism of diets with different types of fat and sugar in male fatty Zucker rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de H.

    1978-01-01

    The nutritional problem with regard to fat and sugar consumption in relation to lipid and glucose metabolism, and the ultimate goal of the study are generally outlined in Chapter 1. The obese Zucker rat was chosen as being likely a suitable animal model for a study like this. Chapter 2 is

  18. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on the Anthropometric Measurements, Lipid Profiles and Fasting Blood Glucose in the Healthy Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on anthropometric measures, improving lipid profile biomarkers, and fasting blood glucose level in obese people. Methods: This randomized, double- blind clinical trial was carried out on 60 obese participants in the 18-45 age range for one month. The participants were randomly divided into the intervention group, who received 30 mg/d zinc gluconate, and the placebo group who received 30mg/d starch. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI, weight and waist circumference were recorded before and at the end of study. Lipid profile biomarkers and fasting blood glucose were determined using enzymatic procedure. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA test was run to compare the post-treatment values of the two groups, and t-test was conducted to compare within group changes. Results: Serum zinc concentration was increased significantly in intervention group (p=0.024. BMI and body weight was significantly decreased (p=0.030 and p=0.020, respectively. Lipid profile biomarkers and fating blood glucose did not change significantly but triglyceride level was significantly decreased (p=0.006 in the intervention group. Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that zinc supplementation improves BMI, body weight, and triglyceride concentration without considerable effects on lipid profile and glucose level. Zinc can be suggested as a suitable supplementation therapy for obese people, but more studies are needed to verify the results.

  19. Socioeconomic inequalities in lipid and glucose metabolism in early childhood in a population-based cohort: the ABCD-Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.; van Eijsden, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease are pervasive, yet much remains to be understood about how they originate. The objective of this study was to explore the relations of socioeconomic status to lipid and glucose metabolism as indicators of cardiovascular health in

  20. Air Pollution Exposure and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during Pregnancy: The Project Viva Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Diane R.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel D.; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent A.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) has been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus, but associations with hyperglycemia in pregnancy have not been well studied. Methods: We studied Boston, Massachusetts–area pregnant women without known diabetes. We identified impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy from clinical glucose tolerance tests at median 28.1 weeks gestation. We used residential addresses to estimate second-trimester PM2.5 and black carbon exposure via a central monitoring site and spatiotemporal models. We estimated residential traffic density and roadway proximity as surrogates for exposure to traffic-related air pollution. We performed multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic covariates, and used multiple imputation to account for missing data. Results: Of 2,093 women, 65 (3%) had IGT and 118 (6%) had GDM. Second-trimester spatiotemporal exposures ranged from 8.5 to 15.9 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and from 0.1 to 1.7 μg/m3 for black carbon. Traffic density was 0–30,860 vehicles/day × length of road (kilometers) within 100 m; 281 (13%) women lived ≤ 200 m from a major road. The prevalence of IGT was elevated in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of exposure to spatiotemporal PM2.5 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.63; 95% CI: 1.15, 6.01] and traffic density (OR = 2.66; 95% CI: 1.24, 5.71). IGT also was positively associated with other exposure measures, although associations were not statistically significant. No pollutant exposures were positively associated with GDM. Conclusions: Greater exposure to PM2.5 and other traffic-related pollutants during pregnancy was associated with IGT but not GDM. Air pollution may contribute to abnormal glycemia in pregnancy. Citation: Fleisch AF, Gold DR, Rifas-Shiman SL, Koutrakis P, Schwartz JD, Kloog I, Melly S, Coull BA, Zanobetti A, Gillman MW, Oken E. 2014. Air pollution exposure and abnormal glucose

  1. Associations of Body Composition Measurements with Serum Lipid, Glucose and Insulin Profile: A Chinese Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Bin; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantitate and compare the associations of various body composition measurements with serum metabolites and to what degree genetic or environmental factors affect obesity-metabolite relation. Methods Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean body mass (LBM), percent body fat (PBF), fasting serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin and lifestyle factors were assessed in 903 twins from Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting serum glucose and insulin. Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various body composition measurements with serum metabolite levels and genetic/environmental influences on these associations, respectively. Results At individual level, adiposity measurements (BMI, WC and PBF) showed significant associations with serum metabolite concentrations in both sexes and the associations still existed in male twins when using within-MZ twin pair comparison analyses. Associations of BMI with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly stronger in male twins compared to female twins (BMI-by-sex interaction p = 0.043, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively). Comparison of various adiposity measurements with levels of serum metabolites revealed that WC explained the largest fraction of variance in serum LDL-C, TG, TC and glucose concentrations while BMI performed best in explaining variance in serum HDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR levels. Of these phenotypic correlations, 64–81% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 19–36% were attributed to unique environmental factors. Conclusions We observed different associations between adiposity and serum metabolite profile and demonstrated that WC and BMI explained the largest fraction of variance in serum lipid profile and insulin

  2. Small Intestinal Bypass Induces a Persistent Weight-Loss Effect and Improves Glucose Tolerance in Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiaqing; Ren, Quan; Tan, Cai; Duan, Jinyuan

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the role of proximal small intestinal bypass (PSIB) and distal small intestinal bypass (DSIB) as well as their long-term effects on weight loss and glucose metabolism in high-sugar and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: PSIB, bypassing 60% of the proximal small intestine length; DSIB, bypassing 60% of the distal small intestine length; sham-operated (Sham) animals; and control animals. All rats were fed a high-sugar and high-fat diet after surgery. The primary outcome measures were body weight, food intake, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the insulin tolerance test (ITT). Global body weight (BW) and food intake in the PSIB and DSIB groups were lower than those in the Sham group at postoperative week 2. BW and food intake in the PSIB group were lower than those in the DSIB group at postoperative week 24. The PSIB and DSIB groups exhibited improvement in glucose tolerance at postoperative weeks 4, 8, and 24. The PSIB and DSIB groups exhibited improvement in FBG at postoperative week 24, and only the DSIB group exhibited improvement in insulin sensitivity. This study provides experimental evidence that PSIB surgery induced a better and more persistent weight loss effect than DSIB surgery and that the two types of intestinal bypass surgeries yielded equivalent and stable long-term improvement in glucose tolerance in an obese rat model.

  3. Prep1, A Homeodomain Transcription Factor Involved in Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Oriente

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The three-amino acid loop extension (TALE homeodomain proteins are a family of transcription factor including the mammalian Pbx, MEIS and Prep proteins. TALE proteins can bind other transcription factors such as Pdx-1 and play an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Experiments performed in mutant mice have shown that while the single Pbx1 or Pdx-1 knockout mice feature pancreatic islet malformations, impaired glucose tolerance and hypoinsulinemia, the trans-heterozygous Pbx1+/−Pdx1+/− mice develop age-dependent overt diabetes mellitus. In contrast, Prep1 plays a different role with respect to these proteins. Indeed, Prep1 hypomorphic mice, expressing low levels of protein, feature pancreatic islet hypoplasia accompanied by hypoinsulinemia similar to Pbx1 or Pdx1. Nevertheless, these animals show increased insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue accompanied by protection from streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In addition, Prep1 hypomorphic mice feature reduced triglyceride synthesis and do not develop steatohepatitis after a methionine and coline deficient diet. In this review we have underlined how important metabolic functions are controlled by TALE proteins, in particular by Prep1, leading to hypothesis that its suppression might represent beneficial effect in the care of metabolic diseases.

  4. Effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J; Harper, M; Giallongo, F; Bravo, D M; Wall, E H; Hristov, A N

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg of RPC/cow per day. They were mixed with a small portion of the total mixed ration and top-dressed. Glucose tolerance test was conducted once during each experimental period by intravenous administration of glucose at a rate of 0.3 g/kg of body weight. Dry matter intake was not affected by RPC. Milk yield tended to increase for RPC treatments compared to the control. Feed efficiency was linearly increased by RPC supplementation. Concentrations of fat, true protein, and lactose in milk were not affected by RPC. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein was linearly increased, and fecal nitrogen excretion was linearly decreased by RPC supplementation. Rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin did not affect the composition of fecal bacteria. Glucose concentration in serum was not affected by RPC supplementation post glucose challenge. However, compared to the control, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration at 5, 10, and 40 min post glucose challenge. The area under the insulin concentration curve was also decreased 25% by RPC. Concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in serum were not affected by RPC following glucose administration. In this study, RPC tended to increase milk production and increased feed efficiency in dairy cows. In addition, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration during the glucose tolerance test, but glucose concentration was not affected

  5. Heterogeneity of high-density lipoprotein particles and insulin output during oral glucose tolerance test in men with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, J; Kwaśniak, M; Wybrańska, I; Hartwich, J; Guevara, I; Zdzienicka, A; Kruszelnicka-Kwiatkowska, O; Piwowarska, W; Miszczuk-Jamska, B; Dembińska-Kieć, A

    1996-03-01

    We compared the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and particle heterogeneity in 60 nonobese (normal body mass index, BMI) men suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) with normolipemia and normoinsulinemia with lower and higher insulin output during the oral glucose tolerance test (silent hyperinsulinemia). The apolipoprotein apoAI, apoAII, and apoE levels were higher in the high insulin response (HI) group than in low insulin response (LI) group. The ratio of apoAI versus total protein and the ratio of apoAI versus total cholesterol were increased in HI compared with LI. The lipid components in HDL were higher in LI than in HI, while for HDL2 they were higher in HI. The fractioning of HDL by gradient gel electrophoresis revealed a different pattern of HDL particles in both groups. The larger particles, HDL2b and HDL2a (mean particle diameters 10.6 and 9.2 nm, respectively), occur more frequently in HI patients (up to 60%) than in LI patients, whereas the smaller particles, HDL3a and HDL3b (mean particle diameters 8.6 and 7.8 nm, respectively), predominate in LI patients. Our results demonstrate that even in the normoglycemic, normocholesterolemic CAD patients, a high insulin output observed during the oral glucose tolerance test may be connected with a different HDL particle pattern, which suggests changes in the reverse cholesterol transport.

  6. Effects of medium-chain fatty acids and oleic acid on blood lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, and lipid transfer protein activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Ehnholm, C.; Jauhiainen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dietary medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are of nutritional interest because they are more easily absorbed from dietary medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) than are long-chain fatty acids from, for example, vegetable oils. It has generally been claimed that MCFAs do not increase plasma...... cholesterol, although this claim is poorly documented. Objective: We compared the effects of a diet rich in either MCFAs or oleic acid on fasting blood lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, and lipid transfer protein activities in healthy men. Design: In a study with a double-blind, randomized, crossover...... plasma total triacylglycerol (P = 0.0361), and higher plasma glucose (P = 0.033). Plasma HDL-cholesterol and insulin concentrations and activities of cholesterol ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein did not differ significantly between the diets. Conclusions: Compared with fat high...

  7. Oral glucose tolerance test significantly impacts the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance among Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: lessons from a large database of two tertiary care centers on the Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Dhingra, Atul; Nisar, Sobia; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Rashid, Aafia; Masoodi, Shariq; Gupta, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) among Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and analyze the role of oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) test on its estimation. Cross-sectional clinical study. Tertiary care center. A total of 2,014 women with PCOS diagnosed on the basis of the Rotterdam 2003 criteria were enrolled, and the data of 1,746 subjects were analyzed. In addition to recording clinical, biochemical, and hormone parameters, a 75 g OGTT was administered. Prevalence of AGT and impact of age, body mass index (BMI), family history, and OGTT on its prevalence. The mean age of subjects was 23.8 ± 5.3 years, with a mean BMI of 24.9 ± 4.4 kg/m(2). The overall prevalence of AGT was 36.3% (6.3% diabetes and 30% impaired fasting plasma glucose/impaired glucose tolerance) using American Diabetes Association criteria. The glucose intolerance showed a rising trend with advancing age (30.3%, 35.4%, 51%, and 58.8% in the second, third, fourth, and fifth decades, respectively) and increasing BMI. Family history of diabetes mellitus was present in 54.6% (953/1,746) subjects, and it did not correlate with any of the studied parameters except waist circumference and BMI. Sensitivity was better with 2-hour post-OGTT glucose values as compared with fasting plasma glucose, since using fasting plasma glucose alone would have missed the diagnosis in 107 (6.1%) subjects. We conclude that AGT is high among young Indian women with PCOS and that it is not predicted by family history of type 2 DM. OGTT significantly improves the detection rate of AGT among Indian women with PCOS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Diagnostic Accuracies of Glycated Hemoglobin, Fructosamine, and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in Predicting Impaired Fasting Glucose, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, or New Onset Diabetes After Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosettenstein, Kerri; Viecelli, Andrea; Yong, Kenneth; Nguyen, Hung Do; Chakera, Aron; Chan, Doris; Dogra, Gursharan; Lim, Ee Mun; Wong, Germaine; Lim, Wai H

    2016-07-01

    New onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is associated with a 3-fold greater risk of cardiovascular disease events, with early identification and treatment potentially attenuating this risk. The optimal screening test to identify those with NODAT remains unclear, and the aim of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracies of 4 screening tests in identifying impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and NODAT. This is a single-center prospective cohort study of 83 nondiabetic kidney transplant recipients between 2008 and 2011. Oral glucose tolerance test was considered the gold standard in identifying IFG/IGT or NODAT. Diagnostic accuracies of random blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c), fructosamine, and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance in predicting IFG/IGT or NODAT were assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Forty (48%) recipients had IFG/IGT or NODAT. Compared with HBA1c with adjusted area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.77-0.93), fructosamine was the most accurate test with adjusted AUC of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.83-0.96). The adjusted AUCs of random blood glucose and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance in identifying IFG/IGT were between 0.81 and 0.85. Restricting to identifying IGT/NODAT using 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (n = 66), fructosamine was the most accurate diagnostic test with adjusted AUC of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.84-0.99), but not statistically different to HBA1c with adjusted AUC of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.76-0.96). Although HBA1c is an acceptable and widely used screening test in detecting IFG/IGT or NODAT, fructosamine may be a more accurate diagnostic test but this needs to be further examined in larger cohorts.

  9. Impact of the growth hormone receptor exon 3 deletion gene polymorphism on glucose metabolism, lipids, and insulin-like growth factor-I levels during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor

    2009-01-01

    . PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 142 healthy Caucasian subjects (65 boys) aged 8.5-16.1 yr. Interventions: Standard 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests were preformed. GHR genotypes were determined by multiplex PCR. Main outcome measures were insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, serum lipids, and IGF......-I levels. RESULTS: Insulin secretion was higher in children and adolescents with a least one GHRd3 allele, even after adjustment for age, sex, pubertal stage, and insulin sensitivity (P = 0.018). Disposition index was higher in GHRd3-positive subjects (P = 0.026). In addition, the GHRd3 allele...... was associated with higher triglyceride (P = 0.028), but not IGF-I levels. CONCLUSION: The presence of at least one GHRd3 allele was associated with higher insulin secretion for a given degree of insulin sensitivity in healthy children and adolescents during puberty. In addition, the presence of the GHRd3 allele...

  10. Expression profiling analysis: Uncoupling protein 2 deficiency improves hepatic glucose, lipid profiles and insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed mice by modulating expression of genes in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei-Cen; Yu, Ping; Sun, Qi; Li, Yu-Xiu

    2016-03-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), which was an important mitochondrial inner membrane protein associated with glucose and lipid metabolism, widely expresses in all kinds of tissues including hepatocytes. The present study aimed to explore the impact of UCP2 deficiency on glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity and its effect on the liver-associated signaling pathway by expression profiling analysis. Four-week-old male UCP2-/- mice and UCP2+/+ mice were randomly assigned to four groups: UCP2-/- on a high-fat diet, UCP2-/- on a normal chow diet, UCP2+/+ on a high-fat diet and UCP2+/+ on a normal chow diet. The differentially expressed genes in the four groups on the 16th week were identified by Affymetrix gene array. The results of intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance showed that blood glucose and β-cell function were improved in the UCP2-/- group on high-fat diet. Enhanced insulin sensitivity was observed in the UCP2-/- group. The differentially expressed genes were mapped to 23 pathways (P high-fat diet. The upregulation of genes in the PPAR signaling pathway could explain our finding that UCP2 deficiency ameliorated insulin sensitivity. The manipulation of UCP2 protein expression could represent a new strategy for the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

  11. Effect of High Fat and High Sugar Diet on Glucose Tolerance, Insulin Response to Glucose Load and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    岡﨑, 悟

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the precipitating effects of the westernized diet on diabetes mellitus, glucose tolerance and insulin response to oral glucose load (1.5g/kg body weight) and insulin sensitivity to exogenous insulin (0.2U/kg) were studied in rats fed an experimental diet for 8 weeks. Four experimental diets were used : low fat-no sugar diet (energy ratio of 10% fat, 70% starch, a model of the traditional Japanese diet), high fat-high sugar diet (40% fat, 20% starch, 20% sugar, a model of the we...

  12. Obese Neuronal PPARγ Knockout Mice Are Leptin Sensitive but Show Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Marina O; Sharma, Shweta; Kim, Sun; Rickert, Emily; Hsueh, Katherine; Hwang, Vicky; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Webster, Nicholas J G

    2017-01-01

    The peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is expressed in the hypothalamus in areas involved in energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. In this study, we created a deletion of PPARγ brain-knockout (BKO) in mature neurons in female mice to investigate its involvement in metabolism and reproduction. We observed that there was no difference in age at puberty onset between female BKOs and littermate controls, but the BKOs gave smaller litters when mated and fewer oocytes when ovulated. The female BKO mice had regular cycles but showed an increase in the number of cycles with prolonged estrus. The mice also had increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels during the LH surge and histological examination showed hemorrhagic corpora lutea. The mice were challenged with a 60% high-fat diet (HFD). Metabolically, the female BKO mice showed normal body weight, glucose and insulin tolerance, and leptin levels but were protected from obesity-induced leptin resistance. The neuronal knockout also prevented the reduction in estrous cycles due to the HFD. Examination of ovarian histology showed a decrease in the number of primary and secondary follicles in both genotypes due to the HFD, but the BKO ovaries showed an increase in the number of hemorrhagic follicles. In summary, our results show that neuronal PPARγ is required for optimal female fertility but is also involved in the adverse effects of diet-induced obesity by creating leptin resistance potentially through induction of the repressor Socs3. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  13. Loss of arylformamidase with reduced thymidine kinase expression leads to impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Hugill

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan metabolites have been linked in observational studies with type 2 diabetes, cognitive disorders, inflammation and immune system regulation. A rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan conversion is arylformamidase (Afmid, and a double knockout of this gene and thymidine kinase (Tk has been reported to cause renal failure and abnormal immune system regulation. In order to further investigate possible links between abnormal tryptophan catabolism and diabetes and to examine the effect of single Afmid knockout, we have carried out metabolic phenotyping of an exon 2 Afmid gene knockout. These mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance, although their insulin sensitivity is unchanged in comparison to wild-type animals. This phenotype results from a defect in glucose stimulated insulin secretion and these mice show reduced islet mass with age. No evidence of a renal phenotype was found, suggesting that this published phenotype resulted from loss of Tk expression in the double knockout. However, despite specifically removing only exon 2 of Afmid in our experiments we also observed some reduction of Tk expression, possibly due to a regulatory element in this region. In summary, our findings support a link between abnormal tryptophan metabolism and diabetes and highlight beta cell function for further mechanistic analysis.

  14. The Role of Vaspin in the Development of Metabolic and Glucose Tolerance Disorders and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumyana Dimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, most research efforts have been focused on studying insulin-sensitizing adipokines. One of the most recently discovered adipokines is vaspin, a visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor. Vaspin levels have been found significantly increased in mice with obesity and insulin resistance. It has been assumed that vaspin serves as an insulin sensitizer with anti-inflammatory effects and might act as a compensatory mechanism in response to decreased insulin sensitivity. Most studies in humans have shown a positive correlation between vaspin gene expression and serum levels, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Vaspin gene expression is influenced by age and gender, and the administration of insulin sensitizers enhances it in mice, whereas the use of metformin decreases serum vaspin levels in humans, probably due to different regulatory mechanisms. Presumably vaspin plays local and endocrine role in the development of initial and advanced atherosclerosis in obese subjects and might be used as a predictor of coronary and cerebrovascular disease. It is believed that vaspin could be regarded as a new link between obesity and related metabolic disorders, including glucose intolerance. The entire understanding of vaspin intimate mechanism of action might enable the development of novel etiology-based treatment strategies, targeting metabolic and glucose tolerance disorders.

  15. The flavonoid-rich fraction of Coreopsis tinctoria promotes glucose tolerance regain through pancreatic function recovery in streptozotocin-induced glucose-intolerant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Teresa; Bronze, Maria Rosário; Houghton, Peter J; Mota-Filipe, Hélder; Paulo, Alexandra

    2010-11-11

    Infusions of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. flowering tops have been used traditionally in Portugal to control hyperglycaemia and a previous study revealed that daily administration of the infusion during a 3-week period promoted the recovery of glucose tolerance by a mechanism different from inhibition of glucose absorption and direct promotion of insulin secretion. We know report the study of the ethyl acetate fraction of Coreopsis tinctoria flowers infusion aiming to confirm flavonoids as bioactive metabolites. To give one step forward into the antihyperglycaemic mechanism of action of this traditionally used plant we also studied the activity of Coreopsis tinctoria flavonoids on the pancreatic function of glucose-intolerant rats. A standard antioxidant, Trolox, was also studied for comparative purposes as the antioxidant mechanism has been frequently purposed as one of the mechanisms mediating antihyperglycaemic effects of flavonoid-rich extracts. Thirteen compounds, mainly of flavanone and chalcone flavonoidal type, have been identified in this fraction by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS, and the major one (marein) quantified by HPLC-UV. The fraction (125 mg containing 20 mg of marein/kg b.w.) and Trolox (50 mg/kg b.w.) were administered daily by oral gavage to normal and STZ (40 mg/kg b.w.)-induced glucose-intolerant Wistar rats for 3 weeks. Blood glucose levels were measured weekly by Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Pancreatic function was evaluated by plasma lipase of treated and non-treated glucose-tolerant and- intolerant rats after the 3-week treatment period. After 2 weeks oral treatment with Coreopsis tinctoria AcOEt fraction the animals were no longer glucose-intolerant, an effect maintained over the remaining experimental period. Additionally, plasma lipase values of glucose-intolerant animals treated with the AcOEt fraction (13.5 ± 0.84 U/L) showed a clear reduction when compared with the glucose-intolerant group (34.60 ± 1.76 U/L; P<0.001) and normoglycaemic control

  16. Light at night acutely impairs glucose tolerance in a time-, intensity- and wavelength-dependent manner in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opperhuizen, Anne-Loes; Stenvers, Dirk J; Jansen, Remi D; Foppen, Ewout; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to light at night (LAN) has increased dramatically in recent decades. Animal studies have shown that chronic dim LAN induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Furthermore, several studies in humans have demonstrated that chronic exposure to artificial LAN may have adverse health effects with an increased risk of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes. It is well-known that acute exposure to LAN affects biological clock function, hormone secretion and the activity of the autonomic nervous system, but data on the effects of LAN on glucose homeostasis are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of LAN on glucose metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to i.v. glucose or insulin tolerance tests while exposed to 2 h of LAN in the early or late dark phase. In subsequent experiments, different light intensities and wavelengths were used. LAN exposure early in the dark phase at ZT15 caused increased glucose responses during the first 20 min after glucose infusion (p light of 50 and 150 lx induced greater glucose responses than 5 and 20 lx, whereas all intensities other than 5 lx reduced locomotor activity. Green light induced glucose intolerance, but red and blue light did not, suggesting the involvement of a specific retina-brain pathway. Together, these data show that exposure to LAN has acute adverse effects on glucose metabolism in a time-, intensity- and wavelength-dependent manner.

  17. Reduced plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 in elderly men are associated with impaired glucose tolerance but not with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathanson, D; Zethelius, B; Berne, C

    2009-01-01

    stimulated GLP-1 levels and: (1) cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, lipids, urinary albumin, waist circumference and insulin sensitivity index [M/I] assessed by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp); and (2) impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: During the follow......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Besides the insulinotropic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics, their effects on endothelial dysfunction and myocardial ischaemia are of interest. No previous study has investigated associations between plasma levels of GLP-1 and CHD. METHODS: We investigated...... longitudinal relationships of fasting GLP-1 with the dynamic GLP-1 response after OGTT (difference between 60 min OGTT-stimulated and fasting GLP-1 levels [DeltaGLP-1]) and CHD in a population-based cohort of 71-year-old men. In the same cohort, we also cross-sectionally investigated the association between...

  18. A randomized lifestyle intervention with 5-year follow-up in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: pronounced short-term impact but long-term adherence problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Bernt; Nilssön, Torbjörn K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To compare data on cardiovascular risk factor changes in lipids, insulin, proinsulin, fibrinolysis, leptin and C-reactive protein, and on diabetes incidence, in relation to changes in lifestyle. METHODS: The study was a randomized lifestyle intervention trial conducted in northern Sweden......, and reduced the risk for type 2 diabetes, but the effects persisted only as long as the new lifestyle was maintained. Increased physical activity seemed to be the behaviour that was most easy to preserve....... between 1995 and 2000, in 168 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and body mass index above 27 at start. The intensive intervention group (n = 83) was subjected to a 1-month residential lifestyle programme. The usual care group (n = 85) participated in a health examination ending...

  19. Incorporation of [14C]-palmitate into lipids of Brassica cells during the induction of freezing tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, D.V.; Joseph, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in plasma membrane lipid composition have been causally related to increased freezing tolerance. Studies of lipid metabolism during ABA induction of freezing tolerance in Brassica napus suspension cultures were undertaken. Cells were labeled with [ 14 C]-palmitate four days after transfer to fresh medium (control) or medium containing ABA (which increases freezing tolerance). At times between one and 20 hrs after labeling, ABA-treated cells incorporated almost twice the amount of label as controls cells. Approximately 80% of the radioactivity was associated with neutral lipids in ABA-treated cells and controls. Incorporation of label into total cellular polar lipids was 4.9 x 10 5 dpm/mg protein for control cells and 1 x 10 6 dpm/mg protein for cells transferred to medium containing ABA. Analysis of lipids following alkaline hydrolysis indicated that incorporation of [ 14 C]-palmitate into glucosylceramide of ABA-treated cells was less than 60% of control values when expressed relative to that of the total polar lipids. Incorporation into ceramides was also depressed in ABA-treated cells

  20. Carotid intima-media thickness is reduced 12 months after gastric bypass surgery in obese patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Tarnow, Lise; Hansen, Dorte L

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) - an in vivo model for normalisation of hyperglycaemia - improves carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). METHODS: Observati...

  1. Beta-cell function, incretin effect, and incretin hormones in obese youth along the span of glucose tolerance from normal to prediabetes to Type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using the hyperglycemic and euglycemic clamp, we demonstrated impaired Beta-cell function in obese youth with increasing dysglycemia. Herein we describe oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-modeled Beta-cell function and incretin effect in obese adolescents spanning the range of glucose tolerance. Bet...

  2. Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.E.; Olthof, M.R.; Meeuse, J.C.; Seebus, E.; Heine, R.J.; van Dam, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We conducted a randomized crossover

  3. Postprandial interleukin-6 release from skeletal muscle in men with impaired glucose tolerance can be reduced by weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, E.; Saris, W.H.; Jansen, E.H.; Roekaerts, P.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Blaak, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with increased levels of IL-6, a marker of inflammation. Objective: This study addressed the question of whether IL-6 was released from skeletal muscle after a high-fat meal in men with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), a prediabetic

  4. 25-hydroxyvitamin D in obese youth across the spectrum of glucose tolerance from normal to prediabetes to type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to 1) determine if plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations differ among obese youth with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) versus prediabetes versus type 2 diabetes and 2) assess the relationships between 25(OH)D and in vivo insulin sensitivity and Beta-cell ...

  5. The effect of maternal body condition score before and during pregnancy on the glucose tolerance of adult sheep offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Roselle L; Green, Lucy R; Thompson, John; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Monk, Melanie; Sheldon, I Martin; Hanson, Mark A; Hales, C N; Ozanne, Susan E

    2008-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of diet-induced changes in maternal body condition on glucose tolerance in sheep. Welsh Mountain ewes were established, by dietary manipulation, at a body condition score of 2 (lower body condition [LBCS], n = 17) or >3 (higher body condition [HBCS], n = 19) prior to and during pregnancy. Birth weight and postnatal growth were similar in LBCS and HBCS offspring. In young adulthood, LBCS offspring had increased fasting glucose levels (3.8 +/- 0.07 vs 3.6 +/- 0.05 mM, P < .05), poorer glucose tolerance (2274 +/- 22.6 vs 2161 +/- 33 min/mM, P < .01), and reduced insulin secretion (0.58 +/- 0.05 vs 0.71 +/- 0.07 nM/min, P = .07). Increased fasting glycemia, mild glucose intolerance, and impaired initial insulin secretory response, as observed in LBCS offspring, are indictors of increased diabetes risk in humans. These findings suggest that altered maternal body composition and an imbalance between the fetal and postnatal environment influence offspring glucose tolerance.

  6. Effect of mild intermittent hypoxia on glucose tolerance, muscle morphology and AMPK-PGC-1alpha signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Tsai, Ying-Lan; Kao, Chung-Lan; Lee, Shin-Da; Wu, Ming-Chieh; Mallikarjuna, K; Liao, Yi-Hung; Ivy, John L; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2010-02-28

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of daily 8-hour mild intermittent hypoxia (14-15% O2) on glucose tolerance and muscle morphology of Sprague-Dawley rats. The involvement of AMPK-PGC-1alpha-VEGF signaling pathways in the skeletal muscle was also determined during the first 8 hours of hypoxia. We found that mRNA levels of VEGF and PGC-1alpha were significantly increased above control after 8-h mild hypoxia without a change in AMPK phosphorylation. After 8 weeks of mild intermittent hypoxia treatment, plasma glucose and insulin levels in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), epididymal fat mass, and body weight were significantly lower compared to the control group. While soleus muscle weight was not changed, capillary and fiber densities in the hypoxia group were 33% and 35% above the control suggesting reorganization of muscle fibers. In conclusion, our data provide strong evidence that long-term mild intermittent hypoxia decreases the diffusion distance of glucose and insulin across muscle fibers, and decreases adiposity in rats. These changes may account for the improved glucose tolerance observed following the 8-week hypoxia treatment, and provides grounds for investigating the development of a mild non-pharmacological intervention in the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  7. Application of the Oral Minimal Model to Korean Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hyuk Lim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe oral minimal model is a simple, useful tool for the assessment of β-cell function and insulin sensitivity across the spectrum of glucose tolerance, including normal glucose tolerance (NGT, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in humans.MethodsPlasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured during a 180-minute, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 24 Korean subjects with NGT (n=10 and T2DM (n=14. The parameters in the computational model were estimated, and the indexes for insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were compared between the NGT and T2DM groups.ResultsThe insulin sensitivity index was lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group. The basal index of β-cell responsivity, basal hepatic insulin extraction ratio, and post-glucose challenge hepatic insulin extraction ratio were not different between the NGT and T2DM groups. The dynamic, static, and total β-cell responsivity indexes were significantly lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group. The dynamic, static, and total disposition indexes were also significantly lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group.ConclusionThe oral minimal model can be reproducibly applied to evaluate β-cell function and insulin sensitivity in Koreans.

  8. Study of the Effect of Garlic on Serum Lipids and Blood Glucose Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Afkhami - Ardekani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia and diabetes are common risk factors for ischemic heart disease, which is the main cause of mortality in diabetic patients. Strict control of blood glucose and other risk factors in diabetics has led to prevention of complications. Garlic has received particular attention for control of blood glucose and decrease in blood lipid levels. At present, several studies have been carried out in order to prove advantages of garlic. Methods: In this study, effects of garsin (a derivative of garlic present in our country on serum lipids and blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients was observed. Forty-five type 2 diabetics who had hyperlipidemia were selected. These patients were kept on treatment with 3 tablets of Garsin / day for 4 weeks. Serum lipids and blood glucose levels were measured prior to and at the end of treatment. Results: Relationship between sex and response to treatment in this study was meaningful, such that Gsarsin led to decrease in LDL-C and increase in HDL in females. Conclusion: Therefore, Garsin can be used as an adjunct to treatment in diabetes type 2 patients with hyperlipidemia.

  9. Lipid accumulation product and triglycerides/glucose index are useful predictors of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Katsiki, Niki; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Banach, Maciej

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the association of triglycerides/glucose index (TyG index), anthropometrically predicted visceral adipose tissue (apVAT), lipid accumulation product (LAP), visceral adiposity index (VAI) and triglycerides (TG):high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio with insulin resistance (IR) in adult Americans. This study was based on data from three NHANES cycles (2005 to 2010). The TyG index was calculated as ln [TG×fasting glucose/2]. VAI was calculated using gender-specific formulas: men [waist circumference (WC)/39.68+(1.88×body mass index (BMI)]×(TG/1.03)×(1.31/HDL-C); women: [WC/36.58+(1.89×BMI)]×(TG/0.81)×(1.52/HDL-C). LAP index was calculated as [WC-65]×[TG] in men, and [WC-58]×[TG] in women. Correlation and regression analyses accounted for the complex sampling of database. A total of 18,318 subjects was included in this analysis [mean age 47.6Years]; 48.7% (n=8918) men]. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had a significant positive correlation with the TyG index (r=0.502), LAP (r=0.551), apVAT (r=0.454), TG:HDL-C ratio (r=0.441) and VAI (r=451) (pindex is a simple, cheap and accurate although not perfect, surrogate marker of HOMA-diagnosed IR among adult Americans. Moreover, it has higher predictability than other screening tools which traditionally applied. Among the markers, apVAT had the highest specificity and the TG:HDL-C ratio had the highest sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospective Study of Nut Consumption and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Hosseini, Shabnam; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-09-23

    This study aimed to assess the association of various types of nut per se, and total nut consumption with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A 6.2 ± 0.7-year population-based prospective study was conducted among 1265 adults, aged 19-74 years, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. A 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on nut consumption. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement guidelines and 276 new cases of MetS were identified. Median ± interquartile range of nut consumption was 2.08 (0.88-5.68) servings/week. After adjusting for family history of diabetes, age, gender, smoking, physical activity, fasting serum glucose at baseline, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) at baseline, energy intake, fiber, macronutrients, cholesterol intake, fruit, vegetables, dairy products and body mass index (BMI), a statistically significant decrease was observed in MetS in the third (≥5 servings/week) tertile of nuts (odds ratio: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.44-0.91, p trend: 0.03) compared with the lowest (≤1 serving/week). Walnut consumption showed a significant, inverse association with MetS risk; associations for other nut varieties were not significant. For each additional serving/week of walnuts consumed, incidence of MetS decreased by 3% (ORs: 0.97 CI: 0.93-0.99), after adjusting for confounding factors. Total nut consumption, especially walnuts, reduces the risk of MetS.

  11. Dual roles of glucose in the freeze-tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra: cryoprotection and fuel for metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, Sofia; Holmstrup, Martin; Westh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Ectothermic animals inhabiting the subarctic and temperate regions have evolved strategies to deal with periods of continuous frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is freeze tolerant and accumulates large concentrations of glucose upon freezing. The present study investigates...... the roles of glucose accumulation for long-term freeze tolerance in worms kept frozen at -2 degrees C for 47 days. During this period, worms were sampled periodically for determination of survival and for measurements of glucose, glycogen, lactate, alanine and succinate. In addition we performed...... increased slightly whereas succinate levels remained constant. However, it is argued that other waste products (particularly propionate) could be the primary end product of a continued anaerobic metabolism. Calorimetric measures of the metabolic rate of frozen worms were in accord with values calculated...

  12. Associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in Chinese men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. METHODS: A multistage, stratified, cluster, random-sampling method was used to select a representative sample from Fujian Province in China. In total, 4808 subjects without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, or pancreatic, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal diseases were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to gather data on tea (green, rock, and black consumption and other relevant factors. The assessment of impaired glucose regulation (IGR was using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, the diagnostic criteria of normal glucose tolerance was according to American Diabetes Association. RESULTS: Green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IFG, while rock tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IGT. The adjusted odds ratios for IFG for green tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference, 0.42 (95% confidence intervals (CI 0.27-0.65, 0.23 (95% CI, 0.12-0.46, and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17-0.93, respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for IGT for rock tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48-0.98, 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39-0.90, and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.97, respectively. A U-shaped association was observed, subjects who consumed 16-30 cups of green or rock tea per week having the lowest odds ratios for IFG or IGT. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of green or rock tea may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men and women, particularly in those who drink 16-30 cups per week.

  13. Impact of gain-of-function mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) on glucose and lipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foer, D; Zhu, M; Cardone, R L

    2017-01-01

    potentially represents a target for drug discovery in type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Studies in animal models suggest a physiologic link between LRP5 and glucose and lipid homeostasis; however, whether it plays a similar role in humans is unclear. As current literature links loss-of-function LRP5...... to impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, we hypothesized that individuals with an HBM-causing mutation in LRP5 would exhibit improved glucose and lipid homeostasis. Since studies in animal models have suggested that Wnt signaling augments insulin secretion, we also examined the effect of Wnt signaling...... on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion on human pancreatic islets. METHODS: This was a matched case-control study. We used several methods to assess glucose and lipid metabolism in 11 individuals with HBM-causing mutations in LRP5. Affected study participants were recruited from previously identified...

  14. Effects of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure control on recovery of patients with gastric cancer complicated with metabolic syndrome after radical gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zhou, Pingping; Hua, Qingli; Jin, Changming; Guo, Chunling; Song, Bing

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure control on recovery of patients with gastric cancer complicated with metabolic syndrome (MS) after radical gastrectomy. A total of 150 patients with gastric cancer, who were treated in Daqing Longnan Hospital from November, 2015 to May, 2017, were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into the MS group (80 cases) and non-MS group (70 cases). Patients in the MS group were given corresponding drugs to control blood pressure, blood lipids and blood glucose, while patients in the non-MS group were not treated with those drugs. Patients in the MS group were divided into the normal and abnormal groups according to the levels of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure. Moreover, occurrences of complications were compared between the normal and abnormal groups. Before surgery, blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure in the MS group were significantly higher than those in the non-MS group (pblood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure of the MS group decreased significantly compared to those before operation (pblood glucose, 2 h postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, total triglycerides (TGs), LDL, mean blood pressure and BMI (pblood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure in patients with gastric cancer complicated with MS after radical gastrectomy can reduce the incidence of postoperative complications and promote postoperative recovery.

  15. The Effects of Capparis Spinosa Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipids Serum in Diabetic and Normal Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Negahdarizadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the world which affects glucose metabolism in the body. Diabetes mellitus is due to lack of insulin secretion and/or failure in insulin action. Researches conducted in the last few decades on plants have reported anti-diabetic properties for some herbs and their traditional use for diabetes treatment. Capparis spinosa is one of these herbs which are used as an anti-diabetic treatment in tribal medicine. The objective of the present study was to examine the anti-diabetic effects of Capparis spinosa on blood glucose and serum lipids in streptozotocin induced diabetes in male rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study conducted at Yasouj University of Medical Sciences in 2010, five groups of animals were selected. Three groups out of five were administered with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to become diabetic. Group I were fed normal diet. Group II of animals received 20 mg/kg/day Capparis spinosa extract. Group III received no treatment (diabetic control and animals of groups IV and V were treated with capparis spinosa fruit extract 20 and 30 mg/kg body weight respectively for three weeks. Blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and body weight were measured in all animals. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using one-way ANOVA. Results: Treatment with the 30 mg/kg/body weight of capparis spinosa fruit extract showed a significant decrease in blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and a significant increase in HDL level. In addition, administration of 20 mg/kg/body weight of capparis spinosa extract decreased blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the oral administration of capparis spinosa extract at the dose of 30 mg/kg/body weight has glucose and lipids lowering activity in diabetic rats.

  16. Effect of Cuscuta reflexa stem and Calotropis procera leaf extracts on glucose tolerance in glucose-induced hyperglycemic rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Sultan, Shamsuddin; Toma, Tanzila Taher; Lucky, Sayeda-A-Safa; Chowdhury, Majeedul H; Haque, Wahid Mozammel; Annay, Eashmat Ara; Jahan, Rownak

    2009-12-30

    Cuscuta reflexa (whole plant) and Calotropis procera (leaves) are used in folk medicine of Bangladesh to control blood sugar in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. The hypoglycemic effects of methanol and chloroform extracts of whole plants of Cuscuta reflexa, and methanol extract of leaves of Calotropis procera were investigated in oral glucose tolerance tests in Long Evans rats and Swiss albino mice, respectively. Both methanol and chloroform extracts of Cuscuta reflexa whole plant demonstrated significant oral hypoglycemic activity in glucose-loaded rats at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The methanol extract of leaves of Calotropis procera, when tested at doses of 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight did not demonstrate any oral hypoglycemic effect when tested in glucose-loaded mice.

  17. Visceral adiposity is associated with altered myocardial glucose uptake measured by (18)FDG-PET in 346 subjects with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyuri; Jo, Kwanhyeong; Kim, Kwang Joon; Lee, Yong-ho; Han, Eugene; Yoon, Hye-jin; Wang, Hye Jin; Kang, Eun Seok; Yun, Mijin

    2015-11-04

    The heart requires constant sources of energy mostly from free fatty acids (FFA) and glucose. The alteration in myocardial substrate metabolism occurs in the heart of diabetic patients, but its specific association with other metabolic variables remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate glucose uptake in hearts of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET) in association with visceral and subcutaneous adiposity, and metabolic laboratory parameters. A total of 346 individuals (NGT, n = 76; prediabetes, n = 208; T2DM, n = 62) in a health promotion center of a tertiary hospital were enrolled. The fasting myocardial glucose uptake, and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas were evaluated using (18)FDG-PET and abdominal computed tomography, respectively. Myocardial glucose uptake was significantly decreased in subjects with T2DM compared to the NGT or prediabetes groups (p for trend = 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that visceral fat area (β = -0.22, p = 0.018), fasting FFA (β = -0.39, p < 0.001), and uric acid levels (β = -0.21, p = 0.007) were independent determinants of myocardial glucose uptake. Multiple logistic analyses demonstrated that decreased myocardial glucose uptake (OR 2.32; 95% CI 1.02-5.29, p = 0.045) and visceral fat area (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, p = 0.018) were associated with T2DM. Our findings indicate visceral adiposity is strongly associated with the alteration of myocardial glucose uptake evaluated by (18)FDG-PET, and its association further relates to T2DM.

  18. GABA dramatically improves glucose tolerance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed with high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabipour, Shahla; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Ardeshir; Sharifi, Mohammadreza; Soltani, Nepton

    2018-05-05

    Skeletal muscle, hepatic insulin resistance, and beta cell dysfunction are the characteristic pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GABA has an important role in pancreatic islet cells. The present study attempted to clarify the possible mechanism of GABA to improve glucose tolerance in a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Fifty Wistar rats were divided into five groups: NDC that was fed the normal diet, CD which received a high-fat diet with streptozotocin, CD-GABA animals that received GABA via intraperitoneal injection, plus CD-Ins1 and CD-Ins2 groups which were treated with low and high doses of insulin, respectively. Body weight and blood glucose were measured weekly. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), urine volume, amount of water drinking, and food intake assessments were performed monthly. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was done for assessing insulin resistance. Plasma insulin and glucagon were measured. Abdominal fat was measured. Glucagon receptor, Glucose 6 phosphatase, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase genes expression were evaluated in liver and Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes expression and protein translocation were evaluated in the muscle. GABA or insulin therapy improved blood glucose, insulin level, IPGTT, ITT, gluconeogenesis pathway, Glucagon receptor, body weight and body fat in diabetic rats. GLUT4 gene and protein expression increased. GABA whose beneficial effect was comparable to that of insulin, also increased glucose infusion rate during an euglycemic clamp. GABA could improve insulin resistance via rising GLUT4 and also decreasing the gluconeogenesis pathway and Glucagon receptor gene expression. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Central serotonergic neurons activate and recruit thermogenic brown and beige fat and regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGlashon, Jacob M; Gorecki, Michelle C; Kozlowski, Amanda E

    2015-01-01

    Thermogenic brown and beige adipocytes convert chemical energy to heat by metabolizing glucose and lipids. Serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the CNS are essential for thermoregulation and accordingly may control metabolic activity of thermogenic fat. To test this, we generated mice in which the human...... adipose tissue (WAT). In parallel, blood glucose increased 3.5-fold, free fatty acids 13.4-fold, and triglycerides 6.5-fold. Similar BAT and beige fat defects occurred in Lmx1b(f/f)ePet1(Cre) mice in which 5-HT neurons fail to develop in utero. We conclude 5-HT neurons play a major role in regulating...

  20. Tolerance induction after specific immunotherapy with pollen allergoids adjuvanted by monophosphoryl lipid A in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewich, M; Schulze, J; Eickmeier, O; Telles, T; Rose, M A; Schubert, R; Zielen, S

    2010-06-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a well-established and clinically effective treatment for allergic diseases. A pollen allergoid formulated with the T helper type 1 (Th1)-inducing adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) facilitates short-term SIT. Little is known about mechanisms of tolerance induction in this setting. In a prospective study, 34 patients allergic to grass pollen (25 male, nine female, median age 10.2 years) received a total of 44 SIT courses (20 in the first, 24 in the second) with MPL-adjuvanted pollen allergoids. Immunogenicity was measured by levels of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG(grass)) and IgG4(grass) by antibody blocking properties on basophil activation, and by induction of CD4(+), CD25(+) and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3(+)) regulatory T cells (T(reg)). Specific IgG and IgG4 levels increased only slightly in the first year of SIT. In the second year these changes reached significance (P allergoids formulated with the Th1-inducing adjuvant MPL needs at least two courses to establish tolerance.

  1. Comparison of menarche age between two generations (tehran lipid and glucose study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainy, E.; Aziz, F.

    2007-01-01

    Menarcheal age is considered to be an indicator of puberty. There is a lack of information on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls, in comparison to that of their mothers. This cross-sectional study was aimed at comparing the age of menarches between two generations. The subjects were 812 (406 daughters and 406 mothers) chosen from among 15005 participants of the longitudinal Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographic information and the age of menarche were recorded in a questionnaire. We have considered a minimal of 25 years duration to be one generation. Distribution of the menarcheal age and linear regression were performed. The mean age of menarche in daughters and their mothers were 13.2+-1.4 and 13.6+-1.5 years, respectively. There was significant correlation between the mother and daughter menarcheal age (r=0.25, P<0.002). 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles for menarcheal ages in daughters and their mothers were 12.2, 13.1, 14.1 and 12.7, 13.5, 14.5 years respectively. Minimum and maximum ages of menarche were the same (10 and 18 years) in the two groups. We found a decrease in the average menarcheal age during 25 years (one generation) similar to the results of other studies. (author)

  2. Insulin sensitivity of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in animal models of hepatic steatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefhorst, Aldo

    2006-01-01

    De lever is betrokken bij de regulatie van zowel het koolhydraat als het vet metabolisme. De lever slaat glucose op als glycogeen, scheidt glucose uit, kan glucose maken uit bijvoorbeeld melkzuur en aminozuren (‘gluconeogenese’), zet glucose om in vet (‘de novo lipogenese’), verbrandt vetzuren in de

  3. Effect of adrenal medullectomy on metabolic responses to chronic intermittent hypoxia in the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mi-Kyung; Han, Woobum; Joo, Hoon; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Shiota, Masakazu; Stefanovski, Darko; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2017-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with type 2 diabetes. We have previously developed a mouse model of intermittent hypoxia (IH) mimicking oxyhemoglobin desaturations in patients with sleep apnea and have shown that IH increases fasting glucose, hepatic glucose output, and plasma catecholamines. We hypothesize that adrenal medulla modulates glucose responses to IH and that such responses can be prevented by adrenal medullectomy. We performed adrenal medullectomy or sham surgery in lean C57BL/6J mice, which were exposed to IH or intermittent air (control) for 4 wk followed by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) in unanesthetized unrestrained animals. IH was administered during the 12-h light phase (9 AM to 9 PM) by decreasing inspired oxygen from 21 to 6.5% 60 cycles/h. Insulin sensitivity (S I ), insulin independent glucose disposal [glucose effectiveness (S G )], and the insulin response to glucose (AIR G ) were determined using the minimal model method. In contrast to our previous data obtained in restrained mice, IH did not affect fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in sham-operated mice. IH significantly decreased S G but did not affect S I and AIR G Adrenal medullectomy decreased fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin levels and increased glycogen synthesis in the liver in hypoxic mice but did not have a significant effect on the FSIVGTT metrics. We conclude that, in the absence of restraints, IH has no effect on glucose metabolism in lean mice with exception of decreased S G , whereas adrenal medullectomy decreases fasting glucose and insulin levels in the IH environment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY To our knowledge, this is the first study examining the role of adrenal catecholamines in glucose metabolism during intermittent hypoxia (IH) in unanesthetized unrestrained C57BL/6J mice. We report that IH did not affect fasting glucose and insulin levels nor insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion during, whereas glucose

  4. Insulin resistance according to β-cell function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Kyeong Song

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is associated with insulin resistance (IR and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. IR is recognized as a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, few studies have investigated IR in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance. The objective of this study was to evaluate IR and β-cell function in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance. Additionally, we sought to evaluate the usefulness of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-derived IR indices in lean women with PCOS.We recruited 100 women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance and 100 age- and BMI-matched women as controls. IR and insulin secretory indices, including the homeostasis-model assessment (HOMA-IR, HOMA-M120, HOMA-F and the Stumvoll index, were calculated from an OGTT. Increased β-cell function was defined as>75th percentile for the HOMA-F in control women.Women with PCOS had higher values for post-load 2-hour glucose, fasting insulin, post-load 2-hour insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-M120, HOMA-F and lower values for the Stumvoll index than the controls (all Ps<0.05. Women with PCOS and increased β-cell function showed lower Stumvoll index values than the matched controls (P<0.05. The HOMA-F was significantly associated with the HOMA-M120 and Stumvoll index when adjusted for age and BMI in a multiple regression analysis (all Ps<0.05. The HOMA-M120 was positively correlated with triglycerides and free testosterone, and the Stumvoll index was negatively correlated with triglycerides and free testosterone in lean women with PCOS (all Ps<0.05.Women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance showed higher IR than controls matched for age, BMI, and β-cell function. β-cell function was increased in women with PCOS when compared to the matched controls, but not when the lean subjects were compared to the matched controls separately. Therefore, early evaluation of IR in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance may be needed.

  5. Obese mice on a high-fat alternate-day fasting regimen lose weight and improve glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, P M N; Bell, R K; Swoap, S J

    2017-10-01

    Alternate-day fasting (ADF) causes body weight (BW) loss in humans and rodents. However, it is not clear that ADF while maintaining a high-fat (HF) diet results in weight loss and the accompanying improvement in control of circulating glucose. We tested the hypotheses that a high-fat ADF protocol in obese mice would result in (i) BW loss, (ii) improved glucose control, (iii) fluctuating phenotypes on 'fasted' days when compared to 'fed' days and (iv) induction of torpor on 'fasted days'. We evaluated the physiological effects of ADF in diet-induced obese mice for BW, heart rate (HR), body temperature (T b ), glucose tolerance, insulin responsiveness, blood parameters (leptin, insulin, free fatty acids) and hepatic gene expression. Diet-induced obese male C57BL/6J mice lost one-third of their pre-diet BW while on an ADF diet for 10 weeks consisting of HF food. The ADF protocol improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, although mice on a fast day were less glucose tolerant than the same mice on a fed day. ADF mice on a fast day had low circulating insulin, but had an enhanced response to an insulin-assisted glucose tolerance test, suggesting the impaired glucose tolerance may be a result of insufficient insulin production. On fed days, ADF mice were the warmest, had a high HR and displayed hepatic gene expression and circulating leptin that closely mimicked that of mice fed an ad lib HF diet. ADF mice never entered torpor as assessed by HR and T b . However, on fast days, they were the coolest, had the slowest HR, and displayed hepatic gene expression and circulating leptin that closely mimicked that of Chow-Fed mice. Collectively, the ADF regimen with a HF diet in obese mice results in weight loss, improved blood glucose control, and daily fluctuations in selected physiological and biochemical parameters in the mouse. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Enhanced glucose tolerance in pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER knockout C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari L. Moak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER; also known as FAM3B is a uniquely structured protein strongly expressed within and secreted from the endocrine pancreas. PANDER has been hypothesized to regulate fasting and fed glucose homeostasis, hepatic lipogenesis and insulin signaling, and to serve a potential role in the onset or progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Despite having potentially pivotal pleiotropic roles in glycemic regulation and T2D, there has been limited generation of stable animal models for the investigation of PANDER function, and there are no models on well-established genetic murine backgrounds for T2D. Our aim was to generate an enhanced murine model to further elucidate the biological function of PANDER. Therefore, a pure-bred PANDER knockout C57BL/6 (PANKO-C57 model was created and phenotypically characterized with respect to glycemic regulation and hepatic insulin signaling. The PANKO-C57 model exhibited an enhanced metabolic phenotype, particularly with regard to enhanced glucose tolerance. Male PANKO-C57 mice displayed decreased fasting plasma insulin and C-peptide levels, whereas leptin levels were increased as compared with matched C57BL/6J wild-type mice. Despite similar peripheral insulin sensitivity between both groups, hepatic insulin signaling was significantly increased during fasting conditions, as demonstrated by increased phosphorylation of hepatic PKB/Akt and AMPK, along with mature SREBP-1 expression. Insulin stimulation of PANKO-C57 mice resulted in increased hepatic triglyceride and glycogen content as compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice. In summary, the PANKO-C57 mouse represents a suitable model for the investigation of PANDER in multiple metabolic states and provides an additional tool to elucidate the biological function and potential role in T2D.

  7. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries...... and not statistically significant. The pattern was similar within groups with low, medium and high consumption of marine food. CONCLUSIONS: There are statistically significant associations between the consumption of marine food and certain lipid fractions in the blood also in this population with a very high average...... intake of marine food. The observation that blood glucose is positively associated with marine diet in a population survey is new and should be repeated. There was good agreement between the results for the reported consumption of seal and those for the biomarkers. SPONSORSHIP: The study was financially...

  8. Postprandial glucose-lowering effect of premeal consumption of protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Lee Kyung; Min, Se Hee; Ahn, Chang Ho; Cho, Young Min

    2018-03-04

    Protein preload improves postprandial glycemia by stimulating secretion of insulin and incretin hormones. However, it requires a large dose of protein to produce a significant effect. The present study was carried out to investigate the postprandial glucose-lowering effect of a premeal protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar (PFB), which contains moderate amounts of protein, in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The participants (15 type 2 diabetes mellitus and 15 NGT) were randomly assigned to either a premeal or postmeal PFB group and underwent two mixed meal tolerance tests, 1 week apart in reverse order. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were measured. During the mixed meal tolerance tests, the incremental area under the curve from 0 to 180 min of plasma glucose levels was lower with premeal PFB than with postmeal PFB in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (14,723 ± 1,310 mg min/dL vs 19,642 ± 1,367 mg min/dL; P = 0.0002) and NGT participants (3,943 ± 416 mg min/dL vs 4,827 ± 520 mg min/dL, P = 0.0296). In the type 2 diabetes mellitus participants, insulinogenic index and the incremental area under the curve from 0 to 180 min of plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 levels were higher with premeal PFB than with postmeal PFB, but not in the NGT participants. There was no difference in postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide levels between premeal and postmeal PFB in both groups. Acute administration of premeal PFB decreased postprandial glucose excursion in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and NGT participants. In the type 2 diabetes mellitus participants, premeal PFB augmented the early-phase insulin secretion, possibly through enhancing glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons

  9. Importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) for vanillin tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi My; Kitajima, Sakihito; Izawa, Shingo

    2014-09-01

    Vanillin is derived from lignocellulosic biomass and, as one of the major biomass conversion inhibitors, inhibits yeast growth and fermentation. Vanillin was recently shown to induce the mitochondrial fragmentation and formation of mRNP granules such as processing bodies and stress granules in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furfural, another major biomass conversion inhibitor, also induces oxidative stress and is reduced in an NAD(P)H-dependent manner to its less toxic alcohol derivative. Therefore, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), through which most NADPH is generated, plays a role in tolerance to furfural. Although vanillin also induces oxidative stress and is reduced to vanillyl alcohol in a NADPH-dependent manner, the relationship between vanillin and PPP has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we examined the importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), which catalyzes the rate-limiting NADPH-producing step in PPP, for yeast tolerance to vanillin. The growth of the null mutant of G6PDH gene (zwf1Δ) was delayed in the presence of vanillin, and vanillin was efficiently reduced in the culture of wild-type cells but not in the culture of zwf1Δ cells. Furthermore, zwf1Δ cells easily induced the activation of Yap1, an oxidative stress responsive transcription factor, mitochondrial fragmentation, and P-body formation with the vanillin treatment, which indicated that zwf1Δ cells were more susceptible to vanillin than wild type cells. These findings suggest the importance of G6PDH and PPP in the response of yeast to vanillin. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations among the plasma amino acid profile, obesity, and glucose metabolism in Japanese adults with normal glucose tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Takashina, Chisa; Tsujino, Ichizo; Watanabe, Taku; Sakaue, Shinji; Ikeda, Daisuke; Yamada, Asuka; Sato, Takahiro; Ohira, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Yoshinori; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Ito, Yoichi M.; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Background Amino acids (AAs) are emerging as a new class of effective molecules in the etiology of obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, most investigations have focused on subjects with obesity and/or impaired glucose regulation; the possible involvement of AAs in the initial phase of glucose dysregulation remains poorly understood. Furthermore, little attention has been given to possible associations between the pattern/degree of fat deposition and the plasma AA profile. Our objective was...

  11. Effect of Copper on Fatty-Acid Composition and Peroxidation of Lipids in the Roots of Copper Tolerant and Sensitive Silene-Cucubalus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, C.H.R.; TenBookum, W.M.; Vooijs, R.; Schat, H.; De Kok, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of high copper exposure in vivo on the lipid and fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation was studied in the roots of plants from one copper sensitive and two copper tolerant genotypes of Silene cucubalus. At 0.5 muM Cu (control treatment) the compositions of lipids and fatty acids

  12. The effects of aqueous extract of water cress on the glucose and lipid plasma in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrokhi, N.; Hadad, K.

    2009-01-01

    For treating diabetic patients, different nutrients are being used in some areas of Kennan province, Nasturtium offsinallis (NF) is one of them. In current research work, effects of NF on plasma lipid and glucose levels have been assessed in diabetic rats. In this study, 60 male rats were used. All rats randomly divided into six groups, consisting of one intact non-diabetic group, and remaining 5 groups were injected subcutaneousloy of 55 mg/kg of streptozotocin to make them experimentally diabetic. Three groups of diabetic animals were eaten orally (via gavage) of low (25 mg/kg), and high (75 mg/kg) doses of aqueous extract of NF in a volume of 1.5 ml for short period (4 weeks)and long period (8-weeks) respectively. One group of diabetic animals was given 2-4U of NPH insulin intraperitoneally (IP). The last remaining group of five diabetics was given nothing at the end of each Experiment in all groups' blood glucose and lipid levels were measured. There was significant reduction of plasma glucose in treatment groups compared to diabetic group. The greatest decrease(9 6%) was observed by the high dose long term group for NF extract) that was significantly greater than the insulin group (49%) (p<0.001). There wasn't any change in diabetic animals' total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of plasma. Both low and high doses of extracts increased LDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic animals (p<0.00 I). In diabetic animals, plasma H DL- cholesterol levels (33+-2.2) decreased by long term dose of extract. Both doses decreased plasma glucose in diabetic animal, whereas, it have not effect on plasma lipids or have negative effect, there fore this research suggested that NF extract is useful for control of blood glucose. (author)

  13. Insulin resistance in first-trimester pregnant women with pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Xie, Q X; Chen, C Y; Yang, C; Li, Y Z; Chen, D M; Xie, M Q

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) has been reported to play an important role in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, scanted materials exist regarding the independent effect of IR on RSA. The aim of this study is to investigate the status of IR in first trimester pregnant patients with normal pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of RSA. This two-center case-control study enrolled totally 626 first trimester pregnant women including 161 patients with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion, who were pre-pregnantly glucose-tolerant according to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and 465 women with no history of abnormal pregnancies of any kind. Clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters were simultaneously measured in all participants. Serum beta-HCG, estradiol, progesterone, fasting plasma glucose and fasting plasma insulin levels, as well, the calculated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), fasting plasma glucose/insulin ratio(G/I) and pregnancy outcome were analyzed and compared. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were found to be significantly lower in RSA group compared to controls. Subjects in RSA group were found to have higher HOMA-IR and lower G/I ratio than those in control group. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR, and positively with G/I ratio even after adjustment for BMI. The spontaneous abortion rate within first trimester pregnancy of RSA patients was significantly higher than that in controls. In conclusion, woman with recurrent spontaneous abortion and normal pre-pregnant glucose metabolism tends to be more insulin resistant during first trimester pregnancy than healthy controls, no matter whether she has PCOS or not. Insulin resistance might be one of the direct causes that lead to recurrent abortion.

  14. Effects of dietary traditional fermented soybean on reproductive hormones, lipids, and glucose among postmenopausal women in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapbamrer, Ratana; Visavarungroj, Nuwat; Suttajit, Maitree

    2013-01-01

    Isoflavone in soybean and its products have numerous beneficial health effects. A number of clinical studies have demonstrated that dietary soy isoflavone can relieve menopausal symptoms, lower risks of breast cancer, and lower cholesterol and glucose. Among the various effects of isoflavone, the role of cholesterol and glucose reduction seems to be well documented; however, other effects such as reproductive hormones were inconclusive and inconsistent. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of six-month dietary traditional fermented soybean intake on BMI, reproductive hormones, lipids, and glucose among postmenopausal women. Subjects were women with their last menstrual period occurring at least 12 months prior to selection by interview and health screening from Baan Tham Village, Phayao Province, Thailand. A total of 60 women were divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n=31) and reference group (n=29). The experimental group was permitted to continue their usual diet, and supplemented with fermented soybean for 6 months. The fermented soybean provided approximately 60 mg of isoflavone per day. The remarkable findings were that dietary fermented soybean had favorable effects on progesterone and cholesterol, but had no effects on estradiol, glucose, and triglycerides. Although estradiol and glucose in the experimental group did not change, a decrease of estradiol and an increase of glucose were found in the reference group. Our results, therefore, suggest that fermented soybean may have beneficial effects on reproductive hormones and cholesterol, and they would be warrant further detail investigations.

  15. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in a New Zealand multiracial workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scragg, R; Baker, J; Metcalf, P; Dryson, E

    1991-09-25

    A cross sectional survey was carried out among a multiracial workforce of 5677 staff aged 40 to 64 years at worksites in Auckland and Tokoroa to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The prevalences of diabetes mellitus and IGT were both similar for men and women, but increased with age. The relative risks for diabetes mellitus and for IGT were both inversely associated with gross annual household income, independent of age and ethnicity, being 1.61 (95% Cl = 1.10, 2.37) and 1.80 (95% Cl = 1.21, 2.67) respectively, in the lowest income group (less than $30,000) compared with the highest (greater than $40,000). Compared with Europeans, the relative risk of diabetes mellitus was significantly increased among Maori (3.63; 95% Cl = 2.48, 5.32), Pacific Islanders (2.34; 95% Cl = 1.50, 3.66) and Asians (5.97; 95% Cl = 2.61, 13.65), after controlling for age, income and body mass index. The increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Maori and Pacific Islanders, but not in Asians, could be partly attributed to their increased levels of obesity compared with Europeans. However, other factors, in addition to obesity, explain the increased diabetes prevalence in nonEuropean groups.

  16. Quantitative assessment of the effects of beta-glucan consumption on serum lipid profile and glucose level in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X; Sun, X; Wang, M; Zhang, C; Cao, Y; Mo, G; Liang, J; Zhu, S

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that beta-glucan derived from oats or barley can reduce cardiovascular disease risk through reductions in serum lipids. However, the effects of beta-glucan on lipid changes in hypercholesterolemic patient groups are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the effect of beta-glucan, a marker of water-soluble fiber, on various lipid parameters and glucose level in hypercholesterolemic subjects. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify the relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of beta-glucan consumption in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for net changes in lipid concentrations by using fixed-effects or random-effects models according to heterogeneity. Publication bias, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analyses were also performed. Seventeen eligible RCTs with 916 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled result showed that beta-glucan consumption in hypercholesterolemic population significantly lowered the total cholesterol (TC) (MD, -0.26 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.33 to -0.18; P consumption significantly decreased TC and LDL-cholesterol concentrations but did not affect TG, HDL-cholesterol, and glucose concentrations in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

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    Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. Objective The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components in Tehranian adults. Methods This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. Results The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9 and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6 in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47 and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27 higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63 and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27 higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17 and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14 higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15 and 9% (1.04-1.12 higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Conclusion Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  18. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-07-12

    Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Tehranian adults. This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men) aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF) in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF) in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9) and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6) in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47) and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27) higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63) and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27) higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17) and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14) higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15) and 9% (1.04-1.12) higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  19. Prevalence of endocrine diseases and abnormal glucose tolerance tests in 340 caucasian premenopausal women with hirsutism as the referral diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Andersen, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    with hirsutism as the referral diagnosis. INTERVENTION(S): Hormone analyses and ACTH tests during cycle days 2-8, 2 hours of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and vaginal ultrasound. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): End diagnosis, fasting, 30-, 60-, and 120-minute oral glucose-stimulated levels of insulin....... During OGTT, 4.9% (13 of 263) had previously undiagnosed diabetes; no significant difference in diabetes prevalence was found between idiopathic hirsutism and PCOS. For 50.8%, fasting insulin values were in the upper quartile for a reference population. CONCLUSION(S): Initial evaluation of hirsute...

  20. Comparable attenuation of sympathetic nervous system activity in obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and treatment naïve type 2 diabetes following equivalent weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora E. Straznicky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity is a characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D that contributes to target organ damage and cardiovascular risk. In this study we examined whether baseline metabolic status influences the degree of sympathoinhibition attained following equivalent dietary weight loss. Methods: Un-medicated obese individuals categorized as normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n=15, impaired glucose tolerant (IGT, n=24 and newly-diagnosed T2D (n=15 consumed a hypocaloric diet (29% fat, 23% protein, 45% carbohydrate for 4-months. The three groups were matched for baseline age (56 + 1 years, body mass index (BMI, 32.9 + 0.7 kg/m2 and gender. Clinical measurements included whole-body norepinephrine kinetics, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, by microneurography, spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS and oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Weight loss averaged -7.5 + 0.8, -8.1 + 0.5 and -8.0 + 0.9 % of body weight in NGT, IGT and T2D groups, respectively. T2D subjects had significantly greater reductions in fasting glucose, 2-h glucose and glucose area under the curve (AUC0-120 compared to NGT and IGT (group effect, P<0.001. Insulinogenic index decreased in IGT and NGT groups and increased in T2D (group x time, P=0.04. The magnitude of reduction in MSNA (-7 + 3, -8 + 4, -15 + 4 burst/100hb, respectively and whole-body norepinephrine spillover rate (-28 + 8, -18 + 6 and -25 + 7 %, respectively, time effect both P<0.001, did not differ between groups. After adjustment for age and change in body weight, ∆ insulin AUC0-120 was independently associated with reduction in arterial norepinephrine concentration, whilst ∆ LDL-cholesterol and improvement in BRS were independently associated with decrease in MSNA. Conclusions: Equivalent weight loss through hypocaloric diet is accompanied by similar sympathoinhibition in matched obese subjects with different baseline glucose tolerance

  1. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum spores intervention on glucose and lipid metabolism gene expression profiles in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhou, Zhongkai; Ren, Xiaochong; Wang, Yuyang; Yang, Rui; Luo, Jinhua; Strappe, Padraig

    2015-05-22

    The fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for many years. However, to the date, there is no detailed study for describing the effect of G. lucidum spores on oxidative stress, blood glucose level and lipid compositions in animal models of type 2 diabetic rats, in particular the effect on the gene expression profiles associated with glucose and lipid metabolisms. G. lucidum spores powder (GLSP) with a shell-broken rate >99.9 % was used. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8/group). Group 1: Normal control, normal rats with ordinary feed; Group 2: Model control, diabetic rats with ordinary feed without intervention; Group 3: GLSP, diabetic rats with ordinary feed, an intervention group utilizing GLSP of 1 g per day by oral gavages for 4 consecutive weeks. Type 2 diabetic rats were obtained by streptozocin (STZ) injection. The changes in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in blood samples were analyzed after GLSP intervention. Meanwhile, gene expressions associated with the possible molecular mechanism of GLSP regulation were also investigated using a quantitative RT-PCR. The reduction of blood glucose level occurred within the first 2 weeks of GLSP intervention and the lipid synthesis in the diabetic rats of GLSP group was significantly decreased at 4 weeks compared to the model control group. Furthermore, it was also found that GLSP intervention greatly attenuated the level of oxidative stress in the diabetic rats. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed up-regulation of lipid metabolism related genes (Acox1, ACC, Insig-1 and Insig-2) and glycogen synthesis related genes (GS2 and GYG1) in GLSP group compared to model control group. Additionally, there were no significant changes in the expression of other genes, such as SREBP-1, Acly, Fas, Fads1, Gpam, Dgat1, PEPCK and G6PC1. This study might indicate that GLSP consumption could provide a

  2. Gallic Acid Ameliorated Impaired Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis in High Fat Diet-Induced NAFLD Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jung; Huo, Teh-Ia; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Qin, Xue-Mei; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen; Pao, Li-Heng; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA), a naturally abundant plant phenolic compound in vegetables and fruits, has been shown to have potent anti-oxidative and anti-obesity activity. However, the effects of GA on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of GA administration on nutritional hepatosteatosis model by a more “holistic view” approach, namely 1H NMR-based metabolomics, in order to prove efficacy and to obtain information that might lead to a better understanding of the mode of action of GA. Male C57BL/6 mice were placed for 16 weeks on either a normal chow diet, a high fat diet (HFD, 60%), or a high fat diet supplemented with GA (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, orally). Liver histopathology and serum biochemical examinations indicated that the daily administration of GA protects against hepatic steatosis, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and insulin resistance among the HFD-induced NAFLD mice. In addition, partial least squares discriminant analysis scores plots demonstrated that the cluster of HFD fed mice is clearly separated from the normal group mice plots, indicating that the metabolic characteristics of these two groups are distinctively different. Specifically, the GA-treated mice are located closer to the normal group of mice, indicating that the HFD-induced disturbances to the metabolic profile were partially reversed by GA treatment. Our results show that the hepatoprotective effect of GA occurs in part through a reversing of the HFD caused disturbances to a range of metabolic pathways, including lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis), amino acids metabolism, choline metabolism and gut-microbiota-associated metabolism. Taken together, this study suggested that a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach is a useful platform for natural product functional evaluation. The selected metabolites are potentially useful as preventive action biomarkers and could also be used to help

  3. Leisure Time Physical Activity and Its Determinants among Adults in Tehran: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momenan, Amir Abbas; Delshad, Maryam; Mirmiran, Parvin; Ghanbarian, Arash; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess leisure time physical activity and its determinants among adults in Tehran. This cross-sectional study comprised adults (n = 7285), aged 20 years and older. The subjects were participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study between 2002 and 2004. Information on the number of days spent on different activities during a week and the time devoted to each activity on a typical day was recorded. In addition, each activity, weighted by its relative intensity, was referred to as a metabolic equivalent. The prevalence of inactivity was 69.8% (95% CI: 68.7-70.8) in the whole population and 30.2% (95% CI: 27.2-33.1%) of men and 30.3% (95% CI: 27.7-32.8%) of women were considered as active. Leisure time physical activity less than 30 min/week was scored in 1590 (50.6%) men and 1803 (43.5%) women. The most frequent leisure time physical activity performed by men (96.1%) and women (95.2%) was walking. A negative association was observed in men between leisure time physical activity and increased work hours, older age, more cigarette smoking and higher body mass index (69.8% were overweight and 75.3% were obese; P women. The prevalence of physical inactivity among adults in Tehran was high. Leisure time physical inactivity was more likely to be associated with older age, more cigarette smoking, more working hours, and higher body mass index. Public health efforts are needed to improve people's participation in physical activities in Iran.

  4. RNA-Seq of Kaposi's sarcoma reveals alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    For Yue Tso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS. It is endemic in a number of sub-Saharan African countries with infection rate of >50%. The high prevalence of HIV-1 coupled with late presentation of advanced cancer staging make KS the leading cancer in the region with poor prognosis and high mortality. Disease markers and cellular functions associated with KS tumorigenesis remain ill-defined. Several studies have attempted to investigate changes of the gene profile with in vitro infection of monoculture models, which are not likely to reflect the cellular complexity of the in vivo lesion environment. Our approach is to characterize and compare the gene expression profile in KS lesions versus non-cancer tissues from the same individual. Such comparisons could identify pathways critical for KS formation and maintenance. This is the first study that utilized high throughput RNA-seq to characterize the viral and cellular transcriptome in tumor and non-cancer biopsies of African epidemic KS patients. These patients were treated anti-retroviral therapy with undetectable HIV-1 plasma viral load. We found remarkable variability in the viral transcriptome among these patients, with viral latency and immune modulation genes most abundantly expressed. The presence of KSHV also significantly affected the cellular transcriptome profile. Specifically, genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism disorder pathways were substantially affected. Moreover, infiltration of immune cells into the tumor did not prevent KS formation, suggesting some functional deficits of these cells. Lastly, we found only minimal overlaps between our in vivo cellular transcriptome dataset with those from in vitro studies, reflecting the limitation of in vitro models in representing tumor lesions. These findings could lead to the identification of diagnostic and therapeutic markers for KS, and will provide bases for further mechanistic

  5. Insulin sensitivity of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in animal models of hepatic steatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Grefhorst, Aldo

    2006-01-01

    De lever is betrokken bij de regulatie van zowel het koolhydraat als het vet metabolisme. De lever slaat glucose op als glycogeen, scheidt glucose uit, kan glucose maken uit bijvoorbeeld melkzuur en aminozuren (‘gluconeogenese’), zet glucose om in vet (‘de novo lipogenese’), verbrandt vetzuren in de beta-oxidatie (levert energie voor de gluconeogenese) en scheidt triglycerides uit in de circulatie in ‘very low density lipoprotein’ (VLDL) deeltjes. Insuline remt de glucoseproductie door de lev...

  6. Lack of effect of dietary fiber on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin in healthy young men fed high starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H; Albrink, M J

    1982-07-01

    Eight healthy young men were fed a 72% carbohydrate high starch diet either high or low in dietary fiber for 4 days in a double cross-over design. Both groups showed a slight transient increase in plasma triglyceride level and a decrease in total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There were few differences in glucose and insulin levels after glucose and meal tolerance tests after each diet. Fasting triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were inversely related at base-line; insulin response to oral glucose was inversely related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at the end of the study. We conclude that a high carbohydrate high starch diet, whether high or low in fiber, caused little increase in triglycerides, with little difference between the high and low fiber diets. Dietary fiber did not influence the fall in plasma cholesterol or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations over and above that seen after the low fiber diet.

  7. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, I.; Hansen, C. H. F.; Ellekilde, M.

    2013-01-01

    at different ages or not at all. We found that both diet and Ampicillin significantly changed the gut microbiota composition in the animals. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in Ampicillin-treated, five-week-old mice compared to nontreated mice in the control group. At study...... in high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a "window" exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well...... as development of gut immunity and that this window may disappear after weaning....

  8. Effects of Intensive Statin Therapy on Left Ventricular Function in Patients with Myocardial Infarction and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auscher, Søren; Løgstrup, Brian Bridal; Møller, Jacob Eifer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Abnormal glucose tolerance in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with greater mortality and adverse cardiovascular effects. As statins possess a range of beneficial pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system, we sought to assess the cardioprotective...... effects of statins on left ventricular function in patients with AMI in relation to glycometabolic state. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized trial, 140 patients with AMI were randomized to intensive statin therapy receiving statin loading with 80 mg of rosuvastatin followed by 40 mg daily or standard...... statin therapy. Patients were assessed with an oral glucose tolerance test and their left ventricular (LV) function was assessed with speckle-tracking echocardiography measuring regional longitudinal systolic strain (RLSS) in the infarct area. RESULTS: Overall RLSS in the infarct area improved by a mean...

  9. Effect of skim milk and dahi (yogurt) on blood glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in rats fed with high fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hariom; Jain, Shalini; Sinha, P R

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of skim milk and the fermented milk product named dahi (yogurt) on plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid levels as well as on liver glycogen and lipid contents in rats fed with high fructose diet has been investigated. Rats were fed with high fructose diet (21%) supplemented with skim milk, dahi (10 g/day each), or no milk product (control group) for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of high fructose diet administration, the plasma glucose became significantly higher in control animals (246 mg/dL), whereas it was lower in skim milk (178 mg/dL)- and dahi (143 mg/dL)-fed rats. The glucose tolerance became impaired at the third week of feeding of high fructose diet in control animals, whereas in skim milk- and dahi-fed animals achievement of glucose intolerance was delayed until the fourth and fifth week, respectively. Blood glycosylated hemoglobin and plasma insulin were significantly lower in skim milk (10% and 34%, respectively)- and dahi (17%, and 48%, respectively)-fed animals than those of the control group. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and blood free fatty acids were significantly lower in skim milk (13%, 14%, 14%, 19%, and 14%, respectively)- and dahi (22%, 33%, 30%, 33%, and 29%, respectively)-fed animals as compared with control animals. Moreover, the total cholesterol, triglyceride, and glycogen contents in liver tissues were also lower in skim milk (55%, 50%, and 36%, respectively)- and dahi (64%, 27%, and 4%, respectively)-fed animals as compared with control animals. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in plasma was higher in skim milk (14%)- and dahi (29%)-fed animals as compared with control animals. These results indicate that skim milk and its fermented milk product, dahi, delay the progression of fructose-induced diabetes and dyslipidemia in rats and that these may be useful as antidiabetic food supplements that can be

  10. Predictive performance for population models using stochastic differential equations applied on data from an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas Bech; Overgaard, R.V.; Madsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Several articles have investigated stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in PK/PD models, but few have quantitatively investigated the benefits to predictive performance of models based on real data. Estimation of first phase insulin secretion which reflects beta-cell function using models of ...... obtained from the glucose tolerance tests. Since, the estimation time of extended models was not heavily increased compared to basic models, the applied method is concluded to have high relevance not only in theory but also in practice....

  11. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Lin Shi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT.

  12. Red palm oil supplementation does not increase blood glucose or serum lipids levels in Wistar rats with different thyroid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Vaněčková, I; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T

    2018-01-05

    Red palm oil (RPO) is a rich natural source of antioxidant vitamins, namely carotenes, tocopherols and tocotrienols. However, it contains approximately 50 % saturated fatty acids the regular consumption of which could negatively modify lipid profile. The aim of our study was to test whether 7 weeks of RPO supplementation (1 g/kg body weight/day) would affect blood glucose and lipid metabolism in adult male Wistar rats with altered thyroid status. We induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rats by oral administration of either methimazole or mixture of thyroid hormones. Different thyroid status (EU - euthyroid, HY - hypothyroid and HT - hyperthyroid) was characterized by different serum thyroid hormones levels (total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine), changes in the activity of a marker enzyme of thyroid status - liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and altered absolute and relative heart weights. Fasting blood glucose levels were higher in HT rats in comparison with EU and HY rats, but the changes caused by RPO supplementation were not significant. The achievement of the HY status significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol, as well as with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol: 2.43+/-0.15, 1.48+/-0.09, 0.89+/-0.08 mmol/l, compared to EU: 1.14+/-0.06, 0.77+/-0.06, 0.34+/-0.05 mmol/l and HT: 1.01+/-0.06, 0.69+/-0.04, 0.20+/-0.03 mmol/l, respectively. RPO supplementation did not increase significantly levels of blood lipids but tended to increase glutathione levels in the liver. In conclusion, RPO supplementation did not induce the presumed deterioration of glucose and lipid metabolism in rats with three well-characterized alterations in thyroid status.

  13. A Controlled Trial of CPAP Therapy on Metabolic Control in Individuals with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Tanya G.; Wang, Xuelei; Rueschman, Michael; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Aylor, Joan; Babineau, Denise C.; Mehra, Reena; Redline, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To address whether treatment of sleep apnea improves glucose tolerance. Design: Randomized, double-blind crossover study. Setting: Sleep clinic referrals. Patients: 50 subjects with moderate to severe sleep apnea (AHI > 15) and impaired glucose tolerance. Interventions: Subjects were randomized to 8 weeks of CPAP or sham CPAP, followed by the alternate therapy after a one-month washout. After each treatment, subjects underwent 2-hour OGTT, polysomnography, actigraphy, and measurements of indices of glucose control. Measurements and Results: The primary outcome was normalization of the mean 2-h OGTT; a secondary outcome was improvement in the Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI (0,120). Subjects were 42% men, mean age of 54 (10), BMI of 39 (8), and AHI of 44 (27). Baseline fasting glucose was 104 (12), and mean 2-h OGTT was 110 (57) mg/dL. Seven subjects normalized their mean 2-h OGTT after CPAP but not after sham CPAP, while 5 subjects normalized after sham CPAP but not after CPAP. Overall, there was no improvement in ISI (0,120) between CPAP and sham CPAP (3.6%; 95% CI: [-2.2%, 9.7%]; P = 0.22). However, in those subjects with baseline AHI ≥ 30 (n = 25), there was a 13.3% (95% CI: [5.2%, 22.1%]; P CPAP compared to sham CPAP. Conclusions: This study did not show that IGT normalizes after CPAP in subjects with moderate sleep apnea and obesity. However, insulin sensitivity improved in those with AHI ≥ 30, suggesting beneficial metabolic effects of CPAP in severe sleep apnea. Clinical Trials Information: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01385995. Citation: Weinstock TG; Wang X; Rueschman M; Ismail-Beigi F; Aylor J; Babineau DC; Mehra R; Redline S. A controlled trial of CPAP therapy on metabolic control in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and sleep apnea. SLEEP 2012;35(5):617-625. PMID:22547887

  14. Human Milk and Donkey Milk, Compared to Cow Milk, Reduce Inflammatory Mediators and Modulate Glucose and Lipid Metabolism, Acting on Mitochondrial Function and Oleylethanolamide Levels in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; De Filippo, Chiara; Aceto, Serena; Prisco, Marina; Chun, Jong Tai; Penna, Eduardo; Negri, Rossella; Muredda, Laura; Demurtas, Andrea; Banni, Sebastiano; Berni-Canani, Roberto; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Calignano, Antonio; Meli, Rosaria; Greco, Luigi; Crispino, Marianna; Mollica, Maria P

    2018-01-01

    Scope: Milk from various species differs in nutrient composition. In particular, human milk (HM) and donkey milk (DM) are characterized by a relative high level of triacylglycerol enriched in palmitic acid in sn-2 position. These dietary fats seem to exert beneficial nutritional properties through N-acylethanolamine tissue modulation. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of cow milk (CM), DM, and HM on inflammation and glucose and lipid metabolism, focusing on mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics in skeletal muscle, which is the major determinant of resting metabolic rate. Moreover, we also evaluated the levels of endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines in liver and skeletal muscle, since tissue fatty acid profiles can be modulated by nutrient intervention. Procedures: To this aim, rats were fed with CM, DM, or HM for 4 weeks. Then, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were analyzed. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in serum and skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle was also processed to estimate mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics, oxidative stress, and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities. Fatty acid profiles, endocannabinoids, and N-acylethanolamine congeners were determined in liver and skeletal muscle tissue. Results: We demonstrated that DM or HM administration reducing inflammation status, improves glucose disposal and insulin resistance and reduces lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle. Moreover, HM or DM administration increases redox status, and mitochondrial uncoupling, affecting mitochondrial dynamics in the skeletal muscle. Interestingly, HM and DM supplementation increase liver and muscle levels of the N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA), a key regulator of lipid metabolism and inflammation. Conclusions: HM and DM have a healthy nutritional effect, acting on inflammatory factors and glucose and lipid metabolism. This beneficial effect is associated to a modulation of mitochondrial function

  15. Human Milk and Donkey Milk, Compared to Cow Milk, Reduce Inflammatory Mediators and Modulate Glucose and Lipid Metabolism, Acting on Mitochondrial Function and Oleylethanolamide Levels in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Trinchese

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Milk from various species differs in nutrient composition. In particular, human milk (HM and donkey milk (DM are characterized by a relative high level of triacylglycerol enriched in palmitic acid in sn-2 position. These dietary fats seem to exert beneficial nutritional properties through N-acylethanolamine tissue modulation. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of cow milk (CM, DM, and HM on inflammation and glucose and lipid metabolism, focusing on mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics in skeletal muscle, which is the major determinant of resting metabolic rate. Moreover, we also evaluated the levels of endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines in liver and skeletal muscle, since tissue fatty acid profiles can be modulated by nutrient intervention.Procedures: To this aim, rats were fed with CM, DM, or HM for 4 weeks. Then, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were analyzed. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in serum and skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle was also processed to estimate mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics, oxidative stress, and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities. Fatty acid profiles, endocannabinoids, and N-acylethanolamine congeners were determined in liver and skeletal muscle tissue.Results: We demonstrated that DM or HM administration reducing inflammation status, improves glucose disposal and insulin resistance and reduces lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle. Moreover, HM or DM administration increases redox status, and mitochondrial uncoupling, affecting mitochondrial dynamics in the skeletal muscle. Interestingly, HM and DM supplementation increase liver and muscle levels of the N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA, a key regulator of lipid metabolism and inflammation.Conclusions: HM and DM have a healthy nutritional effect, acting on inflammatory factors and glucose and lipid metabolism. This beneficial effect is associated to a modulation of

  16. Rare Sugar Syrup Containing d-Allulose but Not High-Fructose Corn Syrup Maintains Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Sensitivity Partly via Hepatic Glucokinase Translocation in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Tomoya; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Iida, Tetsuo; Nagata, Yasuo; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Toyoda, Yukiyasu

    2017-04-05

    Ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is associated with the risk of both diabetes and obesity. Rare sugar syrup (RSS) has been developed by alkaline isomerization of HFCS and has anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, the influence of RSS on glucose metabolism has not been explored. We investigated whether long-term administration of RSS maintains glucose tolerance and whether the underlying mechanism involves hepatic glucokinase translocation. Wistar rats were administered water, RSS, or HFCS in drinking water for 10 weeks and then evaluated for glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, liver glycogen content, and subcellular distribution of liver glucokinase. RSS significantly suppressed body weight gain and abdominal fat mass (p glucose tolerance test revealed significantly higher blood glucose levels in the HFCS group compared to the water group, whereas the RSS group had significantly lower blood glucose levels from 90 to 180 min (p water group (p glucose loading, the nuclear export of glucokinase was significantly increased in the RSS group compared to the water group. These results imply that RSS maintains glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, at least partly, by enhancing nuclear export of hepatic glucokinase.

  17. Clinical usefulness of the thickness of preperitoneal and subcutaneous fat layer in the abdomen estimated by ultrasonography for diagnosing abdominal obesity in each type of impaired glucose tolerance in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyama, Akiko; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Ishizuka, Toshiharu; Ito, Hiroko; Saito, Jun; Yagi, Kazuo; Saito, Yasushi

    2005-04-01

    For this study we enrolled 1,615 males who were admitted to our hospital for a general health check-up. Plasma glucose (PG) and insulin were measured during 75 g OGTT, and abdominal obesity was assessed by ultrasonography in all subjects. We divided them into several groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), high-normal glucose tolerance (h-NGT) who showed >10.0 nmol/l at 1 hr PG among those with NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), IFG + IGT, and DM, according to the results of 75 g OGTT. The aim of the present study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of pre-diabetic disorders relating to metabolic syndrome by comparing various parameters including body mass index (BMI), blood levels of various lipids and abdominal wall fat index (AFI) calculated from the thickness of preperitoneal (Pmax) and subcutaneous (Smin) fat layer in the abdomen estimated by ultrasonography with insulin sensitivity determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) in each type of abnormal glucose regulation as classified by PG changes in 75 g OGTT. We also investigated the relationship between insulin secretion capability and insulin sensitivity to delineate the characteristics of each type of abnormal glucose regulation, and compared the area under the insulin curve (AUCins) and the time axis, and the ability of early insulin secretion by glucose loading (insulinogenic index: I.I.) in each type of abnormal glucose regulation. There was a significant positive correlation between HOMA-IR and Smin or Pmax, suggesting that Smin and Pmax may reflect insulin sensitivity. Abdominal obesity, which was diagnosed from the data of AFI, was present in the h-NGT and IFG + IGT groups, suggesting that those groups belong to the clinical entity of metabolic syndrome. HOMA-IR was higher in IFG than in IGT, although I.I. was reduced and AUCins was increased in IFG as well as in IGT. h-NGT demonstrated a slightly lower I.I. and higher AUCins, compared with IGT

  18. Extra virgin olive oil improves post-prandial glycemic and lipid profile in patients with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Roberto; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Del Ben, Maria; Angelico, Francesco; Nocella, Cristina; Petruccioli, Andreina; Bartimoccia, Simona; Monticolo, Roberto; Cava, Edda; Violi, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) improves post-prandial glycaemia in healthy subjects but it has never been investigated if this can be detected in pre-diabetic patients. We investigated if EVOO affects post-prandial glucose and lipid profile in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Thirty IFG patients were randomly allocated to a meal containing or not 10 g of EVOO in a cross-over design. Before, 60 min and 120 min after lunch a blood sample was taken to measure glucose, insulin, Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1), dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP4) activity, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and Apo B-48. The meal containing EVOO was associated with a reduction of glucose (p = 0.009) and DPP4 activity (p < 0.001) and a significant increase of insulin (p < 0.001) and GLP-1 (p < 0.001) compared with the meal without EVOO. Furthermore, the meal containing EVOO showed a significant decrease of triglycerides (p = 0.002) and Apo B-48 (p = 0.002) compared with the meal without EVOO. Total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels did not significantly change between the two groups. This is the first study to show that in IFG patients EVOO improves post-prandial glucose and lipid profile with a mechanism probably related to incretin up-regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of anti-gut inflammatory agent on insulin resistance and lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of fasting blood glucose, fasting plasma insulin and the curve of glucose tolerance test (GTT) in mice fed LFD, HFD or HFC diet were not affected by 5-ASA treatment. Although plasma lipid levels were similar between 5-ASA consuming and non-5-ASA groups in mice fed LFD and HFD, improved lipid profile was ...

  20. [Change and correlated factors of fasting level of the plasma endotoxin in subjects with different glucose tolerances and body mass indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Hui; Zhao, Tie-Yun; Hou, Li-Qiong

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the change of the levels of fasting plasma endotoxin (ET) and assess its correlated factors in individuals with different glucose tolerances and body mass indices. The levels of fasting plasma ET were assayed by the endpoint chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate method in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The height, body mass, waist, hips, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured with the conventional methods; body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. All groups were divided into obesity (BMI>or=25 kg/m2) and non-obesity (BMIfasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 hours plasma glucose (2 hPG), fasting insulin (FINS), postprandial insulin (PINS), hemoglobin Alc (HbAlc), blood lipids, free fatty acids (FFA), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also analyzed, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The relationship of the levels of plasma ET with age, BMI, WHR, blood pressure, FBG, 2 hPG, FINS, PINS, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, blood lipids, FFA, AST and ALT were also analyzed. (1) The levels of plasma ET in T2DM group (n=37) was significantly higher than that in NGT group (n=37) [7. 1 (3. 7-11. 8) EU/mL vs. 4. 5 (2.2-6.3) EU/mL, P0. 05). (2) The levels of plasma ET in the obesity T2DM subgroup was higher than that in the non-obesity T2DM subgroup but the differences were not significant [7. 3 (3. 8-13. 3) EU/mL vs. 7.0 (3. 6-10. 4) EU/mL, P>0. 05]. There was a remarkable difference in the levels of plasma ET between obesity and non-obesity subgroup of IGR (6.8 (2.9-13.2) EU/mL vs. 2.7 (1.6-5. 5) EU/mL, Pobesity and non-obesity subgroup of NGT (6.2 (3. 4-12. 7) EU/mL vs. 2. 8 (1. 8-4. 9) EU/mL, P<0. 05). (3) Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that ET wasn' t the important factor influencing FBG and 2 hPG. But BMI and FBG were the important factors

  1. Effect of Guava in Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakavi, R; Mangaraj, Manaswini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fruit of Psidium guajava (P.guajava) is known to contain free sugars yet the fruit juice showed hypoglycaemic effect. Hypoglycaemic activity of guava leaves has been well documented but not for guava fruit. Aim So we aimed to evaluate the effect of ripe guava (with peel and without peel) fruit supplementation on blood glucose and lipid profile in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods Randomized Controlled study undertaken in: 1) Baseline; 2) 6 weeks supplementation phase. Forty five healthy MBBS students were included and randomly enrolled into Group A, Group B and Group C. In Baseline phase: Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and serum lipid profile was done in all 3 groups. Group A were supplemented with 400g of ripe guava with peel and group B without peel, for 6 weeks. Rest 15 treated as control i.e., Group C. Result Supplementation of ripe guava fruit with peel reduced BMI as well as blood pressure (pguava pulp supplementation was not significant. Serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLc) levels decreased significantly (pguava pulp without peel may have a favourable effect on lipid levels and blood sugar as well. Conclusion Guava fruit without peel is more effective in lowering blood sugar as well as serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDLc. It increases HDLc levels also. PMID:27790420

  2. Interaction between VEGF receptor-2 gene polymorphisms and dietary patterns on blood glucose and lipid levels in Chinese Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Shidoji, Yoshihiro; Hon, Wei Min; Masaki, Motofumi

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases is increasing and gene-diet interaction studies are limited among the Malaysian population. This study was conducted to evaluate the association and interaction effects of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2(VEGFR2) gene polymorphisms and dietary patterns on anthropometric and biochemical risk factors of chronic diseases in 179 Chinese Malaysian adults. Genotyping of rs1870377 and rs2071559 was performed by real-time PCR using TaqMan probes. Dietary patterns were constructed from the food frequency questionnaire using factor analysis. Anthropometric measurements: body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure and biomarkers: blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lipids were obtained. Two dietary patterns: 'Balanced diet' and 'Meat, rice and noodles diet' (MRND) were extracted. MRND was associated with higher BMI, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipids, while T alleles in both rs1870377 and rs2071559 were associated with higher blood lipids (p Malaysian adults. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Socioeconomic inequalities in lipid and glucose metabolism in early childhood in a population-based cohort: the ABCD-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg Gerrit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease are pervasive, yet much remains to be understood about how they originate. The objective of this study was to explore the relations of socioeconomic status to lipid and glucose metabolism as indicators of cardiovascular health in 5–6 year olds. Additionally to explore the explanatory role of maternal factors, birth outcome, and child factors. Methods In 1308 5–6 year old ethnic Dutch children from the ABCD cohort study, lipids (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, glucose and C-peptide were measured after an overnight-fast. Results There were no differences in cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides between socioeconomic groups, as indicated by maternal education and income adequacy. However, children of low educated mothers had on average a higher glucose (β = 0.15; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.03 – 0.27, logC-peptide (β = 0.07; 95% CI 0.04 – 0.09, and calculated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (β = 0.15; 95% CI 0.08 – 0.22 compared to children of high educated mothers. Only childhood BMI partly explained these differences (models controlled for age, height, and sex. Conclusions The socioeconomic gradient in cardiovascular risk factors seems to emerge in early childhood. In absence of underlying mechanisms these empirical findings are relevant for public health care and further explanatory research.

  4. A meta-analysis of efficacy of Morus alba Linn. to improve blood glucose and lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimarn, Wiraphol; Wichaiyo, Kittisak; Silpsavikul, Khuntawan; Sungthong, Bunleu; Saramunee, Kritsanee

    2017-06-01

    The previous studies have reported the Morus alba may improve blood glucose and lipid profile. The evidence from these studies is not consistent. This meta-analysis was to evaluate efficacy of products derived from M. alba on blood glucose and lipid levels. Literature was reviewed via international database (PubMed, PubMed Central, ScienceDirect, and SciSearch) and Thai databases. Thirteen RCTs with high quality, assessed by Jadad score, were included. M. alba expressed a significant reduction in postprandial glucose (PPG) at 30 min (MD -1.04, 95 % CI -1.36, -0.73), 60 min (MD -0.87, 95 % CI -1.27, -0.48) and 90 min (MD -0.55, 95 % CI -0.87, -0.22). The difference was not found in the levels of other glycaemic (FBS, HbA1C, or HOMA-IR) and lipidaemic (TC, TG, LDL, or HDL) markers. Serious adverse effects were found neither in the control nor in the group received M. alba. Products derived from M. alba can effectively contribute to the reduction in PPG levels, but large-scale RCTs would be informative.

  5. Central serotonergic neurons activate and recruit thermogenic brown and beige fat and regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlashon, Jacob M; Gorecki, Michelle C; Kozlowski, Amanda E; Thirnbeck, Caitlin K; Markan, Kathleen R; Leslie, Kirstie L; Kotas, Maya E; Potthoff, Matthew J; Richerson, George B; Gillum, Matthew P

    2015-05-05

    Thermogenic brown and beige adipocytes convert chemical energy to heat by metabolizing glucose and lipids. Serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the CNS are essential for thermoregulation and accordingly may control metabolic activity of thermogenic fat. To test this, we generated mice in which the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) was selectively expressed in central 5-HT neurons. Treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) eliminated 5-HT neurons and caused loss of thermoregulation, brown adipose tissue (BAT) steatosis, and a >50% decrease in uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) expression in BAT and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT). In parallel, blood glucose increased 3.5-fold, free fatty acids 13.4-fold, and triglycerides 6.5-fold. Similar BAT and beige fat defects occurred in Lmx1b(f/f)ePet1(Cre) mice in which 5-HT neurons fail to develop in utero. We conclude 5-HT neurons play a major role in regulating glucose and lipid homeostasis, in part through recruitment and metabolic activation of brown and beige adipocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracanthus longifolia on glucose tolerance in normal human subjects and in maturity-onset diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, M R; Wickramasinghe, N; Thabrew, M I; Ariyananda, P L; Karunanayake, E H

    1991-03-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effects of hot-water extracts of Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves and Asteracanthus longifolia whole plant material on the glucose tolerance of normal human subjects and maturity-onset diabetic patients. The extracts of both Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracanthus longifolia significantly improved glucose tolerance in the normal subjects and the diabetic patients when investigated at oral doses equivalent to 20 g/kg of starting material.

  7. Effect of Urtica Dioica Decoction on Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile in Stereptozotocin Induced Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sahraki

    Full Text Available Background: Since Urtica dioica is a traditional treatment plant and is used for antihypertensive, antilipidemic and antidiabetic agents, this survey was carried out to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica decoction on serum glucose and lipid profile in diabetic male rats induced by stereptozotocin (STZ. Materials and Methods: This experiment was performed on 30 Wistar-Albino male rats, weighing 200-250 g, which were divided in sham control (A, diabetic control (B and diabetic test groups (C randomly (N=10. Type I diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg. Test group received 0.40-0.60 ml of Urtica dioica decoction for a month by gavages, control group (B received the same volume of distill water. Group (A did not receive any agent during the experiment period. Finally, animals were anesthetized, sacrificed and blood samples were collected from the cervical vein. Then, serum glucose and lipid profiles were measured by ordinary methods. Data were analyzed by SPSS-11, using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean±SD, and statistical difference was considered significant by p<0.05.Results: Results in the present study showed that fasting blood glucose (FBS, total cholesterol (TCho, triglyceride (TG, LDL, food and water intake were significantly decreased in group C compared with those of group B, but body weight gain was significantly increased compared with that of control group (B.Conclusion: These results indicated that Urtica dioica decoction caused decreased FBS and improved serum lipids in diabetic male rats. Some more studies have shown the same mechanism.

  8. E4orf1 improves lipid and glucose metabolism in hepatocytes: a template to improve steatosis & hyperglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Dhurandhar

    Full Text Available Hepatic steatosis often accompanies obesity and insulin resistance. The cornerstones of steatosis treatment include reducing body weight and dietary fat intake, which are marginally successful over the long term. Ad36, a human adenovirus, may offer a template to overcome these limitations. In vitro and in vivo studies collectively indicate that via its E4orf1 protein, Ad36 improves hyperglycemia, and attenuates hepatic steatosis, despite a high fat diet and without weight loss. Considering that hepatic insulin sensitivity, or the synthesis, oxidation, or export of fatty acid by hepatocytes are the key determinant of hepatic lipid storage, we determined the role of E4orf1 protein in modulating these physiological pathways. For this study, HepG2 cells, or mouse primary hepatocytes were transfected with E4orf1 or the null vector. Glucose output by hepatocytes was determined under gluconeogenic conditions (cAMP and dexamethasone, or glucagon exposure. Also, de-novo lipogenesis, palmitate oxidation, and lipid export as determined by apoB secretion were measured 48 h post transfection. Results show that compared to null vector transfected cells, E4orf1 significantly reduced glucose output in basal and gluconeogenic conditions. E4orf1 reduced de-novo lipogenesis by about 35%, increased complete fatty acid oxidation 2-fold (p<0.0001, and apoB secretion 1.5 fold(p<0.003. Response of key signaling molecules to E4orf1 transfection was in agreement with these findings. Thus, E4orf1 offers a valuable template to exogenously modulate hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism may help develop therapeutic approaches for treating diabetes or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD.

  9. E4orf1 improves lipid and glucose metabolism in hepatocytes: a template to improve steatosis & hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, Emily J; Krishnapuram, Rashmi; Hegde, Vijay; Dubuisson, Olga; Tao, Rongya; Dong, X Charlie; Ye, Jianping; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis often accompanies obesity and insulin resistance. The cornerstones of steatosis treatment include reducing body weight and dietary fat intake, which are marginally successful over the long term. Ad36, a human adenovirus, may offer a template to overcome these limitations. In vitro and in vivo studies collectively indicate that via its E4orf1 protein, Ad36 improves hyperglycemia, and attenuates hepatic steatosis, despite a high fat diet and without weight loss. Considering that hepatic insulin sensitivity, or the synthesis, oxidation, or export of fatty acid by hepatocytes are the key determinant of hepatic lipid storage, we determined the role of E4orf1 protein in modulating these physiological pathways. For this study, HepG2 cells, or mouse primary hepatocytes were transfected with E4orf1 or the null vector. Glucose output by hepatocytes was determined under gluconeogenic conditions (cAMP and dexamethasone, or glucagon exposure). Also, de-novo lipogenesis, palmitate oxidation, and lipid export as determined by apoB secretion were measured 48 h post transfection. Results show that compared to null vector transfected cells, E4orf1 significantly reduced glucose output in basal and gluconeogenic conditions. E4orf1 reduced de-novo lipogenesis by about 35%, increased complete fatty acid oxidation 2-fold (pE4orf1 transfection was in agreement with these findings. Thus, E4orf1 offers a valuable template to exogenously modulate hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism may help develop therapeutic approaches for treating diabetes or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD).

  10. Hepatocyte MyD88 affects bile acids, gut microbiota and metabolome contributing to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duparc, Thibaut; Plovier, Hubert; Marrachelli, Vannina G

    2017-01-01

    performed microarrays and quantitative PCRs in the liver. In addition, we investigated the gut microbiota composition, bile acid profile and both liver and plasma metabolome. We analysed the expression pattern of genes in the liver of obese humans developing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). RESULTS...... proliferator activator receptor-α, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), liver X receptors and STAT3) and bile acid profiles involved in glucose, lipid metabolism and inflammation. In addition to these alterations, the genetic deletion of MyD88 in hepatocytes changes the gut microbiota composition and their metabolomes...

  11. Brain GLUT4 Knockout Mice Have Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Decreased Insulin Sensitivity, and Impaired Hypoglycemic Counterregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reno, Candace M; Puente, Erwin C; Sheng, Zhenyu; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Bree, Adam J; Routh, Vanessa H; Kahn, Barbara B; Fisher, Simon J

    2017-03-01

    GLUT4 in muscle and adipose tissue is important in maintaining glucose homeostasis. However, the role of insulin-responsive GLUT4 in the central nervous system has not been well characterized. To assess its importance, a selective knockout of brain GLUT4 (BG4KO) was generated by crossing Nestin-Cre mice with GLUT4-floxed mice. BG4KO mice had a 99% reduction in GLUT4 protein expression throughout the brain. Despite normal feeding and fasting glycemia, BG4KO mice were glucose intolerant, demonstrated hepatic insulin resistance, and had reduced glucose uptake in the brain. In response to hypoglycemia, BG4KO mice had impaired glucose sensing, noted by impaired epinephrine and glucagon responses and impaired c-fos activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Moreover, in vitro glucose sensing of glucose-inhibitory neurons from the ventromedial hypothalamus was impaired in BG4KO mice. In summary, BG4KO mice are glucose intolerant, insulin resistant, and have impaired glucose sensing, indicating a critical role for brain GLUT4 in sensing and responding to changes in blood glucose. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Brain GLUT4 Knockout Mice Have Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Decreased Insulin Sensitivity, and Impaired Hypoglycemic Counterregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reno, Candace M.; Puente, Erwin C.; Sheng, Zhenyu; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Bree, Adam J.; Routh, Vanessa H.; Kahn, Barbara B.

    2017-01-01

    GLUT4 in muscle and adipose tissue is important in maintaining glucose homeostasis. However, the role of insulin-responsive GLUT4 in the central nervous system has not been well characterized. To assess its importance, a selective knockout of brain GLUT4 (BG4KO) was generated by crossing Nestin-Cre mice with GLUT4-floxed mice. BG4KO mice had a 99% reduction in GLUT4 protein expression throughout the brain. Despite normal feeding and fasting glycemia, BG4KO mice were glucose intolerant, demonstrated hepatic insulin resistance, and had reduced glucose uptake in the brain. In response to hypoglycemia, BG4KO mice had impaired glucose sensing, noted by impaired epinephrine and glucagon responses and impaired c-fos activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Moreover, in vitro glucose sensing of glucose-inhibitory neurons from the ventromedial hypothalamus was impaired in BG4KO mice. In summary, BG4KO mice are glucose intolerant, insulin resistant, and have impaired glucose sensing, indicating a critical role for brain GLUT4 in sensing and responding to changes in blood glucose. PMID:27797912

  13. Dietary patterns predict changes in two-hour post-oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose concentrations in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cathrine; Toft, Ulla; Tetens, Inge; Carstensen, Bendix; Jørgensen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-03-01

    We examined whether the adherence to major dietary patterns at baseline of 5824 nondiabetic Danes (30-60 y) enrolled in the nonpharmacological Inter99 intervention predicted changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postchallenge 2-h plasma glucose (2h-PG) concentrations during a 5 y period and whether a potential association was dependent on baseline glucose tolerance status. Through principal component analysis, a score for a traditional dietary pattern (characterized by higher intakes of high-fat sandwich spreads, red meat, potatoes, butter and lard, low-fat fish, sandwich meat, and sauces) and a score for a modern dietary pattern (characterized by higher intakes of vegetables, fruit, vegetable oil/vinegar dressing, poultry, pasta, rice, and cereals) were estimated for each person at baseline. Random effect models adjusting for relevant confounders were used to estimate changes in repetitive measures of FPG and 2h-PG. A higher modern score (of 1 SD) predicted an annual decrease in 2h-PG of 0.015 mmol/L (P dressing, poultry, pasta, rice, and cereals.

  14. The 1997 American Diabetes Association criteria versus the 1985 World Health Organization criteria for the diagnosis of abnormal glucose tolerance : poor agreement in the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vegt, F; Dekker, J M; Stehouwer, C D; Nijpels, G; Bouter, L M; Heine, R J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recently, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) introduced new diagnostic criteria. These new criteria are based on fasting plasma glucose levels, avoiding the burdensome oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We compared the 1997 ADA criteria with the 1985 World Health Organization (WHO)

  15. Favorable glucose tolerance and lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in offspring without diabetes mellitus of nonagenarian siblings: the Leiden longevity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozing, Maarten P; Westendorp, Rudi G J; de Craen, Anton J M; Frölich, Marijke; de Goeij, Moniek C M; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Beekman, Marian; Wijsman, Carolien A; Mooijaart, Simon P; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; Slagboom, P Eline; van Heemst, Diana

    2010-03-01

    To explore measures of metabolic syndrome and glucose metabolism in families with exceptional longevity. Case-control study. A university hospital in Leiden, the Netherlands. One hundred twenty-one offspring of nonagenarian siblings, who were enriched for familial factors promoting longevity, and 113 of their partners. No subject had diabetes mellitus. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program. Glucose tolerance was assessed according to a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. The offspring of nonagenarians siblings had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (P=.03), similar body composition, lower mean fasting blood glucose levels (4.99 vs 5.16 mmol/L; P=.01), lower mean fasting insulin levels (5.81 vs 6.75 mU/L; P=.04), a higher mean homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (0.78 vs 0.65; P=.02), and a more-favorable glucose tolerance (mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for glucose (13.2 vs 14.3; P=.007) than their partners. No significant differences were observed between the offspring and their partners in beta-cell function (insulogenic index 13.6 vs 12.5; P=.38). Despite similar body composition, the offspring of nonagenarian siblings showed a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and better glucose tolerance than their partners, centralizing the role of favorable glucose metabolism in familial longevity.

  16. Reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet impairs the incretin effect in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K B; Vilsbøll, T; Bagger, J I

    2010-01-01

    The loss of incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be secondary to impaired glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet in healthy young males...

  17. [Effect of FABP2 gene G54A polymorphism on lipid and glucose metabolism in simple obesity children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunpeng; Rao, Xiaojiao; Hao, Min; Hou, Lijuan; Zhu, Xiaobo; Chang, Xiaotong

    2016-01-01

    To explore the relationship between intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) gene G54A polymorphism and simple childhood obesity, the effect of mutant 54A FABP2 gene on serum lipids and glucose metabolism. The total of 83 subjects with overweight/obesity and 100 subjects with healthy/normal weight were involved in this study. The G54A FABP2 gene allele and genotype frequencies between control group and overweight/obesity group were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technology, and DNA sequences were confirmed by DNA sequencing. The automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Plasma insulin (Ins) was detected by radiation immune method, free fatty acids (FFA) was tested by ELISA method, insulin resistance index ( HOMA-IR ) was also calculated. The correlation between FABP2 G54A polymorphism and the development of children' obesity was analyzed. The relation between FABP2 G54A polymorphism and abnormal blood lipid and insulin resistance was assessed. The results of study on FABP2 gene polymorphism revealed as followed. In overweight/obese groups, the frequencies of GG, GA, AA genotypes was 33.7%, 49.4% and 16.9%, respectively. In control group, the frequencies of GG, GA, AA genotypes was 51. 0% , 40. 0% and 9. 0% , respectively. The differences between two groups was statistically significant (Χ2 = 6.27, P 0.05). The FABP2 gene G54A polymorphism is related to simple children obesity and lipid metabolism abnormality. The allele encoding in FABP2 gene may be a potential factor contributing to promoting lipid metabolism abnormality of and insulin resistance.

  18. Colors of fruits and vegetables and 3-year changes of cardiometabolic risk factors in adults: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, P; Bahadoran, Z; Moslehi, N; Bastan, S; Azizi, F

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the associations of colors of fruit and vegetable (FV) subgroups, with 3-year changes of cardiometabolic risk factors. This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006-2008 and 2009-2011, on 1272 adults. Total intake of FV and their subgroups have been assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline (2006-2008) and again at the second examination (2009-2011). Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical measures were evaluated at baseline and 3 years later. The associations of anthropometric and lipid profile changes with FV subgroups were estimated. The mean age of men and women at baseline was 39.8±12.7 and 37.3±12.1 years, respectively. Mean total intake of FV, red/purple, yellow, green, orange and white FV was 706±337, 185±95, 141±91, 152±77, 141±87 and 22±18 g/day, respectively. In men, 3-year changes of weight (β=-0.13, P=0.01) and waist circumference (β=-0.14, P=0.01) were related to intake of red/purple FV; the yellow group was inversely associated with 3-year changes of total cholesterol (β=-0.09, P=0.03) and High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β=-0.11, P=0.03). Consumption of green and white FV was inversely related to abdominal fat gain, and atherogenic lipid parameters in men (Pfasting serum glucose and total cholesterol (P<0.05); yellow FV was also related to 3-year weight gain (β=-0.11, P=0.01). Various colors of FV subgroups had different effects on cardiometabolic risk factors; higher intake of red/purple FV may be related to lower weight and abdominal fat gain, and yellow, green and white FV may be related to lipid parameters.

  19. Liver X receptor antagonist reduces lipid formation and increases glucose metabolism in myotubes from lean, obese and type 2 diabetic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kase, E T; Thoresen, G H; Westerlund, S

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Liver X receptors (LXRs) play important roles in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate effects of the endogenous LXR agonist 22-R-hydroxycholesterol (22-R-HC) and its stereoisomer 22-S-hydroxycholesterol (22-S-HC), in comparison...... with the synthetic agonist T0901317 on lipid and glucose metabolism in human skeletal muscle cells (myotubes). METHODS: Myotubes established from lean and obese control volunteers and from obese type 2 diabetic volunteers were treated with LXR ligands for 4 days. Lipid and glucose metabolisms were studied...... with labelled precursors, and gene expression was analysed using real-time PCR. RESULTS: Treatment with T0901317 increased lipogenesis (de novo lipid synthesis) and lipid accumulation in myotubes, this increase being more pronounced in myotubes from type 2 diabetic volunteers than from lean volunteers...

  20. Glucose-induced lipid deposition in goose primary hepatocytes is dependent on the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chunchun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that fatty liver formation in overfed geese was accompanied by PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway activation and changes in plasma glucose concentrations. Here, we show that glucose acts in goose hepatocellular lipid metabolism through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. We observed that glucose increased lipogenesis, decreased fatty acid oxidation and increased very low density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG assembly and secretion. Co-treatment with glucose and inhibitors of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway (LY294002, rapamycin, NVP-BEZ235 decreased the levels of factors involved in lipogenesis and increased the levels of factors involved in fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion. These findings show that inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway decreased glucose-induced lipogenesis, inhibited the downregulation of fatty acid oxidation by glucose and increased the upregulation of VLDL-TG assembly and secretion by glucose. The results presented herein provide further support for the role of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in lipid metabolism as we showed that in goose primary hepatocytes, glucose acts through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR-dependent pathway to stimulate lipid deposition by increasing lipogenesis and decreasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion.

  1. Dietary phytochemical index and subsequent changes of lipid profile: A 3-year follow-up in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Golzarand

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High intakes of phytochemical-rich foods have beneficial effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease (CVD. In this study, we assessed the association between the dietary phytochemical index (PI and changes in lipid profile after 3-year follow-up among Iranian adults. METHODS: This longitudinal study was conducted in 1983 subjects, aged 19-70 years, selected among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Dietary data were collected by using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 168 food items at baseline. PI was calculated based on daily energy derived from [(phytochemical-rich foods kcal/total daily energy intake kcal × 100]. Lipid profile was measured at baseline and after 3 years and changes in serum lipid profiles were assessed during 3-year follow-up. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 40.4 ± 13.0 years; participants in the highest PI quartile category were more likely to be older. After 3 years of follow-up, total cholesterol was significantly lower in the highest quartile compared with lower quartile of PI in men (181 ± 3 vs. 189 ± 3, P for trend <0.05. There were significant inverse association between dietary PI and 3 years changes of total cholesterol [β: −5.6, 95% confidence interval (CI = −9.3, −1.8], triglycerides (β = −13.7, 95% CI = −24.6, −2.8, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (β = −6.2, 95% CI = −10.8, −1.5, in highest quartile of PI in men. Lipid profiles showed no significant changes over the study period in women. CONCLUSION: Higher dietary PI is associated with 3 years improvement of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-HDL-C. Higher consumption of phytochemical-rich foods is recommended to prevent CVD.   Keywords: Phytochemical, Triglyceride, Cholesterol, Fruit and vegetables, Whole Grains 

  2. Effect of zinc supplementation on insulin resistance, energy and macronutrients intakes in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanravan, Neda; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Hedayati, Mehdi; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Mesri Alamdari, Naimeh; Anari, Farideh; Tarighat-Esfanjani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Hyperglycemia and gestational diabetes mellitus are complications of pregnancy. Both mothers and newborns are typically at increased risk for complications. This study sought to determine effect of zinc supplementation on serum glucose levels, insulin resistance, energy and macronutrients intakes in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance. In this clinical trial 44 pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance, from December 2012 -April 2013 were randomly divided into zinc (n=22) and placebo (n=22) groups and recived 30mg/day zinc gluconate and (n=22), and placebo for eight consecutive weeks respectively. Dietary food intake was estimated from 3-days diet records. Serum levels of zinc, fasting blood sugar, and insulin were measured by conventional methods. Also homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated. Serumlevels of fasting blood sugar, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance slightly decreased in zinc group, but these changes were not statistically significant. Serum zinc levels (P =0.012), energy (P=0.037), protein (P=0.019) and fat (P=0.017) intakes increased statistically significant in the zinc group after intervention but not in the placebo group. Oral supplementation with zinc could be effective in increasing serum zinc levels and energy intake with no effects on fasting blood sugar, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and insulin levels.

  3. Inhibitor tolerance of a recombinant flocculating industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain during glucose and xylose co-fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheng Li

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have negative effects on the ethanol fermentation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the effects of eight typical inhibitors, including weak acids, furans, and phenols, on glucose and xylose co-fermentation of the recombinant xylose-fermenting flocculating industrial S. cerevisiae strain NAPX37 were evaluated by batch fermentation. Inhibition on glucose fermentation, not that on xylose fermentation, correlated with delayed cell growth. The weak acids and the phenols showed additive effects. The effect of inhibitors on glucose fermentation was as follows (from strongest to weakest: vanillin > phenol > syringaldehyde > 5-HMF > furfural > levulinic acid > acetic acid > formic acid. The effect of inhibitors on xylose fermentation was as follows (from strongest to weakest: phenol > vanillin > syringaldehyde > furfural > 5-HMF > formic acid > levulinic acid > acetic acid. The NAPX37 strain showed substantial tolerance to typical inhibitors and showed good fermentation characteristics, when a medium with inhibitor cocktail or rape straw hydrolysate was used. This research provides important clues for inhibitors tolerance of recombinant industrial xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae.

  4. Triglycerides to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio Can Predict Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Do Kyeong; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon Ah; Oh, Jee Young

    2016-11-01

    The triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio could be related to insulin resistance (IR). We previously reported that Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) had a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We aimed to determine the cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR and to examine whether the TG/HDL-C ratio is useful for identifying individuals at risk of IGT in young Korean women with PCOS. We recruited 450 women with PCOS (24±5 yrs) and performed a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). IR was assessed by a homeostasis model assessment index over that of the 95th percentile of regular-cycling women who served as the controls (n=450, 24±4 yrs). The cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR was 2.5 in women with PCOS. Among the women with PCOS who had normal fasting glucose (NFG), the prevalence of IGT was significantly higher in the women with PCOS who had a high TG/HDL-C ratio compared with those with a low TG/HDL-C ratio (15.6% vs. 5.6%, p2.5 are recommended to be administered an OGTT to detect IGT even if they have NFG.

  5. Pioglitazone is equally effective for diabetes prevention in older versus younger adults with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Sara E; Wang, Chen-Pin; Tripathy, Devjit; Clement, Stephen C; Schwenke, Dawn C; Banerji, Mary Ann; Bray, George A; Buchanan, Thomas A; Henry, Robert R; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Mudaliar, Sunder; Stentz, Frankie B; Reaven, Peter D; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Musi, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    To determine the efficacy of pioglitazone to prevent type 2 diabetes in older compared to younger adults with pre-diabetes. Six hundred two participants with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were randomized in double blind fashion to placebo or pioglitazone for diabetes prevention in the ACT NOW study (NEJM 364:1104-1115, 2011). Cox proportional hazard regression was used to compare time to development of diabetes over a mean of 2 years between older (≥61 years) and younger participants. We compared effects of pioglitazone versus placebo on metabolic profiles, inflammatory markers, adipokines, β cell function (disposition index), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), and body composition by ANOVA. Diabetes incidence was reduced by 85 % in older and 69 % in younger subjects (p = 0.41). β cell function (disposition index) increased by 35.0 % in the older and 26.7 % in younger subjects (p = 0.83). Insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) increased by 3.07 (5.2-fold) in older and by 2.54 (3.8-fold) in younger participants (p = 0.58). Pioglitazone more effectively increased adiponectin in older versus younger subjects (22.9 ± 3.2 μg/mL [2.7-fold] vs. 12.7 ± 1.4 μg/mL [2.2-fold], respectively; p = 0.04). Younger subjects tended to have a greater increase in whole body fat mass compared to older subjects (3.6 vs. 3.1 kg; p = 0.061). Younger and older subjects had similar decreases in bone mineral density (0.018 ± 0.0071 vs. 0.0138 ± 0.021 g/cm 2 ). Younger and older pre-diabetic adults taking pioglitazone had similar reductions in conversion to diabetes and older adults had similar or greater improvements in metabolic risk factors, demonstrating that pioglitazone is useful in preventing diabetes in older adults.

  6. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide promotes lipid deposition in subcutaneous adipocytes in obese type 2 diabetes patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thondam, Sravan K; Daousi, Christina; Wilding, John P H

    2017-01-01

    is anabolic in human subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) promoting triacylglycerol (TAG) deposition through reesterification of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and this effect may differ according to obesity status or glucose tolerance. Twenty-three subjects categorized into four groups, normoglycemic lean (n...... = 6), normoglycemic obese (n = 6), obese with impaired glucose regulation (IGR; n = 6), and obese T2DM (n = 5), participated in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study involving a hyperglycemic clamp with a 240-min GIP infusion (2 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1)) or normal saline. Insulin, NEFA, SAT......-TAG content, and gene expression of key lipogenic enzymes were determined before and immediately after GIP/saline infusions. GIP lowered NEFA concentrations in the obese T2DM group despite diminished insulinotropic activity (mean NEFA AUC0-4 h ± SE, 41,992 ± 9,843 µmol·l(-1)·min(-1) vs. 71,468 ± 13...

  7. Determining pancreatic β-cell compensation for changing insulin sensitivity using an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Malin, Steven K; Karstoft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses during an OGTT are informative for both research and clinical practice in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to use such information to determine insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion so as to calculate an oral glucose disposition index...

  8. Glucose and cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, M.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Mudde, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association and the World Health Organisation have recently redefined the spectrum of abnormal glucose tolerance. The criteria for diabetes mellitus were sharpened and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were classified as intermediate stages

  9. Alpha2delta-1 in SF1+ Neurons of the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Is an Essential Regulator of Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Felsted

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The central mechanisms controlling glucose and lipid homeostasis are inadequately understood. We show that α2δ-1 is an essential regulator of glucose and lipid balance, acting in steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1 neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH. These effects are body weight independent and involve regulation of SF1+ neuronal activity and sympathetic output to metabolic tissues. Accordingly, mice with α2δ-1 deletion in SF1 neurons exhibit glucose intolerance, altered lipolysis, and decreased cholesterol content in adipose tissue despite normal energy balance regulation. Profound reductions in the firing rate of SF1 neurons, decreased sympathetic output, and elevated circulating levels of serotonin are associated with these alterations. Normal calcium currents but reduced excitatory postsynaptic currents in mutant SF1 neurons implicate α2δ-1 in the promotion of excitatory synaptogenesis separate from its canonical role as a calcium channel subunit. Collectively, these findings identify an essential mechanism that regulates VMH neuronal activity and glycemic and lipid control and may be a target for tackling metabolic disease. : Felsted et al. show a required role of the calcium channel subunit and thrombospondin receptor α2δ-1 in regulating glucose and lipid homeostasis in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH. These effects are caused by regulation of SF1+ neuronal activity in the VMH through non-canonical mechanisms and concomitant influences on sympathetic output. Keywords: diabetes, VMH, hypothalamus, glucose, norepinephrine, serotonin, excitability, lipid, SF1

  10. Profile of liver enzymes in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and newly detected untreated type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The perception of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD as an uncommon and benign condition is rapidly changing. Approximately, 70% type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients have a fatty liver, which may follow an aggressive course with necroinflammation and fibrosis. Aims: To assess the profile of liver enzymes in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, new onset treatment naive T2DM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT with and without NAFLD. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional clinic-based study. Subjects and Methods: 152 IGT and 158 recently detected T2DM subjects aged between 30 and 69 years, along with 160 age and gender matched controls with NGT. An ultrasonography scan of the upper abdomen was done in all patients in order to examine presence of fatty liver. Anthropometry, lipid profile, liver enzymes were also analyzed in all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t-test, Chi-square/Fisher Exact test (for categorical variables, Pearson/Spearmen correlation test to find significant difference, association and correlation between two or more groups respectively. Results: NAFLD was significantly associated with higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT but not ALP levels in IGT and T2DM patients. ALT, GGT significant correlated with waist circumference, body mass index, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment- insulin resistance, fasting blood glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride. 57% of NAFLD patients had normal ALT between 25 and 40 U/L, 53% of NAFLD subjects had normal GGT between 15 and 30 U/L. ALT 40 U/L and GGT > 30 U/L had highest positive predictivity for presence of NAFLD in our study sample. Conclusions: Mild elevations of liver enzymes in the upper normal range are associated with features of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD even in IGT and recently detected T2DM patients. Novel cut-offs for liver enzymes are warranted in order to prevent unnecessary

  11. Bifidogenic effect of grain larvae extract on serum lipid, glucose and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-07-19

    Jul 19, 2015 ... sity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes as a result of rapid aging and a ... crobial activity, immunity, and blood lipid metabolism and increase ..... Higgins DA 1975 Physical and chemical properties of fowl immu- noglobulins.

  12. Hepatitis C virus eradication by direct antiviral agents improves glucose tolerance and reduces post-load insulin resistance in nondiabetic patients with genotype 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Federico; Catania, Maurizio; Montineri, Arturo; Bertino, Gaetano; Godos, Justyna; Rizzo, Leonardo; Magrì, Giovanni; Li Volti, Giovanni

    2017-12-19

    Genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C is associated with an impairment of glucose homoeostasis, especially in the advanced stages of the disease. Glucose tolerance is an independent predictor of liver-related mortality in patients with cirrhosis because of chronic hepatitis C. However, no study has demonstrated so far weather hepatitis C virus clearance affects glucose tolerance. To this aim, we performed a prospective study assessing the effects of direct antiviral agents treatment in nondiabetic cirrhotic patients with genotypes 1a/1b and impaired glucose tolerance based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Impaired glucose tolerance was diagnosed by a 2-hour plasma glucose between 140 and 199 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was estimated by the oral glucose insulin sensitivity index, an oral glucose tolerance test-derived measure. After meeting the inclusion criteria, the study population included 32 outpatients (26/6 genotypes 1b/1a; age 62 ± 7.4 years; 18 males) with compensated Child-A cirrhosis. All patients achieved a sustained virological response following direct antiviral agents treatment. After viral eradication, we did not observe change in fasting plasma glucose (103.5 ± 7.1 vs 102.8 ± 7.2 mg/dL, P = .15) but 2-hour plasma glucose was reduced (165.2 ± 22.7 vs 138.5 ± 21.3 mg/dL, P Hepatitis C virus eradication led also to a significant reduction in HbA1c (6.1 ± 0.2% vs 5.7 ± 0.3%, P resistance as assessed by the oral glucose insulin sensitivity index (6.92 ± 1.56 vs 9.52 ± 1.39 mg/kg/min, P  .5). Our results indicate that hepatitis C virus eradication may early improve glucose tolerance in patients with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Peri and Postparturient Concentrations of Lipid Lipoprotein Insulin and Glucose in Normal Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞOĞLU, Abdullah; SEVİNÇ, Mutlu; OK, Mahmut

    1998-01-01

    In order to provide uniqe insight into the metabolic disturbences seen after calving cholesterol, triglycerid, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose and insulin levels in serum were studied before calving (group I), in aerly (group II) and late (group III) lactation in 24 normal cows. Serum lipoproteins were separeted into various density classes by repeated ultracentrifugation. The results indicate that there was a rise in glucose, trygl...

  14. The influence of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on weight loss, plasma ghrelin, insulin, glucose and lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hady Razak Hady

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of laparoscopic gastric banding and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on the concentration of ghrelin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol, as well as AST and ALT levels in plasma in patients with obesity. The research includes 200 patients operated using LAGB (34 men average age 37.0 ± 12.6 years and 66 women average age 39.18 ± 12.17 years and LSG (48 men average age 47.93 ± 9.24 years and 52 women, 19 ± 9.33 years. The percentage of effective weight loss, effective BMI loss, concentration of ghrelin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ALT, AST and HOMA IR values was taken preoperatively and at 7th day, 1 month, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Both after LSG and after LAGB, statistically significant reduction in BMI, serum insulin, glucose and HOMA IR was noticed in comparison to the preoperative values. Post LAGB, patients showed an increase of ghrelin, while LSG proved ghrelin decreased. Correlations between glucose and BMI loss, and between insulin and BMI loss in both cases are more favorable in the LSG group. Lipid parameters, AST and ALT have undergone declines or  increases in the particular time points. Both techniques cause weight loss and this way lead to changes in the concentration of ghrelin, as well as to the improvement of insulin, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides metabolism. They reduce metabolic syndrome and multiple comorbidities of obesity.

  15. Long-term inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV improves glucose tolerance and preserves islet function in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, M Kvist; Holst, Jens Juul; Ahrén, B

    2002-01-01

    DPPIV activity to 0.01+/-0.03 mU/ml vs 3.26+/-0.19 mU/ml in controls (PGlucose tolerance after gastric glucose gavage, as judged by the area under the curve for plasma glucose levels over the 120 min study period, was increased after 8 weeks by NVP DPP728 in mice fed normal diet (P=0.......029) and in mice fed a high-fat diet (P=0.036). This was accompanied by increased plasma levels of insulin and intact GLP-1. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from islets isolated from NVP DPP728-treated animals after 8 weeks of treatment was increased as compared with islets from control animals at 5.6, 8...... and such mice rendered glucose-intolerant and insulin-resistant by feeding a high-fat diet. DESIGN: In mice fed a standard diet (11% fat) or a high-fat diet (58% fat), NVP DPP728 (0.12 micromol/g body weight) was administered in the drinking water for an 8 week period. RESULTS: DPPIV inhibition reduced plasma...

  16. The association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and central pulse pressure after an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Te; Chen, Chen-Huan; Wang, Jun-Sing; Fu, Chia-Po; Lee, Wen-Jane; Liang, Kae-Woei; Lin, Shih-Yi; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2018-01-01

    Arterial stiffening blunts postprandial vasodilatation. We hypothesized that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may modulate postprandial central pulse pressure, a surrogate marker for arterial stiffening. A total of 82 non-diabetic subjects received a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after overnight fasting. Serum BDNF concentrations were determined at 0, 30, and 120min to calculate the area under the curve (AUC). Brachial and central blood pressures were measured using a noninvasive central blood pressure monitor before blood withdrawals at 0 and 120min. With the median AUC of BDNF of 45(ng/ml)∗h as the cutoff value, the central pulse pressure after glucose intake was significantly higher in the subjects with a low BDNF than in those with a high BDNF (63±16 vs. 53±11mmHg, P=0.003), while the brachial pulse pressure was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P=0.099). In a multivariate linear regression model, a lower AUC of BDNF was an independent predictor of a higher central pulse pressure after oral glucose intake (linear regression coefficient-0.202, 95% confidence interval-0.340 to -0.065, P=0.004). After oral glucose challenge, a lower serum BDNF response is significantly associated with a higher central pulse pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Glucose tolerance status of Asian Indian women with gestational diabetes at 6weeks to 1year postpartum (WINGS-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavadharini, Balaji; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mahalakshmi, Manni Mohanraj; Maheswari, Kumar; Kayal, Arivudainambi; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Ranjani, Harish; Ninov, Lyudmil; Pastakia, Sonak D; Usha, Sriram; Malanda, Belma; Belton, Anne; Uma, Ram; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-07-01

    To determine postpartum glucose tolerance status among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) recruited under the Women In India with GDM Strategy (WINGS) Model of Care (MOC). Through the WINGS MOC programme, 212 women with GDM were followed till delivery between November 2013 and August 2015. All women were advised to return for a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 6-12weeks after delivery. A multivariate logistic regression (MLR) model was developed to identify the risk factors for postpartum dysglycemia which was defined as presence of diabetes (DM) or prediabetes. 203/212(95.8%) women completed their postpartum OGTT. Of the 161 women (79.3%) who came back for the test between 6 and 12weeks, 2(1.2%) developed DM, 5(3.1%), isolated IFG, 13(8.1%), isolated IGT and 5(3.1%) combined IFG/IGT [dysglycemia 25(15.5%)]. 136 women (84.5%) reverted to normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Of the 42 women who came back between 12weeks and a year, 5(11.9%) developed DM, 10(23.8%), isolated IFG and 1(2.4%) combined IFG/IGT [dysglycemia 16(38.1%)]. 26/42 women (61.9%) reverted to NGT. Thus overall dysglycemia occurred in 41/203 women (20.2%). MLR showed that BMI ⩾25kg/m(2) was significantly associated with postpartum dysglycemia (odds ratio: 4.47; 95% confidence interval: 1.8-11.2, p=0.001). Among Asian Indian women with GDM, over 20% develop dysglycemia within one year postpartum, and BMI ⩾25kg/m(2) increased this risk four-fold. Early postpartum screening can identify high risk women and help plan strategies for prevention of type 2 diabetes in the future. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Circadian rhythms of GIP and GLP1 in glucose-tolerant and in type 2 diabetic patients after biliopancreatic diversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mingrone, G; Nolfe, G; Gissey, G Castagneto

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We tested the hypothesis that the reversibility of insulin resistance and diabetes observed after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is related to changes in circadian rhythms of gastrointestinal hormones. METHODS: Ten morbidly obese participants, five with normal glucose tolerance......(-1)). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: An incretin circadian rhythm was shown for the first time in morbid obesity. The effect of BPD on the 24 h pattern of incretin differed between NGT and diabetic patients. GLP1 secretion impairment was reversed in NGT and could not be overcome by surgery in diabetes...

  19. Effects of different periods of paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep recovery on lipid and glucose metabolism and appetite hormones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brianza-Padilla, Malinalli; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda; Almanza-Pérez, Julio César; López-López, Ana Laura; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Vázquez-Palacios, Gonzalo

    2016-03-01

    Sleep has a fundamental role in the regulation of energy balance, and it is an essential and natural process whose precise impacts on health and disease have not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of different periods of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and recovery from PSD on lipid profile, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results, and changes in insulin, corticosterone, ghrelin, and leptin concentrations. Three-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 250-350 g were submitted to 24, 96, or 192 h of PSD or 192 h of PSD with 480 h of recovery. The PSD was induced by the multiple platforms method. Subsequently, the animals were submitted to an OGTT. One day later, the animals were killed and the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipoproteins (low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein), insulin, ghrelin, leptin, and corticosterone in plasma were quantified. There was a progressive decrease in body weight with increasing duration of PSD. The PSD induced basal hypoglycemia over all time periods evaluated. Evaluation of areas under the curve revealed progressive hypoglycemia only after 96 and 192 h of PSD. There was an increase in corticosterone levels after 192 h of PSD. We conclude that PSD induces alterations in metabolism that are reversed after a recovery period of 20 days.

  20. The influence of INS VNTR class III allele on auxological parameters, glucose, insulin, lipids, and adipocytokines secretion in prepubertal children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawerska, Renata; Szałapska, Małgorzata; Borowiec, Maciej; Antosik, Karolina; Młynarski, Wojciech; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The insulin gene variable number of tandem repeats (INS VNTR) class III allele has been implicated in lower birth weight, obesity, and insulin resistance. We assessed its influence on birth weight in the Polish population and on the current body mass and metabolic profile in prepubertal children born small for gestational age (SGA). DNA for genotyping of INS VNTR was available for 123 subjects born SGA and 132 born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). We identified two alleles: class I and class III. Next, in 112 prepubertal (aged: 6.8 ± 1.38 years) SGA children, the auxological measurements, fasting serum C-peptide, triglycerides, cholesterol, ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) concentrations, as well as glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were assessed and insulin resistance indices were calculated. The results were analysed depending on INS VNTR variants. The occurrence of individual INS VNTR variants were similar in the SGA and AGA groups. In prepubertal SGA children, we did not observe any statistical differences as regards birth weight, body mass, lipids, or adipocytokine concentrations among I/I, I/III, and III/III class groups. The concentration of insulin in 120' of OGTT was significantly higher in class III homozygous than in class I homozygous individuals. Variant INS VNTR class III was shown not to be associated in any essential way with birth weight in the Polish population. Among prepubertal SGA children, the presence of INS VNTR class III is related to higher insulin secretion during OGTT. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (6): 585-591).

  1. comparative study of glucose homeostasis, lipids and lipoproteins, HDL functionality, and cardiometabolic parameters in modestly severely obese African Americans and White Americans with prediabetes: implications for the metabolic paradoxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Sara J; Osei, Kwame; Gaillard, Trudy

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether modestly severe obesity modifies glucose homeostasis, levels of cardiometabolic markers, and HDL function in African Americans (AAs) and white Americans (WAs) with prediabetes. We studied 145 subjects with prediabetes (N = 61 WAs, N = 84 AAs, mean age 46.5 ± 11.2 years, mean BMI 37.8 ± 6.3 kg/m(2)). We measured fasting levels of lipids, lipoproteins, and an inflammatory marker (C-reactive protein [CRP]); HDL functionality (i.e., levels of paraoxonase 1 [PON1]); and levels of oxidized LDL, adiponectin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6). We measured serum levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide during an oral glucose tolerance test. Values for insulin sensitivity index (Si), glucose effectiveness index (Sg), glucose effectiveness at zero insulin (GEZI), and acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) were derived using a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (using MINMOD software). Mean levels of fasting and incremental serum glucose, insulin, and C-peptide tended to be higher in WAs versus AAs. The mean Si was not different in WAs versus AAs (2.6 ± 2.3 vs. 2.9 ± 3.0 × 10(-4) × min(-1) [μU/mL](-1)). Mean values for AIRg and disposition index as well as Sg and GEZI were lower in WAs than AAs. WAs had higher serum triglyceride levels than AAs (116.1 ± 55.5 vs. 82.7 ± 44.2 mg/dL, P = 0.0002). Mean levels of apolipoprotein (apo) A1, HDL cholesterol, PON1, oxidized LDL, CRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 were not significantly different in obese AAs versus WAs with prediabetes. Modestly severe obesity attenuated the ethnic differences in Si, but not in Sg and triglyceride levels in WAs and AAs with prediabetes. Despite the lower Si and PON1 values, AAs preserved paradoxical relationships between the Si and HDL/apoA1/triglyceride ratios. We conclude that modestly severe obesity has differential effects on the pathogenic mechanisms underlying glucose homeostasis and atherogenesis in obese AAs and WAs with prediabetes. © 2015 by the American

  2. Diosmin, a Citrus Nutrient, Activates Imidazoline Receptors to Alleviate Blood Glucose and Lipids in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chen Hsu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Diosmin is a nutrient that is widely contained in citrus and that has been indicated to improve glucose metabolism in diabetic disorders. Recently, we demonstrated that diosmin induces β-endorphin to lower hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. However, the mechanisms of diosmin in opioid secretion were unclear. Therefore, we focused on the secretion of opioids from isolated adrenal glands induced by diosmin. The changes in the released β-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER were determined using ELISA. Diosmin increased the BER level in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was markedly reduced in the absence of calcium ions. Activation of the imidazoline I-2 receptor (I-2R has been introduced to induce opioid secretion. Interestingly, we observed that diosmin activates CHO cells expressing I-R. Additionally, diosmin-increased BER was inhibited by the blockade of I-2R in isolated adrenal glands. Additionally, an antagonist of I-2R blocked diosmin-induced effects, including the reduction in hyperglycemia and the increase in plasma BER in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats. Repeated treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with diosmin for one week induced changes in hepatic glycogen, lipid levels, and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK. Furthermore, an antagonist of I-2R blocked the diosmin-induced changes. Additionally, plasma lipids modified by diosmin were also reversed by the blockade of I-2R in STZ-diabetic rats. Taken together, we suggest that diosmin may activate I-2R to enhance the secretion of β-endorphin from adrenal glands and to influence metabolic homeostasis, resulting in alleviation of blood glucose and lipids in STZ-diabetic rats.

  3. Effects of furfural and acetic acid on growth and lipid production from glucose and xylose by Rhodotorula glutinis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guochang; French, William Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Alley, Earl; Paraschivescu, Maria [Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, P.O. Box 9595, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Microbial conversion of lignocellulosic sugars to triacylglycerols (a biodiesel or renewable diesel feedstock) was investigated using the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis (ATCC 15125). In the shake flask experiments, R. glutinis was first grown in a nitrogen-rich medium utilizing an artificial acid hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass switchgrass as the sole carbon and energy source. Once the culture had reached the stationary phase, the cells were harvested and transferred to a fresh nitrogen-free media containing artificial acid hydrolysate sugars for lipid accumulation. Analysis of the data collected showed that the yeast were able to grow in the medium containing artificial acid hydrolysate sugars as the carbon and energy source. The net specific Growth rate(s) indicated that the presence of acetic acid and furfural in the artificial acid hydrolysate inhibited the growth of R. glutinis on glucose, but not the growth on xylose. The lipid accumulated in the cells, determined by gravimetrical method, increased from initial 4.3%-39.0% of dry cell mass weight. The major fatty acids of the accumulated lipids were palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and {gamma}-linoleic acid. These results indicate that it is feasible to convert the sugars in acid hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass to triacylglycerols using R. glutinis. (author)

  4. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    is linked to a different set of circumstances than the ones suggested by existing models in contemporary democratic theory. Reorienting the discussion of tolerance, the book raises the question of how to disclose new possibilities within our given context of affect and perception. Once we move away from......Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...

  5. The Aqueous Extract of Gynura divaricata (L. DC. Improves Glucose and Lipid Metabolism and Ameliorates Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinnan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia caused by impaired insulin secretion and resistance of the peripheral tissues. A major pathogenesis of T2DM is obesity-associated insulin resistance. Gynura divaricata (L. DC. (GD is a natural plant and has been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects on both animals and humans. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of GD improving glucose and lipid metabolism in an obesity animal model induced by high-fat and high-sugar diet in combination with low dose of streptozocin and an insulin-resistant HepG2 cell model induced by dexamethasone. The study showed that the water extract of GD (GD extract A could significantly reduce fasting serum glucose, reverse dyslipidemia and pancreatic damage, and regulate the body weight of mice. We also found that GD extract A had low toxicity in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, GD extract A may increase glucose consumption in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, markedly inhibit NF-κB activation, and decrease the impairment in signaling molecules of insulin pathway, such as IRS-1, AKT, and GLUT1. Overall, the results indicate that GD extract A is a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of T2DM.

  6. Concomitant Intake of Quercetin with a Grain-Based Diet Acutely Lowers Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment goals of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2 include glycemic control and reduction of nonglycemic risk factors, for example, dyslipidemia. Quercetin, a plant-derived polyphenol, often discussed for possible antidiabetic effects, was investigated for acute postprandial glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in healthy growing pigs. Male pigs (n = 16, body weight = BW 25–30 kg were fed flavonoid-poor grain-based meals without (GBM or with quercetin (GBMQ. In a first experiment, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, and triacylglycerols were analyzed in 8 pigs receiving 500 g of either GBM or GBMQ (10 mg/kg BW in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected before, and up to 5 h every 30 min, as well as 6 and 8 h after the feeding. In the second experiment, 2 h after ingestions of 1000 g of either GBM or GBMQ (50 mg/kg BW animals were sacrificed; gastric content was collected and analyzed for dry matter content. Quercetin ingestion reduced postprandial glucose, NEFA, and TG concentration, but two hours after ingestion of the meal no effect on gastric emptying was observed. Our results point to inhibitory effects of quercetin on nutrient absorption, which appear not to be attributable to delayed gastric emptying.

  7. Effects of 6 vs 3 eucaloric meal patterns on glycaemic control and satiety in people with impaired glucose tolerance or overt type 2 diabetes: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, E; Kontogianni, M D; Mitrou, P; Magriplis, E; Vassiliadi, D; Nomikos, T; Lambadiari, V; Georgousopoulou, E; Dimitriadis, G

    2018-04-06

    The study aimed to compare the effects of two eucaloric meal patterns (3 vs 6 meals/day) on glycaemic control and satiety in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and plasma glucose (PG) levels 140-199mg/dL at 120min (IGT-A) or PG levels 140-199mg/dL at 120min and >200mg/dL at 30/60/90min post-oral glucose load on 75-g OGTT (IGT-B), or overt treatment-naïve type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this randomized crossover study, subjects with IGT-A (n=15, BMI: 32.4±5.2kg/m 2 ), IGT-B (n=20, BMI: 32.5±5kg/m 2 ) or T2D (n=12, BMI: 32.2±5.2kg/m 2 ) followed a weight-maintenance diet (45% carbohydrates, 20% proteins, 35% fats) in 3 or 6 meals/day (each intervention lasting 12 weeks). Anthropometrics, diet compliance and subjective appetite were assessed every 2 weeks. OGTT and measurements of HbA1c and plasma lipids were performed at the beginning and end of each intervention period. Body weight and physical activity levels remained stable throughout the study. In T2D, HbA1c and PG at 120min post-OGTT decreased with 6 vs 3 meals (Pmeal intervention also improved post-OGTT hyperinsulinaemia in IGT-A subjects and hyperglycaemia in IGT-B subjects. In all three groups, subjective hunger and desire to eat were reduced with 6 vs 3 meals/day (Pweight loss remains the key strategy in hyperglycaemia management, dietary measures such as more frequent and smaller meals may be helpful for those not sufficiently motivated to adhere to calorie-restricted diets. Our study shows that 6 vs 3 meals a day can increase glycaemic control in obese patients with early-stage T2D, and may perhaps improve and/or stabilize postprandial glucose regulation in prediabetes subjects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance in obese adults: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert; Hudson, Robert; Stotz, Paula J; Lam, Miu

    2015-03-03

    Exercise reduces obesity and related glucose tolerance, but whether increasing exercise intensity offers additional benefit at fixed exercise amounts is unknown. To determine the separate effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance. 24-week, single-center, parallel-group trial from 2009 to 2013. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00955071). Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 300 abdominally obese adults. Control (no exercise) (n = 75) or 5 weekly sessions of low-amount, low-intensity exercise (LALI) (180 and 300 kcal/session for women and men, respectively, at 50% of maximum oxygen consumption [V̇o2peak]) (n = 73); high-amount, low-intensity exercise (HALI) (360 and 600 kcal/session, respectively, at 50% of V̇o2peak) (n = 76); or high-amount, high-intensity exercise (HAHI) (360 and 600 kcal/session, respectively, at 75% of V̇o2peak) (n = 76). Daily unsupervised physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometer. Waist circumference and 2-hour glucose level (primary outcomes) and cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of insulin action (secondary measurements). 217 participants (72.3%) completed the intervention. Mean exercise time in minutes per session was 31 (SD, 4.4) for LALI, 58 (SD, 7.6) for HALI, and 40 (SD, 6.2) for HAHI. Daily unsupervised physical activity and sedentary time did not change in any exercise group versus control (P > 0.33). After adjustment for age and sex in a linear mixed model, reductions in waist circumference were greater in the LALI (-3.9 cm [95% CI, -5.6 to -2.3 cm]; P exercise groups (P > 0.43). After adjustment for covariates, reductions in 2-hour glucose level were greater in the HAHI group (-0.7 mmol/L [-12.5 mg/dL] [CI, -1.3 to -0.1 mmol/L {-23.5 to -1.5 mg/dL}]; P = 0.027) than the control group but did not differ for the LALI or HALI group versus the control group (P > 0.159). Weight loss was greater in all exercise groups than the control group (P exercise groups (P > 0.182). The

  9. Blood gas sample spiking with total parenteral nutrition, lipid emulsion, and concentrated dextrose solutions as a model for predicting sample contamination based on glucose result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Aguirre, Jose C; Smeets, Steven W; Wockenfus, Amy M; Karon, Brad S

    2018-05-01

    Evaluate the effects of blood gas sample contamination with total parenteral nutrition (TPN)/lipid emulsion and dextrose 50% (D50) solutions on blood gas and electrolyte measurement; and determine whether glucose concentration can predict blood gas sample contamination with TPN/lipid emulsion or D50. Residual lithium heparin arterial blood gas samples were spiked with TPN/lipid emulsion (0 to 15%) and D50 solutions (0 to 2.5%). Blood gas (pH, pCO2, pO2), electrolytes (Na+, K+ ionized calcium) and hemoglobin were measured with a Radiometer ABL90. Glucose concentration was measured in separated plasma by Roche Cobas c501. Chart review of neonatal blood gas results with glucose >300 mg/dL (>16.65 mmol/L) over a seven month period was performed to determine whether repeat (within 4 h) blood gas results suggested pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Results were used to determine whether a glucose threshold could predict contamination resulting in blood gas and electrolyte results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. Samples spiked with 5% or more TPN/lipid emulsion solution or 1% D50 showed glucose concentration >500 mg/dL (>27.75 mmol/L) and produced blood gas (pH, pO 2 , pCO 2 ) results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. TPN/lipid emulsion, but not D50, produced greater than allowable error in electrolyte (Na + ,K + ,Ca ++ ,Hb) results at these concentrations. Based on chart review of 144 neonatal blood gas results with glucose >250 mg/dL received over seven months, four of ten neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with glucose results >500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had results highly suggestive of pre-analytical error. Only 3 of 36 NICU patients with glucose results 300-500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had clear pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Glucose concentration can be used as an indicator of significant blood sample contamination with either TPN/lipid

  10. Long term (>1 year) postpartum glucose tolerance status among Indian women with history of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) diagnosed by IADPSG criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Alpesh; Gupta, Yashdeep; Kalaivani, Mani; Sankar, M Jeeva; Kachhawa, Garima; Bhatla, Neerja; Gupta, Nandita; Tandon, Nikhil

    2018-05-24

    To determine prevalence of long term dysglycemia and its risk factors among women with history of GDM diagnosed using IADPSG criteria at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Women with GDM diagnosed between 2012 and 2016 were invited. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, medical data were collected and 75 gm OGTT with serum insulin estimation, HbA1c and fasting lipid profile were done at the hospital visit. Women (N = 267) were tested at 32.5 (±4.6) years of age and at a median (q 25- q 75 ) of 20 (12-44) months following the index delivery. Dysglycemia was found in 57.7% by ADA criteria [Diabetes in 10.5% and prediabetes in 47.2%]. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease were significantly more prevalent among these women. On multivariable analysis, HOMA-IR correlated positively, while insulinogenic index correlated negatively with postpartum dysglycemia. This is possibly the first long term (>1 year) glucose tolerance outcome study in South Asian women with history of GDM diagnosed by IADPSG criteria, which demonstrates significantly elevated risk of postpartum dysglycemia. While the IADPSG criteria identify women with a lower future conversion to diabetes compared with previous criteria, prediabetes conversion remains high, thereby offering an opportunity to intervene early and prevent progression to future diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leder, Lena; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Narverud, Ingunn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diet has a great impact on the risk of developing features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We evaluated whether a long-term healthy Nordic diet (ND) can modify the expression of inflammation and lipid metabolism......-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in individuals with MetS. METHODS: A Nordic multicenter randomized dietary study included subjects (n = 213) with MetS, randomized to a ND group or a control diet (CD) group applying an isocaloric study......, and the mRNA gene expression analysis was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We analyzed the mRNA expression changes of 44 genes before and after a 2hOGTT at the beginning and the end of the intervention. RESULTS: The healthy ND significantly down-regulated the expression...

  12. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia (HLP is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05 during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05 in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP.

  13. A1C predicts type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in a population at risk: the community diabetes prevention project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Silmara AO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims In a population at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM, we assessed early physical and metabolic markers that predict progression from normal to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and T2DM. Methods A total of 388 individuals (22% male, age 46 + 11 years at risk for T2DM were randomized to Standard (n = 182 or Intervention (n = 206 care and evaluated at baseline and 5 annual follow-up visits, including blood pressure, BMI, A1C, lipids, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, VO2max, fasting glucose, insulin and C-peptide. The Standard group received results of annual lab tests and quarterly newsletters, while the Intervention group received quarterly newsletters and detailed discussions of lab results, routine self-directed activities, semi-annual group meetings and monthly telephone calls for ongoing support. Results Overall, 359 (93% returned for at least one follow-up visit and 272 (70% completed the final 5-year assessment. Return rates, changes in measures and incidence of IGT/T2DM were similar between groups. Low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max was the most prevalent baseline abnormality. A1C and BMI were significant predictors of IGT/T2DM after controlling for other factors. The risk of IGT/T2DM within 5 years was 17.16 (95% CL: 6.169, 47.736 times greater for those with baseline A1C>=5.8% as compared to those Conclusion Baseline A1C>=5.8% was a significant predictor of IGT/T2DM within 5 years in a population at high risk for T2DM. A1C is routinely performed among patients with diabetes, however these data and other evidence suggest that it may also be a useful tool for risk assessment and screening.

  14. Bioequivalence and tolerability assessment of a novel intravenous ciclosporin lipid emulsion compared to branded ciclosporin in Cremophor ® EL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehinger, Karl Henrik Johannes; Hansson, Magnus Joakim; Sjövall, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    as emulsifying excipient. Cremophor(®) EL is known to cause hypersensitivity reactions in some patients, ranging from skin reactions to potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to assess if CicloMulsion(®), a Cremophor(®) EL-free lipid emulsion of ciclosporin for intravenous...... to current guidelines were performed. RESULTS: The geometric mean ratios for CicloMulsion(®)/Sandimmune(®) (90 % confidence interval [CI]) were 0.90 (0.88, 0.92) for AUC(0-last) (area under the blood concentration-time curve from time zero to time of last measurable concentration) and 0.95 (0.92, 0.97) for C...... adverse events were recorded after treatment with CicloMulsion(®). CONCLUSION: We have assessed the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of a new Cremophor(®) EL-free lipid emulsion of ciclosporin, CicloMulsion(®), compared to Sandimmune(®). The proportion of adverse events was significantly higher...

  15. Incorporation of U-/sup 14/C-glucose into the lipids U-/sup 14/C and sugars of Culex pipiens fatigans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggal, Rita Nanda; Subrahmanyam, D

    1983-11-01

    The role of U-/sup 14/C-glucose as a lipogenic precursor was examined in larvae and adults of C. pipiens fatigans. The pattern of incorporation of the radiocarbon was also examined in the sugars of these insects. It was found that on feeding of larvae and adults with /sup 14/C-glucose, the phospholipid fraction of the insects was associated with more than 70 per cent of the total lipid radiolabel. However, the percentage distribution of the phospholipid label in the different phospholipid fractions of the larvae and adults was different. Among the neutral lipids, a low but significant label in cholesterol was of considerable interest. The /sup 14/C-glucose was also converted to trehalose in both larvae and adults. However, the two stages differed in the utilization of glucose and trehalose. 5 figures, 16 refs.

  16. Effects of exercise training on glucose control, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in hypertriglyceridemia and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampman, R M; Schteingart, D E

    1991-06-01

    Exercise training has potential benefits for patients with hyperlipidemia and/or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In nondiabetic, nonobese subjects with hypertriglyceridemia, exercise training alone increased insulin sensitivity, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. These improvements did not occur when exercise training alone was given to similar patients with impaired glucose tolerance. In severely obese (X = 125 kg) subjects without diabetes melitus, a 600 calorie diet alone decreased glucose and insulin concentrations and improved glucose tolerance but did not increase insulin sensitivity. The addition of exercise training improved insulin sensitivity. Obese, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects on sulfonylurea therapy alone increased insulin levels but failed to improve insulin sensitivity or glucose levels. In contrast, the addition of exercise training to this medication resulted in improved insulin sensitivity and lowered glucose levels. We conclude that exercise training has major effects on lowering triglyceride levels in hyperlipidemic subjects and can potentiate the effect of diet or drug therapy on glucose metabolism in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  17. Adiposity indicators lipid accumulation product and triglyceride-glucose index as alternate criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic obesity in adult

    OpenAIRE

    Mariya Tabassum; Md. Matiur Rahman; Miliva Mozaffor

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic obesity refers to the state of having metabolic syndrome irrespective of one’s BMI. This study was aimed to elucidate the lipid accumulation product and triglyceride-glucose index as simple and alternate criteria for the detecting metabolic obesity in adult. The study was conducted in 200 adult (age range: 19-45 years). According to lipid accumulation product and Triglyceride-glucose index, the prevalence of metabolic obesity was 54.0% and 53.5% respectively. With a cutoff value of ...

  18. Ablation of neurons expressing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in adult mice improves glucose tolerance independent of MCH signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiddon, Benjamin B; Palmiter, Richard D

    2013-01-30

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-expressing neurons have been ascribed many roles based on studies of MCH-deficient mice. However, MCH neurons express other neurotransmitters, including GABA, nesfatin, and cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript. The importance of these other signaling molecules made by MCH neurons remains incompletely characterized. To determine the roles of MCH neurons in vivo, we targeted expression of the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) to the gene for MCH (Pmch). Within 2 weeks of diphtheria toxin injection, heterozygous Pmch(DTR/+) mice lost 98% of their MCH neurons. These mice became lean but ate normally and were hyperactive, especially during a fast. They also responded abnormally to psychostimulants. For these phenotypes, ablation of MCH neurons recapitulated knock-out of MCH, so MCH appears to be the critical neuromodulator released by these neurons. In contrast, MCH-neuron-ablated mice showed improved glucose tolerance when compared with MCH-deficient mutant mice and wild-type mice. We conclude that MCH neurons regulate glucose tolerance through signaling molecules other than MCH.

  19. Correlation of body mass index Z-scores with glucose and lipid profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-de-Almeida, Carlos Alberto; Mello, Elza Daniel de

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities in plasma lipid and glucose profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to assess the presence of a correlation between body mass index Z-scores and indicators of comorbidities related to both profiles. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted at two outpatient clinics. The study included all 417 comers for the first visit from 2008 to 2012, aged between 7 and 18 years, with BMI above the Z-score +1. Anthropometry and blood sampling were obtained. The prevalence of dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance were evaluated, together with the correlations of these variables with the increase of Z-BMI. Dyslipidemia was observed in 43.4% of the boys and 66.1% of the girls, with no difference between genders. High glucose levels were detected in 6.2% of the individuals. Insulin resistance was present in 32.3% and 41.7% of the cases, with no statistical significance between boys and girls. Correlations between the Z-BMI were noted for triglycerides in the entire group and among girls; for HDL-c, only among girls; for glucose, a correlation was observed for the entire group, but not when stratified by gender. The indicators of insulin resistance were all correlated with Z-BMI, even when corrected for age. Overweight and obesity give origin to a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. BMI Z-scores showed a weak positive correlation with glucose and triglyceride, and negative with HDL-c. In turn, the strongest positive correlation was found with insulin resistance indicators. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of milk and milk constituents on postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meijl, Leonie E C; Mensink, Ronald P

    2013-08-28

    Studies have suggested that two major milk constituents, casein and Ca, favourably affect postprandial responses. However, effects of milk on postprandial metabolism are unknown. We therefore investigated effects of using milk with a fat-containing meal on lipid and glucose responses in overweight men. To identify the constituent responsible for possible effects, we also studied responses to Ca and protein. A total of sixteen men (BMI .27 kg/m2) participated in four postprandial tests. They consumed a breakfast (44 g of fat) plus a drink: a control drink, low-fat milk or a protein and Ca drink (500 ml). Blood samples were taken before the meals and at regular time points during 6 h thereafter. Compared with control, the incremental AUC (iAUC) for serum TAG was increased by 44% after the protein meal (P¼0·015). Although the iAUC were not different (P¼0·051), peak glucose concentrations were reduced by 24% after protein intake, as compared with control (P¼0·021). The decrease of 18% after milk intake did not reach statistical significance. Compared with the milk meal, the iAUC for insulin was 52% lower after the control meal (P¼0·035) and 51% after the protein meal (P¼0·005). The present results indicate that the intake of milk with a fat-containing meal enhances postprandial TAG and insulin responses and may blunt glucose increases. The protein fraction of milk seems to be the main determinant for the effects on TAG and glucose. Ca did not change any of the postprandial responses.

  1. Blood lipid levels in relation to glucose status in European men and women without a prior history of diabetes: the DECODE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, L.; Qiao, Q.; Tuomilehto, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dyslipidaemia is present not only in diabetic but also in prediabetic subjects. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between lipid and glucose levels in a large European population without a prior history of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from....... RESULTS: In subjects without a prior history of diabetes, positive relationships were shown between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and total cholesterol (TC) (beta=0.06 and 0.03, respectively for men and women, p

  2. [The value of fasting plasma glucose and lipid profiles between 7 and 15 gestational weeks in the prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M; Li, G H

    2016-11-25

    Objective: To explore the value of using fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and lipid profiles between 7 and 15 gestational weeks to predict gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: The medical records of 2 138 pregnant women who had prenatal care in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital from August 2011 to February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. According to results of the oral glucose tolerance tests, women were devided into the GDM group ( n =240) and the normal group ( n= 1 898). Maternal characteristics, FPG and lipid levels between 7 and 15 gestational weeks were compared between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operator characteristics(ROC) curve were used in the analysis. Results: Potential markers for the prediction of GDM included total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) , low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios (LDL-C/HDL-C) , triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios (TG/HDL-C) and FPG. After adjustment of confounding factors, age ( OR= 1.046, 95% CI: 1.003-1.090), pre- pregnancy body mass index ( OR= 1.104, 95% CI: 1.049-1.161), gravidity>3 ( OR= 1.768, 95% CI: 1.071-2.920), FPG ( OR= 8.137, 95% CI: 5.412-12.236), TG ( OR= 1.460, 95% CI: 1.148-1.858) were independently associated with the risk of developing GDM. Equation, P GDM =1/{1+exp[-(-16.542+0.045×age+0.103×pre-pregnancy body mass index+0.551×gravidity>3+2.110×FPG+0.372×TG)]}, was constructed by the logistic regression analysis. Sensitivity (67.5%) and specificity (70.5%) were determined by the calculated risk score, with a cut-off value of 0.11 (area under the curve: 0.751, 95% CI: 0.718-0.783, P< 0.001). Conclusions: FPG and TG, together with clinical characteristics may have a better predictive value for the risk of GDM.

  3. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech....

  4. Targeting Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism to Improve Glucose Metabolism in Cardiometabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan W.E. Jocken

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease prevalence on the rise, there is a growing need for improved strategies to prevent or treat obesity and insulin resistance, both of which are major risk factors for these chronic diseases. Impairments in adipose tissue lipid metabolism seem to play a critical role in these disorders. In the classical picture of intracellular lipid breakdown, cytosolic lipolysis was proposed as the sole mechanism for triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipocytes. Recent evidence suggests involvement of several hormones, membrane receptors, and intracellular signalling cascades, which has added complexity to the regulation of cytosolic lipolysis. Interestingly, a specific form of autophagy, called lipophagy, has been implicated as alternative lipolytic pathway. Defective regulation of cytosolic lipolysis and lipophagy might have substantial effects on lipid metabolism, thereby contributing to adipose tissue dysfunction, insulin resistance, and related cardiometabolic (cMet diseases. This review will discuss recent advances in our understanding of classical lipolysis and lipophagy in adipocyte lipid metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, the question of whether modulation of adipocyte lipolysis and lipophagy might be a potential therapeutic target to combat cMet disorders will be addressed.

  5. Change of Oral to Topical Corticosteroid Therapy Exacerbated Glucose Tolerance in a Patient with Plaque Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Yui; Ashida, Kenji; Ohe, Kenji; Enjoji, Munechika; Yamaguchi, Miyuki; Kurata, Tsuyoshi; Emoto, Akiko; Yamanouchi, Hiroko; Takagi, Satoko; Mori, Hitoe; Kawata, Nozomi; Hisata, Yoshio; Sakanishi, Yuta; Izumi, Kenichi; Sugioka, Takashi; Anzai, Keizo

    2017-11-13

    BACKGROUND Psoriasis is known as the most frequent disease treated by long-term topical steroids. It is also known that patients with thick, chronic plaques require the highest potency topical steroids. However, the treatment is limited to up to four weeks due to risk of systemic absorption. CASE REPORT An 80-year-old man was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes 16 years before, and was being administered insulin combined with alpha glucosidase inhibitor. He was diagnosed with plaque psoriasis and his oral steroid treatment was switched to topical steroid treatment due to lack of improvement and poorly controlled blood glucose level. The hypoglycemic events improved after the psoriatic lesions improved. CONCLUSIONS Control of blood glucose level is difficult at the very beginning of topical steroid treatment for psoriasis especially if a patient is receiving insulin treatment. Intense monitoring of blood glucose level during initiation of topical steroid treatment is necessary to prevent unfavorable complications.

  6. Investigation of the effect of glucose syrup and brown sugar as low-cost substrate for lipid production by Mortierella alpine CBS 754.68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saed Montazeri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arachidonic acid is an important essential fatty acid in human nutrition. The filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina has been identified as a promising producer of arachidonic acid. Mortierella alpine can accumulate up to 40% (w/w lipid, of which up to 40% can be arachidonic acid. Materials and methods: Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68 was cultivated in low cost substrate such as glucose syrup, brown sugar and starch for lipid and arachidonic acid production. The reduced sugar, total lipids and content of ARA were determined by dinitrosalicylic acid method, soxhlet and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. Results: The carbon sources were applied at 70 g/l and nitrogen source (soybean powder at 10 g/lit. The results showed that lipid in dry biomass in glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were obtained 32, 25 and 13 % w/w respectively. The arachidonic acid contents of lipid in the glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were 41, 33 and 31 % w/w respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Lipid fatty acid compositions are affected by the growth of microorganism. Cell membrane fatty acids such as stearic acid and oleic acid increased substantially concomitant with increases in the amount of biomass. Biomass and oil production efficiency fell due to inappropriate brown sugar medium.

  7. Serum glycated albumin is inversely influenced by fat mass and visceral adipose tissue in Chinese with normal glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed that body mass index (BMI inversely influenced serum glycated albumin (GA, which may cause an underestimation of GA-monitored short-term hyperglycemic control. OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate the association between anthropometric variables (BMI and waist circumference (W and accurate adiposity variables (percentage of body fat (%fat, fat mass, free fat mass (FFM, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, and visceral fat area (VFA with serum GA. DESIGN: A total of 2563 subjects (1037 men, 593 premenopausal women, and 933 postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance underwent bioelectrical impedance body fat content measurement and magnetic resonance imaging. Serum GA and absolute value of GA (aGA were measured by enzymatic assay. RESULTS: Compared to the BMI <25.0 kg/m(2 group, the BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2 group had significantly higher fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, and body fat parameters including W, %fat, fat mass, FFM, SFA, and VFA, but significantly lower aGA, and GA in all the three sex- and menopause-stratified groups (all P<0.05. GA decreased with the increment of fat mass for all three groups (all P for trend <0.001. In the same BMI category, men and postmenopausal women with elevated %fat (men, ≥25%; women, ≥35% still had significantly lower GA than those with normal %fat (men, <25%; women, <35% (all P<0.05. Multiple stepwise regression showed that %fat, fat mass, and VFA were independently associated with GA. CONCLUSIONS: Serum GA was inversely influenced by fat mass and visceral adipose tissue in Chinese with normal glucose tolerance.

  8. Age and body weight effects on glucose and insulin tolerance in colony cats maintained since weaning on high dietary carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, R C; Cave, N J; Ganjam, V K; Turner, J B M; Biourge, V C

    2010-12-01

    High dietary carbohydrate is suggested to promote development of diabetes mellitus in cats. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion were assessed in young [0.8-2.3 (median = 1.1) years, n = 13] and mature [4.0-7.0 (median 5.8) years, n = 12] sexually intact females of a large (n ≅ 700) feline colony in which only dry-type diets (35% metabolizable energy as carbohydrate) were fed from weaning. Insulin sensitivity was assessed from the 'late-phase' (60-120 min) plasma insulin response of intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) and from fractional change in glycaemia from baseline 15 min after an insulin bolus (0.1 U/kg, i.v.). Insulin secretion was assessed from the 'early-phase' (0-15 min) plasma insulin response of IVGTTs. Compared to the young cats, the mature cats had greater body weights [2.3-3.8 (median = 2.9) vs. 3.0-6.3 (median = 4.0) kg, p < 0.01], greater late-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), lower insulin-induced glycaemic changes (p = 0.06), lower early-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), and non-significantly different rates of glucose disposal. The late-phase insulin response was correlated with body weight and age (p < 0.05). When group assignments were balanced for body weight, the age-group differences and correlations became non-significant. The findings indicate that body weight gain is more likely than dry-type diets to induce the pre-diabetic conditions of insulin resistance and secretion dysfunction. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Effect of orally administered dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate on oral glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Svetlana E Nikoulina1, Dietmar Fuchs2, Phillip Moheno11SanRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc, La Jolla, CA, USA; 2Division of Biological Chemistry, Biocenter, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, AustriaAbstract: Calcium pterins have been shown to be significant immunotherapeutic agents in models of breast cancer, hepatitis B, and tuberculosis (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin mycobacteria. These compunds modulate the immuno-enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO and the blood levels of several identified inflammatory cytokines. Recent research into the pathology of diabetes implicates inflammatory factors in the progression of the disease, leading the authors to study its possible control by one of the calcium pterins, dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate (DCP.The investigators tested DCP as a novel therapeutic for type 2 diabetes. Female C57BL/6 J mice with diet-induced obesity were fed a high-fat diet and were administered DCP in 0.4% carboxymethylcellulose for 21 days. Blood glucose was followed during the dosing period, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was carried out on day 21. Measurements of plasma indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase metabolites (tryptophan and kynurenine and certain cytokines and chemokines were also taken. DCP 7 mg/kg/day reduced OGTT area under the curve (OGTT/AUC by 50% (P < 0.05. A significant multivariate regression (P = 0.013; R2 = 0.571 of OGTT/AUC was derived from DCP dosage and plasma Trp. Elevated plasma Trp concentration, likely from heterogeneity in diet and/or indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity, was found to correlate with higher OGTT/AUC diabetic measures, possibly via inhibition of histamine degradation. In conclusion, an optimum dose of DCP 7 mg/kg/day significantly improved the OGTT diabetic state in these female diet-induced obese mice.Keywords: diabetes, immunotherapy, oral glucose tolerance test, tryptophan, kynurenine

  10. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S; Rippe, James M

    2015-10-23

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20-60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  11. Effect of metformin on substrate utilization after exercise training in adults with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Braun, Barry

    2013-04-01

    Metformin attenuates the higher insulin sensitivity that occurs with exercise training. Sixteen people with prediabetes trained for 10 weeks while taking metformin (n = 8) or placebo (n = 8). Substrate utilization was assessed using glucose kinetics and indirect calorimetry. After training, exercise whole-body fat oxidation was higher and glycogen use lower (p use was unchanged. Training-induced enhancement of insulin sensitivity (clamp) correlated with higher peak oxygen uptake (r = 0.70; p < 0.05), but was independent of glucose kinetic and substrate metabolism.

  12. Role of Unsaturated Lipid and Ergosterol in Ethanol Tolerance of Model Yeast Biomembranes

    KAUST Repository

    Vanegas, Juan M.

    2012-02-07

    We present a combined atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy study of the behavior of a ternary supported lipid bilayer system containing a saturated lipid (DPPC), an unsaturated lipid (DOPC), and ergosterol in the presence of high ethanol (20 vol %). We find that the fluorescent probe Texas Red DHPE preferentially partitions into the ethanol-induced interdigitated phase, which allows the use of fluorescence imaging to investigate the phase behavior of the system. Atomic force microscopy and fluorescence images of samples with the same lipid mixture show good agreement in sample morphology and area fractions of the observed phases. Using area fractions obtained from fluorescence images over a broad range of compositions, we constructed a phase diagram of the DPPC/DOPC/ergosterol system at 20 vol % ethanol. The phase diagram clearly shows that increasing unsaturated lipid and/or ergosterol protects the membrane by preventing the formation of the interdigitated phase. This result supports the hypothesis that yeast cells increase ergosterol and unsaturated lipid content to prevent interdigitation and maintain an optimal membrane thickness as ethanol concentration increases during anaerobic fermentations. Changes in plasma membrane composition provide an important survival factor for yeast cells to deter ethanol toxicity.

  13. Role of Unsaturated Lipid and Ergosterol in Ethanol Tolerance of Model Yeast Biomembranes

    KAUST Repository

    Vanegas, Juan  M.; Contreras, Maria F.; Faller, Roland; Longo, Marjorie  L.

    2012-01-01

    We present a combined atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy study of the behavior of a ternary supported lipid bilayer system containing a saturated lipid (DPPC), an unsaturated lipid (DOPC), and ergosterol in the presence of high ethanol (20 vol %). We find that the fluorescent probe Texas Red DHPE preferentially partitions into the ethanol-induced interdigitated phase, which allows the use of fluorescence imaging to investigate the phase behavior of the system. Atomic force microscopy and fluorescence images of samples with the same lipid mixture show good agreement in sample morphology and area fractions of the observed phases. Using area fractions obtained from fluorescence images over a broad range of compositions, we constructed a phase diagram of the DPPC/DOPC/ergosterol system at 20 vol % ethanol. The phase diagram clearly shows that increasing unsaturated lipid and/or ergosterol protects the membrane by preventing the formation of the interdigitated phase. This result supports the hypothesis that yeast cells increase ergosterol and unsaturated lipid content to prevent interdigitation and maintain an optimal membrane thickness as ethanol concentration increases during anaerobic fermentations. Changes in plasma membrane composition provide an important survival factor for yeast cells to deter ethanol toxicity.

  14. Effect of repeated administration of cinnamon aqueous extract on body weight, glucose levels and lipid profile on over weight rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, F.; Akhtar, N.

    2012-01-01

    Plants are the source of both traditional and medicinal plant for curing and treatment of diseases in recent year. Plant extracts containing several active constituents which often work together synergistically. The study was designed to investigate the effect CNAE on lipid profile and glucose level in overweight albino wistar rats. Animal were divided into two group 1 receive CNAE and 2 receive equal volume of tap water. Extract were given daily once a day at the dose of 2ml/animal. After the 17 % of reduction of weight treatment were terminated and blood sample were collected for biochemical estimation. The result show significant decrease in body weight total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol and significant increase in high y density lipoprotein while non-significant effect were observed in electrolyte levels. The data of present research demonstrated that CNAE not only possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties as well as it could be used for reduction body weight. (author)

  15. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows lower intramyocellular lipid accumulation in middle-aged subjects predisposed to familial longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, C. A.; van Opstal, A. M.; Kan, H. E.; Maier, A. B.; Westendorp, R. G.J.; Slagboom, P. E.; Webb, A. G.; Mooijaart, S. P.; van Heemst, D.

    Families predisposed to longevity show enhanced glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity compared with controls, independent of body composition and physical activity. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Here, we

  16. Effects of short-term cinnamon ingestion on in vivo glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Blannin, A K

    2007-01-01

    Various spices display insulin-potentiating activity in vitro, and in particular, cinnamon spice and its phenolic extracts have been shown to exhibit these capabilities. In vivo study shows that cinnamon may have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis; therefore the aim of this study...

  17. Improved tolerance to sequential glucose loading (Staub-Traugott effect): size and mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonuccelli, Sandra; Muscelli, Elza; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2009-01-01

    load (P = not significant). Fasting endogenous glucose production [13.3 +/- 0.6 micromol x min(-1) x kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1)] averaged 6.0 +/- 3.8 micromol x min(-1) x kg FFM(-1) between 0 and 180 min and 1.7 +/- 2.6 between 180 and 360 min (P

  18. Glucose tolerance is associated with differential expression of microRNAs in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork-Jensen, Jette; Schéele, Camilla Charlotte; Christophersen, Daniel V

    2015-01-01

    proteins. LBW in twins and undernutrition during pregnancy in rats were, in contrast to overt type 2 diabetes, associated with increased expression of miR-15b and/or miR-16. Elevated glucose and insulin suppressed miR-16 expression in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetes is associated with non...

  19. Defective glucose and lipid metabolism in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy involve liver, muscle tissue and pancreatic beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Dela, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    ), 18 patients without lipodystrophy on HAART (NONLIPO) and seven patients who were naive to antiretroviral therapy (NAIVE) respectively). beta-cell function was evaluated by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Compared with NONLIPO and NAIVE separately, LIPO displayed markedly reduced ratio...... of limb to trunk fat (RLF; > 34%, P 40%, P disposal (>50%, P 50%, P ... acids (P disposal (r = 0.71) and incremental exogenous glucose storage (r = 0.40), all P

  20. A dual role of lipasin (betatrophin) in lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis: consensus and controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ren; Abou-Samra, Abdul B

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome includes glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia, both of which are strong risk factors for developing diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Recently, multiple groups independently studied a previously uncharacterized gene, officially named C19orf80 (human) and Gm6484 (mouse), but more commonly known as RIFL, Angptl8, betatrophin and lipasin. Both exciting and conflicting results have been obtained, and significant controversy is ongoing. Accumulating evidence ...

  1. Radiation and Heat Stress Impact on Plasma Levels of Thyroid Hormones, Lipid Fractions, Glucose and Liver Glycogen in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; Abou-Safi, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Since Egypt is classified as a hot country, the present work has been directed to study the combined effect of heat stress and gamma radiation exposure on blood thyroid hormonal levels and some other parameters. Four groups of rats were served as: control, whole-body gamma irradiated (6Gy), exposed to ambient heat stress (38 C-40 C) and a group exposed to heat stress and irradiation. Four time intervals 1, 3, 5 and 7 days were determined for heat stress or exposure to heat followed by irradiation. Blood samples and liver specimens were taken at the end of each time interval in the third group and after one hour of irradiation in the second and fourth groups. To detect the radiation effects after the different periods of heat stress, plasma levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), lipid fractions (triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol), glucose and liver glycogen content were determined. The results revealed that exposure to heat and ionizing radiation leads to a decrease in the levels of thyroid hormones, which was mostly pronounced in the T3 levels. Plasma glucose levels showed significant elevations in both, the heat-stressed group and the heat-treated then irradiated group. While, liver glycogen content exhibited similar elevations only during the 1st, 3 rd and 5 th days of heating followed by irradiation treatment as compared to the heat stressed group. Yet, it showed significant declines in comparison with both control and irradiated groups. Enormous increments in all determined plasma lipid fractions were induced by heat stress and / or gamma radiation

  2. Efficient production of L-lactic acid by newly isolated thermophilic Bacillus coagulans WCP10-4 with high glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingding; Ye, Lidan; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2013-05-01

    A thermophilic Bacillus coagulans WCP10-4 with tolerance to high concentration of glucose was isolated from soil and used to produce optically pure L-lactic acid from glucose and starch. In batch fermentation at pH 6.0, 240 g/L of glucose was completely consumed giving 210 g/L of L-lactic acid with a yield of 95 % and a productivity of 3.5 g/L/h. In simultaneous saccharification and fermentation at 50 °C without sterilizing the medium, 200 g/L of corn starch was completely consumed producing 202.0 g/L of L-lactic acid. To the best of our knowledge, this strain shows the highest osmotic tolerance to glucose among the strains ever reported for lactic acid production. This is the first report of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch for lactic acid production under a non-sterilized condition.

  3. Preserving Duodenal-Jejunal (Foregut) Transit Does Not Impair Glucose Tolerance and Diabetes Remission Following Gastric Bypass in Type 2 Diabetes Sprague-Dawley Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolo, Ponnie R; Yao, Libin; Li, Chao; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Shi, Linsen; Widjaja, Jason

    2017-11-02

    Possible mechanisms underlying diabetes remission following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) include eradication of putative factor(s) with duodenal-jejunal bypass. The objective of this study is to observe the effects of duodenal-jejunal transit on glucose tolerance and diabetes remission in gastric bypass rat model. In order to verify the effect of duodenal-jejunal transit on glucose tolerance and diabetes remission in gastric bypass, 22 type 2 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rat models established through high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) administered intraperitoneally were assigned to one of three groups: gastric bypass with duodenal-jejunal transit (GB-DJT n = 8), gastric bypass without duodenal-jejunal transit (RYGB n = 8), and sham (n = 6). Body weight, food intake, blood glucose, as well as meal-stimulated insulin, and incretin hormone responses were assessed to ascertain the effect of surgery in all groups. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were conducted three and 7 weeks after surgery. Comparing our GB-DJT to the RYGB group, we saw no differences in the mean decline in body weight, food intake, and blood glucose 8 weeks after surgery. GB-DJT group exhibited immediate and sustained glucose control throughout the study. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) levels were also significantly increased from preoperative level in the GB-DJT group (p transit does not impede glucose tolerance and diabetes remission after gastric bypass in type-2 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rat model.

  4. The survey of abnormal glucose tolerance and insulin resistace and incidence of diabetes type 2 in poly cystic ovary syndrome patients in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marziye Akbarzadeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome is one of the most commen hyper androgenic disorders affecting women, its prevalence being estimated at 5% – 10%. Our goal was to survey abnormal glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and incidence of diabetes type 2 in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Materials and methods: This investigation is a descriptive – analytic study which is done to survey abnormal glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and incidene of diabetes type 2 in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. This study included 150 patients with the diagnosis of PCOS. These patients were chosen by target based sampling. Among the subjects, laboratory tests were performed for 125 patients. Questionnaire, fasting blood suger test, fasting insulin and glucose tolerance test by 75gr glucose, were used as data gathering tools. The results of the blood suger test were interpreted using the WHO 1999 criteria. Results: The results of oral and glucose tolerance test showed 14. 4 percent of the patients had impaired fasting glucose and 4 percent of the patients had diabetes type 2 (FBS>126mg/dl. Insulin resistance was seen in 9. 8 percent of the patients. 7. 2 percent of the patients had impaired blood suger after two hours (140-199 mg/dl and 0. 8 persent of patients had diabetes type 2 (200>mg/dl. Conclusion: level of fasting blood suger and insulin and ratio of fasting blood suger to fasting insulin were good markers for diagnosis of insulin resistance. American diabetic association recommended for the care of young women with PCOS, screening for impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes type2.

  5. Clinical usefulness of lipid ratios, visceral adiposity indicators, and the triglycerides and glucose index as risk markers of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tingting; Yuan, Gang; Zhang, Muxun; Zhou, Xinrong; Sun, Xingxing; Yu, Xuefeng

    2014-10-20

    To directly compare traditional lipid ratios (total cholesterol [TC]/high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], non-HDL-C/HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]/HDL-C, and triglycerides [TG]/HDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB)/apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) ratio, visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), and the product of TG and fasting glucose (TyG) for strength and independence as risk factors for insulin resistance (IR). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7629 Chinese adults using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. For all lipid ratios (traditional lipid ratios and apoB/apoA-I), among both sexes, TG/HDL-C explained the most additional percentage of variation in HOMA-IR (2.9% in men, and 2.3% in women); for all variables of interest, the variability in HOMA-IR explained by VAI and TG/HDL-C were comparable; TyG had the most significant association with HOMA-IR, which explained 9.1% for men and 7.8% for women of the variability in HOMA-IR. Logistic regression analysis showed the similar patterns. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that, among both sexes, TG/HDL-C was a better discriminator of IR than apoB/apoA-I; the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for VAI (0.695 in men and 0.682 in women) was greater than that for TG/HDL-C (AUC 0.665 in men and 0.664 in women); TyG presented the greatest value of AUC (0.709 in men and 0.711 in women). The apoB/apoA-I performs no better than any of the traditional lipid ratios in correlating with IR. The TG/HDL-C, VAI and TyG are better markers for early identification of IR individuals.

  6. Effect of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaves extract on blood glucose and plasma lipid levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Xue Tong; Zhang, Hai Yan; Yao, Hui Yuan; Zhang, Hui

    2010-08-09

    To investigate the hypoglycemic effects of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaves (VBTL) extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. After administration of VBTL extract for 4 weeks, the body weight, organ weight, blood glucose (BG), insulin and plasma lipid levels of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were measured. Body weights of diabetic mice treated with VBTL extract were partly recovered. The BG levels of AEG (diabetic mice treated with VBTL aqueous extract) were reduced to 91.52 and 85.82% at week 2 and week 4, respectively (P0.05). The insulin levels of AEG and EEG were obviously higher (P<0.05) than those of MC (diabetic mice in model control group). Comparing with MC, AEG and EEG had significantly lower (P<0.05) TC or TG levels and similar HDL-cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol levels. In comparison with non-diabetic control mice, AEG had similar plasma lipid levels except higher LDL-cholesterol level, while EEG had higher TC, TG and LDL-cholesterol levels and lower HDL-cholesterol levels. Both aqueous and ethanolic extract of VBTL possess a potential hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Cucurbita ficifolia and Probiotic Yogurt Consumption on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory Marker in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Azade; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Control of blood sugar, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are key factors in diabetes management. Cucurbita ficifolia (pumpkin) is a vegetable which has been used traditionally as a remedy for diabetes in Iran. In addition, consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects on people with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was an investigation of the effects of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption alone or at the same time on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic patients. Eighty eligible participants randomly were assigned to four groups: 1 - green C. ficifolia (100 g); 2 - probiotic yogurt (150 g); 3 - C. ficifolia plus probiotic yogurt (100 g C. ficifolia plus 150 g yogurt); and 4 -control (dietary advice) for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, glycemic response, lipid profile, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured before and after the intervention. Total cholesterol (TC) decreased significantly in yogurt and yogurt plus C. ficifolia groups (within groups P = 0.010, and P consumption resulted in a decrease in triglyceride (TG) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (within groups P consumption of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt may help treatment of diabetic patients.

  8. Applying decision tree for identification of a low risk population for type 2 diabetes. Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezankhani, Azra; Pournik, Omid; Shahrabi, Jamal; Khalili, Davood; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to create a prediction model using data mining approach to identify low risk individuals for incidence of type 2 diabetes, using the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) database. For a 6647 population without diabetes, aged ≥20 years, followed for 12 years, a prediction model was developed using classification by the decision tree technique. Seven hundred and twenty-nine (11%) diabetes cases occurred during the follow-up. Predictor variables were selected from demographic characteristics, smoking status, medical and drug history and laboratory measures. We developed the predictive models by decision tree using 60 input variables and one output variable. The overall classification accuracy was 90.5%, with 31.1% sensitivity, 97.9% specificity; and for the subjects without diabetes, precision and f-measure were 92% and 0.95, respectively. The identified variables included fasting plasma glucose, body mass index, triglycerides, mean arterial blood pressure, family history of diabetes, educational level and job status. In conclusion, decision tree analysis, using routine demographic, clinical, anthropometric and laboratory measurements, created a simple tool to predict individuals at low risk for type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The insulinotropic effect of GIP is impaired in patients with chronic pancreatitis and secondary diabetes mellitus as compared to patients with chronic pancreatitis and normal glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Højberg, Patricia V

    2007-01-01

    patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (fasting plasma glucose (FPG): 5.5 (4.5-6.0) mM (mean (range); HbA(1c): 5.8 (5.4-6.3) %) and 8 patients with CP and secondary diabetes not requiring insulin (FPG: 7.1 (6.0-8.8) mM; HbA(1c): 7.0 (5.8-10.0) %) during three 15-m...

  10. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie R Sayers

    Full Text Available Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in these cells.Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay.Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01 in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01 and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01 GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01.AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin release in European non-diabetic carriers of a polymorphism upstream of CDKN2A and CDKN2B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hribal, M L; Presta, I; Procopio, T

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the rs10811661 polymorphism near the CDKN2B/CDKN2A genes with glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin release in three samples of white people with European ancestry.......The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the rs10811661 polymorphism near the CDKN2B/CDKN2A genes with glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin release in three samples of white people with European ancestry....

  12. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to Frank diabetes. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, T.

    2002-01-01

    There is a gradient of diabetes prevalence among populations of the African Diaspora. HYPOTHESIS: The risk of diabetes in transitional populations of the African diaspora is directly related to the rate of anthropornetric change and physical activity. AIMS: - To determine whether risk of incident diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is related to physical activity in two populations of the African Diaspora with widely different levels of obesity; - To determine whether risk of incident diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is related to rate of rise in body weight and change in body composition

  13. The influence of Bauhinia forficata Link subsp. pruinosa tea on lipid peroxidation and non-protein SH groups in human erythrocytes exposed to high glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Andréia C F; Leal, Carina Q; Bianchini, Matheus C; Prado, Ianeli O; Mendez, Andreas S L; Puntel, Robson L; Folmer, Vanderlei; Soares, Félix A; Avila, Daiana S; Puntel, Gustavo O

    2013-06-21

    Bauhinia forficata (BF) has been traditionally used as tea in folk medicine of Brazil for treatment of Diabetes mellitus (DM). To evaluate the effects of BF leaf tea on markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant levels in an experimental model of hyperglycemia in human erythrocytes in vitro. Human erythrocytes were incubated with high glucose concentrations or glucose and BF tea for 24h and 48h. After incubation lipid peroxidation and non-protein SH levels were analyzed. Moreover, quantification of polyphenols and flavonoids, iron chelating property, scavenging of DPPH, and prevention of lipid peroxidation in isolated lipids were also assessed. A significant amount of polyphenols and flavonoids was observed. The main components found by LC-MS analysis were quercetin-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl) rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl) rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside. BF tea presents important antioxidant and chelating properties. Moreover, BF tea was effective to increase non-protein SH levels and reduce lipid peroxidation induced by high glucose concentrations in human erythrocytes. The antioxidant effects of BF tea could be related to the presence of different phenolic and flavonoids components. We believe that these components can be responsible to protect human erythrocytes exposed to high glucose concentrations against oxidative damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of plasma lipid abnormalities and its association with glucose metabolism in Spain: the di@bet.es study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F; Real, Jose T; Masana, Luis; Catalá, Miguel; Vendrell, Joan; Vázquez, José Antonio; Valdés, Sergio; Urrutia, Inés; Soriguer, Federico; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Ortega, Emilio; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Menéndez, Edelmiro; Martínez-Larrad, Maria T; López-Alba, Alfonso; Gomis, Ramón; Goday, Albert; Girbés, Juan; Gaztambide, Sonia; Franch, Josep; Delgado, Elías; Castell, Conxa; Castaño, Luis; Casamitjana, Roser; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Bordiú, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a significant contributor to the elevated CVD risk observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with glucose metabolism status in a representative sample of the adult population in Spain and the percentage of subjects at guideline-recommended LDL-C goals. The di@bet.es study is a national, cross-sectional population-based survey of 5728 adults. A total of 4776 subjects were studied. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 56.8% of subjects; only 13.2% of subjects were treated with lipid lowering drugs. Lipid abnormalities were found in 56.8% of Spanish adults: 23.3% with high LDL-C, 21.5% high TG, 35.8% high non-HDL-C, and 17.2% low HDL-C. Most normal subjects showed an LDL-C ≤ 3.36 mmol/l. Pre-diabetics presented similar proportion when considering a goal of 3.36 mmol/l, but only 35% of them reached an LDL-C goal ≤ 2.6 mmol/l. Finally, 45.3% of diabetics had an LDL-C ≤ 2.6 mmol/l, and only 11.3% achieved an LDL-C ≤ 1.8 mmol/l. Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of dyslipidemia in the adult Spanish population, and a low use of lipid-lowering drugs. Moreover, the number of subjects achieving their corresponding LDL-C goal is small, particularly in subjects at high cardiovascular risk, such as diabetics. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, blood glucose, insulin, and lipid responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Shirin; Holloway, Brittany; Nemoseck, Tricia; Cole, Sarah; Petrisko, Yumi; Hong, Mee Young; Kern, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Agave nectar is a fructose-rich liquid sweetener derived from a plant, and is often promoted as a low glycemic alternative to refined sugar. However, little scientific research has been conducted in animals or humans to determine its metabolic and/or health effects. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, fasting plasma blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Eighteen (n=18) male ICR mice (33.8±1.6 g) were divided into two groups (n=6 for agave nectar and n=12 for sucrose) and provided free access to one of two diets of equal energy densities differing only in a portion of the carbohydrate provided. Diets contained 20% carbohydrate (by weight of total diet) from either raw agave nectar or sucrose. Epididymal fat pads were excised, and blood was collected after 34 days. Weight gain (4.3±2.2 vs. 8.4±3.4 g), fat pad weights (0.95±0.54 vs. 1.75±0.66 g), plasma glucose (77.8±12.2 vs. 111.0±27.9 mg/dL), and insulin (0.61±0.29 vs. 1.46±0.81 ng/mL) were significantly lower (P≤.05) for agave nectar-fed mice compared to sucrose-fed mice respectively. No statistically significant differences in total cholesterol or triglycerides were detected. These results suggest that in comparison to sucrose, agave nectar may have a positive influence on weight gain and glucose control. However, more research with a larger sample of animals and/or with human subjects is warranted.

  16. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose to tolerance to Frank diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, T.; Wilks, R.; Gaskin, P.; Luke, A.; Jahoor, F.; Adeyemo, A.

    2002-01-01

    There is a gradient of diabetes prevalence among populations of the African Diaspora, with a rate of about 1% in West Africa, 12% in Jamaica and 16% in the United States. A population-based survey was conducted in an urban community in Jamaica to document the risk factors for the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to frank diabetes. In a sample of 614 adults, 239 men and 375 women, oral glucose tolerance tests and examinations were conducted at Baseline and after 4-years of Follow-Up. There were significant increases in virtually all weight and adiposity variables for both men and women. Energy expenditure was also measured in a subset of participants at Follow-Up and was related significantly to glucose tolerance status. Among men, baseline age, weight, fat mass, body fat, waist circumference, and change in waist circumference were predictive of worsening glucose tolerance status. Among women, only age and change in waist circumference was a significant predictor. No physical activity parameter was predictive of change in tolerance status. These results provide support for the need to decrease adiposity as an important mechanism to control the rise in diabetes prevalence. (author)

  17. Relative abundance of Delta(5)-sterols in plasma membrane lipids of root-tip cells correlates with aluminum tolerance of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Shahadat Hossain; Tawaraya, Keitarou; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Murayama, Tetsuya; Chuba, Masaru; Kambayashi, Mihoko; Shiono, Yoshihito; Uemura, Matsuo; Ishikawa, Satoru; Wagatsuma, Tadao

    2009-01-01

    We investigated variations in aluminum (Al) tolerance among rice plants, using ancestor cultivars from the family line of the Al-tolerant and widely cultivated Japonica cultivar, Sasanishiki. The cultivar Rikuu-20 was Al sensitive, whereas a closely related cultivar that is a descendant of Rikuu-20, Rikuu-132, was Al tolerant. These two cultivars were compared to determine mechanisms underlying variations in Al tolerance. The sensitive cultivar Rikuu-20 showed increased permeability of the plasma membrane (PM) and greater Al uptake within 1 h of Al treatment. This could not be explained by organic acid release. Lipid composition of the PM differed between these cultivars, and may account for the difference in Al tolerance. The tolerant cultivar Rikuu-132 had a lower ratio of phospholipids to Delta(5)-sterols than the sensitive cultivar Rikuu-20, suggesting that the PM of Rikuu-132 is less negatively charged and less permeabilized than that of Rikuu-20. We used inhibitors of Delta(5)-sterol synthesis to alter the ratio of phospholipids to Delta(5)-sterols in both cultivars. These inhibitors reduced Al tolerance in Rikuu-132 and its Al-tolerant ancestor cultivars Kamenoo and Kyoku. In addition, Rikuu-132 showed a similar level of Al sensitivity when the ratio of phospholipids to Delta(5)-sterols was increased to match that of Rikuu-20 after treatment with uniconazole-P, an inhibitor of obtusifoliol-14alpha-demethylase. These results indicate that PM lipid composition is a factor underlying variations in Al tolerance among rice cultivars.

  18. Changes in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism-related parameters in domestic pigeon (Columba livia) during incubation and chick rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, X P; Xie, P; Bu, Z; Zou, X T

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism-related parameters of adult male and female White King pigeons (Columba livia) during incubation and chick rearing. At day 4 (I4), 10 (I10) and 17 (I17) of incubation and day 1 (R1), 7 (R7), 15 (R15) and 25 (R25) of chick rearing, livers were sampled from six pigeons for each sex. Glycogen and fat contents, activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, HK; 6-phosphofructokinase, 6-PFK), and genes expressions of key enzymes involved in glycolysis (pyruvate kinase, PK; glucokinase, GK), gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic, PCK1; fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, FBP1; glucose-6-phosphatase, G6Pase), fatty acid synthesis (fatty acid synthase, FAS; acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ACC) and fatty acid β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, CPT1; acyl-CoA 1, ACO) were measured. In male and female pigeon livers, glycogen content and HK activity dramatically increased after I17 and after R1, respectively; expressions of FBP1 and G6Pase genes were maximized at R15; activity of 6-PFK and expressions of PK and CPT1 genes were highest at R7; fat content and expressions of FAS and ACC genes steeply increased from I10 to R1. In females, hepatic expressions of GK and PCK1 genes were greatest at R7 and I17, respectively; however, in males, both of them were maximized at R15. Hepatic expression of ACO gene was significantly enhanced at R1 compared to I17 and R7 in males, whereas it was notably up-regulated at I17 and R7 in females. Furthermore, expressions of PCK1, GK, FAS and ACC genes were in significant relation to fat content in the livers of female pigeons, while fat content in male pigeons was highly correlated with expression of PCK1, ACC, CPT1 and ACO genes. In conclusion, regulations of glucose and lipid metabolic processes were enhanced in parent pigeon livers from terminal phases of incubation to mid phase of chick rearing with sexual effects. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Human myotubes from myoblast cultures undergoing senescence exhibit defects in glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan O; Just, Marlene; Rustan, Arild C

    2011-01-01

    Adult stem cells are known to have a finite replication potential. Muscle biopsy-derived human satellite cells (SCs) were grown at different passages and differentiated to human myotubes in culture to analyze the functional state of various carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways. As the prolif......Adult stem cells are known to have a finite replication potential. Muscle biopsy-derived human satellite cells (SCs) were grown at different passages and differentiated to human myotubes in culture to analyze the functional state of various carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways...... number and could be explained by reduced incorporation into diacyl- and triacylglycerols. The levels of long-chain acyl-CoA esters decreased with increased passage number. Late-passage, non-proliferating, myoblast cultures showed strong senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity indicating...... that the observed metabolic defects accompany the induction of a senescent state. The main function of SCs is regeneration and skeletal muscle-build up. Thus, the metabolic defects observed during aging of SC-derived myotubes could have a role in sarcopenia, the gradual age-related loss of muscle mass and strength....

  20. Reduction in reactive oxygen species production by mitochondria from elderly subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sangeeta; Lertwattanarak, Raweewan; Lefort, Natalie; Molina-Carrion, Marjorie; Joya-Galeana, Joaquin; Bowen, Benjamin P; Garduno-Garcia, Jose de Jesus; Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad; Richardson, Arlan; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Mandarino, Lawrence; Van Remmen, Holly; Musi, Nicolas

    2011-08-01

    Aging increases the risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes. It has been proposed that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by dysfunctional mitochondria could play a role in the pathogenesis of these metabolic abnormalities. We examined whether aging per se (in subjects with normal glucose tolerance [NGT]) impairs mitochondrial function and how this relates to ROS generation, whether older subjects with IGT have a further worsening of mitochondrial function (lower ATP production and elevated ROS generation), and whether exercise reverses age-related changes in mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial ATP and ROS production were measured in muscle from younger individuals with NGT, older individuals with NGT, and older individuals with IGT. Measurements were performed before and after 16 weeks of aerobic exercise. ATP synthesis was lower in older subjects with NGT and older subjects with IGT versus younger subjects. Notably, mitochondria from older subjects (with NGT and IGT) displayed reduced ROS production versus the younger group. ATP and ROS production were similar between older groups. Exercise increased ATP synthesis in the three groups. Mitochondrial ROS production also increased after training. Proteomic analysis revealed downregulation of several electron transport chain proteins with aging, and this was reversed by exercise. Old mitochondria from subjects with NGT and IGT display mitochondrial dysfunction as manifested by reduced ATP production but not with respect to increased ROS production. When adjusted to age, the development of IGT in elderly individuals does not involve changes in mitochondrial ATP and ROS production. Lastly, exercise reverses the mitochondrial phenotype (proteome and function) of old mitochondria.

  1. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats.MethodsLate stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ, respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days. Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, nitric oxide (NO, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days.ResultsDuring 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p < 0.05. Unlike late-stage diabetes, fasting serum insulin concentrations were higher and GTT pattern approximated to normal in chicory-treated earlystage diabetic rats.ConclusionsChicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned and longterm (28 days, in this study effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications.

  2. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghamarian Abdolreza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methods Late stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ, respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days. Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, nitric oxide (NO, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days. Results During 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p Conclusions Chicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned and long-term (28 days, in this study effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications.

  3. Increased Short-Term Beat-to-Beat QT Interval Variability in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Orosz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediabetic states and diabetes are important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Determination of short-term QT interval variability (STVQT is a non-invasive method for assessment of proarrhythmic risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate the STVQT in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. 18 IGT patients [age: 63 ± 11 years, body mass index (BMI: 31 ± 6 kg/m2, fasting glucose: 6.0 ± 0.4 mmol/l, 120 min postload glucose: 9.0 ± 1.0 mmol/l, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c: 5.9 ± 0.4%; mean ± SD] and 18 healthy controls (age: 56 ± 9 years, BMI: 27 ± 5 kg/m2, fasting glucose: 5.2 ± 0.4 mmol/l, 120 min postload glucose: 5.5 ± 1.3 mmol/l, HbA1c: 5.4 ± 0.3% were enrolled into the study. ECGs were recorded, processed, and analyzed off-line. The RR and QT intervals were expressed as the average of 30 consecutive beats, the temporal instability of beat-to-beat repolarization was characterized by calculating STVQT as follows: STVQT = Σ|QTn + 1 − QTn| (30x√2−1. Autonomic function was assessed by means of standard cardiovascular reflex tests. There were no differences between IGT and control groups in QT (411 ± 43 vs 402 ± 39 ms and QTc (431 ± 25 vs 424 ± 19 ms intervals or QT dispersion (44 ± 13 vs 42 ± 17 ms. However, STVQT was significantly higher in IGT patients (5.0 ± 0.7 vs 3.7 ± 0.7, P < 0.0001. The elevated temporal STVQT in patients with IGT may be an early indicator of increased instability of cardiac repolarization during prediabetic conditions.

  4. Evaluation of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Campos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, a cohort of 4998 women, 20 years or older, without previous diabetes being treated in prenatal care clinics in Brazil answered a questionnaire and performed a 75-g OGTT including fasting, 1-h and 2-h glucose measurements between their 24th and 28th gestational weeks. Pregnancy outcomes were transcribed from medical registries. GDM was defined according to WHO criteria (fasting: ≥126 mg/dL; 2-h value: ≥140 mg/dL and macrosomia as a birth weight equal to or higher than 4000 g. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC were compared and diagnostic properties of various cut-off points were evaluated. The AUCs for the prediction of macrosomia were 0.606 (0.572-0.637 for the 1-h and 0.589 (0.557-0.622 for the 2-h plasma glucose test. Similar predictability was demonstrable regarding combined adverse outcomes: 0.582 (0.559-0.604 for the 1-h test and 0.572 (0.549-0.595 for the 2-h test. When the 1-h glucose test was evaluated against a diagnosis of GDM defined by the 2-h glucose test, the AUC was 0.903 (0.886-0.919. The cut-off point that maximized sensitivity (83% and specificity (83% was 141 mg/dL, identifying 21% of the women as positive. A cut-off point of 160 mg/dL, with lower sensitivity (62%, had higher specificity (94%, labeling 8.6% as positive. Detection of GDM can be done with a 1-h 75-g OGTT: the value of 160 mg/dL has the same diagnostic performance as the conventional 2-h value (140 mg/dL. The simplification of the test may improve coverage and timing of the diagnosis of GDM.

  5. A minimally invasive system for glucose area under the curve measurement using interstitial fluid extraction technology: evaluation of the accuracy and usefulness with oral glucose tolerance tests in subjects with and without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Yushi; Hashimoto, Naoko; Ogawa, Wataru; Sato, Toshiyuki; Okada, Seiki; Hagino, Kei; Asakura, Yoshihiro; Kikkawa, Yasuo; Kojima, Junko; Maekawa, Yasunori; Nakajima, Hiromu

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of managing postprandial hyperglycemia, but adequate monitoring of postprandial glucose remains difficult because of wide variations in levels. We have therefore developed a minimally invasive system to monitor postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC). This system involves no blood sampling and uses interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC (IG-AUC) as a surrogate marker of postprandial glucose. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of this system by comparing data with the findings of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in subjects with and without diabetes. The glucose AUC monitoring system was validated by OGTTs in 37 subjects with and 10 subjects without diabetes. A plastic microneedle array was stamped on the forearm to extract IG. A hydrogel patch was then placed on the pretreated area to accumulate IG. Glucose and sodium ion concentrations in the hydrogel were measured to calculate IG-AUC at 2-h postload glucose. Plasma glucose (PG) levels were measured every 30 min to calculate reference PG-AUC. IG-AUC correlated strongly with reference PG-AUC (r=0.93) over a wide range. The level of correlation between IG-AUC and maximum PG level was also high (r=0.86). The painless nature of the technique was confirmed by the response of patients to questionnaires. The glucose AUC monitoring system using IG provided good estimates of reference PG-AUC and maximum PG level during OGTTs in subjects with and without diabetes. This system provides easy-to-use monitoring of glucose AUC, which is a good indicator of postprandial glucose.

  6. Analysis of results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Haoming; Fu Qiang; Tian Xiaoping; Su Cainu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical values of OGTT and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics. Method: OGTT was performed by enzymes method and insulin releasing test by RIA in 30 patients with hepatogenic diabetes, 31 cases with II diabetes and 35 controls. Results: During OGTT, blood glucose levels at various time were about the same in hepatogenic diabetics and II diabetics (P < 0.05), except at 180 min (P < 0.01). Basal hyperinsulinemia was present is hepatogenic diabetics. Conclusion: OGTT and insulin releasing test had a definite clinical value in the differential diagnosis of hepatogenic diabetics

  7. New paradigms in PCOS: impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular risk. Clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn, P

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age and is associated with various metabolic risk factors, in addition to chronic anovulation and factors related to androgen excess. Women with PCOS have a higher risk of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and an increased prothrombotic state, resulting in a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, subclinical atherosclerosis, vascular dysfunction, and apparently cardiovascular disease and mortality. The aim of the present article was to summarize current knowledge with focus on a suggestion to the clinical approach and handling of these metabolic risk factors.

  8. Role of diuretics, β blockers, and statins in increasing the risk of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: reanalysis of data from the NAVIGATOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lan; Shah, Bimal R; Reyes, Eric M; Thomas, Laine; Wojdyla, Daniel; Diem, Peter; Leiter, Lawrence A; Charbonnel, Bernard; Mareev, Viacheslav; Horton, Edward S; Haffner, Steven M; Soska, Vladimir; Holman, Rury; Bethel, M Angelyn; Schaper, Frank; Sun, Jie-Lena; McMurray, John J V; Califf, Robert M; Krum, Henry

    2013-12-09

    To examine the degree to which use of β blockers, statins, and diuretics in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and other cardiovascular risk factors is associated with new onset diabetes. Reanalysis of data from the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) trial. NAVIGATOR trial. Patients who at baseline (enrolment) were treatment naïve to β blockers (n=5640), diuretics (n=6346), statins (n=6146), and calcium channel blockers (n=6294). Use of calcium channel blocker was used as a metabolically neutral control. Development of new onset diabetes diagnosed by standard plasma glucose level in all participants and confirmed with glucose tolerance testing within 12 weeks after the increased glucose value was recorded. The relation between each treatment and new onset diabetes was evaluated using marginal structural models for causal inference, to account for time dependent confounding in treatment assignment. During the median five years of follow-up, β blockers were started in 915 (16.2%) patients, diuretics in 1316 (20.7%), statins in 1353 (22.0%), and calcium channel blockers in 1171 (18.6%). After adjusting for baseline characteristics and time varying confounders, diuretics and statins were both associated with an increased risk of new onset diabetes (hazard ratio 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.44, and 1.32, 1.14 to 1.48, respectively), whereas β blockers and calcium channel blockers were not associated with new onset diabetes (1.10, 0.92 to 1.31, and 0.95, 0.79 to 1.13, respectively). Among people with impaired glucose tolerance and other cardiovascular risk factors and with serial glucose measurements, diuretics and statins were associated with an increased risk of new onset diabetes, whereas the effect of β blockers was non-significant. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00097786.

  9. Comparison of surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity with parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test in early lactation dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Nores, V; Castillo, C; Hernandez, J; Abuelo, A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between different surrogate indices and parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in dairy cows at the start of their lactation. Ten dairy cows underwent IVGTT on Days 3 to 7 after calving. Areas under the curve during the 90 min after infusion, peak and nadir concentrations, elimination rates, and times to reach half-maximal and basal conc