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Sample records for glucose excretion rate

  1. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and glucose excretion rate were observed under the same experimental conditions. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion were much higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. No significant correlation between glycemia and either glucose concentration or glucose excretion rate was found in the diabetic patients, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. In the latter patients, as compared to control subjects, the relative magnitude of the increase in saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  2. Effect of gestational age and blood glucose on C-peptide excretion rate and clearance in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Emma R; Soelbeck, Mikkel K; Reith, David M; Wheeler, Benjamin J; Broadbent, Roland S; Medlicott, Natalie J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure urinary C-peptide concentrations, and then calculate C-peptide clearance (Cl), and excretion rate (UER) in neonates. In addition, the effect of gestational age (GA) and blood glucose levels (BGL) on C-peptide UER were investigated. Insulin concentrations in plasma and C-peptide concentrations were measured in plasma and urine, in 20 neonates. Chemiluminescent immunoassays were used for insulin and C-peptide measurements, with urine diluted to 40% with bovine serum albumin 1% in phosphate buffered saline. Urine volume and time of collection were recorded and used to calculate UER and Cl. The mean Cl of C-peptide was 0.309 ± 0.329 mL/min/kg, and UER was 0.0329 ± 0.0342 pmol/min/kg. Correlations between Cl or UER and GA were not significant (P > 0.05). No significant correlation was shown between Cl or UER and BGL (P > 0.05). Both Cl and UER were highly variable in neonates, but were not correlated with GA. Additionally, BGL did not appear to affect C-peptide UER and Cl. As GA and BGL did not appear to affect Cl and UER, urinary C-peptide may provide a non-invasive method of measuring insulin production in neonates. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...... of 3645 subjects. SETTING: An unselected urban population study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence data of positive dipstick analyses and UAER values. RESULTS: Prevalence data of a positive dipstick analysis were 12%, 4%, 3% and 6%, respectively, for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, and glucose...

  4. Equations to Estimate Creatinine Excretion Rate : The CKD Epidemiology Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ix, Joachim H.; Wassel, Christina L.; Stevens, Lesley A.; Beck, Gerald J.; Froissart, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Rodby, Roger; Torres, Vicente E.; Zhang, Yaping (Lucy); Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S.

    Background and objectives Creatinine excretion rate (CER) indicates timed urine collection accuracy. Although equations to estimate CER exist, their bias and precision are untested and none simultaneously include age, sex, race, and weight. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Participants

  5. A nation-wide cross-sectional study of urinary albumin excretion rate, arterial blood pressure and blood glucose control in Danish children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Danish Study Group of Diabetes in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H B; Marinelli, K; Nørgaard, K

    1990-01-01

    Nation-wide screening for microalbuminuria in Denmark was performed in 22 paediatric departments treating children with Type 1 diabetes. Over a period of 6 months 1020 children (less than or equal to 12 years) and adolescents (greater than 12 to 19 years) were screened (81% of total). Of these, 957...... (94%) performed at least two timed overnight urine collections. In 209 non-diabetic subjects the upper 95% limit for normal albumin excretion rate (AER) was 20 micrograms min-1. Mean overnight AER was significantly (p less than 0.001) elevated in diabetic (3.0 x/divided by 2.3 (SD tolerance factor......) micrograms min-1) and in non-diabetic (2.5 x/divided by 2.2 micrograms min-1) adolescents compared with diabetic (1.7 x/divided by 2.1 micrograms min-1) and non-diabetic (1.3 x/divided by 2.2 micrograms min-1) children. In the diabetic patients AER was positively correlated with the body surface area and age...

  6. Estimation of time-varying growth, uptake and excretion rates from dynamic metabolomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, Eugenio; Laroute, Valérie; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel; de Jong, Hidde; Ropers, Delphine

    2017-07-15

    Technological advances in metabolomics have made it possible to monitor the concentration of extracellular metabolites over time. From these data, it is possible to compute the rates of uptake and excretion of the metabolites by a growing cell population, providing precious information on the functioning of intracellular metabolism. The computation of the rate of these exchange reactions, however, is difficult to achieve in practice for a number of reasons, notably noisy measurements, correlations between the concentration profiles of the different extracellular metabolites, and discontinuties in the profiles due to sudden changes in metabolic regime. We present a method for precisely estimating time-varying uptake and excretion rates from time-series measurements of extracellular metabolite concentrations, specifically addressing all of the above issues. The estimation problem is formulated in a regularized Bayesian framework and solved by a combination of extended Kalman filtering and smoothing. The method is shown to improve upon methods based on spline smoothing of the data. Moreover, when applied to two actual datasets, the method recovers known features of overflow metabolism in Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis , and provides evidence for acetate uptake by L. lactis after glucose exhaustion. The results raise interesting perspectives for further work on rate estimation from measurements of intracellular metabolites. The Matlab code for the estimation method is available for download at https://team.inria.fr/ibis/rate-estimation-software/ , together with the datasets. eugenio.cinquemani@inria.fr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander in Cincinnati, OH, USA. This dataset is associated with the following...

  8. Relationship Between Serum Adiponectin and Urinary Albumin Excretion Rate in Patients with Diabetes Nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yongqiang; Yu Hui; Wang Zuobing

    2010-01-01

    To explore the relationship between the levels of serum adiponectin and urinary albumin excretion rate in patients with type 2 diabetes nephropathy, the serum levels of adiponectin and the levels of urinary albumin excretion rate in diabetes patients before and after treatment with pioglitazone were tested by ELISA and automatic biochemical analyzer respectively. The results showed that the serum levels of adiponectin in DM and DN group were lower than that of normal controls(P<0.01), but they gradually increased with progression (P<0.01). The serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with urinary albumin excretion rate (r= 0.284, P<0.05). The urinary albumin level decreased (P<0.01) and the serum levels of adiponectin increased after treatment with pioglitazone in DN group. The serum levels of adiponectin and urinary albumin excretion rate may play important role in the indication of treatment of diabetes. (authors)

  9. Estimation of exposure to 222Rn from the excretion rates of 21πPb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzman, R.B.; Rundo, J.

    1981-01-01

    A model is proposed with which estimates of exposure to 227 Rn and its daughter products may be made from urinary excretion rates of 210 Pb. It is assumed that 20% of all the 210 Pb inhaled reaches the blood and that 50% of the endogenous excretion is through the urine. The estimates from the model are compared with the results of measurements on a subject residing in a house with high levels of radon. Whole body radioactivity and excretion data were consistent with the model, but the estimates of exposure (WL) were higher than those measured with an Environmental Working Level Monitor

  10. Urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Sørensen, S F; Mogensen, C E

    1980-01-01

    The daily urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were measured with sensitive radioimmunoassays in 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The duration of SLE ranged from 0.5 to 18 years, mean 10 years. The mean age was 37 years. All patients except 5 received...... prednisone, 5-20 mg/day. None of the patients had proteinuria as judged by the "Albustix" test, and all had normal serum creatinine. The daily urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were nearly the same as those previously found by us in 27 adult control subjects with a mean age of 44 years...

  11. Urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Sørensen, S F; Mogensen, C E

    1980-01-01

    The daily urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were measured with sensitive radioimmunoassays in 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The duration of SLE ranged from 0.5 to 18 years, mean 10 years. The mean age was 37 years. All patients except 5 received...

  12. Creatinine Excretion Rate and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinkeler, Steef J.; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Shahinfar, Shahnaz; Esmatjes, Enric; de Zeeuw, Dick; Navis, Gerjan; Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers

    OBJECTIVE-The creatinine excretion rate (CER) is inversely associated with mortality in the general and renal transplant population. The CER is a marker for muscle mass. It is unknown whether the CER is associated with outcome in diabetes. We therefore investigated whether the CER is a determinant

  13. Phyto-oestrogen excretion and rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Morton, M.S.; Brüggemann-Rotgans, I.E.M.; Beresteijn, E.C.H. van

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The hypothesis was tested that the rate of postmenopausal bone loss is inversely associated with long-term urinary excretion of phyto-oestrogens, as a marker of habitual dietary intake. Design: Secondary analysis of a 10-year follow-up study (1979-1989) among postmenopausal women in the

  14. Late excretion rates of 226Ra and 210Pb following occupational or iatrogenic exposure. I. 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzman, R.B.; Sha, J.Y.; Markun, F.

    1982-01-01

    The urinary and fecal excretion rates of 226 Ra have been determined for 53 subjects who had been exposed to 226 Ra; 25 had been radium dial painters, 16 were iatrogenic (medical) cases and 12 were former radium chemists. The mean coefficient of elimination, CE (fraction of body content excreted annually), was significantly lower for the medical cases than for dial painters. The mean ratio of urinary-to-fecal excretion rates was 3.0 +- 0.7%

  15. Effects of a K+ channel blocker on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludens, J H; Clark, M A; Lawson, J A

    1995-06-01

    Effects of a K+ channel blocker on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in conscious rats were observed. Effects of K+ channel modulation on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion were studied using the adenosine-triphosphate- (ATP)-sensitive K+ channel blocker 4-morpholinecarboximidine-N-1-adamantyl-N'-cyclohexylhydr ochloride (U-37883A) in conscious rats previously equipped with catheters for clearance studies. In saline-loaded rats, i.v. doses of U-37883A of 1.7, 5.0 and 15 mg/kg increased absolute and fractional Na+ excretion dose-dependently without changing K+ excretion. The glomerular filtration rate remained constant during diuresis. In water-loaded (hypotonic dextrose) rats, free-water clearance studies revealed that the ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker significantly decreased an index of solute reabsorption (free-water clearance adjusted for chloride clearance) in the diluting segment during peak natriuretic activity. In addition, U-37883A significantly decreased the osmolality of renal papillary interstitial fluid, indicative of an effect in the medullary portion of the diluting segment. Together, these findings suggest that ATP-sensitive K+ channels, possibly those located at the apical boarder, play a pivotal role in Na+ reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle.

  16. Organ burdens and excretion rates of inhaled uranium - computations using ICRP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abani, M.C.; Murthy, K.B.S.; Sunta, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Uranium being a highly toxic material, proper estimation of the body burden is very important. During manufacture of uranium fuel, it is likely to enter the body by inhalation. By the body burden and excretion measurements, one should be able to assess whether the intake is within the safe limits or not. This is possible if one performs theoretical calculations and estimates the amount of uranium which builds up in the body as a function of time. Similarly theoretical estimates in case of excretion have to be made. For this purpose, a computer programme has been developed to find out organ burdens and excretion rates resulting from exposure to a radioactive nuclide. ICRP-30 lung model has been used and cases of single instantaneous inhalation of 1 ALI as well as inhalation at a steady rate of ALI/365 per day have been considered. Using this programme, results for uranium aerosols of classes D, W and Y and sizes 0.2, 1 and 5 microns are generated by ND computers in tabular as well as graphical forms. These will be useful in conjunction with body burden measurements by direct counting or excretion analysis. (author). 7 tabs., 56 figs

  17. Enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by oral glucose load in well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Christiansen, J; Christensen, C K; Hermansen, K

    1986-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in 27 patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) before and after an oral glucose load of 1.1 g glucose/kg body wt. In the 18 patients showing near-normoglycaemia (blood glucose less than or equal to 8....... No changes in blood pressure or urinary albumin excretion rates took place in either group. The reduction in plasma protein and in plasma growth hormone concentration were similar in the two groups. No change was seen in plasma arginine vasopressin concentration. There was no difference in the qualitative...

  18. Effect of candesartan on microalbuminuria and albumin excretion rate in diabetes: three randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilous, Rudy; Chaturvedi, Nish; Sjølie, Anne Katrin

    2009-01-01

    candesartan compared with placebo affects microalbuminuria incidence or rate of change in albuminuria in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: 3 randomized trials of the DIRECT (Diabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials) Program. SETTING: 309 secondary care centers. PATIENTS: 3326 and 1905 patients with type 1...... further collections were done. The primary end point was new microalbuminuria (3 or 4 collections of urinary albumin excretion rate >or=20 microg/min). The secondary end point was rate of change in albuminuria. RESULTS: Individual and pooled results of the 3 trials showed that candesartan had little...... normotensive patients or patients with well-controlled hypertension who were at low overall vascular risk, which resulted in a low rate of microalbuminuria. Studies were powered for retinal and not renal end points. CONCLUSION: Candesartan, 32 mg/d, for 4.7 years did not prevent microalbuminuria in mainly...

  19. Elevated albumin excretion and retinal changes in children with type 1 diabetes are related to long-term poor blood glucose control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Storm, Birgit Kjærside; Graae, M

    1989-01-01

    patients were proteinuric (greater than 300 mg 24 h-1) (2%). Retinal morphology was evaluated by colour fundus photography. Background retinopathy was more frequent in the group with elevated albumin excretion (71%) than in a matched normoalbuminuric group (20%, 2p less than 0.001). Long-term blood glucose......All diabetic children (n = 113) under 19 years old and with more than 2 years of diabetes attending the Steno Memorial Hospital in 1987 were studied. Normal urinary albumin excretion (less than 30 mg 24 h-1) was found in 96 patients (85%), 15 had microalbuminuria (30-300 mg 24 h-1) (13%), and 2...

  20. Effect of urinary pH and nicotine excretion rate on plasma nicotine during cigarette smoking and chewing nicotine gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, C.; Russell, M. A. H.

    1978-01-01

    1 Plasma nicotine levels produced by chewing nicotine gum were compared with those obtained by cigarette smoking under conditions of controlled urinary pH. 2 Although absorption was slower, plasma levels comparable to cigarette smoking were built up on 4 mg (but not 2 mg) nicotine gum. 3 Urinary excretion of nicotine was influenced markedly by pH and the rate of urine flow. 4 Plasma nicotine was higher under alkaline compared to acidic conditions (P < 0.001) but the rate of urinary nicotine excretion appeared to have little effect on the plasma level.

  1. Selective renal vasoconstriction, exaggerated natriuresis and excretion rates of exosomic proteins in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M.; Jensen, Pia Hønnerup; Schwämmle, Veit

    2014-01-01

    AimIn essential hypertension (EH), the regulation of renal sodium excretion is aberrant. We hypothesized that in mild EH, (i) abnormal dynamics of plasma renin concentration (PRC) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are responsible for the exaggerated natriuresis, and (ii) exosomic protein...... patterns reflect the renal tubular abnormality involved in the dysregulation of sodium excretion. MethodsAfter 2-week drug washout and 4-day diet, systemic and renal hemodynamics, cardio-renal hormones, glomerular filtration and renal excretion were studied in male patients during saline loading (SL...

  2. Creatinine excretion rate, a marker of muscle mass, is related to clinical outcome in patients with chronic systolic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, Jozine M.; Damman, Kevin; Hillege, Hans L.; Bakker, Stephan J.; Anker, Stefan D.; Navis, Gerjan; Voors, Adriaan A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims In chronic heart failure (CHF), low body mass as a reflection of low muscle mass has been associated with poor outcome. Urinary creatinine excretion rate (CER) is an established marker of muscle mass, but has not been investigated in CHF. This study aims to evaluate urinary CER as a marker of

  3. Variability of excretion rates of 210Pb and 210Po of humans at environmental levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.; Holtzman, R.B.; Ilcewicz, F.H.; Kramer, L.

    1977-01-01

    Variability of the excretion rates of the nuclides 210 Pb and 210 Po at natural levels was studied in a group of samples collected from men maintained under the carefully controlled conditions of a metabolic ward. They consumed only the standard diet of the ward in which they had been resident for at least several months prior to this study. The mean urinary rates were about 0.1 to 0.5 pCi/day for both 210 Pb and 210 Po, while fecal rates ranged from 1 to 2.7 pCi/day for the two nuclides. For urinary 210 Pb the coefficients of variation (ratio of standard deviation to mean) for three subjects ranged from 19 to 45 percent for eight continuous 24-hr samples compared to 11 to 13 percent for subsequently collected multiday samples (4 to 9 days each) for each subject. However, the standard errors of the means for the one day collections were about equal to the standard deviations of the pooled samples. Similar variability was noted for the 210 Po data. Six day fecal collections from these time periods exhibited higher variabilities than did the urine, from about 12 percent to 50 percent for each of the nuclides. Multiday collections for 12 subjects showed mean coefficients of variation of about 16 percent for 210 Pb and 13 percent for the 210 Po for urine and 21 and 25 percent, respectively, in fecal collections. Since dietary intake was maintained fairly constant, excreta collections were carefully controlled, and the analytical precision was about 5 percent, these variabilities appear to be due to biological variations and are characteristic of the individuals studied. Some possible causes of these effects are discussed

  4. ESTIMATES OF AGE-SPECIFIC URINARY EXCRETION RATES FOR CREATININE AMONG CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of this study suggest that naïve adjustment by creatinine concentration, without consideration of the age-dependence of the physiological mechanisms controlling its excretion, may introduce sizeable error and is inappropriate when comparing metabolite concentrations a...

  5. The impact of hormonal contraceptives on blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion and glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atthobari, Jarir; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Visser, Sipke T.; de Jong, Paul E.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    Aim In short-term studies, hormonal contraceptives (HC) have been suggested to induce a rise in blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE), while the effect of HC in renal function (GFR) is still under debate. Data on long-term and withdrawal effects of HC use on these outcomes are,

  6. Sexual dimorphism in cortisol secretion starts after age 10 in healthy children: urinary cortisol metabolite excretion rates during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudy, Stefan A; Hartmann, Michaela F; Remer, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    Detailed data on the physiological pattern of adrenocortical activity during normal growth are lacking. An established method to determine adrenocortical glucocorticoid secretion is the measurement of 24-h excretion rates of major urinary cortisol metabolites (C21). To test the hypothesis that the frequently reported higher cortisol secretion in men than in women develops during puberty, we examined C21 together with excretions of combined urinary free and conjugated cortisol (F(comb)) in 400 healthy boys and girls aged 3-18 yr using GC-MS. Daily excretion rates of C21, F(comb), and body surface area (BSA)-corrected F(comb) significantly increased with age in both sexes. In contrast, C21/BSA (microgxm(-2).day(-1)) declined from the age of 3-4 yr to 7-8 yr in boys and girls (P activity (allotetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisol) in females compared with males. Our results demonstrate dynamic changes in adrenocortical activity in healthy children resulting in an emerging sexual dimorphism in cortisol secretion after age 11. The latter can be explained, at least partly, by diverging 5alpha-reductase activities in boys and girls. F(comb), a frequently analyzed GC-MS parameter, proved not to reflect dynamic changes in cortisol secretion. In conclusion, the varying metabolic need for cortisol during normal growth may have implications for future improvements in glucocorticoid replacement therapy.

  7. Integrated rate expression for the production of glucose equivalent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    green plants is discussed. The C4 plants are chosen and in these plants, the rate of photosynthesis does not .... overall CO2 assimilation process and glucose pro-. Figure 1. ..... Thus these plants show an optimal growth of an enzyme activity ...

  8. Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, R.F.; Lear, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [ 14 C]-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the 14 C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the 14 C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum

  9. Epicardial, pericardial and total cardiac fat and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Regitse H.; Von Scholten, Bernt J.; Hansen, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    of 200 patients with type 2 diabetes and elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER). Methods Cardiac adipose tissue was measured from baseline echocardiography. The composite endpoint comprised incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Coronary artery calcium, carotid intima media.......7, p = 0.017) models. Cardiac adipose tissue (p = 0.033) was associated with baseline coronary artery calcium (model 1) and interleukin-8 (models 1-3, all p type 2 diabetes patients without coronary artery disease, high cardiac adipose tissue levels were associated...

  10. Degreasing method for the seborrheic areas with respect to regaining sebum excretion rate to casual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Birgitte; Ivens, Ulla; Serup, Jørgen

    2000-05-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sebum excreted from the seborrheic glands keeps the skin surface subtle and moist. Before determining the activity of seborrheic glands, the skin surface must be degreased to remove contamination but without provoking sebum excretion. The purpose of this study was to set up a standardised degreasing procedure for various seborrheic areas in different skin types. The method will take day-to-day variations into account with respect to the kinetics of refatting. METHODS: The Sebumeter(R) from Courage+Khazaka is used to quantify the sebum excretion. Day-to-day variations were measured on the forehead in groups of 12 volunteers on 2 consecutive days. The degreasing procedure was investigated by individual cleaning with alcohol compared to washing with a mild detergent followed by wipes with alcohol on the forehead. The degree of refatting was monitored until 3 h after defatting on seborrheic areas: the forehead, cheek, nose, chin and upper back. RESULTS: There was no statistical significant difference in the variation from day to day (Pskin types was observed. An individual difference in the number of alcoholic wipes needed to degrease the forehead was seen. Washing followed by several repetitions of alcoholic wipes was not sufficient for the forehead, chin and nose (P>0.05). For the cheek and upper back, it was sufficient to wash with soap (Pskin until the sebum output reached the casual level was 2 h (P>0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) indicates that individual skin types return to casual level after defatting. CONCLUSION: There was no statistically significant day-to-day variation using the Sebumeter(R). We ended up with different degreasing procedures in different seborrheic areas. Washing gently with a detergent solution and then performing three wipes with alcohol was optimal for degreasing the forehead, nose and chin. For the cheek and upper back, it was sufficient to use a mild soap. Casual level was reached after 2 h in all seborrheic

  11. Application of specific gravity method for normalization of urinary excretion rates of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Smita S.; Yadav, J.R.; Rao, D.D.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro bioassay monitoring is based on the determination of activity concentration in biological samples excreted from the body and is most suitable for alpha and beta emitters. For occupational workers handling actinides in reprocessing facilities possibility of internal exposure exists and urine assay is preferred method for monitoring such exposure. Urine samples collected for 24 h duration, is the true representative of bioassay sample and hence in the case of insufficient collection time, specific gravity applied method of normalization of urine sample is used. The present study reports the data of specific gravity generated for controlled group of Indian population by the use of densitometer and its application in urinary sample activity normalization. The average specific gravity value obtained for the controlled group was 1.008±0.005 gm/ml. (author)

  12. Modest Salt Reduction Lowers Blood Pressure and Albumin Excretion in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-06-01

    The role of salt restriction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus is controversial, with a lack of well controlled, longer term, modest salt reduction trials in this group of patients, in spite of the marked increase in cardiovascular risk. We carried out a 12-week randomized double-blind, crossover trial of salt restriction with salt or placebo tablets, each for 6 weeks, in 46 individuals with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and untreated normal or high normal blood pressure (BP). From salt to placebo, 24-hour urinary sodium was reduced by 49±9 mmol (2.9 g salt). This reduction in salt intake led to fall in clinic BP from 136/81±2/1 mm Hg to 131/80±2/1 mm Hg, (systolic BP; Pdiabetes mellitus with normal or mildly raised BP. The reduction in urinary albumin excretion may carry additional benefits in reducing cardiovascular disease above the effects on BP. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. The rate of lactate production from glucose in hearts is not altered by per-deuteration of glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Alexander M.; Anderson, Brian L.; Wen, Xiaodong; Hever, Thomas; Khemtong, Chalermchai; Kovacs, Zoltan; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig R.

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to determine whether perdeuterated glucose experiences a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) as glucose passes through glycolysis and is further oxidized in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Metabolism of deuterated glucose was investigated in two groups of perfused rat hearts. The control group was supplied with a 1:1 mixture of [U-13C6]glucose and [1,6-13C2]glucose, while the experimental group received [U-13C6,U-2H7]glucose and [1,6-13C2]glucose. Tissue extracts were analyzed by 1H, 2H and proton-decoupled 13C NMR spectroscopy. Extensive 2H-13C scalar coupling plus chemical shift isotope effects were observed in the proton-decoupled 13C NMR spectra of lactate, alanine and glutamate. A small but measureable (∼8%) difference in the rate of conversion of [U-13C6]glucose vs. [1,6-13C2]glucose to lactate, likely reflecting rates of Csbnd C bond breakage in the aldolase reaction, but conversion of [U-13C6]glucose versus [U-13C6,U-2H7]glucose to lactate did not differ. This shows that the presence of deuterium in glucose does not alter glycolytic flux. However, there were two distinct effects of deuteration on metabolism of glucose to alanine and oxidation of glucose in the TCA. First, alanine undergoes extensive exchange of methyl deuterons with solvent protons in the alanine amino transferase reaction. Second, there is a substantial kinetic isotope effect in metabolism of [U-13C6,U-2H7]glucose to alanine and glutamate. In the presence of [U-13C6,U-2H7]glucose, alanine and lactate are not in rapid exchange with the same pool of pyruvate. These studies indicate that the appearance of hyperpolarized 13C-lactate from hyperpolarized [U-13C6,U-2H7]glucose is not substantially influenced by a deuterium kinetic isotope effect.

  14. Association between the extent of urinary albumin excretion and glycaemic variability indices measured by continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S-M; Kim, T-H; Oh, S; Baek, J; Joung, J Y; Park, S-M; Cho, Y Y; Sohn, S Y; Hur, K Y; Lee, M-S; Lee, M-K; Kim, J H

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of glycaemic variability to the microvascular complication of diabetes has not been established. We examined whether there is an independent association between indices of glycaemic variability in continuous glucose monitoring and extent of albuminuria. A total of 173 patients with Type 2 diabetes (without insulin therapy, n = 96; with insulin therapy, n = 77) who had unexplained large fluctuations in blood glucose values underwent three-day continuous glucose monitoring. We used a multinomial logistic regression model to determine whether the indices of glycaemic variability independently affected the odds of having a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 30-299 mg/g and ≥ 300 mg/g. Higher standard deviation (P = 0.002), mean of daily differences (P = 0.023) and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (P = 0.043) significantly increased the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g. In multivariable analysis, only higher standard deviation, but not mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion and mean of daily differences, independently increased the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g (P = 0.025). Coefficient of variation (sd/mean) was not associated with the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 30-299 or ≥ 300 mg/g. The independent association between standard deviation and the extent of albuminuria was lost when the measures were normalized by mean glucose level. At least in terms of relative measures of glycaemic variability, we failed to demonstrate an independent association between glycaemic variability and albuminuria extent in patients with inadequately controlled Type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  15. Targeting the kidney and glucose excretion with dapagliflozin: preclinical and clinical evidence for SGLT2 inhibition as a new option for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whaley JM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jean M Whaley,1 Mark Tirmenstein,2 Timothy P Reilly,2 Simon M Poucher,3 JoAnne Saye,4 Shamik Parikh,5 James F List61Bristol-Myers Squibb, Metabolic Disease Discovery Biology, Research and Development, Princeton, NJ, USA; 2Bristol-Myers Squibb, Drug Safety Evaluation, Research and Development, New Brunswick and Princeton, NJ, USA; 3AstraZeneca, Cardiovascular and Gastrointestinal Innovative Medicines Science Unit, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK; 4AstraZeneca, Global Safety Assessment, Research and Development, Wilmington, DE, USA; 5AstraZeneca, Cardiovascular, Clinical Development, Wilmington, DE, USA; 6Bristol-Myers Squibb, Global Clinical Development, Research and Development, Princeton, NJ, USAAbstract: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2 inhibitors are a novel class of glucuretic, antihyperglycemic drugs that target the process of renal glucose reabsorption and induce glucuresis independently of insulin secretion or action. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, SGLT2 inhibitors have been found to consistently reduce measures of hyperglycemia, including hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, and postprandial glucose, throughout the continuum of disease. By inducing the renal excretion of glucose and its associated calories, SGLT2 inhibitors reduce weight and have the potential to be disease modifying by addressing the caloric excess that is believed to be one of the root causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Additional benefits, including the possibility for combination with insulin-dependent antihyperglycemic drugs, a low potential for hypoglycemia, and the ability to reduce blood pressure, were anticipated from the novel mechanism of action and have been demonstrated in clinical studies. Mechanism-related risks include an increased incidence of urinary tract and genital infections and the possibility of over-diuresis in volume-sensitive patients. Taken together, the results of Phase III clinical studies generally point to a

  16. Measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) in normal and diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giampetro, O.; Clerico, A.; Cruschelli, L.; Miccoli, R.; Dipalma, L.; Navalesi, R.

    1987-01-01

    The chemico-clinical characteristics of two commercial RIA kits for the measurement of urinary albumin excretion in normal and diabetic subjects were compared. The chief difference between the two methods concerns the bound/free separation of the antigen, since one employs the second antybody plus PEG (Sclavo Kit), while the other uses the solid phase [antiserum bound to sepharose (Pharmacia kit)]. The two RIA methods have demonstrated a similar degree of sensitivity, feasibility and cost. The precision of the two RIAs was also similar, although the Sclavo kit has shown a better precision for lower albumin concentrations and the Pharmacia kit for higher values. In diabetic patients, elevated urinary albumin concentrations (>60 mg/L) have been found more frequently than low values (<5 mg/L); hence the Pharmacia kit seems to be preferable, because it less frequently needs dilution of urinary sample for measuring with a better precision supranormal urinary albumin values. A significant bias (about 15%) was found between the two RIAs. Bias between different albumin RIA methods could partially explain the differences of normal values previously reported in the literature

  17. The effects of cimetidine on creatinine excretion, glomerular filtration rate and tubular function in renal transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N V; Ladefoged, S D; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1989-01-01

    The renal clearance of endogenous creatinine (CCr), sodium (CNa) and lithium (CLi) was determined before and after a single intravenous bolus of cimetidine in nine renal transplant recipients. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured with 125I-iothalamate clearance (CTh). The initial CCr...... of 65 ml/min (median) was reduced to a nadir of 46 ml/min (p less than 0.01) during the first 2 h after infusion of cimetidine. GFR remained unchanged, and thus the fractional clearance of creatinine (CCr/CTh) was reduced from 1.43 (median) to 1.03 (p less than 0.01). CNa and the fractional excretion...... of sodium decreased throughout the study (p less than 0.05); CLi was unchanged. In conclusion cimetidine, when measured during 1-h clearance periods, interferes with tubular creatinine secretion in the denervated kidney of transplant recipients without affecting the glomerular filtration rate or proximal...

  18. Tissue vitamin concentrations are maintained constant by changing the urinary excretion rate of vitamins in rats' restricted food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that mild food restriction induces a reduction in tryptophan-nicotinamide conversion, which helps to explain why death secondary to pellagra is pandemic during the hungry season. In this study, we investigated the levels of B-group vitamins in the liver, kidney, blood, and urine in rats that underwent gradual restriction of food intake (80, 60, 40, and 20% restriction vs. ad libitum food intake). No significant differences in the B-group vitamin concentrations (mol/g tissue) in the liver and kidney were observed at any level of food restriction. However, the urine excretion rates exhibited some characteristic phenomena that differed by vitamin. These results show that the tissue concentrations of B-group vitamins were kept constant by changing the urinary elimination rates of vitamins under various levels of food restriction. Only vitamin B12 was the only (exception).

  19. Direct vs. indirect pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis as a function of glucose infusion rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagby, G.J.; Lang, C.H.; Johnson, J.L.; Blakesly, H.L.; Spitzer, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine the influence of the rate of exogenous glucose administration on liver glycogen synthesis by the direct (glucose uptake and incorporation into glycogen) vs the indirect pathway (glucose degradation to 3-carbon intermediates, e.g., lactate, prior to incorporation into glycogen). Catheterized rats were fasted 2 days prior to receiving a 3 hr infusion of glucose at rates of 0 to 230 μmol/min/kg containing tracer [6- 3 H]- and [U- 14 C]-glucose. Plasma glucose (r = 0.80), insulin (r = 0.90) and lactate (r = 0.84) were correlated with glucose infusion rate. The rate of liver glycogen deposition (0.46 +/- 0.03 μmol/min/g) did not differ between a glucose infusion rate of 20 and 230 μmol/min/kg. At the lowest and highest glucose infusion rates hepatic glycogenesis accounted for 87 +/- 6 and 9 +/- 1% of the total glucose load, respectively. The percent contribution of the direct pathways to glycogen deposition ([ 3 H] specific activity in hepatic glycogen/[ 3 H] specific activity in plasma glucose) increased from 16 +/- 3 to 83 +/- 5% from lowest to highest glucose infusion rates (prevailing plasma glucose concentrations: 9 +/- 1 and 21 +/- 2 mM, respectively). The results indicate that the relative contribution of the direct and indirect pathways of glucogen synthesis are dependent upon the glucose load or plasma glucose concentration

  20. Alkaline earth metabolism: a model useful in calculating organ burdens, excretion rates and committed effective dose equivalent conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Myers, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Two mathematical models of alkaline earth metabolism in man have been developed from the postulates given in ICRP Publication 20. Both models have recycling between the organs and blood included explicitly, and the first one retains the power function used by the ICRP for diminution in mineral bone from being available for resorption by blood. In the second model, this diminution is represented by secondary compartments in mineral bone. Both models give good agreement with the retention functions developed in ICRP Publication 20. The second one has been incorporated into a larger model which includes the lung and G.I. tract. This overall model has been used to calculate organ burdens excretion rates, and committed effective dose equivalent factors for the more important radioisotopes of the alkaline earth elements for inhalation and ingestion exposures. (author)

  1. Comparison of human myofibrillar protein catabolic rate derived from 3-methylhistidine excretion with synthetic rate from muscle biopsies during L-(. cap alpha. -/sup 15/N)lysine infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeran, R O; Halliday, D; Purkiss, P [Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (UK). Div. of Inherited Metabolic Diseases and Clinical Investigation

    1978-05-01

    Urine was collected in five healthy men over 10 to 14 days, with fasting blood samples on days 1, 5 and 10, whilst they consumed a standard creatine-free diet, which was quantitatively related to their body surface area. The urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine fell to a plateau by day 5 in all subjects. Myofibrillar protein catabolic rate calculated from the mean value of 3-methylhistidine excretion from day 5 to day 10 averaged 1.21 g day/sup -1/ kg/sup -1/ body weight. The average turnover of muscle myofibrillar protein was calculated to be 2.16%/day. From a previous study using continuous intravenous infusion of L-(a-/sup 15/N)lysine with serial muscle biopsies on the same subjects, the mean myofibrillar protein synthetic rate was calculated to be 0.82 g day/sup -1/ kg/sup -1/ body weight, and the mean turnover rate was 1.47%/day of total muscle myofibrillar protein. The estimations of myofibrillar protein turnover rate derived from the two methods are compared and the differences discussed.

  2. A global database of nitrogen and phosphorus excretion rates of aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animals can be important in modulating ecosystem-level nutrient cycling, although their importance varies greatly among species and ecosystems. Nutrient cycling rates of individual animals represent valuable data for testing the predictions of important frameworks such as the Met...

  3. Entry rates and recycling of glucose in buffalo calves fed on urea molasses liquid diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, A; Singh, U B; Verma, D N; Ranjhan, S K [Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Izatnagar. Div. of Animal Nutrition

    1974-12-01

    Entry rates of glucose have been measured in buffalo calves by using a dual-isotope dilution method based on continuous infusion of (U-/sup 14/C)D-glucose and (6-/sup 3/H)D-glucose into the blood at a precise controlled rate for 540 min. After 5 h a plateau was obtained in the specific radioactivity of the plasma glucose from which glucose synthesis and entry rates were calculated. The average entry rates of glucose were 112 and 145 mg/min measured by /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H labelled glucose respectively. About 23 percent of the glucose carbon was recycled in the pool. The average recycling rate was 33 mg/min.

  4. Entry rates and recycling of glucose in buffalo calves fed on urea molasses liquid diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Arun; Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    Entry rates of glucose have been measured in buffalo calves by using a dual-isotope dilution method based on continuous infusion of (U- 14 C)D-glucose and (6- 3 H)D-glucose into the blood at a precise controlled rate for 540 min. After 5 h a plateau was obtained in the specific radioactivity of the plasma glucose from which glucose synthesis and entry rates were calculated. The average entry rates of glucose were 112 and 145 mg/min measured by 14 C and 3 H labelled glucose respectively. About 23 percent of the glucose carbon was recycled in the pool. The average recycling rate was 33 mg/min. (author)

  5. Estimation of glucose rate of appearance from cgs and subcutaneous insulin delivery in type 1 diabetes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-08-31

    Method and System for providing estimates of Glucose Rate of Appearance from the intestine (GRA) using continuous glucose sensor measurements (CGS) taken from the subcutaneous of a diabetes patient and the amount of insulin administered to the patient.

  6. Estimation of glucose rate of appearance from cgs and subcutaneous insulin delivery in type 1 diabetes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Al-Matouq, Ali Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Method and System for providing estimates of Glucose Rate of Appearance from the intestine (GRA) using continuous glucose sensor measurements (CGS) taken from the subcutaneous of a diabetes patient and the amount of insulin administered

  7. Application of 15N-leucine in the study of the contribution rate of diet and each tissue to nitrogen excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shigeru; Rikimaru, Tohru; Kamiesu, Noriko; Inoue, Goro

    1980-01-01

    Experimental diets (protein-free diet and 2% or 10% lactoalbumin diet) were given to male SD rats, and the urinary N content from diet was obtained from the amount of urine 15 N 24 hours after the oral administration of 15 N-leucine. N excretion from each tissue was obtained from the contents of tissue-synthesized protein N and tissue-increased N. The synthetic protein N content was obtained from the recovery rate 24 hours after 15 N-leucine administration, and the tissue-increased N content from the change in the quantity of N in each tissue on the 14th and 21st days of experimental diet. Body weight increased in the 10% diet group, decreased in the 0% diet group, and showed no change in the 2% group. The mean daily urinary N excretion was inhibited more in the 2% group than in the 0% group. The tissue 15 N level was high in the urine, followed by the order of digestive tract, liver and feces, and low in the skeletal muscle and skin. N excretion from tissues was greatest for the skeletal muscle; the ratio to total N excretion was high for the skeletal muscle and low for visceral organs in the 0% diet group, compared with the 10% diet group. With the 2% diet, most tissues showed intermediate values, and excretion from the skeletal muscle was lowest among the 3 groups, accounting for the greater inhibition of urinary N excretion than that in the 0% group. (Chiba, N.)

  8. Serum uric acid concentration is associated with early changes of glomerular filtration rate in patients with diabetes type 1 without increased albumin excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaleniak, Sebastian; Korzeniewska-Dyl, Irmina; Moczulski, Dariusz

    2014-10-01

    The early loss of renal function in patients with type 1 diabetes may begin before proteinuria. Only 30% of patients with diabetes manifest overt proteinuria. According to the previous studies, increased urinary albumin excretion, which is considered a classic marker of progression of diabetic kidney disease, can regress to normal urine albumin excretion. The current studies conducted in patients with type 1 diabetes without increased urine albumin excretion showed that the uric acid concentration was an independent factor for the development of diabetic kidney disease. The aim of study was to assess the impact of uric acid concentration and to identify risk factors of the early glomerular filtration loss in patients with type 1 diabetes and normal urinary albumin excretion. 147 patients (61 women and 86 men) with type 1 diabetes without increased urine albumin excretion were analysed. GFR (gromerular filtration rate) was estimated based on the serum cystatin C concentration. Centile charts were used to determine the variation of uric acid concentration depending on GFR and gender. The mean value of the filtration rate for the study group was 117 ml/min/m2. The uric acid level above 90th percentile in relation to GFR was diagnosed in 8.2% of women and 0% of men, between 90th and 50th percentile in 44.3 % of women and 5.8% of men and below 50th percentile in 47.5% of women and 94.2% of men. Contrary to men in women higher serum acid concentration was strongly associated with higher glomerular filtration rate. Hyperfiltraion was diagnosed in 15 of women and 19 of men. The high normal uric acid concentration in women with type 1 diabetes might play a crucial role in development of hyperfiltration.

  9. Autonomic neuropathy in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects is associated with urinary albumin excretion rate and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure: the Fredericia Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of parental type 2 diabetes on the autonomic nervous system and to determine whether autonomic neuropathy is present and associated with changes in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in nondiabetic subjects......, Redmond, WA), and UAER was determined through three overnight urine samples. The subjects with parental type 2 diabetes had significantly lower heart rate variation in all three bedside tests (P

  10. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, G.; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in cross-over design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related

  11. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, Guido; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in crossover design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related

  12. Transcriptional responses to glucose at different glycolytic rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Karin; Ståhlberg, Anders; Hohmann, Stefan; Gustafsson, Lena

    2004-12-01

    The addition of glucose to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells causes reprogramming of gene expression. Glucose is sensed by membrane receptors as well as (so far elusive) intracellular sensing mechanisms. The availability of four yeast strains that display different hexose uptake capacities allowed us to study glucose-induced effects at different glycolytic rates. Rapid glucose responses were observed in all strains able to take up glucose, consistent with intracellular sensing. The degree of long-term responses, however, clearly correlated with the glycolytic rate: glucose-stimulated expression of genes encoding enzymes of the lower part of glycolysis showed an almost linear correlation with the glycolytic rate, while expression levels of genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes and invertase (SUC2) showed an inverse correlation. Glucose control of SUC2 expression is mediated by the Snf1-Mig1 pathway. Mig1 dephosphorylation upon glucose addition is known to lead to repression of target genes. Mig1 was initially dephosphorylated upon glucose addition in all strains able to take up glucose, but remained dephosphorylated only at high glycolytic rates. Remarkably, transient Mig1-dephosphorylation was accompanied by the repression of SUC2 expression at high glycolytic rates, but stimulated SUC2 expression at low glycolytic rates. This suggests that Mig1-mediated repression can be overruled by factors mediating induction via a low glucose signal. At low and moderate glycolytic rates, Mig1 was partly dephosphorylated both in the presence of phosphorylated, active Snf1, and unphosphorylated, inactive Snf1, indicating that Mig1 was actively phosphorylated and dephosphorylated simultaneously, suggesting independent control of both processes. Taken together, it appears that glucose addition affects the expression of SUC2 as well as Mig1 activity by both Snf1-dependent and -independent mechanisms that can now be dissected and resolved as early and late/sustained responses.

  13. Effect of urine urea nitrogen and protein intake adjusted by using the estimated urine creatinine excretion rate on the antiproteinuric effect of angiotensin II type I receptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ho Jun; Kim, Dong Ki; Park, Jung Hwan; Shin, Sung Joon; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Bum Soon; Kim, Suhnggwon; Lim, Chun Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of protein intake on proteinuria in chronic kidney disease (CKD), as it is presently not conclusive. This is a subanalysis of data from an open-label, case-controlled, randomized clinical trial on education about low-salt diets (NCT01552954). We estimated the urine excretion rate of parameters in a day, adjusted by using the equation for estimating urine creatinine excretion, and analyzed the effect of urine urea nitrogen (UUN), as well as estimating protein intake on the level of albuminuria in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease. Among 174 participants from whom complete 24-h urine specimens were collected, the estimates from the Tanaka equation resulted in the highest accuracy for the urinary excretion rate of creatinine, sodium, albumin, and UUN. Among 227 participants, the baseline value of estimated urine albumin excretion (eUalb) was positively correlated with the estimated UUN (eUUN) or protein intake according to eUUN (P = 0.012 and P = 0.038, respectively). We were able to calculate the ratios of eUalb and eUUN in 221 participants and grouped them according to the ratio of eUUN during 16-wk trial period. The proportion of patients that achieved a decrement of eUalb ≥25% during 16 wk with an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (ARB) medication was 80% (24 of 30) in group 1, with eUUN ratio ≤-25%; 82.2% (111 of 135) in group 2, with eUUN ratio between -25% and 25%; and 66.1% (37 and 56) in group 3, with eUUN ratio ≥25% (P = 0.048). The probability of a decrease in albuminuria with ARB treatment was lower in patients with an increase of eUUN or protein intake during the 16 wk of ARB treatment, as observed in multiple logistic regression analysis as well. The estimated urine urea excretion rate showed a positive association with the level of albuminuria in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease. The increase of eUUN excretion ameliorated the antiproteinuric effect of ARB

  14. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. Methods: In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by ...

  15. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Blood flow rates of AV fistula can be affected by osmotic and oncotic pressures of blood and arterial blood pressures. Sodium, glucose, hemoglobin, and albumin are significant effectors, created osmotic and oncotic pressures [Table 3]. Blood levels of hemoglobin. (Hb), albumin, sodium (Na), and glucose ...

  16. Glucose phosphorylation is not rate limiting for accumulation of glycogen from glucose in perfused livers from fasted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, J.H.; Ader, M.; Bergman, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    Incorporation of Glc and Fru into glycogen was measured in perfused livers from 24-h fasted rats using [6-3H]Glc and [U-14C]Fru. For the initial 20 min, livers were perfused with low Glc (2 mM) to deplete hepatic glycogen and were perfused for the following 30 min with various combinations of Glc and Fru. With constant Fru (2 mM), increasing perfusate Glc increased the relative contribution of Glc carbons to glycogen (7.2 +/- 0.4, 34.9 +/- 2.8, and 59.1 +/- 2.7% at 2, 10, and 20 mM Glc, respectively; n = 5 for each). During perfusion with substrate levels seen during refeeding (10 mM Glc, 1.8 mumol/g/min gluconeogenic flux from 2 mM Fru), Fru provided 54.7 +/- 2.7% of the carbons for glycogen, while Glc provided only 34.9 +/- 2.8%, consistent with in vivo estimations. However, the estimated rate of Glc phosphorylation was at least 1.10 +/- 0.11 mumol/g/min, which exceeded by at least 4-fold the glycogen accumulation rate (0.28 +/- 0.04 mumol of glucose/g/min). The total rate of glucose 6-phosphate supply via Glc phosphorylation and gluconeogenesis (2.9 mumol/g/min) exceeded reported in vivo rates of glycogen accumulation during refeeding. Thus, in perfused livers of 24-h fasted rats there is an apparent redundancy in glucose 6-phosphate supply. These results suggest that the rate-limiting step for hepatic glycogen accumulation during refeeding is located between glucose 6-phosphate and glycogen, rather than at the step of Glc phosphorylation or in the gluconeogenic pathway

  17. Effects of dapagliflozin on insulin-requirement, glucose excretion and ß-hydroxybutyrate levels are not related to baseline HbA1c in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biester, Torben; Aschemeier, Baerbel; Fath, Maryam; Frey, Marcel; Scheerer, Markus F; Kordonouri, Olga; Danne, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) infrequently achieve HbA1c targets. Therefore, this placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study was set up to assess the safety, effect and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of 10 mg dapagliflozin (DAPA) as add-on to insulin in relationship to HbA1c in youth. A total of 33 youths (14 males, median age 16 years, diabetes duration 8 years) were included and stratified into 3 baseline HbA1c categories (9.0; n = 11 each). During the study period of 24 hours, intravenous insulin administration and glucose-infusion kept blood glucose levels at 160 to 220 mg/dL. DAPA reduced mean insulin dose by 13.6% ( P  HbA1c. Six independent episodes in 6 patients with plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate levels between ≥0.6 and HbA1c levels, for adjunct SGLT2-inhibitor therapy in the paediatric age group by lowering insulin dose and increasing glucose excretion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Hemispherical dominance of glucose metabolic rate in the brain of the 'normal' ageing population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutts, DA; Maguire, RP; Leenders, KL; Spyrou, NM

    2004-01-01

    In the 'normal' ageing brain a decrease in the cerebral metabolic rate has been determined across many brain regions. This study determines whether age differences would affect metabolic rates in regions and different hemispheres of the brain. The regional metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGlu) was

  19. Effect of dietary levels of lipid and carbohydrate on growth performance, body composition, nitrogen excretion and plasma glucose levels in rainbow trout reared at 8 or 18 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauge, C; Corraze, G; Médale, F

    1995-01-01

    Trout reared at 8 or 18 degrees C were fed twice a day almost to satiation with 1 of 3 experimental diets. The diets were formulated to contain the same levels of protein (43%, dry matter (DM) basis) and digestible energy (around 15 kJ/g DM), but different carbohydrate/lipid ratios 30:7 to 23:14). Time-course studies of nitrogen excretion and glycaemia were also carried out. After 12 weeks of feeding, growth, protein retention and body composition were not influenced by the dietary treatment in trout reared at 8 degrees C. At 18 degrees C, the protein retention was not affected by dietary treatment, but the weight gain tended to be higher in trout fed the diet with the lowest carbohydrate/lipid ratio. This result was due to higher body lipid deposition in these trout. Nitrogen excretion was not influenced by dietary treatment, but was higher at 18 degrees C than at 8 degrees C because of a higher feed intake. Glycaemia increased with dietary level of digestible carbohydrate and the highest plasma glucose level was attained later at 8 degrees C in comparison to 18 degrees C.

  20. Brain metabolism in autism. Resting cerebral glucose utilization rates as measured with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumsey, J.M.; Duara, R.; Grady, C.; Rapoport, J.L.; Margolin, R.A.; Rapoport, S.I.; Cutler, N.R.

    1985-05-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in ten men (mean age = 26 years) with well-documented histories of infantile autism and in 15 age-matched normal male controls using positron emission tomography and (F-18) 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Positron emission tomography was completed during rest, with reduced visual and auditory stimulation. While the autistic group as a whole showed significantly elevated glucose utilization in widespread regions of the brain, there was considerable overlap between the two groups. No brain region showed a reduced metabolic rate in the autistic group. Significantly more autistic, as compared with control, subjects showed extreme relative metabolic rates (ratios of regional metabolic rates to whole brain rates and asymmetries) in one or more brain regions.

  1. Brain metabolism in autism. Resting cerebral glucose utilization rates as measured with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumsey, J.M.; Duara, R.; Grady, C.; Rapoport, J.L.; Margolin, R.A.; Rapoport, S.I.; Cutler, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in ten men (mean age = 26 years) with well-documented histories of infantile autism and in 15 age-matched normal male controls using positron emission tomography and (F-18) 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Positron emission tomography was completed during rest, with reduced visual and auditory stimulation. While the autistic group as a whole showed significantly elevated glucose utilization in widespread regions of the brain, there was considerable overlap between the two groups. No brain region showed a reduced metabolic rate in the autistic group. Significantly more autistic, as compared with control, subjects showed extreme relative metabolic rates (ratios of regional metabolic rates to whole brain rates and asymmetries) in one or more brain regions

  2. Astroglial Pentose Phosphate Pathway Rates in Response to High-Glucose Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Takahashi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ROS (reactive oxygen species play an essential role in the pathophysiology of diabetes, stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. Hyperglycaemia associated with diabetes enhances ROS production and causes oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells, but adverse effects of either acute or chronic high-glucose environments on brain parenchymal cells remain unclear. The PPP (pentose phosphate pathway and GSH participate in a major defence mechanism against ROS in brain, and we explored the role and regulation of the astroglial PPP in response to acute and chronic high-glucose environments. PPP activity was measured in cultured neurons and astroglia by determining the difference in rate of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose and [6-14C]glucose. ROS production, mainly H2O2, and GSH were also assessed. Acutely elevated glucose concentrations in the culture media increased PPP activity and GSH level in astroglia, decreasing ROS production. Chronically elevated glucose environments also induced PPP activation. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that chronic high-glucose environments induced ER (endoplasmic reticulum stress (presumably through increased hexosamine biosynthetic pathway flux. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 2, which regulates G6PDH (glyceraldehyde-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by enhancing transcription, was also observed in association with BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein expression. Acute and chronic high-glucose environments activated the PPP in astroglia, preventing ROS elevation. Therefore a rapid decrease in glucose level seems to enhance ROS toxicity, perhaps contributing to neural damage when insulin levels given to diabetic patients are not properly calibrated and plasma glucose levels are not adequately maintained. These findings may also explain the lack of evidence for clinical benefits from strict glycaemic control during the acute phase of stroke.

  3. Astroglial pentose phosphate pathway rates in response to high-glucose environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shinichi; Izawa, Yoshikane; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2012-01-01

    ROS (reactive oxygen species) play an essential role in the pathophysiology of diabetes, stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. Hyperglycaemia associated with diabetes enhances ROS production and causes oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells, but adverse effects of either acute or chronic high-glucose environments on brain parenchymal cells remain unclear. The PPP (pentose phosphate pathway) and GSH participate in a major defence mechanism against ROS in brain, and we explored the role and regulation of the astroglial PPP in response to acute and chronic high-glucose environments. PPP activity was measured in cultured neurons and astroglia by determining the difference in rate of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose and [6-14C]glucose. ROS production, mainly H2O2, and GSH were also assessed. Acutely elevated glucose concentrations in the culture media increased PPP activity and GSH level in astroglia, decreasing ROS production. Chronically elevated glucose environments also induced PPP activation. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that chronic high-glucose environments induced ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress (presumably through increased hexosamine biosynthetic pathway flux). Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 2), which regulates G6PDH (glyceraldehyde-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) by enhancing transcription, was also observed in association with BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein) expression. Acute and chronic high-glucose environments activated the PPP in astroglia, preventing ROS elevation. Therefore a rapid decrease in glucose level seems to enhance ROS toxicity, perhaps contributing to neural damage when insulin levels given to diabetic patients are not properly calibrated and plasma glucose levels are not adequately maintained. These findings may also explain the lack of evidence for clinical benefits from strict glycaemic control during the acute phase of stroke. PMID:22300409

  4. Program for PET image alignment: Effects on calculated differences in cerebral metabolic rates for glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.L.; London, E.D.; Links, J.M.; Cascella, N.G.

    1990-01-01

    A program was developed to align positron emission tomography images from multiple studies on the same subject. The program allowed alignment of two images with a fineness of one-tenth the width of a pixel. The indications and effects of misalignment were assessed in eight subjects from a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study on the effects of cocaine on regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Visual examination of a difference image provided a sensitive and accurate tool for assessing image alignment. Image alignment within 2.8 mm was essential to reduce variability of measured cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. Misalignment by this amount introduced errors on the order of 20% in the computed metabolic rate for glucose. These errors propagate to the difference between metabolic rates for a subject measured in basal versus perturbed states

  5. Determination of Glucose Utilization Rates in Cultured Astrocytes and Neurons with [14C]deoxyglucose: Progress, Pitfalls, and Discovery of Intracellular Glucose Compartmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A; Cruz, Nancy F; Sokoloff, Louis; Driscoll, Bernard F

    2017-01-01

    2-Deoxy-D-[ 14 C]glucose ([ 14 C]DG) is commonly used to determine local glucose utilization rates (CMR glc ) in living brain and to estimate CMR glc in cultured brain cells as rates of [ 14 C]DG phosphorylation. Phosphorylation rates of [ 14 C]DG and its metabolizable fluorescent analog, 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), however, do not take into account differences in the kinetics of transport and metabolism of [ 14 C]DG or 2-NBDG and glucose in neuronal and astrocytic cells in cultures or in single cells in brain tissue, and conclusions drawn from these data may, therefore, not be correct. As a first step toward the goal of quantitative determination of CMR glc in astrocytes and neurons in cultures, the steady-state intracellular-to-extracellular concentration ratios (distribution spaces) for glucose and [ 14 C]DG were determined in cultured striatal neurons and astrocytes as functions of extracellular glucose concentration. Unexpectedly, the glucose distribution spaces rose during extreme hypoglycemia, exceeding 1.0 in astrocytes, whereas the [ 14 C]DG distribution space fell at the lowest glucose levels. Calculated CMR glc was greatly overestimated in hypoglycemic and normoglycemic cells because the intracellular glucose concentrations were too high. Determination of the distribution space for [ 14 C]glucose revealed compartmentation of intracellular glucose in astrocytes, and probably, also in neurons. A smaller metabolic pool is readily accessible to hexokinase and communicates with extracellular glucose, whereas the larger pool is sequestered from hexokinase activity. A new experimental approach using double-labeled assays with DG and glucose is suggested to avoid the limitations imposed by glucose compartmentation on metabolic assays.

  6. The bacterial contamination rate of glucose meter test strips in the hospital setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A.; Saeb, Amr T. M.; AlNaqeb, Dhekra M.; AlQumaidi, Hamed M.; AlMogbel, Turki A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the rate of bacterial contamination of the multi-use vial and single-use packed glucose meter strips, and to identify the type and frequency of various bacterial contamination in different hospital wards. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted by a team from the Strategic Center for Diabetes Research in 7 general hospitals in the Central region of Saudi Arabia during the period from August to September 2014 to assess the bacterial contamination rate of the unused strips. A total of 10,447 strips were cultured using proper agar media and incubated both aerobically and anaerobically. Results: The total bacterial contamination rate for the multi-use vials glucose strips was 31.7%, while single-use packed strips were not contaminated at all. Ministry of Health hospitals had the highest contamination rates compared with other hospitals. Critical, obstetric, and surgical wards had the highest bacterial isolates number, where most were in the risk group 3 according to the National Institute of Health guidelines. Staphylococcus species were the most common bacteria found. Conclusion: Glucose meter strips should be recognized as a source of bacterial contamination that could be behind serious hospital acquired infections. The hospital infection control team should adopt proper measures to implement protocols for glucose meter cleaning and glucose strips handling. PMID:27570855

  7. Rates and tissue sites of non-insulin- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, A.D.; Brechtel, G.; Wallace, P.; Edelman, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    In vivo glucose uptake can occur via two mechanisms, namely, insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU) and non-insulin-mediated glucose uptake (NIMGU). Although the principal tissue sites for IMGU are skeletal muscle, the tissue sites for NIMGU at a given serum glucose concentration are not known. To examine this issue, rates of whole body glucose uptake (Rd) were measured at basal and during glucose clamp studies performed at euglycemia (approximately 90 mg/dl) and hyperglycemia (approximately 220 mg/dl) in six lean healthy men. Studies were performed during hyperinsulinemia (approximately 70 microU/ml) and during somatostatin-induced insulinopenia to measure IMGU and NIMGU, respectively. During each study, leg glucose balance (arteriovenous catheter technique) was also measured. With this approach, rates of whole body skeletal muscle IMGU and NIMGU can be estimated, and the difference between overall Rd and skeletal muscle glucose uptake represents non-skeletal muscle Rd. The results indicate that approximately 20% of basal Rd is into skeletal muscle. During insulinopenia approximately 86% of body NIMGU occurs in non-skeletal muscle tissues at euglycemia. When hyperglycemia was created, whole body NIMGU increased from 128 +/- 6 to 213 +/- 18 mg/min (P less than 0.01); NIMGU into non-skeletal muscle tissues was 134 +/- 11 and 111 +/- 6 mg/min at hyperglycemia and euglycemia, respectively, P = NS. Therefore, virtually all the hyperglycemia induced increment in NIMGU occurred in skeletal muscle. During hyperinsulinemia, IMGU in skeletal muscle represented 75 and 95% of body Rd, at euglycemia and hyperglycemia, respectively

  8. Glucose consumption and rate constants for sup 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose in human gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Nagata, Izumi; Yamagata, Sen; Taki, Waro; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Mukai, Takao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1990-06-01

    To investigate the value of direct measurement of the rate constants by performing {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of glucose consumption in human gliomas in vivo, a kinetic method with 3- and 4-parameter rate constant models for FDG uptake was used to analyze data from dynamic scans obtained by positron emission tomography after injection of FDG into 14 patients with glioma. The results were compared with those obtained by the autoradiographic method using 3- and 4-parameter rate constant models. There were no significant differences in the glucose consumption calculated by the four different methods both in the gliomas and in the contralateral intact cortex. It was found that the rate constant k4 could be neglected in calculation of glucose consumption in gliomas as well as in the contralateral intact cortex. The rate constant k3, an index of hexokinase function, was higher in malignant gliomas than in benign gliomas and was close to that in the contralateral cortex. This study indicates that the 3-parameter autoradiographic method, which is the most common one used in clinical practice, is reliable for the calculation of glucose consumption in human gliomas. Furthermore, direct measurement of the regional rate constants for FDG by the kinetic method was found to be useful for evaluation of the biochemical and physiological characteristics of human gliomas in vivo. (author).

  9. Glucose consumption and rate constants for 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in human gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Nagata, Izumi; Yamagata, Sen; Taki, Waro; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Mukai, Takao

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the value of direct measurement of the rate constants by performing 18 F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of glucose consumption in human gliomas in vivo, a kinetic method with 3- and 4-parameter rate constant models for FDG uptake was used to analyze data from dynamic scans obtained by positron emission tomography after injection of FDG into 14 patients with glioma. The results were compared with those obtained by the autoradiographic method using 3- and 4-parameter rate constant models. There were no significant differences in the glucose consumption calculated by the four different methods both in the gliomas and in the contralateral intact cortex. It was found that the rate constant k4 could be neglected in calculation of glucose consumption in gliomas as well as in the contralateral intact cortex. The rate constant k3, an index of hexokinase function, was higher in malignant gliomas than in benign gliomas and was close to that in the contralateral cortex. This study indicates that the 3-parameter autoradiographic method, which is the most common one used in clinical practice, is reliable for the calculation of glucose consumption in human gliomas. Furthermore, direct measurement of the regional rate constants for FDG by the kinetic method was found to be useful for evaluation of the biochemical and physiological characteristics of human gliomas in vivo. (author)

  10. Intensive postoperative glucose control reduces the surgical site infection rates in gynecologic oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Niaimi, Ahmed N; Ahmed, Mostafa; Burish, Nikki; Chackmakchy, Saygin A; Seo, Songwon; Rose, Stephen; Hartenbach, Ellen; Kushner, David M; Safdar, Nasia; Rice, Laurel; Connor, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    SSI rates after gynecologic oncology surgery vary from 5% to 35%, but are up to 45% in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Strict postoperative glucose control by insulin infusion has been shown to lower morbidity, but not specifically SSI rates. Our project studied continuous postoperative insulin infusion for 24h for gynecologic oncology patients with DM and hyperglycemia with a target blood glucose of controlled with intermittent subcutaneous insulin injections. Group 2 was composed of patients with DM and postoperative hyperglycemia whose blood glucose was controlled by insulin infusion. Group 3 was composed of patients with neither DM nor hyperglycemia. We controlled for all relevant factors associated with SSI. We studied a total of 372 patients. Patients in Group 2 had an SSI rate of 26/135 (19%), similar to patients in Group 3 whose rate was 19/89 (21%). Both were significantly lower than the SSI rate (43/148, 29%) of patients in Group 1. This reduction of 35% is significant (p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis showed an odd ratio = 0.5 (0.28-0.91) in reducing SSI rates after instituting this protocol. Initiating intensive glycemic control for 24h after gynecologic oncology surgery in patients with DM and postoperative hyperglycemia lowers the SSI rate by 35% (OR = 0.5) compared to patients receiving intermittent sliding scale insulin and to a rate equivalent to non-diabetics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The rate of intestinal glucose absorption is correlated with plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E; Priebe, Marion G; Heimweg, Janneke A J

    2006-01-01

    and slowly available glucose. In a crossover study, glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations were monitored for 6 h after consumption of glucose, uncooked cornstarch (UCCS) or corn pasta in 7 healthy men. All test meals were naturally labeled with 13C. Using a primed, continuous D-[6,6-2H2]glucose...... in the early postprandial phase (15-90 min) occurred after consumption of glucose. There was a strong positive within-subject correlation between RaEx and GIP concentrations (r = 0.73, P meals. Rapidly and slowly digestible carbohydrates differ considerably in their ability to stimulate...

  12. Brain Size and Cerebral Glucose Metabolic Rate in Nonspecific Retardation and Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haier, Richard J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Brain size and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were determined for 10 individuals with mild mental retardation (MR), 7 individuals with Down syndrome (DS), and 10 matched controls. MR and DS groups both had brain volumes of about 80% compared to controls, with variance greatest within the MR group. (SLD)

  13. Age differences in intercorrelations between regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, B.; Duara, R.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    Patterns of cerebral metabolic intercorrelations were compared in the resting state in 15 healthy young men (ages 20 to 32 years) and 15 healthy elderly men (ages 64 to 83 years). Controlling for whole-brain glucose metabolism, partial correlation coefficients were determined between pairs of regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose determined by positron emission tomography using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and obtained in 59 brain regions. Compared with the young men, the elderly men had fewer statistically significant correlations, with the most notable reductions observed between the parietal lobe regions, and between the parietal and frontal lobe regions. These results suggest that cerebral functional interactions are reduced in healthy elderly men

  14. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate in human sleep assessed by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchsbaum, M.S.; Wu, J.; Hazlett, E.; Sicotte, N.; Bunney, W.E. Jr.; Gillin, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was measured during nighttime sleep in 36 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In comparison to waking controls, subjects given FDG during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed about a 23% reduction in metabolic rate across the entire brain. This decrease was greater for the frontal than temporal or occipital lobes, and greater for basal ganglia and thalamus than cortex. Subjects in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep tended to have higher cortical metabolic rates than walking subjects. The cingulate gyrus was the only cortical structure to show a significant increase in glucose metabolic rate in REM sleep in comparison to waking. The basal ganglia were relatively more active on the right in REM sleep and symmetrical in NREM sleep

  15. Short-term lower-leg growth rate and urine cortisol excretion in children treated with ciclesonide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agertoft, Lone; Pedersen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of short-term lower-leg growth rate in children by means of knemometry has become established as an integral part of the available measures of systemic activity of topical steroids in children. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effects of clinically effective doses....... There was no statistically significant dose-response effect. Likewise, no statistically significant differences or dose-response effects were found for urinary cortisol adjusted for creatinine. CONCLUSION: Short-term lower-leg growth rate and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function are not affected by treatment...... of the novel inhaled corticosteroid ciclesonide on lower-leg growth rate and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in children with asthma. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-period crossover study, 24 children aged 6 to 12 years sequentially received ciclesonide (40, 80, and 160 microg...

  16. In Silico Assessment of Literature Insulin Bolus Calculation Methods Accounting for Glucose Rate of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappon, Giacomo; Marturano, Francesca; Vettoretti, Martina; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni

    2018-05-01

    The standard formula (SF) used in bolus calculators (BCs) determines meal insulin bolus using "static" measurement of blood glucose concentration (BG) obtained by self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) fingerprick device. Some methods have been proposed to improve efficacy of SF using "dynamic" information provided by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and, in particular, glucose rate of change (ROC). This article compares, in silico and in an ideal framework limiting the exposition to possibly confounding factors (such as CGM noise), the performance of three popular techniques devised for such a scope, that is, the methods of Buckingham et al (BU), Scheiner (SC), and Pettus and Edelman (PE). Using the UVa/Padova Type 1 diabetes simulator we generated data of 100 virtual subjects in noise-free, single-meal scenarios having different preprandial BG and ROC values. Meal insulin bolus was computed using SF, BU, SC, and PE. Performance was assessed with the blood glucose risk index (BGRI) on the 9 hours after meal. On average, BU, SC, and PE improve BGRI compared to SF. When BG is rapidly decreasing, PE obtains the best performance. In the other ROC scenarios, none of the considered methods prevails in all the preprandial BG conditions tested. Our study showed that, at least in the considered ideal framework, none of the methods to correct SF according to ROC is globally better than the others. Critical analysis of the results also suggests that further investigations are needed to develop more effective formulas to account for ROC information in BCs.

  17. Absorption and excretion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberich, R.

    1988-01-01

    The absorption and excretion of radiopharmaceuticals is still of interest in diagnostic investigations of nuclear medicine. In this paper the most common methods of measuring absorption and excretion are described. The performance of the different tests and their standard values are discussed. More over the basic possibilities of measuring absorption and excretion including the needed measurement equipments are presented. (orig.) [de

  18. The effects of cimetidine on creatinine excretion, glomerular filtration rate and tubular function in renal transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N V; Ladefoged, S D; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1989-01-01

    The renal clearance of endogenous creatinine (CCr), sodium (CNa) and lithium (CLi) was determined before and after a single intravenous bolus of cimetidine in nine renal transplant recipients. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured with 125I-iothalamate clearance (CTh). The initial CCr...... tubular flow. This suggests that on-going cimetidine treatment must be taken into account when graft function is evaluated by the CCr alone....

  19. Glucose phosphorylation rate in rat rarietal cortex during normoglycemia, hypoglycemia, acute hyperglycemia, and in diabetes-prone rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broendsted, H.E.; Gjedde, A.

    1990-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) was studied in rats using [6- 14 C]glucose. After intravenous injection the radioactivity of the parietal cortex was corrected for loss of labeled CO 2 and divided by the integral of the arterial plasma glucose concentration, determined during tracer circulation. Treatment with insulin, resulting in plasma glucose concentrations less than 2.6 mmol/l, reduced CMRglc to 64% of the values found in control animals. CMRglc did not change in animals with acute hyper-glycemia produced by intraperiotoneal injection of a glucose solution or in diabetes-prone rats with or withour insulin treatment. (author)

  20. Glucose phosphorylation rate in rat parietal cortex during normoglycemia, hypoglycemia, acute hyperglycemia, and in diabetes-prone rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broendsted, H.E.; Gjedde, A. (Department of General Physiology and Biophysics, Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1990-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) was studied in rats using (6-{sup 14}C)glucose. After intravenous injection the radioactivity of the parietal cortex was corrected for loss of labeled CO{sub 2} and divided by the integral of the arterial plasma glucose concentration, determined during tracer circulation. Treatment with insulin, resulting in plasma glucose concentrations less than 2.6 mmol/l, reduced CMRglc to 64% of the values found in control animals. CMRglc did not change in animals with acute hyper-glycemia produced by intraperiotoneal injection of a glucose solution or in diabetes-prone rats with or withour insulin treatment. (author).

  1. Time-dependent changes in the contribution of gluconeogenic precursors and glucose to glycogenesis in isolated rate hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marden, L.J.; Davidson, A.L.; Arion, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Hepatocytes from 21-hr fasted rats were incubated for up to 60 min with 10 mM glucose and gluconeogeneic precursors: 4 mM lactate/0.4 mM pyruvate plus 5 mM alanine and 2 mM fructose or 10 mM glutamine. Tracer 3- 3 H,U- 14 C-glucose was added 15 min before terminating the incubations. In all cases, the 3 H and 14 C specific activities of the newly synthesized glycogen increased over time, relative to the specific activities of medium glucose. The percentage of new carbon in glycogen originating from glucose increased from less than 50% in the first 15 min to over 85% after 30 min. Relative to medium glucose, the ratio of 3 H: 14 C in glycogen was about 0.9 through-out the incubations, indicating direct incorporation of glucose into glycogen without significant prior transformation via the pentose pathway or recycling to triose phosphates. Insulin did not stimulate glucose incorporation into glycogen. 3-Mercaptopicolinate decreased the incorporation of precursor carbon into glycogen during incubations with glutamine but not during incubations with fructose and alanine. These data indicate time-dependent and reciprocal changes in rates of glucose-6-P synthesis from gluconeogenic precursors and glucose. Activation of glucokinase may underlie the increased contribution of glucose to glycogenesis. Thus, the relative importance of glucose and gluconeogenic precursors as substrates for glycogenesis directly reflects their respective contributions to the cellular pool of the glucose-6-P

  2. Intake and excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi

    1979-01-01

    Of radioiodine metabolism in man, the relations between intake, thyroidal uptake and excretion are explained. The internal radiation dose to the thyroid for public population is mainly given through the intake of contaminated food in all the ages. In the gestation, the fetus is exposed most to radioiodine immediately before delivery and the dose is estimated to amount a few times higher than the maternal thyroid. Importance of both the cow's milk and the breast milk as the sources of contaminant, is emphasized. Babyhood for 6 months after delivery, in this age are estiperiod as to the thyroidal exposure by radioiodine because the dose in his age are estimated to be over 30 times for 131 I and about 9 times for 129 I as compared with that to the adult. Because of its long-term residence in the environment, 129 I is incorporated into cereals, leafy vegetables and meat besides milk. However, the critical age is still in the babyhood for 6 months after birth. Radioiodine given in a form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroidal uptake rate and the biological half-life are depresesed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine given in the form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroids uptake rate and the biological half-life are depressed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine both in the protein-binding fraction and in the total fraction of metabolised cow's milk, reaches the thyroid in the same manner as that given in a form of inorganic iodide. While, rats given radioiodine incorporated into seaweed, excreted tremendous amount of the nuclide into feces which resulted in very low uptake of the nuclide by the thyroid. To estimate population dose from radioiodine, the absorption rate of radioiodine may be one of the most important parameters. (author)

  3. Bile acid sequestration reduces plasma glucose levels in db/db mice by increasing its metabolic clearance rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxi Meissner

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels. Therefore, in vivo glucose metabolism was assessed in db/db mice on and off BAS using tracer methodology. METHODS: Lean and diabetic db/db mice were treated with 2% (wt/wt in diet Colesevelam HCl (BAS for 2 weeks. Parameters of in vivo glucose metabolism were assessed by infusing [U-(13C]-glucose, [2-(13C]-glycerol, [1-(2H]-galactose and paracetamol for 6 hours, followed by mass isotopologue distribution analysis, and related to metabolic parameters as well as gene expression patterns. RESULTS: Compared to lean mice, db/db mice displayed an almost 3-fold lower metabolic clearance rate of glucose (p = 0.0001, a ∼300% increased glucokinase flux (p = 0.001 and a ∼200% increased total hepatic glucose production rate (p = 0.0002. BAS treatment increased glucose metabolic clearance rate by ∼37% but had no effects on glucokinase flux nor total hepatic or endogenous glucose production. Strikingly, BAS-treated db/db mice displayed reduced long-chain acylcarnitine content in skeletal muscle (p = 0.0317 but not in liver (p = 0.189. Unexpectedly, BAS treatment increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression 2-fold in lean mice (p = 0.030 and 3-fold in db/db mice (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: BAS induced plasma glucose lowering in db/db mice by increasing metabolic clearance rate of glucose in peripheral tissues, which coincided with decreased skeletal muscle long-chain acylcarnitine content.

  4. Bimolecular Rate Constants for FAD-Dependent Glucose Dehydrogenase from Aspergillus terreus and Organic Electron Acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruoka, Nozomu; Sadakane, Takuya; Hayashi, Rika; Tsujimura, Seiya

    2017-03-10

    The flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) from Aspergillus species require suitable redox mediators to transfer electrons from the enzyme to the electrode surface for the application of bioelectrical devices. Although several mediators for FAD-GDH are already in use, they are still far from optimum in view of potential, kinetics, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness. Herein, we investigated the efficiency of various phenothiazines and quinones in the electrochemical oxidation of FAD-GDH from Aspergillus terreus . At pH 7.0, the logarithm of the bimolecular oxidation rate constants appeared to depend on the redox potentials of all the mediators tested. Notably, the rate constant of each molecule for FAD-GDH was approximately 2.5 orders of magnitude higher than that for glucose oxidase from Aspergillus sp. The results suggest that the electron transfer kinetics is mainly determined by the formal potential of the mediator, the driving force of electron transfer, and the electron transfer distance between the redox active site of the mediator and the FAD, affected by the steric or chemical interactions. Higher k ₂ values were found for ortho-quinones than for para-quinones in the reactions with FAD-GDH and glucose oxidase, which was likely due to less steric hindrance in the active site in the case of the ortho-quinones.

  5. Bimolecular Rate Constants for FAD-Dependent Glucose Dehydrogenase from Aspergillus terreus and Organic Electron Acceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomu Tsuruoka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH from Aspergillus species require suitable redox mediators to transfer electrons from the enzyme to the electrode surface for the application of bioelectrical devices. Although several mediators for FAD-GDH are already in use, they are still far from optimum in view of potential, kinetics, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness. Herein, we investigated the efficiency of various phenothiazines and quinones in the electrochemical oxidation of FAD-GDH from Aspergillus terreus. At pH 7.0, the logarithm of the bimolecular oxidation rate constants appeared to depend on the redox potentials of all the mediators tested. Notably, the rate constant of each molecule for FAD-GDH was approximately 2.5 orders of magnitude higher than that for glucose oxidase from Aspergillus sp. The results suggest that the electron transfer kinetics is mainly determined by the formal potential of the mediator, the driving force of electron transfer, and the electron transfer distance between the redox active site of the mediator and the FAD, affected by the steric or chemical interactions. Higher k2 values were found for ortho-quinones than for para-quinones in the reactions with FAD-GDH and glucose oxidase, which was likely due to less steric hindrance in the active site in the case of the ortho-quinones.

  6. Quantitative Rates of Brain Glucose Metabolism Distinguish Minimally Conscious from Vegetative State Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Johan; Kupers, Ron; Rodell, Anders

    2015-01-01

    of these patients. However, no quantitative comparisons of cerebral glucose metabolism in VS/UWS and MCS have yet been reported. We calculated the regional and whole-brain CMRglc of 41 patients in the states of VS/UWS (n=14), MCS (n=21) or emergence from MCS (EMCS, n=6), and healthy volunteers (n=29). Global......The differentiation of the vegetative or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) from the minimally conscious state (MCS) is an important clinical issue. The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) declines when consciousness is lost, and may reveal the residual cognitive function...... these results reveal a significant correlation between whole-brain energy metabolism and level of consciousness, suggesting that quantitative values of CMRglc reveal consciousness in severely brain-injured patients.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 8 October 2014; doi:10...

  7. Correlation between TCA cycle flux and glucose uptake rate during respiro-fermentative growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Jan; Fu, Jianan; Blank, Lars M

    2009-12-01

    Glucose repression of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated under different environmental conditions using (13)C-tracer experiments. Real-time quantification of the volatile metabolites ethanol and CO(2) allowed accurate carbon balancing. In all experiments with the wild-type, a strong correlation between the rates of growth and glucose uptake was observed, indicating a constant yield of biomass. In contrast, glycerol and acetate production rates were less dependent on the rate of glucose uptake, but were affected by environmental conditions. The glycerol production rate was highest during growth in high-osmolarity medium (2.9 mmol g(-1) h(-1)), while the highest acetate production rate of 2.1 mmol g(-1) h(-1) was observed in alkaline medium of pH 6.9. Under standard growth conditions (25 g glucose l(-1) , pH 5.0, 30 degrees C) S. cerevisiae had low fluxes through the pentose phosphate pathway and the TCA cycle. A significant increase in TCA cycle activity from 0.03 mmol g(-1) h(-1) to about 1.7 mmol g(-1) h(-1) was observed when S. cerevisiae grew more slowly as a result of environmental perturbations, including unfavourable pH values and sodium chloride stress. Compared to experiments with high glucose uptake rates, the ratio of CO(2) to ethanol increased more than 50 %, indicating an increase in flux through the TCA cycle. Although glycolysis and the ethanol production pathway still exhibited the highest fluxes, the net flux through the TCA cycle increased significantly with decreasing glucose uptake rates. Results from experiments with single gene deletion mutants partially impaired in glucose repression (hxk2, grr1) indicated that the rate of glucose uptake correlates with this increase in TCA cycle flux. These findings are discussed in the context of regulation of glucose repression.

  8. Hemispherical dominance of glucose metabolic rate in the brain of the 'normal' ageing population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutts, D.A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the 'normal' ageing brain a decrease in the cerebral metabolic rate has been determined across many brain regions. It is determined whether age differences would affect metabolic rates in regions and different hemispheres of the brain. The regional metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGlu) was examined in a group of 72 subjects, ages 22 to 82 years, with 36 regions of interest chosen from both hemispheres of the cortex, midbrain and cerebellum. To determine metabolic rates the in-vivo technique of positron emission tomography (PET) was employed. Three age groups were chosen to compare hemispherical differences. In both young and intermediate age groups the left hemisphere had higher rCMRGlu values than those of the right for the majority of regions with, although less pronounced in the intermediate group. Importantly, the older age group displayed little difference between hemispheres. (author)

  9. [Correlation between resting heart rate and blood glucose level in elderly patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong-Liang; Li, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Lin; Xu, Hao; Tuo, Xi-Ping; Jian, Zai-Jin; Wang, Xiao-Na; Yun, Ji-Li; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Si-Yue

    2016-05-01

    To explore the correlation between resting heart rate (RHR) and blood glucose level in elderly patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) complicated by diabetes mellitus. Between April and July, 2011, a total of 1336 outpatients over 60 years of age recruited from 165 hospitals were asked to complete a questionnaire and received blood glucose and RHR examination. According to baseline RHR, the patients were divided into 3 groups with HRH blood glucose control rate. HbA1c levels in the total, male and female patients differed significantly among the 3 groups (F=15.436, 15.436, and 24.270, respectively, PBlood glucose control rate in the total, male and female patients also differed significantly among the 3 groups (χ(2)=13.471, 6.752, and 6.522, respectively, Pblood glucose control failure of 1.99 (95% CI: 1.23-2.37, Pblood glucose level, and an increased RHR is associated with an increased risk of poor blood glucose control. Rigorous RHR control in such high-risk patients may prove beneficial for both blood glucose control and secondary prevention of CHD.

  10. Monitoring of ovarian activity by measurement of urinary excretion rates of estrone glucuronide and pregnanediol glucuronide using the Ovarian Monitor, Part II: reliability of home testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Leonard F; Vigil, Pilar; Gross, Barbara; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Cooke, Delwyn G; Brown, James B

    2012-02-01

    The UNDP/WHO/World Bank/Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (Geneva) set up a study to determine whether it is feasible for women to monitor their ovarian activity reliably by home testing. Daily self-monitoring of urinary hormone metabolites for menstrual cycle assessment was evaluated by comparison of results obtained with the Home Ovarian Monitor by untrained users both at home and in study centres. Women collected daily data for urinary estrone glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG) for two cycles, then the procedure was repeated in the women's local centre (in Chile, Australia or New Zealand) giving a total of 113 duplicate cycles. The tests were performed without the benefit of replicates or quality controls. The home and centre cycles were normalized and compared to identify assay errors, and the resulting home and centre menstrual cycle profiles were averaged. Reliable mean cycle profiles were obtained with the home and centre excretion rates agreeing to within 36 ± 21 nmol/24 h for E1G and 0.77 ± 0.28 µmol/24 h for baseline PdG values (1-5 µmol/24 h). The cycles had a mean length of 28.1 ± 3.1 days (n = 112; 5th and 95th percentiles: 24 and 35 days, respectively), a mean follicular phase of 14.8 ± 3.1 days (n = 107; 5th and 95th percentiles: 11 and 21 days) and a mean luteal phase length of 13.3 ± 1.5 days (n = 106; 5th and 95th percentiles: 11 and 17 days), calculated from the day of the LH peak. The study confirmed that the Ovarian Monitor pre-coated assay tubes worked well even in the hands of lay users, without standard curves, quality controls or replicates. Point-of-care monitoring to give reliable fertility data is feasible.

  11. [Effect of combined therapy with bailing capsule and benazepril on urinary albumin excretion rate and C-reactive protein in patients with early diabetic nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian; Li, Yan-Hua; Yang, Xiang-Dong

    2009-09-01

    To observe the effect of combined therapy with Bailing Capsule (BC) and benazepril on the levels of urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and C-reactive protein (CRP) for exploring its protective effect on early diabetic nephropathy. Sixty patients with early diabetic nephropathy were randomly assigned to the control group treated by benazepril alone, and the treated group treated by BC and benazepril, and the treatment lasted for 16 weeks. The changes of UAER and CRP levels were measured to estimate the protective effect of the combined therapy. Levels of 24h urinary protein, UAER, CRP were (0.85 +/- 0.32) g/24 h, (83.34 +/- 38.27) microg/min, (2.67 +/- 1.72) mg/L before treatment in the control group, and (0.43 +/- 0.17) g/24 h, (71.22 +/- 31.12) microg/min, (1.05 +/- 0.78) mg/L after treatment and they were (0.87 +/- 0.31) g/24 h, (81.59 +/- 35.69) microg/min, (2.55 +/- 1.66) mg/L before treatment in treated group, and (0.25 +/- 0.29) g/24 h, (57.32 +/- 31.11) microg/min, (0.49 +/- 0.38) mg/L after treatment respectively, all of them decreased after treatment in both groups, showing significant differences as compared with those before treatment (P0.05). Combined use of BC and benazepril could significantly lower the UAER and CRP levels in patients with early diabetic nephropathy to alleviate the renal impairment, showing an effect better than that of using benazepril alone.

  12. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition ...

  13. 3-Methylhistidine excretion in myotonic dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griggs, R.C.; Moxley, R.T. III; Forbes, G.B.

    1980-12-01

    3-Methylhistidine (3-MH) excretion reflects the rate of muscle protein catabolism, since 3-MH occurs almost exclusively in muscle actin and myosin and is not reutilized or catabolized. We studied 3-MH excretion in 9 patients with myotonic dystrophy, 8 normals, and 10 disease controls with Duchenne dystrophy and other disorders. 3-MH excretion was expressed relative to muscle mass as determined by both urinary creatinine and total body potassium (/sup 40/K method). Absolute 3-MH excretion was decreased in myotonic dystrophy patients but was normal when related to muscle mass. The finding of normal 3-MH excretion in myotonic dystrophy suggests that the muscle wasting in this disorder results from impaired anabolic processes rather than accelerated muscle destruction.

  14. 3-Methylhistidine excretion in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griggs, R.C.; Moxley, R.T. III; Forbes, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    3-Methylhistidine (3-MH) excretion reflects the rate of muscle protein catabolism, since 3-MH occurs almost exclusively in muscle actin and myosin and is not reutilized or catabolized. We studied 3-MH excretion in 9 patients with myotonic dystrophy, 8 normals, and 10 disease controls with Duchenne dystrophy and other disorders. 3-MH excretion was expressed relative to muscle mass as determined by both urinary creatinine and total body potassium ( 40 K method). Absolute 3-MH excretion was decreased in myotonic dystrophy patients but was normal when related to muscle mass. The finding of normal 3-MH excretion in myotonic dystrophy suggests that the muscle wasting in this disorder results from impaired anabolic processes rather than accelerated muscle destruction

  15. Quantitative rates of brain glucose metabolism distinguish minimally conscious from vegetative state patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Johan; Kupers, Ron; Rodell, Anders; Thibaut, Aurore; Chatelle, Camille; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Gejl, Michael; Bernard, Claire; Hustinx, Roland; Laureys, Steven; Gjedde, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The differentiation of the vegetative or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) from the minimally conscious state (MCS) is an important clinical issue. The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) declines when consciousness is lost, and may reveal the residual cognitive function of these patients. However, no quantitative comparisons of cerebral glucose metabolism in VS/UWS and MCS have yet been reported. We calculated the regional and whole-brain CMRglc of 41 patients in the states of VS/UWS (n=14), MCS (n=21) or emergence from MCS (EMCS, n=6), and healthy volunteers (n=29). Global cortical CMRglc in VS/UWS and MCS averaged 42% and 55% of normal, respectively. Differences between VS/UWS and MCS were most pronounced in the frontoparietal cortex, at 42% and 60% of normal. In brainstem and thalamus, metabolism declined equally in the two conditions. In EMCS, metabolic rates were indistinguishable from those of MCS. Ordinal logistic regression predicted that patients are likely to emerge into MCS at CMRglc above 45% of normal. Receiver-operating characteristics showed that patients in MCS and VS/UWS can be differentiated with 82% accuracy, based on cortical metabolism. Together these results reveal a significant correlation between whole-brain energy metabolism and level of consciousness, suggesting that quantitative values of CMRglc reveal consciousness in severely brain-injured patients.

  16. Lithium iron phosphate with high-rate capability synthesized through hydrothermal reaction in glucose solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Guangchuan; Wang, Li; Ou, Xiuqin; Zhao, Xia; Xu, Shengzhao [Institute of Power Source and Ecomaterials Science, Box 1055, Hebei University of Technology, 300130 Tianjin (China)

    2008-10-01

    Carbon-coated lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}/C) was hydrothermally synthesized from commercial LiOH, FeSO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} as raw materials and glucose as carbon precursor in aqueous solution at 180 C for 6 h followed by being fired at 750 C for 6 h. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and constant current charge-discharge cycling test. The results show that the synthesized powders are in situ coated with carbon precursor produced from glucose. At ambient temperature (25{+-}2 C), the specific discharge capacities are 154 mAh g{sup -1} at 0.2C and 136 mAh g{sup -1} at 5 C rate, and the cycling capacity retention rate reaches 98% over 90 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance can be correlated with the in situ formation of carbon precursor/carbon, thus leading to the even distribution of carbon and the enhancement of conductibility of individual grains. (author)

  17. Effects of Vildagliptin and Metformin on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Responses to Small Intestinal Glucose in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongzhi; Trahair, Laurence G; Little, Tanya J; Bound, Michelle J; Zhang, Xiang; Wu, Hang; Sun, Zilin; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K; Jones, Karen L

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate effects of vildagliptin and metformin on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses to intraduodenal (ID) glucose in diet-controlled type 2 diabetes. Study A compared vildagliptin (50 mg) and placebo, given 60 min before a 120-min ID glucose infusion at 2 or 4 kcal/min (ID2 or ID4) in 16 patients. Study B compared metformin (850 mg) and placebo, given 30 min before ID2 over 120 min in 9 patients. Systolic ( P = 0.002) and diastolic ( P vildagliptin compared with placebo, without interaction between vildagliptin and the glucose infusion rate. In contrast, HR was greater after metformin than placebo ( P Vildagliptin reduces BP and increases HR, whereas metformin increases HR without affecting BP during ID glucose infusion in type 2 diabetes. These distinct cardiovascular profiles during enteral nutrient exposure may have implications for postprandial hypotension. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  18. Local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (lCMRGlc) in treated and untreated patients with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougemont, D; Baron, J C; Collard, P; Bustany, P; Comar, D; Agid, Y

    1983-06-01

    Local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (lCMRGlc) was measured twice, using positron emission tomography and /sup 18/F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 18/FDG), in 4 patients with Parkinson disease, first unmedicated and then treated with L-DOPA. Despite a dramatic clinical improvement, no significant changes in lCMRGlc could be detected. Moreover, no reproducible differences of lCMRGlc were found between patients with Parkinson disease and with normal brain.

  19. Local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (lCMRGlc) in treated and untreated patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougemont, D.; Baron, J.C.; Collard, P.; Bustany, P.; Comar, D.; Agid, Y.

    1983-06-01

    Local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (lCMRGlc) was measured twice, using positron emission tomography and 18 F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 FDG), in 4 patients with Parkinson disease, first unmedicated and then treated with L-DOPA. Despite a dramatic clinical improvement, no significant changes in lCMRGlc could be detected. Moreover, no reproducible differences of lCMRGlc were found between patients with Parkinson disease and with normal brain

  20. Renal acid excretion in the domestic fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S; Skadhauge, E

    1983-05-01

    1. In order to assess the role of uricotelism in net renal acid excretion, blood and ureteral urine samples were collected from five hens fed a commercial poultry feed (Diet A) and five hens fed a protein-rich, Na-poor feed (Diet B). All samples were analysed for pH, PCO2, ammonium, phosphate, uric acid and urates (UA + U) and inulin. 2. On Diet A, average pH in venous blood was 7.42, while urinary pH (pHu) ranged from 4.74 to 7.25. At average pHu (6.10), uric acid accounted for 52% of total acid excreted, H2PO4 for 20% and NH4 for 28%. Net acid excretion in ureteral urine was 345 muequiv h-1 kg body weight-1, or 5-10 times that observed in ureotelic vertebrates (amphibians and mammals). 3. The relative contributions of these urinary buffers to net renal acid excretion changed with pHu. Significant negative correlations exist between pHu and both total phosphate and ammonium excretion rates (P less than 0.001). Excretion rates of (UA + U) showed a positive correlation (P less than 0.05) with pHu. 4. Feeding on Diet B revealed the homeostatic power of the avian kidney. Blood pH and PCO2 were not changed relative to values in hens fed the control diet while striking increases in excretion rates of all urinary buffers (except HCO3) were observed. Average pHu fell to 5.12, and the average net renal acid excretion rate doubled.

  1. Late excretion of plutonium following acquisition of known amounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.

    1981-01-01

    The urinary and fecal excretion rates of plutonium 10,000 days after intravenous injection of known amounts are compared with the predictions of various models. Both Langham's and Durbin's equations underestimated the urinary excretion by about an order of magnitude; the observed fecal excretion rates were also higher than the predictions. The total excretion rate predicted by the ICRP model was in quite good agreement with the observed rate, but it overestimated it at early times ( 239 Pu of former Manhattan Project plutonium workers, as calculated from the measured urinary excretion an application of Langham's equation. In one of these subjects the urinary excretion rate started to increase at about 6000 days, reached a maximum at about 9500 days, and declined for the next 2700 days

  2. Uptake and release of glucose by the human kidney. Postabsorptive rates and responses to epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumvoll, M; Chintalapudi, U; Perriello, G; Welle, S; Gutierrez, O; Gerich, J

    1995-11-01

    Despite ample evidence that the kidney can both produce and use appreciable amounts of glucose, the human kidney is generally regarded as playing a minor role in glucose homeostasis. This view is based on measurements of arteriorenal vein glucose concentrations indicating little or no net release of glucose. However, inferences from net balance measurements do not take into consideration the simultaneous release and uptake of glucose by the kidney. Therefore, to assess the contribution of release and uptake of glucose by the human kidney to overall entry and removal of plasma glucose, we used a combination of balance and isotope techniques to measure renal glucose net balance, fractional extraction, uptake and release as well as overall plasma glucose appearance and disposal in 10 normal volunteers under basal postabsorptive conditions and during a 3-h epinephrine infusion. In the basal postabsorptive state, there was small but significant net output of glucose by the kidney (66 +/- 22 mumol.min-1, P = 0.016). However, since renal glucose fractional extraction averaged 2.9 +/- 0.3%, there was considerable renal glucose uptake (2.3 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1) which accounted for 20.2 +/- 1.7% of systemic glucose disposal (11.4 +/- 0.5 mumol.kg-1.min-1). Renal glucose release (3.2 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1) accounted for 27.8 +/- 2.1% of systemic glucose appearance (11.4 +/- 0.5 mumol.kg-1.min-1). Epinephrine infusion, which increased plasma epinephrine to levels observed during hypoglycemia (3722 +/- 453 pmol/liter) increased renal glucose release nearly twofold (5.2 +/- 0.5 vs 2.8 +/- 0.1 mol.kg-1.min-1, P = 0.01) so that at the end of the infusion, renal glucose release accounted for 40.3 +/- 5.5% of systemic glucose appearance and essentially all of the increase in systemic glucose appearance. These observations suggest an important role for the human kidney in glucose homeostasis.

  3. Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose and cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Kazuhiko; Miyabayashi, Shigeaki; Iinuma, Kazuie; Tada, Keiya; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Ito, Masatoshi; Matsuzawa, Taiju.

    1987-01-01

    Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglu) and cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites were measured in two cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) with different clinical courses. A marked decrease in rCMRglu was found in the cortical gray matter of a patient with rapidly developing SSPE (3.6 - 4.2 mg/100 g brain tissue/min). However, the rCMRglu was preserved in the caudate and lenticular nuclei of the patient (7.7 mg/100 g/min). The rCMRglu in a patient with slowly developing SSPE revealed patterns and values similar to those of the control. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites ; homovanilic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, were decreased in both rapidly and slowly developing SSPE. These data indicated that rCMRglu correlated better with the neurological and psychological status and that dopaminergic and serotonergic abnormalities have been implicated in pathophysiology of SSPE. (author)

  4. Enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by oral glucose load in well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Christiansen, J; Christensen, C K; Hermansen, K

    1986-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in 27 patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) before and after an oral glucose load of 1.1 g glucose/kg body wt. In the 18 patients showing near-normoglycaemia (blood glucose less than or equal to 8...... mmol/l) before the glucose challenge the increase in blood glucose from 4.2 +/- 1.7 to 15.2 +/- 2.3 mmol/l was accompanied by an enhancement of GFR from 128 +/- 15 to 132 +/- 14 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p = 0.030) and of RPF from 534 +/- 116 to 562 +/- 105 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p = 0.023). By contrast oral...... glucose load to the nine patients with hyperglycaemia (greater than 8 mmol/l) during baseline conditions raising blood glucose from 11.9 +/- 2.0 to 19.6 +/- 1.5 mmol/l was accompanied by a reduction in GFR from 149 +/- 15 to 139 +/- 9 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p less than 0.001) while RPF was unchanged...

  5. Positron emission tomography assessment of cerebral glucose metabolic rates in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitelman, Serge A; Bralet, Marie-Cecile; Mehmet Haznedar, M; Hollander, Eric; Shihabuddin, Lina; Hazlett, Erin A; Buchsbaum, Monte S

    2018-04-01

    Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered 18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest. Metabolic rates were compared between three diagnostic groups using univariate and multivariate repeated-measures ANOVA. Compared to controls, metabolic rates in schizophrenia subjects were decreased in the frontal lobe, anterior cingulate, superior temporal gyrus, amygdala and medial thalamic nuclei; rates were increased in the occipital cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia and lateral thalamic nuclei. In ASD subjects metabolic rates were decreased in the parietal lobe, frontal premotor and eye-fields areas, and amygdala; rates were increased in the posterior cingulate, occipital cortex, hippocampus and basal ganglia. In relation to controls, subjects with ASD and schizophrenia showed opposite changes in metabolic rates in the primary motor and somatosensory cortex, anterior cingulate and hypothalamus; similar changes were found in prefrontal and occipital cortices, inferior parietal lobule, amygdala, hippocampus, and basal ganglia. Schizophrenia and ASD appear to be associated with a similar pattern of metabolic abnormalities in the social brain. Divergent maladaptive trade-offs, as postulated by the diametrical hypothesis of their evolutionary relationship, may involve a more circumscribed set of anterior cingulate, motor and somatosensory regions and the specific cognitive functions they subserve.

  6. Supplementation with dairy calcium and/or flaxseed fibers in conjunction with orlistat augments fecal fat excretion without altering ratings of gastrointestinal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Juul, Signe Rømer; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum

    2017-01-01

    -in and week 4. The primary end-point, gastrointestinal symptoms, was assessed biweekly. At baseline and after 12 weeks, cardiometabolic risk markers and anthropometrics were evaluated as secondary end-points. RESULTS: Both FF and Ca increased fecal fat excretion (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). Although...... circumference was most reduced in the FF+/Ca + group. No effects of dietary supplements on cardiometabolic risk factors were observed, except a slight increase in diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.03) with FF, but not Ca. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support an improvement in orlistat-induced gastrointestinal...

  7. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Faisal Lutfi

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown.To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV derived indices.The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln of total power (LnTP, very low frequency (LnVLF, low frequency (LnLF and high frequency (LnHF, low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF, normalized low frequency (LF Norm and high frequency (HF Norm.FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031 and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025 and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025 and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035. LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34 ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94 n.u compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63 ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73 n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively. LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94 n.u and 0.73 (0.53 compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83 n.u and 0.03 (0.79, P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively.The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which further increase in glucose level readjusts sympathovagal balance

  8. Evaluation of salivary glucose, IgA and flow rate in diabetic patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakianian Vaziri, P; Vahedi, M; Mortazavi, H; Abdollahzadeh, Sh; Hajilooi, M

    2010-01-01

    An association between diabetes mellitus and alterations in the oral cavity has been noted. In this study, we evaluated differences between salivary IgA, glucose and flow rate in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls. Forty patients with type 1 diabetes, 40 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 healthy controls were selected. Whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected by the standard method and the salivary flow rate was determined. Nephelometric and Pars method were used to measure salivary IgA and salivary glucose concentrations, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-square and t test. There were no significant differences in salivary IgA and glucose concentrations between type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and their matched control subjects (P>0.05). Salivary flow rate was significantly lower in diabetic patients (Pdiabetic patients than the controls. Determination of salivary constituents may be useful in the description and management of oral findings in diabetic patients.

  9. The regulatory system for diabetes mellitus: Modeling rates of glucose infusions and insulin injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-08-01

    Novel mathematical models with open and closed-loop control for type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus were developed to improve understanding of the glucose-insulin regulatory system. A hybrid impulsive glucose-insulin model with different frequencies of glucose infusions and insulin injections was analyzed, and the existence and uniqueness of the positive periodic solution for type 1 diabetes, which is globally asymptotically stable, was studied analytically. Moreover, permanence of the system for type 2 diabetes was demonstrated which showed that the glucose concentration level is uniformly bounded above and below. To investigate how to prevent hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia being caused by this system, we developed a model involving periodic intakes of glucose with insulin injections applied only when the blood glucose level reached a given critical glucose threshold. In addition, our numerical analysis revealed that the period, the frequency and the dose of glucose infusions and insulin injections are crucial for insulin therapies, and the results provide clinical strategies for insulin-administration practices.

  10. The Coupling of Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Glucose and Cerebral Blood Flow In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Steen; Paulson, Olaf Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    The energy supplied to the brain by metabolic substrate is largely utilized for maintaining synaptic transmission. In this regulation cerebral blood flow and glucose consumption is tightly coupled as well in the resting condition as during activation. Quantification of cerebral blood flow...... not used for aerobic metabolism. Although some of the excess glucose uptake can be explained by lactate production, this phenomenon can still not account for the excess glucose uptake. Thus, more complex metabolic patterns in the brain might be reflected in the excess glucose uptake during activation......, and especially temporal relationships must be taken into account. What triggers the flow increase during functional brain activation is not entirely elucidated. The demand for excess glucose uptake may be important and a possible oxygen deficit in tissue distant from the capillaries is probably of minor...

  11. Xylitol vs glucose: Effect on the rate of gastric emptying and motilin, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, E.K.; Salminen, S.J.; Porkka, L.; Kwasowski, P.; Marks, V.; Koivistoinen, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of xylitol and glucose on the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal transit and on motilin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and insulin release were studied in human volunteers. A single oral dose of 200 mL water containing 30 g glucose or 30 g xylitol, mixed with a 99m technetium-tin (99mTc-Sn) colloid, was used. Similar dosing without the label was used in motilin, GIP, and insulin studies. Xylitol decreased the rate of gastric emptying but concomitantly accelerated intestinal transit compared with glucose. The half-times for gastric emptying were 77.5 +/- 4.6 and 39.8 +/- 3.4 min after ingestion of xylitol and glucose solutions, respectively. Glucose suppressed motilin and stimulated GIP secretion; xylitol stimulated motilin secretion but had no effect on GIP, which is currently the main candidate for the role of enterogastrone. The accelerated intestinal transit and increase in plasma motilin observed after xylitol ingestion were thought to be causally related to the diarrhea and gastrointestinal discomfort produced by it

  12. Pharmacokinetics and Biliary Excretion of Fisetin in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Miao-Chan; Hsueh, Thomas Y; Cheng, Yung-Yi; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2018-06-14

    The hypothesis of this study is that fisetin and phase II conjugated forms of fisetin may partly undergo biliary excretion. To investigate this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the experiment, and their bile ducts were cannulated with polyethylene tubes for bile sampling. The pharmacokinetic results demonstrated that the average area-under-the-curve (AUC) ratios ( k (%) = AUC conjugate /AUC free-form ) of fisetin, its glucuronides, and its sulfates were 1:6:21 in plasma and 1:4:75 in bile, respectively. Particularly, the sulfated metabolites were the main forms that underwent biliary excretion. The biliary excretion rate ( k BE (%) = AUC bile /AUC plasma ) indicates the amount of fisetin eliminated by biliary excretion. The biliary excretion rates of fisetin, its glucuronide conjugates, and its sulfate conjugates were approximately 144, 109, and 823%, respectively, after fisetin administration (30 mg/kg, iv). Furthermore, biliary excretion of fisetin is mediated by P-glycoprotein.

  13. Reaction rate studies of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in sections of rat liver using four tetrazolium salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butcher, R. G.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    The reaction rate of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in liver sections from fed and starved rats has been monitored by the continuous measurement at 37 degrees C of the reaction product as it is formed using scanning and integrating microdensitometry. Control media lacked either substrate

  14. Excretion of biotrace elements using the multitracer technique in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Wu, M.; Yin, X.M.; Zhang, X.; Li, Z.W.; Tian, J.; Sheng, X.L.

    1999-01-01

    A radioactive multitracer solution obtained from the nuclear reaction of selenium with 25 MeV/nucleon 40 Ar ions was applied to the investigation of the trace elements behavior in feces and urine of mouse. The excretion rates of 23 elements, Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Nb, Tc, Ru, Ag and In were simultaneously detected under strictly identical experimental conditions, in order to clarify the excretion behavior of the elements in Mice. Fecal and urinary excretion rates of the elements in mice reached the highest value separately at 48 and 24 hours. The total excretion of Mo, Tc and Co within 96 hours were all larger, more than 60%. Accumulative excretion rates of Ca, Nb, Mg, Sr, V, Sc, Na, Cr, Fe, Ag, Mn and Zr were 60-30%. The total rates of Ru, K, As, Zn, Rb, Y, Ga and In were less than 30%, and low excretion. The main excretion pathway of Mo, Co, Mg, Fe and Ag was through urine, and Na, K, As and Rb were eliminated from the body also in urine. But fecal excretion of Tc, Nb, Sr, Y, Ru, and In were larger than urinary excretion, and Ca, Sc, Mn, Zr, Zn were eliminated from the body in feces. (author)

  15. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  16. Effects on the glucose metabolism in type II diabetes model mice treated with dose-rates irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Takaharu; Sakai, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The effects of low-dose rate gamma-irradiation on the type II diabetes mellitus were investigated in C57BL/KsJ-ab/db (db mouse). This mouse develops the type II diabetes within 8 weeks of the birth due to a dysfunction of the insulin receptors. As a result the db mouse shows obese and exhibits hyperinsulinism. Ten-week old female mice (12 mice in each group) were irradiated with gamma-rays at 0.35 mGy/hr, 0.65 mGy/hr or 1.2 mGy/hr in the low-dose rate irradiation facility in the Low Dose Radiation Research Center. The level of plasma glucose and insulin was measured. After 2 weeks irradiation, the glucose level slightly increased, however the difference between the irradiated mice and non-irradiated groups was not significant. The plasma insulin concentration decreased in the non-irradiated group to half of the initial level. In the irradiated group, it also decreased but in the group of 0.65 mGy/hr and 0.35 mGy/hr, it was significantly differed from that in the non-irradiated group. In the glucose tolerance test, plasma glucose level increased shortly after 0.1 mg/head glucose injection by mouth and reached to a peak at 90-120 min after the injection. The glucose level of the non-irradiated mice was slightly higher than that of irradiated mice. The plasma insulin level of non-irradiated group was enhanced after the injection and maintained the level during the test. However the levels of irradiated mice were decreased at 30-60 min after the injection. Both the level of non-irradiated an irradiated was almost same but the non-irradiated one was a little high. In all of mice, the plasma insulin level was highly elevated right after the 0.05 units/head insulin injection by i.p. and the levels were also gradually decreased. The level of the non-irradiated group was slowly decreased and was higher than the irradiated mice. The plasma glucose levels of all mice did not change after the test; however, the levels of irradiated mice were slightly lower than that of non

  17. Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in mood disorders. Studies with positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, L.R. Jr.; Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Schwartz, J.M.; Gerner, R.H.; Selin, C.E.; Sumida, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose were examined in patients with unipolar depression (N = 11), bipolar depression (N = 5), mania (N = 5), bipolar mixed states (N = 3), and in normal controls (N = 9) using positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18. All subjects were studied supine under ambient room conditions with eyes open. Bipolar depressed and mixed patients had supratentorial whole brain glucose metabolic rates that were significantly lower than those of the other comparison groups. The whole brain metabolic rates for patients with bipolar depression increased going from depression or a mixed state to a euthymic or manic state. Patients with unipolar depression showed a significantly lower ratio of the metabolic rate of the caudate nucleus, divided by that of the hemisphere as a whole, when compared with normal controls and patients with bipolar depression

  18. Functional imaging and assessment of the glucose diffusion rate in epithelial tissues in optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, K V; Tuchin, V V

    2008-01-01

    Functional imaging, monitoring and quantitative description of glucose diffusion in epithelial and underlying stromal tissues in vivo and controlling of the optical properties of tissues are extremely important for many biomedical applications including the development of noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensors as well as for therapy and diagnostics of various diseases, such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Recent progress in the development of a noninvasive molecular diffusion biosensor based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) is described. The diffusion of glucose was studied in several epithelial tissues both in vitro and in vivo. Because OCT provides depth-resolved imaging of tissues with high in-depth resolution, the glucose diffusion is described not only as a function of time but also as a function of depth. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  19. Evaluation of Salivary Glucose, IgA and Flow Rate in Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bakianian Vaziri, P.; Vahedi, M.; Mortazavi, H.; Abdollahzadeh, Sh.; Hajilooi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: An association between diabetes mellitus and alterations in the oral cavity has been noted. In this study, we evaluated differences between salivary IgA, glucose and flow rate in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with type 1 diabetes, 40 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 healthy controls were selected. Whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected by the standard method and the salivary flow rate was determined. Nephelomet...

  20. Increasing synthetic serum substitute (SSS) concentrations in P1 glucose/phosphate-free medium improves implantation rate: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, D; Yovel, I; Schwartz, T; Azem, F; Lessing, J B; Amit, A

    2001-11-01

    To assess the comparative efficacy of IVF medium (MediCult, with 5.2 mM glucose) and a glucose/phosphate-free medium, P1 (Irvine Scientific), and to investigate the influence of increasing the serum supplementation (synthetic serum substitute; SSS; Irvine Scientific) to P1 on embryo development and implantation. Patients were randomly assigned to IVF medium (Group 1, cycles n = 172) or P1 supplemented with 10% SSS (Group 2, cycles n = 229) according to the medium scheduled for use on the day of oocyte retrieval. Another 555 IVF consequent cycles (Group 3) were performed using increased SSS concentrations (20%) in P1 medium. In this large series of IVF cycles, we herein demonstrate that significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates were found when embryos were cultured in glucose/phosphate-free medium P1 supplemented with 20% SSS compared to supplementation with the lower SSS concentration and with IVF medium.

  1. Investigations of excretion rates of the radionuclides {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po of persons of the general population and of workers in selected regions in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, I. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf Inc. D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Seitz, G. [Institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention in the precision engineering and electrical industry, D-50941 Koeln (Germany); Hartmann, M. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-10318 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    According to ICRP 60 and European-Directive 96/29, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technical Enriched Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) have to take the radiation protection of the general population as well as of workers into account. The German radiation protection regulations stress that particularly. In connection with these regulations, various measurement programs have been and still are performed to investigate the relevant exposure paths. One of these programs is the determination of the intake of natural occurring radionuclides of the uranium decay series in individuals of the public, in exposed regions and houses and also at NORM workplaces by excretion analysis. Excretion analysis surveillance is one of the common tools for internal dosimetry. Sources of primordial radionuclides could be the ingestion of foodstuff and water and the incorporation of (mostly airborne) pollution on work places. The main focus in this report is set upon the excretion rate in faeces and urine. A cohort of about 100 persons was selected in five regions in Germany. One of these regions we chose to be the reference area. It is situated in the northern part of Germany with low background radiation. The other regions are in the south-west and south-east mountain areas. Workers were selected from drinking water providers, natural gas providers, balneologic facilities and exhibition mines and museum pits. In the same region also persons of public were recruited for the study. The paper presents selected data of the above mentioned nuclides in urine and faeces samples which were collected during 2002 to 2005. The results are grouped due the parameters like regions and working fields and are discussed in detail. These are 15 mBq/d in urine and 70 mBq/d in faeces and are not as different for the different nuclides as one may expect. (authors)

  2. Investigations of excretion rates of the radionuclides 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po of persons of the general population and of workers in selected regions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, I.; Seitz, G.; Hartmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    According to ICRP 60 and European-Directive 96/29, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technical Enriched Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) have to take the radiation protection of the general population as well as of workers into account. The German radiation protection regulations stress that particularly. In connection with these regulations, various measurement programs have been and still are performed to investigate the relevant exposure paths. One of these programs is the determination of the intake of natural occurring radionuclides of the uranium decay series in individuals of the public, in exposed regions and houses and also at NORM workplaces by excretion analysis. Excretion analysis surveillance is one of the common tools for internal dosimetry. Sources of primordial radionuclides could be the ingestion of foodstuff and water and the incorporation of (mostly airborne) pollution on work places. The main focus in this report is set upon the excretion rate in faeces and urine. A cohort of about 100 persons was selected in five regions in Germany. One of these regions we chose to be the reference area. It is situated in the northern part of Germany with low background radiation. The other regions are in the south-west and south-east mountain areas. Workers were selected from drinking water providers, natural gas providers, balneologic facilities and exhibition mines and museum pits. In the same region also persons of public were recruited for the study. The paper presents selected data of the above mentioned nuclides in urine and faeces samples which were collected during 2002 to 2005. The results are grouped due the parameters like regions and working fields and are discussed in detail. These are 15 mBq/d in urine and 70 mBq/d in faeces and are not as different for the different nuclides as one may expect. (authors)

  3. Enzymatic conversion of sucrose to glucose and its anomerization by quantitative NMR spectroscopy: Application of a simple consecutive reaction rates approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaideep; Her, Cheenou; Krishnan, V. V.

    2018-02-01

    The anomerization of carbohydrates is an essential process that determines the relative stabilization of stereoisomers in an aqueous solution. In a typical real-time enzyme kinetics experiment, the substrate (sucrose) is converted to glucose and fructose by the enzyme invertase. The product (α-D-glucose) starts to convert to β-D-glucose immediately by hydrolysis. Though the anomerization process is independent of the enzyme catalysis, the progress curve describing the production of β-D-glucose from α-D-glucose is directly affected by the kinetics of consecutive reactions. When α-D-glucose is continually converted to β-D-glucose, by the enzymatic action, the time course of both α- and β-D-glucose is influenced by the enzyme kinetics. Thus, a reversible first-order rate equation is not adequate to model the reaction mechanism, leading to erroneous results on the rates of formation of the glucose anomers. In this manuscript, we incorporate an approximate method to address consecutive general reactions involving enzyme kinetics and first-order reaction processes. The utility of the approach is demonstrated in the real-time NMR measurement of the anomerization process of α-D-glucose (enzymatically produced from sucrose) to β-D-glucose, as a function of invertase enzyme concentration. Variable temperature experiments were used to estimate the thermodynamic parameters of the anomerization process and are consistent with literature values.

  4. Glucose patterns during an oral glucose tolerance test and associations with future diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Vistisen, Dorte; Glümer, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    classes. Results: Four distinct glucose patterns during the OGTT were identified. One pattern was characterised by high 30 min but low 2 h glucose values. Participants with this pattern had an increased risk of developing diabetes compared with participants with lower 30 min and 2 h glucose levels (HR 4...

  5. High-content screening of Aspergillus niger with both increased production and high secretion rate of glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xudong; Sun, Jingchun; Chu, Ju

    2018-01-01

    To develop a rapid, dual-parameter, plate-based screening process to improve production and secretion rate of glucose oxidase simultaneously in Aspergillus niger. A morphology engineering based on CaCO 3 was implemented, where the yield of GOD by A. niger was increased by up to 50%. Analysis of extracellular GOD activity was achieved in 96-well plates. There was a close negative correlation between the total GOD activity and its residual glucose of the fermentation broth. Based on this, a rapid, plate-based, qualitative analysis method of the total GOD activity was developed. Compared with the conventional analysis method using o-dianisidine, a correlation coefficient of -0.92 by statistical analysis was obtained. Using this dual-parameter screening method, we acquired a strain with GOD activity of 3126 U l -1 , which was 146% higher than the original strain. Its secretion rate of GOD was 83, 32% higher than the original strain.

  6. A low perfusion rate microreactor for the continous monitoring of enzyme characteristics: applications for glucose oxidase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Venema, K.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Korf, J.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a versatile and robust microreactor for bioactive proteins physically immobilized on a polyether sulfone filter. The potential of the reactor is illustrated with glucose oxidase immobilized on a filter with a cut-off value of 30 kDa. A flow-injection system was used to deliver

  7. A low perfusion rate microreactor for continuous monitoring of enzyme characteristics : application to glucose oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G. A.; Venema, K.; van Berkel, W. J. H.; Korf, J.

    This report describes a versatile and robust microreactor for bioactive proteins physically immobilized on a polyether sulfone filter. The potential of the reactor is illustrated with glucose oxidase immobilized on a filter with a cut-off value of 30 kDa. A flow-injection system was used to deliver

  8. Fast evolutionary rates associated with functional loss in class I glucose transporters of Schistosoma mansoni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.; Lancelot, J.; Pierce, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, NOV 19 2015 (2015), s. 980 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Schistosoma mansoni * glucose transporters * transcriptional regulation * phylogen * biophysics Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.867, year: 2015

  9. Evaluation of Salivary Glucose, IgA and Flow Rate in Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bakianian Vaziri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An association between diabetes mellitus and alterations in the oral cavity has been noted. In this study, we evaluated differences between salivary IgA, glucose and flow rate in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls.Materials and Methods: Forty patients with type 1 diabetes, 40 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 healthy controls were selected. Whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected by the standard method and the salivary flow rate was determined. Nephelometricand Pars method were used to measure salivary IgA and salivary glucose concentrations,respectively. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-square and t test.Results: There were no significant differences in salivary IgA and glucose concentrations between type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and their matched control subjects (P>0.05.Salivary flow rate was significantly lower in diabetic patients (P<0.05. In addition,DMFT was higher in diabetic patients than the controls.Conclusion: Determination of salivary constituents may be useful in the description and management of oral findings in diabetic patients.

  10. Simultaneous measurement of glucose blood–brain transport constants and metabolic rate in rat brain using in-vivo 1H MRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fei; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral glucose consumption and glucose transport across the blood–brain barrier are crucial to brain function since glucose is the major energy fuel for supporting intense electrophysiological activity associated with neuronal firing and signaling. Therefore, the development of noninvasive methods to measure the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) and glucose transport constants (KT: half-saturation constant; Tmax: maximum transport rate) are of importance for understanding glucose transport mechanism and neuroenergetics under various physiological and pathological conditions. In this study, a novel approach able to simultaneously measure CMRglc, KT, and Tmax via monitoring the dynamic glucose concentration changes in the brain tissue using in-vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and in plasma after a brief glucose infusion was proposed and tested using an animal model. The values of CMRglc, Tmax, and KT were determined to be 0.44±0.17 μmol/g per minute, 1.35±0.47 μmol/g per minute, and 13.4±6.8 mmol/L in the rat brain anesthetized with 2% isoflurane. The Monte-Carlo simulations suggest that the measurements of CMRglc and Tmax are more reliable than that of KT. The overall results indicate that the new approach is robust and reliable for in-vivo measurements of both brain glucose metabolic rate and transport constants, and has potential for human application. PMID:22714049

  11. Effect of NMDA Receptor Antagonist on Local Cerebral Glucose Metabolic Rate in Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Hong, Seung Bong; Yoon, Byung Woo

    1995-01-01

    There has recently been increasing interest in the use of NMDA receptor antagonists as potential neuroprotective agents for the treatment of ischemic stroke. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of the selective non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in focal cerebral ischemia, local cerebral glucose utilization (1CGU) was examined in 15 neuroanatomically discrete regions of the conscious rat brain using the 2-deoxy-D[14C]glucose quantitative autoradiographic technique 24 hr after left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Animals received MK-801 (5 mg/kg i.v.) or saline vehicle before (20-30 min) or after (30 min) MCAO. Both pretreatment and posttreatment of MK-801 increased occluded/non-occluded 1CGU ratio in 7 and 5 of the 15 regions measured, respectively(most notably in cortical structures). Following MK-801 pretreatment, there was evidence of widespread increases in 1CCPU not only in the non-occluded hemisphere (12 of the 15 areas studied) but also in the occluded hemisphere (13 of the 15 areas studied), while MK-801 posttreatment did not significantly increase 1CGU both in the normal and occluded hemispheres. These data indicate that MK-801 has a neuroprotective effect in focal cerebral ischemia and demonstrate that MK-801 provides widespread alterations of glucose utilization in conscious animals.

  12. Characterization and comparison of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacologic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuo Tahara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT 2 offer a novel approach to treating type 2 diabetes by reducing hyperglycaemia via increased urinary glucose excretion. In the present study, the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacologic properties of all six SGLT2 inhibitors commercially available in Japan were investigated and compared. Based on findings in normal and diabetic mice, the six drugs were classified into two categories, long-acting: ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin, and intermediate-acting: tofogliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin, and luseogliflozin. Long-acting SGLT2 inhibitors exerted an antihyperglycemic effect with lower variability of blood glucose level via a long-lasting increase in urinary glucose excretion. In addition, ipragliflozin and luseogliflozin exhibited superiority over the others with respect to fast onset of pharmacological effect. Duration and onset of the pharmacologic effects seemed to be closely correlated with the pharmacokinetic properties of each SGLT2 inhibitor, particularly with respect to high distribution and long retention in the target organ, the kidney. While all six SGLT2 inhibitors were significantly effective in increasing urinary glucose excretion and reducing hyperglycemia, our findings suggest that variation in the quality of daily blood glucose control associated with duration and onset of pharmacologic effects of each SGLT2 inhibitor might cause slight differences in rates of improvement in type 2 diabetes.

  13. Rates of myocardial infarction and stroke in patients initiated on SGLT2-inhibitors versus other glucose-lowering agents in real-world clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiborod, Mikhail; Birkeland, Kåre I; Cavender, Matthew A

    2018-01-01

    The multinational, observational CVD-REAL study recently showed that initiation of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) was associated with significantly lower rates of death and heart failure vs. other glucose-lowering drugs (oGLDs). This sub-analysis of CVD-REAL sought to determ...

  14. Riluzole increases the rate of glucose transport in L6 myotubes and NSC-34 motor neuron-like cells via AMPK pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Bareket; Green, Omer; Viskind, Olga; Gruzman, Arie

    2013-09-01

    Riluzole is the only approved ALS drug. Riluzole influences several cellular pathways, but its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. Our goal was to study the drug's influence on the glucose transport rate in two ALS relevant cell types, neurons and myotubes. Stably transfected wild-type or mutant G93A human SOD1 NSC-34 motor neuron-like cells and rat L6 myotubes were exposed to riluzole. The rate of glucose uptake, translocation of glucose transporters to the cell's plasma membrane and the main glucose transport regulatory proteins' phosphorylation levels were measured. We found that riluzole increases the glucose transport rate and up-regulates the translocation of glucose transporters to plasma membrane in both types of cells. Riluzole leads to AMPK phosphorylation and to the phosphorylation of its downstream target, AS-160. In conclusion, increasing the glucose transport rate in ALS affected cells might be one of the mechanisms of riluzole's therapeutic effect. These findings can be used to rationally design and synthesize novel anti-ALS drugs that modulate glucose transport in neurons and skeletal muscles.

  15. Distribution of glucose transporters in renal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Szablewski, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Kidneys play an important role in glucose homeostasis. Renal gluconeogenesis prevents hypoglycemia by releasing glucose into the blood stream. Glucose homeostasis is also due, in part, to reabsorption and excretion of hexose in the kidney. Lipid bilayer of plasma membrane is impermeable for glucose, which is hydrophilic and soluble in water. Therefore, transport of glucose across the plasma membrane depends on carrier proteins expressed in the plasma membrane. In humans, there are three famil...

  16. Whole body glucose kinetics in type I diabetes studied with [6,6-2H] and [U-13C]-glucose and the artificial B-cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmaun, D.; Cirillo, D.; Koziet, J.; Chauvet, D.; Young, V.R.; Robert, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dynamic aspects of whole body glucose metabolism were assessed in ten young adult insulin-dependent (type I) diabetic men. Using a primed, continuous intravenous infusion of [6,6- 2 H]glucose and [U- 13 C]glucose, endogenous production, tissue uptake, carbon recycling, and oxidation of glucose were measured in the postabsorptive state. These studies were undertaken after blood glucose had been maintained overnight at 5.9 +/- 0.4 mmol/L (n = 10), and on another night at 10.5 +/- 0.4 mmol/L (n = 4) or 15.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/L (n = 6). In the normoglycemic state, endogenous glucose production averaged 2.15 +/- 0.13 mg x kg-1 x min-1. This value, as well as the rate of glucose carbon recycling (0.16 +/- 0.04 mg x kg-1 x min-1) and glucose oxidation (1.52 +/- 0.16 mg x kg-1 x min-1) are comparable to those found in nondiabetic controls. In the hyperglycemic states at 10 or 15 mmol/L, endogenous glucose production was increased by 11% (P less than .01) and 60% (P less than .01) compared to the normoglycemic states, respectively. Glucose carbon recycling contributed only a small percentage to this variation in glucose production (15% at the 15 mmol/L glucose level). This suggests that if gluconeogenesis participates in the increased glucose output, it is not dependent on a greater systemic supply of three-carbon precursors. The increased rate of glucose production in the hyperglycemic state was quantitatively offset by a rise in urinary glucose excretion. Glucose tissue uptake, as well as glucose oxidation, did not vary between normoglycemic and hyperglycemic states

  17. Glucose pump test can be used to measure blood flow rate of native arteriovenous fistula in chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Y C; Selcuk, N Y; Altıntepe, L; Güney, I; Yavuz, S

    2018-01-01

    In chronic hemodialysis patients, the low flow of vascular access may leads to inadequate dialysis, increased rate of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. It was found that surveillance should be performed for native arteriovenous (AV) should not be performed for AV graft in various studies. However, surveillance was done in graft AV fistulas in most studies. Doppler ultrasonography (US) was suggested for surveillance of AV fistulas by the last vascular access guideline of National Kidney Foundation Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI). The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by pump and was measured at basal before the infusion and 11 s after the start of the infusion by glucometer. Doppler US was done by an expert radiologist. Used statistical tests were Mann-Whitney U test, Friedman test, regression analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Median values of blood flow rates measured by GPT (707 mL/min) and by Doppler US (700 mL/min) were not different (Z = 0.414, P = 0.678). Results of GPT and Doppler US measurements were positive correlate by regression analysis. The mean GPT value of diabetic patients (n = 39; 908 mL/min) was similar to that of nondiabetic patients (n = 54; 751 mL/min; Z = 1.31, P = 0.188). GPT values measured at three different dialysis session did not differ from each other that by Friedman test (F = 0.92, P = 0.39). This showed that GPT was stable and reliable. Glucose pump test can be used to measure blood flow rate of native AV fistula. GPT is an accurate and reliable test.

  18. Transintestinal cholesterol excretion in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskamp, Laurens F.; Meessen, Emma C. E.; Groen, Albert K.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss recent insights into the measurement and cellular basis of transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) in humans and to explore TICE as a therapeutic target for increasing reverse cholesterol transport. Recent findings TICE is the net effect of cholesterol excretion by

  19. Estimation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchbhai, Arati S; Degwekar, Shirish S; Bhowte, Rahul R

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is known to influence salivary composition and function, eventually affecting the oral cavity. We thus evaluated saliva samples for levels of glucose, amylase and total protein, and assessed salivary flow rate in diabetics and healthy non-diabetics. We also analyzed these parameters with regard to duration and type of diabetes mellitus and gender, and aimed to assess the interrelationships among the variables included in the study. A total of 120 age- and sex-matched participants were divided into 3 groups of 40 each; the uncontrolled diabetic group, the controlled diabetic group and the healthy non-diabetic group. Salivary investigations were performed using unstimulated whole saliva. Mean salivary glucose levels were found to be significantly elevated in both uncontrolled and controlled diabetics, as compared to healthy non-diabetics. There were significant decreases in mean salivary amylase levels in controlled diabetics when compared to healthy non-diabetics. Other than salivary glucose, no other parameters were found to be markedly affected in diabetes mellitus. Further research is needed to explore the clinical implications of these study results.

  20. Interpretation of uranium and thorium excretion data taking into account excretion data caused by natural sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahre, P.; Schoenmuth, Th.; Helling, K.

    2000-01-01

    At the Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc. Rossendorf near Dresden (Germany) occupationally exposed persons are working with Uranium and Thorium. In accordance with German guides urine and faecal analysis is carried out. But for the interpretation the data in terms of dose or intake it is important to have knowledge about the portion of the activity measured caused by natural sources. For this reason 16 occupationally exposed persons who did not have any history of occupational exposure to Thorium or Uranium have been checked concerning the excretion data since 1994. The excretion data in mBq per day for all persons covers the following ranges: Faeces: U-234 1 to 310 mBq/d, U-235 0.2 to 3.7 mBq/d, U-238 1.3 to 72 mBq/d. Th-228 7 to 89 mBq/d, Th-230 0.7 to 19 mBq/d, Th-232 0.7 to 16 mBq/d. Urine: all values below the detection limits of about 1 mBq/l. The large variation results from differences between the individual excretion rates but also from the variation of the excretion rate of one person. For example, the U-234-faecal excretion of one person reaches from 77 to 310 mBq per day. In the paper the faecal excretion for some individuals in dependence on the time are given. These excretion date caused by natural sources are taken into account by interpreting faecal excretion data of occupationally exposed persons working with Uranium or Thorium. If the measured faecal excretion per day is within the range caused by natural sources no interpretation will be done. By exceeding these values additional faeces and urine samples will be collected and measured. In dependence on these additional results intake and dose will be assessed some times by using lung counter or whole body counter measuring results. In the paper some examples are described. (author)

  1. Impact of the reg1 mutation glycocen accumulation and glucose consumption rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells based on a macrokinetic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha-Leão M.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In S. cerevisiae, catabolite repression controls glycogen accumulation and glucose consumption. Glycogen is responsible for stress resistance, and its accumulation in derepression conditions results in a yeast with good quality. In yeast cells, catabolite repression also named glucose effect takes place at the transcriptional levels, decreasing enzyme respiration and causing the cells to enter a fermentative metabolism, low cell mass yield and yeast with poor quality. Since glucose is always present in molasses the glucose effect occurs in industrial media. A quantitative characterization of cell growth, substrate consumption and glycogen formation was undertaken based on an unstructured macrokinetic model for a reg1/hex2 mutant, capable of the respiration while growing on glucose, and its isogenic repressible strain (REG1/HEX2. The results show that the estimated value to maximum specific glycogen accumulation rate (muG,MAX is eight times greater in the reg1/hex2 mutant than its isogenic strain, and the glucose affinity constant (K SS is fifth times greater in reg1/hex2 mutant than in its isogenic strain with less glucose uptake by the former channeling glucose into cell mass growth and glycogen accumulation simultaneously. This approach may be one more tool to improve the glucose removal in yeast production. Thus, disruption of the REG1/HEX2 gene may constitute an important strategy for producing commercial yeast.

  2. Metabolism of the intervertebral disc: effects of low levels of oxygen, glucose, and pH on rates of energy metabolism of bovine nucleus pulposus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Susan R S; Jones, Deborah A; Ripley, Ruth M; Urban, Jill P G

    2005-03-01

    In vitro measurements of metabolic rates of isolated bovine nucleus pulposus cells at varying levels of oxygen, glucose, and pH. To obtain quantitative information on the interactions between oxygen and glucose concentrations and pH, and the rates of oxygen and glucose consumption and lactic acid production, for disc nucleus cells. Disc cells depend on diffusion from blood vessels at the disc margins for supply of nutrients. Loss of supply is thought to lead to disc degeneration, but how loss of supply affects nutrient concentrations in the disc is not known; nutrient concentrations within discs can normally only be calculated, because concentration measurements are invasive. However, realistic predictions cannot be made until there are data from measurements of metabolic rates at conditions found in the disc in vivo, i.e., at low levels of oxygen, glucose, and pH. A metabolism chamber was designed to allow simultaneous recording of oxygen and glucose concentrations and of pH. These concentrations were measured electrochemically with custom-built glucose and oxygen sensors; lactic acid was measured biochemically. Bovine nucleus pulposus cells were isolated and inserted into the chamber, and simultaneous rates of oxygen and glucose consumption and of lactic acid production were measured over a range of glucose, oxygen, and pH levels. There were strong interactions between rates of metabolism and oxygen consumption and pH. At atmospheric oxygen levels, oxygen consumption rate at pH 6.2 was 32% of that at pH 7.4. The rate fell by 60% as oxygen concentration was decreased from 21 to 5% at pH 7.4, but only by 20% at pH 6.2. Similar interactions were seen for lactic acid production and glucose consumption rates; we found that glycolysis rates fell at low oxygen and glucose concentrations and low pH. Equations were derived that satisfactorily predict the effect of nutrient and metabolite concentrations on rates of lactic acid production rate and oxygen consumption. Disc

  3. Determinants of urinary albumin excretion reduction in essential hypertension: A long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Jose Maria; Rodilla, Enrique; Miralles, Amparo; Gonzalez, Carmen; Redon, Josep

    2006-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess factors related to long-term changes in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) of nondiabetic microalbuminuric (n = 252) or proteinuric hypertensive individuals (n = 58) in a prospective follow-up. After enrollment, patients were placed on usual care including nonpharmacological treatment and/or treatment with an antihypertensive drug regime to achieve blood pressure 50% from the initial values, plus reduction of UAE to or = 90 mmHg achieved during the follow-up (hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.86; P = 0.001), even when adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, fasting glucose, presence of treatment at the beginning of the study and treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers during the follow-up. The reduction of urinary albumin excretion was linked to the preserved glomerular filtration rate and to adequate blood pressure control.

  4. Sleep-Wake Differences in Relative Regional Cerebral Metabolic Rate for Glucose among Patients with Insomnia Compared with Good Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B.; Karim, Helmet T.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Hasler, Brant P.; Wilckens, Kristine A.; James, Jeffrey A.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Price, Julie C.; Rosario, Bedda L.; Kupfer, David J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica H.; Franzen, Peter L.; Nofzinger, Eric A.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The neurobiological mechanisms of insomnia may involve altered patterns of activation across sleep-wake states in brain regions associated with cognition, self-referential processes, affect, and sleep-wake promotion. The objective of this study was to compare relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) in these brain regions across wake and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep states in patients with primary insomnia (PI) and good sleeper controls (GS). Methods: Participants included 44 PI and 40 GS matched for age (mean = 37 y old, range 21–60), sex, and race. We conducted [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography scans in PI and GS during both morning wakefulness and NREM sleep at night. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test for group (PI vs. GS) by state (wake vs. NREM sleep) interactions in relative rCMRglc. Results: Significant group-by-state interactions in relative rCMRglc were found in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior/superior parietal lobules, left lingual/fusiform/occipital gyri, and right lingual gyrus. All clusters were significant at Pcorrected sleep and wakefulness. Significant group-by-state interactions in relative rCMRglc suggest that insomnia is associated with impaired disengagement of brain regions involved in cognition (left frontoparietal), self-referential processes (precuneus/posterior cingulate), and affect (left middle frontal, fusiform/lingual gyri) during NREM sleep, or alternatively, to impaired engagement of these regions during wakefulness. Citation: Kay DB, Karim HT, Soehner AM, Hasler BP, Wilckens KA, James JA, Aizenstein HJ, Price JC, Rosario BL, Kupfer DJ, Germain A, Hall MH, Franzen PL, Nofzinger EA, Buysse DJ. Sleep-wake differences in relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose among patients with insomnia compared with good sleepers. SLEEP 2016;39(10):1779–1794. PMID:27568812

  5. Metabolome analysis-based design and engineering of a metabolic pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum to match rates of simultaneous utilization of D-glucose and L-arabinose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2018-05-17

    L-Arabinose is the second most abundant component of hemicellulose in lignocellulosic biomass, next to D-xylose. However, few microorganisms are capable of utilizing pentoses, and catabolic genes and operons enabling bacterial utilization of pentoses are typically subject to carbon catabolite repression by more-preferred carbon sources, such as D-glucose, leading to a preferential utilization of D-glucose over pentoses. In order to simultaneously utilize both D-glucose and L-arabinose at the same rate, a modified metabolic pathway was rationally designed based on metabolome analysis. Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 31831 utilized D-glucose and L-arabinose simultaneously at a low concentration (3.6 g/L each) but preferentially utilized D-glucose over L-arabinose at a high concentration (15 g/L each), although L-arabinose and D-glucose were consumed at comparable rates in the absence of the second carbon source. Metabolome analysis revealed that phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase were major bottlenecks for D-glucose and L-arabinose metabolism, respectively. Based on the results of metabolome analysis, a metabolic pathway was engineered by overexpressing pyruvate kinase in combination with deletion of araR, which encodes a repressor of L-arabinose uptake and catabolism. The recombinant strain utilized high concentrations of D-glucose and L-arabinose (15 g/L each) at the same consumption rate. During simultaneous utilization of both carbon sources at high concentrations, intracellular levels of phosphoenolpyruvate declined and acetyl-CoA levels increased significantly as compared with the wild-type strain that preferentially utilized D-glucose. These results suggest that overexpression of pyruvate kinase in the araR deletion strain increased the specific consumption rate of L-arabinose and that citrate synthase activity becomes a new bottleneck in the engineered pathway during the simultaneous utilization of D-glucose and L-arabinose. Metabolome analysis

  6. Steroid hormone excretion is enhanced by sucrose feeding to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, T.C.; Hsu, H.; Saunders, J.P.; Kim, S.S.; Given-Proctor, J.; Ahrens, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that feeding rats sucrose rather than invert sugar (50:50 mixture of glucose and fructose) or cornstarch would result in a more rapid excretion of intravenously injected 1,2- 3 H aldosterone or 1,2,6,7- 3 H cortisol. The three carbohydrate sources provided 45% of dietary energy when fed, respectively, to one of three groups of 10 male, Sprague Dawley rats. After 4 or 8 weeks of ad lib feeding of the three diets 5 μCI of 3 H-labeled hormones were injected intravenously and % recovery in urine and feces was measured for 4 days by liquid scintillation counting. Nearly 90% of the 3 H injected as 1,2- 3 H aldosterone was recovered over 4 days in the excreta of the sucrose fed rats. This recovery of 3 H from aldosterone was significantly greater (P 3 H from intravenously injected 1,2,6,7- 3 H cortisol followed a similar pattern. The authors anticipate that the excretion of all metabolic end products and xenobiotics excreted as glucuronides would be enhanced by sucrose feeding. Oxocarbonium ions from the glucose portion of sucrose digestion in the mammalian small intestine are thought to compete with oxocarbonium ions from the glucuronic acid portion of glucuronide hydrolysis. Such competition may slow glucuronide hydrolysis and promote glucuronide excretion, including the glucuronides derived from aldosterone and cortisol

  7. Noninvasive and simple method for the estimation of myocardial metabolic rate of glucose by PET and 18F-FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Norio; Tamaki, Nagara; Kawamoto, Masahide

    1994-01-01

    To estimate regional myocardial metabolic rate of glucose (rMRGlu) with positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-[ 18 F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), non invasive simple method has been investigated using dynamic PET imaging in 14 patients with ischemic heart disease. This imaging approach uses a blood time-activity curve (TAC) derived from a region of interest (ROI) drawn over dynamic PET images of the left ventricle (LV), left atrium (LA) and aorta. Patlak graphic analysis was used to estimate k 1 k 3 /(k 2 +k 3 ) from serial plasma and myocardial radioactivities. FDG counts ratio between whole blood and plasma was relatively constant (0.91±0.02) both throughout the time and among different patients. Although TACs derived from dynamic PET images gradually increased at later phase due to spill over from the myocardium into the cavity, three were good agreements between the estimated K complex values obtained from arterial blood sampling and dynamic PET imaging (LV r=0.95, LA r=0.96, aorta r=0.98). These results demonstrate the practical usefulness of a simplified and noninvasive method for the estimation of rMRGlu in humans by PET. (author)

  8. Loss of insulin response to glucose but not arginine during the development of autoimmune diabetes in BB/W rats: relationships to islet volume and glucose transport rate.

    OpenAIRE

    Tominaga, M; Komiya, I; Johnson, J H; Inman, L; Alam, T; Moltz, J; Crider, B; Stefan, Y; Baetens, D; McCorkle, K

    1986-01-01

    The insulin and glucagon responses to 10 mM glucose and 10 mM arginine were studied in pancreata isolated from nondiabetic diabetes-prone and diabetes-resistant BB/W rats at 60, 80, and 140 days of age and in diabetic BB/W rats on the 1st and 14th days of their diabetes. In the former group the insulin response to glucose declined progressively with age (r = -0.575; P less than 0.01) and at 140 days was significantly below age-matched diabetes-resistant controls (P less than 0.05). The insuli...

  9. Bile Acid Sequestration Reduces Plasma Glucose Levels in db/db Mice by Increasing Its Metabolic Clearance Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, M.; Herrema, H.J.; Dijk, van Th.; Gerding, A.; Havinga, R.; Boer, T.; Müller, M.R.; Reijngoud, D.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels.

  10. Loss of sugar detection by GLUT2 affects glucose homeostasis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Stolarczyk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammals must sense the amount of sugar available to them and respond appropriately. For many years attention has focused on intracellular glucose sensing derived from glucose metabolism. Here, we studied the detection of extracellular glucose concentrations in vivo by invalidating the transduction pathway downstream from the transporter-detector GLUT2 and measured the physiological impact of this pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We produced mice that ubiquitously express the largest cytoplasmic loop of GLUT2, blocking glucose-mediated gene expression in vitro without affecting glucose metabolism. Impairment of GLUT2-mediated sugar detection transiently protected transgenic mice against starvation and streptozotocin-induced diabetes, suggesting that both low- and high-glucose concentrations were not detected. Transgenic mice favored lipid oxidation, and oral glucose was slowly cleared from blood due to low insulin production, despite massive urinary glucose excretion. Kidney adaptation was characterized by a lower rate of glucose reabsorption, whereas pancreatic adaptation was associated with a larger number of small islets. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Molecular invalidation of sugar sensing in GLUT2-loop transgenic mice changed multiple aspects of glucose homeostasis, highlighting by a top-down approach, the role of membrane glucose receptors as potential therapeutic targets.

  11. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US .... Arterial blood pressure from nonvascular access arm was measured by aneroid sphygmomanometer. The patients did not .... to detect differences in treatments across multiple test attempts. P < 0.05 ...

  12. Pressure effect on rate of production of glucose-equivalent in plant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    C4 Green plants; rate of equivalent production; pressure effect. 1. Introduction ... the photosynthetic process, especially on the activa- tion and ... Section 4 deals with the effect ... the global concentrations of glyceraldehydes-3- ... chloroplast,9a a product of the maximum possible .... as soil, tissue, development stage, etc.

  13. Non-invasive Estimation of Metabolic Uptake Rate of Glucose using F18-FDG PET and Linear Transformation of Outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Reichkendler, M.; Auerback, P.

    For quantitative analysis and kinetic modeling of dynamic PET-data an input function is needed. Normally this is obtained by arterial blood sampling, potentially an unpleasant experience for the patient and laborious for the staff. Aim: To validate methods for determination of the metabolic uptake...... rate (Km) of glucose from dynamic FDG-PET scans using Image Derived Input Functions (IDIF) without blood sampling. Method: We performed 24 dynamic FDG-PET scans of the thigh of 14 healthy young male volunteers during a hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp. Ten of the subjects were scanned twice 11 weeks...... artery diameter in the material, the method should also be applicable to women and people of other ages, but used with caution in the elderly due to variance in intramuscular adipose distribution. If only Km and no other kinetic parameters are needed, the described method with transformation...

  14. Can levothyroxine treatment reduce urinary albumin excretion rate in patients with early type 2 diabetic nephropathy and subclinical hypothyroidism? A randomized double-blind and placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Liu, Ruidong; Chen, Xia; Chen, Yingying; Wang, Debao; Zhang, Fengmei; Wang, Yangang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of levothyroxine (LT4) therapy on urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in early type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN) and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) patients with mildly increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) positivity. Application of randomized double-blind and placebo-controlled methods. A total of 136 normotensive patients with early type 2 DN and SCH (TSH 4.0-7.0 mIU/L and TPO-Ab positive) were selected, and were randomly divided into two groups for LT4 or placebo treatments, respectively. Changes in UAER, serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), blood pressure, serum uric acid and lipids in patients before and after 48 weeks of treatment were examined and compared between groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the baseline characteristics of study participants between two treatment groups (p > 0.05 for all). After 48 weeks of treatment, compared to the placebo treatment, the LT4 treatment was more effective in reducing total cholesterol (p treatment was better in reducing UAER, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and uric acid than the placebo group (p treatment may decrease UAER and exert kidney protection effects in early type 2 DN and SCH patients with mildly increased TSH levels and serum TPO-Ab positivity. However, due to the short duration of follow-up and small number of cases, the results of this study need future trials with larger numbers of patients and longer follow-up periods to verify whether such a strategy can provide durable benefits.

  15. [Measurement of regional cerebral metabolism rate of glucose in patients with Alzheimer's disease in different levels of severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shi-fu; Cao, Qiu-yun; Xue, Hai-bo; Liu, Yong-chang; Zuo, Chuan-tao; Jiang, Kai-da; Zhang, Ming-yuan

    2005-11-09

    To measure the changes of regional cerebral metabolism rate of glucose (rCMRglc) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and explore their value to diagnosis of AD. 10 patients with AD who met the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV and 10 normal controls (NC) were assessed with (18)F-2-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (PET). The two groups were matched in age, gender and education. The mean total scores of the mini-mental status examination (MMSE) were 16.5 +/- 6.1 for AD and 28.7 +/- 1.6 for NC. The mean total memory quotient of Wechsler Memory Scales (MQ) were 32.3 +/- 19.6 for AD and 93.1 +/- 9.0 for NC. Comparing to NC, the AD groups showed statistically significant decline of rCMRglc in frontal lobe, temporal lobe and the hippocampal formation with decreased rates ranged from 3.3% to 28.4% (P upper and middle frontal gyri, middle temporal gyrus, orbital gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus, in which areas the metabolism decreased over 20% compared to NC. The hypo-metabolism was correlated to the severity of dementia. Discriminant analysis demonstrated that the variables of right inferior temporal gyrus, left upper temporal gyrus, left hippocampus and right insular lobe were entered into the discriminant functions and the total discriminant accuracy reached 100%. (18)F-FDG PET is a very sensitive tool in measurement of the changes of rCMRglc in patients with AD. The findings show a frontal-temporal type of metabolism in AD patients and suggest that hypo-metabolism in hippocampal formation and temporal lobe is helpful in early detection of AD.

  16. Combined heart rate- and accelerometer-assessed physical activity energy expenditure and associations with glucose homeostasis markers in a population at high risk of developing diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Carstensen, Bendix; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Regular physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and different subtypes of dysglycemia have shown different associations with PA. To better understand the associations of PA and glucose homeostasis, we examined the association of objectively measured PA...... energy expenditure (PAEE) with detailed measures of glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 1,531 men and women, with low to high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, we measured 7 days of PAEE using a combined accelerometry and heart rate monitor (ActiHeart). Measures and indices of glucose...... of PAEE slightly in an entire population at risk for developing type 2 diabetes may be a realistic and worthwhile goal to reach in order to achieve beneficial effect in terms of glucose metabolism....

  17. Effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia in non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in non-diabetic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Itoh, Harumi [Department of Radiology, Fukui Medical University, Matsuoka (Japan); Sadato, Norihiro; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui Medical University (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia (HG) on the non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc). Five patients who had a meal within an hour before a fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) examination were recruited in this study. They underwent intermittent arterial blood sampling (measured input function), and, based on this sampling, CMRGlc was calculated using an autoradiographic method (CMRGlc{sub real}). Simulated input functions were generated based on standardised input function, body surface area and net injected dose of FDG, and simulated CMRGlc (CMRGlc{sub sim}) was also calculated. Percent error of the area under the curve (AUC) between measured (AUC{sub real}) and simulated input function (AUC{sub IFsim}) and percent error between CMRGlc{sub real} and CMRGlc{sub sim} were calculated. These values were compared with those obtained from a previous study conducted under fasting conditions (F). The serum glucose level in the HG group was significantly higher than that in the F group (165{+-}69 vs 100{+-}9 mg/dl, P=0.0007). Percent errors of AUC and CMRGlc in grey matter and white matter in HG were significantly higher than those in F (12.9%{+-}1.3% vs 3.5%{+-}2.2% in AUC, P=0.0015; 18.2%{+-}2.2% vs 2.9%{+-}1.9% in CMRGlc in grey matter, P=0.0028; 24.0%{+-}4.6% vs 3.4%{+-}2.2% in CMRGlc in white matter, P=0.0028). It is concluded that a non-invasive method of measuring CMRGlc should be applied only in non-diabetic subjects under fasting conditions. (orig.)

  18. Effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia in non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in non-diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Itoh, Harumi; Sadato, Norihiro; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia (HG) on the non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc). Five patients who had a meal within an hour before a fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) examination were recruited in this study. They underwent intermittent arterial blood sampling (measured input function), and, based on this sampling, CMRGlc was calculated using an autoradiographic method (CMRGlc real ). Simulated input functions were generated based on standardised input function, body surface area and net injected dose of FDG, and simulated CMRGlc (CMRGlc sim ) was also calculated. Percent error of the area under the curve (AUC) between measured (AUC real ) and simulated input function (AUC IFsim ) and percent error between CMRGlc real and CMRGlc sim were calculated. These values were compared with those obtained from a previous study conducted under fasting conditions (F). The serum glucose level in the HG group was significantly higher than that in the F group (165±69 vs 100±9 mg/dl, P=0.0007). Percent errors of AUC and CMRGlc in grey matter and white matter in HG were significantly higher than those in F (12.9%±1.3% vs 3.5%±2.2% in AUC, P=0.0015; 18.2%±2.2% vs 2.9%±1.9% in CMRGlc in grey matter, P=0.0028; 24.0%±4.6% vs 3.4%±2.2% in CMRGlc in white matter, P=0.0028). It is concluded that a non-invasive method of measuring CMRGlc should be applied only in non-diabetic subjects under fasting conditions. (orig.)

  19. Ex-vivo glucose sensors using micro-dialysis: importance of on-line recovery rate determination by multi-analyte infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlsing, Thorsten; Delbeck, Sven; Budde, Janpeter; Cocchieri, Lars; Ihrig, Dieter; Leonhardt, Steffen; Heise, H. M.

    2015-03-01

    Micro-dialysis has been established in the clinical environment for continuously harvesting body fluids, but a drawback of this process are variable recovery rates, which can be observed especially for subcutaneously implanted catheters. Perfusates with either acetate or mannitol have been investigated as recovery markers. The latter substance is suggested for application with external cavity tuneable quantum cascade lasers, rendering a limited wavenumber interval in contrast to FTIR-spectrometers. Despite the overlap of mannitol and glucose spectra, their simultaneous quantification was successful. By investigating the depletion of the marker substances from the perfusates using different micro-dialysis devices, the theoretical nonlinear relationship between the relative dialysate marker concentration and glucose recovery rate was confirmed for the marker substance-analyte pair of acetate and glucose, rendering a basis for reliable blood glucose measurements. For the pair of mannitol and glucose an almost linear dependency was expected for the microdialysate catheters and experimentally verified, which provides a straightforward correction of any dialysis recovery rate variation during patient monitoring.

  20. The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Analog Exenatide Increases Blood Glucose Clearance, Lactate Clearance, and Heart Rate in Comatose Patients After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Sebastian; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Schmidt, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    the first 6 hours from study drug initiation: lactate level, blood glucose level, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and combined dosage of norepinephrine and dopamine. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The population consisted of 106 patients receiving either exenatide or placebo. During the first 6 hours...... from study drug initiation, the levels of blood glucose and lactate decreased 17% (95% CI, 8.9-25%; p = 0.0004) and 21% (95% CI, 6.0-33%; p = 0.02) faster in patients receiving exenatide versus placebo, respectively. Exenatide increased heart rate by approximately 10 beats per minute compared......OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analog exenatide on blood glucose, lactate clearance, and hemodynamic variables in comatose, resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. DESIGN: Predefined post hoc analyzes from a double-blind, randomized clinical...

  1. CADMIUM EXCRETION IN FECES OF RATS AT EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zemlianyi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies demonstrated that the excretions per 1 gof rat weight inthe experimental group usually prevails over the  control group, especially in the second part of the experiment. The increase in the amount of feces in animals of the experimental group was also registered. Such processes may indicate the intense excretory processes and  increase the output of harmful  pollutants from the rats  together with overall stimulation of rat digestive activity. The higher correlations between Cd and other pollutants, namely toxic Ni and Pb (r = 0.84 and 0.91, respectively were calculated for rat feces of experimental group compared to the control. The concentration of Cd and Pb in the excretion of experimental group was maximal in the first day of the experiment, suggesting definite reaction towards rapid output of maximum amount of toxicants from rat body. Subsequently, a decrease in concentration of other pollutants demonstrated their incorporation in metabolic processes and significant accumulation in rat body (kidney and liver, or involvement of other mechanisms for neutralization and removal of intoxicants. Given the increasing amount of excretions  in the second half of the experiment, this may be a solution to this issue. The Cd output per 1 g of rat weight was maximal in the first day, followed by a rapid decline and partial restoration in second half of the experiment. Obviously, it confirms the theory of substitution mechanisms in excretion of significant amount of hazardous toxicants and shifting towards less concentrated excretions in greater amount. Thus, the correlation index between the percentage of excreted pollutant and its concentration in the excretion was 0.75. When we considered only the first 7 days this increased to 0.91 and proved that during the first stage of experiment the percentage of pollutants excretion was dependent upon its concentration in feces. Correlation between Cd output rate and excretion volumes was

  2. Opname, retentie en uitscheiding van stikstof, fosfor en kalium bij edelherten = Intake, retention and excretion of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by red deer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Hindle, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    Annual excretion rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by red deer were estimated based on an inventory among farmers. These excretion rates are lower than earlier estimates, except for N by fattening stock

  3. Noninvasive quantification of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose in rats using 18F-FDG PET and standard input function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yuki; Ihara, Naoki; Teramoto, Noboru; Kunimi, Masako; Honda, Manabu; Kato, Koichi; Hanakawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of arterial input function (AIF) for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) studies is technically challenging. The present study aimed to develop a method based on a standard arterial input function (SIF) to estimate input function without blood sampling. We performed 18F-fluolodeoxyglucose studies accompanied by continuous blood sampling for measurement of AIF in 11 rats. Standard arterial input function was calculated by averaging AIFs from eight anesthetized rats, after normalization with body mass (BM) and injected dose (ID). Then, the individual input function was estimated using two types of SIF: (1) SIF calibrated by the individual's BM and ID (estimated individual input function, EIFNS) and (2) SIF calibrated by a single blood sampling as proposed previously (EIF1S). No significant differences in area under the curve (AUC) or cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRGlc) were found across the AIF-, EIFNS-, and EIF1S-based methods using repeated measures analysis of variance. In the correlation analysis, AUC or CMRGlc derived from EIFNS was highly correlated with those derived from AIF and EIF1S. Preliminary comparison between AIF and EIFNS in three awake rats supported an idea that the method might be applicable to behaving animals. The present study suggests that EIFNS method might serve as a noninvasive substitute for individual AIF measurement. PMID:25966947

  4. Acute effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, on blood pressure and heart rate responses to intraduodenal glucose infusion in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thazhath, Sony S; Marathe, Chinmay S; Wu, Tongzhi; Chang, Jessica; Khoo, Joan; Kuo, Paul; Checklin, Helen L; Bound, Michelle J; Rigda, Rachael S; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L; Rayner, Christopher K

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, on blood pressure and heart rate during an intraduodenal glucose infusion in type 2 diabetes. Nine subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomised to receive intravenous exenatide or saline control in a crossover design. Glucose (3 kcal min -1 ) was infused via an intraduodenal manometry catheter for 60 min. Blood pressure, heart rate, and the frequency and amplitude of duodenal pressure waves were measured at regular intervals. Gastrointestinal symptoms were monitored using 100 mm visual analogue scales. During intraduodenal glucose infusion (0-60 min), diastolic (p (0-60)  = 0.03) and mean arterial (p (0-60)  = 0.03) blood pressures and heart rate (p (0-60)  = 0.06; p (0-120)  = 0.03)) were higher with exenatide compared to placebo. The increase in the area under the curve for diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial blood pressure was related directly to the suppression of the duodenal motility index with exenatide compared to control (p = 0.007 and 0.04, respectively). In type 2 diabetes, intravenous exenatide increases mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate during an intraduodenal glucose infusion, supporting the need for further research with exenatide for its potential use in postprandial hypotension. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Glucose Injections into the Dorsal Hippocampus or Dorsolateral Striatum of Rats Prior to T-Maze Training: Modulation of Learning Rates and Strategy Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Clinton E.; Stutz, Sonja J.; Gold, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The present experiments examined the effects of injecting glucose into the dorsal hippocampus or dorsolateral striatum on learning rates and on strategy selection in rats trained on a T-maze that can be solved by using either a hippocampus-sensitive place or striatum-sensitive response strategy. Percentage strategy selection on a probe trial…

  6. Influence of filtration and glucose amendment on bacterial growth rate at different tidal conditions in the Minho Estuary River (NW Portugal)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anne, I.; Fidalgo, M. L.; Thosthrup, L.

    2006-01-01

    Bacterioplankton abundance, biomass and growth rates were studied in the Minho Estuary River (NW Portugal). The influence of tidal conditions, glucose amendment, and the filtration process on total bacterial abundance, total and faecal coliforms, as well as faecal streptococci, were evaluated...

  7. Calibrated image-derived input functions for the determination of the metabolic uptake rate of glucose with [18F]-FDG PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Reichkendler, Michala H.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the use of a simple calibration method to remove bias in previously proposed approaches to image-derived input functions (IDIFs) when used to calculate the metabolic uptake rate of glucose (Km) from dynamic [18F]-FDG PET scans of the thigh. Our objective was to obtain nonbiased, low...

  8. Optimization of glucose oxidase production by Aspergillus niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... manganese, cobalt, thioglycolic acid, and gluconic acid according to (Liu et al., .... In this experiment duplicate media of glucose 10% were adjusted at different ... Glucose oxidase as a pharmaceutical anti oxidant Drug. Devt. ... Plush KS, Hellmuth K, Rinas U (1996). kinetics of glucose oxidase excretion by ...

  9. Enzymatic Spectrophotometric Reaction Rate Determination of Glucose in Fruit Drinks and Carbonated Beverages. An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Food Science-Oriented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilarou, Argyro-Maria G.; Georgiou, Constantinos A.

    2000-10-01

    The glucose oxidase-horseradish peroxidase coupled reaction using phenol and 4-aminoantipyrine is used for the kinetic determination of glucose in drinks and beverages. This laboratory experiment demonstrates the implementation of reaction rate kinetic methods of analysis, the use of enzymes as selective analytical reagents for the determination of substrates, the kinetic masking of ascorbic acid interference, and the analysis of glucose in drinks and beverages. The method is optimized for student use in the temperature range of 18-28 °C and can be used in low-budget laboratories equipped with an inexpensive visible photometer. The mixed enzyme-chromogen solution that is used is stable for two months. Precision ranged from 5.1 to 12% RSD for analyses conducted during a period of two months by 48 students.

  10. [Estimated glucose disposal rate in patients under 18 years of age with type 1 diabetes mellitus and overweight or obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo Atance, Enrique; Ballester Herrera, M José; Giralt Muiña, Patricio; Ruiz Cano, Rafael; León Martín, Alberto; Giralt Muiña, Juan

    2013-01-01

    To assess the estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR), insulin dose, and lipoprotein profile in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and overweight or obesity as compared to children with T1DM and normal weight. A total of 115 patients (aged 5-16 years) with T1DM on intensive insulin therapy were recruited. The following parameters were measured: weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, insulin dose, eGDR, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipoprotein profile. Results were stratified by sex and age. No significant differences were found in eGDR between children with normal weight, overweight, and obesity. However, obese children older than 11 years had lower eGDR values (9.3±1.3 vs 10.1±0.8 mg kg(-1)min(-1); p<0.01). Insulin dose was higher in overweight and obese children, especially in IU/m2/day (37.7 vs 36.1 vs. 29.4 respectively; p<0.01). Obese children had higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than children with overweight and normal weight (106.5 vs 91.7 vs 91.5mg/dL respectively; p<0.01). No correlation was found between waist circumference and the different markers of insulin resistance. Values of eGDR values were lower in obese children with T1DM older than 11 years, and this may therefore be considered a marker of insulin resistance. Insulin dose was higher in diabetic patients with overweight or obesity, specially in IU/m2/day. Obese children with T1DM had a lipoprotein profile of cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of change in diet on excretion of plutonium-239 from organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    To check supposition on milk effect on plutonium-239 excretion from organism the portable water for rats, contained in individual metabolic cages permitting separate excretion analysis, was replaced by milk. Some days later milk was excluded from diet. 24-hourly rate of radionuclide with feces and urine excretion from organism was determined. On the basis of preliminary data analysis it is supposed that interaction of some milk components with biocomponents of blood and deposition organ tissues violate 239 Pu steady equilibrium distribution in organism, affecting its metabolism through the intermediary of blood system. It results in increased plutonium excretion

  12. Hydrochlorothiazide-induced 131I excretion facilitated by salt and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, K.H. Jr.; Fehr, D.M.; Gelarden, R.T.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M.; Vesell, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salt intake is restricted under clinical conditions for which thiazide diuretics are customarily used. Dietary iodide intake offsets any effect of thiazide on iodide loss. However, our correlation coefficients relating Na+ to Cl- to I- excretion indicate that as thiazide administration or sodium chloride intake increases renal Na+ and Cl- excretion, I- reabsorption by the nephron coordinately decreases. Increased sodium chloride and water intake by the dog doubled I-excretion rates. Hydrochlorothiazide increased the sodium chloride and water enhanced I-excretion rate as much as eight-fold. Without added NaCl, hydrochlorothiazide increased the excretion rate of 131I by three- to eightfold, acutely. Within five to seven days after 131I oral administration, hydrochlorothiazide (1 or 2 mg/kg twice daily) doubled the rate of 131I disappearance from plasma, reduced the fecal output of 131I, and increased its rate of renal excretion. When hydrochlorothiazide was administered, as much 131I was excreted in the first 24 hours as occurred in 48 hours when sodium chloride and water were given without hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide administration in customary clinical dosage twice a day with substantial sodium chloride and water for the first two days after exposure to 131I, should therefore facilitate the safe excretion of 131I. This accelerated removal of 131I might be enhanced even more if thyroid uptake of 131I is blocked by administration of potassium iodide, as judged by the greater 131I recovery from thyroidectomized dogs

  13. Zooplankton as a compound mineralising and synthesizing system: Phosphorus excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, R.D.; Martinez, C.P.; Siewertsen, K.

    1995-01-01

    Data on phosphate excretion rates of zooplankton are based on measurements using the pelagic crustacean zoo-plankton of Lake Vechten and laboratory-cultured Daphnia galeata. In case of Daphnia sp we measured the effects of feeding on P-rich algae and P-poor algae (Scenedesmus) as food on the

  14. The rate of cerebral utilization of glucose, ketone bodies, and oxygen: a comparative in vivo study of infant and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, G; Persson, B

    1976-11-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by means of Celabeled microspheres in infant (20-day-old) and adult (3-month-old) rats, anesthetised with Na-5-ethyl-5-(1-methylpropyl)2-thiobarbituric acid. Cerebral arteriovenous differences of acetoacetate, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, lactate, and oxygen and brain DNA content were determined in other groups of similarly treated infant and adult animals fed or starved for 48 or 72 hr. The mean CBF values of 0.48+/-0.04 and 0.62+/-0.07 ml/(g X min), +/- SEM, in infant and adult animals, respectively, were not significantly different. CBF was unaffected by starvation. At any given arterial concentration the cerebral arteriovenous difference of acetoacetate was significantly higher in infant than adult rats. The same was true for D-beta-hydroxybutyrate at arterial concentrations above 1 mmol/liter. There was an approximately linear relationship between arterial concentration of acetoacetate and its cerebral arteriovenous difference in both infant and adult rats. A similar relationship was found for D-beta-hydroxybutyrate only in infant animals. In the fed state, the cerebral uptake of glucose and ketone bodies (micromoles per (mg DNA X min)) was not different in infant and adult rats. During starvation, cerebral uptake of ketone bodies expressed as micromoles per (mg DNA X min) was higher in infant than adult rats, indicating a higher rate of utilization of ketone bodies per cell in these animals. For glucose, no such difference was found in either fed or starved groups (Table 3). The average percentage of the total cerebral uptake of substrates (micromoles per min) accounted for by ketone bodies increased in both infant and adult rats during starvation. This percentage value was clearly higher in infant than adult rats during starvation. After 72 hr of starvation the values were 38.8% and 15.2% in infant and adult rats, respectively (Fig. 3). Calculated cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2), assuming complete

  15. The effect of taurocholate on canine bile flow, biliary excretion and concentration of ioglycamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toetterman, S.; Santavirta, S.; Mankinen, P.; Antila, H.; Lukkari, E.; Goethlin, J.; Korpi-Tommola, T.

    1983-01-01

    The bile acid taurocholate increases the biliary excretion of organic anions, such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP), bilirubin and iopanoic acid. In the present study has been investigated the effect of taurocholate on 1. Canine biliary excretion and concentration of the i.v. contrast medium ioglycamide and 2. Canine bile flow. The experimental model consisted of cholecystectomized, anaesthetized dogs with a fistula, through which the common bile duct could be catheterized and drained. One hour after cannulation, i.v. infusion of ioglycamide at a rate of 4 μmol/min./kg. was started. Two hours after the infusion start a control group received i.v. infusion of saline, while in another a 1.5% sodium taurocholate infusion was started with stepwise increases with 30 min. intervals from 0.4 to 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 μmol/min./kg. Compared with control, all rates of taurocholate infusion increased bile flow and decreased biliary ioglycamide concentration. Although the bile flow with increasing taurocholate infusion rates was enhanced, the biliary ioglycamide excretion did not increase. The results indicate that ioglycamide and taurocholate are excreted into bile by separate excretion mechanisms. As taurocholate increases the biliary excretion of some other organic anions, it supports the hypothesis that organic anions are excreted into bile by more than two excretion mechanisms, taurocholate affecting only some of them. (orig.)

  16. Excretion of depleted uranium by Gulf war veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    During the Persian Gulf War, in 1991, approximately 100 US military personnel had potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU), including shrapnel wounds. In 1993, the US government initiated a follow-up study of 33 Gulf War veterans who had been exposed to DU, many of whom contained embedded fragments of DU shrapnel in their bodies. The veterans underwent medical evaluation, whole-body counting, and urinalysis for uranium by kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA). Data are available from seven individuals who exceeded the detection limit for whole-body counting and also had elevated urinary uranium. Urinary excretion rates, in μg U g -1 creatinine, were determined in 1997 and 1999. The body contents, in mg DU, were determined in 1997; it is assumed there were no significant decreases in total body content in the interim. For the 1997 data, the mean fractional excretion was (2.4 ± 2.8) x 10 -5 g -1 creatinine, and for the 1999 data, the mean was (1.1 ± 0.6) x 10 -5 g -1 creatinine. However, these means are not significantly different, nor is there any correlation of excretion rate with body content. Thus, human data available to date do not provide any basis for determining the effects of particle surface area, composition and solubility, and biological processes such as encapsulation, on the excretion rate. (author)

  17. The excretion of biotrace elements using the multitracer technique in tumour-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Tian, J; Yin, X M; Zhang, X; Wang, Q Z

    2000-12-01

    A radioactive multitracer solution obtained from the nuclear reaction of selenium with 25 MeV/nucleon 40Ar ions was used for investigation of trace element excretion into the faeces and urine of cancerous mice. The excretion rates of 22 elements (Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Mo, Nb, Tc, Ru, Ag and In) were simultaneously measured under strictly identical experimental conditions, in order to clarify the excretion behavior of these elements in cancerous mice. The faecal and urinary excretion rates of Mg, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Nb, Ru and Mo in cancerous mice, showed the in highest value at 0-8 hours. The accumulative excretion of Ca, Mo, Y and Zr was decreased and Na, Fe, Mn and Co increased in tumour-bearing mice, when compared to normal mice.

  18. The excretion of biotrace elements using the multitracer technique in tumour-bearing mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Tian, J. E-mail: tianjun@public.lz.gs.cn; Yin, X.M.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Q.Z

    2000-12-15

    A radioactive multitracer solution obtained from the nuclear reaction of selenium with 25 MeV/nucleon {sup 40}Ar ions was used for investigation of trace element excretion into the faeces and urine of cancerous mice. The excretion rates of 22 elements (Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Mo, Nb, Tc, Ru, Ag and In) were simultaneously measured under strictly identical experimental conditions, in order to clarify the excretion behavior of these elements in cancerous mice. The faecal and urinary excretion rates of Mg, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Nb, Ru and Mo in cancerous mice, showed the in highest value at 0-8 hours. The accumulative excretion of Ca, Mo, Y and Zr was decreased and Na, Fe, Mn and Co increased in tumour-bearing mice, when compared to normal mice.

  19. The excretion of biotrace elements using the multitracer technique in tumour-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Tian, J.; Yin, X.M.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Q.Z.

    2000-01-01

    A radioactive multitracer solution obtained from the nuclear reaction of selenium with 25 MeV/nucleon 40 Ar ions was used for investigation of trace element excretion into the faeces and urine of cancerous mice. The excretion rates of 22 elements (Na, K, Rb, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Mo, Nb, Tc, Ru, Ag and In) were simultaneously measured under strictly identical experimental conditions, in order to clarify the excretion behavior of these elements in cancerous mice. The faecal and urinary excretion rates of Mg, Sr, Ga, As, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Fe, Y, Zr, Nb, Ru and Mo in cancerous mice, showed the in highest value at 0-8 hours. The accumulative excretion of Ca, Mo, Y and Zr was decreased and Na, Fe, Mn and Co increased in tumour-bearing mice, when compared to normal mice

  20. Quantitative assessment of cerebral glucose metabolic rates after blood-brain barrier disruption induced by focused ultrasound using FDG-MicroPET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng-Yi; Chang, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Lee, Lin-Chien; Hung, Yi-Shun

    2014-04-15

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ((18)F-FDG) and the expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) protein after blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption of normal rat brains by focused ultrasound (FUS). After delivery of an intravenous bolus of ~37 MBq (1 mCi) (18)F-FDG, dynamic positron emission tomography scans were performed on rats with normal brains and those whose BBBs had been disrupted by FUS. Arterial blood sampling was collected throughout the scanning procedure. A 2-tissue compartmental model was used to estimate (18)F-FDG kinetic parameters in brain tissues. The rate constants Ki, K1, and k3 were assumed to characterize the uptake, transport, and hexokinase activity, respectively, of (18)F-FDG. The uptake of (18)F-FDG in brains significantly decreased immediately after the blood-brain barrier was disrupted. At the same time, the derived values of Ki, K1, and k3 for the sonicated brains were significantly lower than those for the control brains. In agreement with the reduction in glucose, Western blot analyses confirmed that focused ultrasound exposure significantly reduced the expression of GLUT1 protein in the brains. Furthermore, the effect of focused ultrasound on glucose uptake was transient and reversible 24h after sonication. Our results indicate that focused ultrasound may inhibit GLUT1 expression to decrease the glucose uptake in brain tissue during the period of BBB disruption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Acute Consumption of Energy Drinks on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Blood Glucose in the Group of Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Nowak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks (EDs are very popular among young people, who consume them for various reasons. A standard ED typically contains 80 mg of caffeine, as well as glucose, taurine, vitamins and other ingredients. Excessive consumption of EDs and accumulation of the above ingredients, as well as their mutual interactions, can be hazardous to the health of young adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of acute consumption of energy drinks on blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose. Methods: The study involved 68 volunteers, healthy young adults (mean age 25 years, who were divided into two groups: the first consumed three EDs at one-hour intervals, and the second drank the same amount of water. All participants had their blood pressure (BP—systolic and diastolic (SBP and DBP—as well as heart rate (HR and blood glucose (BG measured. In addition, participants could report any health problems before and after consuming each portion of ED. Results: In the above experiment, having consumed three portions of ED (240 mg of caffeine, the participants presented a significant increase in DBP (p = 0.003, by over 8%, which coincided with a lack of any significant impact on SBP (p = 0.809. No significant changes were noted in HR (p = 0.750. Consumption of EDs caused a significant increase (p < 0.001 in BG, by ca. 21%, on average. Some participants reported various discomforts, which escalated after 2 and 3 EDs. Conclusions: Acute consumption of EDs contributed to increased diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose and level of discomfort in healthy young people. Our results reinforce the need for further studies on a larger population to provide sufficient evidence.

  2. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...

  3. Effects of water deprivation on renal hydroelectrolytic excretion in chronically Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Rosa

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an 8 hour-period of water deprivation on fluid and electrolyte renal excretion was investigated in male Wistar rats infected with the strain São Felipe (12SF of Trypanosoma cruzi, in comparison with age and sex matched non-infected controls. The median percent reductions in the urinary flow (-40% v -63% and excretion ofsodium (-57% v-79% were smaller in chagasic than in control rats, respectively. So, chagasic rats excreted more than controls. On the other hand, the median percent decrement in the clearance of creatinine was higher in chagasic (-51% than in controls (-39%. Thus, chagasic rats showed some disturbed renal hydroelectrolytic responses to water deprivation, expressed by smaller conservation, or higher excretion of water and sodium in association with smaller glomerularfiltration rate. This fact denoted an elevation in the fractional excretion of sodium and water.

  4. Excretion of Different Forms of Zinc by the prawn Palaemon serratus (Pennant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.; Keckes, S.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Freshly collected speciments of Palaemon serratus from the upper Adriatic Sea were used to determine excretion rates of zinc in ''zinc-free'' water by anodic stripping polarographic techniques. Weight-specific excretion of total zinc varied reciprocally with body weight apparently in a log-log relationship. Weight-specific excretion of ionic-particulate zinc appeared greatest in short term (1-3 hr) experiments, while weight specific excretion of complexed zinc appeared greatest in longer term (4-5 hr) experiments; however, we cannot exclude the possibility that ionic-particulate zinc and dissolved organic compounds were excreted separately and subsequently combined in the water to yield zinc complex. (author)

  5. Excretion of different forms of zinc by the prawn Palaemon serratus (Pennant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.; Keckes, S.; Fowler, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    Freshly collected specimens of Palaemon serratus from the upper Adriatic Sea were used to determine excretion rates of zinc in zinc-free water by anodic stripping polarographic techniques. Weight-specific excretion of total zinc varied reciprocally with body weight, apparently in a log--log relationship. Weight-specific excretion of ionic-particulate zinc appeared greatest in short term (1 to 3 hr) experiments, while weight-specific excretion of complexed zinc appeared greatest in longer term (4 to 5 hr) experiments; however, we cannot exclude the possibility that ionic-particulate zinc and dissolved organic compounds were excreted separately and subsequently combined in the water to yield zinc complex. (auth)

  6. Factors influencing [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) uptake in melanoma cells. The role of proliferation rate, viability, glucose transporter expression and hexokinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kiyoshi; Brink, I.; Bisse, E.; Epting, T.; Engelhardt, R.

    2005-01-01

    Using human (SK-MEL 23, SK-MEL 24 and G361) and murine (B16) melanoma cell lines, the coregulatory potential of the uptake of the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, [Fluorine-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) has been investigated in relationship to tumor characteristics. Comparative studies among the four melanoma cell lines demonstrated that the lowest FDG uptake in SK-MEL 24 corresponded strongly to the data for DT (population doubling time) and MTT (tetrazolium salt) cell viability as well as hexokinase (HK) activity, but was not related to the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT 1) expression level. Furthermore, the FDG uptake in each melanoma cell line measured by cell cycle kinetics was significantly positively correlated to both the proliferation index (PI=S/G 2 M phase fractions) and the cell viability, though with one exception relating to the proliferation index (PI) of the lowest FDG uptake cell line, SK-MEL 24. No positive correlation was found between the expression of GLUT 1 and FDG uptake in any individual cell line. However, the HK activities in SK-MEL 23 and 24 showed considerable positive relationships with FDG uptake. Our present study suggests that both the proliferation rate and the cell viability of melanoma cells may be key factors for FDG uptake and that HK activity, rather than GLUT 1 expression, seems to be a major factor. (author)

  7. Measurement of regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose in the human subject with (F-18)-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose and emission computed tomography: validation of the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Huang, S.C.; Hoffman, E.J.; Selin, C.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Tracer techniques and models of in vitro quantitative autoradiography and tissue counting for the measure of regional metabolic rates (rMR) are combined with emission computed tomography (ECT). This approach, Physiologic Tomography (PT), provides atraumatic and analytical measurements of rMR. PT is exemplified with the regional measurement of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRGlu) in man with ( 18 F)-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) and positron ECT. Our model incorporates a k 4 * mediated hydrolysis of FDG-6-PO 4 to FDG which then competes with phosphorylation (k 3 *) of FDG back to FDG-6-PO 4 and reverse transport (k 2 *) back to blood. Although small, k 4 * is found to be significant. The ECAT positron tomograph was used to measure the rate constants (k 1 *→k 4 *), lumped constant (LC), stability, and reproducibility of the model in man. Since these parameters have not been measured for FDG in any species, comparisons are made to values for DG in rat and monkey. Compartmental concentrations of FDG and FDG-6-PO 4 were determined and show that cerebral FDG-6-PO 4 steadily accumulates for about 100 mins, plateaus and then slowly decreases due to hydrolysis. Cerebral blood FDG concentration was determined to be a minor contribution to tissue activity after 10 min. Regional CMRGlu measurements are reproducible to +- 5.5% over 5 hrs. PT allows the in vivo study ofregional biochemistry and physiology in normal and pathophysiologic states in man with a unique and fundamental capability

  8. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...

  9. Metabolic excretion and retention patterns of incorporated radionuclides in reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper gives formulae for calculating the total expected 50-year dose (TED 50 ) and excretion rate for four patterns of uptake as well as numerical descriptions of the ICRP ''gut model'' and ''lung model''. (author)

  10. Glucose and insulin dynamics associated with continuous rate infusion of dextrose solution or dextrose solution and insulin in healthy and endotoxin-exposed horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Janet H; McKenzie, Harold C; McCutcheon, L Jill; Geor, Raymond J

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the effects of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of dextrose solution or dextrose solution and insulin on glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy and endotoxin-exposed horses. 9 adult mares. During phase 1, treatments consisted of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control group; n = 4) or 20% dextrose solution (group 1; 4) administered IV as a 360-minute CRI. During phase 2, treatments consisted of 360-minute CRIs of 20% dextrose solution and insulin administered simultaneously at 367.6 mg/kg/h (30 kcal/kg/d) and 0.07 U/kg/h, respectively, in healthy horses (group 2; n = 4) or horses administered 35 ng of lipopolysaccharide/kg, IV, 24 hours before starting the dextrose solution and insulin CRIs (group 3; 4). A balanced crossover study design was used in both phases. Blood samples were collected for measurement of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Infusion of dextrose solution alone resulted in hyperglycemia for most of the 360-minute CRI. Insulin concentration increased significantly in group 1, compared with that in the control group. Mean insulin concentration of group 2 was significantly higher throughout most of the infusion period, compared with concentrations of the control group and group 1. Mean glucose concentration did not differ significantly between groups 2 and 3. Insulin infusion at a rate of 0.07 U/kg/h was found to be effective for the prevention of hyperglycemia when administered concurrently with dextrose solution. This rate was considered to be safe because horses did not become hypoglycemic during infusions of dextrose solution.

  11. A randomized cross-over study of the acute effects of running 5 km on glucose, insulin, metabolic rate, cortisol and Troponin T

    OpenAIRE

    Keselman, Boris; Vergara, Marta; Nyberg, Sofia; Nystrom, Fredrik H.

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to study the impact by running 5 km, at maximal speed, on the normal variations of metabolic variables related to glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, cortisol, glucagon, Troponin T and metabolic rate. Material and methods Five women and 12 men 25.7 +/- 5.2 years of age with a body-mass-index of 22.5 +/- 2.3 kg/m(2) where recruited to run 5 km at individual maximal speed in the morning, and to a corresponding day of rest, followed by standardized breakfast and lunch meal...

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allerg ies (NDA) ; Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to appetite ratings, weight management, and blood glucose concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to appetite ratings, weight management, and blood glucose concentrations. This guidance has been drawn from scientific...... and studies/outcome measures which are acceptable. Rather, it presents examples drawn from evaluations already carried out in order to illustrate the approach of the Panel, as well as some examples which are currently under consideration within ongoing evaluations. A draft of this guidance document, endorsed...

  13. Determination of bioequivalence of lomefloxacin tablets using urinary excretion data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shailesh A; Rathod, Ishwarsinh S; Savale, Shrinivas S; Patel, Dharmesh B

    2002-11-07

    The present study describes development of a sensitive and simple HPTLC method for estimation of lomefloxacin (LMF) in human urine. The drug was extracted using chloroform after adjusting the pH of urine to 7.0. Chloroform extract was spotted on silica gel 60 F(254) TLC plate and was developed in a mixture of n-butanol-methanol-ethyl acetate-6 M ammonia (4:2:3:2, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase and scanned at 290 nm. The peak for LMF resolved at R(F) of 0.40+/-0.02. The method was validated in terms of linearity (50-600 microgram/ml), precision, specificity and accuracy. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for LMF in urine were found to be 20 and 50 microgram/ml, respectively. The average recovery of LMF from urine was 91.93%. The proposed method was applied to generate urinary excretion data for LMF after administration of two market LMF tablet formulations (400 mg, Formulation R and Formulation T) to six healthy human volunteers in a two-treatment, open, crossover design. Various pharmacokinetic parameters like peak excretion rate ((dAU/dt)(max)), time for peak excretion rate (t(max)), AUC(0-48), AUC(0- infinity ), cumulative amount and % cumulative amount of LMF excreted, elimination half-life (t(1/2)), terminal elimination rate constant (k(el)) and overall elimination rate constant (K), were calculated for both the formulations. The average cumulative amounts of LMF excreted in urine after administration of Formulation R and Formulation T were found to be 321.60 mg (80.40% of dose) and 296.51 mg (74.13% of dose), respectively. The urinary excretion profiles of LMF upto 48 h for both the formulations were found to be similar. Statistical comparison (90% confidence intervals of ratio) of various pharmacokinetic parameters of Formulation T with that of Formulation R revealed that Formulation T is bioequivalent with Formulation R.

  14. Analysis of local perfusion rate (LPR) and local glucose transport rate (LGTR) in brain and heart in man by means of C-11-methyl-D-glucose (CMG) and dynamic positron emission tomography (dPET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyska, K.; Freundlieb, C.; Hoeck, A.; Becker, V.; Schmidt, A.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Kloster, G.; Stoecklin, G.; Heiss, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    A method has been developed to measure simultaneously the LPR and LGTR. CMG is used as an indicator. The transaxial distribution of activity in organism is registered with dPET. On the basis of a mathematical model, the LPR and LGTR can be calculated in terms of parameters of the time activity curves registered over different brain or heart regions and over the sup. long. sinus (brain) or the ventricular cavity (heart) (blood activity). The method was used in 10 normal subjects and 20 patients with ischemic brain or heart disease. The values of LGTR range from 0.43 to 0.6 μmol/min g in normal cortex and from 0.09 to 0.12 μmol/min g in normal white matter. The LPR was 0.9-098 ml/min g for the cortex and 0.3-0.4 ml/min g for the white matter. In patients with stroke the ischemic defects appeared to be larger in CMG scans than in CT. The results obtained in a patient with left homonymous hemianopia, caused by infarctions in the distribution area of RMCA, and in a patient with TIA, demonstrate that the inactivation of morphologically intact, cerebral cortex, observed in stroke patients, may be caused by undercutting of cortical fiber tracts as well as by the impairment of the glucose transport systems in the inactivated area. In myocardial studies the LPR in normal left myocardium was 0.68 ml/min g (subendocardium 0.74 ml/min g; subepicardiuim 0.65 ml/min g). In patients with old myocardial infarction, the infarcted areas could be easily recognized as accumulation defects. The results obtained in a patient with narrowing of the RCA indicate that repeated exposure of myocardial tissue to transient ischemia produces an irreversible damage of the glucose transport system. We conclude from the data that for diagnostic evaluation of ultimate brain or heart damage simultaneous quantitative assessment of both LPR and LGTR is of basic importance. (Author)

  15. Influence of phase separation on the anaerobic digestion of glucose: maximum COD turnover rate during continuous operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A; Van Andel, J G; Breure, A M; Van Deursen, A

    1980-01-01

    A mineral medium containing 1% of glucose as the main carbon source was subjected to one-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion processes under comparable conditions. The one-phase system combined acidogenic and methanogenic populations allowing a complete conversion of the carbon source into gaseous end products and biomass. The two-phase system consists of an acid reactor and a methane reactor connected in series allowing sequential acidogenesis and methanogenesis. Performance of the one-phase system is compared with that of the two-phase system. Maximum turnover of COD was determined for each system. Maximum specific sludge loading of the two-phase system was more than three times higher than that of the one-phase system. Effects of overloading each system were determined. The eco-physiological significance of phase separation is discussed briefly. (2 diagrams, 5 graphs, 41 references, 5 tables)

  16. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4...

  17. Absorption, tissue distribution, excretion, and metabolism of clothianidin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Tokunori; Mikata, Kazuki; Nagasaki, Hiromi; Ohta, Kazunari

    2003-11-19

    Absorption, distribution, excretion, and metabolism of clothianidin [(E)-1-(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-3-methyl-2-nitroguanidine] were investigated after a single oral administration of [nitroimino-(14)C]- or [thiazolyl-2-(14)C]clothianidin to male and female rats at a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight (bw) (low dose) or 250 mg/kg of bw (high dose). The maximum concentration of carbon-14 in blood occurred 2 h after administration of the low oral dose for both labeled clothianidins, and then the concentration of carbon-14 in blood decreased with a half-life of 2.9-4.0 h. The orally administered carbon-14 was rapidly and extensively distributed to all tissues and organs within 2 h after administration, especially to the kidney and liver, but was rapidly and almost completely eliminated from all tissues and organs with no evidence of accumulation. The orally administered carbon-14 was almost completely excreted into urine and feces within 2 days after administration, and approximately 90% of the administered dose was excreted via urine. The major compound in excreta was clothianidin, accounting for >60% of the administered dose. The major metabolic reactions of clothianidin in rats were oxidative demethylation to form N-(2-chlorothiazol-5-ylmethyl)-N'-nitroguanidine and the cleavage of the carbon-nitrogen bond between the thiazolylmethyl moiety and the nitroguanidine moiety. The part of the molecule containing the nitroguanidine moiety was transformed mainly to N-methyl-N'-nitroguanidine, whereas the thiazol moiety was further metabolized to 2-(methylthio)thiazole-5-carboxylic acid. With the exception of the transiently delayed excretion of carbon-14 at the high-dose level, the rates of biokinetics, excretion, distribution, and metabolism of clothianidin were not markedly influenced by dose level and sex.

  18. The effect of endogenously released glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, ghrelin on cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Lindstedt, Sandra; Björgell, Ola; Dencker, Magnus

    2011-12-29

    Ingestion of a meal increases the blood flow to the gastrointestinal organs and affects the heart rate (HR), blood pressure and cardiac output (CO), although the mechanisms are not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of endogenously released glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), ghrelin on CO, HR, stroke volume (SV), and blood pressure. Eleven healthy men and twelve healthy women ((mean ± SEM) aged: 26 ± 0.2 y; body mass index: 21.8 ± 0.1 kg/m(2))) were included in this study. The CO, HR, SV, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, antral area, gastric emptying rate, and glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and ghrelin levels were measured. The CO and SV at 30 min were significantly higher, and the diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower, than the fasting in both men and women (P blood pressure (P = 0.021, r = -0.681), and the change in SV (P = 0.008, r = -0.748) relative to the fasting in men. The insulin 0-30 min AUC was significantly correlated to the CO 0-30 min AUC (P = 0.002, r = 0.814) in men. Significant correlations were also found between the 0-120 min ghrelin and HR AUCs (P = 0.007, r = 0.966) in men. No statistically significant correlations were seen in women. Physiological changes in the levels of glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and ghrelin may influence the activity of the heart and the blood pressure. There may also be gender-related differences in the haemodynamic responses to postprandial changes in hormone levels. The results of this study show that subjects should not eat immediately prior to, or during, the evaluation of cardiovascular interventions as postprandial affects may affect the results, leading to erroneous interpretation of the cardiovascular effects of the primary intervention. NCT01027507.

  19. Uptake and excretion of 110mAg by Mud carp Cirrhina molitorella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shunhua; Zhong Chuangguang

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation, excretion and tissue distribution of 110m Ag from both labeled food and water pathways in juvenile mud carp Cirrhina molitorella were investigated. Results indicated that the excretion rate of 110m Ag uptaken from artificial food pathway was very fast. 24 hours after feeding, the radioactivity of the fish decreased rapidly to 2.62% of the initial one and maintained the similar level afterwards in the 7 days excretion experiment. On the 7th day of excretion, the fish were dissected to separate the organs and tissues. The distribution of 110m Ag in the fish was uneven. Radioactivity of 110m Ag in the organs and tissues was in the order as liver>intestine>gall bladder>eye>gill>remainder>muscle. The radioactivity in liver, intestine and gall bladder were 48.14%, 18/43% and 15.43% of the total radioactivity of the fish, respectively. The accumulation of waterborne 110m Ag by mud carp showed that 110m Ag was easy to be uptaken by the fish. the concentration factors at 8th hour and 13th day were 23.8 and 208.6 respectively. Excretion of 110m Ag uptaken from water pathway was slower than that from food pathway. The radioactivity decreased to 20.1% and 16.7% on 15th and 28th day, respectively. The excretion procedure was composed of fast excretion phase (0-2d) and slow excretion phase (2-28d). The half-life of 110m Ag in mud carp in the slow excretion phase was 22d during the slow excretion phase. The distribution of 110m Ag in organs and tissues was mainly in viscera, which accounted for about 80% of the total radioactivity of the fish

  20. Association of glucose homeostasis measures with heart rate variability among Hispanic/Latino adults without diabetes: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michelle L; Gotman, Nathan M; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Whitsel, Eric A; Arens, Raanan; Cai, Jianwen; Daviglus, Martha L; Denes, Pablo; González, Hector M; Moreiras, Juan; Talavera, Gregory A; Heiss, Gerardo

    2016-03-16

    Reduced heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of cardiac autonomic function, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Glucose homeostasis measures are associated with reduced cardiac autonomic function among those with diabetes, but inconsistent associations have been reported among those without diabetes. This study aimed to examine the association of glucose homeostasis measures with cardiac autonomic function among diverse Hispanic/Latino adults without diabetes. The Hispanic community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL; 2008-2011) used two-stage area probability sampling of households to enroll 16,415 self-identified Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years from four USA communities. Resting, standard 12-lead electrocardiogram recordings were used to estimate the following ultrashort-term measures of HRV: RR interval (RR), standard deviation of all normal to normal RR (SDNN) and root mean square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD). Multivariable regression analysis was used to estimate associations between glucose homeostasis measures with HRV using data from 11,994 adults without diabetes (mean age 39 years; 52 % women). Higher fasting glucose was associated with lower RR, SDNN, and RMSSD. Fasting insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was negatively associated with RR, SDNN, and RMSSD, and the association was stronger among men compared with women. RMSSD was, on average, 26 % lower in men with higher fasting insulin and 29 % lower in men with lower insulin resistance; for women, the corresponding estimates were smaller at 4 and 9 %, respectively. Higher glycated hemoglobin was associated with lower RR, SDNN, and RMSSD in those with abdominal adiposity, defined by sex-specific cut-points for waist circumference, after adjusting for demographics and medication use. There were no associations between glycated hemoglobin and HRV measures among those without abdominal adiposity

  1. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  2. The effect of endogenously released glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, ghrelin on cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlebowicz Joanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ingestion of a meal increases the blood flow to the gastrointestinal organs and affects the heart rate (HR, blood pressure and cardiac output (CO, although the mechanisms are not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of endogenously released glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1, ghrelin on CO, HR, stroke volume (SV, and blood pressure. Methods Eleven healthy men and twelve healthy women ((mean ± SEM aged: 26 ± 0.2 y; body mass index: 21.8 ± 0.1 kg/m2 were included in this study. The CO, HR, SV, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, antral area, gastric emptying rate, and glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and ghrelin levels were measured. Results The CO and SV at 30 min were significantly higher, and the diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower, than the fasting in both men and women (P P = 0.015, r = 0.946, and between ghrelin levels and HR (P = 0.013, r = 0.951 at 110 min. Significant correlations were also found between the change in glucose level at 30 min and the change in systolic blood pressure (P = 0.021, r = -0.681, and the change in SV (P = 0.008, r = -0.748 relative to the fasting in men. The insulin 0-30 min AUC was significantly correlated to the CO 0-30 min AUC (P = 0.002, r = 0.814 in men. Significant correlations were also found between the 0-120 min ghrelin and HR AUCs (P = 0.007, r = 0.966 in men. No statistically significant correlations were seen in women. Conclusions Physiological changes in the levels of glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and ghrelin may influence the activity of the heart and the blood pressure. There may also be gender-related differences in the haemodynamic responses to postprandial changes in hormone levels. The results of this study show that subjects should not eat immediately prior to, or during, the evaluation of cardiovascular interventions as postprandial affects may affect the results, leading to erroneous interpretation of the cardiovascular effects of the

  3. A study of spin-lattice relaxation rates of glucose, fructose, sucrose and cherries using high-T c SQUID-based NMR in ultralow magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Hsien; Wu, Pei-Che

    2017-08-01

    We study the concentration dependence of spin-lattice relaxation rates, T 1 -1, of glucose, fructose, sucrose and cherries by using high-T c SQUID-based NMR at magnetic fields of ˜97 μT. The detected NMR signal, Sy (T Bp), is fitted to [1 - exp(-T Bp/T 1)] to derive T 1 -1, where Sy (T Bp) is the strength of the NMR signal, T Bp is the duration of pre-polarization and T 1 -1 is the spin-lattice relaxation rate. It was found that T 1 -1 increases as the sugar concentrations increase. The increased T 1 -1 is due to the presence of more molecules in the surroundings, which increases the spin-lattice interaction and in turn enhances T 1 -1. The T 1 -1 versus degrees Brix curve provides a basis for determining unknown Brix values for cherries as well as other fruits.

  4. Lung inhomogeneities, inflation and [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake rate in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressoni, Massimo; Chiumello, Davide; Chiurazzi, Chiara; Brioni, Matteo; Algieri, Ilaria; Gotti, Miriam; Nikolla, Klodiana; Massari, Dario; Cammaroto, Antonio; Colombo, Andrea; Cadringher, Paolo; Carlesso, Eleonora; Benti, Riccardo; Casati, Rosangela; Zito, Felicia; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the size and location of homogeneous inflamed/noninflamed and inhomogeneous inflamed/noninflamed lung compartments and their association with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) severity.In total, 20 ARDS patients underwent 5 and 45 cmH2O computed tomography (CT) scans to measure lung recruitability. [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) uptake and lung inhomogeneities were quantified with a positron emission tomography-CT scan at 10 cmH2O. We defined four compartments with normal/abnormal [(18)F]FDG uptake and lung homogeneity.The homogeneous compartment with normal [(18)F]FDG uptake was primarily composed of well-inflated tissue (80±16%), double-sized in nondependent lung (32±27% versus 16±17%, pinflation and [(18)F]FDG uptake decreases with ARDS severity, while the inhomogeneous poorly/not inflated compartment increases. Most of the lung inhomogeneities are inflamed. A minor fraction of healthy tissue remains in severe ARDS. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  5. Po-210 excretion and radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, F.; Clemente, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model is given to describe the metabolism of the 210 Po introduced into the systemic compartiments of the human body. The model has been based on the experimental data referred to the 210 Pb- 210 Po intake, excretion and body burden of members of the general italian population. The model fits also very well the experimental data of 210 Pb- 210 Po intake and excretion reported by other authors. The retention function of 210 Po in total body, soft tissue and bone has been evaluated together with the urinary excretion function and the absorbed fraction by ingestion. The model is very valuable to evaluate the lung exposure to Radon decay products on the basis of the 210 Pb- 210 Po urinary excretions

  6. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single doses of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, in healthy Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarashina, Akiko; Koiwai, Kazuki; Seman, Leo J; Yamamura, Norio; Taniguchi, Atsushi; Negishi, Takahiro; Sesoko, Shogo; Woerle, Hans J; Dugi, Klaus A

    2013-01-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled within dose groups, double-blind, single rising dose study investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 1 mg to 100 mg doses of empagliflozin in 48 healthy Japanese male subjects. Empagliflozin was rapidly absorbed, reaching peak levels in 1.25 to 2.50 h; thereafter, plasma concentrations declined in a biphasic fashion, with mean terminal elimination half-life ranging from 7.76 to 11.7 h. Increase in empagliflozin exposure was proportional to dose. Oral clearance was dose independent and ranged from 140 to 172 mL/min. In the 24 h following 100 mg empagliflozin administration, the mean (%CV) amount of glucose excreted in urine was 74.3 (17.1) g. The amount and the maximum rate of glucose excreted via urine increased with dose of empagliflozin. Nine adverse events, all of mild intensity, were reported by 8 subjects (7 with empagliflozin and 1 with the placebo). No hypoglycemia was reported. In conclusion, 1 mg to 100 mg doses of empagliflozin had a good safety and tolerability profile in healthy Japanese male subjects. Exposure to empagliflozin was dose proportional. The amount and rate of urinary glucose excretion were higher with empagliflozin than with the placebo, and increased with empagliflozin dose.

  7. Absorption and excretion of zinc, cadmium and mercury in the gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, H [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1975-10-01

    The absorption and excretion of inorganic zinc, cadmium and mercury in the gastrointestinal tract were compared using /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd and /sup 203/Hg. A single dose of /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg was administered orally or injected intravenously to investigate the distribution, excretion into bile and excretion into feces or urine. Absorption and excretion through the gastrointestinal tract of mice were studied by the tied loop method. Groups of eight mice or rats were used to measure the radioactivity in sample with a scintillation counter. Most of the orally administered /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg was excreted into feces and was less absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, respectively. Absorption rate in the gastrointestinal tract was as follows: /sup 203/Hg>/sup 65/Zn>/sup 109/Cd. Intravenously injected /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg was escreted into the gastrointestinal tract through the gastrointestinal wall and bile duct, respectively. Excretion rate in the gastrointestinal tract was as follows: /sup 65/Zn>/sup 203/Hg>/sup 109/Cd. When comparing the absorption and excretion in each gastrointestinal tract divided into 10 parts, /sup 65/Zn, and /sup 109/Cd were relatively well absorbed from the upper and lower part of small intestine and excreted into the upper, middle, lower part. /sup 203/Hg was relatively well absorbed from the upper, lower part of small intestine and excreted into the stomach and the caecum. The major organs that accumulated absorbed /sup 65/Zn, /sup 109/Cd or /sup 203/Hg were the pancreas and liver, liver and kidney, kidney and liver, respectively.

  8. Distribution and excretion of inhaled mercury vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gage, J C

    1961-01-01

    Rats have been exposed for varying periods to an atmosphere containing 1 mg/cu.m. mercury vapor. The toxic effects produced showed resemblances to signs of mercurialism in man. An attempt has been made to study the kinetics of absorption and excretion of mercury from measurements of the amounts excreted and stored in the tissues. The efficiency of absorption of mercury by the rat lung is about 50%. A small proportion is excreted into the gut. After about 10 days of continuous exposure a steady state is reached in which excretion balances absorption. During short exposures the turnover of mercury in all tissues except brain is fairly rapid and most of the mercury is cleared from the body within a week after exposure. The urinary excretion of mercury, during the initial stage of storage in the tissues and the final stage of clearance, shows divergencies from the simple exponential pattern; there appears to be a delay mechanism in the kidney which, in intermittent exposures, may result in the occurrence of peak excretion during periods of non-exposure. After more prolonged exposures the mercury in the kidney appears to be converted to a form which is only very slowly excreted. The significance of the urinary excretion of mercury by man after industrial exposure to mercury vapour is discussed. The rat experiments suggest that single measurements will give only limited information concerning industrial conditions, but that an approximate assessment of the total absorbed during a working week would be obtained if it were possible to make a seven-day collection of urine. Repeated measurements after exposure would yield information on the duration of exposure and would have some diagnostic value.

  9. Relation between creatinine and uric acid excretion.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishida, Y

    1992-01-01

    The relation between creatinine and uric acid metabolism was analysed in 77 male patients with primary gout and 62 healthy male subjects. Significant positive correlations between 24 hour urinary creatinine and uric acid excretion were shown in both groups. The mean urinary creatinine and uric acid excretions in the patients with gout were significantly increased as compared with those of normal male controls. These results suggest that there is a close correlation between creatinine and uric...

  10. The influence of dietary and whole-body nutrient content on the excretion of a vertebrate consumer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Dalton

    Full Text Available In many contexts, nutrient excretion by consumers can impact ecosystems by altering the availability of limiting nutrients. Variation in nutrient excretion can be predicted by mass balance models, most of which are premised on two key ideas: (1 consumers maintain fixed whole-body nutrient content (i.e., %N and %P, so-called fixed homeostasis; (2 if dietary nutrients are not matched to whole-body nutrients, excesses of any nutrient are released as excretion to maintain fixed homeostasis. Mass balance models thus predict that consumer excretion should be positively correlated with diet nutrients and negatively correlated with whole-body nutrients. Recent meta-analyses and field studies, however, have often failed to find these expected patterns, potentially because of a confounding influence-flexibility in whole-body nutrient content with diet quality (flexible homeostasis. Here, we explore the impact of flexible homeostasis on nutrient excretion by comparing the N and P excretion of four genetically diverged Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata populations when reared on diets of variable P content. As predicted by mass balance, P excretion increased on the high-P diet, but, contrary to the notion of fixed homeostasis, guppy whole-body %P also increased on the high-P diet. While there was no overall correlation between excretion nutrients and whole-body nutrients, when the effect of diet on both whole-body and excretion nutrients was included, we detected the expected negative correlation between whole-body N:P and excretion N:P. This last result suggests that mass balance can predict excretion rates within species, but only if dietary effects on whole-body nutrient content are controlled. Flexible homeostasis can obscure patterns predicted by mass balance, creating an imperative to accurately capture an organism's diet quality in predicting its excretion rate.

  11. Whites excrete a water load more rapidly than blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weder, Alan B; Gleiberman, Lillian; Sachdeva, Amit

    2009-04-01

    A recent report demonstrated a racial difference in response to furosemide compatible with increased ion reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in blacks. Urinary dilution is another function of the loop-diuretic-sensitive Na,K,2Cl cotransporter in the thick ascending limb, and racial differences in urinary diluting capacity have not been reported previously. We assessed diluting segment (cortical thick ascending limb and distal convoluted tubule) function in black and white normotensives in 2 studies using a water-loading approach. In both studies, we found that whites excreted a water load more rapidly than blacks. In the first study, the final free water clearance rates (mean+/-SD) were 7.3+/-4.7 mL/min in whites (n=17, 7 females and 10 males) and 3.8+/-3.6 mL/min in blacks (n=14, 9 females and 5 males; Pwater clearance rates were 8.3+/-2.6 mL/min in whites (n=17, 8 females and 9 males) and 6.4+/-1.8 mL/min in blacks (n=11, 8 females and 3 males; Pwater excretion. We conclude that our observations are most consistent with a lower capacity of ion reabsorption in the renal diluting segment in blacks. Slower excretion of an acute water load may have been an advantage during natural selection of humans living in arid, hot climates.

  12. Monitoring of ovarian activity by measurement of urinary excretion rates using the Ovarian Monitor, Part IV: the relationship of the pregnanediol glucuronide threshold to basal body temperature and cervical mucus as markers for the beginning of the post-ovulatory infertile period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Leonard F; Vigil, Pilar; Alliende, María Elena; Brown, Simon; Festin, Mario; Cooke, Delwyn G

    2016-02-01

    Do the basal body temperature (BBT) shift and the cervical mucus markers for the beginning of the post-ovulatory infertile phase (POIP) of a menstrual cycle agree with the corresponding urinary pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG) threshold value? Perfect agreement between the cervical mucus markers and BBT shift and the hormonal definition of the start of post-ovulatory infertility occurred for only 7-17% of the cycles. The PdG threshold of 7.0 µmol/24 h is an objective and accurate marker for the beginning of the POIP. The rise in serum progesterone also produces the BBT shift and changes in cervical mucus which determine the mucus peak. Serum progesterone and urinary PdG are closely correlated when variations in urine volume are taken into account. Individual menstrual cycle profiles of urinary PdG excretion rates for 91 fertile cycles from normally cycling women were analysed to identify the day of the beginning of the POIP. These days were compared with those determined by the day of the BBT shift +2 days, the day of the mucus peak +4 days and the later of these two indicators. The study lasted 3 years. A total of 62 women with normal menstrual cycles were recruited from three centres: Palmerston North, New Zealand; Sydney, Australia and Santiago, Chile. The cycles were displayed individually in a proprietary database program which recorded the PdG excretion rates, the BBT shift day and the cervical mucus peak day. A group of 15 women from a separate Chilean study had PdG urinary data measured as well as their day of ovulation determined by ultrasound. The BBT and cervical mucus markers differed significantly in their identification of the beginning of the POIP when compared with the PdG excretion rate of 7.0 µmol/24 h. The observation that the BBT shift day and the mucus peak day could be identified even though the PdG excretion rates were still at baseline levels in some cycles could lead to an unexpected pregnancy for women using these natural family planning

  13. The urinary excretion of metformin, ceftizoxime and ofloxacin in high serum creatinine rats: Can creatinine predict renal tubular elimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Rong; Zhou, Yan; Huang, Jing; Qin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Pei; Wu, Xin-An

    2018-03-01

    The renal excretion of creatinine and most drugs are the net result of glomerular filtration and tubular secretion, and their tubular secretions are mediated by individual transporters. Thus, we hypothesized that the increase of serum creatinine (SCr) levels attributing to inhibiting tubular transporters but not glomerular filtration rate (GFR) could be used to evaluate the tubular excretion of drugs mediated by identical or partial overlap transporter with creatinine. In this work, we firstly developed the creatinine excretion inhibition model with normal GFR by competitively inhibiting tubular transporters, and investigated the renal excretion of metformin, ceftizoxime and ofloxacin in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that the 24-hour urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime in model rats were decreased by 25% and 17% compared to that in control rats, respectively. The uptake amount and urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime could be inhibited by creatinine in renal cortical slices and isolated kidney perfusion. However, the urinary excretion of ofloxacin was not affected by high SCr. These results showed that the inhibition of tubular creatinine transporters by high SCr resulted to the decrease of urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime, but not ofloxacin, which implied that the increase of SCr could also be used to evaluate the tubular excretion of drugs mediated by identical or partial overlap transporter with creatinine in normal GFR rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tumor Delineation and Quantitative Assessment of Glucose Metabolic Rate within Histologic Subtypes of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Using Dynamic 18F Fluorodeoxyglucose PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Tineke W H; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Visser, Eric P; Oyen, Wim J G; Looijen-Salamon, Monika G; Visvikis, Dimitris; Verhagen, Ad F T M; Bussink, Johan; Vriens, Dennis

    2017-05-01

    Purpose To assess whether dynamic fluorine 18 ( 18 F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has added value over static 18 F-FDG PET for tumor delineation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) radiation therapy planning by using pathology volumes as the reference standard and to compare pharmacokinetic rate constants of 18 F-FDG metabolism, including regional variation, between NSCLC histologic subtypes. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional review board. Patients gave written informed consent. In this prospective observational study, 1-hour dynamic 18 F-FDG PET/computed tomographic examinations were performed in 35 patients (36 resectable NSCLCs) between 2009 and 2014. Static and parametric images of glucose metabolic rate were obtained to determine lesion volumes by using three delineation strategies. Pathology volume was calculated from three orthogonal dimensions (n = 32). Whole tumor and regional rate constants and blood volume fraction (V B ) were computed by using compartment modeling. Results Pathology volumes were larger than PET volumes (median difference, 8.7-25.2 cm 3 ; Wilcoxon signed rank test, P PET images is in best agreement with pathology volume and could be useful for NSCLC autocontouring. Differences in glycolytic rate and V B between SCC and AC are relevant for research in targeting agents and radiation therapy dose escalation. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  15. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives in Yerli Kara cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Guecues, A. I.; Oezcan, H.; Ulutuerk, S.; Yaman, S.

    2000-01-01

    The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) was measured in four Yerli Kara bulls in two experiments, a fasting experiment lasting for 7 days and the other , where animals were given a diet containing 30% wheat straw and 70% compounded feed at four levels of intake (40,60,80 and 95% of voluntary feed intake). In the second experiment, which was carried out according to a 4x4 Latin Square design, four animals receiving 60 and 95% levels of intake were also given a single injection of 8- ''1''4C - uric acid via a jugular catheter. In Addition to the above two experiments the activity of xanthine oxidase and uricase in plasma, liver and intestinal mucosa obtained from Yerli Kara cattle was also determined.In the first experiment,fasting PD excretion averaged 0.691 (±0.053) mmol/kgW''0''.''7''5/d. Glomerular filtration rate GFR), tubular load and net re-absorption of allantoin between pre fasting and fasting were statistically significant (P<0.05). In the second experiment the recovery of injected 8 - ''1''4C - uric acid as total PD was 72.5 and 89.9% for 60 and 95% feeding levels, respectively. The average recovery was 81%. Plasma kinetics measured by 8 - ''1''4C - uric acid indicated that the total compartment pool size was 214.0 (±43.8) and 250.3 L (±29.5) for 60 and 95% feeding levels, respectively. GFR, tubular load and net re-absorption of uric acid and allantoin were not affected by feed intake. The allantoin : PD molar ratios changed between 0.78 to 0.93 for the four levels feed intake. There were significant correlations between PD excretion (expressed as mmol/d and μmol/kg W''0''.''7''5/d) and DDMI (kg/d and kg/kg W''0''.''7''5/d) and DOMI (kg/d)(r=0.99, P<0.01). The rate of PD excretion as a linear function of feed intake was 16.4 mmol/kg W''0''.''7''5 DDMI, 19.8 mmol/kg DDMI and 22.7 mmol/kg DOMI. Xanthine oxidase and uricase activities were; 1.34 (±0.72) and .44 (±0.05) and 0.13 (±0.03) and 0.08 (±0.03) unit/g fresh tissue in liver and

  16. Circadian rhythmicity of the urinary excretion of mercury, potassium and catecholamines in unconventional shift-work systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokac, Z; Gundersen, N; Magnus, P; Jebens, E; Bakka, T

    1980-09-01

    The round the clock urinary excretion rates of mercury were assessed for two series of unconventional patterns of activity and sleep in subjects who were not exposed to occupational, medical, or other obvious sources of mercury. In the first series the urine was collected in 3-h periods from six subjects during the first and last 2 d of a four-week, continuous 6-h shift (car ferry, watches either 0800--1400 and 2000--0200 or 1400--2000 and 0200--0800). In the second series the urine was collected in 4-h periods from five subjects working an 8-h experimental rotation shift compressed into 5 d (work two mornings--8-h interval--work two nights--8-h interval--work two afternoons). The mean daily excretion rate of the 11 subjects (48 investigation days, 334 urine samples) was 14.5 pmol of mercury/min (range 5.5--24.4 pmol of mercury/min). The mercury excretion oscillated regularly during 24 h by +/- 20--25% of the individual's daily mean excretion rates. The peak excretion rates were found at 0652 in the first and 0642 in the second series (cosinor treatment). Due to the circadian rhythm the mean 24-h excretion rates were best represented (correlation coefficient 0.92) by analyses of urine produced around noon (spot samples, collection periods 1100--1400 and 1000-1400, respectively). The circadian oscillations of mercury excretion were not influenced by the widely different and varying activity-sleep patterns of the two series. The rhythmicity of potassium excretion (peaks at around 1400) was more irregular. The stable oscillations of mercury excretion contrasted most with the excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline, which, without losing the basic 24-h rhythmicity, closely followed the unconventional patterns of activity and sleep.

  17. Maggot excretions inhibit biofilm formation on biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; van de Veerdonk, Mariëlle C; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Schreurs, Marco W J; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2010-10-01

    Biofilm-associated infections in trauma surgery are difficult to treat with conventional therapies. Therefore, it is important to develop new treatment modalities. Maggots in captured bags, which are permeable for larval excretions/secretions, aid in healing severe, infected wounds, suspect for biofilm formation. Therefore we presumed maggot excretions/secretions would reduce biofilm formation. We studied biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterobacter cloacae on polyethylene, titanium, and stainless steel. We compared the quantities of biofilm formation between the bacterial species on the various biomaterials and the quantity of biofilm formation after various incubation times. Maggot excretions/secretions were added to existing biofilms to examine their effect. Comb-like models of the biomaterials, made to fit in a 96-well microtiter plate, were incubated with bacterial suspension. The formed biofilms were stained in crystal violet, which was eluted in ethanol. The optical density (at 595 nm) of the eluate was determined to quantify biofilm formation. Maggot excretions/secretions were pipetted in different concentrations to (nonstained) 7-day-old biofilms, incubated 24 hours, and finally measured. The strongest biofilms were formed by S. aureus and S. epidermidis on polyethylene and the weakest on titanium. The highest quantity of biofilm formation was reached within 7 days for both bacteria. The presence of excretions/secretions reduced biofilm formation on all biomaterials. A maximum of 92% of biofilm reduction was measured. Our observations suggest maggot excretions/secretions decrease biofilm formation and could provide a new treatment for biofilm formation on infected biomaterials.

  18. A randomized cross-over study of the acute effects of running 5 km on glucose, insulin, metabolic rate, cortisol and Troponin T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Boris; Vergara, Marta; Nyberg, Sofia; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to study the impact by running 5 km, at maximal speed, on the normal variations of metabolic variables related to glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, cortisol, glucagon, Troponin T and metabolic rate. Five women and 12 men 25.7±5.2 years of age with a body-mass-index of 22.5±2.3 kg/m2 where recruited to run 5 km at individual maximal speed in the morning, and to a corresponding day of rest, followed by standardized breakfast and lunch meals. Blood sampling and measurement of indirect calorimetry were done before and after meals. The participants were randomized regarding the order of the two trial-days in this cross-over study. Insulin and cortisol levels were higher, and insulin sensitivity was lower, on the race-day compared with the day of rest (linear mixed model: pdays (p = 0.29 and p = 0.53, respectively). When analyzing specific time-points we found that glucose increased from 5.01±0.37 mmol/l to 6.36 ± 1.3 mmol/l, pindex of serum sensitivity, 1/(log10insulin+log10glucose), was lowered post-race, p<0.0001. Serum cortisol levels increased from 408±137 nmol/l to 644±171 nmol/l, p<0.0001, post-race while serum glucagon levels were unaffected. Troponin T was detectable in serum post-race in 12 out of the 17 participants and reached or surpassed the clinical reference level of 15 ng/l in three subjects. Post-race electrocardiograms displayed no pathologies. Relatively short running-races can apparently induce a reduction in insulin sensitivity that is not fully compensated by concomitantly increased insulin secretion intended to ensure euglycemia. Since also Troponin T was detected in plasma in a majority of the participants, our data suggest that it is possible to induce considerable metabolic stress by running merely 5 km, when striving for maximal speed.

  19. Intestinal excretion of metals by rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    The excretion of 65 Zn, sup(115m)Cd, 203 Hg, 207 Bi, 210 Pb, 60 Co, 64 Cu, 85 Sr and 86 Rb in the perfused sections of the intestinal tract in vivo was investigated by the pendular perfusion method. After intravenous administration the excretion of metals was investigated in the jejunum, in the colon and in some experiments also in the ileum. The fluid net movement in the jejunum and colon was measured in dependency on the energy spectrum of the applied metal isotope by means of 14 C or 3 H-polyethylene glycol 2000. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Insulin induces a positive relationship between the rates of ATP and glycogen changes in isolated rat liver in presence of glucose; a 31P and 13C NMR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin Henri

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an emerging theory suggesting that insulin, which is known to be the predominant postprandial anabolic hormone, is also a major regulator of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. However, little is known about its effects in the liver. Since there is a theoretical relationship between glycogen metabolism and energy status, a simultaneous and continuous investigation of hepatic ATP and glycogen content was performed in intact and isolated perfused liver by 31P and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR The hepatic rates of ATP and glycogen changes were evaluated with different concentrations of insulin and glucose during continuous and short-term supply. Results Liver from rats fed ad libitum were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit Buffer (KHB(controls or KHB containing 6 mM glucose, 30 mM glucose, insulin alone, insulin + 6 mM glucose, insulin + 30 mM glucose. In the control, glycogenolysis occurred at a rate of -0.53 ± 0.021 %·min-1 and ATP content decreased at a rate of -0.28 ± 0.029 %·min-1. In the absence of insulin, there was a close proportional relationship between the glycogen flux and the glucose concentration, whereas ATP rates never varied. With insulin + glucose, both glycogen and ATP rates were strongly related to the glucose concentration; the magnitude of net glycogen flux was linearly correlated to the magnitude of net ATP flux: fluxglycogen = 72.543(fluxATP + 172.08, R2 = 0.98. Conclusion Only the co-infusion of 30 mM glucose and insulin led to (i a net glycogen synthesis, (ii the maintenance of the hepatic ATP content, and a strong positive correlation between their net fluxes. This has never previously been reported. The specific effect of insulin on ATP change is likely related to a rapid stimulation of the hepatic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. We propose that variations in the correlation between rates of ATP and glycogen changes could be a probe for insulin

  1. Insulin induces a positive relationship between the rates of ATP and glycogen changes in isolated rat liver in presence of glucose; a 31P and 13C NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillet-Blanco, Laurence; Beauvieux, Marie-Christine; Gin, Henri; Rigalleau, Vincent; Gallis, Jean-Louis

    2005-11-21

    There is an emerging theory suggesting that insulin, which is known to be the predominant postprandial anabolic hormone, is also a major regulator of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. However, little is known about its effects in the liver. Since there is a theoretical relationship between glycogen metabolism and energy status, a simultaneous and continuous investigation of hepatic ATP and glycogen content was performed in intact and isolated perfused liver by 31P and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) The hepatic rates of ATP and glycogen changes were evaluated with different concentrations of insulin and glucose during continuous and short-term supply. Liver from rats fed ad libitum were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit Buffer (KHB)(controls) or KHB containing 6 mM glucose, 30 mM glucose, insulin alone, insulin + 6 mM glucose, insulin + 30 mM glucose. In the control, glycogenolysis occurred at a rate of -0.53 +/- 0.021 % x min(-1) and ATP content decreased at a rate of -0.28 +/- 0.029 % x min(-1). In the absence of insulin, there was a close proportional relationship between the glycogen flux and the glucose concentration, whereas ATP rates never varied. With insulin + glucose, both glycogen and ATP rates were strongly related to the glucose concentration; the magnitude of net glycogen flux was linearly correlated to the magnitude of net ATP flux: flux(glycogen) = 72.543(fluxATP) + 172.08, R2 = 0.98. Only the co-infusion of 30 mM glucose and insulin led to (i) a net glycogen synthesis, (ii) the maintenance of the hepatic ATP content, and a strong positive correlation between their net fluxes. This has never previously been reported. The specific effect of insulin on ATP change is likely related to a rapid stimulation of the hepatic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. We propose that variations in the correlation between rates of ATP and glycogen changes could be a probe for insulin resistance due to the action of substrates

  2. Determination of glucose exchange rates and permeability of erythrocyte membrane in preeclampsia and subsequent oxidative stress-related protein damage using dynamic-{sup 19}F-NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabeth.dickinson@york.ac.uk [University of York, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Arnold, John R. P. [Selby College (United Kingdom); Fisher, Julie [University of Leeds, School of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    The cause of the pregnancy condition preeclampsia (PE) is thought to be endothelial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress. As abnormal glucose tolerance has also been associated with PE, we use a fluorinated-mimic of this metabolite to establish whether any oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in the erythrocyte membrane has increased cell membrane permeability. Data were acquired using {sup 19}F Dynamic-NMR (DNMR) to measure exchange of 3-fluoro-3-deoxyglucose (3-FDG) across the membrane of erythrocytes from 10 pregnant women (5 healthy control women, and 5 from women suffering from PE). Magnetisation transfer was measured using the 1D selective inversion and 2D EXSY pulse sequences, over a range of time delays. Integrated intensities from these experiments were used in matrix diagonalisation to estimate the values of the rate constants of exchange and membrane permeability. No significant differences were observed for the rate of exchange of 3-FDG and membrane permeability between healthy pregnant women and those suffering from PE, leading us to conclude that no oxidative damage had occurred at this carrier-protein site in the membrane.

  3. Determination of glucose exchange rates and permeability of erythrocyte membrane in preeclampsia and subsequent oxidative stress-related protein damage using dynamic-"1"9F-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, Elizabeth; Arnold, John R. P.; Fisher, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The cause of the pregnancy condition preeclampsia (PE) is thought to be endothelial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress. As abnormal glucose tolerance has also been associated with PE, we use a fluorinated-mimic of this metabolite to establish whether any oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in the erythrocyte membrane has increased cell membrane permeability. Data were acquired using "1"9F Dynamic-NMR (DNMR) to measure exchange of 3-fluoro-3-deoxyglucose (3-FDG) across the membrane of erythrocytes from 10 pregnant women (5 healthy control women, and 5 from women suffering from PE). Magnetisation transfer was measured using the 1D selective inversion and 2D EXSY pulse sequences, over a range of time delays. Integrated intensities from these experiments were used in matrix diagonalisation to estimate the values of the rate constants of exchange and membrane permeability. No significant differences were observed for the rate of exchange of 3-FDG and membrane permeability between healthy pregnant women and those suffering from PE, leading us to conclude that no oxidative damage had occurred at this carrier-protein site in the membrane.

  4. Tissular localization and excretion of intravenously administered silica nanoparticles of different sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guangping; Sun Jiao; Zhong Gaoren

    2012-01-01

    The nanotoxicology as a new subdiscipline of nanotechnology needs to be studied in vivo. To do so, it is essential to understand certain pharmacological information of the nanoparticles in vivo. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been developed for a number of biomedical uses; however, research on their tissular localization and excretion has been limited. In this study, we analyzed the localization of intravenously administered SiNPs with sizes of 20 and 80 nm in liver and spleen and quantitatively investigated the excretion of SiNPs through urine and feces. The results of the tissular localization study showed that the SiNPs were located in liver evenly; however, they were mainly accumulated in the white pulp of spleen. The quantitative excretory assay found the renal excretion being the main excretion pathway of SiNPs and indicated that the accumulated excretory rate of 80 nm SiNPs through urine was higher than that of 20 nm SiNPs because of the higher hemoconcentration. Further analysis of radioactive substances in the excreta showed the convincing confirmatory evidence that the SiNPs of both the sizes of 20 and 80 nm could be excreted through urine. These results provide important information on in vivo distribution and excretion of SiNPs.

  5. Urinary Angiotensinogen and Renin Excretion are Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Juretzko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Several studies sought to identify new biomarkers for chronic kidney disease (CKD. As the renal renin-angiotensin system is activated in CKD, urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion may be suitable candidates. We tested whether urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion is elevated in CKD and whether these parameters are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We further tested whether urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion may convey additional information beyond that provided by albuminuria. Methods: We measured urinary and plasma angiotensinogen, renin, albumin and creatinine in 177 CKD patients from the Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine project and in 283 healthy controls from the Study of Health in Pomerania. The urinary excretion of specific proteins is given as protein-to-creatinine ratio. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, spearman correlation coefficients and linear regression models were calculated. Results: Urinary angiotensinogen [2,511 (196-31,909 vs. 18.6 (8.3-44.0 pmol/g, *P<0.01] and renin excretion [0.311 (0.135-1.155 vs. 0.069 (0.045-0.148 pmol/g, *P<0.01] were significantly higher in CKD patients than in healthy controls. The area under the ROC curve was significantly larger when urinary angiotensinogen, renin and albumin excretion were combined than with urinary albumin excretion alone. Urinary angiotensinogen (ß-coefficient -2.405, standard error 0.117, P<0.01 and renin excretion (ß-coefficient -0.793, standard error 0.061, P<0.01 were inversely associated with eGFR. Adjustment for albuminuria, age, sex, systolic blood pressure and body mass index did not significantly affect the results. Conclusion: Urinary angiotensinogen and renin excretion are elevated in CKD patients. Both parameters are negatively associated with eGFR and these associations are independent of urinary albumin excretion. In CKD patients urinary angiotensinogen and renin excretion may

  6. Urinary Angiotensinogen and Renin Excretion are Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juretzko, Annett; Steinbach, Antje; Hannemann, Anke; Endlich, Karlhans; Endlich, Nicole; Friedrich, Nele; Lendeckel, Uwe; Stracke, Sylvia; Rettig, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Several studies sought to identify new biomarkers for chronic kidney disease (CKD). As the renal renin-angiotensin system is activated in CKD, urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion may be suitable candidates. We tested whether urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion is elevated in CKD and whether these parameters are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We further tested whether urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion may convey additional information beyond that provided by albuminuria. We measured urinary and plasma angiotensinogen, renin, albumin and creatinine in 177 CKD patients from the Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine project and in 283 healthy controls from the Study of Health in Pomerania. The urinary excretion of specific proteins is given as protein-to-creatinine ratio. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, spearman correlation coefficients and linear regression models were calculated. Urinary angiotensinogen [2,511 (196-31,909) vs. 18.6 (8.3-44.0) pmol/g, *P<0.01] and renin excretion [0.311 (0.135-1.155) vs. 0.069 (0.045-0.148) pmol/g, *P<0.01] were significantly higher in CKD patients than in healthy controls. The area under the ROC curve was significantly larger when urinary angiotensinogen, renin and albumin excretion were combined than with urinary albumin excretion alone. Urinary angiotensinogen (ß-coefficient -2.405, standard error 0.117, P<0.01) and renin excretion (ß-coefficient -0.793, standard error 0.061, P<0.01) were inversely associated with eGFR. Adjustment for albuminuria, age, sex, systolic blood pressure and body mass index did not significantly affect the results. Urinary angiotensinogen and renin excretion are elevated in CKD patients. Both parameters are negatively associated with eGFR and these associations are independent of urinary albumin excretion. In CKD patients urinary angiotensinogen and renin excretion may convey additional information beyond that provided by

  7. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...

  8. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict...... ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants...

  9. Glucose allostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stumvoll, Michael; Tataranni, P Antonio; Stefan, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    individuals with normal glucose tolerance, normoglycemia can always be maintained by compensatorily increasing AIR in response to decreasing M (and vice versa). This has been mathematically described by the hyperbolic relationship between AIR and M and referred to as glucose homeostasis, with glucose......In many organisms, normoglycemia is achieved by a tight coupling of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell (acute insulin response [AIR]) and the metabolic action of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal (insulin action [M]). It is widely accepted that in healthy...... concentration assumed to remain constant along the hyperbola. Conceivably, glucose is one of the signals stimulating AIR in response to decreasing M. Hypothetically, as with any normally functioning feed-forward system, AIR should not fully compensate for worsening M, since this would remove the stimulus...

  10. Empagliflozin: a new sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J Neumiller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is increasing in prevalence worldwide, and hyperglycemia is often poorly controlled despite a number of therapeutic options. Unlike previously available agents, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors offer an insulin-independent mechanism for improving blood glucose levels, since they promote urinary glucose excretion (UGE by inhibiting glucose reabsorption in the kidney. In addition to glucose control, SGLT2 inhibitors are associated with weight loss and blood pressure reductions, and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Empagliflozin is a selective inhibitor of SGLT2, providing dose-dependent UGE increases in healthy volunteers, with up to 90 g of glucose excreted per day. It can be administered orally, and studies of people with renal or hepatic impairment indicated empagliflozin needed no dose adjustment based on pharmacokinetics. In Phase II trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, empagliflozin provided improvements in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and other measures of glycemic control when given as monotherapy or add-on to metformin, as well as reductions in weight and systolic blood pressure. As add-on to basal insulin, empagliflozin not only improved HbA1c levels but also reduced insulin doses. Across studies, empagliflozin was generally well tolerated with a similar rate of hypoglycemia to placebo; however, patients had a slightly increased frequency of genital infections, but not urinary tract infections, versus placebo. Phase III studies have also reported a good safety profile along with significant improvements in HbA1c, weight and blood pressure, with no increased risk of hypoglycemia versus placebo. Based on available data, it appears that empagliflozin may be a useful option in a range of patients; however, clinical decisions will be better informed by the results of ongoing studies, in particular, a large cardiovascular outcome study (EMPA-REG OUTCOME™.

  11. Influence of body size, metabolic rate and life history stage on the uptake and excretion of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) by invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Laura R; Long, Tristan A F; Wilkie, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    Invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are controlled in the Great Lakes using the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), which is applied to streams infested with larval lamprey. However, lamprey that survive treatments (residuals) remain a challenge because they may subsequently undergo metamorphosis into parasitic juvenile animals that migrate downstream to the Great Lakes, where they feed on important sport and commercial fishes. The goal of this study was to determine if body size and life stage could potentially influence sea lamprey tolerance to TFM by influencing patterns of TFM uptake and elimination. Because mass specific rates of oxygen consumption (M˙O 2 ) are lower in larger compared to smaller lamprey, we predicted that TFM uptake would be negatively correlated to body size, suggesting that large larvae would be more tolerant to TFM exposure. Accordingly, TFM uptake and M˙O 2 were measured in larvae ranging in size from 0.2-4.2g using radio-labelled TFM ( 14 C-TFM) and static respirometry. Both were inversely proportional to wet mass (M), and could be described usingthe allometric power relationship: Y=aM b , in which M˙O 2 =1.86M 0.53 and TFM Uptake=7.24M 0.34 . We also predicted that body size would extend to rates of TFM elimination, which was measured following the administration of 14 C-TFM (via intraperitoneal injection). However, there were no differences in the half-lives of elimination of TFM (T 1/2 -TFM). There were also no differences in M˙O 2 or TFM uptake amongst size-matched larval, metamorphosing (stages 6-7), or post-metamorphic (juvenile) sea lamprey. However, the T 1/2 -TFM was significantly lower in larval than post-metamorphic lamprey (juvenile), indicating the larval lamprey cleared TFM more efficiently than juvenile lamprey. We conclude that larger larval sea lamprey are more likely to survive TFM treatments suggesting that body size might be an important variable to consider when treating streams with TFM to

  12. Intestinal Farnesoid X Receptor Controls Transintestinal Cholesterol Excretion in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J.F. de; Schonewille, M.; Boesjes, M.; Wolters, H.; Bloks, V.W.; Bos, T.; Dijk, T.H. van; Jurdzinski, A.; Boverhof, R.; Wolters, J.C.; Kuivenhoven, J.A.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Elferink, R.P.; Moschetta, A.; Kremoser, C.; Verkade, H.J.; Kuipers, F.; Groen, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of the intestine in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis increasingly is recognized. Fecal excretion of cholesterol is the last step in the atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway, to which biliary and transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE)

  13. Method for obtaining more precise measures of excreted organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A new method for concentrating and measuring excreted organic carbon by lyophilization and scintillation counting is efficient, improves measurable radioactivity, and increases precision for estimates of organic carbon excreted by phytoplankton and macrophytes

  14. Assessment of myocardial metabolic rate of glucose by means of Bayesian ICA and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods in small animal PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berradja, Khadidja; Boughanmi, Nabil

    2016-09-01

    In dynamic cardiac PET FDG studies the assessment of myocardial metabolic rate of glucose (MMRG) requires the knowledge of the blood input function (IF). IF can be obtained by manual or automatic blood sampling and cross calibrated with PET. These procedures are cumbersome, invasive and generate uncertainties. The IF is contaminated by spillover of radioactivity from the adjacent myocardium and this could cause important error in the estimated MMRG. In this study, we show that the IF can be extracted from the images in a rat heart study with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) by means of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) based on Bayesian theory and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling method (BICA). Images of the heart from rats were acquired with the Sherbrooke small animal PET scanner. A region of interest (ROI) was drawn around the rat image and decomposed into blood and tissue using BICA. The Statistical study showed that there is a significant difference (p corrupted with spillover.

  15. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Differences in Plasma Concentrations of Arabinose and Xylose after Consumption of Fiber-Rich Pasta and Wheat Bread with Differential Rates of Systemic Appearance of Exogenous Glucose in Healthy Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Wopereis, Suzan; Eelderink, Coby; Vonk, Roel J.; Stroeve, Johanna H.; Bijlsma, Sabina; van Stee, Leo; Bobeldijk, Ivana; Priebes, Marion G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The consumption of products rich in cereal fiber and with a low glycemic index is implicated in a lower risk of metabolic diseases. Previously, we showed that the consumption of fiber-rich pasta compared with bread resulted in a lower rate of appearance of exogenous glucose and a lower

  16. [Renal excretion of methylene-diphosphate-technium-99m. Preliminary observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Martini, G

    1983-11-30

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of the renal excretion of 99mTc-MDP in man. We compared the renal clearance of 99mTc-MDP and 51Cr-EDTA (glomerular filtration rate agent). Since the 99mTc-MDP is bound to the plasma protein, the free fraction was calculated by dialysis. The clearances were obtained by single-injection technique. The plasma disappearance of the tracers was resolved into three exponential functions and area was calculated. The clearance was calculated by dividing the amount of the tracers excreted during the first four hours and the plasma area. In this study no difference was found in the clearance of the two agents. These findings suggest that the renal excretion of diphosphonate is related to the glomerular filtration rate.

  17. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  18. Investment in boney defensive traits alters organismal stoichiometry and excretion in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabaawi, Rana W; Warbanski, Misha L; Rudman, Seth M; Hovel, Rachel; Matthews, Blake

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how trait diversification alters ecosystem processes is an important goal for ecological and evolutionary studies. Ecological stoichiometry provides a framework for predicting how traits affect ecosystem function. The growth rate hypothesis of ecological stoichiometry links growth and phosphorus (P) body composition in taxa where nucleic acids are a significant pool of body P. In vertebrates, however, most of the P is bound within bone, and organisms with boney structures can vary in terms of the relative contributions of bones to body composition. Threespine stickleback populations have substantial variation in boney armour plating. Shaped by natural selection, this variation provides a model system to study the links between evolution of bone content, elemental body composition, and P excretion. We measure carbon:nitrogen:P body composition from stickleback populations that vary in armour phenotype. We develop a mechanistic mass-balance model to explore factors affecting P excretion, and measure P excretion from two populations with contrasting armour phenotypes. Completely armoured morphs have higher body %P but excrete more P per unit body mass than other morphs. The model suggests that such differences are driven by phenotypic differences in P intake as well as body %P composition. Our results show that while investment in boney traits alters the elemental composition of vertebrate bodies, excretion rates depend on how acquisition and assimilation traits covary with boney trait investment. These results also provide a stoichiometric hypothesis to explain the repeated loss of boney armour in threespine sticklebacks upon colonizing freshwater ecosystems.

  19. Plasma disappearance, urine excretion, and tissue distribution of ribavirin in rats and rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, E.A.; Oishi, J.S.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.; Stephen, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Ribavirin has been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral. To study its tissue distribution and disappearance rate, a single dose of 10 mg/kg which contained 10 microCi of [14C]ribavirin was injected intravenously into rhesus monkeys and intramuscularly into monkeys and rats. Except for peak plasma concentrations and the initial phases of the plasma disappearance and urine excretion curves, no significant difference was observed between plasma, tissue, or urine values for intramuscularly or intravenously injected monkeys. Plasma disappearance curves were triphasic; plasma concentrations of ribavirin were similar for both monkeys and rats. Rats excreted ribavirin in the urine more rapidly and to a greater extent (82% excreted in 24 h) than did monkeys (60% excreted in 72 h). In the rat, only 3% of the injected [14C]ribavirin was detected in expired CO2. Therefore, for both species, urine was the major route for the elimination of labeled ribavirin and its metabolites from the body. In monkeys, the amount of parent drug in blood cells increased through 48 h and remained stable for 72 h, whereas in rats, ribavirin decreased at a rate similar to the plasma disappearance curve. Concentrations of ribavirin at 8 h were consistently higher in monkeys than in rats for all tissues except the brain. Thus, these differences in blood cellular components and organ content and in urine excretion suggested that there was greater tissue retention of ribavirin in monkeys than in rats

  20. Biokinetics of 13C in the human body after oral administration of 13C-labeled glucose as an index for the biokinetics of 14C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tsuyoshi; Tako, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kensaku; Takeda, Hiroshi; Endo, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2016-09-01

    The retention of 13 C in the human body after oral administration of 13 C-labeled glucose was studied in three healthy volunteer subjects to estimate the 50 year cumulative body burden for 13 C as an index of the committed dose of the radioisotope 14 C. After administration of 13 C-labeled glucose, the volunteers ingested controlled diets with a fixed number of calories for 112 d. Samples of breath and urine were collected up to 112 d after administration. Samples of feces were collected up to 14 d after administration. Hair samples were obtained at 119 d after administration and analyzed as a representative index of the rate of excretion of organic 13 C via pathways such as skin cell exfoliation and mucus secretion. All samples were analyzed for 13 C/ 12 C atomic ratio to determine the rate of excretion via each pathway. We then constructed a metabolic model with a total of four pathways (breath, urine, feces, and other) comprising seven compartments. We determined the values of the biokinetic parameters in the model by using the obtained excretion data. From 74% to 94% of the 13 C administered was excreted in breath, whereas    0.1). In addition, the dataset for one of the three subjects was markedly different from those of the other two. When we estimated the 50 year cumulative body burden for 13 C by using our model and we included non-statistically significant parameters, a considerable cumulative body burden was found in the compartments excreting to the other pathway. Although our results on the cumulative body burden of 13 C from orally administered carbon as glucose were inconclusive, we found that the compartments excreting to the other pathway had a markedly long residence time and therefore should be studied further to clarify the fate of carbon in the human body. In addition to excreta, data for serum and blood cell samples were also collected from the subjects to examine the metabolism of 13 C in human body.

  1. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624

  2. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection

    OpenAIRE

    Vogeser, Michael; Jacob, Karl; Zachoval, Reinhart

    1999-01-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive ou...

  3. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  4. Effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J; Harper, M; Giallongo, F; Bravo, D M; Wall, E H; Hristov, A N

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg of RPC/cow per day. They were mixed with a small portion of the total mixed ration and top-dressed. Glucose tolerance test was conducted once during each experimental period by intravenous administration of glucose at a rate of 0.3 g/kg of body weight. Dry matter intake was not affected by RPC. Milk yield tended to increase for RPC treatments compared to the control. Feed efficiency was linearly increased by RPC supplementation. Concentrations of fat, true protein, and lactose in milk were not affected by RPC. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein was linearly increased, and fecal nitrogen excretion was linearly decreased by RPC supplementation. Rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin did not affect the composition of fecal bacteria. Glucose concentration in serum was not affected by RPC supplementation post glucose challenge. However, compared to the control, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration at 5, 10, and 40 min post glucose challenge. The area under the insulin concentration curve was also decreased 25% by RPC. Concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in serum were not affected by RPC following glucose administration. In this study, RPC tended to increase milk production and increased feed efficiency in dairy cows. In addition, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration during the glucose tolerance test, but glucose concentration was not affected

  5. Effects of glucose, lactate and basic FGF as limiting factors on the expansion of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Ikki; Urabe, Yusuke; Kimura, Keiichi; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2018-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are one of the promising cell sources for tissue engineering and drug screening. However, mass production of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is still developing. Especially, a huge amount of culture medium usage causes expensive cost in the mass production process. In this report, we reduced culture medium usage by extending interval of changing culture medium. In parallel, we also increased glucose concentration and supplied heparan sulfate to avoid depletion of glucose and bFGF, respectively. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses showed that reducing medium change frequency increased differentiation marker expressions but high glucose concentration downregulated these expressions. In contrast, heparan sulfate did not prevent differentiation marker expressions. According to analyses of growth rate, cell growth with extended medium change interval was decreased in later stage of log growth phase despite the existence of high glucose concentration and heparan sulfate. This result and culturing iPSCs with lactate showed that the accumulation of excreted lactate decreased the growth rate regardless of pH control. Conclusively, these experiments show that adding glucose and removing lactate are important to expand iPSCs with reduced culture medium usage. This knowledge should be useful to design economical iPSC mass production and differentiation system. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of intravenous glucose infusion on renal function in normal man and in insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, M; Parving, H H; Christiansen, JS

    1981-01-01

    The effect of intravenous glucose infusion on glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow (constant infusion technique using 125I-iothalamate and 131I-hippuran) and on urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin were studied in ten normal subjects and seven metabolically well......-controlled insulin-dependent diabetics. Following glucose infusion in normal subjects (n = 10) blood glucose increased from 4.7 +/- 0.1 to 10.9 +/- 0.4 mmol/l (SEM) (p less than or equal to 0.01). Glomerular filtration rate increased from 116 +/- 2 to 123 +/- 3 ml/mi x 1.73 m2 (p less than or equal to 0.01), while...... no change in renal plasma flow was seen - 552 +/- 11 versus 553 +/- 18 ml/min x 1.73 m2. Volume expansion with intravenous saline infusion in six of the normal subjects induced no changes in blood glucose or kidney function. In seven strictly controlled insulin-dependent diabetics, blood glucose values were...

  7. Glucose metabolism in lactating reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R G; Luick, J R

    1976-01-01

    Changes in glucose synthesis during the lactation cycle were estimated in pen-fed and grazing reindeer. The pool size, space, transfer rate, and irreversible loss of glucose were determined using simultaneous injections of (2-/sup 3/H)glucose and primed infusions of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose in reindeer lactating for 1-2, 4-5, 8-9, and 12-16 weeks. Glucose transfer rate and irreversible loss were higher during early to midlactation than at other times of the year; maximum estimates were at 8-9 week postpartum (July), and a decline was noted at 12-16 weeks (August). During the first 1-2 weeks in pen-fed and 4-5 weeks in grazing reindeer, glucose transfer rate and irreversible loss were almost twice the values reported for reindeer at maintenance. No difference in the irreversible loss of glucose was noted between lactating and non-lactating reindeer at 18-20 weeks postpartum (September), and there is evidence that this may occur as early as 12-16 weeks postpartum. No significant trend was noted in the glucose space throughout lactation; however, a significant increase in plasma glucose concentration and pool size was noted when glucose synthesis was highest (8-9 weeks postpartum). Glucose turnover time was consistently faster (78-88 min) in lactating than in non-lactating reindeer (107-140 min). Reindeer used a smaller proportion of plasma glucose-C for lactose synthesis than did other domestic species. This probably results from the low lactose content of reindeer milk and the relatively low rate of milk secretion. (auth)

  8. α-Glucosidase inhibitor miglitol attenuates glucose fluctuation, heart rate variability and sympathetic activity in patients with type 2 diabetes and acute coronary syndrome: a multicenter randomized controlled (MACS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Michio; Tanaka, Atsushi; Sata, Masataka; Dai, Kazuoki; Shibata, Yoshisato; Inoue, Yohei; Ikenaga, Hiroki; Kishimoto, Shinji; Ogasawara, Kozue; Takashima, Akira; Niki, Toshiyuki; Arasaki, Osamu; Oshiro, Koichi; Mori, Yutaka; Ishihara, Masaharu; Node, Koichi

    2017-07-06

    Little is known about clinical associations between glucose fluctuations including hypoglycemia, heart rate variability (HRV), and the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in patients with acute phase of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This pilot study aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of glucose fluctuations on HRV and SNS activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with recent ACS. We also examined the effect of suppressing glucose fluctuations with miglitol on these variables. This prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, multicenter, parallel-group comparative study included 39 T2DM patients with recent ACS, who were randomly assigned to either a miglitol group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 20). After initial 24-h Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) (Day 1), miglitol was commenced and another 24-h Holter ECG (Day 2) was recorded. In addition, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was performed throughout the Holter ECG. Although frequent episodes of subclinical hypoglycemia (≤4.44 mmo/L) during CGM were observed on Day 1 in the both groups (35% of patients in the control group and 31% in the miglitol group), glucose fluctuations were decreased and the minimum glucose level was increased with substantial reduction in the episodes of subclinical hypoglycemia to 7.7% in the miglitol group on Day 2. Holter ECG showed that the mean and maximum heart rate and mean LF/HF were increased on Day 2 in the control group, and these increases were attenuated by miglitol. When divided 24-h time periods into day-time (0700-1800 h), night-time (1800-0000 h), and bed-time (0000-0700 h), we found increased SNS activity during day-time, increased maximum heart rate during night-time, and glucose fluctuations during bed-time, which were attenuated by miglitol treatment. In T2DM patients with recent ACS, glucose fluctuations with subclinical hypoglycemia were associated with alterations of HRV and SNS activity, which were mitigated by

  9. Night-rest urinary catecholamine excretion in relation to aspects of free time, work and background data in a teacher group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, U; Vihko, V

    1991-01-01

    Free time, work and background data were related to night-rest catecholamine excretion rates in a teacher group (n = 137) during an autumn term. The explained interindividual variance increased slightly towards the end of the term. Adrenaline excretion was predicted better than noradrenaline, notedly by coffee consumption, amount of physical activity, and subjective stress feelings which explained 16% of the variance in adrenaline excretion during night rest. However, the results indicated that the differences in catecholamine excretion during night rest remained mostly unpredictable.

  10. Campylobacter Immunity and Quantitative Excretion Rates in Thai Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    vitro studies suggest that other pathogens, in- excluded if the diarrhea had lasted >3 days or jfthe patient had C 0 ~~~~~~~recently received...antibiotics. Age.smtsadciclancluding Shigella and Salmonella species and Escherichia coli. . . symptoms. and clinical and treatment data were recorded, and...ubiq- static cellulitic lesions progressing to bullae formation, skin uitous in the estuarine environment. It can cause a syndrome necrosis, necrotizin

  11. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiko, Rainer; Hauss, Helena; Buchholz, Friedrich; Melzner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Calanoid copepods and euphausiids are key components of marine zooplankton communities worldwide. Most euphausiids and several copepod species perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs) that contribute to the export of particulate and dissolved matter to midwater depths. In vast areas of the global ocean, and in particular in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific, the daytime distribution depth of many migrating organisms corresponds to the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). At depth, the animals experience reduced temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) and an increased carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) compared to their near-surface nighttime habitat. Although it is well known that low oxygen levels can inhibit respiratory activity, the respiration response of tropical copepods and euphausiids to relevant pCO2, pO2, and temperature conditions remains poorly parameterized. Further, the regulation of ammonium excretion at OMZ conditions is generally not well understood. It was recently estimated that DVM-mediated ammonium supply could fuel bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation - a major loss process for fixed nitrogen in the ocean considerably. These estimates were based on the implicit assumption that hypoxia or anoxia in combination with hypercapnia (elevated pCO2) does not result in a down-regulation of ammonium excretion. We exposed calanoid copepods from the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA; Undinula vulgaris and Pleuromamma abdominalis) and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP; Euphausia mucronata) and the ETNA (Euphausia gibboides) to different temperatures, carbon dioxide and oxygen levels to study their survival, respiration and excretion rates at these conditions. An increase in temperature by 10 °C led to an approximately 2-fold increase of the respiration and excretion rates of U. vulgaris (Q10, respiration = 1.4; Q10, NH4-excretion = 1.6), P. abdominalis (Q10, respiration = 2.0; Q10, NH4-excretion = 2.4) and

  12. Blood pressure, body mass index, heart rate and levels of blood cholesterol and glucose of volunteers during National Heart Weeks, 1995-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, K L; Tan, H; Liew, Y M; Sambhi, J S; Aljafri, A M; Hatijah, A

    2000-12-01

    The paper presents the results of a health screening programme conducted in 10 major centers in Malaysia--Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Alor Star, Kuala Terengganu, Malacca, Kota Bahru, Kuching and Kota Kinabalu during the National Heart Weeks, 1995-1997. There were 6,858 participants of both sexes aged between 6 years to 81 years old. The parameters involved in the screening programme were body mass index, blood pressure, heart rate, cholesterol and glucose. The following are the results of the study:- 1. The mean and standard deviation for the body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), total cholesterol (TC) and non fasting (random) blood glucose (GL) of the volunteers studied were 24.3 +/- 4.0 kg/m2, 128.3 +/- 21.1 mmHg, 79.6 +/- 11.9 mmHg, 77.2 +/- 12.1 bpm, 5.33 +/- 1.37 mmol/l and 5.11 +/- 1.97 mmol/l respectively. 2. There was a rising trend for BMI, SBP, DBP, TC and GL with age. The HR was higher in the younger age group of those below 20 years. Males tended to have higher mean values than females except for HR which was similar in both sexes. 3. The Malays, Chinese and Indians seemed to have closely similar mean values for SBP, DBP and HR but the Indians possessed the highest BMI (25.62 +/- 3.90 kg/m2), TC (5.61 +/- 1.48 mmol/l) and GL (5.41 +/- 2.43 mmol/l) among the three major ethnic groups. While the Ibans had highest TC (6.07 + 1.09 mmol/l), their GL level was the lowest (4.76 +/- 1.15 mmol/l). The Kadazans had the lowest TC level (4.94 +/- 1.39 mmol/l) among all the ethnic groups. 4. Among the participants screened, 31.9% were overweight (BMI > or = 25), 7.6% were obese (BMI > or = 30); 26.8% had raised SBP (> or = 140 mmHg) and 19.3% had raised DBP (> or = 90 mmHg); 13.6% of the participants had increased HR (> or = 90 bpm), 22% had raised TC (> or = 6.20 mmol/l) and 2% had raised GL (> or = 11.00 mmol/l). There was a higher prevalence for abnormal values with increasing age

  13. Inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption as a novel treatment for diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Cersosimo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the kidney in glucose homeostasis has been recognized for many years. Recent observations indicating a greater role of renal glucose metabolism in various physiologic and pathologic conditions have rekindled the interest in renal glucose handling as a potential target for the treatment of diabetes. The enormous capacity of the proximal tubular cells to reabsorb the filtered glucose load entirely, utilizing the sodium-glucose co-transporter system (primarily SGLT-2, became the focus of attention. Original studies conducted in experimental animals with the nonspecific SGLT inhibitor phlorizin showed that hyperglycemia after pancreatectomy decreased as a result of forced glycosuria. Subsequently, several compounds with more selective SGLT-2 inhibition properties (“second-generation” were developed. Some agents made it into pre-clinical and clinical trials and a few have already been approved for commercial use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In general, a 6-month period of therapy with SGLT-2 inhibitors is followed by a mean urinary glucose excretion rate of ~80 g/day accompanied by a decline in fasting and postprandial glucose with average decreases in HgA1C ~1.0%. Concomitant body weight loss and a mild but consistent drop in blood pressure also have been reported. In contrast, transient polyuria, thirst with dehydration and occasional hypotension have been described early in the treatment. In addition, a significant increase in the occurrence of uro-genital infections, particularly in women has been documented with the use of SGLT-2 inhibitors. Conclusion: Although long-term cardiovascular, renal and bone/mineral effects are unknown SGLT-2 inhibitors, if used with caution and in the proper patient provide a unique insulin-independent therapeutic option in the management of obese type 2 diabetes patients.

  14. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of 15 N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state

  15. Urinary excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein and epidermal growth factor in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torffvit, O; Jørgensen, P E; Kamper, A L

    1998-01-01

    rate (GFR) as an indicator for the general renal function, lithium clearance (C(Li)) as an indicator for proximal tubular function, and absolute distal reabsorption of sodium (ADR(Na)) as an indicator for distal tubular function. The excretion rate of EGF was rather closely correlated with GFR, C......(Li) and ADR(Na) (Spearman coefficients of variation 0.88, 0.69, and 0.74, respectively). The correlations between the excretion rate of THP and GFR, C(Li) and ADR(Na) were weaker (Spearman coefficients of variation 0.68, 0.42, and 0.44). When the effect of GFR had been accounted for by multiple variance...... analyses, the excretion rates of the two peptides were still associated with ADR(Na) but not with C(Li). In conclusion, the urinary excretion rates of especially EGF but also those of THP were correlated with renal function and distal tubular reabsorption of sodium in patients with chronic nephropathy....

  16. DIETARY PROTEIN INTAKE IS INDEPENDENTLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE URINARY EXCRETION OF PHOSPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dobronravov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Decrease of urinary phosphate (P excretion and P retention triggers activation of phosphotonins and subsequent development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in progressing of chronic kidney disease (CKD. The main source of P is dietary protein. No large studies are presented to-date to evaluate the relationship between dietary protein intake and parameters of P metabolism in CKD patients. This was a goal of the cross-sectional cohort study .11315 CKD patients were entered (males 43%. Median (10th-90th percentile of age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR were 46 (24-69 and 64 (24-104. The analyzed data were: age, gender, body mass index (BMI serum albumin, creatinine, calcium and phosphate; 24-h urine creatinine, phosphate (P,proteinuria (DP. Estimated parameters includes: eGFR, fractional P excretion (FEP, 24-h P excretion (24-h UP, and P clearance (CP. Dietary protein intake (DPI was based on 24-h urinary urea excretion. No significant differences in serum phosphate were found in groups with various DPI. FEP, 24-h UP and CP were significantly higher in higher DPI range. DPI was positively associated with 24-h UP (β=0,287, p<0.000001 in multivariate model adjusted for age, gender, DP, eGFR, serum P, FEP, BMI, and Ca. Thus, DPI is considered to be the independent factor influencing urinary P excretion and hence contributing to progression of mineral and bone disease in renal dysfunction.

  17. Biliary excretion and distribution of 51Cr(III) and 51Cr(VI) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cikrt, M.; Bencko, V.

    1979-01-01

    The biliary excretion and distribution of 51 Cr after intravenous administration of 51 Cr(III) ( 51 CrCl 3 ) or 51 Cr(VI) (Na 2 51 CrO 4 .4H 2 O) were studied in rats. The cumulative biliary excretion of 51 Cr 24 hrs after the injection was significantly higher after administration of 51 Cr(VI) than of 51 Cr(III) (3.51+-0.7% and 0.51+-0.05% of administered dose, respectively). This difference was especially due to a higher rate of biliary excretion of 51 Cr in the first hours after 51 Cr(VI) administration. The excretion of 51 Cr via feces was also higher after administration of 51 Cr(VI) (7.35+-0.45%) of administered dose, as against 4.23+-0.23% after 51 Cr(III). On the other hand, no significant difference in urinary excretion of 51 Cr was found. Statistically significant differences were also observed in the distribution of 51 Cr in the organism after administration of both valence states of the metal. (author)

  18. The excretion of ammonium by enchytraeids (Cognettia sphagnetorum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Kristine; Christensen, Bent; Holmstrup, Martin

    2011-01-01

    a significant role in the N-cycling. The objective of this study was to quantify NH4+–N excretion of C. sphagnetorum at different temperatures. The results were combined with investigations of population dynamics during one year to estimate annual NH4+–N excretion of the population of C. sphagnetorum in a dry...... Danish heath soil. C. sphagnetorum significantly increased its NH4+–N excretion rate with increasing temperature. At 5 °C about 0.5 μg NH4+–N mg dry weight−1 day−1 was excreted increasing to about 3.3 μg NH4+–N mg dry weight−1 day−1 at 20 °C. Average enchytraeid biomass in the field was 2.5–3.5 g dry...... weight m−2 during cool and wet periods. Dry and warm conditions in May and June, 2008, had a drastic and long-term negative impact on the enchytraeid community. The excretion of NH4+–N by enchytraeids was therefore highest during the cool and moist months despite low temperatures (October 2007–May 2008...

  19. Normalization of glucose concentrations and deceleration of gastric emptying after solid meals during intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Gallwitz, Baptist; Salmen, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    in the fasting state and after a solid test meal (containing [(13)C]octanoic acid). Blood was drawn for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and GLP-1 determinations. The gastric emptying rate was calculated from the (13)CO(2) excretion rates in breath samples. Statistics were determined using repeated......The effects of different i.v. doses of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on glucose homeostasis and gastric emptying were compared in patients with type 2 diabetes. Twelve patients with type 2 diabetes received three different infusion rates of GLP-1 (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 pmol/kg x min) or placebo...... ingestion (P = 0.0031 and 0.0074, respectively). Glucagon secretion was suppressed with GLP-1. Gastric emptying was decelerated by GLP-1 in a dose-dependent fashion (P

  20. Treatment with acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, reduces increased albumin excretion in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M P; Vasselli, J R; Neuman, R G; Witt, J

    1995-10-01

    1. We examined the effect of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in streptozotocin diabetic rats. 2. Treatment with acarbose for 8 weeks after induction of diabetes prevented the significant increase in UAE observed in untreated diabetic rats relative to nondiabetic controls. 3. Acarbose significantly reduced integrated glycemia, which correlated with albumin excretion rates, and exerts a salutary effect on diabetic renal dysfunction.

  1. Diminished renal urea excretion in the llama at reduced food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Renal urea excretion was studied in three llamas under various feeding conditions. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated from inulin clearance. Tubular reabsorbed urea was the difference between glomerular filtered and renal excreted urea. Plasma urea concentration increased significantly when feeding was reduced by 40% and 60%, not applicable to a straw diet. With reduced hay feeding and on a straw diet only a slight and insignificant decrease was observed in renal urea excretion, with only a 3% lowering in GFR and glomerular filtered urea. With a straw diet, the glomerular filtered urea was significantly below the controls. The fraction of filtered urea reabsorbed in the tubules was constant (36%-47%). Very high reabsorption (87%) on a supplemented straw dietwas observed in one llama which after nearly 6 months on this low protein diet - could be shown to have lost only 5% of its body weight

  2. Metabolism of [14C] bicarbonate by Streptococcus lactis: the synthesis, uptake and excretion of aspartate by resting cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, A.J.; Rice, G.H.; Jago, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    Resting cells of Streptococcus lactis C10 were able to synthesize aspartic acid de novo but could not actively transport aspartic acid into the cell. Intracellular aspartate was excreted from the cell in the presence of glucose but did not exchange with any extracellular amino acids. The results indicate that Str. lactis C10 obtains the aspartic acid it requires for growth by bicarbonate fixation instead of by the utilization of extracellular aspartic acid. (author)

  3. Urinary fluoride excretion by children 4-6 years old in a south Texas community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon J. Baez

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated urinary fluoride excretion by school children 4-6 years old who were living in a south Texas rural community that had concentrations of fluoride in drinking water supplies generally around the optimal level. We took supervised collections of urine samples in the morning and afternoon at school, and parents of the participating students collected nocturnal samples. We recorded the beginning and end times of the three collection periods and then determined the urinary volume and urinary flow for each of the periods. We measured urinary fluoride concentrations and calculated the urinary excretion rate per hour. The children had breakfast and lunch provided at the school, where the drinking water contained 1.0-1.3 milligrams/liter (mg/L fluoride. Fluoride concentrations in the tested household water supplies, from wells, ranged from 0.1 to 3.2 mg/L fluoride. The children's average urinary fluoride concentrations found for the day were similar to those for the night, with means ranging from 1.26 mg/L to 1.42 mg/L. Average excretion was 36.4 µg/h in the morning, 45.6 µg/h in the afternoon, and 17.5 µg/h at night. The lower nocturnal excretion rates are easily explained by low urinary flow at night. Based on the 15 hours of urine collected, the extrapolated 24-hour fluoride excretion was 749 µg. In conjunction with similar studies, the data from this study will help in developing upper limits for urinary fluoride excretion that are appropriate for avoiding unsightly fluorosis while providing optimal protection against dental decay.

  4. Glucose dynamics and mechanistic implications of SGLT2 inhibitors in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, James F; Whaley, Jean M

    2011-03-01

    Glucose is freely filtered in the glomeruli before being almost entirely reabsorbed into circulation from the proximal renal tubules. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), present in the S1 segment of the proximal tubule, is responsible for the majority of glucose reabsorption. SGLT2 inhibitors reduce glucose reabsorption and increase urinary glucose excretion. In animal models and humans with type 2 diabetes, this effect is associated with reduced fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels, and reduced hemoglobin A1c. Animal studies suggest that reduction of hyperglycemia with SGLT2 inhibitors may also improve insulin sensitivity and preserve β-cell function. Urinary excretion of excess calories with SGLT2 inhibitors is also associated with reduction in body weight. Modest reductions in blood pressure have been noted with SGLT2 inhibitors, consistent with a mild diuretic action. Some C-glucoside SGLT2 inhibitors, such as dapagliflozin, have pharmacokinetic properties that make them amenable to once-daily dosing.

  5. A curve-fitting approach to estimate the arterial plasma input function for the assessment of glucose metabolic rate and response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriens, Dennis; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Oyen, Wim J G; Visser, Eric P

    2009-12-01

    For the quantification of dynamic (18)F-FDG PET studies, the arterial plasma time-activity concentration curve (APTAC) needs to be available. This can be obtained using serial sampling of arterial blood or an image-derived input function (IDIF). Arterial sampling is invasive and often not feasible in practice; IDIFs are biased because of partial-volume effects and cannot be used when no large arterial blood pool is in the field of view. We propose a mathematic function, consisting of an initial linear rising activity concentration followed by a triexponential decay, to describe the APTAC. This function was fitted to 80 oncologic patients and verified for 40 different oncologic patients by area-under-the-curve (AUC) comparison, Patlak glucose metabolic rate (MR(glc)) estimation, and therapy response monitoring (Delta MR(glc)). The proposed function was compared with the gold standard (serial arterial sampling) and the IDIF. To determine the free parameters of the function, plasma time-activity curves based on arterial samples in 80 patients were fitted after normalization for administered activity (AA) and initial distribution volume (iDV) of (18)F-FDG. The medians of these free parameters were used for the model. In 40 other patients (20 baseline and 20 follow-up dynamic (18)F-FDG PET scans), this model was validated. The population-based curve, individually calibrated by AA and iDV (APTAC(AA/iDV)), by 1 late arterial sample (APTAC(1 sample)), and by the individual IDIF (APTAC(IDIF)), was compared with the gold standard of serial arterial sampling (APTAC(sampled)) using the AUC. Additionally, these 3 methods of APTAC determination were evaluated with Patlak MR(glc) estimation and with Delta MR(glc) for therapy effects using serial sampling as the gold standard. Excellent individual fits to the function were derived with significantly different decay constants (P AUC from APTAC(AA/iDV), APTAC(1 sample), and APTAC(IDIF) with the gold standard (APTAC(sampled)) were 0

  6. The importance of sensitive screening for abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Xiaoxia; Xie, Jingyuan; Shen, Pingyan; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Ya; Wang, Weiming; Chen, Nan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism, insulin resistance (IR) and the related risk factors in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients. We analyzed oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and clinical data of 107 IgAN patients and 106 healthy controls. Glucose metabolism, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) of both groups were evaluated. The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism was significantly higher in the IgAN group than in the control group (41.12% vs. 9.43%, p glucose, fasting insulin, OGTT 2-hour blood glucose, OGTT 2-hour insulin, HOMA-IR, and lower ISI than healthy controls. Triglyceride (OR = 2.55), 24-hour urine protein excretion (OR = 1.39), and age (OR = 1.06) were independent risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism in IgAN patients. BMI, eGFR, 24-hour urine protein excretion, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, OGTT 2-hour blood glucose, and OGTT 2-hour insulin were significantly higher in IgAN patients with IR than in IgAN patients without IR, while HDL and ISI were significantly lower. BMI, serum albumin, and 24-hour urine protein excretion were correlated factors of IR in IgAN patients. Our study highlighted that abnormal glucose metabolism was common in IgAN patients. Triglyceride and 24-hour urine protein excretion were significant risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism. Therefore, sensitive screening for glucose metabolism status and timely intervention should be carried out in clinical work.

  7. Prolonged excretion of a low-pathogenicity H5N2 avian influenza virus strain in the Pekin duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Flores, José Manuel; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    H5N2 strains of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) have been circulating for at least 17 years in some Mexican chicken farms. We measured the rate and duration of viral excretion from Pekin ducks that were experimentally inoculated with an H5N2 LPAIV that causes death in embryonated chicken eggs (A/chicken/Mexico/2007). Leghorn chickens were used as susceptible host controls. The degree of viral excretion was evaluated with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) using samples from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. We observed prolonged excretion from both species of birds lasting for at least 21 days. Prolonged excretion of LPAIV A/chicken/Mexico/2007 is atypical. PMID:23820212

  8. Decrease in Urinary Creatinine Excretion in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkevich, Elena; Flamant, Martin; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Metzger, Marie; Thervet, Eric; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Vrtovsnik, François; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. Methods We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. Results Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3±3.1 to 12.1±3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20±0.03 to 0.15±0.04 mmol/kg/24 h) in men, with mGFR falling from ≥60 to creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53±0.12 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28±0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. Conclusions Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass. PMID:25401694

  9. Decrease in urinary creatinine excretion in early stage chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tynkevich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD. We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. METHODS: We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR by (51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. RESULTS: Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3 ± 3.1 to 12.1 ± 3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.04 mmol/kg/24 h in men, with mGFR falling from ≥ 60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m(2, and from 9.6 ± 1.9 to 7.6 ± 2.5 (0.16 ± 0.03 to 0.12 ± 0.03 in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53 ± 0.12 mL/min/1.73 m(2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28 ± 0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m(2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass.

  10. The alkaline tide and ammonia excretion after voluntary feeding in freshwater rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucking, Carol; Wood, Chris M

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the potential acid-base and nitrogenous waste excretion challenges created by voluntary feeding in freshwater rainbow trout, with particular focus on the possible occurrence of an alkaline tide (a metabolic alkalosis created by gastric HCl secretion during digestion). Plasma metabolites (glucose, urea and ammonia) were measured at various time points before and after voluntary feeding to satiation (approximately 5% body mass meal of dry commercial pellets), as was the net flux of ammonia and titratable alkalinity to the water from unfed and fed fish. Arterial blood, sampled by indwelling catheter, was examined for post-prandial effects on pH, plasma bicarbonate and plasma CO2 tension. There was no significant change in plasma glucose or urea concentrations following feeding, whereas plasma ammonia transiently increased, peaking at threefold above resting values at 12 h after the meal and remaining elevated for 24 h. The increased plasma ammonia was correlated with an increase in net ammonia excretion to the water, with fed fish significantly elevating their net ammonia excretion two- to threefold between 12 and 48 h post feeding. These parameters did not change in unfed control fish. Fed fish likewise increased the net titratable base flux to the water by approximately threefold, which resulted in a transition from a small net acid flux seen in unfed fish to a large net base flux in fed fish. Over 48 h, this resulted in a net excretion of 13 867 micromol kg(-1) more base to the external water than in unfed fish. The arterial blood exhibited a corresponding rise in pH (between 6 and 12 h) and plasma bicarbonate (between 3 and 12 h) following feeding; however, no respiratory compensation was observed, as PaCO2 remained constant. Overall, there was evidence of numerous challenges created by feeding in a freshwater teleost fish, including the occurrence of an alkaline tide, and its compensation by excretion of base to the external water. The possible

  11. Alteration of renal excretion pathways in gentamicin-induced renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Rong; Luo, Xuan; Wu, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Tiffany; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Xin-An

    2018-02-20

    The kidney plays a major part in the elimination of many drugs and their metabolites, and drug-induced kidney injury commonly alters either glomerular filtration or tubular transport, or both. However, the renal excretion pathway of drugs has not been fully elucidated at different stages of renal injury. This study aimed to evaluate the alteration of renal excretion pathways in gentamicin (GEN)-induced renal injury in rats. Results showed that serum cystatin C, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were greatly increased by the exposure of GEN (100 mg kg -1 ), and creatinine concentration was increased by 39.7% by GEN (50 mg kg -1 ). GEN dose-dependently upregulated the protein expression of rOCT1, downregulated rOCT2 and rOAT1, but not affected rOAT2. Efflux transporters, rMRP2, rMRP4 and rBCRP expressions were significantly increased by GEN(100), and the rMATE1 level was markedly increased by GEN(50) but decreased by GEN(100). GEN(50) did not alter the urinary excretion of inulin, but increased metformin and furosemide excretion. However, GEN(100) resulted in a significant decrease of the urinary excretion of inulin, metformin and p-aminohippurate. In addition, urinary metformin excretions in vivo were significantly decreased by GEN(100), but slightly increased by GEN(50). These results suggested that GEN(50) resulted in the induction of rOCTs-rMATE1 and rOAT3-rMRPs pathway, but not changed the glomerular filtration rate, and GEN(100)-induced acute kidney injury caused the downregulated function of glomerular filtration -rOCTs-rMATE1 and -rOAT1-rMRPs pathway. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Differences in Plasma Concentrations of Arabinose and Xylose after Consumption of Fiber-Rich Pasta and Wheat Bread with Differential Rates of Systemic Appearance of Exogenous Glucose in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, Andre J; Wopereis, Suzan; Eelderink, Coby; Vonk, Roel J; Stroeve, Johanna H; Bijlsma, Sabina; van Stee, Leo; Bobeldijk, Ivana; Priebe, Marion G

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of products rich in cereal fiber and with a low glycemic index is implicated in a lower risk of metabolic diseases. Previously, we showed that the consumption of fiber-rich pasta compared with bread resulted in a lower rate of appearance of exogenous glucose and a lower glucose clearance rate quantified with a dual-isotope technique, which was in accordance with a lower insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response. To gain more insight into the acute metabolic consequences of the consumption of products resulting in differential glucose kinetics, postprandial metabolic profiles were determined. In a crossover study, 9 healthy men [mean ± SEM age: 21 ± 0.5 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (kg/m 2 ): 22 ± 0.5] consumed wheat bread (132 g) and fresh pasta (119 g uncooked) enriched with wheat bran (10%) meals. A total of 134 different metabolites in postprandial plasma samples (at -5, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min) were quantified by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach (secondary outcomes). Two-factor ANOVA and advanced multivariate statistical analysis (partial least squares) were applied to detect differences between both food products. Forty-two different postprandial metabolite profiles were identified, primarily representing pathways related to protein and energy metabolism, which were on average 8% and 7% lower after the men consumed pasta rather than bread, whereas concentrations of arabinose and xylose were 58% and 53% higher, respectively. Arabinose and xylose are derived from arabinoxylans, which are important components of wheat bran. The higher bioavailability of arabinose and xylose after pasta intake coincided with a lower rate of appearance of glucose and amino acids. We speculate that this higher bioavailability is due to higher degradation of arabinoxylans by small intestinal microbiota, facilitated by the higher viscosity of arabinoxylans after pasta intake than after bread

  13. Estimation of Body Composition from Urinay Creatinine Excretion

    OpenAIRE

    小室, 史恵; 小宮, 秀一

    1982-01-01

    Simultaneous determinations of total body water, using the deuterium oxide dilution method, and urinary creatinine excretion have been carried out in 26 males and females. Total body water and FFM may be predicted from urinary creatinine excretion by T.B.W.=0.0165 Cr. +17.773. FFM=0.0225 Cr. +17.446. In this subjects a high correlation (r=0.874) was found between T.B.W, FFM and urinary creatinine excretion. It appears that FFM can be predicted from urinary creatinine excretion.

  14. Correlation of hypoxic cell fraction with glucose metabolic rate in gliomas with 18F-Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) and 18F- Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauro, A.J.; Scott, A.M.; Hannah, A.; Pathmaraj, K.; Tochon-Danguy, H.; Sachinidis, J.I.; Chan, J.D.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Egan, G.F.; Fabinyi, G.; McKay, W.J.; Cher, L.M.; Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg, VIC

    1998-01-01

    Full text: FDG-PET studies of brain tumours to measure tumour activity are well established, with regions of higher grade tumour utilising more glucose compared to lower grade tumour tissue and normal tissue. FDG uptake in tumour cells may reflect anaerobic glycolysis, but this has not been proven in- vivo. FMISO is a novel positron-emitting compound that has been shown to selectively identify hypoxic but viable tissue, which may contribute to chemoradiotherapy resistance in tumour cells. Studies correlating measurements of regional hypoxia and glucose activity within brain tumours prior to therapy may help gain further insight into the relationship between hypoxic tumour tissue and resistance to chemoradiotherapy. Three patients with newly diagnosed primary brain tumours have been prospectively studied with FMISO-PET, FDG-PET and MRI, prior to surgery. Each patient presented with a suspected primary brain glioma on MRI, which were all confirmed to be high grade glioma on subsequent histology at surgery FMISO-PET, FDG-PET and MRI images of all patients were co-registered to precisely identify the areas of metabolic activity within tumour and surrounding cortical tissue. All gliomas demonstrated areas of FMISO uptake, which corresponded to areas of maximal FDG uptake, indicating a correlation between hypoxic areas within tumour with areas of increased glucose metabolic activity. This supports the hypothesis that hypoxic areas within tumour tissue may be associated with increased FDG uptake, although whether hypoxia itself increases FDG uptake remains controversial. These correlative studies characterising areas of hypoxia and glucose activity should hopefully assist in future therapeutic manipulations to improve the outcome from treatment of primary brain tumours

  15. Neuroscience of glucose homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fleur, S E; Fliers, E; Kalsbeek, A

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose concentrations are homeostatically regulated and maintained within strict boundaries. Several mechanisms are in place to increase glucose output when glucose levels in the circulation drop as a result of glucose utilization, or to decrease glucose output and increase tissue glucose

  16. Significance of stepwise excretion pattern in renogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Nagara; Ishihara, Takashi; Mori, Toru; Bito, Sanae; Ito, Hidetomi

    1981-01-01

    In 204 routine renogram examinations using 131 I-iodohippurate, stepwise excretion curves were observed in 22 cases (14 with chronic thyroiditis, 4 with idiopathic edema, 3 with lower urinary tract disorders, and 1 with Bartter's syndrome). Such a phenomenon was observed in 74% of euthyroid edematous patients with chronic thyroiditis and 57% of patients with idiopathic edema. The stepwise pattern was considered to have certain correlations with spasm or increased peristalsis of the urinary tract through the studies of excretory urogram, butylscopolamine treated renogram, and regional renogram. In one of these edematous patients with chronic thyroiditis, this renogram pattern could not be reproduced after bed rest corresponding with the clinical evidence that physical rest reduce the edema. Thus, the stepwise excretory pattern in renogram seemed to be a useful indicator of the fluctuating edema in patients with chronic thyroiditis and idiopathic edema. (author)

  17. Kidney Modelling for FDG Excretion with PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiting Qiao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to detect the physiological process of FDG's filtration from blood to urine and to establish a mathematical model to describe the process. Dynamic positron emission tomography scan for FDG was performed on seven normal volunteers. The filtration process in kidney can be seen in the sequential images of each study. Variational distribution of FDG in kidney can be detected in dynamic data. According to the structure and function, kidney is divided into parenchyma and pelvis. A unidirectional three-compartment model is proposed to describe the renal function in FDG excretion. The time-activity curves that were picked up from the parenchyma, pelvis, and abdominal aorta were used to estimate the parameter of the model. The output of the model has fitted well with the original curve from dynamic data.

  18. Ezetimibe Increases Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-05-01

    Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/d or placebo. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol with cholesterol-d 5 and sitostanol-d 4 solubilized in oil. Plasma and stool samples collected during a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Ezetimibe reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption efficiency 30±4.3% (SE, P <0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 19.8±1.9% ( P =0.0001). Body cholesterol pool size was unchanged, but fecal endogenous cholesterol excretion increased 66.6±12.2% ( P <0.0001) and percent cholesterol excretion from body pools into the stool increased 74.7±14.3% ( P <0.0001), whereas plasma cholesterol turnover rose 26.2±3.6% ( P =0.0096). Fecal bile acids were unchanged. Ezetimibe increased the efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport from rapidly mixing plasma and tissue pools into the stool. Further work is needed to examine the potential relation of reverse cholesterol transport and whole body cholesterol metabolism to coronary events and the treatment of atherosclerosis. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01603758. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Bilary and urinary excretion of five cardiac glycosides and its correlation with their physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, A; Ghirardi, P

    1977-05-01

    Biliary and urinary excretion of five tritium-labelled cardiac glycosides, i.e. Ouabain, K-strophanthoside, Digoxin, Digitoxin and Deslanatoside C, were investigated in anaesthetized guinea-pigs 5 h after i.v. or enteral administration. Urinary excretion is the main route of elimination in the case of Ouabain and Deslanatoside C. Conversely, biliary excretion is predominant in the case of Digoxin and Digitoxin. K-strophanthoside is excreted both via bile and urine. In conscious guinea-pigs treated i.v. with the same cardiac glycosides the highest levels were observed in urine, bile, kidneys and liver. The relative values of those levels were in agreement with the excretion pattern observed in anaesthetized animals. An inverse linear relation (P less than 0.05) was encountered between biliary excretion rate and polarity of glycoside molecula. This correlation has been previously observed by other authors in other species, but not in the rabbit. This suggests that the correlation may not be considered generally applicable at present.

  20. Glucose and fructose 6-phosphate cycle in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlander, S.; Roovete, A.; Vranic, M.; Efendic, S.

    1986-01-01

    We have determined the rate of glucose cycling by comparing turnovers of [2- 3 H]- and [6- 3 H]glucose under basal conditions and during a glucose infusion. Moreover, the activity of the fructose 6-phosphate cycle was assessed by comparing [3- 3 H]- and [6- 3 H]glucose. The study included eight lean subjects with normal glucose tolerance. They participated in two randomly performed investigations. In one experiment [2- 3 H]- and [6- 3 H]glucose were given simultaneously, while in the other only [3- 3 H]glucose was given. The basal rate of glucose cycling was 0.32 +/- 0.08 mg X kg-1 X min-1 or 17% of basal glucose production (P less than 0.005). During glucose infusion the activity of endogenous glucose cycling did not change but since glucose production was suppressed it amounted to 130% of glucose production. The basal fructose 6-phosphate cycle could be detected only in three subjects and was suppressed during glucose infusion. In conclusion, the glucose cycle is active in healthy humans both in basal conditions and during moderate hyperglycemia. In some subjects, the fructose 6-phosphate cycle also appears to be active. Thus it is preferable to use [6- 3 H]glucose rather than [3- 3 H]glucose when measuring glucose production and particularly when assessing glucose cycle

  1. Modeling single cell antibody excretion on a biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanovic, Ivan; Baumgartner, W.; van der Velden, T.J.G.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.

    2016-01-01

    We simulated, using Comsol Multiphysics, the excretion of antibodies by single hybridoma cells and their subsequent binding on a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) sensor. The purpose was to confirm that SPRi is suitable to accurately quantify antibody (anti-EpCAM) excretion. The model showed

  2. Catecholamine, Corticosteroid and Ketone Excretion in Exercise and Hypoxia,

    Science.gov (United States)

    OHCS excretion tended to be higher during the experimental period and subsequently lower overnight during the hypoxia week. Ketosis occurred in two...subjects. In one of these it could be readily related to previous extraneous stress. Excretion of unidentified ketones in overnight urines was sometimes suspected and occurred beyond doubt following gross ketosis . (Author)

  3. Purine derivative excretion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a 3 x 3 Latin square design experiment, urinary excretions of purine derivatives (allantoin N, Uric acid N, Xanthine + Hypoxanthine N) were measured and used to estimate microbial N yield in 9 sheep fed roughage- based diet supplemented with 0, 150 and 300g DM grass silage respectively. Daily urinary excretions of ...

  4. Urinary, biliary and faecal excretion of rocuronium in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proost, JH; Eriksson, LI; Mirakhur, RK; Wierda, JMKH

    2000-01-01

    The excretion of rocuronium and its potential metabolites was studied in 38 anaesthetized patients, ASA I-III and 21-69 yr old. Rocuronium bromide was administered as an i.v. bolus dose of 0.3 or 0.9 mg kg(-1). in Part A of the study, the excretion into urine and bile, and the liver content were

  5. Urinary excretion of unconjugated and conjugated 3,5-diiodothyronine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommel, E; Faber, J; Kirkegaard, C

    1985-01-01

    was 276 pmol/d, whereas the median excretion of glucuronidated and sulfated 3,5-T2 in 7 healthy subjects was 448 and 451 pmol/d, respectively. The median excretion of 154 pmol/d in 9 hypothyroid patients did not differ from that found in controls. In contrast 12 patients with hyperthyroidism had...

  6. Circadian variation of urinary albumin excretion in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, C. E.; van der Post, J. A.; van Acker, B. A.; Boer, K.; Koopman, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis was tested that circadian variations in urinary albumin excretion of pregnant women in the third trimester of normal pregnancy are different from nonpregnant individuals. DESIGN: Circadian variability in urinary albumin excretion was studied both in pregnant women and in

  7. Increased biliary excretion of glutathione is generated by the glutathione-dependent hepatobiliary transport of antimony and bismuth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurasics, A; Koszorús, L; Varga, F; Gregus, Z

    1992-10-06

    excretion rates, these metalloids generate increased biliary excretion of GSH probably because they are transported from liver to bile as unstable GSH complexes. The significant loss of hepatic GSH into bile as induced by arsenic or antimony may compromise conjugation of xenobiotics with GSH.

  8. The effect of glutamine administration on urinary ammonium excretion in normal subjects and patients with renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourne, T; Weber, M; Bank, N

    1972-07-01

    The effect of acute changes in the delivery rate of glutamine to the kidney on urinary ammonium excretion was studied in man. Healthy subjects and patients with intrinsic renal disease were studied under three different acid-base conditions: unaltered acid-base balance; NH(4)Cl-induced acidosis; and NaHCO(3)-induced alkalosis. Anhydrous L-glutamine was administered orally in a single dose of 260 mmoles during each of these three acid-base states. We found that endogenous venous plasma glutamine concentration fell during acidosis and rose during alkalosis in both healthy subjects and patients with renal disease. In healthy subjects, orally administered glutamine raised plasma glutamine concentration markedly over a 2-3 hr period. This was accompanied by an increase in urinary ammonium excretion and a rise in urine pH under normal acid-base conditions and during metabolic acidosis. No increase in ammonium excretion occurred when glutamine was administered during metabolic alkalosis in spite of an equivalent rise in plasma glutamine concentration. In patients with renal disease, endogenous venous plasma glutamine concentration was lower than in healthy subjects, perhaps as a result of mild metabolic acidosis. Acute oral glutamine loading failed to increase urinary ammonium excretion significantly during either unaltered acid-base conditions or after NH(4)Cl-induced acidosis, even though plasma glutamine rose as high as in healthy subjects. We conclude from these observations that glutamine delivery to the kidney is a rate-limiting factor for ammonium excretion in healthy subjects, both before and after cellular enzyme adaptation induced by metabolic acidosis. In contrast, in patients with renal disease, glutamine delivery is not rate-limiting for ammonium excretion. Presumably other factors, such as surviving renal mass and the activity of intracellular enzymes necessary for ammonia synthesis limit ammonium excretion in these patients.

  9. Ethosuximide: liver enzyme induction and D-glucaric acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, J C; Scott, A K; Galloway, D B; Petrie, J C

    1974-06-01

    1 A study has been carried out to determine if ethosuximide induces liver enzymes. 2 Ethosuximide did not affect the urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid by healthy adult subjects nor was the mean daily D-glucaric acid excretion of three epileptic children on long term ethosuximide therapy different from that of three matched controls. 3 Ethosuximide (10 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg daily) did not influence D-glucaric acid excretion or liver microsomal protein and cytochrome P450 contents of guinea pigs but at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily in rats it increased liver microsomal protein and cytochrome P450 without altering D-glucaric acid excretion. 4 These results suggest that at anticonvulsant doses ethosuximide is unlikely to induce liver enzymes. The precise relationship between D-glucaric acid excretion and liver enzyme induction remains in doubt.

  10. A biphasic response of urinary prostaglandin E2 excretion to water deprivation in conscious diabetes insipidus Brattleboro rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, J K; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Christensen, P

    1989-01-01

    The effects of water deprivation on the urinary excretion rate of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were examined in conscious Brattleboro rats. In order to study the time course of the changes in the PGE2 excretory rate, urine was collected in 6 periods, Control: 0-1 hour (h.). 1: 3-4.5 h., 8-10 h., III: 12......-15 h., IV: 24-28 h. and V: 32-36 h. after removal of water and food. It was found that the PGE2 excretion rate changed in a biphasic pattern. During the first 2 experimental periods it increased. Thereafter it decreased towards the control value. There was an increase in PGE2 excretion with urinary...

  11. [Absence of effect of propranolol on urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine in hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, M; Riou, J P; Sautot, G; Mornex, R

    Lean body mass and muscle protein breakdown were evaluated in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects by measuring the urinary excretion of creatinine and 3-methylhistidine. Since catecholamines probably have an inhibitory effect on muscle protein catabolism through a beta-receptor mechanism, the effects of propranolol on 3-methylhistidine excretion were also evaluated in hyperthyroid subjects. Hyperthyroid subjects had a lower lean body mass (34.9 +/- 6.3 kg versus 47.7 +/- 8.9 kg, p less than 0.001) and a greater 3-methylhistidine excretion (25.1 +/- 7.4 versus 19.0 +/- 4.8 mumol/mmol creatinine, p less than 0.05) than euthyroid subjects. Propranolol administered orally to hyperthyroid subjects decreased pulse rate (p less than 0.01) and plasma triiodothyronine concentrations (from 5.40 +/- 2.28 to 3.61 +/- 1.61 nmol/l, p less than 0.01), but did not modify urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion (24.8 +/- 8.7 versus 25.1 +/- 7.4 mumol/mmol creatinine). These results suggest that muscle wasting in hyperthyroidism is related to increased protein catabolism. This increased protein breakdown is not modified by short term administration of propranolol, a beta-blocking agent widely used in the management of hyperthyroidism.

  12. Time profile of abamectin and doramectin excretion and degradation in sheep faeces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolar, Lucija [Institute of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: lucija.kolar@vf.uni-lj.si; Flajs, Vesna Cerkvenik [Institute of Food Hygiene and Bromatology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: vesna.cerkvenik@vf.uni-lj.si; Kuzner, Jernej [Institute of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: jernej.kuzner@vf.uni-lj.si; Marc, Irena [Centre for Sustainable Recultivation at Vremscica, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: irena.marc@vf.uni-lj.si; Pogacnik, Milan [Institute of Pathology, Forensic and Administrative Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: milan.pogacnik@vf.uni-lj.si; Bidovec, Andrej [Institute of Breeding and Health Care of Wild Animals, Fishes and Bees, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: andrej.bidovec@vf.uni-lj.si; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Institute of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: kees.van.gestel@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh [Institute of Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva 60, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: nevenka.kozuh@vf.uni-lj.si

    2006-11-15

    We studied abamectin and doramectin excretion and their degradation in sheep faeces under field conditions on pasture after a single subcutaneous dose (0.2 mg/kg body weight). In the excretion experiment, maximal abamectin concentration (1277 ng/g dry faeces) was detected on day 3, while doramectin concentration showed two peaks (2186 and 1780 ng/g dry faeces on days 2 and 5, respectively). Both avermectins were excreted at approximately the same rate (k = 0.23 day{sup -1} for abamectin and 0.19 day{sup -1} for doramectin). In the field, a rapid loss of abamectin and doramectin from sheep faeces was seen during the first 32 days after which concentrations remained constant at approximately 77 ng/g and 300 ng/g, respectively. The half life values (DT{sub 5}) for abamectin and doramectin dissipation from sheep faeces were 23 and 22 days, respectively, during the first 32 days. Dissipation of both avermectins was strongly correlated with moisture content of the faeces. - Abamectin and doramectin show similar excretion and degradation behaviour in sheep faeces.

  13. Urinary excretion of furosemide in rats with HgCl sub 2 -induced acute renal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Akio; Sudoh, Toshiaki; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Ebihara, Akio (Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    To examine the influence of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2})-induced acute renal damage on urinary excretion of furosemide, HgCl{sub 2} or its vehicle along was given intraperitoneally to Wistar rats. The following two experiments were done. Study 1: three percent body weight (b.w.) of 1% NaCl solution or furosemide in 3% b.w. of 1% NaCl solution was given orally before and after HgCl{sub 2} treatment, and an 8-hour urine was collected. Study 2: furosemide was given orally, and blood samples were obtained at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 hours after administration. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase increased, and urine volume and urinary excretions of furosemide and sodium decreased in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats. There were significant correlations between the urinary furosemide and its diuretic effects. Regression lines after HgCl{sub 2} were significantly different from those before treatment. The values of absorption as well as elimination rate constant were smaller, while the time to maximum concentration and the elimination half-life were longer in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated animals. These results suggest that the urinary excretion of furosemide and the responsiveness of renal tubular cells to this agent are impaired in rats with HgCl{sub 2}-induced acute renal damage.

  14. Influence of tropical environmental and climatic factors on the daily urinary excretion in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arogunjo, A.M.; Giussani, Augusto

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The daily urinary volume excreted is very crucial in order to accurately determine the excretion rate of substance needed for bioassay monitoring purposes. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 89 reported a worldwide reference value of daily urinary volume based on the data from the temperate environment. However, in order to gain global acceptance, it is necessary to incorporate data from all parts of the world. To the best of our knowledge the present value did not include contribution from the tropical Africa. Daily dietary habits and level of exercise are considered to contribute significantly to the daily urinary excretion in normal human subject. In addition, environmental factors such as air temperature, pressure and humidity seem to play a major contributing role in tropical environments as indicated in a preliminary work conducted with a limited number of volunteers. In order to improve the statistical significance of the study, twenty four hours urine collection from large number (> 500) of subjects was conducted. The results of the study, intra- and inter variability of urine excretion, the dependence on age, gender, working habits, and the possible influence of tropical environmental conditions on the daily urine volume will be presented and discussed. (author)

  15. Protein digestibility and ammonia excretion in catfish Clarias gariepinus culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A series of experiments was performed to analyze protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, and also heterothropic bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics in the catfish Clarias gariepinus culture. In the digestibility experiment, catfish with an individual initial size of 43.67±0.83 g were stocked into 120 L conical fiberglass tanks at a density of 20 fish per tank. Fish were fed on with commercial diet supplemented with Cr2O3 indicator at a concentration of 1%. In the ammonia excretion experiment, catfish with an individual size of 111.6±9.5 and 40.6±3.4 g, respectively,  were placed into a 10 L chamber filled with 8 L of water. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN in the chambers were monitored every hour for six consecutive hours. In the bacteria and phytoplankton dynamics experiment, catfish were stocked in the 25 m2 concrete tanks which was divided into two compartments (catfish 10 m2, and heterotrof compartments 15 m2. Catfish with individual size of 42,5±0 g were stocked into the tanks at a density of 100 fish per tank. Water was recirculated from catfish compartments to heterotrophic compartments. Fish were fed with floating feed. Molasses as carbon source for heterotrophic bacteria was applied daily. The experiment was conducted for six weeks. The results showed that the protein digestibility was 61.97±7.24%. Larger fish (size of 111.6 g excreted ammonia at a rate of 0.008±0.003 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour, which was lower than that of the smaller catfish (size of 40.6 g, i.e. 0.012±0.004 mg TAN/g fish-weight/hour. Keywords: protein digestibility, ammonia excretion, catfish  ABSTRAK Serangkaian penelitian telah dilakukan untuk menganalisis ketercernaan pakan dan protein, ekskresi amonia, serta dinamika bakteri dan fitoplankton pada budidaya ikan lele (Clarias gariepinus. Pada penelitian ketercernaan pakan, ikan lele berukuran 43,67±0,83 g/ekor dipelihara dalam bak fiberglas berbentuk corong berukuran 120 L dengan kepadatan 20

  16. Estimation of liver glucose metabolism after refeeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognstad, R.

    1987-01-01

    Refeeding or infusing glucose to rats fasted for 24 hr or more causes rapid liver glycogen synthesis, the carbon source now considered to be largely from gluconeogenesis. While substrate cycling between plasma glucose and liver glucose-6P is known to occur, this cycling has apparently been ignored when calculations are made of % contribution of direct and indirect pathways to liver glycogen synthesis, or when hepatic glucose output is calculated from glucose turnover minus the glucose infusion rate. They show that, isotopically, an estimate of the fluxes of liver glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase is required to quantitate sources of carbon for liver glycogen synthesis, and to measure hepatic glucose output (or uptake). They propose a method to estimate these fluxes, involving a short infusion of a 14 C labelled gluconeogenic precursor plus (6T)glucose, with determination of isotopic yields in liver glycogen and total glucose. Given also the rate of liver glycogen synthesis, this procedure permits the estimation of net gluconeogenesis and hepatic glucose output or uptake. Also, in vitro evidence against the notion of a drastic zonation of liver carbohydrate metabolism is presented, e.g. raising the glucose concentration from 10 to 25 mM increases the 14 C yield from H 14 CO 3 - in lactate, with the increased pyruvate kinase flux and decreased gluconeogenesis occurring in the same cell type, not opposing pathways in different hepatocyte types (as has been postulated by some to occur in vivo after refeeding

  17. RNAi silenced Dd-grp94 (Dictyostelium discoideum glucose-regulated protein 94 kDa) cell lines in Dictyostelium exhibit marked reduction in growth rate and delay in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baviskar, Sandhya N; Shields, Malcolm S

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-regulated 94 kDa protein (Grp94) is a resident of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of multicellular eukaryotes. It is a constitutively expressed protein that is overexpressed in certain abnormal conditions of the cell such as depletion of glucose and calcium, and low oxygen and pH. The protein is also implicated in diseased conditions like cancer and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, the consequences of downregulation of Grp94 were investigated at both unicellular and multicellular stages of Dictyostelium discoideum. Previous studies have shown the expression of Dd-Grp94 (Dictyostelium discoideum glucose-regulated 94 kDa protein) in wild-type cells varies during development, and overexpression of Dd-Grp94 leads to abnormal cell shape and inhibition of development (i.e., formation of fruiting bodies). Grp94 is a known calcium binding protein and an efficient calcium buffer. Therefore, in the present study we hypothesized that downregulation of Dd-Grp94 protein would affect Dictyostelium cell structure, growth, and development. We found that Dd-grp94 RNAi recombinants exhibited reduced growth rate, cell size, and a subtle change in cell motility compared to the parental cells. The recombinants also exhibited a delay in development and small fruiting bodies. These results establish that Dd-grp94 plays a crucial role in determining normal cell structure, growth and differentiation.

  18. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer: Repression in Chronic Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjedde, Albert; Crone, Christian

    1981-10-01

    Diabetic patients with increased plasma glucose concentrations may develop cerebral symptoms of hypoglycemia when their plasma glucose is rapidly lowered to normal concentrations. The symptoms may indicate insufficient transport of glucose from blood to brain. In rats with chronic hyperglycemia the maximum glucose transport capacity of the blood-brain barrier decreased from 400 to 290 micromoles per 100 grams per minute. When plasma glucose was lowered to normal values, the glucose transport rate into brain was 20 percent below normal. This suggests that repressive changes of the glucose transport mechanism occur in brain endothelial cells in response to increased plasma glucose.

  19. The Dynamics of Plasma Membrane, Metabolism and Respiration (PM-M-R in Penicillium ochrochloron CBS 123824 in Response to Different Nutrient Limitations—A Multi-level Approach to Study Organic Acid Excretion in Filamentous Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Vrabl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are important cell factories. In contrast, we do not understand well even basic physiological behavior in these organisms. This includes the widespread phenomenon of organic acid excretion. One strong hurdle to fully exploit the metabolic capacity of these organisms is the enormous, highly environment sensitive phenotypic plasticity. In this work we explored organic acid excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron from a new point of view by simultaneously investigating three essential metabolic levels: the plasma membrane H+-ATPase (PM; energy metabolism, in particular adenine and pyridine nucleotides (M; and respiration, in particular the alternative oxidase (R. This was done in strictly standardized chemostat culture with different nutrient limitations (glucose, ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate. These different nutrient limitations led to various quantitative phenotypes (as represented by organic acid excretion, oxygen consumption, glucose consumption, and biomass formation. Glucose-limited grown mycelia were used as the reference point (very low organic acid excretion. Both ammonium and phosphate grown mycelia showed increased organic acid excretion, although the patterns of excreted acids were different. In ammonium-limited grown mycelia amount and activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was increased, nucleotide concentrations were decreased, energy charge (EC and catabolic reduction charge (CRC were unchanged and alternative respiration was present but not quantifiable. In phosphate-limited grown mycelia (no data on the H+-ATPase nucleotide concentrations were still lower, EC was slightly decreased, CRC was distinctly decreased and alternative respiration was present and quantifiable. Main conclusions are: (i the phenotypic plasticity of filamentous fungi demands adaptation of sample preparation and analytical methods at the phenotype level; (ii each nutrient condition is unique and its metabolic situation must be considered

  20. Glucose kinetics in infants of diabetic mothers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowett, R.M.; Susa, J.B.; Giletti, B.; Oh, W.; Schwartz, R.

    1983-01-01

    Glucose kinetic studies were performed to define the glucose turnover rate with 78% enriched D-[U-13C] glucose by the prime constant infusion technique at less than or equal to 6 hours of age in nine infants of diabetic mothers (four insulin-dependent and five chemical diabetic patients) at term. Five normal infants were studied as control subjects. All infants received 0.9% saline intravenously during the study with the tracer. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and glucose13/12C ratios were measured during the steady state, and the glucose turnover rate was derived. The average plasma glucose concentration was similar during the steady state in the infants of the diabetic mothers and in the control infants, and the glucose turnover rate was not significantly different among the groups: 2.3 +/- 0.6 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic patients; 2.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg-1 min-1 in infants of chemical diabetic patients; and 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg . kg-1 min-1 in the control subjects. Good control of maternal diabetes evidenced by the normal maternal hemoglobin A1c and plasma glucose concentration at delivery and cord plasma glucose concentration resulted in glucose kinetic values in the infants of diabetic mothers that were indistinguishable from those of control subjects. The data further support the importance of good control of the diabetic state in the pregnant woman to minimize or prevent neonatal hypoglycemia

  1. Effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    2000-01-01

    The effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera L) in rats fed 5%, 15% and 30% level on the concentration of blood glucose, serum insulin and excretion of minerals was studied. Increase in the intake of fiber resulted in significant decrease in the level of blood glucose and serum insulin. Faecal excretion of Cu, Cr, Mn, Mg, Zn and Ca was found to increase in rats fed different levels of coconut fiber when compared to fiber free group. The result of the present investigation suggest that inclusion of coconut fiber in the diet results in significant hypoglycemic action.

  2. Excretion is Faster Than Diagenesis for Nutrient Recycling in Lake Michigan Benthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, C.; Cuhel, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    nucleic acids and lipid) being excreted. Oddly, the highest quality food resources (low C:N and C:P ratios) lead to the greatest excretion of N and P nutrients in healthy organisms with high metabolic rates. This suggestion is borne out by the spatial distribution of QM excretion rates in transects across seamount-like bathymetric features in south-central Lake Michigan. On the upstream side and plateaus of Northeast and Sheboygan Reefs, where freshly advected bottom water flows across mussel communities, excretion rates in summer 2013 varied around 0.8 and 30 nmol/animal/hr (HPO4= and NH4+ respectively) for robust young adult mussels 15-20mm in length. On the downstream slope, where particles are likely reprocessed several times, nutritional quality and excretion rates were lower, especially for NH4+. Inshore shallow stations have similar rates to upstream nutrient-sufficient populations. Excretion size spectrum regressions combined with population size frequency analyses enable estimation of areal flux. N:P excretion ratios (30-40) are greater than Redfield, and consistent with growing animals nearing their late summer spawning effort. Several years of trophic gradient transects for mussel excretion, and pre- vs. post-QM porewater profiles will support these conclusions.

  3. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein synthesis in the camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerouali, Abdelhai; El Gass, Youssef; Balcells, Joaquim; Belenguer, Alvaro; Nolan, John

    2004-08-01

    Five experiments were carried out to extend knowledge of purine metabolism in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) and to establish a model to enable microbial protein outflow from the forestomachs to be estimated from the urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD; i.e. xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, allantoin). In experiment 1, four camels were fasted for five consecutive days to enable endogenous PD excretion in urine to be determined. Total PD excretion decreased during the fasting period to 267 (SE 41.5) micromol/kg body weight (W)0.75 per d. Allantoin and xanthine + hypoxanthine were consistently 86 and 6.1 % of total urinary PD during this period but uric acid increased from 3.6 % to 7.4 %. Xanthine oxidase activity in tissues (experiment 2) was (micromol/min per g fresh tissue) 0.038 in liver and 0.005 in gut mucosa but was not detected in plasma. In experiment 3, the duodenal supply of yeast containing exogenous purines produced a linear increase in urinary PD excretion rate with the slope indicating that 0.63 was excreted in urine. After taking account of endogenous PD excretion, the relationship can be used to predict purine outflow from the rumen. From the latter prediction, and also the purine:protein ratio in bacteria determined in experiment 5, we predicted the net microbial outflow from the rumen. In experiment 4, with increasing food intake, the rate of PD excretion in the urine increased linearly by about 11.1 mmol PD/kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI), equivalent to 95 g microbial protein/kg DOMI.

  4. Accumulation, distribution and excretion of 134Cs and 65Zn by the green mussels (Perna Viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shunhua; Zhong Chuangguang; Yan Yuanyi; Zhao Xiaokui; Peng Yefang; Shi Qiong

    1997-10-01

    Two important radionuclides 134 Cs and 65 Zn were applied to study the accumulation, distribution and excretion of radioactive nuclides in organs and tissues of green mussel Perna Viridis. the results showed that the uptake rate of 134 Cs by green mussels was very low and the concentration factor (CF) for 134 Cs in the byssus approximated to 1. This CF value was lower than that of other tissues and organs of mussels, but its excretion rate was much higher than that of soft tissues. It was also found that the byssus of mussels had a special ability to accumulate 65 Zn. Concentration factor (CF) for 65 Zn in the byssus could reach as high as 900, which was much higher than that of any other tissues. However, its excretion rate was lower than that of other tissues and organs. The uptake rate of 65 Zn by soft tissues was markedly higher than that of 134 Cs. The mussels could also highly concentrate the low level 65 Zn even if specific activity of 65 Zn was very low in the environmental seawater. Results of radioactive trace experiments showed that the absorption of 134 Cs and 65 Zn by Perna Viridis was selective

  5. Impact of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed JW

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available James W Reed Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: SGLT2 inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. These agents target the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion, resulting in improved blood glucose control. SGLT2-inhibitor therapy is also associated with weight loss and blood pressure (BP lowering. Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with T2DM, and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the US (namely canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin on BP in patients with T2DM. Boolean searches were conducted that included terms related to BP or hypertension with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin using PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Data from numerous randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with T2DM demonstrated clinically relevant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP, assessed via seated office measurements and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Observed BP lowering was not associated with compensatory increases in heart rate. Circadian BP rhythm was also maintained. The mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor-associated BP reduction is not fully understood, but is assumed to be related to osmotic diuresis and natriuresis. Other factors that may also contribute to BP reduction include SGLT2 inhibitor-associated decreases in body weight and reduced arterial stiffness. Local inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system secondary to increased delivery of sodium to the juxtaglomerular apparatus during SGLT2 inhibition has also been postulated. Although SGLT2 inhibitors are not indicated as BP-lowering agents, the modest decreases in systolic and diastolic BP observed with SGLT2 inhibitors may provide an extra clinical advantage for the majority of patients with T2DM, in addition to improving blood glucose

  6. Quantum behaviors on an excreting black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindesay, James

    2009-01-01

    Often, geometries with horizons offer insights into the intricate relationships between general relativity and quantum physics. However, some subtle aspects of gravitating quantum systems might be difficult to ascertain using static backgrounds, since quantum mechanics incorporates dynamic measurability constraints (such as the uncertainty principle, etc). For this reason, the behaviors of quantum systems on a dynamic black hole background are explored in this paper. The velocities and trajectories of representative outgoing, ingoing and stationary classical particles are calculated and contrasted, and the dynamics of simple quantum fields (both massless and massive) on the spacetime are examined. Invariant densities associated with the quantum fields are exhibited on the Penrose diagram that represents the excreting black hole. Furthermore, a generic approach for the consistent mutual gravitation of quanta in a manner that reproduces the given geometry is developed. The dynamics of the mutually gravitating quantum fields are expressed in terms of the affine parameter that describes local motions of a given quantum type on the spacetime. Algebraic equations that relate the energy-momentum densities of the quantum fields to Einstein's tensor can then be developed. An example mutually gravitating system of macroscopically coherent quanta along with a core gravitating field is demonstrated. Since the approach is generic and algebraic, it can be used to represent a variety of systems with specified boundary conditions.

  7. Coping with an exogenous glucose overload: glucose kinetics of rainbow trout during graded swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kevin; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2016-03-15

    This study examines how chronically hyperglycemic rainbow trout modulate glucose kinetics in response to graded exercise up to critical swimming speed (Ucrit), with or without exogenous glucose supply. Our goals were 1) to quantify the rates of hepatic glucose production (Ra glucose) and disposal (Rd glucose) during graded swimming, 2) to determine how exogenous glucose affects the changes in glucose fluxes caused by exercise, and 3) to establish whether exogenous glucose modifies Ucrit or the cost of transport. Results show that graded swimming causes no change in Ra and Rd glucose at speeds below 2.5 body lengths per second (BL/s), but that glucose fluxes may be stimulated at the highest speeds. Excellent glucoregulation is also achieved at all exercise intensities. When exogenous glucose is supplied during exercise, trout suppress hepatic production from 16.4 ± 1.6 to 4.1 ± 1.7 μmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) and boost glucose disposal to 40.1 ± 13 μmol·kg(-1)·min(-1). These responses limit the effects of exogenous glucose to a 2.5-fold increase in glycemia, whereas fish showing no modulation of fluxes would reach dangerous levels of 114 mM of blood glucose. Exogenous glucose reduces metabolic rate by 16% and, therefore, causes total cost of transport to decrease accordingly. High glucose availability does not improve Ucrit because the fish are unable to take advantage of this extra fuel during maximal exercise and rely on tissue glycogen instead. In conclusion, trout have a remarkable ability to adjust glucose fluxes that allows them to cope with the cumulative stresses of a glucose overload and graded exercise. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Urinary albumin excretion and history of acute myocardial infarction in a cross-sectional population study of 2,613 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies have suggested that microalbuminuria--a slightly increased urinary excretion of albumin--is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to examine whether an association exists between urinary excretion of albumin and a history of acute myocardial...... measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate, acquisition of information regarding previous acute myocardial infarction (verified by the Danish Hospital Register) and tobacco and alcohol consumption, 12-lead resting electrocardiogram, and measurement of blood pressure, body mass index, waist:hip ratio......, plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and fibrinogen, serum albumin concentration and glomerular filtration rate. RESULTS: Among the participants, 3.6% presented with a history of acute myocardial infarction. There was a positive association between urinary albumin excretion rate...

  9. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives and its utilization as an index of microbial protein synthesis in the fore-stomach of the camel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerouali, A.; Elgass, Y.; Balcells, J.

    2004-01-01

    Five experiments were carried out on camels to establish a model for estimating the microbial protein outflow from the rumen to the small intestine using the excretion rate of purine derivatives (PD) in urine. In Experiment I, a significant linear regression was established between the level of feed intake and the urinary excretion of total PD. The amount of PD excretion in urine increased by about 11 mmol PD/kg digestible organic matter intake/d with the increasing level of feeding. In Experiment II, endogenous excretion of PD was measured in four camels fasted for 5 continuous d. The endogenous excretion of PD averaged 230 μmol/kgW 0.75 /d, which was lower than values obtained in other ruminants. In Experiment III, xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in plasma, liver and intestinal tissues of three camels was measured and detected in liver and intestine, but not in the plasma. For the tissues examined, XO activity in camel was lower than values reported for cattle. In Experiment IV, when purine bases (PB) from RNA yeast were infused at increasing rates into the duodenum of two camels, urinary excretion of PD responded linearly with an average recovery rate of 52%. Nitrogen (N) content of microbes (N) was 8.0 mg/g DM and PB 100.3 μmol/g DM, with a PB/N (mmol/g) ratio of 1.26. In Experiment V, carried out under conditions similar to those in Experiment I, daily creatinine (C) excretion in urine was 0.34 ± 0.04 mmol/kgW 0.75 /d. PD/C ratios in spot samples of urine, collected several times in a d, were regressed against the measured daily PD excretion. A high correlation (R 2 =0.86) was obtained indicating that the PD/C ratio in spot samples of urine can be used with confidence to estimate the daily PD excretion in camels. (author)

  10. Patient Specific Dosimetry based in excreted urine measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquero, R.; Nunez, C.; Ruiz, A.; Valverde, J.; Basurto, F.

    2006-07-01

    One of the limiting factors in utilising therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in the I-131 thyroid therapy is the potential hazard to the bone marrow, kidneys, and other internal organs. In this work, by means of daily dose rate measurements at a point in contact of the can with the urine excreted by the patient undergoing radio-iodine therapy, activities and associated absorbed doses in total body are calculated. The urine can is characterised by a geometric and materials model for MC simulation with MCNP. Knowing the conversion factor from activity in urine to dose rate in the measurement point of the can for each filling volume, the urine and patient activity can be obtained at each measurement time. From the fitting of these activities, the time evolution, the effective half life in the patient and the cumulative whole body activity are calculated. The emission characteristics of I-131 are using after to estimate the maximum whole body absorbed dose. The results for 2 hyperthyroidism and 4 carcinoma treatments are presented. The maximum total body absorbed dose are 673 and 149 Gy for the carcinoma and hyperthyroidism. The corresponding range of T1/2 eff is o.2 to 2.5 days (carcinoma) and 5.4 to 6.6 days (hyperthyroidism). (Author)

  11. Excretion of metrizamide (Amipaque) in humans following lumbar subarachnoid injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, P.; Weber, H.; Hoel, L.; Golman, K.

    1979-01-01

    The excretion of metrizamide through the kidneys and intestinal tract was determined in 10 patients submitted to myelography because of sciatica, for a period of 7 days following the examination. In the faeces, less than 5 per cent of the injected contrast medium was recovered during this period. Total recovery in the urine varied considerably from patient to patient, but most of the contrast medium was excreted during the first 48 hours. From the fourth day on, only small amounts were excreted, but even on the 7th day 3 to 11 mg iodine remained, which corresponds to 6 to 22 mg of metrizamide. (Auth.)

  12. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Aya; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth) and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet). Body mass, organ mass, and blood variables were not affected by excess vitamin intake before starvation. Interestingly, urinary riboflavin excretion showed a different pattern. Urine riboflavin in the excess vitamin intake group declined gradually during starvation, whereas it increased in the low vitamin intake group. Excess vitamin intake before starvation does not affect body mass, organ mass, or blood variables but does affect the urinary excretion of riboflavin in starving rats.

  13. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Moriya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet. Body mass, organ mass, and blood variables were not affected by excess vitamin intake before starvation. Interestingly, urinary riboflavin excretion showed a different pattern. Urine riboflavin in the excess vitamin intake group declined gradually during starvation, whereas it increased in the low vitamin intake group. Excess vitamin intake before starvation does not affect body mass, organ mass, or blood variables but does affect the urinary excretion of riboflavin in starving rats.

  14. Genetics of residual feed intake in growing pigs: Relationships with production traits, and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintilan, R; Mérour, I; Brossard, L; Tribout, T; Dourmad, J Y; Sellier, P; Bidanel, J; van Milgen, J; Gilbert, H

    2013-06-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed ADFI and the ADFI predicted from production and maintenance requirements. The objectives of this study were to evaluate RFI as a selection criterion to improve feed efficiency and its potential to reduce N and P excretion in 4 pig breeds. Data were collected between 2000 and 2009 in French central test stations for 2 dam breeds [French Landrace (LR) and Large White (LWD)], and 2 sire breeds [Large White (LWS) and Piétrain (PP)]. Numbers of recorded pigs were 6407, 10,694, 2342, and 2448 for the LR, LWD, LWS, and PP breeds, respectively. All PP animals were genotyped for the halothane mutation. This data set was used to calculate RFI equations for each of the 4 breeds, and to estimate genetic parameters for RFI together with growth, carcass, and meat quality traits, and N and P excretion during the test period (35 to 110 kg BW). The RFI explained 20.1% in PP, 26.5% in LWS, 27.6% in LWD, and 29.5% in LR of the phenotypic variability of ADFI. The PP breed differed from the others in this respect, probably due to a lower impact of the variation of body composition on ADFI. Heritability estimates of RFI ranged from 0.21 ± 0.03 (LWD) to 0.33 ± 0.06 (PP) depending on the breed. Heritabilities of N and P excretion traits ranged from 0.29 ± 0.06 to 0.40 ± 0.06. The RFI showed positive genetic correlations with feed conversion ratio (FCR) and excretion traits, these correlations being greater in the sire breeds (from 0.57 to 0.86) than in the dam breeds (from 0.38 to 0.53). Compared with FCR, RFI had weaker genetic correlations with carcass composition, growth rate, and excretion traits. Estimates of genetic correlations between FCR and excretion traits were very close to 1 for all breeds. Finally, excretion traits were, at the genetic level, correlated positively with ADFI, negatively with growth rate and carcass leanness, whereas the halothane n mutation in PP was shown to reduce N and P

  15. Glucose and cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, M.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Mudde, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association and the World Health Organisation have recently redefined the spectrum of abnormal glucose tolerance. The criteria for diabetes mellitus were sharpened and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were classified as intermediate stages

  16. Mandatory iodine fortification of bread and salt increases iodine excretion in adults in Denmark - A 11-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans

    2014-01-01

    intake (diet plus supplements) had increased by 16 (-18-48) μg/day. Iodine excretion had increased significantly in all age and gender groups, but was still below the recommended amount at follow-up. The increase in iodine excretion was positively associated with changes in milk intake, with changes...... in the use of iodine supplements, and with bread intake at follow-up. Salt intake, education, self-rated health, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were not associated with the increase in iodine excretion. Conclusions: The strategy to combat iodine deficiency in Denmark seems to be working...

  17. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    .0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u......Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0...

  18. Study on the excretion of pb-210 and po-210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, Hiroyuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1982-06-01

    The amount of Po-210 excreted in urine and feces was more influenced by Po-210 that was taken with food and drink than taken through inhalation. The amount of Pb-210 in urine of mining workers among uranium mine workers was higher than that of the non-uranium mine workers. It was thought that this fact was due to the working environment in uranium mine the amount of Pb-210 being a few tens times higher than that in normal environment. The activity ratios of Po-210 of faecal to urinary excretion are widely distributed, however, the average value of many samples approached to 10. Urinary excretion of Po-210 was highest after 24 hours of ingestion, but for faecal excretion, it was highest after 3 day.

  19. Mechanism of ammonia excretion in the freshwater leech Nephelopsis obscura: characterization of a primitive Rh protein and effects of high environmental ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada-Rodriguez, Alex R.; Treberg, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Remarkably little is known about nitrogenous excretion in freshwater invertebrates. In the current study, the nitrogen excretion mechanism in the carnivorous ribbon leech, Nephelopsis obscura, was investigated. Excretion experiments showed that the ribbon leech is ammonotelic, excreting 166.0 ± 8.6 nmol·grams fresh weight (gFW)−1·h−1 ammonia and 14.7 ± 1.9 nmol·gFW−1·h−1 urea. Exposure to high and low pH hampered and enhanced, respectively, ammonia excretion rates, indicating an acid-linked ammonia trapping mechanism across the skin epithelia. Accordingly, compared with body tissues, the skin exhibited elevated mRNA expression levels of a newly identified Rhesus protein and at least in tendency the Na+/K+-ATPase. Pharmacological experiments and enzyme assays suggested an ammonia excretion mechanism that involves the V-ATPase, Na+/K+-ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase, but not necessarily a functional microtubule system. Most importantly, functional expression studies of the identified Rh protein cloned from leech skin tissue revealed an ammonia transport capability of this protein when expressed in yeast. The leech Rh-ammonia transporter (NoRhp) is a member of the primitive Rh protein family, which is a sister group to the common ancestor of vertebrate ammonia-transporting Rh proteins. Exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA) caused a new adjustment of body ammonia, accompanied with a decrease in NoRhp and Na+/K+-ATPase mRNA levels, but unaltered ammonia excretion rates. To our knowledge, this is only the second comprehensive study regarding the ammonia excretion mechanisms in a freshwater invertebrate, but our results show that basic processes of ammonia excretion appear to also be comparable to those found in freshwater fish, suggesting an early evolution of ionoregulatory mechanisms in freshwater organisms. PMID:26180186

  20. Glucose turnover, gluconeogenesis from glycerol, and estimation of net glucose cycling in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundholm, K.; Edstroem, S.; Karlberg, I.; Ekman, L.; Schersten, T.

    1982-01-01

    A double isotope method was used in patients with progressive malignancy and in control patients to measure: glucose turnover, conversion rate of carbon skeleton of glycerol into glucose, and the interorgan cycling of glucose carbons (Cori-cycle plus alanine-glucose cycle). [U- 14 C]glycerol and [6- 3 H]glucose were given intravenously as a single dose injection. The time course of the specific radioactivities of [6- 3 H] and [U- 14 C]glucose was followed in blood. The pool size and the turnover rate of glucose were increased in the cancer group as compared with the control patients. The net recycling of glucose carbons was not increased in the cancer group, despite the increased turnover of glucose. The alterations in the metabolism of glucose did not correlate with the plasma levels of insulin or thyroid hormones (T4, T3, rT3) neither in the entire cancer group nor in those cancer patients who were repeatedly investigated at different intervals of time. The turnover rate of glucose in the cancer patients correlated inversely to their body weight index. The gluconeogenesis rate, given as the fractional conversion rate of the injected radioactive dose of [ 14 C]glycerol, or as mol glucose . kg body weight-1 . day-1, was increased in the cancer group, but still contributed only 3% of the glucose turnover rate in both cancer and control patients. We conclude that an increased gluconeogenesis from glycerol is not significant in terms of energy expenditure in patients with progressive malignancy, as has previously been concluded for the gluconeogenesis from alanine. It seems that increased turnover of glucose may contribute to inappropriately high energy expenditure in cancer patients

  1. Exposure of ELF-EMF and RF-EMF Increase the Rate of Glucose Transport and TCA Cycle in Budding Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Wei; Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Cai, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the transcriptional response to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure by Illumina sequencing technology using budding yeast as the model organism. The transcription levels of 28 genes were upregulated and those of four genes were downregulated under ELF-EMF exposure, while the transcription levels of 29 genes were upregulated and those of 24 genes were downregulated under RF-EMF exposure. After validation by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a concordant direction of change both in differential gene expression (DGE) and RT-qPCR was demonstrated for nine genes under ELF-EMF exposure and for 10 genes under RF-EMF exposure. The RT-qPCR results revealed that ELF-EMF and RF-EMF exposure can upregulate the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but not the glycolysis pathway. Energy metabolism is closely related with the cell response to environmental stress including EMF exposure. Our findings may throw light on the mechanism underlying the biological effects of EMF.

  2. Positioning of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in national and international guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) selectively and reversibly inhibit sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2), promoting renal glucose excretion and reducing plasma glycaemia. By increasing renal glucose excretion, these drugs favour a negative energy balance, leading to weight loss. Their glucoselowering effect is independent of insulin. Although these drugs have only recently been developed, they have been included in all the main national and international guidelines since 2014. The present review summarises the most important recommendations on the use of SGLT2 in patients with DM2 contained in the most recently published guidelines and consensus statements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Species differences in biliary excretion of benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyand, E.H.; Bevan, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Biliary excretion of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) was investigated in rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs following intratracheal administration. [ 3 H]-B[a]P, in amounts of approximately 150 ng or 350 μg, was instilled into lungs and amounts of radioactivity excreted in bile were monitored for six hrs following administration. Differences in biliary excretion of [ 3 H]-B[a]P and/or metabolites among species were observed at low doses but not at high doses. Six hours after instillation of a low dose of B[a]P, 70, 54, and 62% of the dose was excreted in bile of rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs, respectively. Upon administration of the higher dose of B[a]P, approximately 50% of the dose was excreted in bile in six hrs by all species. Thus, rats and guinea pigs exhibit differences in biliary excretion of low and high doses of B[a]P whereas hamsters do not. Profiles of phase II metabolites in rats and hamsters were similar at both low and high doses, with the majority of metabolites being glucuronides and thioether conjugates. However, differences in relative amounts of these conjugates were observed between the two doses, with a shift towards a greater proportion of glucuronides at the higher dose. Metabolites in bile from guinea pigs were primarily thioether conjugates, which accounted for 88% of metabolites at the low dose and 95% at the high dose

  4. Effect of different glucose supply conditions on neuronal energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hongwen; Wang, Rubin; Qu, Jingyi

    2016-01-01

    The glucose-excited neurons in brain can sense blood glucose levels and reflect different firing states, which are mainly associated with regulation of blood glucose and energy demand in the brain. In this paper, a new model of glucose-excited neuron in hypothalamus is proposed. The firing properties and energy consumption of this type of neuron under conditions of different glucose levels are simulated and analyzed. The results show that the firing rate and firing duration of the neuron both...

  5. Distribution and excretion of mercury compounds in hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulfvarson, U.

    1969-01-01

    Young white Leghorn cocks, were given intravenously Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ (I), methylmercury hydroxide (II), methoxyethylmercury hydroxide (III), and phenylmercury hydroxide (IV), all containing /sup 203/Hg. Doses were approx. 20% of LD/sub 50/ (0.5 mg/kg body wt of I and 5 mg/kg body wt of the other compounds). Feces was analyzed by scintillation techniques, and the various organs were investigated after killing some of the animals. With I, III, and IV, the Hg-concentration in the kidneys and the liver did not exceed 10 times the av. concentration in the body, whereas II was evenly distributed over all organs. The excretion is best described by the hyperbolic function 1/x = kt + 1/x/sub 0/, where x is the av. Hg-concn. in the body after t days, x/sub 0/ is the original concentration, and k is a rate constant having the value 10/sup 5/ (g Hg/g body wt)/sup -1/ day/sup -1/ for I, III, and IV, and only 4% of this value for II. Similar results were obtained when cocks were fed with grain containing 16 mg Hg/kg for 3 weeks.

  6. Bioaccumulation and excretion of enantiomers of myclobutanil in Tenebrio molitor larvae through dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaotian; Liu, Chen; Li, Yaobin; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong

    2013-12-01

    The bioaccumulation and excretion of enantiomers of myclobutanil in Tenebrio molitor larvae through dietary exposure under laboratory conditions were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) based on a ChiralcelOD-3R [cellulosetris-tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] column. The wheat bran fed to Tenebrio molitor larvae was spiked with racemic myclobutanil at two dose levels of 20 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg (dry weight). The results showed that there was a significant trend of enantioselective bioaccumulation in the larvae with a preferential accumulation of (-)-myclobutanil in 20 mg/kg dose exposure, but it was not obviously observed in the 2 mg/kg dose group. A kinetic model considering enantiomerization between the two enantiomers based on first-order reactions was built and the rate constants were estimated to discuss the kinetic reason for the different concentrations of individual enantiomers in the larvae. The approximations implied an inversion between the two enantiomers with a relatively higher rate of the inversion from (-)-myclobutanil to (+)-myclobutanil. Meanwhile, analysis of data of excretion samples suggested the active excretion is probably an important pathway for the insect to eliminate myclobutanil rapidly with nonenantioselectivity as a passive transport process, which was consistent with the low accumulation efficiency of myclobutanil measured by BAF (bioaccumulation factor). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Knemometry is more sensitive to systemic effects of inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma than 24-hour urine cortisol excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo; Nilsson, Erik; Nørgaard, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pharmacodynamic assessment of the systemic effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) is often done by measuring 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC) excretion. Knemometry assessing short-term lower-leg growth rate (LLGR) is a more rarely used alternative. Objective: The primary aim...... of this study was to compare the sensitivity of LLGR and 24-hour UFC excretion for evaluating systemic exposure to ICSs in prepubertal children with asthma. The secondary aim was to evaluate factors influencing the precision of LLGR calculated by the traditional 1 leg nonparametric method versus a new 2 leg...... parametric method. Methods: The study evaluated 60 children with mild asthma aged 5 to 12 years participating in a randomized controlled trial of ICSs with longitudinal concomitant assessments of LLGR and 24-hour UFC excretion. The sensitivity of the safety assessments was analyzed by comparing LLGR and 24...

  8. Association between 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Steffen; Olsen, Anja; Møller, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress may be important in carcinogenesis and a possible risk factor for breast cancer. The urinary excretion of oxidatively generated biomolecules, such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), represents biomarkers of oxidative stress, reflecting the rate of global damage...

  9. Spot urine sodium excretion as prognostic marker in acutely decompensated heart failure: the spironolactone effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João Pedro; Girerd, Nicolas; Medeiros, Pedro Bettencourt; Santos, Mário; Carvalho, Henrique Cyrne; Bettencourt, Paulo; Kénizou, David; Butler, Javed; Zannad, Faiez; Rossignol, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Loop diuretic resistance characterized by inefficient sodium excretion complicates many patients with acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) in natriuretic doses may improve spot urine sodium excretion and outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess the association of high-dose spironolactone with short-term spot urine sodium excretion, and our secondary aim was to determine if this higher short-term spot urine sodium excretion is associated with reduction in the composite clinical outcome (of cardiovascular mortality and/or ADHF hospitalization) event rate at 180 days. Single-centre, non-randomized, open-label study enrolling 100 patients with ADHF. Patients were treated with standard ADHF therapy alone (n = 50) or oral spironolactone 100 mg/day plus standard ADHF therapy (n = 50). Spot urine samples were collected at day 1 and day 3 of hospitalization. Spironolactone group had significantly higher spot urine sodium levels compared to standard care group at day 3 (84.13 ± 28.71 mmol/L vs 70.74 ± 34.43 mmol/L, p = 0.04). The proportion of patients with spot urinary sodium spot urinary sodium and urinary sodium/potassium ratio of >2 at day 3 (both, p spot urine sodium levels were associated with a lower event rate [HR for urinary sodium >100 mmol/L = 0.16 (0.06-0.42), p Spot urinary sodium levels >60 mmol/L and urinary sodium/potassium ratio >2 measured at day 3 of hospitalization for ADHF are associated with improved mid-term outcomes. Spironolactone is associated with increased spot urinary sodium and sodium/potassium ratio >2.

  10. Effect of bicarbonate and lactate buffer on glucose and lactate metabolism during hemodiafiltration in patients with multiple organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Marc-Daniel; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Tappy, Luc; Berger, Mette M; Schaller, Marie-Denise; Cayeux, Marie-Christine; Martinez, Alexandre; Chioléro, René-Louis

    2004-06-01

    To compare the effects of sodium bicarbonate and lactate for continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) in critically ill patients. Prospective crossed-over controlled trial in the surgical and medical ICUs of a university hospital. Eight patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) requiring CVVHDF. Each patient received the two buffers in a randomized sequence over two consecutive days. The following variables were determined: acid-base parameters, lactate production and utilization ((13)C lactate infusion), glucose turnover (6,6(2)H(2)-glucose), gas exchange (indirect calorimetry). No side effect was observed during lactate administration. Baseline arterial acid-base variables were equal with the two buffers. Arterial lactate (2.9 versus 1.5 mmol/l), glycemia (+18%) and glucose turnover (+23%) were higher in the lactate period. Bicarbonate and glucose losses in CVVHDF were substantial, but not lactate elimination. Infusing (13)C lactate increased plasma lactate levels equally with the two buffers. Lactate clearance (7.8+/-0.8 vs 7.5+/-0.8 ml/kg per min in the bicarbonate and lactate periods) and endogenous production rates (14.0+/-2.6 vs 13.6+/-2.6 mmol/kg per min) were similar. (13)C lactate was used as a metabolic substrate, as shown by (13)CO(2) excretion. Glycemia and metabolic rate increased significantly and similarly during the two periods during lactate infusion. Lactate was rapidly cleared from the blood of critically ill patients without acute liver failure requiring CVVHDF, being transformed into glucose or oxidized. Lactate did not exert undesirable effects, except moderate hyperglycemia, and achieved comparable effects on acid-base balance to bicarbonate.

  11. Effect and Modeling of Glucose Inhibition and In Situ Glucose Removal During Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Pavle; Meyer, Anne S.; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is known to be product-inhibited by glucose. In this study, the effects on cellulolytic glucose yields of glucose inhibition and in situ glucose removal were examined and modeled during extended treatment of heat-pretreated wheat straw......, during 96 h of reaction. When glucose was removed by dialysis during the enzymatic hydrolysis, the cellulose conversion rates and glucose yields increased. In fact, with dialytic in situ glucose removal, the rate of enzyme-catalyzed glucose release during 48-72 h of reaction recovered from 20......-40% to become approximate to 70% of the rate recorded during 6-24 h of reaction. Although Michaelis-Menten kinetics do not suffice to model the kinetics of the complex multi-enzymatic degradation of cellulose, the data for the glucose inhibition were surprisingly well described by simple Michaelis...

  12. [Trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE): a new route for cholesterol excretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Claire; Moreau, François; Cariou, Bertrand; Le May, Cédric

    2014-10-01

    The small intestine plays a crucial role in dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption, as well as its lymphatic secretion as chylomicrons (lipoprotein exogenous way). Recently, a new metabolic pathway called TICE (trans-intestinal excretion of cholesterol) that plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism has emerged. TICE is an inducible way, complementary to the hepatobiliary pathway, allowing the elimination of the plasma cholesterol directly into the intestine lumen through the enterocytes. This pathway is poorly characterized but several molecular actors of TICE have been recently identified. Although it is a matter of debate, two independent studies suggest that TICE is involved in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Thus, TICE is an innovative drug target to reduce -cardiovascular diseases. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  13. Estimation of the systemic burden of plutonium from urinary excretion data and a multi-exponential model for excretion in comparison with autopsy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, S.R.; Nestor, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have adapted other's method for computing the systemic burden from urinary excretion data to use a multi-exponential model (2) for excretion, rather than Langham's power function. The mathematical basis of Synder's method is the representation of the systemic burden as the convolution integral of the observed urinary excretion data with the inverse Laplace transform of the excretion function; in the case of urinary excretion of plutonium, the power function has a Laplace transform, but for other elements (notably uranium) it does not. If the method is to be used for other radioisotopes, the excretion function must have a Laplace transform, and for this reason we have used a multi-exponential form of the excretion function. They have written a computer program to calculate estimates of the systemic burden and the integrated intake from urinary excretion data, and have compared the results with two cases for which autopsy data are available, as presented in this paper

  14. Urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor and Tamm-Horsfall protein in three rat models with increased renal excretion of urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Jørgensen, P E; Torffvit, O

    1997-01-01

    were examined in three groups of rats with increased renal excretion of urine: uninephrectomy, non-osmotic polyuria and diabetic osmotic polyuria. Twenty-four hour urine samples were obtained after 7, 14 and 21 days. The urinary volume per kidney was doubled in uninephrectomy when compared to controls....... There was a seven-fold increase in urinary volume in rats with non-osmotic polyuria and diabetic osmotic polyuria, as compared to controls. Uninephrectomy, non-osmotic polyuria and diabetes all affected the urinary excretion of EGF and THP differently. The EGF excretion in uninephrectomized rats was 60......-80% of that of the controls, whereas THP excretion was unchanged, indicating that EGF excretion varied with renal tissue mass. Non-osmotic polyuria caused a five-fold increase in THP excretion but no change in EGF excretion. THP excretion in the diabetic rats was increased three-fold after 21 days when compared to controls...

  15. Impact of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, James W

    2016-01-01

    SGLT2 inhibitors are glucose-lowering agents used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These agents target the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion, resulting in improved blood glucose control. SGLT2-inhibitor therapy is also associated with weight loss and blood pressure (BP) lowering. Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with T2DM, and is associated with excess morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the US (namely canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin) on BP in patients with T2DM. Boolean searches were conducted that included terms related to BP or hypertension with terms for SGLT2 inhibitors, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, or empagliflozin using PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Data from numerous randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with T2DM demonstrated clinically relevant reductions in both systolic and diastolic BP, assessed via seated office measurements and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Observed BP lowering was not associated with compensatory increases in heart rate. Circadian BP rhythm was also maintained. The mechanism of SGLT2 inhibitor-associated BP reduction is not fully understood, but is assumed to be related to osmotic diuresis and natriuresis. Other factors that may also contribute to BP reduction include SGLT2 inhibitor-associated decreases in body weight and reduced arterial stiffness. Local inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system secondary to increased delivery of sodium to the juxtaglomerular apparatus during SGLT2 inhibition has also been postulated. Although SGLT2 inhibitors are not indicated as BP-lowering agents, the modest decreases in systolic and diastolic BP observed with SGLT2 inhibitors may provide an extra clinical advantage for the majority of patients with T2DM, in addition to improving blood glucose control. PMID:27822054

  16. Studies on the absorption and excretion of arsenic in test animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulski, J.; Walczak, Z.; Politowski, M.

    1980-01-01

    The partition of arsenous compounds in cats between blood, lymph and urine has been studied by the isotopic method. The rate of poison absorption from the intestinal tract and poison excretion with urine have also been investigated. It was found that arsenic is evenly distributed between blood and lymph, but its concentration in urine is about 100 times larger. The rate of arsenic absorption is very high - the absorption time is of the order of minutes and the absorption is shortly followed by the appearance of arsenic in urine. (author)

  17. Measurement of the proportion of plasma purine derivatives excreted in the urine of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasitkusol, P.; Chen, X.B.; Kyle, D.J.; Oerskov, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Four sheep were used to measure the proportion of plasma allantoin excreted in the urine at three levels of intake. The sheep were fed a mixed ration at 800, 1200 and 1600 g air dry matter per animal/d during three periods, using an incomplete Latin Square design. Each period consisted of 10-days adaptation and 7-days measurement. After the adaptation, each animal was injected via a jugular catheter, a single dose of 30 μCi of 4,5- 14 C-allantoin as a tracer. Urine collection was made 5 days before tracer injection and until 7 days after tracer injection. Plasma samples were taken at different intervals after the tracer injection. The proportion of plasma allantoin which is excreted in the urine was measured as the recovery of dosed 14 C-allantoin in the urine. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated from creatinine clearance. There was no significant difference in the recovery of plasma allantoin between levels of intake but there was a considerable variation (P 0.75 /day in the four sheep, respectively). GFR tended to increased with feed intake. However, variation in GFR in the same animal did not seem to affect the proportion of plasma allantoin excretion. (author)

  18. Plutonium fecal and urinary excretion functions: Derivation from a systematic whole-body retention function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.; Lee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Liver-bile secretion directly influences the content of plutonium in feces. To assess the reliability of plutonium metabolic models and to improve the accuracy of interpreting plutonium fecal data, the authors developed a compartmental model that simulates the metabolism of plutonium in humans. With this model, they can describe the transport of plutonium contaminants in the systemic organs and tissues of the body, including fecal and urine excretions, without using elaborate kinetic information. The parameter values of the models, which describe the translocation rates and recycling of plutonium in the body, can be derived from a multi-term exponential systemic function for whole-body retention. The analytical derivations and algorithms for solving translocation parameter values are established for the model and illustrated by applying them to the biokinetics and bioassay of plutonium. This study describes how to (1) design a physiological model for incorporating liver biliary secretion and for obtaining a fecal-excretion function, (2) develop an analytical solution for identifying the translocation-parameter values incorporating the recycling of plutonium in the body, and (3) derive a set of urinary and fecal excretion-functions from a published systemic whole-body retention function, generally acknowledged to be accurate, as a real and practical example

  19. High Prolactin Excretion in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Renal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebel, Jakob; Moreno-Vega, Aura Ileana; Vázquez-Membrillo, Miguel; Nava, Gabriel; García-Franco, Renata; López-Star, Ellery; Baldivieso-Hurtado, Olivia; Ochoa, Daniel; Macotela, Yazmín; Bertsch, Thomas; Martinez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic clearance of prolactin (PRL) is partially executed by the kidney. Here, we investigate the urine excretion of PRL in patients with Diabetes Mellitus and renal impairment. Serum and urine samples were collected from male, mestizo patients in central Mexico employing a cross-sectional study design. Ninety-eight individuals had either no diabetes and normal renal function (control), diabetes and normal renal function, or diabetes with impaired renal function. PRL was determined by a chemiluminescent immunometric assay; protein, albumin, and creatinine were evaluated using quantitative colorimetric assays. The results were analyzed using ANOVA-testing. Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and renal impairment had significantly higher urine PRL levels than patients with Diabetes Mellitus and normal renal function and control patients. Higher urine PRL levels were associated with lower glomerular filtration rates, higher serum creatinine, and higher urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR). Urine PRL levels correlated positively with UACR. Serum PRL levels were similar among groups. Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and impaired renal function demonstrate a high urinary PRL excretion. Urinary PRL excretion in the context of proteinuria could contribute to PRL dysregulation in renal impairment.

  20. Poliovirus Excretion in Children with Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Madhu Chhanda; Madkaikar, Manisha Rajan; Desai, Mukesh; Taur, Prasad; Nalavade, Uma Prajwal; Sharma, Deepa Kailash; Gupta, Maya; Dalvi, Aparna; Shabrish, Snehal; Kulkarni, Manasi; Aluri, Jahnavi; Deshpande, Jagadish Mohanrao

    2017-10-01

    Prolonged excretion of poliovirus can occur in immunodeficient patients who receive oral polio vaccine, which may lead to propagation of highly divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), posing a concern for global polio eradication. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of primary immunodeficient children with enterovirus infection and to identify the long-term polio/nonpolio enterovirus excreters in a tertiary care unit in Mumbai, India. During September 2014-April 2017, 151 patients received diagnoses of primary immunodeficiency (PID). We isolated 8 enteroviruses (3 polioviruses and 5 nonpolio enteroviruses) in cell culture of 105 fecal samples collected from 42 patients. Only 1 patient with severe combined immunodeficiency was identified as a long-term VDPV3 excreter (for 2 years after identification of infection). Our results show that the risk of enterovirus excretion among children in India with PID is low; however, systematic screening is necessary to identify long-term poliovirus excreters until the use of oral polio vaccine is stopped.

  1. Biliary albumin excretion induced by bile salts in rats is a pathological phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, M.; Kitani, K.; Kanai, S.

    1989-01-01

    The bile to plasma 125I-albumin concentration ratio (B/P ratio) was examined before and during various bile salt infusions in male Wistar rats that had previously received iv injection of 125I-albumin. Endogenous rat albumin and IgG concentrations in the bile were also determined by a single radial immunodiffusion method. Taurocholate (TC) infusion (1.0 mumol/min/100 g body wt) significantly increased the bile flow rate in the first hr but the flow began to decline in the second hr. The B/P ratio as well as rat albumin (and IgG) excretion into the bile significantly increased as early as 15 min after the start of TC infusion, and the increase became more pronounced in the second hr, when the bile flow began to decrease. Infusion of taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC, 0.4 mumol/min/100 g) caused a reduction in bile flow 15 min after the start of infusion but the B/P ratio increased 40 times at its peak compared with the basal value before the bile salt infusion. Simultaneous infusion of tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC, 0.6 mumol/min/100 g) and TCDC not only abolished the cholestasis induced by TCDC but maintained stable choleresis as long as for 2 hr. During this choleretic period, the B/P ration never exceeded the basal value. The choleresis induced by either taurodehydrocholate (TDHC) or bucolome was not accompanied by enhanced albumin excretion. In rats given TDHC infusion, albumin excretion started to increase only after the bile flow began to decline following the initial choleretic period. The enhanced excretion of albumin induced by TC and TCDC is therefore suggested to be caused not by the choleresis per se but by a possible concomitant increase in the communication between sinusoids and bile canaliculi, which eventually leads to cholestasis

  2. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing-Hwa Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF diet (63.1%. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1 normal group (normal; (2 HF group; (3 chitosan + HF group (HF + C. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 105 Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8% significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4 protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment

  3. Glucose production during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, R; Kjaer, M; Simonsen, L

    1999-01-01

    at 50.4 +/- 1.5(SE)% maximal O(2) consumption, followed by 30 min at 69.0 +/- 2.2% maximal O(2) consumption. The splanchnic blood flow was estimated by continuous infusion of indocyanine green, and net splanchnic glucose output was calculated as the product of splanchnic blood flow and a-hv blood...... glucose concentration differences. Glucose appearance rate was determined by a primed, continuous infusion of [3-(3)H]glucose and was calculated by using formulas for a modified single compartment in non-steady state. Glucose production was similar whether determined by the a-hv balance technique......The present study compared the arteriohepatic venous (a-hv) balance technique and the tracer-dilution method for estimation of hepatic glucose production during both moderate and heavy exercise in humans. Eight healthy young men (aged 25 yr; range, 23-30 yr) performed semisupine cycling for 40 min...

  4. Urinary excretion of creatine and creatinine in gamma irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S K; Srinivasan, M N; Chuttani, K; Bhatnagar, A; Ghose, A

    1985-06-01

    Dose response relationships of creatine, creatinine excretions and their ratio in 24 hr urine samples have been studied on each individual day upto 4 days after 1-7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation to rats. Creatine excretion reaches the peak on the 2nd day while creatinine excretion reaches the peak on the first day and a plateau is maintained up to the 4th day in each case. Good dose response correlationship is maintained for creatine or creatinine levels up to the 4th day and for creatine creatinine ratio up to the 3rd day. Seperate dose response curves are needed on each individual day for using these parameters for biological dosimetry purpose. Administration of the radioprotectors viz., combination of 5-hydroxytryptophan (HT) and 2-amino-ethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET), HT alone and optimum radioprotecting dose of AET before 5 Gy whole body ..gamma..-irradiation have not been of help for reducing creatinineurea. (author).

  5. Water metabolism and modification of tritium excretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimasa, Y.; Akita, Y.

    1982-01-01

    1. The intake and excretion of tritium were studied in rats exposed to tritiated water vapor. The metabolism of tritium was also investigated in rats given single administrations of tritiated water and in rats given daily administrations (per os or i.p.). The results were essentially in accord with those reported previously. 2. Amounts of drinking water consumed and urine excreted by rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin were 1.5 to 2 times higher than in rats drinking tap water. The tritium activity in various tissues of rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin decreased to about half of that of rats drinking tap water. A similar tendency was observed also in rats drinking beer. The diuretic agent sodium acetazolamide also enhanced the urinary excretion of tritium. (author)

  6. Urinary excretion of creatine and creatinine in gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.K.; Srinivasan, M.N.; Chuttani, K.; Bhatnagar, A.; Ghose, A.

    1985-01-01

    Dose response relationships of creatine, creatinie excretions and their ratio in 24 hr urine samples have been studied on each individual day upto 4 days after 1-7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation to rats. Creatine excretion reaches the peak on the 2nd day while creatinine excretion reaches the peak on the first day and a plateau is maintained upto the 4th day in each case. Good dose response correlationship is maintained for creatine or creatinine levels upto the 4th day and for creatine creatinine ratio upto the 3rd day. Seperate dose response curves are needed on each individual day for using these parameters for biological dosimetry purpose. Administration of the radioprotectors viz., combination of 5-hydroxytryptophan (HT) and 2-amino-ethylisothiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET), HT alone and optimum radioprotecting dose of AET before 5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation have not been of help for reducing creatinineurea. (author)

  7. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.M.; Boston, R.C.; Leaver, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of 32 P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney

  8. Utilization of Chicken Excretions as Compost Manure in Bolu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Kütük

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkish agricultural soils are insufficient with regard to organic matter content. Likewise, organic matter amounts in agricultural areas of Bolu are low. The benefits of organic matter to physical, chemical and biologic properties of soils are known for very long time. On the other hand, huge amount of chicken excretions are produced in Turkey with increased chicken production recently, and this result in substantial health and environmental problems. Amount of chicken excretions are estimated about 10 000 000 tons in Turkey. In Bolu, these amounts of chicken excretions are 300 000 tons per year. The most appropriate way to solve this question is to transform chicken excretions to organic manure and apply to agricultural fields. Composting is basic process for transforming of chicken excretions to organic manure. Composting is the aerobic decomposition of organic materials in the thermophilic temperature range of 40-65 °C. There are two essential methods in composting. One of them is traditional method taking much time and producing low grade manure. Another is rapid composting method taking less time and producing high grade manure under more controlled conditions. Rapid composting methods which are more acceptable as commercially in the world are windrow, rectangular agitated beds and rotating drum, respectively Selection of appropriate method is depending on composting material, environmental and economical conditions. Chicken excretions occurring large amounts in Bolu must be transformed to organic manure by means of a suitable composting method and used in agriculture. Because, chicken manure is an important resource for sustainable agriculture in Turkey and it should be evaluated.

  9. Effect and mechanism of dioscin from Dioscorea spongiosa on uric acid excretion in animal model of hyperuricemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Jin, Lijun; Liu, Jinchang; Wang, Wei; Yu, Haiyang; Li, Jian; Chen, Qian; Wang, Tao

    2018-03-25

    Dioscin, a spirostane glycoside, the rhizoma of Dioscorea septemloba (Diocoreacea) is used for diuresis, rheumatism, and joints pain. Given the poor solubility and stability of Dioscin, we proposed a hypothesis that Dioscin's metabolite(s) are the active substance(s) in vivo to contribute to the reducing effects on serum uric acid levels. The aim of this study is to identify the active metabolite(s) of Dioscin in vivo and to explore the mechanism of its antihyperuricemic activity. After oral administration of Dioscin in potassium oxonate (PO) induced hyperuricemia rats and adenine-PO induced hyperuricemia mice models, serum uric acid and creatinine levels, clearance of uric acid and creatinine, fractional excretion of uric acid, and renal pathological lesions were determined were used to evaluate the antihyperuricemic effects. Renal glucose transporter-9 (GLUT-9) and organic anion transporter-1 (OAT-1) expressions were analyzed by western blotting method. Renal uric acid excretion was evaluated using stably urate transporter-1 (URAT-1) transfected human epithelial kidney cell line. Intestinal uric acid excretion was evaluated by measuring the transcellular transport of uric acid in HCT116 cells. In hyperuricemia rats, both 25 and 50mg/kg of oral Dioscin decreased serum uric acid levels over 4h. In the hyperuricemia mice, two weeks treatment of Dioscin significantly decreased serum uric acid and creatinine levels, increased clearance of uric acid and creatinine, increased fractional excretion of uric acid, and reduced renal pathological lesions caused by hyperuricemia. In addition, renal GLUT -9 was significantly down-regulated and OAT-1 was up-regulated in Dioscin treated hyperuricemia mice. Dioscin's metabolite Tigogenin significantly inhibited uric acid re-absorption via URAT1 from 10 to 100μM. Diosgenin and Tigogenin increased uric acid excretion via ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2). Decreasing effect of Dioscin on serum uric acid level and

  10. Effects of season on the bathypelagic mysid Gnathophausia ingens: water content, respiration, and excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller-Adams, Page; Childress, James J.

    1983-06-01

    Water contents, oxygen consumption rates and ammonia excretion rates of individuals of the large bathypelagic mysid Gnathophausia ingens were measured as a function of size and season (winter and summer). Individuals of the sizes studied live permanently beneath the euphotic zone. Water content, as a percent of wet weight, is higher in winter than in summer, suggesting seasonal variability in the midwater environment. Our data suggest that the seasonal change in water content increases with increasing size. We suggest that the changes are due in part to seasonal changes in food intake. Seasonal differences were not observed in wet-weight-specific rates of either respiration or ammonia excretion. Both rates decrease with increasing size. The constancy of the atomic O:N ratio and its high value (geometric mean = 44.3) indicate that the average proportions of lipid and protein metabolized by individuals were independent of size and season and that lipid stores were not sufficiently depleted, even in small animals, to cause a shift to predominantly protein metabolism in winter or summer. On the average, metabolic rates of individuals were unaffected by seasonal variation in the midwater environment.

  11. Hyperthyroidism alters excretion of dichloroethylene metabolites into serum and bile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanz, M.F.; Moslen, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Hepatotoxicity of 1,1-dichloroethylene (DCE) is enhanced in rats made hyperthyroid by excessive thryoxine (T 4 ). Our objective was to determine if the enhancement of DCE injury by T 4 was associated with alterations in the biologic fate of DCE, especially clearance of DCE metabolites into bile. Male SD rats (275 g) were injected with T 4 (40μg/100 g) 3 times at 48 hr intervals (hyperthyroid, HyperT) or sham injected (euthyroid, EuT). A 8 AM, all rats had jugular and biliary cannulas positioned under pentobarbital anesthesia. At 9:30 AM, all rats received 14 C-DCE (100 mg/kg) po in mineral oil. 14 C-DCE metabolite levels were measured serially in blood and bile for 4 hr and in liver at 4 hr. Major observations were: Rate of biliary excretion of 14 C by EuT was stable from 0.5 to 4 hr, while biliary 14 C in HyperT peaked at 1 hr at a level about 100% greater then EuT but then gradually declined by 4 hr to about 50% less than EuT. Serum 14 C was also stable from 2 to 4 hr in EuT, while serum 14 C in HyperT continued to rise and at 4 hr, was twice that of EuT. At 4 hr, HyperT had two times more 14 C covalently bound to total liver and liver mitochondria than EuT. Thus, enhancement of DCE injury by hyperthyroidism was associated with a temporal shift in DCE metabolite clearance from bile to blood and with more covalent binding of toxin to liver

  12. Muscle protein turnover in cattle of differing genetic backgrounds as measured by urinary N tau-methylhistidine excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, F.D.; Bergen, W.G.; Hawkins, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    N tau-methylhistidine (N tau MH) was used as an index for muscle protein degradation and this index was utilized to evaluate degradation rates in young growing cattle. Initially, two Charolais crossbred heifers, 12 months of age, were used to measure the recovery of radioactivity in the urine for a 120-hour period after intravenous injection of [ 14 C]N tau MH. Of the radioactivity injected into the animals, 89.7% was recovered after 120 hours. With rate and amount of clearance as the criteria, the excretion of N tau MH in urine appears to be a valid index of muscle protein degradation in cattle. Eight steers of two genetic types were used to evaluate the effect of frame size on turnover rates of muscle proteins with N tau MH as an index. Large frame cattle (LG) excreted more N tau MH per day throughout the trial. Total daily creatinine excretion was less for small frame (SM) cattle showing an increase with time in LG and SM cattle. N tau MH-to-creatinine ratios showed a decline with time. Fractional breakdown rates (FBR) and fractional synthesis rates (FSR) appeared to parallel each other with rates tending to decrease with age. No differences were observed between LG and SM cattle for FBR, FSR or fractional growth rate

  13. Blood glucose and liver function in dogs administered a xylitol drinking water additive at zero, one and five times dosage rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M.G. Anthony

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was designed to determine the safety of a drinking water additive that reduces plaque and calculus in dogs, and contains xylitol as an active ingredient. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in 15 crossbred dogs that were randomly divided into three groups and had their drinking water treated for 14 days with either: i a commercial health care product (BreathaLyser Plus at the recommended dosage, ii an experimental health care product (BreathaLyser Plus containing five times the amount of xylitol, or iii a placebo of purified water with a colour additive. Results demonstrated that the continuous administration of a commercial, drinking water, oral health product containing xylitol, at one and five times the normal inclusion rate, does not cause hypoglycemia or alter liver function in dogs.

  14. A glucose oxidase-coupled DNAzyme sensor for glucose detection in tears and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Sheng, Yongjie; Sun, Yanhong; Feng, Junkui; Wang, Shijin; Zhang, Jin; Xu, Jiacui; Jiang, Dazhi

    2015-08-15

    Biosensors have been widely investigated and utilized in a variety of fields ranging from environmental monitoring to clinical diagnostics. Glucose biosensors have triggered great interest and have been widely exploited since glucose determination is essential for diabetes diagnosis. In here, we designed a novel dual-enzyme biosensor composed of glucose oxidase (GOx) and pistol-like DNAzyme (PLDz) to detect glucose levels in tears and saliva. First, GOx, as a molecular recognition element, catalyzes the oxidation of glucose forming H2O2; then PLDz recognizes the produced H2O2 as a secondary signal and performs a self-cleavage reaction promoted by Mn(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+). Thus, detection of glucose could be realized by monitoring the cleavage rate of PLDz. The slope of the cleavage rate of PLDz versus glucose concentration curve was fitted with a Double Boltzmann equation, with a range of glucose from 100 nM to 10mM and a detection limit of 5 μM. We further applied the GOx-PLDz 1.0 biosensor for glucose detection in tears and saliva, glucose levels in which are 720±81 μM and 405±56 μM respectively. Therefore, the GOx-PLDz 1.0 biosensor is able to determine glucose levels in tears and saliva as a noninvasive glucose biosensor, which is important for diabetic patients with frequent/continuous glucose monitoring requirements. In addition, induction of DNAzyme provides a new approach in the development of glucose biosensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A prospective analysis of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with uveal melanoma: comparison between metabolic rate of glucose (MRglu) and standardized uptake value (SUV) and correlations with histopathological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Mattoli, Maria Vittoria; Rufini, Vittoria; Giordano, Alessandro [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Roma (Italy); Blasi, Maria Antonietta; Sammarco, Maria Grazia [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Ophthalmology, Roma (Italy); Petrone, Gianluigi; Mule, Antonino [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Department of Pathology, Roma (Italy); Indovina, Luca [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Physics Unit, Roma (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    To evaluate whether standardized uptake value (SUV) and/or metabolic rate of glucose (MRglu) are different among epithelioid, mixed, and spindle cell uveal melanomas, as well as between low and high risk melanomas; to correlate ultrasonographic data and metabolic parameters with histopathological features; and to assess the role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for evaluating prognosis. Of 34 eligible patients prospectively enrolled with clinical suspicion of medium/large uveal melanoma, 26 (15 men, mean age 62.8 {+-} 11.8 years) were evaluated. All patients underwent metastatic work-up, 3-D dynamic brain and whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, and surgery. Of the 26 ocular lesions, 23 showed {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, with a sensitivity of 88 %. MRglu was significantly higher in the epithelioid cell melanomas than in the spindle cell melanomas, as well as in high-risk lesions than in low-risk lesions (p = 0.01, p = 0.02, respectively). SUV and MRglu were correlated with histopathological features while ultrasonographic data were not. MRglu is useful for distinguishing the different cell types in uveal melanoma, as well as high-risk from low-risk lesions, while SUV is not. MRglu provides a more accurate evaluation of glucose consumption, whereas SUV provides only an estimation. In addition, the metabolic parameters correlate with histopathological features, well also reflecting cellular behaviour in ocular malignancy. A longer follow-up is needed to assess the role of {sup 18}F-FDG in evaluating prognosis. (orig.)

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your ... glucose is above 240 mg/dl, check your urine for ketones. If you have ketones, do not ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is above 240 ... ketones. If you have ketones, do not exercise. Exercising when ketones are present may make your blood ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High ... We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access to Research Research Resources Practice ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get ... the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has ...

  3. Ammonia excretion in Caenorhabditis elegans: mechanism and evidence of ammonia transport of the Rhesus protein CeRhr-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlimoghaddam, Aida; Boeckstaens, Mélanie; Marini, Anna-Maria; Treberg, Jason R.; Brassinga, Ann-Karen C.; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a bacteriovorous animal, excreting the vast majority of its nitrogenous waste as ammonia (25.3±1.2 µmol gFW−1 day−1) and very little urea (0.21±0.004 µmol gFW−1 day−1). Although these roundworms have been used for decades as genetic model systems, very little is known about their strategy to eliminate the toxic waste product ammonia from their bodies into the environment. The current study provides evidence that ammonia is at least partially excreted via the hypodermis. Starvation reduced the ammonia excretion rates by more than half, whereas mRNA expression levels of the Rhesus protein CeRhr-2, V-type H+-ATPase (subunit A) and Na+/K+-ATPase (α-subunit) decreased correspondingly. Moreover, ammonia excretion rates were enhanced in media buffered to pH 5 and decreased at pH 9.5. Inhibitor experiments, combined with enzyme activity measurements and mRNA expression analyses, further suggested that the excretion mechanism involves the participation of the V-type H+-ATPase, carbonic anhydrase, Na+/K+-ATPase, and a functional microtubule network. These findings indicate that ammonia is excreted, not only by apical ammonia trapping, but also via vesicular transport and exocytosis. Exposure to 1 mmol l−1 NH4Cl caused a 10-fold increase in body ammonia and a tripling of ammonia excretion rates. Gene expression levels of CeRhr-1 and CeRhr-2, V-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase also increased significantly in response to 1 mmol l−1 NH4Cl. Importantly, a functional expression analysis showed, for the first time, ammonia transport capabilities for CeRhr-1 in a phylogenetically ancient invertebrate system, identifying these proteins as potential functional precursors to the vertebrate ammonia-transporting Rh-glycoproteins. PMID:25740900

  4. Underestimation of glucose turnover corrected with high-performance liquid chromatography purification of [6-3H]glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk, W.F.; Butler, P.C.; Haymond, M.W.; Rizza, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently reported that during infusion of commercially available [6-3H]glucose, a radioactive nonglucose contaminant may accumulate in plasma causing errors in the measurement of glucose turnover. To determine whether purification of this tracer by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) before infusion would eliminate the contaminant in plasma and remove the underestimation of glucose turnover reported during hyperinsulinemia, four normal subjects each underwent two 5-h euglycemic clamps during infusion of insulin (1 mU.kg-1.min-1). Glucose turnover was measured with either commercially available [6-3H]glucose or with HPLC-purified [6-3H]glucose. HPLC analysis of samples from the clamps done with commercially available [6-3H]glucose showed that 9.7% of the infused tracer and 26% of the plasma glucose 3H radioactivity were contaminants. In contrast, no contaminant was observed in the plasma during infusion of HPLC-purified [6-3H]glucose. During the last hour of the clamp, mean glucose turnover using commercially available [6-3H]glucose was less (P less than 0.01) than the mean glucose infusion rate (7.6 +/- 0.3 vs. 10.5 +/- 0.3 mg.kg-1.min-1) yielding apparent negative (P less than 0.001) hepatic glucose release. In contrast, when HPLC-purified [6-3H]glucose was employed, glucose turnover equaled the glucose infusion rate (10.4 +/- 0.9 vs. 10.2 +/- 0.9 mg.kg-1.min-1) and hepatic glucose release was no longer negative. We conclude that removal of a tritiated nonglucose contaminant in [6-3H]glucose by HPLC yields correct estimations of glucose turnover at steady state

  5. [Blood glucose self monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Thomas C; Stechemesser, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Self monitoring of blood glucose contributes to the integrated management of diabetes mellitus. It, thus, should be available for all patients with diabetes mellitus type-1 and type-2. Self monitoring of blood glucose improves patients safety, quality of life and glucose control. The current article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the use of blood glucose self monitoring according to current scientific evidence.

  6. Renal excretion of iodine-131 labelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine and metabolites after therapeutic doses in patients suffering from different neural crest-derived tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafelman, A.R.; Hoefnagel, C.A.; Maessen, H.J.M.; Maes, R.A.A.; Beijnen, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine-131 labelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine ([ 131 I[MIBG) is used for diagnostic scintigraphy and radionuclide therapy of neural crest-derived tumours. After administration of therapeutic doses of [ 131 I[MIBG (3.1-7.5 GBq) to 17 patients (n=32 courses), aged 2-73 years, 56%±10%, 73%±11%, 80%±10% and 83%±10% of the dose was cumulatively excreted as total radioactivity in urine at t=24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h, respectively. Except for two adult patients, who showed excretion of 14%-18% of [ 131 I[meta-iodohippuric acid ([ 131 I[MIHA), the cumulatively excreted radioactivity consisted of >85% [ 131 I[MIBG, with 6% of the dose excreted as free [ 131 I[iodide, 4% as [ 131 I[MIHA and 2.5% as an unknown iodine-131 labelled metabolite. Cumulative renal excretion rates of total radioactivity and of [ 131 I[MIBG appeared to be higher in neuroblastoma and phaeochromocytoma patients than in carcinoid patients. Based on the excretion of small amounts of [ 131 I[meta-iodobenzoic acid in two patients, a possible metabolic pathway for [ 131 I[MIBG is suggested. The degree of metabolism was not related to the extent of liver uptake of radioactivity. (orig.). With 2 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type ... Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ... I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is ...

  9. Electrocatalytic glucose sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, U; Luft, G; Mund, K; Preidel, W; Richter, G J

    1983-01-01

    An artificial pancreas consists of an insulin depot, a dosage unit and a glucose sensor. The measurement of the actual glucose concentration in blood is still an unsolved problem. Two methods are described for an electrocatalytic glucose sensor. Under the interfering action of amino acids and urea in-vitro measurements show an error of between 10% and 20%.

  10. Effects of 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose on Metabolic Status, Proliferative Capacity and Growth Rate of FSall Tumor: Observations made by In Vivo 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Flow Cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hye Sook; Choi, Eun Kyung; Cho, Jeong Gill; Lim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Tae Keun; Yi, Yun; Cho, Young Joo; Kim, Gon Sup

    1991-01-01

    The effect of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DDG) on C 3 H mouse fibrosarcoma (FSall) was studied. Metabolic status, especially for energy metabolism, was studied using in vivo 31 P-MRS, proliferative capacity was observed on flow cytometry (FC) and growth rate was measured after transplantation of 106 viable tumor cells in the dorsum of foot of C 3 Hf/Sed mice. One gram of 2-DDG per kg of body weight was injected intraperitoneally on 12th day of implantation. Average tumor size on 12th day of implantation was 250mm 3 . Growth rate of FSall tumor was measured by tumor doubling time between tumor age 5-12 days was 0.84 days with slope 0.828 and tumor doubling time between tumor age 13-28 days was 3.2 days with slope 0.218 in control group. After 2-DDG injection, tumor doubling time was elongated to 5.1 days with slope 0.136. The effect of 2-DDG studied in vivo 31 P-MRS suggested that the increase of phosphomonoester (PME) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) by increasing size of tumor, slowed down after 2-DDG injection. Flow cytometry showed significantly increased S-phase and G 2 +M phase fraction suggesting increased proliferative capacity of tumor cells in the presence of 2-DDG. Authors observed an interesting effect 2-DDG on FSall tumor and attempt to utilize as an adjunct for radiotherapy

  11. Urinary Excretion of Niacin Metabolites in Humans After Coffee Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Jonathan Isaak; Gömpel, Katharina; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a major natural source of niacin in the human diet, as it is formed during coffee roasting from the alkaloid trigonelline. The intention of our study was to monitor the urinary excretion of niacin metabolites after coffee consumption under controlled diet. We performed a 4-day human intervention study on the excretion of major niacin metabolites in the urine of volunteers after ingestion of 500 mL regular coffee containing 34.8 μmol nicotinic acid (NA) and 0.58 μmol nicotinamide (NAM). In addition to NA and NAM, the metabolites N 1 -methylnicotinamide (NMNAM), N 1 -methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-Py), and nicotinuric acid (NUA) were identified and quantified in the collected urine samples by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIVA) using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Rapid urinary excretion was observed for the main metabolites (NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py), with t max values within the first hour after ingestion. NUA appeared in traces even more rapidly. In sum, 972 nmol h -1 of NA, NAM, NMNAM, and 2-Py were excreted within 12 h after coffee consumption, corresponding to 6% of the ingested NA and NAM. The results indicate regular coffee consumption to be a source of niacin in human diet. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Excretion pattern of enrofloxacin after oral treatment of chicken broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, M; Pahor, V; Cvitkovič Maričič, L; Sollner-Dolenc, M

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism and excretion of enrofloxacin were studied when applied as oral solution to chicken broilers for five consecutive days. Sixty 9-day-old broilers were isolated within an intensively rearing poultry farm during enrofloxacin therapy (15.5 mg/kg per day). The excreta of the isolated broilers were collected daily, 9 days after therapy termination, for 13 consecutive days, and analyzed for the presence of enrofloxacin and its metabolites [ciprofloxacin, desethylene-enrofloxacin (DES-EF) and desethylene-ciprofloxacin (DES-CF)]. Enrofloxacin was excreted predominantly in the form of the parent compound between days 1 and 13. Ciprofloxacin was detected in the excreta between days 1 and 6, whereas minor amounts of DES-EF and DES-CF were excreted only between days 1-7 and 1-6, respectively. In conclusion, the analysis of the excreta showed that approximately 74% of orally applied enrofloxacin was excreted as the parent compound, approximately 25% as the main metabolite ciprofloxacin, and approximately 1% as the minor metabolites desethylene-enrofloxacin and desethylene-ciprofloxacin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Regulation of direct transintestinal cholesterol excretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van den Oever, Karin; Seemann, Ingar; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; van Eck, Miranda; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Biliary secretion is generally considered to be an obligate step in the pathway of excess cholesterol excretion from the body. We have recently shown that an alternative route exists. Direct transintestinal cholesterol efflux ( TICE) contributes significantly to cholesterol removal in mice. Our aim

  14. Regulation of direct transintestinal cholesterol excretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van den Oever, Karin; Seemann, Ingar; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; van Eck, Miranda; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Biliary secretion is generally considered to be an obligate step in the pathway of excess cholesterol excretion from the body. We have recently shown that an alternative route exists. Direct transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) contributes significantly to cholesterol removal in mice. Our aim

  15. The importance of excretion by Chironomus larvae on the internal loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in a small eutrophic urban reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Henry

    Full Text Available Measurements of ammonium and phosphate excretion by the Chironomus larvae were conducted in order to evaluate the importance of these chironomids for the internal loads of a small eutrophic urban reservoir. Ammonium and phosphate excretion rates by Chironomus larvae of small size (6-10 mm total length were significantly higher than those of the Chironomids having medium (9-11 mm and large (11-16 mm sizes. A dependence in relation to temperature was recorded for the ammonium and phosphate excretions that was significantly higher at 25 °C than at 20 and 15 °C. Through a linear relation between biomass (dry weight and total length and, between excretion and biomass and, data on chironomids densities, after an intense sampling in 33 sites distributed all along the reservoir bottom, the mean phosphate and ammonium excretion rates corresponded to 2,014 ± 5,134 µg.m-2/day and 1,643 ± 3,974 µg.m-2/day, respectively. Considering the mean biomass (34 mg.m-2 of Chironomus, the lake area (88,156 m² and the mean excretion rates, the contribution of benthic chironomids to the internal loads would be 181 KgP and 147 KgN. for the sampling months (October-November 1998. These values showed that the internal loads by excretion from Chironomus larvae correspond to approximately 33% of the external loads of phosphorus in the lake and, in the case of nitrogen, to only 5%.

  16. Plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of MnDPDP in the rat and dog after intravenous administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hustvedt, S.O.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate distribution and excretion of mangafodipir (MnDPDP, Teslascan) in the rat and dog. Material and Methods: Formulations of either 14 C-MnDPDP or 54 MnDPDP were injected intravenously at near clinical doses in rats and dogs. Results: The manganese (Mn) moeity is rapidly removed from plasma with an elimination half-life of less than 25 min in both species, reflecting a rapid distribution to the tissues and an early excretion. The plasma clearance of the DPDP moeity is slower than that of Mn and it appears to distribute into the extracellular fluid. Mn is distributed largely to the liver, pancreas and kidneys, and in pregnant rats, also to foetal liver and bones. No transplacental passage of DPDP could be detected. The metal is mainly excreted by the faecal route, with a small fraction eliminated early in the urine. DPDP is rapidly and essentially completely excreted in the urine, consistent with the glomerular filtration rate. (orig./AJ)

  17. Monitoring of I excretions and used materials of patients treated with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, K.; Ohara, K.; Maekoshi, H.; Orito, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1980-01-01

    The maximum excretion rates of iodine in exhalation, perspiration and salivation were measured in patients treated with 131 I for thyroid carcinoma and hyperthyroidism. The contamination of dishes, chopsticks, toothbrushes, linen (coversheets), sheets and towels, and underwear (shirts and drawers) were monitored and evaluated along with the air contamination level arising from these items. The maximum excretion rate of the administered dose on an average was 3.2 x 10 -6 per hr in exhalation, 2.45 x 10 -6 per hr in perspiration, and 6.3 x 10 -3 per ml. in salivation. The maximum contamination rate of items ranged from 1.1 x 10 -3 to 10 -5 of the administered dose. The predominant radioactivity of the skin surface resulted from perspiration with a maximum of 1.8% evaporation into the air as water vapor. The air contamination level ranged from 1.4 x 10 -5 to 1.2 x 10 -7 per hr of the administered dose. (author)

  18. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF KANAMYCIN IN DOMESTIC RUMINANT SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. JAVED, Z. U. RAHMAN, F. H. KHAN, F. MUHAMMAD, Z. IQBAL AND B. ASLAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Species dependent geonetical differences in renal clearance and urinary excretion of kanamycin were investigated in adult female buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats. The drug was administered as a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg b.wt. Blood and urine samples were collected at various time intervals after drug administration. The plasma and urine concentrations of the drug were determined using the microbiological assay. The mean (± SE values for endogenous creatinine clearance (an index of glomerular filtration rate were 0.77 ± 0.05, 0.49 ± 0.07, 0.81 ± 0.07 and 0.98 ± 0.13 ml/min.kg in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats, respectively. Experiments regarding kidney handling of kanamycin in these ruminant species revealed respective values of renal clearance as 0.08 ± 0.01, 0.07 ± 0.01, 0.19 ± 0.02 and 0.23 ± 0.04 ml/min.kg. Besides glomerular filtration, kanamycin was reabsorbed from the renal tubules of all ruminant species and actively secreted into the renal tubules of buffaloes and goats. The cumulative percentages of intravenous dose of kanamycin excreted through urine during 12 hours in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats were 4.31 ± 0.37, 2.53 ± 0.30, 11.0 ± 1.04 and 15.8 ± 2.22, respectively. This species variation in the percentage of urinary excretion in these domestic ruminants coincides with their respective glomerular filtration rates, being the highest in goats, lowest in cows and intermediate in sheep and buffaloes.

  19. Glucose enhancement of memory depends on initial thirst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, Andrew B; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Greer, Joanna; Elliott, Jade; Kennedy, David O

    2009-12-01

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the influence of appetitive state on glucose enhancement of memory. Participants rated their mood, hunger and thirst, then consumed a 25 g glucose drink or a matched placebo 20 min prior to a verbal memory task. There was a double dissociation when the effects of thirst ratings and drink on subsequent memory performance were considered. Those who were initially less thirsty recalled significantly more words following glucose than placebo; those who were more thirsty recalled significantly fewer words after glucose than placebo. Glucose enhancement of memory may therefore critically depend on participants' initial thirst.

  20. Pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several compounds are already available in many countries (dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin and ipragliflozin) and some others are in a late phase of development. The available SGLT2 inhibitors share similar pharmacokinetic characteristics, with a rapid oral absorption, a long elimination half-life allowing once-daily administration, an extensive hepatic metabolism mainly via glucuronidation to inactive metabolites, the absence of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions and a low renal elimination as parent drug. SGLT2 co-transporters are responsible for reabsorption of most (90 %) of the glucose filtered by the kidneys. The pharmacological inhibition of SGLT2 co-transporters reduces hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. The amount of glucose excreted in the urine depends on both the level of hyperglycaemia and the glomerular filtration rate. Results of numerous placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials of 12-104 weeks duration have shown significant reductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), resulting in a significant increase in the proportion of patients reaching HbA1c targets, and a significant lowering of fasting plasma glucose when SGLT2 inhibitors were administered as monotherapy or in addition to other glucose-lowering therapies including insulin in patients with T2DM. In head-to-head trials of up to 2 years, SGLT2 inhibitors exerted similar glucose-lowering activity to metformin, sulphonylureas or sitagliptin. The durability of the glucose-lowering effect of SGLT2 inhibitors appears to be better; however, this remains to be more extensively investigated. The risk of hypoglycaemia was much lower with SGLT2 inhibitors than with sulphonylureas and was similarly low as that reported with metformin, pioglitazone or sitagliptin

  1. Predictors of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor - Induced reduction of urinary albumin excretion in nondiabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wal, Ruud M. A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van der Harst, Pim; Boomsma, Frans; Thijs Plokker, H. W.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; de Jong, Paul E.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Voors, Adriaan A.

    2006-01-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is a predictor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We investigated which parameters determine baseline urinary albumin excretion in nondiabetic subjects, without renal disease. In addition, we evaluated the parameters that predict the albuminuria-lowering efficacy

  2. Increased feeding and nutrient excretion of adult Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, exposed to enhanced carbon dioxide (CO₂.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace K Saba

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification has a wide-ranging potential for impacting the physiology and metabolism of zooplankton. Sufficiently elevated CO(2 concentrations can alter internal acid-base balance, compromising homeostatic regulation and disrupting internal systems ranging from oxygen transport to ion balance. We assessed feeding and nutrient excretion rates in natural populations of the keystone species Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill by conducting a CO(2 perturbation experiment at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO(2 levels in January 2011 along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP. Under elevated CO(2 conditions (∼672 ppm, ingestion rates of krill averaged 78 µg C individual(-1 d(-1 and were 3.5 times higher than krill ingestion rates at ambient, present day CO(2 concentrations. Additionally, rates of ammonium, phosphate, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC excretion by krill were 1.5, 1.5, and 3.0 times higher, respectively, in the high CO(2 treatment than at ambient CO(2 concentrations. Excretion of urea, however, was ∼17% lower in the high CO(2 treatment, suggesting differences in catabolic processes of krill between treatments. Activities of key metabolic enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (MDH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, were consistently higher in the high CO(2 treatment. The observed shifts in metabolism are consistent with increased physiological costs associated with regulating internal acid-base equilibria. This represents an additional stress that may hamper growth and reproduction, which would negatively impact an already declining krill population along the WAP.

  3. Glucokinase, the pancreatic glucose sensor, is not the gut glucose sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, R; Tura, A; Clark, P M

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic peptide (GIP) are released from intestinal endocrine cells in response to luminal glucose. Glucokinase is present in these cells and has been proposed as a glucose sensor. The physiological...... role of glucokinase can be tested using individuals with heterozygous glucokinase gene (GCK) mutations. If glucokinase is the gut glucose sensor, GLP-1 and GIP secretion during a 75 g OGTT would be lower in GCK mutation carriers compared with controls. METHODS: We compared GLP-1 and GIP concentrations...... measured at five time-points during a 75 g OGTT in 49 participants having GCK mutations with those of 28 familial controls. Mathematical modelling of glucose, insulin and C-peptide was used to estimate basal insulin secretion rate (BSR), total insulin secretion (TIS), beta cell glucose sensitivity...

  4. Dysregulation of the Glutamine Transporter Slc38a3 (SNAT3 and Ammoniagenic Enzymes in Obese, Glucose-Intolerant Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Busque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Uric acid nephrolithiasis is prevalent among patients with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome; it is correlated with an acidic urine and lower urinary ammonium excretion and is likely associated with insulin resistance. Insulin stimulates ammoniagenesis in renal cell lines via increased phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG activity and glutamine metabolism. Ammonium excretion into the proximal tubule is mediated at least in part by the Na+/H+-exchanger NHE3 and in the collecting duct involving the Rhesus protein RhCG. Here we tested, whether obesity and insulin resistance in a diet-induced mouse model could contribute to deranged ammonium excretion. Methods: Obesity was induced by diet in mice and the impact on key molecules of proximal tubular ammoniagenesis and urinary acid excretion tested. Results: Diet-induced obesity was confirmed by pathological intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT. Three groups of mice were compared: control mice; obese, glucose-intolerant with abnormal IPGTT (O-GI; or moderate weight with normal IPGTT (Non-Responders, NR. Basal urinary ammonium excretion did not differ among groups. However, acid loading increased urinary ammonium excretion in all groups, but to a lesser extent in the O-GI group. SNAT3 mRNA expression was enhanced in both obese groups. PDG expression was elevated only in acid-loaded O-GI mice, whereas PEPCK was enhanced in both O-GI and NR groups given NH4CI. NHE activity in the brush border membrane of the proximal tubule was strongly reduced in the O-GI group whereas RhCG expression was similar. Conclusion: In sum, obesity and glucose intolerance impairs renal ammonium excretion in response to NH4CI feeding most likely through reduced NHE activity. The stimulation of SNAT3 and ammoniagenic enzyme expression may be compensatory but futile.

  5. Changes in urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H. S.; Jörning, G. G.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    This study followed the time course of urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in rats. The excretion of both taurine and hypotaurine was elevated during 18 h following the hepatectomy, with maximal excretion during the first 6 h. Twelve and 24 h after partial

  6. Mechanism of Excretion of a Bacterial Proteinase: Demonstration of Two Proteolytic Enzymes Produced by a Sarcina Strain (Coccus P)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SARNER, NITZA Z; BISSELL, MINA J; GIROLAMO, MARIO Di; GORINI, LUIGI

    1970-06-29

    A Sarcina strain (Coccus P) produces two proteolytic enzymes. One is found only extracellularly, is far more prevalent, and is actively excreted during exponential growth. It is the enzyme responsible for the known strong proteolytic activity of the cultures of this strain. A second protease is, however, produced which remains associated with the intact cells but is released by the protoplasts. The two enzymes appear unrelated in their derivation. Calcium ions play an essential role in preventing autodigestion of the excreted enzyme. Bacterial proteins are found outside the cell boundary as a consequence either of passive processes such as leakage or lysis or of active excretion. Under conditions in which leakage and lysis do not occur, as during exponential growth, the cell boundary is a barrier causing a complete separation of the bulk of the intracellular proteins from the one or very few extracellular proteins, with no trace of either type being detectable on the wrong side of the boundary. Since in bacteria there is no evidence of protein being produced other than internally, the separation into intraand extracellular proteins should occur after peptide chain formation. The question arises as to whether the structure of the cell boundary or that of the excreted proteins themselves determines this separation. Coccus P, a Sarcina closely related to Micrococcus lysodeikticus (3), produces an extracellular proteinase during the exponential phase of growth so that the process appears to be active excretion. The organism grows exponentially in a defined synthetic medium (12) to relatively high cell density (10{sup 9} cells/ml); therefore the mechanism of excretion can be studied over an extended period of time without the difficulties of changing growth rates. Coagulation of reconstituted skim milk provides a simple and sensitive assay for enzyme activity (I 1). The extracellular proteinase has also been purified and partially characterized (6-8). It has been shown

  7. Ontogenetic body-mass scaling of nitrogen excretion relates to body surface area in diverse pelagic invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Lilley, M.K.S.; Glazier, D.S.

    2017-01-01

    . Among diverse pelagic invertebrates that change shape during ontogeny, recent analysis has demonstrated a significant positive correlation between the body-mass allometry of respiration rates (measured as the ontogenetic body mass-scaling exponent bR) and the allometry of body surface area (b......A, as predicted from body-shape changes using a Euclidean model). As many pelagic invertebrates use a large portion of their external body surface for both resource uptake and waste excretion, we predicted that body-mass scaling exponents for rates of excretion of soluble N (bN) should also then relate...... to the degree of body-shape change during growth. We tested this hypothesis using literature data on bN for 39 species of pelagic invertebrates across five different phyla, and find strong support: bN is significantly positively correlated with predicted bA, whilst also co-varying with bR. Intraspecific...

  8. Impaired renal function and increased urinary isoprostane excretion in Ghanaian women with pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetteh PW

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul Winston Tetteh,1,4 Charles Antwi-Boasiako,1 Ben Gyan,3 Daniel Antwi,1 Festus Adzaku,1 Kwame Adu-Bonsaffoh,1,2 Samuel Obed21Department of Physiology, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana; 3Department of Immunology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; 4Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Research, Uppsalalaan 8, Utrecht, The NetherlandsBackground: The cause of pre-eclampsia remains largely unknown, but oxidative stress (an imbalance favoring oxidant over antioxidant forces has been implicated in contributing to the clinical symptoms of hypertension and proteinuria. Assessment of oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia using urinary isoprostane has produced conflicting results, and it is likely that renal function may affect isoprostane excretion. The aim of this study was to determine the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia and to assess the effect of renal function on isoprostane excretion in pre-eclampsia in the Ghanaian population.Methods: This was a case-controlled study, comprising 103 pre-eclamptic women and 107 normal pregnant controls and conducted at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital between December 2006 and May 2007. The study participants were enrolled in the study after meeting the inclusion criteria and signing their written informed consent. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring urinary excretion of isoprostane and total antioxidant capacity using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Renal function was assessed by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula.Results: The pre-eclampsia group had significantly (P = 0.0006 higher urinary isoprostane excretion (2.81 ± 0.14 ng/mg creatinine than the control group (2.01 ± 0.18 ng/mg creatinine and a significantly (P = 0.0008 lower total antioxidant power (1

  9. Distribution and excretion of mercury compounds in rats over a long period after a single injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swensson, A; Ulfvarson, U

    1968-01-01

    Rats were given single subcutaneous injections of methyl mercuric hydroxide, mercury (II) nitrate and phenyl mercuric hydroxide. The elimination of the compounds and the concentration in the organs at different times were followed by means of isotope techniques, for almost 6 months. The rate of excretion changes during the observation period. A calculated biological half-life therefore will be different from time to time. If the elimination during the first 9 days is considered the half-life is 5 days for mercury (II) nitrate and phenyl mercuric hydroxide and 16 days for methyl mercuric hydroxide. After this the excretion rate becomes slower and slower. The distribution in the organs varies during the first part of the period. The blood concentration decreases rapidly for all compounds, while the concentrations in the kidneys increases and reaches a maximum after some days. The same holds true for the brain and testis when mercury (II) nitrate and methyl mercuric hydroxide are considered. The elimination from the kidneys, the brain and the testes is slower than from other organs for all compounds. The concentrations in different parts of the brain are rather similar, though somewhat higher concentration in lobus olfactorius is indicated.

  10. Ecophysiological adaptations to variable salinity environments in the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus from the Southeastern Pacific coast: Sodium regulation, respiration and excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Ángel; Urbina, Mauricio A

    2017-08-01

    The estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus is a key benthic species of estuarine and intertidal ecosystems of the South Pacific, habitats that experience wide fluctuations in salinity. The physiological strategies that allow this crab to thrive under variable salinities, and how they change during the benthic stages of their life cycle, were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and the regulatory capacity of Na + through the normal range of environmental salinities (i.e. 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30) were evaluated in three size classes, ranging from juveniles to adults. In all sizes, the oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and regulatory capacity of Na + decreased as salinity increased, with the highest values at 5 and the lowest values at 30 salinity. Bigger crabs showed a higher capacity to regulate Na + , as well as higher respiration and excretion rates compared to smaller crabs, suggesting that they are better equipped to exploit areas of the estuary with low salinity. Regardless of its size, H. crenulatus is a strong hyper regulator in diluted media (i.e. 5-20) while a conformer at salinities higher than 20. The regulatory capacity of Na + was positively related with oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates. These relationships between sodium regulation, respiration and excretion are interpreted as adaptive physiological mechanisms that allow H. crenulatus to maintain the osmotic and bioenergetic balance over a wide range of environmental salinities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between plasma uridine and urinary urea excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Tuneyoshi; Inokuchi, Taku; Tamada, Daisuke; Suda, Michio; Tsutsumi, Zenta; Okuda, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Asako; Takahashi, Sumio; Moriwaki, Yuji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-03-01

    To investigate whether the concentration of uridine in plasma is related to the urinary excretion of urea, 45 healthy male subjects with normouricemia and normal blood pressure were studied after providing informed consent. Immediately after collection of 24-hour urine, blood samples were drawn after an overnight fast except for water. The contents of ingested foods during the 24-hour urine collection period were described by the subjects and analyzed by a dietician. Simple regression analysis showed that plasma uridine was correlated with the urinary excretions of urea (R = 0.41, P urea. These results suggest that an increase in de novo pyrimidine synthesis leads to an increased concentration of uridine in plasma via nitrogen catabolism in healthy subjects with normouricemia and normal blood pressure. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion...... of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study...... on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20-59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses...

  13. Glucose recovery after intranasal glucagon during hypoglycaemia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, A; Djurup, R; Hilsted, J

    1994-01-01

    to exceed 3 mmol.l-1 was significantly shorter for i.m. glucagon. The mean plasma glucagon level increased faster after i.m. glucagon than after intranasal glucagon, and the levels remained higher throughout the study period. We conclude that glucose recovery was significantly better after i...... endogenous glucose counterregulation, and glucose turnover was estimated by a 3-[3H]-glucose infusion. When hypoglycaemia was reached, the subjects received either i.m. glucagon of pancreatic extraction (1 mg) or intranasal genetically engineered glucagon (2 mg). The incremental values for plasma glucose...... concentrations 15 min after intranasal and i.m. administration of glucagon differed marginally. However, after 5 min the glucose appearance rate, as well as the incremental values for plasma glucose, were significantly higher for the i.m. glucagon treatment. The mean time taken for incremental plasma glucose...

  14. Studies on distribution and excretion of 14C-glycerol in rats, rabbits and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takanashi, Shigeru; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hidetaka; Tohira, Yasuo; Ogawa, Machiko

    1978-01-01

    Tissue distribution and excretion of uniformly labeled 14 C-glycerol were investigated using rats, rabbits and mice. Blood disappearance half life of 14 W/V% 14 C-glycerol in mice (1 ml/head), rats (1 ml/head) and rabbits (2 ml/head) given intravenously was 0.4, 1.8 and 2.4 hours, respectively. When 14 W/V% 14 C-glycerol was injected in rats (1 ml/head) and rabbits (2 ml/head), 65% of administered radioactivity was excreted in to expired air within 48 hrs. This suggests that glycerol is mostly metabolised via the Embden-Meyehof pathway and the TCA cycle, and finally converted to CO 2 and H 2 O. At a low dose, the conversion ratio to CO 2 was greater than the case of a high dose, and a inverse relationship was observed between the CO 2 -conversion ratio and the dose. At levels above 1 ml of 56 W/V% glycerol, an approximately constant portion of the administered dose appeared to be oxidized. The results of the whole body autoradiogram showed the distribution of the radioactivity throughout the body. Disappearance of radioactivity from liver and blood was rapid, but transport to brain, excretion to the salivary gland, and secretion to Harder's gland were slow. The distribution in tissues showed that the highest distribution of 14 C-glycerol was found in the carcass; liver showed the next highest distribution; high distribution was also found initially in the kidneys; brain, heart, lung and spleen showed low distribution, but they decreased with time elapsed. Disappearance of radioactivity from the brain was relatively slower than the liver. Besides, another result indicated that in pregnant mice 14 C-glycerol did not cross the placenta very quickly. The fact that the apparent disappearance rate from the foetuses does not seem to parallel that of the placenta is suggestive of selective accumulation in foetal tissues. (auth.)

  15. Excretion of [3H]prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    The excretion rate of [3H]prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of [3H]prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and [3H]prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of [3H]prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of [3H]prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows

  16. Excretion of (3H)prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The excretion rate of (3H)prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of (3H)prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and (3H)prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of (3H)prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of (3H)prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows.

  17. Metabolism of metofluthrin in rats: II. Excretion, distribution and amount of metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Jun; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Tarui, Hirokazu; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Kurosawa, Motohiro; Sugimoto, Kenji; Isobe, Naohiko

    2017-11-20

    1. 14  C-Labelled E/Z isomers of a synthetic pyrethroid metofluthrin ((E/Z)-(1 R,3 R)-2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl 2,2-dimethyl-3-(1-propenyl)-cyclopropanecarboxylate, abbreviated as RTE/RTZ, respectively) were used for rat metabolism studies. 14  C-RTE or RTZ labelled at the carbonyl-carbon [acid- 14 C] or the methoxymethylbenzyl-α-carbon [alcohol- 14  C] was administered orally to rats at 1 and 20 mg/kg. 2. Dosed compounds were mostly absorbed, metabolised, and rapidly excreted. Dose-related increase in blood AUC suggested no saturation of absorption at the high dose. Blood 14  C was maximal at 3-8 h and decreased with a half-life of 52-163 h. Radioactivity in tissues, blood and plasma decreased basically at the same rate and the sum fell below 0.2% of the dose at 168 h. 3. Although the major metabolic pathways of the isomers, that is, ester cleavage, O-demethylation and ω-oxidation, were similar, there was a notable difference. The RTZ double bond commonly undergoes epoxidation while RTE double bond mainly undergoes glutathione conjugation, which causes faster elimination from plasma and greater excretion into faeces on RTE. Faster urinary excretion and elimination from blood were observed for the alcohol moiety than the acid moiety. 4. In conclusion, this study described the overall metabolic profiles of metofluthrin and identified the differences in metabolic breakdown between the isomers. No marked sex-/dose-related differences were observed.

  18. [Renal excretion of total porphyrins and hippuric acid in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, J; Burck, D

    1986-09-01

    The amounts of total porphyrins, hippuric acid and creatinine, excreted in urine by adult male Wistar rats, exhibited normal distributions for hippuric acid and creatinine, but a bimodal distribution for total porphyrins. This typical distribution of total porphyrins was still observed when creatinine was used as reference parameter. In biochemical and toxicological experiments in rats, the tested parameters should be therefore be investigated for homogeneity.

  19. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, tissue distribution and excretion of tangeretin in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lun Hung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tangeretin, 4′,5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone, is one of the major polymethoxyflavones (PMFs existing in citrus fruits, particularly in the peels of sweet oranges and mandarins. Tangeretin has been reported to possess several beneficial bioactivities including anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and neuroprotective effects. To achieve a thorough understanding of the biological actions of tangeretin in vivo, our current study is designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, distribution and excretion of tangeretin in rats. After oral administration of 50 mg/kg bw tangeretin to rats, the Cmax, Tmax and t1/2 were 0.87 ± 0.33 μg/mL, 340.00 ± 48.99 min and 342.43 ± 71.27 min, respectively. Based on the area under the curves (AUC of oral and intravenous administration of tangeretin, calculated absolute oral bioavailability was 27.11%. During tissue distribution, maximum concentrations of tangeretin in the vital organs occurred at 4 or 8 h after oral administration. The highest accumulation of tangeretin was found in the kidney, lung and liver, followed by spleen and heart. In the gastrointestinal tract, maximum concentrations of tangeretin in the stomach and small intestine were found at 4 h, while in the cecum, colon and rectum, tangeretin reached the maximum concentrations at 12 h. Tangeretin excreted in the urine and feces was recovered within 48 h after oral administration, concentrations were only 0.0026% and 7.54%, respectively. These results suggest that tangeretin was mainly eliminated as metabolites. In conclusion, our study provides useful information regarding absorption, distribution, as well as excretion of tangeretin, which will provide a good base for studying the mechanism of its biological effects. Keywords: Tangeretin, Oral bioavailability, Pharmacokinetics, Tissue distribution, Excretion

  20. Effects of Gentamicin on Urinary Electrolyte Excretion in Admitted Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Falakolaflaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used during the neonatal period. It is associated with nephrotoxic effects in neonates, including glomerular impairment and renal tubular dysfunction. Electrolyte balance is very important, especially in the sick premature neonate receiving aminoglycosides. The purpose of this study was early diagnosis of gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 23 neonates (11 full – term and 12 preterm with suspected sepsis who were admitted and treated with gentamicin. Blood and urine samples were collected before infusion and on the 3rd day of treatment. Serum and urine concentration of Na, K, creatinine (Cr and urine concentration of Ca were measured. Then fractional excretion of Na and K were estimated. Ca excretion was estimated as the UCa/UCr ratio. Then the collected data were analyzed using SPSS package.Results: In all neonates, increase in fractional excretion of Na and UCa/UCr, in the 3rd day of treatment were observed as compared to those of before infusion (P=0.01 and P=0.02 respectively. Serum creatinine levels decreased in all patients. Serum level of electrolytes during therapy was normal.Conclusion: The results of this study clearly demonstrate an effect of gentamicin infusion on renal sodium and calcium excretion. These results may be of clinical importance especially for sick preterm neonates receiving treatment with gentamicin. These babies are usually salt-losers and are also more susceptible to early onset hypocalcemia. Gentamicin can aggravate these complications.

  1. Study about excretion of 210 Po in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Azeredo, A.M.G. da.

    1988-01-01

    The urine of mines's workers are analysed to detect the presence of 210 Po. The results was compared with the workers and with a control population. Cigarettes samples was analysed two and confirmed the 210 presence. The control population individuals were divided in smokers and non smokers and them urine was investigated the influence of the smoke in the 210 Po excretion. (L.M.J.)

  2. Measuring brain glucose phosphorylation with labeled glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondsted, H.E.; Gjedde, A.

    1988-01-01

    This study tested whether glucose labeled at the C-6 position generates metabolites that leave brain so rapidly that C-6-labeled glucose cannot be used to measure brain glucose phosphorylation (CMRGlc). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, the parietal cortex uptake of [ 14 C]glucose labeled in the C-6 position was followed for times ranging from 10 s to 60 min. We subtracted the observed radioactivity from the radioactivity expected with no loss of labeled metabolites from brain by extrapolation of glucose uptake in an initial period when loss was negligible. The observed radioactivity was a monoexponentially declining function of the total radioactivity expected in the absence of metabolite loss. The constant of decline was 0.0077.min-1 for parietal cortex. Metabolites were lost from the beginning of the experiment. However, with correction for the loss of labeled metabolites, it was possible to determine an average CMRGlc between 4 and 60 min of circulation of 64 +/- 4 (SE; n = 49) mumol.hg-1.min-1

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ...

  4. Biostable glucose permeable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A new biostable glucose permeable polymer has been developed which is useful, for example, in implantable glucose sensors. This biostable glucose permeable polymer has a number of advantageous characteristics and, for example, does not undergo hydrolytic cleavage and degradation, thereby providing...... a composition that facilitates long term sensor stability in vivo. The versatile characteristics of this polymer allow it to be used in a variety of contexts, for example to form the body of an implantable glucose sensor. The invention includes the polymer composition, sensor systems formed from this polymer...

  5. Distribution and Excretion of Am-241 in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alatas, Z; Nurhayati, S; Rahardjo, T

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the activity content of Am-241 administered oral y in several organs and tissues of white rats including the excretion had been carried out. The observation of Am-241 activity was carried out through surgery and for the excretion of the radionuclide by collecting urine and faces. The surgeries were conducted on the 0 (6 hours), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15 and 30th day post administration of 2.965 kBq Am-241, whereas the urine and faces collections were done every other day for 30 days using metabolism cage. The result indicated that the distribution of Am-241 which found in all tested organs/tissues with various fraction is considered as the initial distribution of Am-241 in rats. The content of americium in gastrointestinal tract and lung is relatively high within the first week post contamination. And, americium activities in other organs/tissues are various with time. The excretion of Am-241 is higher via feces than that of urin, i.e up to 20% in 30 days

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteinase A excretion and wine making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lulu; Chen, Yefu; Du, Yongjing; Wang, Xibin; Guo, Xuewu; Dong, Jian; Xiao, Dongguang

    2017-11-09

    Proteinase A (PrA), the major protease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays an essential role in zymogen activation, sporulation, and other physiological processes in vivo. The extracellular secretion of PrA often occurs during alcoholic fermentation, especially in the later stages when the yeast cells are under stress conditions, and affects the quality and safety of fermented products. Thus, the mechanism underlying PrA excretion must be explored to improve the quality and safety of fermented products. This paper briefly introduces the structure and physiological function of PrA. Two transport routes of PrA, namely, the Golgi-to-vacuole pathway and the constitutive Golgi-to-plasma membrane pathway, are also discussed. Moreover, the research history and developments on the mechanism of extracellular PrA secretion are described. In addition, it is briefly discussed that calcium homeostasis plays an important role in the secretory pathway of proteins, implying that the regulation of PrA delivery to the plasma membrane requires the involvement of calcium ion. Finally, this review focuses on the effects of PrA excretion on wine making (including Chinese rice wine, grape wine, and beer brewage) and presents strategies to control PrA excretion.

  7. Does mercury vapor exposure increase urinary selenium excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, T; Suzuki, T; Himeno, S; Watanabe, C; Satoh, H; Shimada, Y

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported that an increase of urinary selenium excretion may occur as a result of mercury vapor exposure. However, experimental data regarding the interaction between mercury vapor and selenium have yielded ambiguous results about the retention and elimination of selenium due to mercury vapor exposure and the decrease of selenium excretion due to mercury in the form of mercuric mercury (Hg/sup 2 +/). In this study, the authors measured urinary mercury and selenium in workers with or without exposure to mercury vapor to determine whether or not urinary selenium excretion was increased as a result of mercury vapor exposure. Urine samples were collected from 141 workers, 71 men and 70 women, whose extent of exposure to mercury vapor varied according to their job sites. Workers were divided into five groups according to their urinary mercury levels. The mercury level in group I was less than 2.8 nmol/mmol creatinine which means that this group was mostly free from mercury exposure. The average age was almost identical among the groups. For both sexes, group V (with the highest urinary mercury level) had the lowest urinary selenium level, but one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) did not reveal any significant variations of urinary selenium with urinary mercury levels; however, a weak but significant negative correlation between mercury and selenium was found in men.

  8. The kinetics of glucose production from rice straw by Aspergillus niger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... The concentration and rate of glucose production was observed to depend on pretreatment of ... cerning reaction rate parameters for rice straw hydrolysis. The generation of such ... The experiment and glucose analysis was ...

  9. Plasma glucagon and glucose recovery after hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Holst, Janett

    1991-01-01

    ) and of isolated alpha-adrenergic blockade on hormonal responses to hypoglycemia and on blood glucose recovery after hypoglycemia in healthy subjects. Neither of the pharmacological blockades had any significant effects on plasma glucagon responses to hypoglycemia nor had they any effect on the rate of blood...... glucose recovery after hypoglycemia. We conclude that the autonomic nervous system has no major influence on the glucagon response to hypoglycemia in healthy man. Changes in autonomic nervous activity are not essential for blood glucose recovery after hypoglycemia in healthy man....

  10. Kinetics of metabolism of glucose, propionate and CO2 in steers as affected by injecting phlorizin and feeding propionate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veenhuizen, J.J.; Russell, R.W.; Young, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of injecting phlorizin subcutaneously and/or feeding propionate on metabolism of glucose, propionate and CO2 were determined for four steers used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Isotope dilution techniques were used to determine a four-pool kinetic solution for the flux of carbon among plasma glucose, rumen propionate, blood CO2 and rumen CO2. Injecting 1 g of phlorizin twice daily for 19 d resulted in 7.1 mol glucose C/d being excreted in urine. The basal glucose production of 13.4 mol C/d was increased to 17.9 mol C/d with phlorizin. There was no change in glucose oxidation or propionate production. The percentage of plasma glucose derived from propionate was unaffected by phlorizin, but 54 +/- 0.4% of total propionate was converted to plasma glucose during phlorizin treatment versus 40 +/- 0.6% during the basal treatment. When propionate was fed (18.3 mol C/d) glucose production increased to 21.2 mol C/d from the basal value of 13.4 mol C/d, and propionate oxidation to CO2 increased to 14.9 mol C/d from the basal value of 4.1 mol C/d. Glucose derived from propionate was 43 +/- 5% for the basal treatment and 67 +/- 3% during propionate feeding. The percentage of propionate converted to plasma glucose and blood and rumen CO2 was not affected by feeding propionate. An increased need for glucose, because of glucose excretion during phlorizin treatment, caused an increased utilization of propionate for gluconeogenesis, but an increased availability of propionate caused an increase in glucose production without affecting the relative distribution of carbon from propionate

  11. The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose has served as a very specific, sensitive, and repeatable assay for detection of glucose in biological samples. It has been used successfully for analysis of glucose in samples from blood and urine, to analysis of glucose released from starch or glycog...

  12. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus absorption and excretion in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz; Vitti, Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Nutricao Animal]. E-mails: icsbueno@cena.usp.br; abdalla@cena.usp.br; dovitti@cena.usp.br; Furtado, Carlos Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zootecnia]. E-mail: cefurtado@uem.br

    2007-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most polluting nutrients because of high husbandry concentrations in restricted areas. The present study compiles data from previous studies dealing with true digestibility of different P levels in diets for horses. Database consisted of results from two experiments carried out at the Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), using horses fed different levels of P (n=28). True absorption of phosphorus was determined by isotopic dilution technique, using {sup 32}P as tracer. All parameters (P{sub ING}: ingested P; P{sub ABS}: absorbed P; P{sub FECTOT}: total faecal P excretion; P{sub FECENDO}: endogenous faecal P; P{sub URI}: total urinary excretion; and P{sub RET}: retained P) were normalized according to body weight (BW) and linear and quadratic regressions between P{sub ING} and the other parameters were tested. No quadratic effect was observed. P{sub ING} ranged from 41 to 264 mg/kg BW. Faecal P excretion was affected by intake, analysing by total (P{sub FECTOT} = 0.888 (S.E. 0.058) P{sub ING} - 29.40 (S.E. 8.14) (P<0.0001; RMSE=20.37; R{sup 2}=0.90) or by endogenous fraction (P{sub FECENDO} = 0.095 (S.E. 0.029) P{sub ING} + 12.10 (S.E. 4.16) (P=0.0034; RMSE=10.41; {sup R}2=0.29). Urinary P excretion was not affected by intake (P=0.35), although ranging from 0.06 to 59.20 mg/kg BW. The same occurred for P{sub RET} (P=0.25) ranging from -13.69 to 88.78 mg/kg BW. P absorption also was affect by P intake (P{sub ABS} = 0.195 (S.E. 0.060) P{sub ING} + 42.19 (S.E. 8.45) (P=0.0031; RMSE=21.15; R{sup 2}=0.29). The present study showed that only a small part of ingested P was absorbed, i.e. most of ingested P was excreted via faeces, contributing for environmental pollution. (author)

  13. The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Heidi; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Christensen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) increase urinary glucose excretion through a reduced renal glucose reabsorption. We plan to perform a systematic review of SGLT-2i for treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review with meta-analyses of r......INTRODUCTION: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) increase urinary glucose excretion through a reduced renal glucose reabsorption. We plan to perform a systematic review of SGLT-2i for treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic review with meta......-analyses of randomised clinical trials on SGLT-2i versus placebo, other oral glucose lowering drugs or insulin for patients with type 2 diabetes will be performed. The primary end point will be the glycated haemoglobin. Secondary end points will include changes in body weight, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose......, plasma cholesterol, kidney and liver blood tests, blood pressure and adverse events. Electronic (the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Science Citation Index) and manual searches will be performed. Meta-analyses will be performed and the results presented as mean differences for continuous...

  14. Steroid hormone release as well as renal water and electrolyte excretion of mice expressing PKB/SGK-resistant GSK3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boini, Krishna M; Bhandaru, Madhuri; Mack, Andreas; Lang, Florian

    2008-09-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) participate in the regulation of renal electrolyte excretion. Insulin- and IGF1-dependent signaling includes phosphatidylinositide-3 (PI3)-kinase, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 as well as protein kinase B (PKB) and serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase (SGK) isoforms, which in turn phosphorylate and thus inhibit glycogen synthase kinase GSK3alpha,beta. Replacement of the serines in the PKB/SGK consensus sequences by alanine (gsk3 ( KI )) confers resistance of GSK3 to PKB/SGK. To explore the role of PKB/SGK-dependent inhibition of GSK3 in the regulation of water/electrolyte metabolism, mice carrying the PKB/SGK resistant mutant (gsk3 ( KI )) were compared to their wild-type littermates (gsk3 ( WT ) ). Body weight was similar in gsk3 ( KI ) and gsk3 ( WT ) mice. Plasma aldosterone at 10 A.M: . and corticosterone concentrations at 5 P.M: . were significantly lower, but 24-h urinary aldosterone was significantly higher, and corticosterone excretion tended to be higher in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. Food and water intake, fecal excretion, glomerular filtration rate, urinary flow rate, urine osmolarity, as well as urinary Na+, K+, urea excretion were significantly larger, and plasma Na+, urea, but not K+ concentration, were significantly lower in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. Body temperature was significantly higher in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. When allowed to choose between tap water and saline, gsk3 ( WT ) mice drank more saline, whereas gsk3 ( KI ) mice drank similar large volumes of tap water and saline. During high-salt diet, urinary vasopressin excretion increased to significantly higher levels in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. After water deprivation, body weight decreased faster in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. Blood pressure, however, was significantly higher in gsk3 ( KI ) than in gsk3 ( WT ) mice. The observations disclose a role of PKB/SGK-dependent GSK3

  15. Accuracy of flash glucose monitoring and continuous glucose monitoring technologies: Implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjan, Ramzi A; Cummings, Michael H; Jennings, Peter; Leelarathna, Lalantha; Rayman, Gerry; Wilmot, Emma G

    2018-02-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring and flash glucose monitoring technologies measure glucose in the interstitial fluid and are increasingly used in diabetes care. Their accuracy, key to effective glycaemic management, is usually measured using the mean absolute relative difference of the interstitial fluid sensor compared to reference blood glucose readings. However, mean absolute relative difference is not standardised and has limitations. This review aims to provide a consensus opinion on assessing accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose sensing technologies. Mean absolute relative difference is influenced by glucose distribution and rate of change; hence, we express caution on the reliability of comparing mean absolute relative difference data from different study systems and conditions. We also review the pitfalls associated with mean absolute relative difference at different glucose levels and explore additional ways of assessing accuracy of interstitial fluid devices. Importantly, much data indicate that current practice of assessing accuracy of different systems based on individualised mean absolute relative difference results has limitations, which have potential clinical implications. Healthcare professionals must understand the factors that influence mean absolute relative difference as a metric for accuracy and look at additional assessments, such as consensus error grid analysis, when evaluating continuous glucose monitoring and flash glucose monitoring systems in diabetes care. This in turn will ensure that management decisions based on interstitial fluid sensor data are both effective and safe.

  16. A novel double-tracer technique to characterize absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of [14C]tofogliflozin after oral administration and concomitant intravenous microdose administration of [13C]tofogliflozin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Dietmar; Portron, Agnes; Backholer, Zoe; Lausecker, Berthold; Kawashima, Kosuke

    2013-06-01

    Human mass balance studies and the assessment of absolute oral bioavailability (F) are usually assessed in separate studies. Intravenous microdose administration of an isotope tracer concomitant to an unlabeled oral dose is an emerging technique to assess F. We report a novel double-tracer approach implemented for tofogliflozin combining oral administration of a radiolabel tracer with concomitant intravenous administration of a stable isotope tracer. Tofogliflozin is a potent and selective sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus currently in clinical development. The objectives of the present study were to assess the systemic exposure of major circulating metabolites, excretion balance, F and contribution of renal clearance (CLR) to total clearance (CL) of tofogliflozin in healthy subjects within one study applying a novel double-tracer technique. Six healthy male subjects received 20 mg [(12)C/(14)C]tofogliflozin (3.73 MBq) orally and a concomitant microdose of 0.1 mg [(13)C]tofogliflozin intravenously. Pharmacokinetics of tofogliflozin were determined for the oral and intravenous route; the pharmacokinetics of the metabolites M1 and M5 were determined for the oral route. Quantification of [(12)C]tofogliflozin in plasma and urine and [(13)C]tofogliflozin in plasma was performed by selective LC-MS/MS methods. For the pre-selected metabolites of tofogliflozin, M1 and M5, a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was applied to plasma and urine samples. Total radioactivity was assessed in plasma, urine and feces. Pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted by non-compartmental methods. The pharmacokinetics of tofogliflozin in healthy subjects were characterized by an F of 97.5 ± 12.3 %, CL of 10.0 ± 1.3 l/h and volume of distribution at steady-state (V(ss)) of 50.6 ± 6.7 l. The main route of elimination of total drug-related material was by excretion into urine (77.0 ± 4.1 % of the dose). The

  17. Urinary loss of glucose, phosphate, and protein by diffusion into proximal straight tubules injured by D-serine and maleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, F.A.; Nakamura, S.; Goldman, B.

    1985-01-01

    In several models of acute renal failure leakage of glomerular filtrate out of the tubule is an important pathogenetic mechanism; however, bidirectional diffusion of solute to account for certain pathophysiologic features of acute renal failure has received meager attention. Using micropuncture and clearance methods, the authors assessed sequentially leakage of solutes and inulin across proximal straight tubules (PST) injured by two nephrotoxins. In d-serine-treated rats with extensive necrosis of PST, the basis for glucosuria and tubular leakage of inulin was studied. Glucose absorption by the proximal convoluted tubule and glucose delivery to the PST were normal, but glucose delivery to the distal tubule was increased nearly 8-fold, indicating diffusion of glucose from interstitial to tubular luminal fluid across the necrotic PST. Total kidney inulin clearance was greatly reduced, but single nephron glomerular filtration rate, based on proximal convoluted tubule samples, was normal, indicating tubular loss of inulin. Urinary recovery of [ 14 C]inulin infused into tubular lumina revealed that proximal convoluted tubule and distal tubule were impermeable to inulin and that inulin diffused out of the necrotic PST. The progressive return over 6 days of tubular impermeability for inulin correlated with relining of PST with new cells. In maleic acid-treated rats the site and extent of tubular necrosis and the nature of urinary loss of solutes were studied. Microdissection revealed that maleic acid caused limited necrosis of PST which averaged 7.4% of total proximal tubular length. Increased urinary excretion of protein, phosphate, and glucose and increased tubular permeability to microinfused [ 14 C]inulin occurred with the onset of PST necrosis, and return of these abnormalities to normal correlated with the degree of cellular repair of the PST

  18. Early evaluation of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglu) with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and clinical assessment in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) patients before and after ventricular shunt placement: preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Lavalle, Mariadea; Leccisotti, Lucia; Giordano, Alessandro [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Rome (Italy); Mangiola, Annunziato; De Bonis, Pasquale; Anile, Carmelo [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Neurosurgery, Rome (Italy); Indovina, Luca [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Physics, Rome (Italy); Marra, Camillo [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Neurology, Rome (Italy); Pelliccioni, Armando [Istituto Nazionale per l' Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro (INAIL), Rome (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    We evaluated the relationships between the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglu) measured by dynamic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and the clinical and neuropsychological assessment before and after the surgical procedure in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) patients. Eleven selected INPH patients underwent clinical assessment (modified Rankin scale, Krauss scale, Larsson categorization system and Stein-Langfitt scale), cognitive evaluation (Mini-Mental State Examination, MMSE) and dynamic {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan 3 days before and 1 week after ventricular shunt placement. After shunting, the global CMRglu significantly increased (2.95 {+-} 0.44 vs 4.38 {+-} 0.68, p = 10{sup -7}) in all INPH patients with a mean percentage value of 48.7%. After shunting, no significant change was found in the Evans ratio whereas a significant decrease in all clinical scale scores was observed. Only a slight reduction in the MMSE was found. After shunting, a significant correlation between the global CMRglu value and clinical assessment was found (R {sup 2} = 0.75, p = 0.024); indeed all clinical scale scores varied (decreasing) and the CMRglu value also varied (increasing) in all INPH patients. Our preliminary data show that changes in the CMRglu are promptly reversible after surgery and that there is a relationship between the early metabolic changes and clinical symptoms, independently from the simultaneous changes in the ventricular size. The remarkable and prompt improvement in the global CMRglu and in symptoms may also have important implications for the current concept of ''neuronal plasticity'' and for the cells' reactivity in order to recover their metabolic function. (orig.)

  19. Early evaluation of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglu) with 18F-FDG PET/CT and clinical assessment in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) patients before and after ventricular shunt placement: preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Lavalle, Mariadea; Leccisotti, Lucia; Giordano, Alessandro; Mangiola, Annunziato; De Bonis, Pasquale; Anile, Carmelo; Indovina, Luca; Marra, Camillo; Pelliccioni, Armando

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the relationships between the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglu) measured by dynamic 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and the clinical and neuropsychological assessment before and after the surgical procedure in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) patients. Eleven selected INPH patients underwent clinical assessment (modified Rankin scale, Krauss scale, Larsson categorization system and Stein-Langfitt scale), cognitive evaluation (Mini-Mental State Examination, MMSE) and dynamic 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan 3 days before and 1 week after ventricular shunt placement. After shunting, the global CMRglu significantly increased (2.95 ± 0.44 vs 4.38 ± 0.68, p = 10 -7 ) in all INPH patients with a mean percentage value of 48.7%. After shunting, no significant change was found in the Evans ratio whereas a significant decrease in all clinical scale scores was observed. Only a slight reduction in the MMSE was found. After shunting, a significant correlation between the global CMRglu value and clinical assessment was found (R 2 = 0.75, p = 0.024); indeed all clinical scale scores varied (decreasing) and the CMRglu value also varied (increasing) in all INPH patients. Our preliminary data show that changes in the CMRglu are promptly reversible after surgery and that there is a relationship between the early metabolic changes and clinical symptoms, independently from the simultaneous changes in the ventricular size. The remarkable and prompt improvement in the global CMRglu and in symptoms may also have important implications for the current concept of ''neuronal plasticity'' and for the cells' reactivity in order to recover their metabolic function. (orig.)

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, . In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  1. Blood Glucose Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Cadamuro, Janne

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of fasting plasma glucose may be biased by a time-dependent decrease of glucose in blood tubes, mainly attributable to blood cell metabolism when glycolysis is not rapidly inhibited or blood cells cannot be rapidly separated from plasma. Although glycolysis inhibitors such as sodium...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... is checking your blood glucose often. Ask your doctor how often you should ... associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? ...

  3. Brain Glucose Metabolism Controls Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Tony K.T.

    2007-01-01

    Brain glucose-sensing mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and hypoglycemic-induced hormonal counter-regulation. This commentary discusses recent findings indicating that the brain senses glucose to regulate both hepatic glucose and lipid production.

  4. Radioactive excretion in human milk following administration of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittard, W.B.; Merkatz, R.; Fletcher, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Albumin-tagged sodium pertechnetate (technetium) is routinely used in nuclear medicine for scanning procedures of the lung. The rate of excretion of this radionuclide into breast milk and the resultant potential radiation hazard to the nursing infant have received little attention. Therefore the milk from a nursing mother who required a lung scan because of suspected pulmonary emboli using an intravenous injection of 4 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated human serum albumin was monitored. Albumin tagging severely limited the entrance of technetium into her milk and the radioactivity of the milk returned to base line by 24 hours. A total of 2.02 muCi of technetium was measured in the 24-hour milk collection after technetium injection and 94% of this amount was excreted by 15.5 hours. This amount of technetium administered orally to a newborn would deliver a total body radiation dose of .3 mrad. Therefore, an infant would receive trivial doses of radiation if breast-feeding were resumed 15.5 hours after administration of the radionuclide to the mother and nursing can clearly be resumed safely 24 hours after injection

  5. Effect of Some Therapeutic Agents on the Radionuclides Excretion from Internally Contaminated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.; Mangood, Sh.A.; Sohsah, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The present work was oriented to investigate the effectiveness of Prussian blue (PB), vermiculite and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (CaDTPA) as therapeutic agents for the elimination of either 134 Cs or 60 Co from contaminated rats after intake of one of the isotopes. The study was performed by using 48 adult rats divided into 8 identical groups each of six rats having approximately the same body weight. The groups included a reference group, without isotope or therapeutic agent administration, four groups given one of the isotopes and four groups given the isotopes and treated with different therapeutic regimes. The isotope content of the treated and untreated contaminated rats were followed by daily whole body radiometric counting for three weeks. On plotting log % radionuclide retained as a function of time, elapsed between radionuclide administration and radiometric counting, straight lines were obtained. The results indicate that excretion can mostly be represented by two stages; the first is fast followed by a second slow stage. The % radionuclide excreted, the corresponding rate constant and the biological half-life of each stage was estimated. It was found that the application of PB + vermiculite is more efficient, to remove 134 Cs, from contaminated rats, than PB only and CaDTPA is more efficient to remove 60Co. Therefore, it is recommended to use the three therapeutic agents to remove both isotopes when taken simultaneously

  6. The absorption, distribution, excretion and toxicity of mesoporous silica nanoparticles in mice following different exposure routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Changhui; Liu, Tianlong; Li, Linlin; Liu, Huiyu; Chen, Dong; Tang, Fangqiong

    2013-03-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are emerging as one of the promising nanomaterials for biomedical applications, but the nanomaterials-body interaction exposed by different administration routes remained poorly understood. In the present study, a systematic investigation of the absorption, distribution, excretion and toxicity of silica nanoparticles (SNs) with the average size of 110 nm after four different exposure routes including intravenous, hypodermic, intramuscular injection and oral administration to mice were achieved. The results showed that a fraction of the SNs administrated by the intramuscular and hypodermic injection could cross different biological barriers into the liver but with a low absorption rate. Exposing by oral administration, SNs were absorbed into the intestinal tract and persisted in the liver. And SNs administrated by intravenous injection were mainly present in the liver and spleen. In addition, SNs could cause inflammatory response around the injection sites after intramuscular and hypodermic injection. It was also found that SNs were mainly excreted through urine and feces after different exposure routes. This study will be helpful for selecting the appropriate exposed routes for the development of nanomaterials-based drug delivery system for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of mefenamic acid excreted as free drug in urine of human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseer, M.M.; Nawaz, R.; Shafique, M.; Rehman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free mefenamic acid was investigated in 16 healthy human volunteers, eight males and eight females, following the oral administration of 500 mg tablet of mefenamic acid. Urine samples were collected at pre-determined schedule and drug concentration was determined by spectrophotometric method. The total recovery of free mefenamic acid was 1.526 +- 0.128 and 1.193 +- 0.112% in male and female volunteers respectively. The average +- S.E values for diuresis, pH and rate of excretion of mefenamic acid was 0.0160 +- 0.004 mL/min./kg of body weight, 6.22 +- 0.167, 0.077 +- 0.016 micro g min/sup -1/kg/sup -1/in male while 0.0084 +- 0.0023mL min/sup -1/kg-1 of body weight, 6.35 +- 0.164, 0.054 +- 0.008 micro g min/sup -1/kg/sup -1/respectively in female volunteers. The results obtained are different from the earlier studies due to variability in dose, gender variation, fluctuation in urine pH, environmental conditions and nutritional ingredients. (author)

  8. Effect of penicillin on fatty acid synthesis and excretion in Streptococcus mutans BHT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brissette, J.L.; Pieringer, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of exponentially growing cultures of Streptococcus mutans BHT with growth-inhibitory concentrations (0.2 microgram/ml) of benzylpenicillin stimulates the incorporation of [2- 14 C] acetate into lipids excreted by the cells by as much as 69-fold, but does not change the amount of 14 C incorporated into intracellular lipids. At this concentration of penicillin cellular lysis does not occur. The radioactive label is incorporated exclusively into the fatty acid moieties of the glycerolipids. During a 4-hr incubation in the presence of penicillin, the extracellular fatty acid ester concentration increases 1.5 fold, even though there is no growth or cellular lysis. An indication of the relative rate of fatty acid synthesis was most readily obtained by placing S. mutans BHT in a buffer containing 14 C-acetate. Under these nongrowing conditions free fatty acids are the only lipids labeled, a factor which simplifies the assay. The addition of glycerol to the buffer causes all of the nonesterified fatty acids to be incorporated into glycerolipid. The cells excrete much of the lipid whether glycerol is present or not. Addition of penicillin to the nongrowth supporting buffer system does not stimulate the incorporation of [ 14 C]-acetate into fatty acids

  9. The effect of theophylline on canine bile flow, biliary excretion and concentration of ioglycamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toetterman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Theophylline (TH), which has been shown in experimental dogs to increase bile-salt-independent bile flow, was studied in its effect on the biliary excretion and concentration of the intravenous contrast medium ioglycamide in cholecystectomized anesthetized dogs equipped with a Thomas cannula through which the common bile duct could be cannulated. One hour after cannulation, i.v. infusion of ioglycamide at the rate of 4 mol/min/kg was started. Two hours later, 10 mg/kg of TH was injected intravenously and the experiment continued for a further 75 minutes. Bile was collected at 15 min, intervals throughout the whole experiment and simultaneous intravenous blood samples were taken. In this study, TH increased bile flow and decreased biliary ioglycamide concentration. Although TH increased bile flow, it had no effect on the biliary excretion of ioglycamide. It may be postulated that the organic anion ioglycamide, and possibly other organic anions, are secreted into the bile by mechanisms, unaffected by drugs which increase bile-salt-independent bile flow in a similar manner to TH. (orig.)

  10. From consumption to harvest: Environmental fate prediction of excreted ionizable trace organic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Plósz, Benedek G.; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Excreted trace organic chemicals, e.g., pharmaceuticals and biocides, typically undergo incomplete elimination in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and are released to surface water via treated effluents and to agricultural soils through sludge amendment and/or irrigation with freshwa......Excreted trace organic chemicals, e.g., pharmaceuticals and biocides, typically undergo incomplete elimination in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and are released to surface water via treated effluents and to agricultural soils through sludge amendment and/or irrigation...... with freshwater or reclaimed wastewater. Recent research has shown the tendency for these substances to accumulate in food crops. In this study, we developed and applied a simulation tool to predict the fate of three ionizable trace chemicals (triclosan-TCS, furosemide-FUR, ciprofloxacin-CIP) from human...... and a recently developed dynamic soil-plant uptake model. The simulation tool was tested using country-specific (e.g., consumption/emission rates, precipitation and temperature) input data. A Monte Carlo-based approach was adopted to account for the uncertainty associated to physico-chemical and biokinetic model...

  11. Nanomaterials in glucose sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    The smartness of nano-materials is attributed to their nanoscale and subsequently unique physicochemical properties and their use in glucose sensing has been aimed at improving performance, reducing cost and miniaturizing the sensor and its associated instrumentation. So far, portable (handheld) glucose analysers were introduced for hospital wards, emergency rooms and physicians' offices; single-use strip systems achieved nanolitre sampling for painless and accurate home glucose monitoring; advanced continuous monitoring devices having 2 to 7 days operating life are in clinical and home use; and continued research efforts are being made to develop and introduce increasingly advanced glucose monitoring systems for health as well as food, biotechnology, cell and tissue culture industries. Nanomaterials have touched every aspect of biosensor design and this chapter reviews their role in the development of advanced technologies for glucose sensing, and especially for diabetes. Research shows that overall, nanomat...

  12. Purine derivative excretion and recovery of 14C-uric acid in urine of Ongole cattle given different levels of feed intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejono, M.; Yusiati, L.M.; Budhi, S.P.S.; Widyobroto, B.P.; Bachrudin, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The microbial protein supply to ruminants can be estimated based on the amount of purine derivatives (PD) excreted in the urine. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the purine derivatives method for Ongole cattle. In the first experiment, 4 four-year old male Ongole cattle (Bos indicus) were used to calibrate the PD technique using the most common locally available feed at four levels of intake (95, 80, 60 and 40% of voluntary intake). The diet consisted of king grass and rice bran (70:30 on DM basis). The cattle at the level of 95% intake were injected with [ 14 C]-uric acid in a single dose to define the renal:non-renal partitioning ratio of plasma PD excreted in the urine. The results showed that PD excretion responded positively to the level of feed intake. The relative proportion of urinary allantoin and uric acid to PD excretion was 0.87 and 0.13 respectively. The proportion of urea N to total N ranged from 83 to 93%. The glomerular filtration rate and tubular load of PD increased due to the increasing level of feed intake. Nitrogen balance became negative when the level of feed intake decreased to 60%. The proportion of plasma PD excreted in the urine was 0.67. (author)

  13. Technical Basis Document: A Statistical Basis for Interpreting Urinary Excretion of Plutonium Based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for Selected Atoll Populations in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K; Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Martinelli, R E; Marchetti, A A; Kehl, S R; Langston, R G

    2007-01-01

    We have developed refined statistical and modeling techniques to assess low-level uptake and urinary excretion of plutonium from different population group in the northern Marshall Islands. Urinary excretion rates of plutonium from the resident population on Enewetak Atoll and from resettlement workers living on Rongelap Atoll range from 239 Pu. However, our statistical analyses show that urinary excretion of plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu) from both cohort groups is significantly positively associated with volunteer age, especially for the resident population living on Enewetak Atoll. Urinary excretion of 239 Pu from the Enewetak cohort was also found to be positively associated with estimates of cumulative exposure to worldwide fallout. Consequently, the age-related trends in urinary excretion of plutonium from Marshallese populations can be described by either a long-term component from residual systemic burdens acquired from previous exposures to worldwide fallout or a prompt (and eventual long-term) component acquired from low-level systemic intakes of plutonium associated with resettlement of the northern Marshall Islands, or some combination of both

  14. Isotope dilution measurement of copper absorption and excretion in rats fed different carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Bowman, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    An isotope dilution method using 67 Cu was developed to measure true absorption (A) and endogenous excretion (EE) of Cu in rats. Specific activity (SA) of injected 67 Cu was least variable in 7 tissues on days 6-8 after injection. SA of feces compared to tissues was used to calculate EE and A. This method was used to study Cu metabolism in rats fed 5 ppm or 0.4 ppm Cu and diets containing fructose (FR), glucose (GL), sucrose (SU), or cornstarch (CS). In rats fed 5 ppm Cu, the A, EE, and balance (B) were greatest for CS animals. There were no differences in A, B, or EE between FR and SU rats (p > .05). Rats fed GL had B and A lower than other groups (p .05). Liver Cu did not differ among groups fed 0.4 ppm Cu. Kidney Cu was higher ( p .05) compared to rats fed GL and 5 ppm Cu. EE was significantly lower in all groups on 0.4 ppm Cu than 5 ppm Cu. EE was 1 μg Cu/d on the 0.4 ppm Cu diet

  15. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Moriya, Aya; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth) and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet). Body mass, organ ma...

  16. Clinical Observations of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ja; Lee, Hong Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1969-09-15

    Plasma glucose levels before and after oral glucose administration have been compared in g group of 76 thyrotoxic subjects and a group of 8 normal control subjects in order to study the effect of glucose loading in thyrotoxicosis. Following were the results: 1) The mean fasting plasma glucose level was elevated in thyrotoxic group (95.5 mg%) compared to normal control group (88 mg%). 2) The peak of glucose tolerance curve is at 30 minutes after glucose administration in both groups, but its mean value was 44 mg% higher in thyrotoxic group than in control group. 3) The plasma glucose levels returned towards the fasting level in the later stage of the test more rapidly in thyrotoxic group than in control group. 4) 69.6% of oral glucose tolerance tests were impaired in the thyrotoxic group, and the occurrence of abnormal glucose tolerance could be related to the degree of thyrotoxicity, sex and age. 5) The mechanisms of the impaired glucose tolerance in thyrotoxicosis are thought to be related to an increased rate of glucose absorption from gastrointestinal tract, abnormal liver function with decreased hepatic glycogenesis, increased glucose oxidation, decreased pancreatic release of insulin, and genetic relationship between diabetes and thyrotoxicosis.

  17. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  18. Fecal excretion of Maillard reaction products and the gut microbiota composition of rats fed with bread crust or bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, C; Anton, P M; Niquet-Léridon, C; Spatz, M; Tessier, F J; Gadonna-Widehem, P

    2017-08-01

    A comparison between the impacts of advanced (N ε -carboxymethyllysine - CML) and terminal (melanoidins) Maillard reaction products from bread on gut microbiota was carried out in this study. Gut microbiota composition as well as fecal excretion of CML from both bread crust and bread crumb, and of melanoidins from bread crust were assessed on a rodent model. Rats were fed with pellets supplemented or not with 13% of bread crust, bread crumb, a fiber-free bread crust model (glucose, starch and gluten heated together) or a fiber-free-melanoidin-free bread model (glucose-starch and gluten heated separately) for four weeks. These model systems were developed to limit the presence of wheat-native dietary fibers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. CML and melanoidins in pellets and feces were evaluated by LC/MS-MS and HPLC/fluorescence respectively, and gut microbiota composition was determined by cultivation and molecular approaches. Diets supplemented with crumb or the fiber-free-melanoidin-free model contained respectively 17% and 64% less melanoidins than their respective controls. A higher excretion of melanoidins was observed for rats fed with crust or bread crust model compared to their controls, confirming that melanoidins are in contact with gut microbiota. No impact of diets was observed on Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and lactic flora. A decrease of enterobacteria was only observed for rats fed with the diet supplemented with the fiber-free bread crust model. Moreover, a significant increase of bifidobacteria numbers in the presence of crust, crumb and both bread models was observed, showing that this bifidogenic effect of bread is not due to the presence of melanoidins or wheat-native dietary fibers.

  19. Post-operative substrate utilisation and gas exchange using two different TPN-systems: glucose versus fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Eklund, A; Stjernström, H

    1985-01-01

    Twenty patients were studied over the first 4 post-operative days following abdominal aortic surgery. Ten patients had 93% of their non-protein energy as glucose and insulin was given to keep blood glucose below 10 mmol/l. The other 10 patients had 80% of non-protein energy as fat (Intralipid...... indirect calorimetry data and nitrogen excretion. Metabolism in the early post-operative phase was found to adapt to the nutrition regimen given even though the composition was extreme either in fat or carbohydrate content. The glucose-insulin regimen had a better nitrogen sparing effect and based...

  20. Estimation of endogenous glucose production during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamps. Comparison of unlabeled and labeled exogenous glucose infusates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finegood, D.T.; Bergman, R.N.; Vranic, M.

    1987-01-01

    Tracer methodology has been applied extensively to the estimation of endogenous glucose production (Ra) during euglycemic glucose clamps. The accuracy of this approach has been questioned due to the observation of significantly negative estimates for Ra when insulin levels are high. We performed hyperinsulinemic (300 microU/ml)-euglycemic glucose clamps for 180 min in normal dogs and compared the standard approach, an unlabeled exogenous glucose infusate (cold GINF protocol, n = 12), to a new approach in which a tracer (D-[3- 3 H]glucose) was added to the exogenous glucose used for clamping (hot GINF protocol, n = 10). Plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations, and glucose infusion rates were similar for the two protocols. Plasma glucose specific activity was 20 +/- 1% of basal (at 120-180 min) in the cold GINF studies, and 44 +/- 3 to 187 +/- 5% of basal in the hot GINF studies. With the one-compartment, fixed pool volume model of Steele, Ra for the cold GINF studies was -2.4 +/- 0.7 mg X min-1 X kg-1 at 25 min and remained significantly negative until 110 min (P less than .05). For the hot GINF studies, Ra was never significantly less than zero (P greater than .05) and was greater than in the cold GINF studies at 20-90 min (P less than .05). There was substantially less between-(78%) and within- (40%) experiment variation for the hot GINF studies compared with the cold GINF studies. An alternate approach (regression method) to the application of the one-compartment model, which allows for a variable and estimable effective distribution volume, yielded Ra estimates that were suppressed 60-100% from basal

  1. Characterization of the intravenous glucose tolerance test and the combined glucose-insulin test in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, F J; Aguilera-Aguilera, R; Gonzalez-De Cara, C A; Toribio, R E; Estepa, J C; Perez-Ecija, A

    2015-12-01

    Glucose-insulin dynamic challenges such as the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) have not been described in donkeys. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the IVGTT and CGIT in healthy adult donkeys, and (2) to establish normal glucose-insulin proxies. Sixteen donkeys were used and body morphometric variables obtained each. For the IVGTT, glucose (300 mg/kg) was given IV. For the CGIT, glucose (150 mg/kg) followed by recombinant insulin (0.1 IU/kg) were administered IV. Blood samples for glucose and insulin determinations were collected over 300 min. In the IVGTT the positive phase lasted 160.9 ± 13.3 min, glucose concentration peaked at 323.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL and declined at a rate of 1.28 ± 0.15 mg/dL/min. The glucose area under the curve (AUC) was 21.4 ± 1.9 × 10(3) mg/dL/min and the insulin AUC was 7.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) µIU/mL/min. The positive phase of the CGIT curve lasted 44 ± 3 min, with a glucose clearance rate of 2.01 ± 0.18 mg/dL/min. The negative phase lasted 255.9 ± 3 min, decreasing glucose concentration at rate of -0.63 ± 0.06 mg/dL/min, and reaching a nadir (33.1 ± 3.6 mg/dL) at 118.3 ± 6.3 min. The glucose and insulin AUC values were 15.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) mg/dL/min and 13.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) µIU/mL/min. This is the first study characterizing CGIT and IVGTT, and glucose-insulin proxies in healthy adult donkeys. Distinct glucose dynamics, when compared with horses, support the use of species-specific protocols to assess endocrine function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution and excretion of methyl and phenyl mercury salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gage, J C

    1964-01-01

    The distribution, metabolism, and excretion of phenyl mercury acetate (P.M.A.) and of methyl mercury dicyanidiamide (M.M.D.) has been studied in the rat during the repeated subcutaneous administration of small doses over a period of six weeks, and for several weeks after a single dose. The results indicate that P.M.A. is absorbed unchanged into the circulation from which it is mainly removed by the liver and kidneys where it is metabolized and excreted in the feces and urine mostly as inorganic mercury. During repeated dosage the rats reached a steady state by the end of the second week when excretion approximately balanced intake. No measurable amount of mercury was found in the central nervous system. After repeated dosage with M.M.D. there is no clear indication of a steady state being reached after six weeks. There is an accumulation of organic mercury in all tissues, particularly in the red cells, and a progressive increase in the brain concentration. M.M.D. is more slowly released from the tissues than P.M.A. and the breakdown to inorganic mercury is low. The control of human exposure to alkyl and aryl mercury salts is considered in the light of these experimental observations. The recommendation that the concentration of alkyl mercury salts in the atmosphere should not exceed 0-01 mg/m/sup 3/ seems justifiable, but there appears to be no reason to establish the figure for aryl mercury salts below the 0-1 mg/m/sup 3/ recommended for inorganic mercury vapor. 13 references, 4 tables.

  3. Radiation dosimetry from breast milk excretion of radioiodine and pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedrick, W.R.; Di Simone, R.N.; Keen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements were made of the activity in samples of breast milk obtained from a patient with postpartum thyroiditis following administration of [ 123 I]sodium iodide and subsequently [99mTc]pertechnetate 24 hr later. Both 123 I and 99mTc were found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 5.8 hr and 2.8 hr, respectively. Less than 10% of the activity was incorporated into breast-milk protein. After administration of [ 123 I]sodium iodide breast feeding should be discontinued for 24-36 hr to reduce the absorbed dose to the child's thyroid

  4. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  5. Estimation of uptake from censored urine excretion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.W.; Birchall, A.

    1994-01-01

    The estimation of radionuclide uptake often involves consideration of measurements of urine excretion which may include some values reported as below the limit of detection (LOD). Data sets which contain below LOD data as well as positive results are known as censored data sets. A simple method which uses the information contained in censored data to estimate uptake is described. A Monte Carlo technique has been used to investigate the accuracy and the efficiency of the method using simulated data sets with increasing numbers of LOD data points. (author)

  6. Sup(123)I excretion in breast milk - additional data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawes, S.C. (Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1992-07-01

    A woman with a suspected sublingual thyroid was referred for thyroid imaging with {sup 123}I-sodium iodide. On attending it was ascertained that she was currently breastfeeding her 3-month-old baby. Reference to the available literature showed little information regarding the excretion of {sup 123}I-sodium iodide in human breast milk apart from one single case. It was felt therefore that this would be an ideal opportunity to collect some useful data. Originally the presence of impurities in the radiopharmaceutical administered had been discounted as being of little significance. However, after consideration, a review of the contribution of any impurity was undertaken. (author).

  7. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens J

    2003-01-01

    We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp...... Intralipid infusion. At LI, glucose oxidation decreased by 10%, whereas glucose disposal, glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were not significantly altered. At HI, glucose disposal, and glucose oxidation decreased by 12% and 24%, respectively, during Intralipid infusion. Glycolytic flux......, glucose storage, and glucose production were unchanged. Insulin secretion rates increased in response to Intralipid infusion, but disposition indices (DI = insulin action.insulin secretion) were unchanged. In conclusion, a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion caused insulin resistance in the oxidative (but...

  8. Effects of hyperglycemia on glucose production and utilization in humans. Measurement with [3H]-2-, [3H]-3-, and [14C]-6-glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, P.M.; Firth, R.G.; Rizza, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Studies with tritiated isotopes of glucose have demonstrated that hyperglycemia per se stimulates glucose utilization and suppresses glucose production in humans. These conclusions rely on the assumption that tritiated glucose provides an accurate measure of glucose turnover. However, if in the presence of hyperglycemia the isotope either loses its label during futile cycling or retains its label during cycling through glycogen, then this assumption is not valid. To examine this question, glucose utilization and glucose production rates were measured in nine normal subjects with a simultaneous infusion of [ 3 H]-2-glucose, an isotope that may undergo futile cycling but does not cycle through glycogen; [ 14 C]-6-glucose, an isotope that may cycle through glycogen but does not futile cycle; and [ 3 H]-3-glucose, an isotope that can both undergo futile cycling and cycle through glycogen. In the postabsorptive state at plasma glucose concentration of 95 mg X dl-1, glucose turnover determined with [ 14 C]-6-glucose (2.3 +/- 0.1 mg X kg-1 X min-1) was greater than that determined with [3 3 H]glucose (2.1 +/- 0.1 mg X kg-1 X min-1, P = 0.002) and slightly less than that determined with [ 3 H]-2-glucose (2.7 +/- 0.2 mg X kg-1 X min-1, P = 0.08). Plasma glucose was then raised from 95 to 135 to 175 mg X dl-1 while insulin secretion was inhibited, and circulating insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone concentrations were maintained constant by infusion of these hormones and somatostatin. Glucose production and utilization rates determined with [ 14 C]-6-glucose continued to be less than those determined with [ 3 H]-2-glucose and greater than those seen with [ 3 H]-3-glucose

  9. Metabolism of tritiated D-glucose in rat erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel y Keenoy, B.; Malaisse-Lagae, F.; Malaisse, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    The metabolism of D-[U-14C]glucose, D-[1-14C]glucose, D-[6-14C]glucose, D-[1-3H]glucose, D-[2-3H]glucose, D-[3-3H]glucose, D-[3,4-3H]glucose, D-[5-3H]glucose, and D-[6-3H]glucose was examined in rat erythrocytes. There was a fair agreement between the rate of 3HOH production from either D-[3-3H]glucose and D-[5-3H]glucose, the decrease in the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate pool, its fractional turnover rate, the production of 14C-labeled lactate from D-[U-14C]glucose, and the total lactate output. The generation of both 3HOH and tritiated acidic metabolites from D-[3,4-3H]glucose indicated incomplete detritiation of the C4 during interconversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose phosphates. Erythrocytes unexpectedly generated 3HOH from D-[6-3H]glucose, a phenomenon possibly attributable to the detritiation of [3-3H]pyruvate in the reaction catalyzed by glutamate pyruvate transaminase. The production of 3HOH from D-[2-3H]glucose was lower than that from D-[5-3H]glucose, suggesting enzyme-to-enzyme tunneling of glycolytic intermediates in the hexokinase/phosphoglucoisomerase/phosphofructokinase sequence. The production of 3HOH from D-[1-3H]glucose largely exceeded that of 14CO2 from D-[1-14C]glucose, a situation tentatively ascribed to the generation of 3HOH in the phosphomannoisomerase reaction. It is further speculated that the adjustment in specific radioactivity of D-[1-3H]glucose-6-phosphate cannot simultaneously match the vastly different degrees of isotopic discrimination in velocity at the levels of the reactions catalyzed by either glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase or phosphoglucoisomerase. The interpretation of the present findings thus raises a number of questions, which are proposed as a scope for further investigations

  10. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors: a growing class of anti-diabetic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M Vivian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although several treatment options are available to reduce hyperglycemia, only about half of individuals with diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM achieve recommended glycemic targets. New agents that reduce blood glucose concentrations by novel mechanisms and have acceptable safety profiles are needed to improve glycemic control and reduce the complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 is responsible for reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibitors of SGLT2 lower blood glucose independent of the secretion and action of insulin by inhibiting renal reabsorption of glucose, thereby promoting the increased urinary excretion of excess glucose. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are SGLT2 inhibitors approved as treatments for T2DM in the United States, Europe, and other countries. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin increase renal excretion of glucose and improve glycemic parameters in patients with T2DM when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is associated with weight reduction, lowered blood pressure, and a low intrinsic propensity to cause hypoglycemia. Overall, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are well tolerated. Cases of genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections have been more frequent in canagliflozin-, dapagliflozin-, and empagliflozin-treated patients compared with those receiving placebo. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new treatment option for T2DM.

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  16. CSF glucose test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the space surrounding the spinal cord and brain. ... Abnormal results include higher and lower glucose levels. Abnormal results may be due to: Infection (bacterial or fungus) Inflammation of the central nervous system Tumor

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  20. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  1. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on the bone mass and urinary excretion of pyridinium cross-links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, D P; Sabino, A T; Meneses, A M; Kasamatsu, T; Vieira, J G

    2000-01-06

    The menopause accelerates bone loss and is associated with an increased bone turnover. Bone formation may be evaluated by several biochemical markers. However, the establishment of an accurate marker for bone resorption has been more difficult to achieve. To study the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on bone mass and on the markers of bone resorption: urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. Cohort correlational study. Academic referral center. 53 post-menopausal women, aged 48-58 years. Urinary pyr and d-pyr were measured in fasting urine samples by spectrofluorometry after high performance liquid chromatography and corrected for creatinine excretion measured before treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) before treatment and after 12 months of HRT. The BMD after HRT was about 4.7% (P < 0.0004); 2% (P < 0.002); and 3% (P < 0. 01) higher than the basal values in lumbar spine, neck and trochanter respectively. There were no significant correlations between pyridinium cross-links and age, weight, menopause duration and BMD. The decrease in pyr and d-pyr was progressive after HRT, reaching 28.9% (P < 0.0002), and 42% (P < 0.0002) respectively after 1 year. Urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline excretion decreases early in hormone replacement therapy, reflecting a decrease in the bone resorption rate, and no correlation was observed with the bone mass evaluated by densitometry.

  2. Characteristic of 18F-FDG Excretion According to Use Diuretics in 18F-FDG of PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Dong Gun; Yang, Seoung Oh; Lee, Sang Ho; Bae, Jong Lim; Kim, Jeong Koo

    2012-01-01

    18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) causes a significant amount of radioactivity retention in kidneys and urinary tract and degrades image quality and diagnostic performance. Diuretics are used to perform tests and prevent the urinary tract retention of 18 F-FDG. The purpose of the study is to investigate how the diuretics affect images and excretion rates of 18 F-FDG. The study consists of a group using diuretics for patients with no primary tumors or transfer lesions in kidneys according to PET/CT images, a group using physiological saline and the control group injecting only 18 F-FDG and SUVs are measured by configuring interested areas for each group. Also, SUVs are compared and evaluated depending on the lasix injection after basic inspection and injecting 18 F-FDG for quantitative analysis. The study shows that images with decreased background radioactivity and increased urine excretion due to using diuretics. However, an opposite result that there is no change in the amount of radioactivity in urine appears. The study concludes that the diuretics may decrease background radioactivity in the images but may not affect the 18 F-FDG excretion.

  3. Effect of tolvaptan on renal water and sodium excretion and blood pressure during nitric oxide inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therwani, Safa Al; Rosenbæk, Jeppe Bakkestrøm; Mose, Frank Holden

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan is a selective vasopressin receptor antagonist. Nitric Oxide (NO) promotes renal water and sodium excretion, but the effect is unknown in the nephron's principal cells. In a dose-response study, we measured the effect of tolvaptan on renal handling of water and sodium....... CONCLUSIONS: During baseline, fractional excretion of sodium was unchanged. During tolvaptan with NO-inhibition, renal water excretion was reduced dose dependently, and renal sodium excretion was reduced unrelated to the dose, partly via an AVP dependent mechanism. Thus, tolvaptan antagonized the reduction...... in renal water and sodium excretion during NO-inhibition. Most likely, the lack of decrease in AQP2 excretion by tolvaptan could be attributed to a counteracting effect of the high level of p-AVP....

  4. Urinary excretion of polyethylene glycol 3350 during colonoscopy preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothfuss, K S; Bode, J C; Stange, E F; Parlesak, A

    2006-02-01

    Whole gut lavage with a polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (PEG) is a common bowel cleansing method for diagnostic and therapeutic colon interventions. Absorption of orally administered PEG from the gastrointestinal tract in healthy human beings is generally considered to be poor. In patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), intestinal permeability and PEG absorption were previously reported to be higher than in normal subjects. In the current study, we investigated the absorption of PEG 3350 in patients undergoing routine gut lavage. Urine specimens were collected for 8 hours in 24 patients undergoing bowel cleansing with PEG 3350 for colonoscopy. The urinary excretion of PEG 3350, measured by size exclusion chromatography, ranged between 0.01 and 0.51 % of the ingested amount, corresponding to 5.8 and 896 mg in absolute amounts, respectively. Mean PEG excretion in patients with impaired mucosa such as inflammation or ulceration of the intestine (0.24 % +/- 0.19, n = 11) was not significantly higher (p = 0.173) compared to that in subjects with macroscopically normal intestinal mucosa (0.13 % +/- 0.13, n = 13). The results indicate that intestinal absorption of PEG 3350 is higher than previously assumed and underlies a strong inter-individual variation. Inflammatory changes of the intestine do not necessarily lead to a significantly higher permeability of PEG.

  5. Excretion and organic distribution of 57Co-bleomycin emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathan, B.

    1982-01-01

    Excretion and organic distributions of 57 Co-bleomycin were studied in normal and tumour-bearing mice with the objective of obtaining high 57 Co-bleomycin concentrations in the tumour and the regional lymph nodes. Aqueous 57 Co-bleomycin and various 57 Co-bleomycin emulsions were used for the studies and applied either locally or systemically. Excretion of 57 Co-bleomycin was slowest after local administration of 57 Co-bleomycin oil-in-water emulsion and fastest after systemic application of aqueous 57 Co-bleomycin. Organic distribution studies showed the highest values in the tumour and the regional lymph nodes after local injection of 57 Co-bleomycin oil-in-water emulsion while the lowest values were measured after systemic application of aqueous 57 Co-bleomycin. These kinetic studies suggest that intratumoral treatment with oil-in-water emulsions of bleomycin may be a new approach in the therapy of epithelial tumours with lymphogenic metastases. (orig.) [de

  6. Excretion of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sodium in Lactating Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novotný J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the excretion of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg and sodium (Na via milk, urine and faeces during the lactation period of sows. Six clinically healthy lactating sows (crossbreed Large White × Landrace were selected for these experiments and were housed in standard conditions and fed with commercially prepared dry mixture for this category of sows. The blood serum, milk, urine and faecal samples were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of lactation. During four weeks of lactation, we recorded the relatively stable and physiological concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and Na in blood serum. The analysis of the sow’s milk showed the highest concentration of Ca and P at the end of lactation, while the highest concentration of Mg and Na was observed on the 7th lactation day. The following macro-mineral excretion was recorded in urine: 98.83-194.00 mg.l-1 for Ca; 11.88- 53.09 mg.l-1 for P; 171.67-344.05 mg.l-1 for Mg; and 56.50-74.83 mg.l-1 for Na; and in the faeces, 1824.5- 3045.5 mg.kg-1 for Ca; 1566.93-2483.2 mg.kg-1 for P; 1916.2-2505.2 mg.kg-1 for Mg; and 516.8-748.2 mg. kg-1 for Na.

  7. Intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary excretion of the rare sugar D-psicose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Hossain, Akram; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Hirata, Yuko; Dong, Youyi; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Sui, Li; Nonaka, Machiko; Ueno, Masaki; Nishimoto, Kazuyuki; Suda, Hirofumi; Morimoto, Kenji; Shimonishi, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Madoka; Song, Tao; Konishi, Ryoji; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary elimination of the rare sugar D-psicose, a 3-carbon stereoisomer of D-fructose that is currently being investigated and which has been found to be strongly effective against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Methods This study was performed using radioactive D-psicose, which was synthesized enzymatically from radioactive D-allose. Concentrations in whole blood, urine, and organs were measured at different time points until 2 hours after both oral and intravenous administrations and 7 days after a single oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats. Autoradiography was also performed by injecting 100 mg/kg body weight of 14C-labeled D-psicose or glucose intravenously to C3H mice. Results Following oral administration, D-psicose easily moved to blood. The maximum blood concentration (48.5±15.6 μg/g) was observed at 1 hour. Excretion to urine was 20% within 1 hour and 33% within 2 hours. Accumulation to organs was detected only in the liver. Following intravenous administration, blood concentration was decreased with the half-life=57 minutes, and the excretion to urine was up to almost 50% within 1 hour. Similarly to the results obtained with oral administration, accumulation to organs was detected only in the liver. Seven days after the single-dose oral administration, the remaining amounts in the whole body were less than 1%. Autoradiography of mice showed results similar to those in rats. High signals of 14C-labeled D-psicose were observed in liver, kidney, and bladder. Interestingly, no accumulation of D-psicose was observed in the brain. Conclusion D-psicose was absorbed well after oral administration and eliminated rapidly after both oral and intravenous administrations, with short duration of action. The study provides valuable pharmacokinetic data for further drug development of D-psicose. Because the findings were mainly based on animal

  8. Investigation of the biodistribution, breakdown and excretion of delta inulin adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Barclay, Thomas; Song, Yunmei; Joyce, Paul; Sakala, Isaac G; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Garg, Sanjay

    2017-08-03

    Insoluble, nanostructured delta inulin particles enhance the immunogenicity of co-administered protein antigens and consequently are used as a vaccine adjuvant (Advax™). To better understand their immunomodulatory properties, the in vitro hydrolysis and in vivo distribution of delta inulin particles were investigated. Delta inulin particle hydrolysis under bio-relevant acidic conditions resulted in no observable change to the bulk morphology using SEM, and HPLC results showed that only 6.1% of the inulin was hydrolysed over 21days. However, 65% of the terminal glucose groups were released, showing that acid hydrolysis relatively rapidly releases surface bound chemistries. This was used to explain in vivo biodistribution results in which delta inulin particles surface-labelled with fluorescein-5-thiosemicabizide were administered to mice using intramuscular (I.M.) or subcutaneous (S.C.) routes. Comparison analysis of the fluorescence of soluble inulin in the supernatants of homogenised tissues maintained at room temperature or heated to 100°C to solubilise particulate inulin was used to distinguish between fluorescent probe on soluble inulin and probe bound to inulin within particles. Following both I.M. and S.C. injection delta inulin exhibited a depot behaviour with local injection site residence for several weeks. Over this time, as injection site inulin reduced, there was measurable transport of intact delta inulin particles by macrophages to secondary lymphoid organs and the liver. Ultimately, the injected delta inulin became solubilised resulting in its detection in the plasma and in the urine. Thus injected delta inulin particles are initially taken up by macrophages at the site of injection, trafficked to secondary lymphoid tissue and the liver, and hydrolysed resulting in their becoming soluble and diffusing into the blood stream, from whence they are glomerularly filtered and excreted into the urine. These results provide important insights into the

  9. The nutrition/excretion system of urban areas: socioecological regimes and transitions.

    OpenAIRE

    Esculier , Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition and excretion are fundamental physiological needs for all human beings. Analysis of their materiality, from the cellular scale up to the great planetary-scale biogeochemical cycles, shows that nutrition and excretion form a system. The focus of our study is the sustainability of the nutrition/excretion systems of urban areas, which we have sought to assess by analysing substance flows.The most relevant of these substances seems to be nitrogen, so by assessing urban nitrogen flows we...

  10. The effects of temperature on specific dynamic action and ammonia excretion in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Michael; Steffensen, John Fleng; Skov, Peter Vilhelm

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude and kinetics of the postprandial metabolic response are strongly affected by temperature. From an aquaculture perspective, it is of interest to determine the temperature at which the lowest digestive energy expenses occur. We have previously demonstrated that the optimal aerobic scope...... for pikeperch ranges between 11°C and 27°C. The aim of the present study was to investigate the thermal biology of pikeperch, by examining how specific dynamic action (SDA) and total ammonia nitrogen excretion (TAN) are affected by temperature, within this optimal temperature range.From oxygen consumption rate...... fraction of metabolic scope was utilized for digestion at 19°C, compared to at 25°C. We therefore conclude that 19°C is a more favorable metabolic temperature for this species....

  11. Determination of iron absorption and excretion by whole-body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollard, D.; Benabid, Y.; Berard, M.; Bonnin, J.; Darnault, J.; Millet, M.

    1969-01-01

    Using a whole-body counter, the authors have studied 59 Fe absorption and loss in 8 normal subjects and in 30 iron deficient patients. Results showed that whole-body counting provided an excellent and simple method for iron retention measurements, obviating many inaccuracies of previous technic. Normal absorption of radio iron with this procedure has ranged from 9 per cent to 20 per cent of the administered tracer in normal subjects, with a mean of 15 per cent. A significant increase in 59 Fe absorption was noted in 21 iron-deficient patients in whom the retention ranged from 40 to 100 per cent. However, 3 iron-deficient patients were found to have low absorption, and their severe iron deficiency could be correlated with this defect in absorption. This method permits also the determination of the rate of iron excretion during the following months and therefore the study of the mechanism of some pathological loss. (authors) [fr

  12. Significance of Glucose Addition on Chitosan-Glycerophosphate Hydrogel Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Susanthy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan-glycerophosphate hydrogel can be used as dental scaffold due to its thermosensitivity, gelation performance at body temperature, suitable acidity for body condition, biocompatibility, and ability to provide good environment for cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous study showed that glucose addition to the chitosan solution before steam sterilization improved its hydrogel mechanical strength. However, the effectiveness of glucose addition was still doubted because glucose might undergo Maillard reaction in that particular condition. The aims of this study are to confirm whether the glucose addition can increase the hydrogel mechanical strength and gelation rate effectively and also to compare their performance to be dental scaffold. This research was performed through several steps, namely preparation of chitosan-glycerophosphate solution, addition of glucose, gelation time test, gel mechanical strength measurement, functional group analysis, and physical properties measurements (pH, viscosity, and pore size. The result showed that glucose addition did not improve the hydrogel mechanical strength and gelation rate, neither when it was added before nor after steam sterilization. Glucose addition before steam sterilization seemed to trigger Maillard reaction or browning effect, while glucose addition after steam sterilization increased the amount of free water molecules in the hydrogel. Chitosan and glycerophosphate interact physically, but interaction between chitosan and glucose seems to occur chemically and followed by the formation of free water molecules. Glucose addition decreases the solution viscosity and hydrogel pore size so the hydrogel performance as dental scaffold is lowered.

  13. Renal excretion of water in men under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Togawa, Mitsui N.

    It has been suggested that under hypokinesia (reduced number of steps/day) and intensive physical exercise, the intensification of fluid excretion in men is apparently caused as a result of the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of water. Thus, to evaluate this hypothesis, studies were performed with the use of fluid and sodium chloride (NaCl) supplements on 12 highly trained physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesis (HK) and a set of intensive physical exercises (PE). They were divided into two groups with 6 volunteers per group. The first group of subjects were submitted to HK and took daily fluid and salt supplements in very small doses and the second group of volunteers were subjected to intensive PE and fluid-salt supplements. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect, both groups of subjects were kept under an average of 4000 steps/day. During the prehypokinetic period of 60 days and under the hypokinetic period of 364 days water consumed and eliminated in urine by the men, water content in blood, plasma volume, rate of glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, osmotic concentration of urine and blood were measured. Under HK, the rate of renal excretion of water increased considerably in both groups. The additional fluid and salt intake failed to normalize water balance adequately under HK and PE. It was concluded that negative water balance evidently resulted not from shortage of water in the diet but from the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of fluid under HK and a set of intensive PEs.

  14. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors: blocking renal tubular reabsorption of glucose to improve glycaemic control in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, S A; Goldstein, B J

    2008-08-01

    The kidney plays a central role in the regulation of plasma glucose levels, although until recently this has not been widely appreciated or considered a target for therapeutic intervention. The sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) located in the plasma membrane of cells lining the proximal tubule mediates the majority of renal glucose reabsorption from the tubular fluid, which normally prevents the loss of glucose in the urine. Competitive inhibitors of SGLT2 that provoke the renal excretion of glucose have been discovered, thereby providing a unique mechanism to potentially lower the elevated blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. To explore the physiology of SGLT2 action and discuss several SGLT2 inhibitors that have entered early clinical development. All publicly available data were identified by searching the internet for 'SGLT2' and 'SGLT2 inhibitor' through 1 November 2007. Published articles, press releases and abstracts presented at national and international meetings were considered. Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibition is a novel treatment option for diabetes, which has been studied in preclinical models and a few potent and selective SGLT2 inhibitors have been reported and are currently in clinical development. These agents appear to be safe and generally well tolerated, and will potentially be a beneficial addition to the growing battery of oral antihyperglycaemic agents.

  15. Research on urinary excretion of purine derivatives in ruminants: Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.B.; Orskov, E.R.

    2004-01-01

    Research on urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD), namely allantoin, uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine, in ruminants have been carried out with an objective to use the excretion of these purine metabolites as a parameter to estimate the intestinal flow of microbial protein. This paper reviews the published literature, from the first paper in 1931 to the current date. The current status of understanding in some key topics is discussed. The topics include: endogenous excretion, modelling the response of PD excretion to purine absorption, calculation of microbial N supply from PD excretion, use of spot urine measurement, possible use of plasma or milk PD as an alterative index, and applications in ruminant nutrition research. This review also covers the current understanding of PD excretion in different animal species, including sheep, cattle, goats, buffaloes, llamas, camels, yak and deer. Progress in analytical methods for the determination of purine derivatives is also discussed. Finally, areas of future research are highlighted. The paper stresses the need for more studies on metabolism of PD in the tissue, the kinetics of PD in the blood and physiological processes of renal excretion, so as to understand better the mechanism that accounts for the between-species and within species variation in PD excretion. Development of simpler and more rapid methods for defining the endogenous excretion and purine input-output relationship is also an area for future work. (author)

  16. Correlation between dietary nitrogen, level of plasma urea and urea excretion in urine of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 6 male buffalo calves of Murrah breed, aged 1.5 years, to determine whether blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in urine were associated with protein intake. The animals were fed different amounts of crude protein in their diet. The levels of urea-N in the blood, excretion of 14 C from urea and urea-N in the urine were estimated. Close relationships were observed between nitrogen intake, blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in the urine. The observations indicated that blood urea-N and urea excretion in urine could be quantitated with the protein intake. (author)

  17. Urinary prostaglandin E and vasopressin excretion in essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    excretion of prostaglandin E (PGE), immunoreactive arginine vasopressin (iA VP), and kallikrein were determined. PGE was quantitated with a radioimmunoassay having 4.9% cross-reactivity with prostaglandin E (PGE). After 4 weeks on the diet, water consumption and urinary iAVP excretion increased....... Increased water consumption and increased urinary iAVP excretion seem to be early symptoms (after 4 weeks) of EFA deficiency, whereas decreased urine output and decreased urinary PGE excretion occur much later (after 10 weeks). Two energy% linolenate supplementation to a fat-free diet did not change...

  18. Comparison of endogenous and radiolabeled bile acid excretion in patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, L.R.; Bilhartz, L.E.; Santa Ana, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Fecal recovery of radioactivity after ingestion of a bolus of radiolabeled bile acid is abnormally high in most patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea. To evaluate the significance of this malabsorption, concurrent fecal excretion of both exogenous radiolabeled bile acid and endogenous (unlabeled) bile acid were measured in patients with idiopathic chronic diarrhea. Subjects received a 2.5-microCi oral dose of taurocholic acid labeled with 14C in the 24th position of the steroid moiety. Endogenous bile acid excretion was measured by a hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase assay on a concurrent 72-h stool collection. Both radiolabeled and endogenous bile acid excretion were abnormally high in most patients with chronic diarrhea compared with normal subjects, even when equivoluminous diarrhea was induced in normal subjects by ingestion of osmotically active solutions. The correlation between radiolabeled and endogenous bile acid excretion was good. However, neither radiolabeled nor endogenous bile acid excretion was as abnormal as is typically seen in patients with ileal resection, and none of these diarrhea patients responded to treatment with cholestyramine with stool weights less than 200 g. These results suggest (a) that this radiolabeled bile acid excretion test accurately reflects excess endogenous bile acid excretion; (b) that excess endogenous bile acid excretion is not caused by diarrhea per se; (c) that spontaneously occurring idiopathic chronic diarrhea is often associated with increased endogenous bile acid excretion; and (d) that bile acid malabsorption is not likely to be the primary cause of diarrhea in most of these patients

  19. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine.

  20. Induction of mutation in Trichoderma viride for conversion of natural cellulose into glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahoun, M.K.; Khalil, A.I.; Helmi, S.; Khairy, A.H. [Univ. of Alexandria Research Centre, Alexandria (Egypt)

    1991-12-31

    The production of cellulolytic enzymes from fungi has been extensively studied. Several mutants of Trichoderma reesei were selected. Most of the studies were carried out on T. reesei, T. viride, T. harzianum, Penicillium funiculosum, Altemaria alternata. Aspergillus phoenicis, A. ustus, A. tamarii, A. japonicus, and A. niger. T. koningii is one of the most active producers of the so-called C, factor, which is indispensable for the rapid and extensive attack on crystal-line cellulose. However, Trichodenna is known to excrete only small amounts of {beta}-glucosidase. Therefore, Trichoderma is supplemented with {beta}-glucosidase from Aspergillus to increase the saccharification rate of cellulose to glucose as the main sugar. Induction of mutations in Trichodenna spp. rather than T. viride as a tool for the enhancement of {beta}-glucosidase activity was reported. Unfortunately, T. reesei is a poor producer of {beta}-glucosidase. On the other hand, T. harzianum M{sub 5}, a mutant that was induced by gamma radiation, produced high yields, not only of Avicelase and carboxy methyl cellulose, but also of {beta}-glucosidase, than its respective wild type.