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Sample records for gluconeogenesis

  1. Cerebral Gluconeogenesis and Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan

    2017-01-01

    The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions. PMID:28101056

  2. Cerebral Gluconeogenesis and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan

    2016-01-01

    The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions.

  3. Gluconeogenesis in Leishmania mexicana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Contreras, Dayana; Hamilton, Nicklas

    2014-01-01

    Gluconeogenesis is an active pathway in Leishmania amastigotes and is essential for their survival within the mammalian cells. However, our knowledge about this pathway in trypanosomatids is very limited. We investigated the role of glycerol kinase (GK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) in gluconeogenesis by generating the respective Leishmania mexicana Δgk, Δpepck, and Δppdk null mutants. Our results demonstrated that indeed GK, PEPCK, and PPDK are key players in the gluconeogenesis pathway in Leishmania, although stage-specific differences in their contribution to this pathway were found. GK participates in the entry of glycerol in promastigotes and amastigotes; PEPCK participates in the entry of aspartate in promastigotes, and PPDK is involved in the entry of alanine in amastigotes. Furthermore, the majority of alanine enters into the pathway via decarboxylation of pyruvate in promastigotes, whereas pathway redundancy is suggested for the entry of aspartate in amastigotes. Interestingly, we also found that l-lactate, an abundant glucogenic precursor in mammals, was used by Leishmania amastigotes to synthesize mannogen, entering the pathway through PPDK. On the basis of these new results, we propose a revision in the current model of gluconeogenesis in Leishmania, emphasizing the differences between amastigotes and promastigotes. This work underlines the importance of studying the trypanosomatid intracellular life cycle stages to gain a better understanding of the pathologies caused in humans. PMID:25288791

  4. Gluconeogenesis and fasting in cerebral malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thien, H.; Ackermans, M. T.; Weverling, G. J.; Dang Vinh, T.; Endert, E.; Kager, P. A.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In healthy subjects after an overnight fast, glucose production is for approximately 50% derived from glycogenolysis. If the fast is prolonged, glucose production decreases due to a decline in glycogenolysis, while gluconeogenesis remains stable. In cerebral malaria, glucose production

  5. Alanine administration does not stimulate gluconeogenesis in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen, Anne A. M. W.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Ruiter, An F. C.; Endert, Erik; Weverling, Gerrit Jan; Kok, Johanna H.; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2003-01-01

    Gluconeogenesis partially depends on sufficient precursor supply, and plasma alanine concentrations are generally low in preterm infants. Stimulation of gluconeogenesis may contribute to the prevention of hypoglycemia, an important clinical problem in these infants. In this study we evaluated the

  6. A Reduction in Age-Enhanced Gluconeogenesis Extends Lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Yamane, Midori; Akazawa, Daiki; Ohsawa, Kazuhiro; Ohno, Mayumi; Terashita, Yuzu; Masumoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of energy metabolism, such as calorie restriction (CR), is a major determinant of cellular longevity. Although augmented gluconeogenesis is known to occur in aged yeast cells, the role of enhanced gluconeogenesis in aged cells remains undefined. Here, we show that age-enhanced gluconeogenesis is suppressed by the deletion of the tdh2 gene, which encodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a protein that is involved in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in yeast c...

  7. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Técsi, László; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2015-12-01

    Glycolysis from sugars is necessary at all stages of development of grape pericarp, and this raises the question as to why gluconeogenesis from malate occurs. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is required for gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. In this study we determined the abundance of PEPCK protein and activity in different parts of grape pericarp during its development. Both PEPCK protein and activity were present throughout development, however, in both the skin and the flesh their abundance increased greatly at the start of ripening. This coincided with the onset of the decrease in the malate content of the berry. The location of PEPCK in the pericarp at different stages of development was determined using both immunohistochemistry and dissection. We provide a possible explanation for the occurrence of gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of gluconeogenesis in newborn infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalhan, SC; Parimi, P; Van Beek, R; Gilfillan, C; Saker, F; Gruca, L; Sauer, P.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The rate of glucose turnover (R-a) and gluconeogenesis (GNG) via pyruvate were quantified in seven full-term healthy babies between 24 and 48 h after birth and in twelve low-birth-weight infants on days 3 and 4 by use of [C-13(6)]glucose and (H2O)-H-2. The preterm babies were receiving parenteral

  9. Insulin-Inducible SMILE Inhibits Hepatic Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Min; Seo, Woo-Young; Han, Hye-Sook; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Soo; Kim, Don-Kyu; Choi, Seri; Choi, Byeong Hun; Harris, Robert A; Lee, Chul-Ho; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2016-01-01

    The role of a glucagon/cAMP-dependent protein kinase-inducible coactivator PGC-1α signaling pathway is well characterized in hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, an opposing protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt-inducible corepressor signaling pathway is unknown. A previous report has demonstrated that small heterodimer partner-interacting leucine zipper protein (SMILE) regulates the nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors that control hepatic gluconeogenesis. Here, we show that hepatic SMILE expression was induced by feeding in normal mice but not in db/db and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Interestingly, SMILE expression was induced by insulin in mouse primary hepatocyte and liver. Hepatic SMILE expression was not altered by refeeding in liver-specific insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) or PKB β-deficient (PKBβ(-/-)) mice. At the molecular level, SMILE inhibited hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-mediated transcriptional activity via direct competition with PGC-1α. Moreover, ablation of SMILE augmented gluconeogenesis and increased blood glucose levels in mice. Conversely, overexpression of SMILE reduced hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression and ameliorated hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in db/db and HFD-fed mice. Therefore, SMILE is an insulin-inducible corepressor that suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis. Small molecules that enhance SMILE expression would have potential for treating hyperglycemia in diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. A reduction in age-enhanced gluconeogenesis extends lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Yamane, Midori; Akazawa, Daiki; Ohsawa, Kazuhiro; Ohno, Mayumi; Terashita, Yuzu; Masumoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of energy metabolism, such as calorie restriction (CR), is a major determinant of cellular longevity. Although augmented gluconeogenesis is known to occur in aged yeast cells, the role of enhanced gluconeogenesis in aged cells remains undefined. Here, we show that age-enhanced gluconeogenesis is suppressed by the deletion of the tdh2 gene, which encodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a protein that is involved in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in yeast cells. The deletion of TDH2 restores the chronological lifespan of cells with deletions of both the HST3 and HST4 genes, which encode yeast sirtuins, and represses the activation of gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, the tdh2 gene deletion can extend the replicative lifespan in a CR pathway-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that the repression of enhanced gluconeogenesis effectively extends the cellular lifespan.

  11. A reduction in age-enhanced gluconeogenesis extends lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Hachinohe

    Full Text Available The regulation of energy metabolism, such as calorie restriction (CR, is a major determinant of cellular longevity. Although augmented gluconeogenesis is known to occur in aged yeast cells, the role of enhanced gluconeogenesis in aged cells remains undefined. Here, we show that age-enhanced gluconeogenesis is suppressed by the deletion of the tdh2 gene, which encodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, a protein that is involved in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in yeast cells. The deletion of TDH2 restores the chronological lifespan of cells with deletions of both the HST3 and HST4 genes, which encode yeast sirtuins, and represses the activation of gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, the tdh2 gene deletion can extend the replicative lifespan in a CR pathway-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that the repression of enhanced gluconeogenesis effectively extends the cellular lifespan.

  12. Monitoring of gluconeogenesis in rats following chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulikova, E.; Sedlakova, A.; Praslicka, M.

    1984-01-01

    A dose dependent cumulation of liver glycogen with the maximum on the day 120 was observed as was an increased incorporation of 14 C-alanine in liver glycogen (statistically nonsignificant changes). The contribution of 14 C-acetate to gluconeogenesis was negligible. The results showed increased gluconeogenesis in rats following chronic gamma irradiation with small daily dose rates (0.0957 Gy)

  13. Glucose production and gluconeogenesis in adults with cerebral malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thien, H.; Ackermans, M. T.; Dekker, E.; Thanh Chien, V. O.; Le, T.; Endert, E.; Kager, P. A.; Romijn, J. A.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2001-01-01

    Hypoglycaemia is an important complication in severe malaria, ascribed to an inhibition of gluconeogenesis. However, the only data available suggested that in severe malaria, total glucose production is increased. We measured glucose production and gluconeogenesis after an overnight fast in all

  14. Cell volume changes affect gluconeogenesis in the perfused liver of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These changes were partly blocked in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that the aniso-osmotic regulations of gluconeogenesis possibly occurs through an inverse regulation of enzyme proteins and/or a regulatory protein synthesis in this catfish. In conclusion, gluconeogenesis appears to play a vital role in C.

  15. Gluconeogenesis in rat placenta during foetal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagewadikar, R.S.; Sharma, C.; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    Variations in glycogen levels in rat placenta have been correlated with gluconeogenesis in this tissue. Placental homogenate could synthesize substantial amounts of glucose from L-alanine-U- 14 C in early pregnancy. This has been substantiated by the observed enhancement in the activities of glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1, 6-diphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Gluconeogenic activity in placenta could proceed till the foetal liver was able to take over this function. The increase or decrease in placental glycogen is concomitant with glycogen synthetase, but not phosphorylase, activity. The reversible catalytic properties of placental aldolase also show subtle functional changes during and late phases of gestation. (author)

  16. Gluconeogenesis in rat placenta during foetal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagewadikar, R S; Sharma, C; Nadkarni, G B [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1977-01-01

    Variations in glycogen levels in rat placenta have been correlated with gluconeogenesis in this tissue. Placental homogenate could synthesize substantial amounts of glucose from L-alanine-U-/sup 14/C in early pregnancy. This has been substantiated by the observed enhancement in the activities of glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1, 6-diphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Gluconeogenic activity in placenta could proceed till the foetal liver was able to take over this function. The increase or decrease in placental glycogen is concomitant with glycogen synthetase, but not phosphorylase, activity. The reversible catalytic properties of placental aldolase also show subtle functional changes during and late phases of gestation.

  17. Gluconeogenesis from labeled carbon: estimating isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    To estimate the rate of gluconeogenesis from steady-state incorporation of labeled 3-carbon precursors into glucose, isotope dilution must be considered so that the rate of labeling of glucose can be quantitatively converted to the rate of gluconeogenesis. An expression for the value of this isotope dilution can be derived using mathematical techniques and a model of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The present investigation employs a more complex model than that used in previous studies. This model includes the following pathways that may affect the correction for isotope dilution: 1) flux of 3-carbon precursor to the oxaloacetate pool via acetyl-CoA and the TCA cycle; 2) flux of 4- or 5-carbon compounds into the TCA cycle; 3) reversible flux between oxaloacetate (OAA) and pyruvate and between OAA and fumarate; 4) incomplete equilibrium between OAA pools; and 5) isotope dilution of 3-carbon tracers between the experimentally measured pool and the precursor for the TCA-cycle OAA pool. Experimental tests are outlined which investigators can use to determine whether these pathways are significant in a specific steady-state system. The study indicated that flux through these five pathways can significantly affect the correction for isotope dilution. To correct for the effects of these pathways an alternative method for calculating isotope dilution is proposed using citrate to relate the specific activities of acetyl-CoA and OAA

  18. Gluconeogenesis in lethally X-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulikova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1983-01-01

    The in vivo incorporation of U- 14 C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen was measured in rats irradiated with a single whole body lethal dose of X-rays. Changes in gluconeogenic enzyme activities were studied in the liver. Increased incorporation of 14 C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen were found after irradiation. Liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogenic activity underwent almost parallel changes and were significantly elevated from the 6th to the 48th hour, with resultant accumulation of glycogen. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was depressed and there was a negative correlation between it and liver glycogen concentration. Maximum fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity was found at 48 hours. The results show that glycogen accumulation in the liver and the raised blood glucose level in X-irradiated rats are based on raised gluconeogenesis. (author)

  19. Gluconeogenesis in lethally X-irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulikova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M. (Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie)

    1983-02-01

    The in vivo incorporation of U-/sup 14/C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen was measured in rats irradiated with a single whole body lethal dose of X-rays. Changes in gluconeogenic enzyme activities were studied in the liver. Increased incorporation of /sup 14/C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen were found after irradiation. Liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogenic activity underwent almost parallel changes and were significantly elevated from the 6th to the 48th hour, with resultant accumulation of glycogen. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was depressed and there was a negative correlation between it and liver glycogen concentration. Maximum fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity was found at 48 hours. The results show that glycogen accumulation in the liver and the raised blood glucose level in X-irradiated rats are based on raised gluconeogenesis.

  20. Effect of cortisol on gluconeogenesis in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastradipradja, D.

    1976-01-01

    Three non-pregnant goats of local Malaysian breed with body weights between 15.9 and 22.6 kg were arranged in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to study the effect of daily cortisol injections for 5-6 days on gluconeogenesis. The treatments consisted of cortisol injection at a daily level of 1 mg/kg BW (body weight), 2.5 mg/kg BW, and a control. An extra goat (14.0 kg) received the same treatments for comparison and to check the accuracy of the methods employed. NaH 14 CO 3 , preceded by a primer dose, was infused continuously for 4-5 h to estimate quantitatively the extent to which gluconeogenesis may be affected by cortisol administration. Glucose-2- 3 H was also injected as a single pulse to assess kinetic parameters of the glucose pool. There was strong tendency (P=0.08) indicating that cortisol administration increased plasma glucose concentration. The mean increases above pre-treatment levels were 6.6, 21.3 and 53.5 mg/100 ml plasma for control, low and high cortisol treatment respectively. The transfer quotient from CO 2 to glucose for the treatments was significantly different (P 2 fixation expressed in absolute amounts was not significantly different among treatments (0.24, 0.33 and 0.36 mg/min per kg BW for control, low and high cortisol doses respectively). The insignificant result of the statistical test seemed to be caused by the low precision inherent in the experimental design. The data also show that glucose utilization was not impaired following cortisol treatment, and rather suggest normal glucose utilization at a higher level of plasma glucose concentration. (author)

  1. Monitoring of gluconeogenesis in rats following chronic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulikova, E.; Sedlakova, A.; Praslicka, M. (Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie)

    1984-01-01

    A dose dependent cumulation of liver glycogen with the maximum on the day 120 was observed as was an increased incorporation of /sup 14/C-alanine in liver glycogen (statistically nonsignificant changes). The contribution of /sup 14/C-acetate to gluconeogenesis was negligible. The results showed increased gluconeogenesis in rats following chronic gamma irradiation with small daily dose rates (0.0957 Gy).

  2. Increased gluconeogenesis in youth with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephanie T; Hsia, Daniel S; Chacko, Shaji K; Rodriguez, Luisa M; Haymond, Morey W

    2015-03-01

    The role of increased gluconeogenesis as an important contributor to fasting hyperglycaemia at diabetes onset is not known. We evaluated the contribution of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to fasting hyperglycaemia in newly diagnosed youths with type 2 diabetes following an overnight fast. Basal rates (μmol kg(FFM) (-1) min(-1)) of gluconeogenesis ((2)H2O), glycogenolysis and glycerol production ([(2)H5] glycerol) were measured in 18 adolescents (nine treatment naive diabetic and nine normal-glucose-tolerant obese adolescents). Type 2 diabetes was associated with higher gluconeogenesis (9.2 ± 0.6 vs 7.0 ± 0.3 μmol kg(FFM) (-1) min(-1), p gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis and glucose production were higher in diabetic youth (p ≤ 0.02). Glycerol concentration (84 ± 6 vs 57 ± 6 μmol/l, p = 0.01) and glycerol production (5.0 ± 0.3 vs 3.6 ± 0.5 μmol kg(FFM) (-1) min(-1), p = 0.03) were 40% higher in youth with diabetes. The increased glycerol production could account for only ~1/3 of substrate needed for the increased gluconeogenesis in diabetic youth. Increased gluconeogenesis was a major contributor to fasting hyperglycaemia and hepatic insulin resistance in newly diagnosed untreated adolescents and was an early pathological feature of type 2 diabetes. Increased glycerol availability may represent a significant source of new carbon substrates for increased gluconeogenesis but would not account for all the carbons required to sustain the increased rates.

  3. Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madiraju, Anila K; Erion, Derek M; Rahimi, Yasmeen

    2014-01-01

    Metformin is considered to be one of the most effective therapeutics for treating type 2 diabetes because it specifically reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis without increasing insulin secretion, inducing weight gain or posing a risk of hypoglycaemia. For over half a century, this agent has been...... prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide, yet the underlying mechanism by which metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that metformin non-competitively inhibits the redox shuttle enzyme mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, resulting in an altered...... hepatocellular redox state, reduced conversion of lactate and glycerol to glucose, and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute and chronic low-dose metformin treatment effectively reduced endogenous glucose production, while increasing cytosolic redox and decreasing mitochondrial redox states. Antisense...

  4. Hepatic p38α regulates gluconeogenesis by suppressing AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yanyan; Liu, Wei; Cao, Hongchao; Zhang, Duo; Yao, Xuan; Zhang, Shengjie; Xia, Hongfeng; Li, Dan; Wang, Yu-cheng; Yan, Jun; Hui, Lijian; Ying, Hao

    2015-06-01

    It is proposed that p38 is involved in gluconeogenesis, however, the genetic evidence is lacking and precise mechanisms remain poorly understood. We sought to delineate the role of hepatic p38α in gluconeogenesis during fasting by applying a loss-of-function genetic approach. We examined fasting glucose levels, performed pyruvate tolerance test, imaged G6Pase promoter activity, as well as determined the expression of gluconeogenic genes in mice with a targeted deletion of p38α in liver. Results were confirmed both in vivo and in vitro by using an adenoviral dominant-negative form of p38α (p38α-AF) and the constitutively active mitogen-activated protein kinase 6, respectively. Adenoviral dominant-negative form of AMP-activated protein kinase α (DN-AMPKα) was employed to test our proposed model. Mice lacking hepatic p38α exhibited reduced fasting glucose level and impaired gluconeogenesis. Interestingly, hepatic deficiency of p38α did not result in an alteration in CREB phosphorylation, but led to an increase in AMPKα phosphorylation. Adenoviral DN-AMPKα could abolish the effect of p38α-AF on gluconeogenesis. Knockdown of up-steam transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 decreased the AMPKα phosphorylation induced by p38α-AF, suggesting a negative feedback loop. Consistently, inverse correlations between p38 and AMPKα phosphorylation were observed during fasting and in diabetic mouse models. Importantly, adenoviral p38α-AF treatment ameliorated hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Our study provides evidence that hepatic p38α functions as a negative regulator of AMPK signaling in maintaining gluconeogenesis, dysregulation of this regulatory network contributes to unrestrained gluconeogenesis in diabetes, and hepatic p38α could be a drug target for hyperglycemia. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of gluconeogenesis in the perfusing liver of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikova, G.V.; Dokshina, G.A.; Ermakova, G.N.; Mashkova, N.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    It was shown on the perfusing liver taken from rats on the 1st and 3d days after irradiation in a dose of 18.06x10 -2 C/kg that insulin (400 μunits/ml) and taurine (40 mg%) exerted an inhibiting action on the rate of gluconeogenesi.s and transamination, catalyzed by alanine aminoferase and aspartate aminoferase, in a soluble fraction of the irradiated rat liver. The gluconeogenic capacity and the reactivity of the isolated organ were shown to decrease on the 3d day after irradiation [ru

  6. Effects of visceral adiposity on glycerol pathways in gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeland, Ian J; Hughes, Connor; Ayers, Colby R; Malloy, Craig R; Jin, Eunsook S

    2017-02-01

    To determine the feasibility of using oral 13 C labeled glycerol to assess effects of visceral adiposity on gluconeogenic pathways in obese humans. Obese (BMI ≥30kg/m 2 ) participants without type 2 diabetes underwent visceral adipose tissue (VAT) assessment and stratification by median VAT into high VAT-fasting (n=3), low VAT-fasting (n=4), and high VAT-refed (n=2) groups. Participants ingested [U- 13 C 3 ] glycerol and blood samples were subsequently analyzed at multiple time points over 3h by NMR spectroscopy. The fractions of plasma glucose (enrichment) derived from [U- 13 C 3 ] glycerol via hepatic gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were assessed using 13 C NMR analysis of glucose. Mixed linear models were used to compare 13 C enrichment in glucose between groups. Mean age, BMI, and baseline glucose were 49years, 40.1kg/m 2 , and 98mg/dl, respectively. Up to 20% of glycerol was metabolized in the TCA cycle prior to gluconeogenesis and PPP activity was minor (gluconeogenesis from glycerol in obese humans. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that excess visceral fat disrupts multiple pathways in hepatic gluconeogenesis from glycerol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Histone Demethylase Jhdm1a Regulates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tie; Yao, Annie Y.; Cooper, Marcus P.; Boyartchuk, Victor; Wang, Yong-Xu

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is required for maintaining blood glucose homeostasis; yet, in diabetes mellitus, this process is unrestrained and is a major contributor to fasting hyperglycemia. To date, the impacts of chromatin modifying enzymes and chromatin landscape on gluconeogenesis are poorly understood. Through catalyzing the removal of methyl groups from specific lysine residues in the histone tail, histone demethylases modulate chromatin structure and, hence, gene expression. Here we perform an RNA interference screen against the known histone demethylases and identify a histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) demethylase, Jhdm1a, as a key negative regulator of gluconeogenic gene expression. In vivo, silencing of Jhdm1a promotes liver glucose synthesis, while its exogenous expression reduces blood glucose level. Importantly, the regulation of gluconeogenesis by Jhdm1a requires its demethylation activity. Mechanistically, we find that Jhdm1a regulates the expression of a major gluconeogenic regulator, C/EBPα. This is achieved, at least in part, by its USF1-dependent association with the C/EBPα promoter and its subsequent demethylation of dimethylated H3K36 on the C/EBPα locus. Our work provides compelling evidence that links histone demethylation to transcriptional regulation of gluconeogenesis and has important implications for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22719268

  8. Gluconeogenesis continues in premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the contribution of total gluconeogenesis, to glucose production in preterm infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) providing glucose exceeding normal infant glucose turnover rate, eight infants (0.955 +/- 0.066 kg, 26.5 - 0.5 wks, 4-1 d) were studied while receiving routine ...

  9. Measurements of Gluconeogenesis and Glycogenolysis: A Methodological Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephanie T; Chacko, Shaji K; Sunehag, Agneta L; Haymond, Morey W

    2015-12-01

    Gluconeogenesis is a complex metabolic process that involves multiple enzymatic steps regulated by myriad factors, including substrate concentrations, the redox state, activation and inhibition of specific enzyme steps, and hormonal modulation. At present, the most widely accepted technique to determine gluconeogenesis is by measuring the incorporation of deuterium from the body water pool into newly formed glucose. However, several techniques using radioactive and stable-labeled isotopes have been used to quantitate the contribution and regulation of gluconeogenesis in humans. Each method has its advantages, methodological assumptions, and set of propagated errors. In this review, we examine the strengths and weaknesses of the most commonly used stable isotopes methods to measure gluconeogenesis in vivo. We discuss the advantages and limitations of each method and summarize the applicability of these measurements in understanding normal and pathophysiological conditions. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. Thyroid stimulating hormone increases hepatic gluconeogenesis via CRTC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujie; Wang, Laicheng; Zhou, Lingyan; Song, Yongfeng; Ma, Shizhan; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhao, Jiajun; Xu, Chao; Gao, Ling

    2017-05-05

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is positively correlated with abnormal glucose levels. We previously reported that TSH has direct effects on gluconeogenesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we observed increased fasting blood glucose and glucose production in a mouse model of subclinical hypothyroidism (only elevated TSH levels). TSH acts via the classical cAMP/PKA pathway and CRTC2 regulates glucose homeostasis. Thus, we explore whether CRTC2 is involved in the process of TSH-induced gluconeogenesis. We show that TSH increases CRTC2 expression via the TSHR/cAMP/PKA pathway, which in turn upregulates hepatic gluconeogenic genes. Furthermore, TSH stimulates CRTC2 dephosphorylation and upregulates p-CREB (Ser133) in HepG2 cells. Silencing CRTC2 and CREB decreases the effect of TSH on PEPCK-luciferase, the rate-limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis. Finally, the deletion of TSHR reduces the levels of the CRTC2:CREB complex in mouse livers. This study demonstrates that TSH activates CRTC2 via the TSHR/cAMP/PKA pathway, leading to the formation of a CRTC2:CREB complex and increases hepatic gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduced Insulin Receptor Expression Enhances Proximal Tubule Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav; Shankar, Kripa; Makhija, Ekta; Gaikwad, Anil; Ecelbarger, Carolyn; Mandhani, Anil; Srivastava, Aneesh; Tiwari, Swasti

    2017-02-01

    Reduced insulin receptor protein levels have been reported in the kidney cortex from diabetic humans and animals. We recently reported that, targeted deletion of insulin receptor (IR) from proximal tubules (PT) resulted in hyperglycemia in non-obese mice. To elucidate the mechanism, we examined human proximal tubule cells (hPTC) and C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD, 60% fat for 20 weeks). Immunoblotting revealed a significantly lower protein level of IR in HFD compare to normal chow diet (NCD). Furthermore, a blunted rise in p-AKT 308 levels in the kidney cortex of HFD mice was observed in response to acute insulin (0.75 IU/kg body weight, i.p) relative to NCD n = 8/group, P gluconeogenesis. Transcript levels of the gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK were significantly increased in cAMP/DEXA-stimulated hPTC cells (n = 3, P gluconeogenesis and PEPCK induction was significantly attenuated in IR (siRNA) silenced hPTC (n = 3, P gluconeogenesis. Thus reduced insulin signaling of the proximal tubule may contribute to hyperglycemia in the metabolic syndrome via elevated gluconeogenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 276-285, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The histone demethylase Jhdm1a regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongning Pan

    Full Text Available Hepatic gluconeogenesis is required for maintaining blood glucose homeostasis; yet, in diabetes mellitus, this process is unrestrained and is a major contributor to fasting hyperglycemia. To date, the impacts of chromatin modifying enzymes and chromatin landscape on gluconeogenesis are poorly understood. Through catalyzing the removal of methyl groups from specific lysine residues in the histone tail, histone demethylases modulate chromatin structure and, hence, gene expression. Here we perform an RNA interference screen against the known histone demethylases and identify a histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36 demethylase, Jhdm1a, as a key negative regulator of gluconeogenic gene expression. In vivo, silencing of Jhdm1a promotes liver glucose synthesis, while its exogenous expression reduces blood glucose level. Importantly, the regulation of gluconeogenesis by Jhdm1a requires its demethylation activity. Mechanistically, we find that Jhdm1a regulates the expression of a major gluconeogenic regulator, C/EBPα. This is achieved, at least in part, by its USF1-dependent association with the C/EBPα promoter and its subsequent demethylation of dimethylated H3K36 on the C/EBPα locus. Our work provides compelling evidence that links histone demethylation to transcriptional regulation of gluconeogenesis and has important implications for the treatment of diabetes.

  13. Increased hepatic gluconeogenesis: the secret of Lance Armstrong's success.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, G.P.A.; Wagener, D.J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Enormous amounts of lactic acid are produced during endurance sport by muscle cells. This metabolite is thought responsible for the muscle pain and the fatigue during sport. Its internal removal from the body by enzymatic conversion depends mainly on the capacity of the hepatic gluconeogenesis that

  14. Effect of dental materials on gluconeogenesis in rat kidney tubules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichl, F.X.; Durner, J.; Mückter, H.; Elsenhans, B.; Forth, W.; Kunzelmann, K.H.; Hickel, R.; Spahl, W.; Hume, W.R.; Moes, G.W.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of dental composite components triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) as well as mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) on gluconeogenesis was investigated in isolated rat kidney tubules. From starved rats kidney tubules were

  15. Molecular mechanisms of citrus flavanones on hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Rodrigo Polimeni; Constantin, Renato Polimeni; Bracht, Adelar; Yamamoto, Nair Seiko; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza; Constantin, Jorgete

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that hyperglycaemia is the initiating cause of tissue damage associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and that enhanced hepatic gluconeogenesis may account for the increase in blood glucose levels. The purpose of this work was to investigate the possible actions and mechanisms of three related citrus flavanones, namely hesperidin, hesperetin and naringenin, on hepatic gluconeogenesis and related parameters using isolated perfused rat liver. Hesperetin and naringenin (but not hesperidin) inhibited gluconeogenesis from lactate plus pyruvate, alanine and dihydroxyacetone. The inhibitory effects of these flavanones on gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate (hesperetin IC50 75.6 μM; naringenin IC50 85.5 μM) as well as from alanine were considerably more pronounced than those from dihydroxyacetone. The main cause of gluconeogenesis inhibition is the reduction of pyruvate carboxylation by hesperetin (IC50 134.2 μM) and naringenin (IC50 143.5 μM) via inhibition of pyruvate transport into the mitochondria. Secondary causes are likely inhibition of energy metabolism, diversion of glucose 6-phosphate for glucuronidation reactions and oxidation of NADH by flavanone phenoxyl radicals. The influence of the structural differences between hesperetin and naringenin on their metabolic effects was negligible. Analytical evidence indicated that the presence of a rutinoside moiety in hesperidin noticeably decreases its metabolic effects, confirming that hesperetin and naringenin interact with intracellular enzymes and mitochondrial or cellular membranes better than hesperidin. Thus, the inhibition of the gluconeogenic pathway by citrus flavanones, which was similar to that of the drug metformin, may represent an attractive novel treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ATF3 mediates inhibitory effects of ethanol on hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Wei; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Liu, Weiyi; Phillips, Naomi G; Sonntag, Tim; Hao, Ergeng; Lee, Soon; Hai, Tsonwin; Montminy, Marc

    2015-03-03

    Increases in circulating glucagon during fasting maintain glucose balance by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute ethanol intoxication promotes fasting hypoglycemia through an increase in hepatic NADH, which inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis by reducing the conversion of lactate to pyruvate. Here we show that acute ethanol exposure also lowers fasting blood glucose concentrations by inhibiting the CREB-mediated activation of the gluconeogenic program in response to glucagon. Ethanol exposure blocked the recruitment of CREB and its coactivator CRTC2 to gluconeogenic promoters by up-regulating ATF3, a transcriptional repressor that also binds to cAMP-responsive elements and thereby down-regulates gluconeogenic genes. Targeted disruption of ATF3 decreased the effects of ethanol in fasted mice and in cultured hepatocytes. These results illustrate how the induction of transcription factors with overlapping specificity can lead to cross-coupling between stress and hormone-sensitive pathways.

  17. Gluconeogenesis: An ancient biochemical pathway with a new twist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Amrein, Hubert

    2017-07-03

    Synthesis of sugars from simple carbon sources is critical for survival of animals under limited nutrient availability. Thus, sugar-synthesizing enzymes should be present across the entire metazoan spectrum. Here, we explore the evolution of glucose and trehalose synthesis using a phylogenetic analysis of enzymes specific for the two pathways. Our analysis reveals that the production of trehalose is the more ancestral biochemical process, found in single cell organisms and primitive metazoans, but also in insects. The gluconeogenic-specific enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) first appears in Cnidaria, but is also present in Echinodermata, Mollusca and Vertebrata. Intriguingly, some species of nematodes and arthropods possess the genes for both pathways. Moreover, expression data from Drosophila suggests that G6Pase and, hence, gluconeogenesis, initially had a neuronal function. We speculate that in insects-and possibly in some vertebrates-gluconeogenesis may be used as a means of neuronal signaling.

  18. Anabolic regulation of gluconeogenesis by insulin in isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, C.; Bessman, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    The role of substrate availability in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in isolated rat hepatocytes was studied using [U- 14 C]alanine as a tracer in the presence of different concentrations of L-alanine in the incubation medium. At low alanine concentrations (0.5 mM) insulin decreased the 14 C incorporation into the glucose pool and increased the incorporation of tracer carbons into the protein and lipid pools and into CO 2 . The net radioactivity lost from the glucose pool was only a small percentage of the total increase in the activity of the protein, lipid, CO 2 , or glycogen pools, supporting the notion that the effect of insulin in diminishing gluconeogenesis is secondary to its effects on pathways using pyruvate. At higher concentrations of alanine (2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mM) in the incubation medium insulin increased the movement of alanine carbons into protein and glucose. These results were further confirmed by using [U- 14 C]lactate. The increases in observed specific activity of glucose following insulin administration would not be possible if insulin acted by affecting the activity of any enzyme directly involved in the formation or utilization of pyruvate, most of which have been proposed as sites of insulin action. Data presented show that insulin inhibits gluconeogenesis by affecting a change in substrate availability

  19. A novel role for the cell cycle regulatory complex cyclin D1-CDK4 in gluconeogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hosooka, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of gluconeogenesis is a key pathological feature of type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of gluconeogenesis remain unclear. Bhalla et?al. recently reported that cyclin D1 suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis through CDK4?dependent phosphorylation of PGC1alpha and consequent inhibition of its activity. The cyclin D1?CDK4 might thus serve as an important link between the cell cycle and control of energy metabolism through modulation of PGC1alp...

  20. Increased gluconeogenesis in rats exposed to hyper-G stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daligcon, B.C.; Oyama, J.; Hannak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The role of gluconeogenesis on the increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G (radial acceleration) stress was determined. Overnight-fasted, male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were injected i.p. with uniformly labeled 14 C lactate, alanine, or glycerol (5 μCi/rat) and immediately exposed to 3.1 G for 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 hr. 14 C incorporation of the labeled substrates into plasma glucose and liver glycogen was measured and compared to noncentrifuged control rats injected in a similar manner. Significant increases in 14 C incorporation of all three labeled substrates into plasma glucose were observed in centrifuged rats at all exposure periods; 14 C incorporation into liver glycogen was significantly increased only at 0.50 and 1.0 hr. The i.p. administration (5 mg/100-g body wt) of 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, a potent gluconeogenesis inhibitor, prior to centrifugation blocked the increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen during the first hour of centrifugation. The increase in plasma glucose and liver glycogen was also abolished in adrenodemedullated rats exposed to centrifugation for 1.0 hr. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, suppressed the increase in plasma glucose of rats exposed to centrifugation for 0.25 hr. From the results of this study, it is concluded that the initial, rapid rise in plasma glucose as well as the increase in liver glycogen of rats exposed to hyper-G stress can be attributed to an increased rate of gluconeogenesis, and that epinephrine plays a dominant role during the early stages of exposure to centrifugation. 11 references, 3 tables

  1. Maltase-glucoamylase: Mucosal regulator of prandial starch glucogenesis and complementary hepatic gluconeogenesis of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was hypothesized that the slower rate of starch digestion by residual sucraseisomaltase (Si) maltase failed to fully regulate gluconeogenesis. In the present study the rate of gluconeogenesis was measured directly (J Appl Physiol 104: 944-951, 2008) and compared with exogenous glucose derived fro...

  2. Measurement of gluconeogenesis using glucose fragments and mass spectrometry after ingestion of deuterium oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chacko, Shaji K.; Sunehag, Agneta L.; Sharma, Susan; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Haymond, Morey W.

    We report a new method to measure the fraction of glucose derived from gluconeogenesis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and positive chemical ionization. After ingestion of deuterium oxide by subjects, glucose derived from gluconeogenesis is labeled with deuterium. Our calculations of

  3. Determination of gluconeogenesis in man by the use of deuterium-NMR-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosian, E.

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this dissertation is the quantification of the deuterium--distribution in human glucose by the use of the deuterium NMR spectroscopy of deuteriated water. The glucose production in human organism is composed of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. The quantification of the part of gluconeogenesis on the total glucose production was determined by the use of deuterium NMR spectroscopy. (boteke)

  4. Measurement of gluconeogenesis using glucose fragments and mass spectrometry after ingestion of deuterium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a new method to measure the fraction of glucose derived from gluconeogenesis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and positive chemical ionization. After ingestion of deuterium oxide by subjects, glucose derived from gluconeogenesis is labeled with deuterium. Our calculations of gluc...

  5. Stimulation of gluconeogenesis by intravenous lipids in preterm infants: response depends on fatty acid profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen, Anne A. M. W.; van der Crabben, Saskia N.; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Endert, Erik; Kok, Joke H.; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2006-01-01

    In preterm infants, both hypo- and hyperglycemia are a frequent problem. Intravenous lipids can affect glucose metabolism by stimulation of gluconeogenesis by providing glycerol, which is a gluconeogenic precursor, and/or free fatty acids (FFA), which are stimulants of the rate of gluconeogenesis.

  6. Weight loss and elevated gluconeogenesis from alanine in lung cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Leij-Halfwerk (Susanne); P.C. Dagnelie (Pieter); J.W.O. van den Berg (Willem); J.L.D. Wattimena (Josias); C.H. Hordijk-Luijk; J.H.P. Wilson (Paul)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The role of gluconeogenesis from protein in the pathogenesis of weight loss in lung cancer is unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study gluconeogenesis from alanine in lung cancer patients and to analyze its relation to the degree of weight loss.

  7. Microbiota-Produced Succinate Improves Glucose Homeostasis via Intestinal Gluconeogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vadder, Filipe; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Zitoun, Carine

    2016-01-01

    Beneficial effects of dietary fiber on glucose and energy homeostasis have long been described, focusing mostly on the production of short-chain fatty acids by the gut commensal bacteria. However, bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber also produces large amounts of succinate and, to date......, no study has focused on the role of succinate on host metabolism. Here, we fed mice a fiber-rich diet and found that succinate was the most abundant carboxylic acid in the cecum. Dietary succinate was identified as a substrate for intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN), a process that improves glucose...

  8. Two enzymes with redundant fructose bisphosphatase activity sustain gluconeogenesis and virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Uday; Marrero, Joeli; Calhoun, Susannah; Eoh, Hyungjin; de Carvalho, Luiz Pedro Sorio; Rhee, Kyu; Ehrt, Sabine

    2015-08-10

    The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) likely utilizes host fatty acids as a carbon source during infection. Gluconeogenesis is essential for the conversion of fatty acids into biomass. A rate-limiting step in gluconeogenesis is the conversion of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate by a fructose bisphosphatase (FBPase). The Mtb genome contains only one annotated FBPase gene, glpX. Here we show that, unexpectedly, an Mtb mutant lacking GLPX grows on gluconeogenic carbon sources and has detectable FBPase activity. We demonstrate that the Mtb genome encodes an alternative FBPase (GPM2, Rv3214) that can maintain gluconeogenesis in the absence of GLPX. Consequently, deletion of both GLPX and GPM2 is required for disruption of gluconeogenesis and attenuation of Mtb in a mouse model of infection. Our work affirms a role for gluconeogenesis in Mtb virulence and reveals previously unidentified metabolic redundancy at the FBPase-catalysed reaction step of the pathway.

  9. In Silico Evidence for Gluconeogenesis from Fatty Acids in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Christoph; de Figueiredo, Luís F.; Werner, Sarah; Guthke, Reinhard; Ristow, Michael; Schuster, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The question whether fatty acids can be converted into glucose in humans has a long standing tradition in biochemistry, and the expected answer is “No”. Using recent advances in Systems Biology in the form of large-scale metabolic reconstructions, we reassessed this question by performing a global investigation of a genome-scale human metabolic network, which had been reconstructed on the basis of experimental results. By elementary flux pattern analysis, we found numerous pathways on which gluconeogenesis from fatty acids is feasible in humans. On these pathways, four moles of acetyl-CoA are converted into one mole of glucose and two moles of CO2. Analyzing the detected pathways in detail we found that their energetic requirements potentially limit their capacity. This study has many other biochemical implications: effect of starvation, sports physiology, practically carbohydrate-free diets of inuit, as well as survival of hibernating animals and embryos of egg-laying animals. Moreover, the energetic loss associated to the usage of gluconeogenesis from fatty acids can help explain the efficiency of carbohydrate reduced and ketogenic diets such as the Atkins diet. PMID:21814506

  10. In silico evidence for gluconeogenesis from fatty acids in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kaleta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The question whether fatty acids can be converted into glucose in humans has a long standing tradition in biochemistry, and the expected answer is "No". Using recent advances in Systems Biology in the form of large-scale metabolic reconstructions, we reassessed this question by performing a global investigation of a genome-scale human metabolic network, which had been reconstructed on the basis of experimental results. By elementary flux pattern analysis, we found numerous pathways on which gluconeogenesis from fatty acids is feasible in humans. On these pathways, four moles of acetyl-CoA are converted into one mole of glucose and two moles of CO₂. Analyzing the detected pathways in detail we found that their energetic requirements potentially limit their capacity. This study has many other biochemical implications: effect of starvation, sports physiology, practically carbohydrate-free diets of inuit, as well as survival of hibernating animals and embryos of egg-laying animals. Moreover, the energetic loss associated to the usage of gluconeogenesis from fatty acids can help explain the efficiency of carbohydrate reduced and ketogenic diets such as the Atkins diet.

  11. MicroRNA-214 suppresses gluconeogenesis by targeting activating transcriptional factor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zhang, Jin; Yu, Junjie; Liu, Bin; Guo, Yajie; Deng, Jiali; Chen, Shanghai; Wang, Chunxia; Guo, Feifan

    2015-03-27

    Although the gluconeogenesis pathway is already a target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, the potential role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in gluconeogenesis remains unclear. Here, we investigated the physiological functions of miR-214 in gluconeogenesis. The expression of miR-214 was suppressed by glucagon via protein kinase A signaling in primary hepatocytes, and miR-214 was down-regulated in the livers of fasted, high fat diet-induced diabetic and leptin receptor-mutated (db/db) mice. The overexpression of miR-214 in primary hepatocytes suppressed glucose production, and silencing miR-214 reversed this effect. Gluconeogenesis was suppressed in the livers of mice injected with an adenovirus expressing miR-214 (Ad-miR-214). Additionally, Ad-miR-214 alleviated high fat diet-induced elevation of gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, we found that activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a reported target of miR-214, can reverse the suppressive effect of miR-214 on gluconeogenesis in primary hepatocytes, and this suppressive effect was blocked in liver-specific ATF4 knock-out mice. ATF4 regulated gluconeogenesis via affecting forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) transcriptional activity. Finally, liver-specific miR-214 transgenic mice exhibited suppressed gluconeogenesis and reduced expression of ATF4, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase in liver. Taken together, our results suggest that the miR-214-ATF4 axis is a novel pathway for the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. FoxO6 Integrates Insulin Signaling With Gluconeogenesis in the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Perdomo, German; Zhang, Ting; Slusher, Sandra; Lee, Sojin; Phillips, Brett E.; Fan, Yong; Giannoukakis, Nick; Gramignoli, Roberto; Strom, Stephen; Ringquist, Steven; Dong, H. Henry

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Excessive endogenous glucose production contributes to fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. This effect stems from inept insulin suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we studied the ability of forkhead box O6 (FoxO6) to mediate insulin action on hepatic gluconeogenesis and its contribution to glucose metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We characterized FoxO6 in glucose metabolism in cultured hepatocytes and in rodent models of dietary obesity, insulin resistance, or insulin-deficient diabetes. We determined the effect of FoxO6 on hepatic gluconeogenesis in genetically modified mice with FoxO6 gain- versus loss-of-function and in diabetic db/db mice with selective FoxO6 ablation in the liver. RESULTS FoxO6 integrates insulin signaling to hepatic gluconeogenesis. In mice, elevated FoxO6 activity in the liver augments gluconeogenesis, raising fasting blood glucose levels, and hepatic FoxO6 depletion suppresses gluconeogenesis, resulting in fasting hypoglycemia. FoxO6 stimulates gluconeogenesis, which is counteracted by insulin. Insulin inhibits FoxO6 activity via a distinct mechanism by inducing its phosphorylation and disabling its transcriptional activity, without altering its subcellular distribution in hepatocytes. FoxO6 becomes deregulated in the insulin-resistant liver, accounting for its unbridled activity in promoting gluconeogenesis and correlating with the pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. These metabolic abnormalities, along with fasting hyperglycemia, are reversible by selective inhibition of hepatic FoxO6 activity in diabetic mice. CONCLUSIONS Our data uncover a FoxO6-dependent pathway by which the liver orchestrates insulin regulation of gluconeogenesis, providing the proof-of-concept that selective FoxO6 inhibition is beneficial for curbing excessive hepatic glucose production and improving glycemic control in diabetes. PMID:21940782

  13. MicroRNA-214 Suppresses Gluconeogenesis by Targeting Activating Transcriptional Factor 4*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zhang, Jin; Yu, Junjie; Liu, Bin; Guo, Yajie; Deng, Jiali; Chen, Shanghai; Wang, Chunxia; Guo, Feifan

    2015-01-01

    Although the gluconeogenesis pathway is already a target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, the potential role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in gluconeogenesis remains unclear. Here, we investigated the physiological functions of miR-214 in gluconeogenesis. The expression of miR-214 was suppressed by glucagon via protein kinase A signaling in primary hepatocytes, and miR-214 was down-regulated in the livers of fasted, high fat diet-induced diabetic and leptin receptor-mutated (db/db) mice. The overexpression of miR-214 in primary hepatocytes suppressed glucose production, and silencing miR-214 reversed this effect. Gluconeogenesis was suppressed in the livers of mice injected with an adenovirus expressing miR-214 (Ad-miR-214). Additionally, Ad-miR-214 alleviated high fat diet-induced elevation of gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, we found that activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a reported target of miR-214, can reverse the suppressive effect of miR-214 on gluconeogenesis in primary hepatocytes, and this suppressive effect was blocked in liver-specific ATF4 knock-out mice. ATF4 regulated gluconeogenesis via affecting forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) transcriptional activity. Finally, liver-specific miR-214 transgenic mice exhibited suppressed gluconeogenesis and reduced expression of ATF4, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase in liver. Taken together, our results suggest that the miR-214-ATF4 axis is a novel pathway for the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. PMID:25657009

  14. The influence of tryptophan on gluconeogenesis in the perfused liver of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikova, G.V.; Mashkova, N.Yu.; Dokshina, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The liver isolated at different times after exposure to 7 Gy radiation responded in a different way to the effect of tryptophan (0.75 g/l) used as a gluconeogenesis inhibitor. While 24 h after irradiation of the addition of tryptophan inhibited gluconeogenesis from circulating exogenous amino acids, in 3 days, on the contrary, gluconeogenesis in the liver of donors was enhanced. It is suggested that these effects of tryptophan are associated with different functional status of the liver during the postirradiation observation period

  15. Reduced gluconeogenesis and lactate clearance in Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Signe M B; Campos, André

    2010-01-01

    We studied systemic and brain glucose and lactate metabolism in Huntington's disease (HD) patients in response to ergometer cycling. Following termination of exercise, blood glucose increased abruptly in control subjects, but no peak was seen in any of the HD patients (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 0.0 ± 0.2mM, P...... HD mouse model R6/2 following a lactate challenge, combined with reduced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and increased pyruvate kinase activity in the mouse liver suggest a reduced capacity...... for gluconeogenesis in HD, possibly contributing to the clinical symptoms of HD. We propose that blood glucose concentration in the recovery from exercise can be applied as a liver function test in HD patients....

  16. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P. H.; Pereira Arias, A. M.; Ackermans, M. T.; Endert, E.; Pijl, H.; Kuipers, F.; Meijer, A. J.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  17. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  18. The selective control of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis by temporal insulin patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Rei; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Yugi, Katsuyuki; Toyoshima, Yu; Komori, Yasunori; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Kuroda, Shinya

    2013-05-14

    Insulin governs systemic glucose metabolism, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis, through temporal change and absolute concentration. However, how insulin-signalling pathway selectively regulates glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, we experimentally measured metabolites in glucose metabolism in response to insulin. Step stimulation of insulin induced transient response of glycolysis and glycogenesis, and sustained response of gluconeogenesis and extracellular glucose concentration (GLC(ex)). Based on the experimental results, we constructed a simple computational model that characterises response of insulin-signalling-dependent glucose metabolism. The model revealed that the network motifs of glycolysis and glycogenesis pathways constitute a feedforward (FF) with substrate depletion and incoherent feedforward loop (iFFL), respectively, enabling glycolysis and glycogenesis responsive to temporal changes of insulin rather than its absolute concentration. In contrast, the network motifs of gluconeogenesis pathway constituted a FF inhibition, enabling gluconeogenesis responsive to absolute concentration of insulin regardless of its temporal patterns. GLC(ex) was regulated by gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. These results demonstrate the selective control mechanism of glucose metabolism by temporal patterns of insulin.

  19. Stanniocalcin 1 effects on the renal gluconeogenesis pathway in rat and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Vanessa; Kucharski, Luiz C; Guerreiro, Pedro M G; Martins, Tiago Leal; Morgado, Isabel; Power, Deborah M; Canario, Adelino V M; da Silva, Roselis S M

    2015-10-15

    The mammalian kidney contributes significantly to glucose homeostasis through gluconeogenesis. Considering that stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) regulates ATP production, is synthesized and acts in different cell types of the nephron, the present study hypothesized that STC1 may be implicated in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the vertebrate kidney. Human STC1 strongly reduced gluconeogenesis from (14)C-glutamine in rat renal medulla (MD) slices but not in renal cortex (CX), nor from (14)C-lactic acid. Total PEPCK activity was markedly reduced by hSTC1 in MD but not in CX. Pck2 (mitochondrial PEPCK isoform) was down-regulated by hSTC1 in MD but not in CX. In fish (Dicentrarchus labrax) kidney slices, both STC1-A and -B isoforms decreased gluconeogenesis from (14)C-acid lactic, while STC1-A increased gluconeogenesis from (14)C-glutamine. Overall, our results demonstrate a role for STC1 in the control of glucose synthesis via renal gluconeogenesis in mammals and suggest that it may have a similar role in teleost fishes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytosolic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Does Not Solely Control the Rate of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis in the Intact Mouse Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Shawn C.; He, TianTeng; Yan, Zheng; Lindner, Jill; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig R.; Browning, Jeffrey D.; Magnuson, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    When dietary carbohydrate is unavailable, glucose required to support metabolism in vital tissues is generated via gluconeogenesis in the liver. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), commonly considered the control point for liver gluconeogenesis, is normally regulated by circulating hormones to match systemic glucose demand. However, this regulation fails in diabetes. Because other molecular and metabolic factors can also influence gluconeogenesis, the explicit role of PEP...

  1. Rapid and sensitive measure of gluconeogenesis in isolated bovine hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azain, M.J.; Kasser, T.R.; Atwell, C.A.; Baile, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Available methods for determining glucose synthesis from radiolabelled precursors using ion exchange column chromatography limit the number of samples that can be processed. To facilitate this process, a rapid method for determining glucose synthesis from 3-carbon precursors was developed using suspensions of anion and cation exchange resins. Hepatocytes were prepared from calf liver by collagenase perfusion of the caudate lobe. Isolated cells were incubated with 14 C-labelled lactate or propionate in the presence or absence of glucagen and/or palmitate. Glucose synthesis was determined by vortexing an aliquot of cell suspension with a 50% slurry of anion exchange resin (acetate form), followed by cation exchange resin. After centrifugation 14 C-glucose was recovered in the supernatant and measured by scintillation counting. Using this method, more than 95% of unused labelled precursor was bound to the ion exchange resin and essentially 100% of 14 C-glucose tracer was recovered in the supernatant. In hepatocyte suspensions, radioactivity recovered in the supernatants was confirmed to be glucose by pre-incubating aliquots of media with glucose oxidase prior to addition of ion exchange resins. The present system allows determination of hepatic gluconeogenesis, is sensitive to substrate and hormonal manipulations and has the capacity for processing several hundred samples per day

  2. Gluconeogenesis from storage wax in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, R A; Huang, A H

    1977-08-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the beta oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings.

  3. Transmitter-induced glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in leech segmental ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, A J; Pentreath, V W

    1987-01-01

    1. The utilization and control of glycogen stores were studied in the isolated segmental ganglia of the horse leech, Haemopis sanguisuga. The glycogen in the ganglia was extracted and assayed fluorimetrically and its cellular localization and turnover studied by autoradiography in conjunction with [3H] glucose. 2. The glycogen levels were measured after incubation with different neurotransmitters for 60 min at 28 degrees C. The results for each experimental ganglion were compared to a paired control ganglion, and the results analysed by paired t-tests. 3. Several transmitter substances (5-HT, octopamine, dopamine, noradrenaline, histamine) produced reductions in glycogen (glycogenolysis); other transmitters (glutamate, GABA) produced increases in glycogen (gluconeogenesis); others (adenosine, glycine) produced reductions or increases, depending on concentration. Acetylcholine had no effect on the glycogen levels. 4. Most of the glycogen in the ganglia is localized in the packet glial cells, which surround the neuron perikarya. Autoradiographic analysis demonstrated that the effects of histamine and dopamine were principally on the glycogen in the glial cells. 5. Adenylate cyclase was demonstrated by electron microscope histochemistry to be localized on the plasma membranes of the glial cells, and to a lesser extent on the neuronal membranes. 6. It is concluded that the changes in glycogen in the glial cells may be party controlled by transmitters via adenylate cyclase. This may provide a sensitive mechanism for coupling neuronal activity with energy metabolism.

  4. Implications of the simultaneous occurrence of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes from normal and hyperthyroid rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.W.; Berry, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian liver has the capability for both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In the fasting state, metabolites such as lactate and glycerol, generated in the peripheral tissues, are taken up by the liver and converted to glucose. However, hepatocytes from fasted animals are also capable of substantial rates of glycolysis. It is generally assumed that glycolysis and gluconeogenesis do not occur simultaneously in the same cell, but rather the metabolic conditions that facilitate flux through one pathway impair flow in the opposite direction. The actual direction of flow at any given moment is thought to be determined by regulatory mechanisms that control flux through the enzymatic steps specific to glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. The rates of glycolysis from [6- 3 H]glucose and gluconeogenesis from [U- 14 C]glycerol were determined in isolated hepatocytes from fasted normal and hyperthyroid rats. We observed that glycolysis from glucose and glucose synthesis from glycerol occurred simultaneously at substantial rates in hepatocytes from normal rats and that gluconeogenesis, but not glycolysis, was increased twofold in hepatocytes from thyroid treated rats. In the hyperthyroid state, the rate of glycolysis from glucose was approximately equal to the rate of glucose formation from glycerol. Hence, metabolism and ATP turnover were stimulated without substantially altering steady-state concentrations of glucose. The concomitant operation of hepatic glycolysis and gluconeogenesis may be a mechanism that accounts in part for the calorigenic effect of thyroid hormone. Since hepatocyles are generally impermeable to phosphorylated metabolites, our observations suggest that glycolysis, and phosphorylation of glycerol take place in the same cells, and that the occurrence of simultaneous glycolysis and gluconeogenesis is an indication of channelling within the hepatocyte cytoplasm of individual hepatocytes

  5. Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Leaves' polysaccharide alleviates hepatic gluconeogenesis via the downregulation of miR-137.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hai-Feng; Li, Yan; Wang, Li

    2017-11-01

    Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.(VBT) is a traditional Chinese herb that recorded has an effect of hypoglycemic. We previous discovered a dose-dependent anti-diabetic function of VBT. leaves' polysaccharide (VBTLP), but little is known about its underlying molecular mechanism. Therefore, we hypothesized that VBTLP would decrease hepatic gluconeogenesis to improve glucose metabolism in mice. To test this hypothesis, glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate the effect of VBTLP on mice hepatic gluconeogenesis. Western blot and RT-PCR were performed to measure both in vivo and in vitro gene regulation under VBTLP treatment. Online bioinformatic analysis was performed to discover a target candidate, miR-137 of LKB1 and AMPK under VBTLP treatment, and the luciferase assay was conducted to validate it. Here we found that VBT. leaves' polysaccharide (VBTLP) decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of LKB1/AMPK axis in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistic studies reveal that miR-137 regulates hepatic glucose homeostasis by directly targeting AMPK and LKB1. Furthermore, we shown that VBTLP decreased hepatic miR-137 level, which might contribute to activation of LKB1/AMPK and downregulation of gluconeogenesis. Taken together, our study shown that the mechanisms might involve in VBTLP hypoglycemic effect, alleviates hepatic gluconeogenesis via the downregulation of miR-137. Our findings provide guidance in developing novel, safe and effective therapies for T2DM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthesis controls yeast gluconeogenesis downstream and independent of SNF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroover, Sofie; Ghillebert, Ruben; Broeckx, Tom; Winderickx, Joris; Rolland, Filip

    2016-06-01

    Trehalose-6-P (T6P), an intermediate of trehalose biosynthesis, was identified as an important regulator of yeast sugar metabolism and signaling. tps1Δ mutants, deficient in T6P synthesis (TPS), are unable to grow on rapidly fermentable medium with uncontrolled influx in glycolysis, depletion of ATP and accumulation of sugar phosphates. However, the exact molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. We show that SNF1 deletion restores the tps1Δ growth defect on glucose, suggesting that lack of TPS hampers inactivation of SNF1 or SNF1-regulated processes. In addition to alternative, non-fermentable carbon metabolism, SNF1 controls two major processes: respiration and gluconeogenesis. The tps1Δ defect appears to be specifically associated with deficient inhibition of gluconeogenesis, indicating more downstream effects. Consistently, Snf1 dephosphorylation and inactivation on glucose medium are not affected, as confirmed with an in vivo Snf1 activity reporter. Detailed analysis shows that gluconeogenic Pck1 and Fbp1 expression, protein levels and activity are not repressed upon glucose addition to tps1Δ cells, suggesting a link between the metabolic defect and persistent gluconeogenesis. While SNF1 is essential for induction of gluconeogenesis, T6P/TPS is required for inactivation of gluconeogenesis in the presence of glucose, downstream and independent of SNF1 activity and the Cat8 and Sip4 transcription factors. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Protectin DX suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis through AMPK-HO-1-mediated inhibition of ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae Woo; Kim, Hyung-Chun; Abd El-Aty, A M; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have shown that protectins, which are ω-3 fatty acid-derived proresolution mediators, may improve insulin resistance. Recently, protectin DX (PDX) was documented to attenuate insulin resistance by stimulating IL-6 expression in skeletal muscle, thereby regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. These findings made us investigate the direct effects of PDX on hepatic glucose metabolism in the context of diabetes. In the current study, we show that PDX regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis in a manner distinct from its indirect glucoregulatory activity via IL-6. We found that PDX stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, thereby inducing heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression. This induction blocked hepatic gluconeogenesis by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in hepatocytes under hyperlipidemic conditions. These effects were significantly dampened by silencing AMPK or HO-1 expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA). We also demonstrated that administration of PDX to high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice resulted in increased hepatic AMPK phosphorylation and HO-1 expression, whereas hepatic ER stress was substantially attenuated. Furthermore, PDX treatment suppressed the expression of gluconeogenic genes, thereby decreasing blood glucose levels in HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that PDX inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis via AMPK-HO-1-dependent suppression of ER stress. Thus, PDX may be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes through the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. NFIL3 is a negative regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Geon; Han, Hye-Sook; Koo, Seung-Hoi

    2017-12-01

    Nuclear factor interleukin-3 regulated (NFIL3) has been known as an important transcriptional regulator of the development and the differentiation of immune cells. Although expression of NFIL3 is regulated by nutritional cues in the liver, the role of NFIL3 in the glucose metabolism has not been extensively studied. Thus, we wanted to explore the potential role of NFIL3 in the control of hepatic glucose metabolism. Mouse primary hepatocytes were cultured to perform western blot analysis, Q-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. 293T cells were cultured to perform luciferase assay. Male C57BL/6 mice (fed a normal chow diet or high fat diet for 27weeks) as well as ob/ob mice were used for experiments with adenoviral delivery. We observed that NFIL3 reduced glucose production in hepatocytes by reducing expression of gluconeogenic gene transcription. The repression by NFIL3 required its basic leucine zipper DNA binding domain, and it competed with CREB onto the binding of cAMP response element in the gluconeogenic promoters. The protein levels of hepatic NFIL3 were decreased in the mouse models of genetic- and diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, and ectopic expression of NFIL3 in the livers of insulin resistant mice ameliorated hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance, with concomitant reduction in expression of hepatic gluconeogenic genes. Finally, we witnessed that knockdown of NFIL3 in the livers of normal chow-fed mice promoted elevations in the glucose levels and expression of hepatic gluconeogenic genes. In this study, we showed that NFIL3 functions as an important regulator of glucose homeostasis in the liver by limiting CREB-mediated hepatic gluconeogenesis. Thus, enhancement of hepatic NFIL3 activity in insulin resistant state could be potentially beneficial in relieving glycemic symptoms in the metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of dental materials on gluconeogenesis in rat kidney tubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, F.X.; Durner, J.; Mueckter, H.; Elsenhans, B.; Forth, W. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Walter-Straub-Institut fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie; Kunzelmann, K.H.; Hickel, R. [Department of Operative/Restorative Dentistry, Periodontology and Pedodontics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (Germany); Spahl, W. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (Germany); Hume, W.R. [Dental Research Institute, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Moes, G.W. [TNO Prins-Maurits-Laboratorium, Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    1999-09-01

    The effect of dental composite components triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) as well as mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) and methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) on gluconeogenesis was investigated in isolated rat kidney tubules. From starved rats kidney tubules were prepared and isolated by digestion with collagenase. Every 10 min up to 60 min 1-ml samples were drawn from the cell suspension for quantitating the glucose content. Glucose formation in controls was 3.3 {+-} 0.2 nmol/mg . per min (mean {+-} SEM, n=21). Relative rates of glucose formation were obtained by expressing individual rates as a percentage of the corresponding control. X-Y concentration curves (effective concentration, EC) of the substances were calculated by fitting a four-parametric sigmoid function to the relative rates of glucose formation at various test concentrations. At the end of the incubation period cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Cell viability decreased within the 60 min interval from 90 to approx. 80% (controls), <25 (HEMA), <20 (TEGDMA), <10 (MeHgCl), and <10% (HgCl{sub 2}). Values of 50% effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) were calculated from fitted curves. EC{sub 50} values were (mmol; mean {+-} SEM; n=4): HEMA, 17.7 {+-} 2.9; TEGDMA, 1.8 {+-} 0.2; MeHgCl, 0.018 {+-} 0.0005; and HgCl{sub 2}, 0.0016 {+-} 0.0005. The toxic effect of HgCl{sub 2} was {proportional{underscore}to}1000 or 10 000 higher than that of the dental composite components TEGDMA or HEMA, respectively. (orig.)

  10. KINETIC-ANALYSIS OF SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF ALPHA-AGONISTS ON GLUCONEOGENESIS IN ISOLATED RAT HEPATOCYTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leverve, X. M.; Groen, A. K.; Verhoeven, A. J.; Tager, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Isolated hepatocytes from fasted rats were perifused with glycerol as gluconeogenic substrate. Stimulation of gluconeogenesis with phenylephrine (10(-5) M) as alpha-adrenergic agonist consisted of two distinct phases. The first phase was a transient stimulation of gluconeogenesis and was accompanied

  11. Lactate disposal via gluconeogenesis is increased during exercise in patients with mitochondrial myopathy due to complex I deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roef, MJ; Kalhan, SC; Reijngoud, DJ; De Meer, K; Berger, Ruud

    This study evaluated lactate disposal via gluconeogenesis as well as effects of FFA availability on gluconeogenesis via pyruvate (GNG(PYR)) in patients with mitochondrial myopathy due to complex I deficiency (CID). The rates of GNG(PYR) were measured in three CID patients and six healthy controls at

  12. Gluconeogenesis in the ruminant fetus: evaluation of conflicting evidence from radiotracer and other experimental techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Conflicting evidence exists as to whether the gluconeogenetic process is active in the late gestation fetal lamb. In vitro evidence based on measurements of enzyme activity and substrate flux into glucose indicates that the capacity for gluconeogenesis exists in fetal liver. The in vivo conversion of [ 14 C]lactate and [ 14 C]alanine into glucose in the lamb fetus has been demonstrated. Lactate and alanine account for 49 and 2.3% of the fetal glucose pool, respectively. Although gluconeogenesis can occur in the fetal lamb, alterations in net rates of umbilical uptake of glucose or lactate, fetal blood glucose concentrations, fetal or maternal glucose replacement rates, or maternal nutrition may alter the observed rates of fetal gluconeogenesis

  13. The role of class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) on gluconeogenesis in liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oiso, Hiroshi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Furukawa, Noboru, E-mail: n-furu@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Suefuji, Mihoshi; Shimoda, Seiya [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Ito, Akihiro; Furumai, Ryohei [Chemical Genetics Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Saitama (Japan); Nakagawa, Junichi [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Bio-Industry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Hokkaido (Japan); Yoshida, Minoru [Chemical Genetics Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Saitama (Japan); Nishino, Norikazu [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Araki, Eiichi [Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel class I HDAC inhibitor decreased hepatic PEPCK mRNA and gluconeogenesis. {yields} Inhibition of HDAC decreased PEPCK by reducing HNF4{alpha} expression and FoxO1 activity. {yields} siRNA knockdown of HDAC1 in HepG2 cells reduced the expression of PEPCK and HNF4{alpha}. {yields} Inhibition of class I HDAC improves glucose homeostasis in HFD mice. -- Abstract: Hepatic gluconeogenesis is crucial for glucose homeostasis. Although sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is implicated in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver, the effects of other histone deacetylases (HDAC) on gluconeogenesis are unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the role of class I HDACs in hepatic gluconeogenesis. In HepG2 cells and the liver of mice, the expressions of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha} (HNF4{alpha}) were significantly decreased by treatment with a newly designed class I HDAC inhibitor, Ky-2. SiRNA knockdown of HDAC1 expression, but not of HDAC2 or HDAC3, in HepG2 cells decreased PEPCK and HNF4{alpha} expression. In HepG2 cells, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and forkhead box O 1 (FoxO1) was increased by Ky-2. Pyruvate tolerance tests in Ky-2-treated high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice showed a marked reduction in blood glucose compared with vehicle-treated HFD mice. These data suggest that class I HDACs increase HNF4{alpha} protein expression and the transcriptional activity of FoxO1, followed by the induction of PEPCK mRNA expression and gluconeogenesis in liver.

  14. The role of class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) on gluconeogenesis in liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oiso, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Noboru; Suefuji, Mihoshi; Shimoda, Seiya; Ito, Akihiro; Furumai, Ryohei; Nakagawa, Junichi; Yoshida, Minoru; Nishino, Norikazu; Araki, Eiichi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A novel class I HDAC inhibitor decreased hepatic PEPCK mRNA and gluconeogenesis. → Inhibition of HDAC decreased PEPCK by reducing HNF4α expression and FoxO1 activity. → siRNA knockdown of HDAC1 in HepG2 cells reduced the expression of PEPCK and HNF4α. → Inhibition of class I HDAC improves glucose homeostasis in HFD mice. -- Abstract: Hepatic gluconeogenesis is crucial for glucose homeostasis. Although sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is implicated in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver, the effects of other histone deacetylases (HDAC) on gluconeogenesis are unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the role of class I HDACs in hepatic gluconeogenesis. In HepG2 cells and the liver of mice, the expressions of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) were significantly decreased by treatment with a newly designed class I HDAC inhibitor, Ky-2. SiRNA knockdown of HDAC1 expression, but not of HDAC2 or HDAC3, in HepG2 cells decreased PEPCK and HNF4α expression. In HepG2 cells, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and forkhead box O 1 (FoxO1) was increased by Ky-2. Pyruvate tolerance tests in Ky-2-treated high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice showed a marked reduction in blood glucose compared with vehicle-treated HFD mice. These data suggest that class I HDACs increase HNF4α protein expression and the transcriptional activity of FoxO1, followed by the induction of PEPCK mRNA expression and gluconeogenesis in liver.

  15. Control of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by the Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Qian, Jinchun; Shi, Xiaoli; Gao, Tingting; Liang, Tingming

    2014-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein is involved in major biological processes including energy metabolism, although its role remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that hepatic PLZF expression was induced in fasted or diabetic mice. PLZF promoted gluconeogenic gene expression and hepatic glucose output, leading to hyperglycemia. In contrast, hepatic PLZF knockdown improved glucose homeostasis in db/db mice. Mechanistically, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α and the glucocorticoid receptor synergistically activated PLZF expression. We conclude that PLZF is a critical regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis. PLZF manipulation may benefit the treatment of metabolic diseases associated with gluconeogenesis. PMID:25333514

  16. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Suppresses Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Increases Intestinal Gluconeogenesis in a T2DM Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong; Zhou, Zhou; Kong, Fanzhi; Feng, Suibin; Li, Xuzhong; Sha, Yanhua; Zhang, Guangjun; Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Haiqing; Wang, Shiguang; Hu, Cheng; Zhang, Xueli

    2016-11-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective surgical treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of RYGB on glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and intestinal morphological adaption, as well as hepatic and intestinal gluconeogenesis. Twenty adult male T2DM rats induced by high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin were randomly divided into sham and RYGB groups. The parameters of body weight, food intake, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and serum lipid profiles were assessed to evaluate metabolic changes. Intestinal sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for light microscopy examination. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of gluconeogenesis [phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase)] were determined through reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. RYGB induced significant improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, along with weight loss and decreased food intake. RYGB also decreased serum triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels. The jejunum and ileum exhibited a marked increase in the length and number of intestinal villi after RYGB. The RYGB group exhibited downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of PEPCK and G6Pase in the liver and upregulated expression of these enzymes in the jejunum and ileum tissues. RYGB ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism accompanied by weight loss and calorie restriction. The small intestine shows hyperplasia and hypertrophy after RYGB. Meanwhile, our study demonstrated that the reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased intestinal gluconeogenesis may contribute to improved glucose homeostasis after RYGB.

  17. The Role of Amino Acids in Gluconeogenesis in Lactating Ruminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, A. L.; Egan, A. R.; Anand, R. S.; Chapman, T. E. [Department of Physiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1968-07-01

    Gluconeogenesis has an important metabolic role in all animals, but it is especially important in ruminants because of the paucity of their alimentary glucose. Several amino acids give rise to glucogenic precursors during metabolism and thus dietary or body protein represents an important source of potential glucogenic material that the ruminant can utilize to manufacture the glucose required for its physiological functions. The role of various amino acids as glucose precursors has been evaluated in lactating ruminants by making a single intravenous injection of several different amino acids uniformly labelled with {sup 14}C and following, with time, the rate and extent of incorporation of {sup 14}C into the plasma glucose. The time interval after injecting each {sup 14}C-amino acid until the specific activity maximum occurred in plasma glucose was found to vary widely among the different amino acids. Thus, the maximum specific activity in plasma glucose occurred 6 min after injection of L-aspartate-{sup 14}C and 15 min after injection of L-glutamate- {sup 14}C, while for L-valine-{sup 14}C and L-arginine-{sup 14}C the maximum specific activity in plasma glucose did not occur until 45 and 90 min, respectively, had elapsed. After injection of L-serine and L-alanine there were several maxima in the glucose specific activity. These maxima occurred between 12 and 24 min after injection of serine and during the first 30 min after injection of alanine indicating that carbon from these amino acids becomes available for glucose synthesis along diverse pathways which have different delays. Although only a few amino acids have been studied, the experimental results obtained clearly suggest an important metabolic role for protein in ruminants which has previously not been recognized. It appears that amino acids, released from protein, are utilized by the animal in a fashion which results in a prolonged availability of glucogenic precursors so that the animal can form glucose

  18. APPL1-mediated activation of STAT3 contributes to inhibitory effect of adiponectin on hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Youming; Zhang, Deling; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yemin; Wang, Lei; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Mingxin; Tang, Zhao; Wang, Changhua

    2016-09-15

    Adiponectin has been shown to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, the signaling pathways underlying its action remain ill-defined. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential role of APPL1 in mediating anti-gluconeogenic ability of adiponectin. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from male C57BL/6 mice. Western blot and RT-PCR were performed to detect protein expression and mRNA level, respectively. The protein-protein association was determined by immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay. We found that APPL1 protein levels were negatively associated with expressions of proteins and mRNAs of gluconeogenesis enzymes under stimulation with adiponectin. In addition, adiponectin-stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation and acetylation were positively regulated by APPL1 and negative regulated by SirT1. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of STAT3 mitigated impact of adiponectin on hepatic gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, adiponectin administration facilitated the binding of APPL1 to SirT1 and suppressed the association of SirT1 with STAT3. Taken together, our study showed that APPL1-SirT1-STAT3 pathway mediated adiponectin signaling in primary hepatocytes. This new finding provides a novel mechanism by which adiponectin suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding the interrelationship between the synthesis of urea and gluconeogenesis by formulating an overall balanced equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipata, Piero L; Pesi, Rossana

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that a strong metabolic interrelationship exists between ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. In this paper, we present a detailed, overall equation, describing a possible metabolic link between ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. We adopted a guided approach in which we strongly suggest that students, when faced with the problem of obtaining the overall equation of a metabolic pathway, carefully account for all atoms and charges of the single reactions, as well as the cellular localizations of the substrates, and the related transport systems. If this suggestion is always taken into account, a balanced, overall equation of a metabolic pathway will be obtained, which strongly facilitates the discussion of its physiological role. Unfortunately, textbooks often report unbalanced overall equations of metabolic pathways, including ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. Most likely the reason is that metabolism and enzymology have been neglected for about three decades, owing to the remarkable advances of molecular biology and molecular genetics. In this paper, we strongly suggest that students, when faced with the problem of obtaining the overall reaction of a metabolic pathway, carefully control if the single reactions are properly balanced for atoms and charges. Following this suggestion, we were able to obtain an overall equation describing the metabolic interrelationship between ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis, in which urea and glucose are the final products. The aim is to better rationalize this topic and to convince students and teachers that metabolism is an important and rewarding chapter of human physiology. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Short-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone and feeding on gluconeogenesis in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    After a short-term fast, lactating women have increased rates of glucose production but not gluconeogenesis (GNG) despite relative hypoinsulinemia. We explored the effects of non-insulin-dependent increase in glucose utilization and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on glucose production, glyc...

  1. Maltase-glucoamylase: Mucosal regulator of prandial starch glucogenesis and complimentary hepatic gluconeogenesis of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous studies we have shown that maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) is required for efficient starch digestion and insulin response to starch feeding. It was hypothesized that the slower rate of starch digestion by residual sucrase-isomaltase (Si) maltase failed to regulate gluconeogenesis. Here, rat...

  2. Yin Yang 1 Promotes Hepatic Gluconeogenesis Through Upregulation of Glucocorticoid Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Xiong, Xuelian; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Zhijian; Li, Jin; Shi, Guojun; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Huijie; Ning, Guang; Li, Xiaoying

    2013-01-01

    Gluconeogenesis is critical in maintaining blood glucose levels in a normal range during fasting. In this study, we investigated the role of Yin Yang 1 (YY1), a key transcription factor involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Our data showed that hepatic YY1 expression levels were induced in mice during fasting conditions and in a state of insulin resistance. Overexpression of YY1 in livers augmented gluconeogenesis, raising fasting blood glucose levels in C57BL/6 mice, whereas liver-specific ablation of YY1 using adenoviral shRNA ameliorated hyperglycemia in wild-type and diabetic db/db mice. At the molecular level, we further demonstrated that the major mechanism of YY1 in the regulation of hepatic glucose production is to modulate the expression of glucocorticoid receptor. Therefore, our study uncovered for the first time that YY1 participates in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis, which implies that YY1 might serve as a potential therapeutic target for hyperglycemia in diabetes. PMID:23193188

  3. Effect of As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ on gluconeogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szinicz, L.; Forth, W.

    1988-06-01

    The effect of As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and As/sub 2/O/sub 5/ on gluconeogenesis from various substrates in the liver and kidney of rats was investigated. A concentration-dependent inhibition by As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was found. The highest degree of inhibition was observed in incubations with pyruvate. The inhibition of glucose formation was accompanied to a lesser extent by a diminution in O/sub 2/ consumption and ATP content. The effect was also dependent on the substrate used. Oleate, 0,5 mmol/l, increased gluconeogenesis from pyruvate. The effect was not abolished by As/sub 2/O/sub 3/. A decrease in the content of acetyl-CoA, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and reduced glutathione was found in suspensions of isolated rat kidney tubules or hepatocytes incubated with As/sub 2/O/sub 3/. About 10 times higher concentrations of As/sub 2/O/sub 5/ were necessary to induce a similar extent of inhibition of gluconeogenesis, decrease in O/sub 2/ consumption, and in ATP content as compared with As/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Gluconeogenesis from pyruvate exhibited highest sensitivity to As/sub 2/O/sub 5/. Starved rats were shown to be much more sensitive to As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ than animals with free access to food.

  4. Glucose homeostasis in children with falciparum malaria: precursor supply limits gluconeogenesis and glucose production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, E.; Hellerstein, M. K.; Romijn, J. A.; Neese, R. A.; Peshu, N.; Endert, E.; Marsh, K.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate glucose kinetics in children with falciparum malaria, basal glucose production and gluconeogenesis and an estimate of the flux of the gluconeogenic precursors were measured in Kenyan children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria before (n = 11) and during infusion of alanine (1.5

  5. Determination of gluconeogenesis in vivo with 14C-labeled substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.

    1985-01-01

    A mitochondrial model of gluconeogenesis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, where pyruvate is metabolized via pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase is examined. The effect of the rate of tricarboxylic acid flux and the rates of the three reactions of pyruvate metabolism on the labeling patterns from [ 14 C]pyruvate and [ 14 C]acetate are analyzed. Expressions describing the specific radioactivities and 14 C distribution in glucose as a function of these rates are derived. Specific radioactivities and isotopic patterns depend markedly on the ratio of the rates of pyruvate carboxylation and decarboxylation to the rate of citrate synthesis, but the effect of phosphoenolpyruvate hydrolysis is minor. The effects of these rates on 1) specific radioactivity of phosphoenolpyruvate, 2) labeling pattern in glucose, and 3) contribution of pyruvate, acetyl-coenzyme A, and CO 2 to glucose carbon are illustrated. To determine the contribution of lactate or alanine to gluconeogenesis, experiments with two compounds labeled in different carbons are required. Methods in current use to correct for the dilution of 14 C in gluconeogenesis from [ 14 C]pyruvate are shown to be erroneous. The experimental design and techniques to determine gluconeogenesis from 14 C-labeled precursors are presented and illustrated with numerical examples

  6. O-GlcNAcylation of Orphan Nuclear Receptor Estrogen-Related Receptor γ Promotes Hepatic Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Jagannath; Kim, Don-Kyu; Jung, Yoon Seok; Kim, Han Byeol; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Yoo, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Byung Gyu; Kim, Sunghoon; Lee, In-Kyu; Harris, Robert A; Kim, Jeong-Sun; Lee, Chul-Ho; Cho, Jin Won; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2016-10-01

    Estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a major positive regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Its transcriptional activity is suppressed by phosphorylation signaled by insulin in the fed state, but whether posttranslational modification alters its gluconeogenic activity in the fasted state is not known. Metabolically active hepatocytes direct a small amount of glucose into the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, leading to protein O-GlcNAcylation. In this study, we demonstrate that ERRγ is O-GlcNAcylated by O-GlcNAc transferase in the fasted state. This stabilizes the protein by inhibiting proteasome-mediated protein degradation, increasing ERRγ recruitment to gluconeogenic gene promoters. Mass spectrometry identifies two serine residues (S317, S319) present in the ERRγ ligand-binding domain that are O-GlcNAcylated. Mutation of these residues destabilizes ERRγ protein and blocks the ability of ERRγ to induce gluconeogenesis in vivo. The impact of this pathway on gluconeogenesis in vivo was confirmed by the observation that decreasing the amount of O-GlcNAcylated ERRγ by overexpressing the deglycosylating enzyme O-GlcNAcase decreases ERRγ-dependent glucose production in fasted mice. We conclude that O-GlcNAcylation of ERRγ serves as a major signal to promote hepatic gluconeogenesis. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  7. Gluconeogenesis in Leishmania mexicana: contribution of glycerol kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and pyruvate phosphate dikinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Contreras, Dayana; Hamilton, Nicklas

    2014-11-21

    Gluconeogenesis is an active pathway in Leishmania amastigotes and is essential for their survival within the mammalian cells. However, our knowledge about this pathway in trypanosomatids is very limited. We investigated the role of glycerol kinase (GK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) in gluconeogenesis by generating the respective Leishmania mexicana Δgk, Δpepck, and Δppdk null mutants. Our results demonstrated that indeed GK, PEPCK, and PPDK are key players in the gluconeogenesis pathway in Leishmania, although stage-specific differences in their contribution to this pathway were found. GK participates in the entry of glycerol in promastigotes and amastigotes; PEPCK participates in the entry of aspartate in promastigotes, and PPDK is involved in the entry of alanine in amastigotes. Furthermore, the majority of alanine enters into the pathway via decarboxylation of pyruvate in promastigotes, whereas pathway redundancy is suggested for the entry of aspartate in amastigotes. Interestingly, we also found that l-lactate, an abundant glucogenic precursor in mammals, was used by Leishmania amastigotes to synthesize mannogen, entering the pathway through PPDK. On the basis of these new results, we propose a revision in the current model of gluconeogenesis in Leishmania, emphasizing the differences between amastigotes and promastigotes. This work underlines the importance of studying the trypanosomatid intracellular life cycle stages to gain a better understanding of the pathologies caused in humans. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Effects of free fatty acids per se on glucose production, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, Peter; Hother-Nielsen, Ole; Landau, Bernard R

    2003-01-01

    Insulin-independent effects of a physiological increase in free fatty acid (FFA) levels on fasting glucose production, gluconeogenesis, and glycogenolysis were assessed by administering [6,6-(2)H(2)]-glucose and deuteriated water ((2)H(2)O) in 12 type 1 diabetic patients, during 6-h infusions...

  9. Hepatic Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Is Required for Efficient Regulation of Gluconeogenesis and Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lawrence R; Sultana, Mst Rasheda; Rauckhorst, Adam J; Oonthonpan, Lalita; Tompkins, Sean C; Sharma, Arpit; Fu, Xiaorong; Miao, Ren; Pewa, Alvin D; Brown, Kathryn S; Lane, Erin E; Dohlman, Ashley; Zepeda-Orozco, Diana; Xie, Jianxin; Rutter, Jared; Norris, Andrew W; Cox, James E; Burgess, Shawn C; Potthoff, Matthew J; Taylor, Eric B

    2015-10-06

    Gluconeogenesis is critical for maintenance of euglycemia during fasting. Elevated gluconeogenesis during type 2 diabetes (T2D) contributes to chronic hyperglycemia. Pyruvate is a major gluconeogenic substrate and requires import into the mitochondrial matrix for channeling into gluconeogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) comprising the Mpc1 and Mpc2 proteins is required for efficient regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Liver-specific deletion of Mpc1 abolished hepatic MPC activity and markedly decreased pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle flux. Loss of MPC activity induced adaptive utilization of glutamine and increased urea cycle activity. Diet-induced obesity increased hepatic MPC expression and activity. Constitutive Mpc1 deletion attenuated the development of hyperglycemia induced by a high-fat diet. Acute, virally mediated Mpc1 deletion after diet-induced obesity decreased hyperglycemia and improved glucose tolerance. We conclude that the MPC is required for efficient regulation of gluconeogenesis and that the MPC contributes to the elevated gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia in T2D. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. DMT efficiently inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis by regulating the Gαq signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting-Ting; Ma, Fei; Shi, Xiao-Fan; Xu, Xin; Du, Te; Guo, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Gai-Hong; Yu, Liang; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Hu, Li-Hong; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu

    2017-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease with complicated pathogenesis and targeting gluconeogenesis inhibition is a promising strategy for anti-diabetic drug discovery. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classified as distinct families by heterotrimeric G proteins, primarily including Gαs, Gαi and Gαq. Gαs-coupled GPCRs function potently in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by activating cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and Gαi-coupled GPCRs exhibit inhibitory effect on adenylyl cyclase and reduce intracellular cAMP level. However, little is known about the regulation of Gαq-coupled GPCRs in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Here, small-molecule 2-(2,4-dimethoxy-3-methylphenyl)-7-(thiophen-2-yl)-9-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydropyrido[3',2':4,5]thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4( 1H )-one (DMT) was determined to suppress hepatic glucose production and reduce mRNA levels of gluconeogenic genes. Treatment of DMT in db/db mice decreased fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) levels, while improved glucose tolerance and pyruvate tolerance. Mechanism study demonstrated that DMT-inhibited gluconeogenesis by regulating the Gαq/phospholipase C (PLC)/inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated calcium (Ca 2+ )/calmodulin (CaM)/phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) signaling pathway. To our knowledge, DMT might be the first reported small molecule able to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis by regulating Gαq signaling, and our current work has also highlighted the potential of DMT in the treatment of T2DM. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Effects of transaldolase exchange on estimates of gluconeogenesis in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpal, Aman; Dube, Simmi; Carvalho, Filipa; Simoes, Ana Rita; Figueiredo, Angelo; Basu, Ananda; Jones, John; Basu, Rita

    2013-08-15

    Transaldolase (TA) exchange overestimates gluconeogenesis measured with deuterated water (²H₂O). However, it is unknown whether TA differs in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). ²H₂O was ingested, and [1-¹³C]acetate and [3-³H]glucose were infused in T2DM (n = 10) and healthy nondiabetic (ND; n = 8) subjects. TA was assessed from the ratio of ¹³C3 to ¹³C4 glucose enrichment (¹³C3/¹³C4) measured by ¹³C NMR. Glucose turnover was measured before (~16-h fast) and during hyperglycemic (~10 mM) moderate-dose insulin (~0.35 mU·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) clamp. ¹³C3/¹³C4 in T2DM vs. ND was gluconeogenesis were no different (P = not significant) in T2DM vs. ND both at baseline and during clamp. TA correction resulted in equivalent estimates of corrected gluconeogenesis in T2DM and ND that were ~25-35% lower than uncorrected gluconeogenesis both at baseline and during the clamp. The asymmetric enrichment of glucose from ¹³C-gluconeogenic tracers is attributable to TA exchange and can be utilized to correct for TA exchange. In conclusion, TA exchange does not differ between T2DM and ND under fasting or hyperglycemic clamp conditions, and the ²H₂O method continues to provide an accurate estimation of gluconeogenesis.

  12. PKB/Akt phosphorylation of ERRγ contributes to insulin-mediated inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Don-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Hynx, Debby; Wang, Yanning; Yang, Keum-Jin; Ryu, Dongryeol; Kim, Kyung Seok; Yoo, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jeong-Sun; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Lee, In-Kyu; Chae, Ho-Zoon; Park, Jongsun; Lee, Chul-Ho; Biddinger, Sudha B; Hemmings, Brian A; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2014-12-01

    Insulin resistance, a major contributor to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, leads to increased hepatic glucose production (HGP) owing to an impaired ability of insulin to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis. Nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a major transcriptional regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis. In this study, we investigated insulin-dependent post-translational modifications (PTMs) altering the transcriptional activity of ERRγ for the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. We examined insulin-dependent phosphorylation and subcellular localisation of ERRγ in cultured cells and in the liver of C57/BL6, leptin receptor-deficient (db/db), liver-specific insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) and protein kinase B (PKB) β-deficient (Pkbβ (-/-)) mice. To demonstrate the role of ERRγ in the inhibitory action of insulin on hepatic gluconeogenesis, we carried out an insulin tolerance test in C57/BL6 mice expressing wild-type or phosphorylation-deficient mutant ERRγ. We demonstrated that insulin suppressed the transcriptional activity of ERRγ by promoting PKB/Akt-mediated phosphorylation of ERRγ at S179 and by eliciting translocation of ERRγ from the nucleus to the cytoplasm through interaction with 14-3-3, impairing its ability to promote hepatic gluconeogenesis. In addition, db/db, LIRKO and Pkbβ (-/-) mice displayed enhanced ERRγ transcriptional activity due to a block in PKBβ-mediated ERRγ phosphorylation during refeeding. Finally, the phosphorylation-deficient mutant ERRγ S179A was resistant to the inhibitory action of insulin on HGP. These results suggest that ERRγ is a major contributor to insulin action in maintaining hepatic glucose homeostasis.

  13. Ca2+ dependence of gluconeogenesis stimulation by glucagon at different cytosolic NAD+-NADH redox potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques-da-Silva A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Ca2+ on hepatic gluconeogenesis was measured in the isolated perfused rat liver at different cytosolic NAD+-NADH potentials. Lactate and pyruvate were the gluconeogenic substrates and the cytosolic NAD+-NADH potentials were changed by varying the lactate to pyruvate ratios from 0.01 to 100. The following results were obtained: a gluconeogenesis from lactate plus pyruvate was not affected by Ca2+-free perfusion (no Ca2+ in the perfusion fluid combined with previous depletion of the intracellular pools; gluconeogenesis was also poorly dependent on the lactate to pyruvate ratios in the range of 0.1 to 100; only for a ratio equal to 0.01 was a significantly smaller gluconeogenic activity observed in comparison to the other ratios. b In the presence of Ca2+, the increase in oxygen uptake caused by the infusion of lactate plus pyruvate at a ratio equal to 10 was the most pronounced one; in Ca2+-free perfusion the increase in oxygen uptake caused by lactate plus pyruvate infusion tended to be higher for all lactate to pyruvate ratios; the most pronounced difference was observed for a lactate/pyruvate ratio equal to 1. c In the presence of Ca2+ the effects of glucagon on gluconeogenesis showed a positive correlation with the lactate to pyruvate ratios; for a ratio equal to 0.01 no stimulation occurred, but in the 0.1 to 100 range stimulation increased progressively, producing a clear parabolic dependence between the effects of glucagon and the lactate to pyruvate ratio. d In the absence of Ca2+ the relationship between the changes caused by glucagon in gluconeogenesis and the lactate to pyruvate ratio was substantially changed; the dependence curve was no longer parabolic but sigmoidal in shape with a plateau beginning at a lactate/pyruvate ratio equal to 1; there was inhibition at the lactate to pyruvate ratios of 0.01 and 0.1 and a constant stimulation starting with a ratio equal to 1; for the lactate to pyruvate ratios of 10 and 100

  14. Dual pathway for gluconeogenesis from D-glycerate and L-glycerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.S.; Lardy, H.A.; Katz, J.

    1987-01-01

    In freshly isolated hepatocytes, the time course and substrate concentration dependences of glucose synthesis from D-glycerate are similar to those from L-glycerate even though the cellular content of D-glycerate was markedly less when L-glycerate was the substrate. Glucose synthesis from the isomers were differentially affected by various metabolic inhibitors. These differences cannot be fully explained by the relatively more sensitive nature of gluconeogenesis from L-glycerate to cytosolic NADH/NAD ratio. The results indicate that only a portion of the glucose formed from D- and L-glycerate involves the well-known pathway comprising lactate dehydrogenase, D-glycerate dehydrogenase and D-glycerate kinase for generation of 2-phospho-D-glycerate from D- and L-glycerate. Studies employing 14 C formaldehyde indicate an additional pathway involving transketolase for gluconeogenesis from these substrates

  15. Hepatic transcriptional changes in critical genes for gluconeogenesis following castration of bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassah, Dilla Mareistia; Jeong, Jin Young

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study was performed to understand transcriptional changes in the genes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways following castration of bulls. Methods Twenty Korean bulls were weaned at average 3 months of age, and castrated at 6 months. Liver tissues were collected from bulls (n = 10) and steers (n = 10) of Korean cattle, and hepatic gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We examined hepatic transcription levels of genes encoding enzymes for irreversible reactions in both gluconeogenesis and glycolysis as well as genes encoding enzymes for the utilization of several glucogenic substrates. Correlations between hepatic gene expression and carcass characteristics were performed to understand their associations. Results Castration increased the mRNA (3.6 fold; pgluconeogenesis reactions from pyruvate to glucose and enzymes responsible for incorporation of glucogenic substrates including lactate, glycerol, and propionate. Hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression levels were associated with intramuscular fat deposition. PMID:29502393

  16. HIF-1{alpha} is necessary to support gluconeogenesis during liver regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Toshihide [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Goda, Nobuhito, E-mail: goda@waseda.jp [Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, TWIns 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Fujiki, Natsuko; Hishiki, Takako; Nishiyama, Yasumasa [Department of Biochemistry and Integrative Medical Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Senoo-Matsuda, Nanami [Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, TWIns 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Shimazu, Motohide [Department of Surgery, Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, 1163 Tatemachi, Hachioji, Tokyo 193-0998 (Japan); Soga, Tomoyoshi [The Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Tsuruoka City, Yamagata 997-0052 (Japan); Yoshimura, Yasunori [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Johnson, Randall S. [Molecular Biology Section, Division of Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Suematsu, Makoto [Department of Biochemistry and Integrative Medical Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2009-10-02

    Coordinated recovery of hepatic glucose metabolism is prerequisite for normal liver regeneration. To examine roles of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) for hepatic glucose homeostasis during the reparative process, we inactivated the gene in hepatocytes in vivo. Following partial hepatectomy (PH), recovery of residual liver weight was initially retarded in the mutant mice by down-regulation of hepatocyte proliferation, but occurred comparably between the mutant and control mice at 72 h after PH. At this time point, the mutant mice showed lowered blood glucose levels with enhanced accumulation of glycogen in the liver. The mutant mice exhibited impairment of hepatic gluconeogenesis as assessed by alanine tolerance test. This appeared to result from reduced expression of PGK-1 and PEPCK since 3-PG, PEP and malate were accumulated to greater extents in the regenerated liver. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence for roles of HIF-1{alpha} in the regulation of gluconeogenesis under liver regeneration.

  17. HIF-1α is necessary to support gluconeogenesis during liver regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Toshihide; Goda, Nobuhito; Fujiki, Natsuko; Hishiki, Takako; Nishiyama, Yasumasa; Senoo-Matsuda, Nanami; Shimazu, Motohide; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Johnson, Randall S.; Suematsu, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Coordinated recovery of hepatic glucose metabolism is prerequisite for normal liver regeneration. To examine roles of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) for hepatic glucose homeostasis during the reparative process, we inactivated the gene in hepatocytes in vivo. Following partial hepatectomy (PH), recovery of residual liver weight was initially retarded in the mutant mice by down-regulation of hepatocyte proliferation, but occurred comparably between the mutant and control mice at 72 h after PH. At this time point, the mutant mice showed lowered blood glucose levels with enhanced accumulation of glycogen in the liver. The mutant mice exhibited impairment of hepatic gluconeogenesis as assessed by alanine tolerance test. This appeared to result from reduced expression of PGK-1 and PEPCK since 3-PG, PEP and malate were accumulated to greater extents in the regenerated liver. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence for roles of HIF-1α in the regulation of gluconeogenesis under liver regeneration.

  18. Reduced gluconeogenesis in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorski, J.R. (Kansas Univ., Kansas City, KS (USA). Dept. of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics); Weber, L.W.D.; Rozman, K. (Kansas Univ., Kansas City, KS (USA). Dept. of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen (GSF), Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Toxikologie)

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a usually lethal dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 125 {mu}g/kg) was studied on the conversion of {sup 14}C-alanine into {sup 14}C-glucose in male Sprague-Dawley rats by established procedures (determination of plasma alanine and blood glucose by enzymatic assays and isolation of {sup 14}C-alanine and {sup 14}C-glucose from whole blood by column chromatography). TCDD-treated rats converted significantly (p < 0.05) less {sup 14}C-alanine into {sup 14}C-glucose than did their pair-fed or ad libitum-fed counterparts, indicating reduced gluconeogenesis as a result of TCDD treatment. This finding suggests that reduced gluconeogenesis in TCDD-treated rats contributed to the progressively developing, severe hypoglycemia observed in these animals. Corticosterone, a key hormone in gluconeogenesis, provides partial protection from TCDD-induced toxicity in hypophysectomized rats. Therefore, the conversion of {sup 14}C-alanine into {sup 14}C-glucose was also determined in hypophysectomized rats dosed with TCDD (125 {mu}g/kg) and given corticosterone (25 {mu}g/ml in drinking water). These rats also converted significantly (p < 0.05) less {sup 14}C-alanine into {sup 14}C-glucose than did their pair-fed counterparts. However, in contrast to non-hypophysectomized TCDD-treated rats, these rats maintained marginal normoglycemia even at 64 days after dosing with TCDD, which suggests that the partial protective effect of corticosterone in hypophysectomized, TCDD-treated rats is unrelated to its efffect on gluconeogenesis. The protection provided by corticosterone supplementation in TCDD toxicity is more likely due to reduced peripheral utilization of glucose enabling the animals to maintain marginal normoglycemia. (orig.).

  19. SCP4 Promotes Gluconeogenesis Through FoxO1/3a Dephosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Zhengmao; Chen, Xi; Hu, Zhaoyong; Tong, Qiang; Chang, Jiang; Feng, Xin-Hua; Lin, Xia

    2018-01-01

    FoxO1 and FoxO3a (collectively FoxO1/3a) proteins regulate a wide array of cellular processes, including hepatic gluconeogenesis. Phosphorylation of FoxO1/3a is a key event that determines its subcellular location and transcriptional activity. During glucose synthesis, the activity of FoxO1/3a is negatively regulated by Akt-mediated phosphorylation, which leads to the cytoplasmic retention of FoxO1/3a. However, the nuclear phosphatase that directly regulates FoxO1/3a remains to be identified. In this study, we discovered a nuclear phosphatase, SCP4/CTDSPL2 (SCP4), that dephosphorylated FoxO1/3a and promoted FoxO1/3a transcription activity. We found that SCP4 enhanced the transcription of FoxO1/3a target genes encoding PEPCK1 and G6PC, key enzymes in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Ectopic expression of SCP4 increased, while knockdown of SCP4 inhibited, glucose production. Moreover, we demonstrated that gene ablation of SCP4 led to hypoglycemia in neonatal mice. Consistent with the positive role of SCP4 in gluconeogenesis, expression of SCP4 was regulated under pathophysiological conditions. SCP4 expression was induced by glucose deprivation in vitro and in vivo and was elevated in obese mice caused by genetic (A vy ) and dietary (high-fat) changes. Thus, our findings provided experimental evidence that SCP4 regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis and could serve as a potential target for the prevention and treatment of diet-induced glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. Deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) protein regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nin, Veronica; Chini, Claudia C S; Escande, Carlos; Capellini, Verena; Chini, Eduardo N

    2014-02-28

    Liver gluconeogenesis is essential to provide energy to glycolytic tissues during fasting periods. However, aberrant up-regulation of this metabolic pathway contributes to the progression of glucose intolerance in individuals with diabetes. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression plays a critical role in the modulation of gluconeogenesis. Several pathways contribute to the regulation of PEPCK, including the nuclear receptor Rev-erbα and the histone deacetylase SIRT1. Deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1) is a nuclear protein that binds to and regulates both Rev-erbα and SIRT1 and, therefore, is a candidate to participate in the regulation of PEPCK. In this work, we provide evidence that DBC1 regulates glucose metabolism and the expression of PEPCK. We show that DBC1 levels decrease early in the fasting state. Also, DBC1 KO mice display higher gluconeogenesis in a normal and a high-fat diet. DBC1 absence leads to an increase in PEPCK mRNA and protein expression. Conversely, overexpression of DBC1 results in a decrease in PEPCK mRNA and protein levels. DBC1 regulates the levels of Rev-erbα, and manipulation of Rev-erbα activity or levels prevents the effect of DBC1 on PEPCK. In addition, Rev-erbα levels decrease in the first hours of fasting. Finally, knockdown of the deacetylase SIRT1 eliminates the effect of DBC1 knockdown on Rev-erbα levels and PEPCK expression, suggesting that the mechanism of PEPCK regulation is, at least in part, dependent on the activity of this enzyme. Our results point to DBC1 as a novel regulator of gluconeogenesis.

  1. The nutritional status of Methanosarcina acetivorans regulates glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis and glycolysis fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Martínez, Michel Geovanni; Encalada, Rusely; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Reyes-García, Marco Antonio; Saavedra, Emma; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    Gluconeogenesis is an essential pathway in methanogens because they are unable to use exogenous hexoses as carbon source for cell growth. With the aim of understanding the regulatory mechanisms of central carbon metabolism in Methanosarcina acetivorans, the present study investigated gene expression, the activities and metabolic regulation of key enzymes, metabolite contents and fluxes of gluconeogenesis, as well as glycolysis and glycogen synthesis/degradation pathways. Cells were grown with methanol as a carbon source. Key enzymes were kinetically characterized at physiological pH/temperature. Active consumption of methanol during exponential cell growth correlated with significant methanogenesis, gluconeogenic flux and steady glycogen synthesis. After methanol exhaustion, cells reached the stationary growth phase, which correlated with the rise in glycogen consumption and glycolytic flux, decreased methanogenesis, negligible acetate production and an absence of gluconeogenesis. Elevated activities of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthetase complex and pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase suggested the generation of acetyl-CoA and pyruvate for glycogen synthesis. In the early stationary growth phase, the transcript contents and activities of pyruvate phosphate dikinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and glycogen synthase decreased, whereas those of glycogen phosphorylase, ADP-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase increased. Therefore, glycogen and gluconeogenic metabolites were synthesized when an external carbon source was provided. Once such a carbon source became depleted, glycolysis and methanogenesis fed by glycogen degradation provided the ATP supply. Weak inhibition of key enzymes by metabolites suggested that the pathways evaluated were mainly transcriptionally regulated. Because glycogen metabolism and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis are not present in all methanogens, the overall data suggest that glycogen storage might represent an environmental

  2. Effect of excess iron on oxidative stress and gluconeogenesis through hepcidin during mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Choi, Joo Sun; Lee, Hye Ja; Kim, Won-Ho; Park, Sang Ick; Song, Jihyun

    2015-12-01

    Excessive tissue iron levels are a risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which are associated with alterations in iron metabolism. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This study used human liver SK-HEP-1 cells to examine how excess iron induces mitochondrial dysfunction and how hepcidin controls gluconeogenesis. Excess levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accumulated iron due to iron overload induced mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to a decrease in cellular adenosine triphosphate content and cytochrome c oxidase III expression, with an associated increase in gluconeogenesis. Disturbances in mitochondrial function caused excess iron deposition and unbalanced expression of iron metabolism-related proteins such as hepcidin, ferritin H and ferroportin during the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), which are responsible for increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression. Desferoxamine and n-acetylcysteine ameliorated these deteriorations by inhibiting p38 MAPK and C/EBPα activity through iron chelation and ROS scavenging activity. Based on experiments using hepcidin shRNA and hepcidin overexpression, the activation of hepcidin affects ROS generation and iron deposition, which disturbs mitochondrial function and causes an imbalance in iron metabolism and increased gluconeogenesis. Repression of hepcidin activity can reverse these changes. Our results demonstrate that iron overload is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and that together they can cause abnormal hepatic gluconeogenesis. Hepcidin expression may modulate this disorder by regulating ROS generation and iron deposition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SCP4 Promotes gluconeogenesis through Fox01/3a dephosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    FoxO1 and FoxO3a (collectively FoxO1/3a) proteins regulate a wide array of cellular processes, including hepatic gluconeogenesis. Phosphorylation of FoxO1/3a is a key event that determines its subcellular location and transcriptional activity. During glucose synthesis, the activity of FoxO1/3a is ne...

  4. PEPCK-M expression in mouse liver potentiates, not replaces, PEPCK-C mediated gluconeogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Lucas, Andrés; Duarte, João; Sunny, Nishanth E.; Satapati, Santhosh; He, TianTeng; Fu, Xiaorong; Bermúdez, Jordi; Burgess, Shawn C.; Perales, Jose C.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatic gluconeogenesis helps maintain systemic energy homeostasis by compensating for discontinuities in nutrient supply. Liver specific deletion of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) abolishes gluconeogenesis from mitochondrial substrates, deregulates lipid metabolism and affects TCA cycle. While, mouse liver almost exclusively expresses PEPCK-C, humans equally present a mitochondrial isozyme (PEPCK-M). Despite clear relevance to human physiology, the role of PEPCK-M and its gluconeogenic potential remain unknown. Here, we test the significance of PEPCK-M in gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle function in liver-specific PEPCK-C knockout and WT mice. Methods The effects of the overexpression of PEPCK-M were examined by a combination of tracer studies and molecular biology techniques. Partial PEPCK-C re-expression was used as a positive control. Metabolic fluxes were evaluated in isolated livers by NMR using 2H and 13C tracers. Gluconeogenic potential, together with metabolic profiling, were investigated in vivo and in primary hepatocytes. Results PEPCK-M expression partially rescued defects in lipid metabolism, gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle function impaired by PEPCK-C deletion, while ~10% re-expression of PEPCK-C normalized most parameters. When PEPCK-M was expressed in the presence of PEPCK-C, the mitochondrial isozyme amplified total gluconeogenic capacity, suggesting autonomous regulation of oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate fluxes by the individual isoforms. Conclusions We conclude that PEPCK-M has gluconeogenic potential per se, and cooperates with PEPCK-C to adjust gluconeogenic/TCA flux to changes in substrate or energy availability, hinting at a role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in human liver. PMID:23466304

  5. Measurement of gluconeogenesis by deuterated water: the effect of equilibration time and fasting period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allick, Gideon; van der Crabben, Saskia N.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Endert, Erik; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2006-01-01

    Fasting gluconeogenesis (GNG) is often quantified using the 2H2O technique, which is based on plasma 2H2O enrichment and ensuing enrichment of plasma glucose at the C5 and C2 positions. Fractional (fr)GNG can be calculated using the ratio of C5 to C2 enrichment or the ratio of C5 to plasma 2H2O

  6. Hepatic NPC1L1 overexpression ameliorates glucose metabolism in diabetic mice via suppression of gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurano, Makoto; Hara, Masumi; Satoh, Hiroaki; Tsukamoto, Kazuhisa

    2015-05-01

    Inhibition of intestinal NPC1L1 by ezetimibe has been demonstrated to improve glucose metabolism in rodent models; however, the role of hepatic NPC1L1 in glucose metabolism has not been elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the effects of hepatic NPC1L1 on glucose metabolism. We overexpressed NPC1L1 in the livers of lean wild type mice, diet-induced obesity mice and db/db mice with adenoviral gene transfer. We found that in all three mouse models, hepatic NPC1L1 overexpression lowered fasting blood glucose levels as well as blood glucose levels on ad libitum; in db/db mice, hepatic NPC1L1 overexpression improved blood glucose levels to almost the same as those found in lean wild type mice. A pyruvate tolerance test revealed that gluconeogenesis was suppressed by hepatic NPC1L1 overexpression. Further analyses revealed that hepatic NPC1L1 overexpression decreased the expression of FoxO1, resulting in the reduced expression of G6Pase and PEPCK, key enzymes in gluconeogenesis. These results indicate that hepatic NPC1L1 might have distinct properties of suppressing gluconeogenesis via inhibition of FoxO1 pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. IDH1 deficiency attenuates gluconeogenesis in mouse liver by impairing amino acid utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Gu, Yu; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Yuanlin; Yuan, Yuan; Hao, Zhenyue; Sheng, Yi; Li, Wanda Y; Wakeham, Andrew; Cairns, Rob A; Mak, Tak W

    2017-01-10

    Although the enzymatic activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) was defined decades ago, its functions in vivo are not yet fully understood. Cytosolic IDH1 converts isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), a key metabolite regulating nitrogen homeostasis in catabolic pathways. It was thought that IDH1 might enhance lipid biosynthesis in liver or adipose tissue by generating NADPH, but we show here that lipid contents are relatively unchanged in both IDH1-null mouse liver and IDH1-deficient HepG2 cells generated using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Instead, we found that IDH1 is critical for liver amino acid (AA) utilization. Body weights of IDH1-null mice fed a high-protein diet (HPD) were abnormally low. After prolonged fasting, IDH1-null mice exhibited decreased blood glucose but elevated blood alanine and glycine compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Similarly, in IDH1-deficient HepG2 cells, glucose consumption was increased, but alanine utilization and levels of intracellular α-KG and glutamate were reduced. In IDH1-deficient primary hepatocytes, gluconeogenesis as well as production of ammonia and urea were decreased. In IDH1-deficient whole livers, expression levels of genes involved in AA metabolism were reduced, whereas those involved in gluconeogenesis were up-regulated. Thus, IDH1 is critical for AA utilization in vivo and its deficiency attenuates gluconeogenesis primarily by impairing α-KG-dependent transamination of glucogenic AAs such as alanine.

  8. Arsenic induces diabetic effects through beta-cell dysfunction and increased gluconeogenesis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Guo, Xuechao; Wu, Bing; Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Xuxiang; Li, Mei

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic as a potential risk factor for type 2 diabetes has been received attention recently. However, the roles of arsenic on development of diabetes are unclear. In this study, we compared the influences of inorganic arsenic (iAs) on normal and diabetic mice by systems toxicology approaches. Although iAs exposure did not change glucose tolerance in normal mice, it caused the pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and increased gluconeogenesis and oxidative damages in liver. However, iAs exposure worsened the glucose tolerance in diabetic mice, which might be due to increased gluconeogenesis and impairment of pancreatic β-cell function. It is interesting that iAs exposure could improve the insulin sensitivity based on the insulin tolerance testing by the activation of glucose uptake-related genes and enzymes in normal and diabetic individuals. Our data suggested that iAs exposure could cause pre-diabetic effects by altering the lipid metabolism, gluconeogenesis and insulin secretion in normal individual, and worsen diabetic effects in diabetes individual by these processes. Insulin resistance might be not the reason of diabetic effects caused by iAs, indicating that mechanism of the diabetogenic effects of iAs exposure is different from the mechanism associated with traditional risk factors (such as obesity)-reduced type 2 diabetes.

  9. n-Octyl gallate as inhibitor of pyruvate carboxylation and lactate gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Santos, Israel Souza; de Moraes, Amarilis Giaretta; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar

    2015-04-01

    The alkyl gallates are found in several natural and industrial products. In the latter products, these compounds are added mainly for preventing oxidation. In the present work, the potencies of methyl gallate, n-propyl gallate, n-pentyl gallate, and n-octyl gallate as inhibitors of pyruvate carboxylation and lactate gluconeogenesis were evaluated. Experiments were done with isolated mitochondria and the isolated perfused rat liver. The potency of the gallic acid esters as inhibitors of pyruvate carboxylation in isolated mitochondria obeyed the following decreasing sequence: n-octyl gallate > n-pentyl gallate > n-propyl gallate > methyl gallate. A similar sequence of decreasing potency for lactate gluconeogenesis inhibition in the perfused liver was found in terms of the portal venous concentration. Both actions correlate with the lipophilicity of the compounds. The effects are harmful at high concentrations. At appropriate concentrations, however, octyl gallate should act therapeutically because its inhibitory action on gluconeogenesis will contribute further to its proposed antihyperglycemic effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dapper1 attenuates hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis by activating PI3K/Akt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jian-Ren; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Leng, Wei-Ling; Lei, Xiao-Tian; Liang, Zi-Wen

    2017-05-15

    Studies have shown that hepatic insulin resistance, a disorder of glucose and lipid metabolism, plays a vital role in type 2 diabetes (T2D). To clarify the function of Dapper1 in glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver, we investigated the relationships between Dapper1 and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)- and Ca 2+ -mediated activation of PI3K/Akt. We observed a reduction in hepatic Dapper1 in db/db (mice that are homozygous for a spontaneous diabetes mutation) and HFD-induced diabetic mice with T2D. Hepatic overexpression of Dapper1 improved hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and fatty liver. It also increased Akt (pAkt) signaling and repressed both gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. Conversely, Ad-shDapper1-induced knockdown of hepatic Dapper1 promoted gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. Furthermore, Dapper1 activated PI3K p110α/Akt in an insulin-independent manner by inducing ATP production and secretion in vitro. Blockade of P2 ATP receptors, the downstream phospholipase C (PLC), or the inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R all reduced the Dapper1-induced increase in cytosolic free calcium and Dapper1-mediated PI3K/Akt activation, as did removal of calcium in the medium. In conclusion, Dapper1 attenuates hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis in T2D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. DDB1-Mediated CRY1 Degradation Promotes FOXO1-Driven Gluconeogenesis in Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Deqiang; Charney, Nicholas; Jin, Ethan; VanDommelen, Kyle; Stamper, Kenneth; Gupta, Neil; Saldate, Johnny; Yin, Lei

    2017-10-01

    Targeted protein degradation through ubiquitination is an important step in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Here, we present evidence that the DDB1-CUL4A ubiquitin E3 ligase functions as a novel metabolic regulator that promotes FOXO1-driven hepatic gluconeogenesis. In vivo, hepatocyte-specific Ddb1 deletion leads to impaired hepatic gluconeogenesis in the mouse liver but protects mice from high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia. Lack of Ddb1 downregulates FOXO1 protein expression and impairs FOXO1-driven gluconeogenic response. Mechanistically, we discovered that DDB1 enhances FOXO1 protein stability via degrading the circadian protein cryptochrome 1 (CRY1), a known target of DDB1 E3 ligase. In the Cry1 depletion condition, insulin fails to reduce the nuclear FOXO1 abundance and suppress gluconeogenic gene expression. Chronic depletion of Cry1 in the mouse liver not only increases FOXO1 protein but also enhances hepatic gluconeogenesis. Thus, we have identified the DDB1-mediated CRY1 degradation as an important target of insulin action on glucose homeostasis. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. The oncoprotein HBXIP suppresses gluconeogenesis through modulating PCK1 to enhance the growth of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Fang, Runping; Li, Yinghui; Li, Leilei; Zhang, Weiying; Wang, Huawei; Chen, Fuquan; Zhang, Shuqin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2016-11-28

    Hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) as an oncoprotein plays crucial roles in the development of cancer, involving glucose metabolism reprogramming. In this study, we are interested in whether the oncoprotein HBXIP is involved in the modulation of gluconeogenesis in liver cancer. Here, we showed that the expression level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, was lower in clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues than that in normal tissues. Mechanistically, HBXIP inhibited the expression of PCK1 through down-regulating transcription factor FOXO1 in hepatoma cells, and up-regulated miR-135a targeting the 3'UTR of FOXO1 mRNA in the cells. In addition, HBXIP increased the phosphorylation levels of FOXO1 protein by activating PI3K/Akt pathway, leading to the export of FOXO1 from nucleus to cytoplasm. Strikingly, over-expression of PCK1 could abolish the HBXIP-promoted growth of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we conclude that the oncoprotein HBXIP is able to depress the gluconeogenesis through suppressing PCK1 to promote hepatocarcinogenesis, involving miR-135a/FOXO1 axis and PI3K/Akt/p-FOXO1 pathway. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which oncoprotein HBXIP modulates glucose metabolism reprogramming in HCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Role for Mitochondrial Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK-M) in the Regulation of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Romana; Guebre-Egziabher, Fitsum; Zhao, Xiaojian; Feriod, Colleen; Dong, Jianying; Alves, Tiago C.; Ioja, Simona; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Bhanot, Sanjay; Roden, Michael; Cline, Gary W.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Kibbey, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) from oxaloacetate is an absolute requirement for gluconeogenesis from mitochondrial substrates. Generally, this reaction has solely been attributed to the cytosolic isoform of PEPCK (PEPCK-C), although loss of the mitochondrial isoform (PEPCK-M) has never been assessed. Despite catalyzing the same reaction, to date the only significant role reported in mammals for the mitochondrial isoform is as a glucose sensor necessary for insulin secretion. We hypothesized that this nutrient-sensing mitochondrial GTP-dependent pathway contributes importantly to gluconeogenesis. PEPCK-M was acutely silenced in gluconeogenic tissues of rats using antisense oligonucleotides both in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes. Silencing PEPCK-M lowers plasma glucose, insulin, and triglycerides, reduces white adipose, and depletes hepatic glycogen, but raises lactate. There is a switch of gluconeogenic substrate preference to glycerol that quantitatively accounts for a third of glucose production. In contrast to the severe mitochondrial deficiency characteristic of PEPCK-C knock-out livers, hepatocytes from PEPCK-M-deficient livers maintained normal oxidative function. Consistent with its predicted role, gluconeogenesis rates from hepatocytes lacking PEPCK-M are severely reduced for lactate, alanine, and glutamine, but not for pyruvate and glycerol. Thus, PEPCK-M has a direct role in fasted and fed glucose homeostasis, and this mitochondrial GTP-dependent pathway should be reconsidered for its involvement in both normal and diabetic metabolism. PMID:24497630

  14. A role for mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-M) in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Romana; Guebre-Egziabher, Fitsum; Zhao, Xiaojian; Feriod, Colleen; Dong, Jianying; Alves, Tiago C; Ioja, Simona; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Bhanot, Sanjay; Roden, Michael; Cline, Gary W; Shulman, Gerald I; Kibbey, Richard G

    2014-03-14

    Synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) from oxaloacetate is an absolute requirement for gluconeogenesis from mitochondrial substrates. Generally, this reaction has solely been attributed to the cytosolic isoform of PEPCK (PEPCK-C), although loss of the mitochondrial isoform (PEPCK-M) has never been assessed. Despite catalyzing the same reaction, to date the only significant role reported in mammals for the mitochondrial isoform is as a glucose sensor necessary for insulin secretion. We hypothesized that this nutrient-sensing mitochondrial GTP-dependent pathway contributes importantly to gluconeogenesis. PEPCK-M was acutely silenced in gluconeogenic tissues of rats using antisense oligonucleotides both in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes. Silencing PEPCK-M lowers plasma glucose, insulin, and triglycerides, reduces white adipose, and depletes hepatic glycogen, but raises lactate. There is a switch of gluconeogenic substrate preference to glycerol that quantitatively accounts for a third of glucose production. In contrast to the severe mitochondrial deficiency characteristic of PEPCK-C knock-out livers, hepatocytes from PEPCK-M-deficient livers maintained normal oxidative function. Consistent with its predicted role, gluconeogenesis rates from hepatocytes lacking PEPCK-M are severely reduced for lactate, alanine, and glutamine, but not for pyruvate and glycerol. Thus, PEPCK-M has a direct role in fasted and fed glucose homeostasis, and this mitochondrial GTP-dependent pathway should be reconsidered for its involvement in both normal and diabetic metabolism.

  15. Activation of Basal Gluconeogenesis by Coactivator p300 Maintains Hepatic Glycogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jia; Meng, Shumei; Ma, Anlin; Radovick, Sally; Wondisford, Fredric E.

    2013-01-01

    Because hepatic glycogenolysis maintains euglycemia during early fasting, proper hepatic glycogen synthesis in the fed/postprandial states is critical. It has been known for decades that gluconeogenesis is essential for hepatic glycogen synthesis; however, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this report, we show that depletion of hepatic p300 reduces glycogen synthesis, decreases hepatic glycogen storage, and leads to relative hypoglycemia. We previously reported that insulin suppressed gluconeogenesis by phosphorylating cAMP response element binding protein-binding protein (CBP) at S436 and disassembling the cAMP response element-binding protein-CBP complex. However, p300, which is closely related to CBP, lacks the corresponding S436 phosphorylation site found on CBP. In a phosphorylation-competent p300G422S knock-in mouse model, we found that mutant mice exhibited reduced hepatic glycogen content and produced significantly less glycogen in a tracer incorporation assay in the postprandial state. Our study demonstrates the important and unique role of p300 in glycogen synthesis through maintaining basal gluconeogenesis. PMID:23770612

  16. Dual Regulation of Gluconeogenesis by Insulin and Glucose in the Proximal Tubules of the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Motohiro; Sasako, Takayoshi; Kubota, Naoto; Sakurai, Yoshitaka; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Tetsuya; Inagi, Reiko; Seki, George; Goto, Moritaka; Ueki, Kohjiro; Nangaku, Masaomi; Jomori, Takahito; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    Growing attention has been focused on the roles of the proximal tubules (PTs) of the kidney in glucose metabolism, including the mechanism of regulation of gluconeogenesis. In this study, we found that PT-specific insulin receptor substrate 1/2 double-knockout mice, established by using the newly generated sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2)-Cre transgenic mice, exhibited impaired insulin signaling and upregulated gluconeogenic gene expression and renal gluconeogenesis, resulting in systemic insulin resistance. In contrast, in streptozotocin-treated mice, although insulin action was impaired in the PTs, the gluconeogenic gene expression was unexpectedly downregulated in the renal cortex, which was restored by administration of an SGLT1/2 inhibitor. In the HK-2 cells, the gluconeogenic gene expression was suppressed by insulin, accompanied by phosphorylation and inactivation of forkhead box transcription factor 1 (FoxO1). In contrast, glucose deacetylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC1α), a coactivator of FoxO1, via sirtuin 1, suppressing the gluconeogenic gene expression, which was reversed by inhibition of glucose reabsorption. These data suggest that both insulin signaling and glucose reabsorption suppress the gluconeogenic gene expression by inactivation of FoxO1 and PGC1α, respectively, providing insight into novel mechanisms underlying the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the PTs. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. Arsenic induces diabetic effects through beta-cell dysfunction and increased gluconeogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Guo, Xuechao; Wu, Bing; Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Xuxiang; Li, Mei

    2014-11-04

    Arsenic as a potential risk factor for type 2 diabetes has been received attention recently. However, the roles of arsenic on development of diabetes are unclear. In this study, we compared the influences of inorganic arsenic (iAs) on normal and diabetic mice by systems toxicology approaches. Although iAs exposure did not change glucose tolerance in normal mice, it caused the pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and increased gluconeogenesis and oxidative damages in liver. However, iAs exposure worsened the glucose tolerance in diabetic mice, which might be due to increased gluconeogenesis and impairment of pancreatic β-cell function. It is interesting that iAs exposure could improve the insulin sensitivity based on the insulin tolerance testing by the activation of glucose uptake-related genes and enzymes in normal and diabetic individuals. Our data suggested that iAs exposure could cause pre-diabetic effects by altering the lipid metabolism, gluconeogenesis and insulin secretion in normal individual, and worsen diabetic effects in diabetes individual by these processes. Insulin resistance might be not the reason of diabetic effects caused by iAs, indicating that mechanism of the diabetogenic effects of iAs exposure is different from the mechanism associated with traditional risk factors (such as obesity)-reduced type 2 diabetes.

  18. Hepatic transcriptional changes in critical genes for gluconeogenesis following castration of bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassah, Dilla Mareistia; Jeong, Jin Young; Baik, Myunggi

    2018-04-01

    This study was performed to understand transcriptional changes in the genes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways following castration of bulls. Twenty Korean bulls were weaned at average 3 months of age, and castrated at 6 months. Liver tissues were collected from bulls (n = 10) and steers (n = 10) of Korean cattle, and hepatic gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We examined hepatic transcription levels of genes encoding enzymes for irreversible reactions in both gluconeogenesis and glycolysis as well as genes encoding enzymes for the utilization of several glucogenic substrates. Correlations between hepatic gene expression and carcass characteristics were performed to understand their associations. Castration increased the mRNA (3.6 fold; pcastration. Castration increased mRNA levels of both lactate dehydrogenase A (1.5 fold; pCastration increased mRNA levels of glycerol kinase (2.7 fold; pCastration also increased mRNA levels of propionyl-CoA carboxylase beta (mitochondrial) (3.5 fold; pCastration increases transcription levels of critical genes coding for enzymes involved in irreversible gluconeogenesis reactions from pyruvate to glucose and enzymes responsible for incorporation of glucogenic substrates including lactate, glycerol, and propionate. Hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression levels were associated with intramuscular fat deposition.

  19. CAR Suppresses Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Facilitating the Ubiquitination and Degradation of PGC1α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Yan, Jiong; Xu, Meishu; Ren, Songrong

    2015-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC1α) are master regulators of drug metabolism and gluconeogenesis, respectively. In supporting the cross talk between drug metabolism and energy metabolism, activation of CAR has been shown to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis and ameliorate hyperglycemia in vivo, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that CAR suppressed hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression through posttranslational regulation of the subcellular localization and degradation of PGC1α. Activated CAR translocated into the nucleus and served as an adaptor protein to recruit PGC1α to the Cullin1 E3 ligase complex for ubiquitination. The interaction between CAR and PGC1α also led to their sequestration within the promyelocytic leukemia protein-nuclear bodies, where PGC1α and CAR subsequently underwent proteasomal degradation. Taken together, our findings revealed an unexpected function of CAR in recruiting an E3 ligase and targeting the gluconeogenic activity of PGC1α. Both drug metabolism and gluconeogenesis are energy-demanding processes. The negative regulation of PGC1α by CAR may represent a cellular adaptive mechanism to accommodate energy-restricted conditions. PMID:26407237

  20. Modulation of gluconeogenesis and lipid production in an engineered oleaginous Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisaka, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazuyoshi; Uemura, Hiroshi; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    We previously created an oleaginous Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformant as a dga1 mutant overexpressing Dga1p lacking 29 amino acids at the N-terminal (Dga1∆Np). Because we have already shown that dga1 disruption decreases the expression of ESA1, which encodes histone acetyltransferase, the present study was aimed at exploring how Esa1p was involved in lipid accumulation. We based our work on the previous observation that Esa1p acetylates and activates phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) encoded by PCK1, a rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis, and subsequently evaluated the activation of Pck1p by yeast growth with non-fermentable carbon sources, thus dependent on gluconeogenesis. This assay revealed that the ∆dga1 mutant overexpressing Dga1∆Np had much lower growth in a glycerol-lactate (GL) medium than the wild-type strain overexpressing Dga1∆Np. Moreover, overexpression of Esa1p or Pck1p in mutants improved the growth, indicating that the ∆dga1 mutant overexpressing Dga1∆Np had lower activities of Pck1p and gluconeogenesis due to lower expression of ESA1. In vitro PEPCK assay showed the same trend in the culture of the ∆dga1 mutant overexpressing Dga1∆Np with 10 % glucose medium, indicating that Pck1p-mediated gluconeogenesis decreased in this oleaginous transformant under the lipid-accumulating conditions introduced by the glucose medium. The growth of the ∆dga1 mutant overexpressing Dga1∆Np in the GL medium was also improved by overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase, Acs1p or Acs2p, indicating that supply of acetyl-CoA was crucial for Pck1p acetylation by Esa1p. In addition, the ∆dga1 mutant without Dga1∆Np also showed better growth in the GL medium, indicating that decreased lipid accumulation was enhancing Pck1p-mediated gluconeogenesis. Finally, we found that overexpression of Ole1p, a fatty acid ∆9-desaturase, in the ∆dga1 mutant overexpressing Dga1∆Np improved its growth in the GL medium. Although the exact

  1. The FBPase Encoding Gene glpX Is Required for Gluconeogenesis, Bacterial Proliferation and Division In Vivo of Mycobacterium marinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jingfeng; Meng, Lu; Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Lixia; Lyu, Liangdong; Wang, Chuan; Li, Yang; Gao, Qian; Yang, Chen; Niu, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Lipids have been identified as important carbon sources for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to utilize in vivo. Thus gluconeogenesis bears a key role for Mtb to survive and replicate in host. A rate-limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis, fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is encoded by the gene glpX. The functions of glpX were studied in M. marinum, a closely related species to Mtb. The glpX deletion strain (ΔglpX) displayed altered gluconeogenesis, attenuated virulence, and altered bacterial proliferation. Metabolic profiles indicate an accumulation of the FBPase substrate, fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate (FBP) and altered gluconeogenic flux when ΔglpX is cultivated in a gluconeogenic carbon substrate, acetate. In both macrophages and zebrafish, the proliferation of ΔglpX was halted, resulting in dramatically attenuated virulence. Intracellular ΔglpX exhibited an elongated morphology, which was also observed when ΔglpX was grown in a gluconeogenic carbon source. This elongated morphology is also supported by the observation of unseparated multi-nucleoid cell, indicating that a complete mycobacterial division in vivo is correlated with intact gluconeogenesis. Together, our results indicate that glpX has essential functions in gluconeogenesis, and plays an indispensable role in bacterial proliferation in vivo and virulence of M. marinum.

  2. Effect of the Combination of Ezetimibe and Simvastatin on Gluconeogenesis and Oxygen Consumption in the Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracht, Lívia; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bracht, Adelar; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with the combination of ezetimibe and simvastatin on gluconeogenesis in rat liver. Rats were treated daily for 28 days with the combination of ezetimibe and simvastatin (10/40 mg/kg) by oral gavage. To measure gluconeogenesis and the associated pathways, isolated perfused rat liver was used. In addition, subcellular fractions, such as microsomes and mitochondria, were used for complementary measures of enzymatic activities. Treatment with the combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe resulted in a decrease in gluconeogenesis from pyruvate (-62%). Basal oxygen consumption of the treated animals was higher (+22%) than that of the control rats, but the resulting oxygen consumption that occurred after pyruvate infusion was 43% lower in animals treated with the combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe. Oxygen consumption in the livers from treated animals was completely inhibited by cyanide (electron transport chain inhibitor), but not by proadifen (cytochrome P450 inhibitor). Chronic treatment with ezetimibe/simvastatin decreased the activity of the key enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase by 59% and 45%, respectively, which is probably the major reason for the decreased gluconeogenesis seen in ezetimibe-/simvastatin-treated rats. It is also possible that part of the effect of this combination on gluconeogenesis and on the oxygen consumption is related to the impairment of mitochondrial energy transduction. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  3. Extracellular visfatin activates gluconeogenesis in HepG2 cells through the classical PKA/CREB-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y J; Choi, S-E; Ha, E S; Kang, Y; Han, S J; Kim, D J; Lee, K W; Kim, H J

    2014-04-01

    Adipokines reportedly affect hepatic gluconeogenesis, and the adipokine visfatin is known to be related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, whether visfatin contributes to hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unclear. Visfatin, also known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), modulates sirtuin1 (SIRT1) through the regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Therefore, we investigated the effect of extracellular visfatin on glucose production in HepG2 cells, and evaluated whether extracellular visfatin affects hepatic gluconeogenesis via an NAD+-SIRT1-dependent pathway. Treatment with visfatin significantly increased glucose production and the mRNA expression and protein levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in HepG2 cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Knockdown of SIRT1 had no remarkable effect on the induction of gluconeogenesis by visfatin. Subsequently, we evaluated if extracellular visfatin stimulates the production of gluconeogenic enzymes through the classical protein kinase A (PKA)/cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB)-dependent process. The phosphorylation of CREB and PKA increased significantly in HepG2 cells treated with visfatin. Additionally, knockdown of CREB and PKA inhibited visfatin-induced gluconeogenesis in HepG2 cells. In summary, extracellular visfatin modulates glucose production in HepG2 cells through the PKA/CREB pathway, rather than via SIRT1 signaling. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Importance of intrahepatic mechanisms to gluconeogenesis from alanine during exercise and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, D.H.; Williams, P.E.; Lacy, D.B.; Green, D.R.; Cherrington, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    These studies were performed to assess the importance of intrahepatic mechanisms to gluconeogenesis in the dog during 150 min of treadmill exercise and 90 min of recovery. Sampling catheters were implanted in an artery and portal and hepatic veins 16 days before experimentation. Infusions of [U- 14 C]alanine, [3- 3 H]glucose, and indocyanine green were used to assess gluconeogenesis. During exercise, a decline in arterial and portal vein plasma alanine and in hepatic blood flow led to a decrease in hepatic alanine delivery. During recovery, hepatic blood flow was restored to basal, causing an increase in hepatic alanine delivery beyond exercise rates but still below resting rates. Hepatic fractional alanine extraction increased from 0.26 +/- 0.02 at rest to 0.64 +/- 0.03 during exercise and remained elevated during recovery. Net hepatic alanine uptake was 2.5 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1 at rest and remained unchanged during exercise but was increased during recovery. The conversion rate of [ 14 C]alanine to glucose had increased by 248 +/- 38% by 150 min of exercise and had increased further during recovery. The efficiency with which alanine was channeled into glucose in the liver was accelerated to a rate of 338 +/- 55% above basal by 150 min of exercise but declined slightly during recovery. In conclusion, 1) gluconeogenesis from alanine is accelerated during exercise, due to an increase in the hepatic fractional extraction of the amino acid and through intrahepatic mechanisms that more efficiently channel it into glucose

  5. Glucose turnover, gluconeogenesis from glycerol, and estimation of net glucose cycling in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundholm, K.; Edstroem, S.; Karlberg, I.; Ekman, L.; Schersten, T.

    1982-01-01

    A double isotope method was used in patients with progressive malignancy and in control patients to measure: glucose turnover, conversion rate of carbon skeleton of glycerol into glucose, and the interorgan cycling of glucose carbons (Cori-cycle plus alanine-glucose cycle). [U- 14 C]glycerol and [6- 3 H]glucose were given intravenously as a single dose injection. The time course of the specific radioactivities of [6- 3 H] and [U- 14 C]glucose was followed in blood. The pool size and the turnover rate of glucose were increased in the cancer group as compared with the control patients. The net recycling of glucose carbons was not increased in the cancer group, despite the increased turnover of glucose. The alterations in the metabolism of glucose did not correlate with the plasma levels of insulin or thyroid hormones (T4, T3, rT3) neither in the entire cancer group nor in those cancer patients who were repeatedly investigated at different intervals of time. The turnover rate of glucose in the cancer patients correlated inversely to their body weight index. The gluconeogenesis rate, given as the fractional conversion rate of the injected radioactive dose of [ 14 C]glycerol, or as mol glucose . kg body weight-1 . day-1, was increased in the cancer group, but still contributed only 3% of the glucose turnover rate in both cancer and control patients. We conclude that an increased gluconeogenesis from glycerol is not significant in terms of energy expenditure in patients with progressive malignancy, as has previously been concluded for the gluconeogenesis from alanine. It seems that increased turnover of glucose may contribute to inappropriately high energy expenditure in cancer patients

  6. Hepatic transcriptional changes in critical genes for gluconeogenesis following castration of bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilla Mareistia Fassah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was performed to understand transcriptional changes in the genes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis pathways following castration of bulls. Methods Twenty Korean bulls were weaned at average 3 months of age, and castrated at 6 months. Liver tissues were collected from bulls (n = 10 and steers (n = 10 of Korean cattle, and hepatic gene expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We examined hepatic transcription levels of genes encoding enzymes for irreversible reactions in both gluconeogenesis and glycolysis as well as genes encoding enzymes for the utilization of several glucogenic substrates. Correlations between hepatic gene expression and carcass characteristics were performed to understand their associations. Results Castration increased the mRNA (3.6 fold; p<0.01 and protein levels (1.4 fold; p< 0.05 of pyruvate carboxylase and mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase genes (1.7 fold; p<0.05. Hepatic mRNA levels of genes encoding the glycolysis enzymes were not changed by castration. Castration increased mRNA levels of both lactate dehydrogenase A (1.5 fold; p<0.05 and lactate dehydrogenase B (2.2 fold; p<0.01 genes for lactate utilization. Castration increased mRNA levels of glycerol kinase (2.7 fold; p<0.05 and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (1.5 fold; p<0.05 genes for glycerol utilization. Castration also increased mRNA levels of propionyl-CoA carboxylase beta (mitochondrial (3.5 fold; p<0.01 and acyl-CoA synthetase short chain family member 3 (1.3 fold; p = 0.06 genes for propionate incorporation. Conclusion Castration increases transcription levels of critical genes coding for enzymes involved in irreversible gluconeogenesis reactions from pyruvate to glucose and enzymes responsible for incorporation of glucogenic substrates including lactate, glycerol, and propionate. Hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression levels were associated with intramuscular

  7. Statin-activated nuclear receptor PXR promotes SGK2 dephosphorylation by scaffolding PP2C to induce hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Saki; Negishi, Masahiko

    2015-09-22

    Statin therapy is known to increase blood glucose levels in humans. Statins utilize pregnane X receptor (PXR) and serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 2 (SGK2) to activate phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PEPCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) genes, thereby increasing glucose production in human liver cells. Here, the novel statin/PXR/SGK2-mediated signaling pathway has now been characterized for hepatic gluconeogenesis. Statin-activated PXR scaffolds the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) and SGK2 to stimulate PP2C to dephosphorylate SGK2 at threonine 193. Non-phosphorylated SGK2 co-activates PXR-mediated trans-activation of promoters of gluconeogenic genes in human liver cells, thereby enhancing gluconeogenesis. This gluconeogenic statin-PXR-SGK2 signal is not present in mice, in which statin treatment suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis. These findings provide the basis for statin-associated side effects such as an increased risk for Type 2 diabetes.

  8. The Contribution of Intestinal Gluconeogenesis to Glucose Homeostasis Is Low in 2-Day-Old Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherbuy, Claire; Vaugelade, Pierre; Labarthe, Simon; Honvo-Houeto, Edith; Darcy-Vrillon, Béatrice; Watford, Malcolm; Duée, Pierre-Henri

    2017-03-01

    Background: Active gluconeogenesis is essential to maintain blood glucose concentrations in neonatal piglets because of the high glucose requirements after birth. In several adult mammals, the liver, kidney, and possibly the gut may exhibit gluconeogenesis during fasting and insulinopenic conditions. During the postnatal period, the intestine expresses all of the gluconeogenic enzymes, suggesting the potential for gluconeogenesis. Galactose in milk is a potential gluconeogenic precursor for newborns. Objective: Our aim was to quantify the rate of intestinal glucose production from galactose in piglets compared with the overall rate of glucose production. Methods: A single bolus of [U- 14 C]-galactose was injected into 2-d-old piglets (females and males; mean ± SEM weight: 1.64 ± 0.07 kg) through a gastric catheter. Galactosemia, glycemia, and glucose turnover rate (assessed by monitoring d-[6- 3 H]-glucose) were monitored. Intestinal glucose production from [U- 14 C]-galactose was calculated from [U- 14 C]-glucose appearance in the blood and isotopic dilution. Galactose metabolism was also investigated in vitro in enterocytes isolated from 2-d-old piglets that were incubated with increasing concentrations of galactose. Results: In piglet enterocytes, galactose metabolism was active (mean ± SEM maximum rate of reaction: 2.26 ± 0.45 nmol · min -1 · 10 6 cells -1 ) and predominantly oriented toward lactate and pyruvate production (74.0% ± 14.5%) rather than glucose production (26.0% ± 14.5%). In conscious piglets, gastric galactose administration led to an increase in arterial galactosemia (from 0 to 1.0 ± 0.8 mmol/L) and glycemia (35% ± 12%). The initial increase in arterial glycemia after galactose administration was linked to an increase in glucose production rate (33% ± 15%) rather than to a decrease in glucose utilization rate (3% ± 6%). The contribution of intestinal glucose production from galactose was gluconeogenesis in 2-d-old piglets. © 2017

  9. Hypoglycemic effect of DL-aminocarnitine in streptozotocin diabetic mice: inhibition of gluconeogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, D.L.; Griffith, O.W.

    1986-01-01

    DL-Aminocarnitine and palmitoyl-DL-aminocarnitine are potent, non-covalent inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyl transferase. In both diabetic and non-diabetic fasted mice, DL-aminocarnitine (0.3 mmol/kg) and palmitoyl-DL-aminocarnitine (0.1 mmol/kg) decrease the blood concentration of ketone bodies to levels observed in fed control mice. Both carnitine palmitoyltransferase inhibitors also normalize plasma glucose levels in diabetic mice. The hypoglycemic effect is maximal at 8 hours, the continues for at least 12 hours. In the present studies the authors have used [ 14 C]alanine, a pyruvate precursor, to prove the effect of aminocarnitine on gluconeogenesis. Diabetic mice given L-[U- 14 C]alanine (1 mmol/kg) by intraperitoneal injection convert 10-15% of the administered dose to [ 14 C]glucose after 10 min; less than 0.1% of the radioactivity is recovered in glycogen. If 0.3 mmol/kg aminocarnitine is given subcutaneously 1 hr prior to giving [ 14 C]analine, the radioactivity recovered in plasma glucose is reduced by approximately 40%. The authors conclude that the hypoglycemic effect of DL-aminocarnitine in diabetic mice is due, at least in part, to inhibition of gluconeogenesis. The possibility that aminocarnitine also stimulates glucose utilization in diabetic animals is not excluded

  10. Isothiocyanate-rich Moringa oleifera extract reduces weight gain, insulin resistance, and hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Carrie; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Kuhn, Peter; Richard, Allison J; Wicks, Shawna; Stephens, Jacqueline M; Wang, Zhong; Mynatt, Randy; Cefalu, William; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-06-01

    Moringa oleifera (moringa) is tropical plant traditionally used as an antidiabetic food. It produces structurally unique and chemically stable moringa isothiocyanates (MICs) that were evaluated for their therapeutic use in vivo. C57BL/6L mice fed very high fat diet (VHFD) supplemented with 5% moringa concentrate (MC, delivering 66 mg/kg/d of MICs) accumulated fat mass, had improved glucose tolerance and insulin signaling, and did not develop fatty liver disease compared to VHFD-fed mice. MC-fed group also had reduced plasma insulin, leptin, resistin, cholesterol, IL-1β, TNFα, and lower hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) expression. In hepatoma cells, MC and MICs at low micromolar concentrations inhibited gluconeogenesis and G6P expression. MICs and MC effects on lipolysis in vitro and on thermogenic and lipolytic genes in adipose tissue in vivo argued these are not likely primary targets for the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects observed. Data suggest that MICs are the main anti-obesity and anti-diabetic bioactives of MC, and that they exert their effects by inhibiting rate-limiting steps in liver gluconeogenesis resulting in direct or indirect increase in insulin signaling and sensitivity. These conclusions suggest that MC may be an effective dietary food for the prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Brain insulin action augments hepatic glycogen synthesis without suppressing glucose production or gluconeogenesis in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnanan, Christopher J.; Saraswathi, Viswanathan; Smith, Marta S.; Donahue, E. Patrick; Farmer, Ben; Farmer, Tiffany D.; Neal, Doss; Williams, Philip E.; Lautz, Margaret; Mari, Andrea; Cherrington, Alan D.; Edgerton, Dale S.

    2011-01-01

    In rodents, acute brain insulin action reduces blood glucose levels by suppressing the expression of enzymes in the hepatic gluconeogenic pathway, thereby reducing gluconeogenesis and endogenous glucose production (EGP). Whether a similar mechanism is functional in large animals, including humans, is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that in canines, physiologic brain hyperinsulinemia brought about by infusion of insulin into the head arteries (during a pancreatic clamp to maintain basal hepatic insulin and glucagon levels) activated hypothalamic Akt, altered STAT3 signaling in the liver, and suppressed hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression without altering EGP or gluconeogenesis. Rather, brain hyperinsulinemia slowly caused a modest reduction in net hepatic glucose output (NHGO) that was attributable to increased net hepatic glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. This was associated with decreased levels of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) protein and mRNA and with decreased glycogen synthase phosphorylation, changes that were blocked by hypothalamic PI3K inhibition. Therefore, we conclude that the canine brain senses physiologic elevations in plasma insulin, and that this in turn regulates genetic events in the liver. In the context of basal insulin and glucagon levels at the liver, this input augments hepatic glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, reducing NHGO without altering EGP. PMID:21865644

  12. CREB and FoxO1: two transcription factors for the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Han, Hye-Sook; Kim, Min-Jung; Koo, Seung-Hoi

    2013-01-01

    Liver plays a major role in maintaining glucose homeostasis in mammals. Under fasting conditions, hepatic glucose production is critical as a source of fuel to maintain the basic functions in other tissues, including skeletal muscle, red blood cells, and the brain. Fasting hormones glucagon and cortisol play major roles during the process, in part by activating the transcription of key enzyme genes in the gluconeogenesis such as phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6 phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6Pase). Conversely, gluconeogenic transcription is repressed by pancreatic insulin under feeding conditions, which effectively inhibits transcriptional activator complexes by either promoting post-translational modifications or activating transcriptional inhibitors in the liver, resulting in the reduction of hepatic glucose output. The transcriptional regulatory machineries have been highlighted as targets for type 2 diabetes drugs to control glycemia, so understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms for transcription circuits for hepatic gluconeogenesis is critical in the potential development of therapeutic tools for the treatment of this disease. In this review, the current understanding regarding the roles of two key transcriptional activators, CREB and FoxO1, in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenic program is discussed. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(12): 567-574] PMID:24238363

  13. Evodia alkaloids suppress gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis by activating the constitutive androstane receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lushan; Wang, Zhangting; Huang, Minmin; Li, Yingying; Zeng, Kui; Lei, Jinxiu; Hu, Haihong; Chen, Baian; Lu, Jing; Xie, Wen; Zeng, Su

    2016-09-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a key sensor in xenobiotic detoxification and endobiotic metabolism. Increasing evidence suggests that CAR also plays a role in energy metabolism by suppressing the hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of two evodia alkaloids, rutaecarpine (Rut) and evodiamine (Evo), on gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis through their activation of the human CAR (hCAR). We found that both Rut and Evo exhibited anti-lipogenic and anti-gluconeogenic effects in the hyperlipidemic HepG2 cells. Both compounds can potently activate hCAR, and treatment of cells with hCAR antagonists reversed the anti-lipogenic and anti-gluconeogenic effects of Rut and Evo. The anti-gluconeogenic effect of Rut and Evo was due to the CAR-mediated inhibition of the recruitment of forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) onto the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) gene promoters. In vivo, we showed that treatment of mice with Rut improved glucose tolerance in a CAR-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the evodia alkaloids Rut and Evo may have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gut microbial degradation of organophosphate insecticides-induces glucose intolerance via gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Ganesan; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Swaminathan, Krishnan; Mithieux, Gilles; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Dhivakar, Mani; Parthasarathy, Ayothi; Babu, D D Venkatesh; Thumburaj, Leishman John; Freddy, Allen J; Dinakaran, Vasudevan; Puhari, Shanavas Syed Mohamed; Rekha, Balakrishnan; Christy, Yacob Jenifer; Anusha, Sivakumar; Divya, Ganesan; Suganya, Kannan; Meganathan, Boominathan; Kalyanaraman, Narayanan; Vasudevan, Varadaraj; Kamaraj, Raju; Karthik, Maruthan; Jeyakumar, Balakrishnan; Abhishek, Albert; Paul, Eldho; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Rajmohan, Rajamani Koushick; Velayutham, Kumaravel; Lyon, Alexander R; Ramasamy, Subbiah

    2017-01-24

    Organophosphates are the most frequently and largely applied insecticide in the world due to their biodegradable nature. Gut microbes were shown to degrade organophosphates and cause intestinal dysfunction. The diabetogenic nature of organophosphates was recently reported but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. We aimed to understand the role of gut microbiota in organophosphate-induced hyperglycemia and to unravel the molecular mechanism behind this process. Here we demonstrate a high prevalence of diabetes among people directly exposed to organophosphates in rural India (n = 3080). Correlation and linear regression analysis reveal a strong association between plasma organophosphate residues and HbA1c but no association with acetylcholine esterase was noticed. Chronic treatment of mice with organophosphate for 180 days confirms the induction of glucose intolerance with no significant change in acetylcholine esterase. Further fecal transplantation and culture transplantation experiments confirm the involvement of gut microbiota in organophosphate-induced glucose intolerance. Intestinal metatranscriptomic and host metabolomic analyses reveal that gut microbial organophosphate degradation produces short chain fatty acids like acetic acid, which induces gluconeogenesis and thereby accounts for glucose intolerance. Plasma organophosphate residues are positively correlated with fecal esterase activity and acetate level of human diabetes. Collectively, our results implicate gluconeogenesis as the key mechanism behind organophosphate-induced hyperglycemia, mediated by the organophosphate-degrading potential of gut microbiota. This study reveals the gut microbiome-mediated diabetogenic nature of organophosphates and hence that the usage of these insecticides should be reconsidered.

  15. A possible relationship between gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism in rabbits during myocardial ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAQUEL R. DE AGUIAR

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ischemia is responsible for many metabolic abnormalities in the heart, causing changes in organ function. One of modifications occurring in the ischemic cell is changing from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. This change causes the predominance of the use of carbohydrates as an energy substrate instead of lipids. In this case, the glycogen is essential to the maintenance of heart energy intake, being an important reserve to resist the stress caused by hypoxia, using glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation. In order to study the glucose anaerobic pathways utilization and understand the metabolic adaptations, New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to ischemia caused by Inflow occlusion technique. The animals were monitored during surgery by pH and lactate levels. Transcription analysis of the pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase enzymes were performed by qRT-PCR, and glycogen quantification was determined enzymatically. Pyruvate kinase transcription increased during ischemia, followed by glycogen consumption content. The gluconeogenesis increased in control and ischemia moments, suggesting a relationship between gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism. This result shows the significant contribution of these substrates in the organ energy supply and demonstrates the capacity of the heart to adapt the metabolism after this injury, sustaining the homeostasis during short-term myocardial ischemia.

  16. Nonenzymatic gluconeogenesis-like formation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Christoph B; Driscoll, Paul C; Piedrafita, Gabriel; De Volder, Michael F L; Ralser, Markus

    2017-07-11

    The evolutionary origins of metabolism, in particular the emergence of the sugar phosphates that constitute glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the RNA and DNA backbone, are largely unknown. In cells, a major source of glucose and the large sugar phosphates is gluconeogenesis. This ancient anabolic pathway (re-)builds carbon bonds as cleaved in glycolysis in an aldol condensation of the unstable catabolites glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate, forming the much more stable fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. We here report the discovery of a nonenzymatic counterpart to this reaction. The in-ice nonenzymatic aldol addition leads to the continuous accumulation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in a permanently frozen solution as followed over months. Moreover, the in-ice reaction is accelerated by simple amino acids, in particular glycine and lysine. Revealing that gluconeogenesis may be of nonenzymatic origin, our results shed light on how glucose anabolism could have emerged in early life forms. Furthermore, the amino acid acceleration of a key cellular anabolic reaction may indicate a link between prebiotic chemistry and the nature of the first metabolic enzymes.

  17. An Intestinal Farnesoid X Receptor–Ceramide Signaling Axis Modulates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Cen; Shi, Jingmin; Gao, Xiaoxia; Sun, Dongxue; Sun, Lulu; Wang, Ting; Takahashi, Shogo; Anitha, Mallappa; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Patterson, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the view that intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is involved in glucose tolerance and that FXR signaling can be profoundly impacted by the gut microbiota. Selective manipulation of the gut microbiota–FXR signaling axis was reported to significantly impact glucose intolerance, but the precise molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an over-the-counter dietary supplement and an inhibitor of bacterial bile salt hydrolase, increased levels of intestinal tauro-β-muricholic acid, which selectively suppresses intestinal FXR signaling. Intestinal FXR inhibition decreased ceramide levels by suppressing expression of genes involved in ceramide synthesis specifically in the intestinal ileum epithelial cells. The lower serum ceramides mediated decreased hepatic mitochondrial acetyl-CoA levels and pyruvate carboxylase (PC) activities and attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis, independent of body weight change and hepatic insulin signaling in vivo; this was reversed by treatment of mice with ceramides or the FXR agonist GW4064. Ceramides substantially attenuated mitochondrial citrate synthase activities primarily through the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, which triggers increased hepatic mitochondrial acetyl-CoA levels and PC activities. These results reveal a mechanism by which the dietary supplement CAPE and intestinal FXR regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis and suggest that inhibiting intestinal FXR is a strategy for treating hyperglycemia. PMID:28223344

  18. Entada phaseoloides extract suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of the AMPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Hao, Xincai; Wang, Qibin; Chen, Li; Jin, Si; Bian, Fang

    2016-12-04

    The seed of Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. (Entada phaseoloides) has been long used as a folk medicine for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus by Chinese ethnic minorities. Recent reports have demonstrated that total saponins from Entada phaseoloides (TSEP) could reduce fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetic rats. However, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying mechanisms of TSEP on type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Primary mouse hepatocytes and HepG2 cells were used to investigate the effects of TSEP on gluconeogenesis. After treatment with TSEP, glucose production, genes expression levels of Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and Phosphoenoylpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) were detected. The efficacy and underlying mechanism of TSEP on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway were determinated. TSEP significantly inhibited glucose production and the gluconeogenic gene expression. Treatment with TSEP elevated the phosphorylation of AMPK, which in turn promoted the phosphorylation of acetyl coenzyme A (ACC) and Akt/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), respectively. Furthermore, TSEP reduced lipid accumulation and improved insulin sensitivity in hepatocytes. These findings provide evidence that TSEP exerts an antidiabetic effect by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis via the AMPK signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. CREBH Maintains Circadian Glucose Homeostasis by Regulating Hepatic Glycogenolysis and Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunbae; Zheng, Ze; Walker, Paul D; Kapatos, Gregory; Zhang, Kezhong

    2017-07-15

    Cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a liver-enriched, endoplasmic reticulum-tethered transcription factor known to regulate the hepatic acute-phase response and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrate that CREBH functions as a circadian transcriptional regulator that plays major roles in maintaining glucose homeostasis. The proteolytic cleavage and posttranslational acetylation modification of CREBH are regulated by the circadian clock. Functionally, CREBH is required in order to maintain circadian homeostasis of hepatic glycogen storage and blood glucose levels. CREBH regulates the rhythmic expression of the genes encoding the rate-limiting enzymes for glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, including liver glycogen phosphorylase (PYGL), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1), and the glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6PC). CREBH interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) to synergize its transcriptional activities in hepatic gluconeogenesis. The acetylation of CREBH at lysine residue 294 controls CREBH-PPARα interaction and synergy in regulating hepatic glucose metabolism in mice. CREBH deficiency leads to reduced blood glucose levels but increases hepatic glycogen levels during the daytime or upon fasting. In summary, our studies revealed that CREBH functions as a key metabolic regulator that controls glucose homeostasis across the circadian cycle or under metabolic stress. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Progressive Impairment of Lactate-based Gluconeogenesis in the Huntington's Disease Mouse Model R6/2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Marie Borch; Hasholt, Lis; Nørremølle, Anne

    2015-01-01

    of impairment of lactate-based hepatic gluconeogenesis in the transgenic HD mouse model R6/2 and determine that the defect manifests very early and progresses in severity with disease development, indicating a potential to explore this defect in a biomarker context. Moreover, R6/2 animals displayed lower blood...

  1. Gluconeogenesis is not regulated by either glucose or insulin in extremely low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine potential factors regulating gluconeogenesis (GNG) in extremely low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition. Seven infants (birth weight, 0.824 +/- 0.068 kg; gestational age, 25.4 +/- 0.5 weeks; postnatal age, 3.3 +/- 0.2 days) were studied for 11 hou...

  2. Melatonin acts through MT1/MT2 receptors to activate hypothalamic Akt and suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Juliana A; Kinote, Andrezza; Ignacio-Souza, Letícia M; de Araújo, Thiago M; Razolli, Daniela S; Doneda, Diego L; Paschoal, Lívia B; Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Bertolini, Gisele L; Velloso, Lício A; Bordin, Silvana; Anhê, Gabriel F

    2013-07-15

    Melatonin can contribute to glucose homeostasis either by decreasing gluconeogenesis or by counteracting insulin resistance in distinct models of obesity. However, the precise mechanism through which melatonin controls glucose homeostasis is not completely understood. Male Wistar rats were administered an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of melatonin and one of following: an icv injection of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, an icv injection of a melatonin receptor (MT) antagonist, or an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anesthetized rats were subjected to pyruvate tolerance test to estimate in vivo glucose clearance after pyruvate load and in situ liver perfusion to assess hepatic gluconeogenesis. The hypothalamus was removed to determine Akt phosphorylation. Melatonin injections in the central nervous system suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased hypothalamic Akt phosphorylation. These effects of melatonin were suppressed either by icv injections of PI3K inhibitors and MT antagonists and by ip injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. We conclude that melatonin activates hypothalamus-liver communication that may contribute to circadian adjustments of gluconeogenesis. These data further suggest a physiopathological relationship between the circadian disruptions in metabolism and reduced levels of melatonin found in type 2 diabetes patients.

  3. Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 2 Regulates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Diurnal Glucose Metabolism Through 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molusky, Matthew M.; Li, Siming; Ma, Di; Yu, Lei; Lin, Jiandie D.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is important for maintaining steady blood glucose levels during starvation and through light/dark cycles. The regulatory network that transduces hormonal and circadian signals serves to integrate these physiological cues and adjust glucose synthesis and secretion by the liver. In this study, we identified ubiquitin-specific protease 2 (USP2) as an inducible regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis that responds to nutritional status and clock. Adenoviral-mediated expression of USP2 in the liver promotes hepatic glucose production and exacerbates glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice. In contrast, in vivo RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of this factor improves systemic glycemic control. USP2 is a target gene of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a coactivator that integrates clock and energy metabolism, and is required for maintaining diurnal glucose homeostasis during restricted feeding. At the mechanistic level, USP2 regulates hepatic glucose metabolism through its induction of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD1) and glucocorticoid signaling in the liver. Pharmacological inhibition and liver-specific RNAi knockdown of HSD1 significantly impair the stimulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by USP2. Together, these studies delineate a novel pathway that links hormonal and circadian signals to gluconeogenesis and glucose homeostasis. PMID:22447855

  4. Gluconeogenesis during endurance exercise in cyclists habituated to a long-term low carbohydrate high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endogenous glucose production (EGP) occurs via hepatic glycogenolysis (GLY) and gluconeogenesis (GNG) and plays an important role in maintaining euglycemia. Rates of GLY and GNG increase during exercise in athletes following a mixed macronutrient diet; however these processes have not been investiga...

  5. Transcriptional coactivator NT-PGC-1α promotes gluconeogenic gene expression and enhances hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji Suk; Jun, Hee-Jin; Park, Minsung

    2016-10-01

    The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α plays a central role in hepatic gluconeogenesis. We previously reported that alternative splicing of the PGC-1α gene produces an additional transcript encoding the truncated protein NT-PGC-1α NT-PGC-1α is co-expressed with PGC-1α and highly induced by fasting in the liver. NT-PGC-1α regulates tissue-specific metabolism, but its role in the liver has not been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the role of hepatic NT-PGC-1α in the regulation of gluconeogenesis. Adenovirus-mediated expression of NT-PGC-1α in primary hepatocytes strongly stimulated the expression of key gluconeogenic enzyme genes (PEPCK and G6Pase), leading to increased glucose production. To further understand NT-PGC-1α function in hepatic gluconeogenesis in vivo, we took advantage of a previously reported FL-PGC-1α -/- mouse line that lacks full-length PGC-1α (FL-PGC-1α) but retains a slightly shorter and functionally equivalent form of NT-PGC-1α (NT-PGC-1α 254 ). In FL-PGC-1α -/- mice, NT-PGC-1α 254 was induced by fasting in the liver and recruited to the promoters of PEPCK and G6Pase genes. The enrichment of NT-PGC-1α 254 at the promoters was closely associated with fasting-induced increase in PEPCK and G6Pase gene expression and efficient production of glucose from pyruvate during a pyruvate tolerance test in FL-PGC-1α -/- mice. Moreover, FL-PGC-1α -/- primary hepatocytes showed a significant increase in gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production after treatment with dexamethasone and forskolin, suggesting that NT-PGC-1α 254 is sufficient to stimulate the gluconeogenic program in the absence of FL-PGC-1α Collectively, our findings highlight the role of hepatic NT-PGC-1α in stimulating gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  6. H2S-induced S-sulfhydration of pyruvate carboxylase contributes to gluconeogenesis in liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, YoungJun; Untereiner, Ashley; Wu, Lingyun; Yang, Guangdong

    2015-11-01

    Cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE)-derived hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) possesses diverse roles in the liver, affecting lipoprotein synthesis, insulin sensitivity, and mitochondrial biogenesis. H(2)S S-sulfhydration is now proposed as a major mechanism for H(2)S-mediated signaling. Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is an important enzyme for gluconeogenesis. S-sulfhydration regulation of PC by H(2)S and its implication in gluconeogenesis in the liver have been unknown. Gene expressions were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blotting, and protein S-sulfhydration was assessed by both modified biotin switch assay and tag switch assay. Glucose production and PC activity was measured with coupled enzyme assays, respectively. Exogenously applied H(2)S stimulates PC activity and gluconeogenesis in both HepG2 cells and mouse primary liver cells. CSE overexpression enhanced but CSE knockout reduced PC activity and gluconeogenesis in liver cells, and blockage of PC activity abolished H(2)S-induced gluconeogenesis. H(2)S had no effect on the expressions of PC mRNA and protein, while H(2)S S-sulfhydrated PC in a dithiothreitol-sensitive way. PC S-sulfhydration was significantly strengthened by CSE overexpression but attenuated by CSE knockout, suggesting that H(2)S enhances glucose production through S-sulfhydrating PC. Mutation of cysteine 265 in human PC diminished H(2)S-induced PC S-sulfhydration and activity. In addition, high-fat diet feeding of mice decreased both CSE expression and PC S-sulfhydration in the liver, while glucose deprivation of HepG2 cells stimulated CSE expression. CSE/H(2)S pathway plays an important role in the regulation of glucose production through S-sulfhydrating PC in the liver. Tissue-specific regulation of CSE/H(2)S pathway might be a promising therapeutic target of diabetes and other metabolic syndromes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ginsenoside Compound K suppresses the hepatic gluconeogenesis via activating adenosine-5'monophosphate kinase: A study in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengnan; Li, Wei; Yu, Yang; Yao, Fan; A, Lixiang; Lan, Xiaoxin; Guan, Fengying; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Li

    2015-10-15

    Compound K (CK) is a final intestinal metabolite of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside. We have reported that CK presented anti-diabetic effect via diminishing the expressions of hepatic gluconeogenesis key enzyme. Here, we further explore the possible mechanism of CK on suppression hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of adenosine-5'monophosphate kinase (AMPK) on type 2 diabetes mice in vivo and in HepG2 cells. Type 2 diabetes mice model was developed by high fat diet combined with STZ injection. 30mg/kg/d CK was orally administrated for 4weeks, the fasting blood glucose level and 2h OGTT were conducted, and the protein expression of AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) were examined. The mechanism of Compound K on hepatic gluconeogenesis was further explored in HepG2 hepatocytes. Glucose production, the protein expression of AMPK, PEPCK, G6pase and PGC-1α, hepatic nuclear factor 4α (HNF-4α) and forkhead transcription factor O1 (FOXO1) were determined after Compound K treatment at the presence of AMPK inhibitor Compound C. We observed that CK inhibited the expression of PEPCK and G6Pase in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. Meanwhile, CK treatment remarkably increased the activation of AMPK, while decreasing the expressions of PGC-1α, HNF-4α and FOXO1. However, AMPK inhibitor Compound C could reverse these effects of CK on gluconeogenesis in part. The results indicated that the effect of CK on suppression hepatic gluconeogenesis might be via the activation the AMPK activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. MicroRNA-451 Negatively Regulates Hepatic Glucose Production and Glucose Homeostasis by Targeting Glycerol Kinase-Mediated Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Shu; Yang, Mengmei; Zhao, Yanan; Chen, Xiaofang; Zhang, Feifei; Li, Na; Yao, Pengle; Zhu, Tengfei; Mei, Hong; Wang, Shanshan; Li, Yu; Chen, Shiting; Le, Yingying

    2016-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of regulatory molecules implicated in type 2 diabetes, which is characterized by insulin resistance and hepatic glucose overproduction. We show that miRNA-451 (miR-451) is elevated in the liver tissues of dietary and genetic mouse models of diabetes. Through an adenovirus-mediated gain- and loss-of-function study, we found that miR-451 negatively regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis and blood glucose levels in normal mice and identified glycerol kinase (Gyk) as a direct target of miR-451. We demonstrate that miR-451 and Gyk regulate hepatic glucose production, the glycerol gluconeogenesis axis, and the AKT-FOXO1-PEPCK/G6Pase pathway in an opposite manner; Gyk could reverse the effect of miR-451 on hepatic gluconeogenesis and AKT-FOXO1-PEPCK/G6Pase pathway. Moreover, overexpression of miR-451 or knockdown of Gyk in diabetic mice significantly inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis, alleviated hyperglycemia, and improved glucose tolerance. Further studies showed that miR-451 is upregulated by glucose and insulin in hepatocytes; the elevation of hepatic miR-451 in diabetic mice may contribute to inhibiting Gyk expression. This study provides the first evidence that miR-451 and Gyk regulate the AKT-FOXO1-PEPCK/G6Pase pathway and play critical roles in hepatic gluconeogenesis and glucose homeostasis and identifies miR-451 and Gyk as potential therapeutic targets against hyperglycemia in diabetes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  9. A fasting inducible switch modulates gluconeogenesis via activator/coactivator exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yi; Dentin, Renaud; Chen, Danica

    2008-01-01

    During early fasting, increases in skeletal muscle proteolysis liberate free amino acids for hepatic gluconeogenesis in response to pancreatic glucagon. Hepatic glucose output diminishes during the late protein-sparing phase of fasting, when ketone body production by the liver supplies compensatory...... expression through the dephosphorylation and nuclear shuttling of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1). Here we show that a fasting-inducible switch, consisting of the histone acetyltransferase p300 and the nutrient-sensing deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), maintains energy balance in mice through the sequential induction...... of CRTC2 and FOXO1. After glucagon induction, CRTC2 stimulated gluconeogenic gene expression by an association with p300, which we show here is also activated by dephosphorylation at Ser 89 during fasting. In turn, p300 increased hepatic CRTC2 activity by acetylating it at Lys 628, a site that also...

  10. daf-16/FoxO promotes gluconeogenesis and trehalose synthesis during starvation to support survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibshman, Jonathan D; Doan, Alexander E; Moore, Brad T; Kaplan, Rebecca Ew; Hung, Anthony; Webster, Amy K; Bhatt, Dhaval P; Chitrakar, Rojin; Hirschey, Matthew D; Baugh, L Ryan

    2017-10-24

    daf-16 /FoxO is required to survive starvation in Caenorhabditis elegans , but how daf-16I FoxO promotes starvation resistance is unclear. We show that daf-16 /FoxO restructures carbohydrate metabolism by driving carbon flux through the glyoxylate shunt and gluconeogenesis and into synthesis of trehalose, a disaccharide of glucose. Trehalose is a well-known stress protectant, capable of preserving membrane organization and protein structure during abiotic stress. Metabolomic, genetic, and pharmacological analyses confirm increased trehalose synthesis and further show that trehalose not only supports survival as a stress protectant but also serves as a glycolytic input. Furthermore, we provide evidence that metabolic cycling between trehalose and glucose is necessary for this dual function of trehalose. This work demonstrates that daf-16 /FoxO promotes starvation resistance by shifting carbon metabolism to drive trehalose synthesis, which in turn supports survival by providing an energy source and acting as a stress protectant.

  11. daf-16/FoxO promotes gluconeogenesis and trehalose synthesis during starvation to support survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibshman, Jonathan D; Doan, Alexander E; Moore, Brad T; Kaplan, Rebecca EW; Hung, Anthony; Webster, Amy K; Bhatt, Dhaval P; Chitrakar, Rojin; Hirschey, Matthew D

    2017-01-01

    daf-16/FoxO is required to survive starvation in Caenorhabditis elegans, but how daf-16IFoxO promotes starvation resistance is unclear. We show that daf-16/FoxO restructures carbohydrate metabolism by driving carbon flux through the glyoxylate shunt and gluconeogenesis and into synthesis of trehalose, a disaccharide of glucose. Trehalose is a well-known stress protectant, capable of preserving membrane organization and protein structure during abiotic stress. Metabolomic, genetic, and pharmacological analyses confirm increased trehalose synthesis and further show that trehalose not only supports survival as a stress protectant but also serves as a glycolytic input. Furthermore, we provide evidence that metabolic cycling between trehalose and glucose is necessary for this dual function of trehalose. This work demonstrates that daf-16/FoxO promotes starvation resistance by shifting carbon metabolism to drive trehalose synthesis, which in turn supports survival by providing an energy source and acting as a stress protectant. PMID:29063832

  12. Reduced α-MSH Underlies Hypothalamic ER-Stress-Induced Hepatic Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Marc; Gómez-Valadés, Alicia G; Altirriba, Jordi; Sebastián, David; Ramírez, Sara; Garcia, Ainhoa; Esteban, Yaiza; Drougard, Anne; Ferrés-Coy, Albert; Bortolozzi, Analía; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Jones, John G; Manadas, Bruno; Zorzano, Antonio; Gomis, Ramon; Claret, Marc

    2015-07-21

    Alterations in ER homeostasis have been implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D). Acute ER stress induction in the hypothalamus produces glucose metabolism perturbations. However, the neurobiological basis linking hypothalamic ER stress with abnormal glucose metabolism remains unknown. Here, we report that genetic and induced models of hypothalamic ER stress are associated with alterations in systemic glucose homeostasis due to increased gluconeogenesis (GNG) independent of body weight changes. Defective alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) production underlies this metabolic phenotype, as pharmacological strategies aimed at rescuing hypothalamic α-MSH content reversed this phenotype at metabolic and molecular level. Collectively, our results posit defective α-MSH processing as a fundamental mediator of enhanced GNG in the context of hypothalamic ER stress and establish α-MSH deficiency in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons as a potential contributor to the pathophysiology of T2D. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dapagliflozin Aggravates Renal Injury via Promoting Gluconeogenesis in db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yingli; He, Jinzhao; Wang, Liang; Su, Limin; Lei, Lei; Huang, Wei; Geng, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Shun; Meng, Xiaolu; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Baoxue

    2018-01-01

    A sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin is widely used for lowering blood glucose and its usage is limited in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with moderate renal impairment. As its effect on kidney function is discrepant and complicated, the aim of this study is to determine the effect of dapagliflozin on the progression of diabetic nephropathy and related mechanisms. Twelve-week-old male C57BL/6 wild-type and db/db mice were treated with vehicle or 1 mg/kg dapagliflozin for 12 weeks. Body weight, blood glucose, insulin tolerance, glucose tolerance, pyruvate tolerance and 24-hour urine were measured every 4 weeks. At 24 weeks of age, renal function was evaluated by blood urea nitrogen level, creatinine clearance, urine output, urinary albumin excretion, Periodic Acid-Schiff staining, Masson's trichrome staining and electron microscopy. Changes in insulin signaling and gluconeogenic key regulatory enzymes were detected using Western blot analysis. Dapagliflozin did not alleviate but instead aggravated diabetic nephropathy manifesting as increased levels of microalbuminuria, blood urea nitrogen, and glomerular and tubular damage in db/db mice. Despite adequate glycemic control by dapagliflozin, urinary glucose excretion increased after administration before 24 weeks of age and was likely associated with renal impairment. Increased urinary glucose excretion was mainly derived from the disturbance of glucose homeostasis with elevated hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis induced by dapagliflozin. Although it had no effect on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, dapagliflozin further induced the expression of gluconeogenic key rate-limiting enzymes through increasing the expression levels of FoxO1 in the kidney and liver. These experimental results indicate that dapagliflozin aggravates diabetes mellitus-induced kidney injury, mostly through increasing gluconeogenesis. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Effects of volatile fatty acids on propionate metabolism and gluconeogenesis in caprine hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, R.J.; Armentano, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Isolated caprine hepatocytes were incubated with fatty acids of various chain lengths. Short-chain fatty acids effects on rates of gluconeogenesis and oxidation from [2- 14 C] propionate were determined. Additions of glucose (2.5 mM) had no effect on hepatic [2- 14 C]-propionate metabolism in the presence and absence of amino acids. A complete mixture of amino acids increased label incorporation from [2- 14 C] propionate into [ 14 C] glucose by 22%. Butyrate inhibited [2- 14 C] propionate metabolism and increased the apparent Michaelis constant for [2- 14 C] propionate incorporation into [ 14 C] glucose from 2.4 +/- 1.5 to 5.6 +/- .9 mM. Butyrate's effects on propionate were similar in the presence and absence of L-carnitine (1 mM). Isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate, and valerate (1.25 mM) had no effect on [ 14 C] glucose production but decreased 14 CO 2 production to 57, 61, and 54% of the control [2- 14 C] propionate (1.25 mM). This inhibition on 14 CO 2 was not competitive. Isovalerate had no effect on either [2- 14 C] propionate incorporation into glucose of CO 2 . An increase in ratio of [ 14 C] glucose to 14 CO 2 from [2- 14 C]-propionate demonstrated that short-chain fatty acids other than butyrate do not inhibit gluconeogenesis from propionate. In addition, fatty acids that generate a net synthesis of intracellular oxaloacetate may partition propionate carbons toward gluconeogenic rather than oxidative pathways in goat hepatocytes

  15. Endogenous Nutritive Support after Traumatic Brain Injury: Peripheral Lactate Production for Glucose Supply via Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Thomas C; Martin, Neil A; McArthur, David L; Hovda, David A; Vespa, Paul; Johnson, Matthew L; Horning, Michael A; Brooks, George A

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that nutritive needs of injured brains are supported by large and coordinated increases in lactate shuttling throughout the body. To that end, we used dual isotope tracer ([6,6-(2)H2]glucose, i.e., D2-glucose, and [3-(13)C]lactate) techniques involving central venous tracer infusion along with cerebral (arterial [art] and jugular bulb [JB]) blood sampling. Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who had nonpenetrating head injuries (n=12, all male) were entered into the study after consent of patients' legal representatives. Written and informed consent was obtained from healthy controls (n=6, including one female). As in previous investigations, the cerebral metabolic rate (CMR) for glucose was suppressed after TBI. Near normal arterial glucose and lactate levels in patients studied 5.7±2.2 days (range of days 2-10) post-injury, however, belied a 71% increase in systemic lactate production, compared with control, that was largely cleared by greater (hepatic+renal) glucose production. After TBI, gluconeogenesis from lactate clearance accounted for 67.1% of glucose rate of appearance (Ra), which was compared with 15.2% in healthy controls. We conclude that elevations in blood glucose concentration after TBI result from a massive mobilization of lactate from corporeal glycogen reserves. This previously unrecognized mobilization of lactate subserves hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis. As such, a lactate shuttle mechanism indirectly makes substrate available for the body and its essential organs, including the brain, after trauma. In addition, when elevations in arterial lactate concentration occur after TBI, lactate shuttling may provide substrate directly to vital organs of the body, including the injured brain.

  16. The extracellular redox state modulates mitochondrial function, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen synthesis in murine hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocito, Laura; Kleckner, Amber S; Yoo, Elsia J; Jones Iv, Albert R; Liesa, Marc; Corkey, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    Circulating redox state changes, determined by the ratio of reduced/oxidized pairs of different metabolites, have been associated with metabolic diseases. However, the pathogenic contribution of these changes and whether they modulate normal tissue function is unclear. As alterations in hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism are hallmarks that characterize insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, we tested whether imposed changes in the extracellular redox state could modulate these processes. Thus, primary hepatocytes were treated with different ratios of the following physiological extracellular redox couples: β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB)/acetoacetate (Acoc), reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and cysteine/cystine. Exposure to a more oxidized ratio via extracellular βOHB/Acoc, GSH/GSSG, and cysteine/cystine in hepatocytes from fed mice increased intracellular hydrogen peroxide without causing oxidative damage. On the other hand, addition of more reduced ratios of extracellular βOHB/Acoc led to increased NAD(P)H and maximal mitochondrial respiratory capacity in hepatocytes. Greater βOHB/Acoc ratios were also associated with decreased β-oxidation, as expected with enhanced lipogenesis. In hepatocytes from fasted mice, a more extracellular reduced state of βOHB/Acoc led to increased alanine-stimulated gluconeogenesis and enhanced glycogen synthesis capacity from added glucose. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that the extracellular redox state regulates the major metabolic functions of the liver and involves changes in intracellular NADH, hydrogen peroxide, and mitochondrial respiration. Because redox state in the blood can be communicated to all metabolically sensitive tissues, this work confirms the hypothesis that circulating redox state may be an important regulator of whole body metabolism and contribute to alterations associated with metabolic diseases.

  17. The extracellular redox state modulates mitochondrial function, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen synthesis in murine hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Nocito

    Full Text Available Circulating redox state changes, determined by the ratio of reduced/oxidized pairs of different metabolites, have been associated with metabolic diseases. However, the pathogenic contribution of these changes and whether they modulate normal tissue function is unclear. As alterations in hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism are hallmarks that characterize insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, we tested whether imposed changes in the extracellular redox state could modulate these processes. Thus, primary hepatocytes were treated with different ratios of the following physiological extracellular redox couples: β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB/acetoacetate (Acoc, reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG, and cysteine/cystine. Exposure to a more oxidized ratio via extracellular βOHB/Acoc, GSH/GSSG, and cysteine/cystine in hepatocytes from fed mice increased intracellular hydrogen peroxide without causing oxidative damage. On the other hand, addition of more reduced ratios of extracellular βOHB/Acoc led to increased NAD(PH and maximal mitochondrial respiratory capacity in hepatocytes. Greater βOHB/Acoc ratios were also associated with decreased β-oxidation, as expected with enhanced lipogenesis. In hepatocytes from fasted mice, a more extracellular reduced state of βOHB/Acoc led to increased alanine-stimulated gluconeogenesis and enhanced glycogen synthesis capacity from added glucose. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that the extracellular redox state regulates the major metabolic functions of the liver and involves changes in intracellular NADH, hydrogen peroxide, and mitochondrial respiration. Because redox state in the blood can be communicated to all metabolically sensitive tissues, this work confirms the hypothesis that circulating redox state may be an important regulator of whole body metabolism and contribute to alterations associated with metabolic diseases.

  18. In vitro effects of fatty acids on goat, calf and guinea pig hepatic gluconeogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, R.J.; Armentano, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Isolated hepatocytes from male guinea pigs, ruminating goats and bull calves were incubated at 39 C for 1h. Fatty acids C18:1, C16, and C8 (.5, 1, 2 mM) were added as albumin complexes (3:1 molar ratio), C2 and C4 (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mM) were added as Na salts. In ruminant cells C2 had no effect on [2- 14 C]-propionate (PROP) (2.5 mM) or [U- 14 C]-L-lactate (LACT) (2.5 mM) metabolism. C4 (2.5 or 5 mM) decreased [ 14 C]-glucose (GLU) (P < .01) from PROP (48% goats, 68% calves) and decreased LACT conversion to GLU, (27% goats, 50% calves), C8, C16 and C18:1 effects depended on gluconeogenic substrate and species. In goat cells conversion of PROP to GLU was increased (P < .01) by C18:1 (30%) and C8 (52%) with C16 showing a similar trend. There were no interactions between the effects of fatty acids and lactation state (lactating does vs wethers). In goat cells C8 increased PROP conversion to GLU relative to oxidation, other fatty acids did not change relative rates. In calf cells C18:1, C16 and C8 had no effect on PROP metabolism. C8 inhibited gluconeogenesis from LACT in goats (24%) (P < .07) and calves (47%) (P < .01). In contrast fatty acids decreased (P < .01) GLU production from PROP (C18:1 90%, C8 80%) and LACT (C18:1 75%, C8 75%) in cells from guinea pigs. They have established a clear difference in the regulation of gluconeogenesis among species which contain similar intracellular distribution of P-enolpyruvate carboxykinase

  19. Relative contribution of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to basal, glucagon- and nerve stimulation-dependent glucose output in the perfused liver from fed and fasted rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, U.; JUNGERMANN, K.

    1990-01-01

    The relative contribution to basal, glucagon- and nerve stimulation-enhanced glucose output of glycogenolysis (glucose output in the presence of the gluconeogenic inhibitor mercaptopicolinate) and gluconeogenesis (difference in glucose output in the absence and presence of the inhibitor) was

  20. Carbon-14 tracer studies in rat-liver perfusion experiments under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellhofer, G.; Schwab, A.; Mueller, C.; Stetten, C. von; Gruber, E.

    1977-01-01

    The intracellular events in the metabolic pathway of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate in liver tissue were assumed to be understood. Nevertheless the results of several 14 C-tracer experiments gave rise to the postulation of still unknown intracellular interactions under this condition. A contribution was made to the solution of this problem by using different 14 C labelled tracers such as [1- 14 C]lactate or pyruvate and [2- 14 C]lactate or pyruvate. [ 14 C]bicarbonate and [1- 14 C]-octanoate in perfusion experiments with livers from rats under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate. The 14 C labelling patterns of intracellular metabolities such as malate, citrate, phosphoenolpyruvate, phosphoglycerate and newly synthesized glucose were analysed under different conditions. A comparison with values calculated by using metabolic models based on the generally accepted concepts of intracellular interactions showed some fundamental discrepancies which justify the postulation. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Measuring gluconeogenesis using a low dose of 2H2O: advantage of isotope fractionation during gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanik, Jill; McCabe, Brendan J; Brunengraber, Daniel Z; Chandramouli, Visvanathan; Nishiyama, Fumie J; Anderson, Vernon E; Previs, Stephen F

    2003-05-01

    The contribution of gluconeogenesis to glucose production can be measured by enriching body water with (2)H(2)O to approximately 0.5% (2)H and determining the ratio of (2)H that is bound to carbon-5 vs. carbon-2 of blood glucose. This labeling ratio can be measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after the corresponding glucose carbons are converted to formaldehyde and then to hexamethylenetetramine (HMT). We present a technique for integrating ion chromatograms that allows one to use only 0.05% (2)H in body water (i.e., 10 times less than the current dose). This technique takes advantage of the difference in gas chromatographic retention times of naturally labeled HMT and [(2)H]HMT. We discuss the advantage(s) of using a low dose of (2)H(2)O to quantify the contribution of gluconeogenesis.

  2. Impaired basal glucose effectiveness but unaltered fasting glucose release and gluconeogenesis during short-term hypercortisolemia in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael F; Caumo, Andrea; Chandramouli, Visvanathan

    2004-01-01

    Excess cortisol has been demonstrated to impair hepatic and extrahepatic insulin action. To determine whether glucose effectiveness and, in terms of endogenous glucose release (EGR), gluconeogenesis, also are altered by hypercortisolemia, eight healthy subjects were studied after overnight infusion...... resistance. Postabsorptive glucose production (P = 0.64) and the fractional....... Hepatic GE was lower during cortisol than during saline infusion (2.39 +/- 0.24 vs. 3.82 +/- 0.51 ml.kg-1.min-1; P

  3. Valproic acid reduces insulin-resistance, fat deposition and FOXO1-mediated gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sabbir; Kumar, Sandeep; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in insulin-resistance, gluconeogenesis and islet function. HDACs can modulate the expression of various genes, which directly or indirectly affect glucose metabolism. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of valproic acid (VPA) on fat deposition, insulin-resistance and gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic rat. Diabetes was developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by the combination of high-fat diet and low dose streptozotocin. VPA at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg/day and metformin (positive control) 150 mg/kg twice daily for 10 weeks were administered by oral gavage. Insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia and glycemia were evaluated by biochemical estimations, while fat accumulation and structural alteration were assessed by histopathology. Protein expression and insulin signaling were evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry. VPA treatment significantly reduced the plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin-resistance, fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue and liver, which are comparable to metformin treatment. Further, VPA inhibited the gluconeogenesis and glucagon expression as well as restored the histopathological alterations in pancreas and liver. Our findings provide new insights on the anti-diabetic role of VPA in type-2 diabetes mellitus by the modulation of insulin signaling and forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1)-mediated gluconeogenesis. Since VPA is a well established clinical drug, the detailed molecular mechanisms of the present findings can be further investigated for possible clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  4. The nuclear retinoid-related orphan receptor-α regulates adipose tissue glyceroneogenesis in addition to hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiri, Sarah; Monnier, Chloé; Ganbold, Munkhzul; Ledent, Tatiana; Capeau, Jacqueline; Antoine, Bénédicte

    2015-07-15

    Circadian rhythms have an essential role in feeding behavior and metabolism. RORα is a nuclear receptor involved in the interface of the circadian system and metabolism. The adipocyte glyceroneogenesis pathway derives free fatty acids (FFA) liberated by lipolysis to reesterification into triglycerides, thus regulating FFA homeostasis and fat mass. Glyceroneogenesis shares with hepatic gluconeogenesis the key enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase c (PEPCKc), whose gene is a RORα target in the liver. RORα-deficient mice (staggerer, ROR(sg/sg)) have been shown to exhibit a lean phenotype and fasting hypoglycemia for unsolved reasons. In the present study, we investigated whether adipocyte glyceroneogenesis might also be a target pathway of RORα, and we further evaluated the role of RORα in hepatocyte gluconeogenesis. In vivo investigations comparing ROR(sg/sg) mice with their wild-type (WT) littermates under fasting conditions demonstrated that, in the absence of RORα, the release of FFA into the bloodstream was altered and the rise in glycemia in response to pyruvate reduced. The functional analysis of each pathway, performed in adipose tissue or liver explants, confirmed the impairment of adipocyte glyceroneogenesis and liver gluconeogenesis in the ROR(sg/sg) mice; these reductions of FFA reesterification or glucose production were associated with decreases in PEPCKc mRNA and protein levels. Treatment of explants with RORα agonist or antagonist enhanced or inhibited these pathways, respectively, in tissues isolated from WT but not ROR(sg/sg) mice. Our results indicated that both adipocyte glyceroneogenesis and hepatocyte gluconeogenesis were regulated by RORα. This study demonstrates the physiological function of RORα in regulating both glucose and FFA homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. CRTC2 Is a Coactivator of GR and Couples GR and CREB in the Regulation of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Micah J; Suzuki, Shigeru; Segars, James H; Kino, Tomoshige

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones play essential roles in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver, an adaptive response that is required for the maintenance of circulating glucose levels during fasting. Glucocorticoids do this by cooperating with glucagon, which is secreted from pancreatic islets to activate the cAMP-signaling pathway in hepatocytes. The cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) is a coactivator known to be specific to CREB and plays a central role in the glucagon-mediated activation of gluconeogenesis in the early phase of fasting. We show here that CRTC2 also functions as a coactivator for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). CRTC2 strongly enhances GR-induced transcriptional activity of glucocorticoid-responsive genes. CRTC2 physically interacts with the ligand-binding domain of the GR through a region spanning amino acids 561-693. Further, CRTC2 is required for the glucocorticoid-associated cooperative mRNA expression of the glucose-6-phosphatase, a rate-limiting enzyme for hepatic gluconeogenesis, by facilitating the attraction of GR and itself to its promoter region already occupied by CREB. CRTC2 is required for the maintenance of blood glucose levels during fasting in mice by enhancing the GR transcriptional activity on both the G6p and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) genes. Finally, CRTC2 modulates the transcriptional activity of the progesterone receptor, indicating that it may influence the transcriptional activity of other steroid/nuclear receptors. Taken together, these results reveal that CRTC2 plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis through coordinated regulation of the glucocorticoid/GR- and glucagon/CREB-signaling pathways on the key genes G6P and PEPCK.

  6. Progressive Impairment of Lactate-based Gluconeogenesis in the Huntington?s Disease Mouse Model R6/2

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Signe Marie Borch; Hasholt, Lis; N?rrem?lle, Anne; Josefsen, Knud

    2015-01-01

    Huntington?s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative illness, where selective neuronal loss in the brain caused by expression of mutant huntingtin protein leads to motor dysfunction and cognitive decline in addition to peripheral metabolic changes. In this study we confirm our previous observation of impairment of lactate-based hepatic gluconeogenesis in the transgenic HD mouse model R6/2 and determine that the defect manifests very early and progresses in severity with disease development, indic...

  7. Phenobarbital reduces blood glucose and gluconeogenesis through down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) gene expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Hiroaki; Okuda, Yuji; Yoshida, Yukiko; Kimura, Noriko; Kakinuma, Atsushi

    2015-10-23

    The regulatory mechanism of phosphoenolpyruvate carboykinase (GTP) (EC 4.1.1.32) (PEPCK) gene expression and gluconeogenesis by phenobarbital (PB), which is known to induce drug-metabolizing enzymes, was investigated. Higher level of PEPCK mRNA was observed in spherical rat primary hepatocytes on EHS-gel than monolayer hepatocytes on TIC (type I collagen). We found that PB directly suppressed PEPCK gene expression in spherical hepatocytes on EHS-gel, but not in those on TIC. PB strongly suppressed cAMP-dependent induction of PEPCK gene expression. Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), another gluconeogenic enzyme, was induced by cAMP, but not suppressed by PB. Chronic administration of PB reduced hepatic PEPCK mRNA in streptozotocin-induced diabetic and nondiabetic rats, and PB reduced blood glucose level in diabetic rats. Increased TAT mRNA in diabetic rats was not suppressed by PB. These results indicated that PB-dependent reduction is specific to PEPCK. From pyrvate challenge test, PB suppressed the increased gluconeogenesis in diabetic rats. PEPCK gene promoter activity was suppressed by PB in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, we found that spherical hepatocytes cultured on EHS-gel are capable to respond to PB to suppress PEPCK gene expression. Moreover, our results indicate that hypoglycemic action of PB result from transcriptional repression of PEPCK gene and subsequent suppression of gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Loss of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 2 in Liver Leads to Defects in Gluconeogenesis and Compensation via Pyruvate-Alanine Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Chen, Zhouji; Fu, Xiaorong; McDonald, William G.; Colca, Jerry R.; Kletzien, Rolf F.; Burgess, Shawn C.; Finck, Brian N.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Pyruvate transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane is believed to be a prerequisite step for gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes, which is important for maintenance of normoglycemia during prolonged food deprivation, but also contributes to hyperglycemia in diabetes. To determine the requirement for mitochondrial pyruvate import in gluconeogenesis, mice with liver-specific deletion of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 2 (LS-Mpc2−/−) were generated. Loss of MPC2 impaired, but did not completely abolish, hepatocyte pyruvate metabolism, labelled pyruvate conversion to TCA cycle intermediates and glucose, and glucose production from pyruvate. Unbiased metabolomic analyses of livers from fasted LS-Mpc2−/− mice suggested that alterations in amino acid metabolism, including pyruvate-alanine cycling, might compensate for loss of MPC2. Indeed, inhibition of pyruvate-alanine transamination further reduced mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism and glucose production by LS-Mpc2−/− hepatocytes. These data demonstrate an important role for MPC2 in controlling hepatic gluconeogenesis and illuminate a compensatory mechanism for circumventing a block in mitochondrial pyruvate import. PMID:26344101

  9. Discovery and structure-activity relationships study of thieno[2,3-b]pyridine analogues as hepatic gluconeogenesis inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Tingting; Lei, Min; Chen, Jing; Wang, Xiachang; Zhang, Yinan; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2018-05-25

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic, complex and multifactorial metabolic disorder, and targeting gluconeogenesis inhibition is a promising strategy for anti-diabetic drug discovery. This study discovered a new class of thieno[2,3-b]pyridine derivatives as hepatic gluconeogenesis inhibitors. First, a hit compound (DMT: IC 50  = 33.8 μM) characterized by a thienopyridine core was identified in a cell-based screening of our privileged small molecule library. Structure activity relationships (SARs) study showed that replaced the CF 3 in the thienopyridine core could improve the potency and led to the discovery of 8e (IC 50  = 16.8 μM) and 9d (IC 50  = 12.3 μM) with potent inhibition of hepatic glucose production and good drug-like properties. Furthermore, the mechanism of 8e for the inhibition of hepatic glucose production was also identified, which could be effective through the reductive expression of the mRNA transcription level of gluconeogenic genes, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Additionally, 8e could also reduce the fasting blood glucose and improve the oral glucose tolerance and pyruvate tolerance in db/db mice. The optimization of this class of derivatives had provided us a start point to develop new anti-hepatic gluconeogenesis agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Redox-dependent Regulation of Gluconeogenesis by a Novel Mechanism Mediated by a Peroxidatic Cysteine of Peroxiredoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irokawa, Hayato; Tachibana, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Toshihiko; Matsuyama, Yuka; Motohashi, Hozumi; Ogasawara, Ayako; Iwai, Kenta; Naganuma, Akira; Kuge, Shusuke

    2016-09-16

    Peroxiredoxin is an abundant peroxidase, but its non-peroxidase function is also important. In this study, we discovered that Tsa1, a major peroxiredoxin of budding yeast cells, is required for the efficient flux of gluconeogenesis. We found that the suppression of pyruvate kinase (Pyk1) via the interaction with Tsa1 contributes in part to gluconeogenic enhancement. The physical interactions between Pyk1 and Tsa1 were augmented during the shift from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis. Intriguingly, a peroxidatic cysteine in the catalytic center of Tsa1 played an important role in the physical Tsa1-Pyk1 interactions. These interactions are enhanced by exogenous H2O2 and by endogenous reactive oxygen species, which is increased during gluconeogenesis. Only the peroxidatic cysteine, but no other catalytic cysteine of Tsa1, is required for efficient growth during the metabolic shift to obtain maximum yeast growth (biomass). This Tsa1 function is separable from the peroxidase function as an antioxidant. This is the first report to demonstrate that peroxiredoxin has a novel nonperoxidase function as a redox-dependent target modulator and that pyruvate kinase is modulated via an alternative mechanism.

  11. ERK1/2 pathway is involved in renal gluconeogenesis inhibition under conditions of lowered NADPH oxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarska, Katarzyna; Jarzyna, Robert; Dzik, Jolanta M; Jagielski, Adam K; Grabowski, Michal; Nowosielska, Agata; Focht, Dorota; Sierakowski, Bartosz

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the inhibition of renal gluconeogenesis occurring under conditions of lowered activity of NADPH oxidase (Nox), the enzyme considered to be one of the main sources of reactive oxygen species in kidneys. The in vitro experiments were performed on primary cultures of rat renal proximal tubules, with the use of apocynin, a selective Nox inhibitor, and TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), a potent superoxide radical scavenger. In the in vivo experiments, Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a well established model of diabetes type 2, were treated with apocynin solution in drinking water. The main in vitro findings are the following: (1) both apocynin and TEMPOL attenuate the rate of gluconeogenesis, inhibiting the step catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a key enzyme of the process; (2) in the presence of the above-noted compounds the expression of PEPCK and the phosphorylation of transcription factor CREB and ERK1/2 kinases are lowered; (3) both U0126 (MEK inhibitor) and 3-(2-aminoethyl)-5-((4-ethoxyphenyl)methylene)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (ERK inhibitor) diminish the rate of glucose synthesis via mechanisms similar to those of apocynin and TEMPOL. The observed apocynin in vivo effects include: (1) slight attenuation of hyperglycemia; (2) inhibition of renal gluconeogenesis; (3) a decrease in renal PEPCK activity and content. In view of the results summarized above, it can be concluded that: (1) the lowered activity of the ERK1/2 pathway is of importance for the inhibition of renal gluconeogenesis found under conditions of lowered superoxide radical production by Nox; (2) the mechanism of this phenomenon includes decreased PEPCK expression, resulting from diminished activity of transcription factor CREB; (3) apocynin-evoked inhibition of renal gluconeogenesis contributes to the hypoglycemic action of this compound observed in diabetic animals. Thus, the study has

  12. Glucose kinetics at rest and during exercise in gluconeogenesis-inhibited rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, L.P.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the role played by gluconeogenesis in blood glucose homeostasis, untrained and trained rats were injected with mercaptopicolinic acid (MPA), a known inhibitor of the gluconeogenic enzyme, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Glucose turnover, recycling and oxidation rates were assessed by primed-continuous infusion of [U- 14 C]- and [6- 3 H] glucose at rest and during submaximal exercise at 13.4 m/min on level grade. When compared to the untrained sham-injected animals, the untrained MPA-treated animals had 22% lower and 44% higher resting blood glucose and lactate concentrations, respectively. Resting glucose turnover, calculated from [6- 3 H]glucose, was 32% lower in the MPA-treated animals than in the sham-injected animals. During exercise, turnover increased in the sham-injected animals but remained unchanged in the MPA-treated animals. MPA-treated animals had no glucose recycling at rest or during exercise. Exercise further decreased blood glucose concentration and increased blood lactate concentration in the MPA-treated animals, but MPA treatment did not change the exercise-induced increases in glucose oxidation rate, % total VCO 2 arising from glucose oxidation and metabolic clearance rate of glucose

  13. Berberine improves glucose metabolism in diabetic rats by inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Berberine (BBR is a compound originally identified in a Chinese herbal medicine Huanglian (Coptis chinensis French. It improves glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic patients. The mechanisms involve in activation of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK and improvement of insulin sensitivity. However, it is not clear if BBR reduces blood glucose through other mechanism. In this study, we addressed this issue by examining liver response to BBR in diabetic rats, in which hyperglycemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by high fat diet. We observed that BBR decreased fasting glucose significantly. Gluconeogenic genes, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, were decreased in liver by BBR. Hepatic steatosis was also reduced by BBR and expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS was inhibited in liver. Activities of transcription factors including Forkhead transcription factor O1 (FoxO1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1 and carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP were decreased. Insulin signaling pathway was not altered in the liver. In cultured hepatocytes, BBR inhibited oxygen consumption and reduced intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP level. The data suggest that BBR improves fasting blood glucose by direct inhibition of gluconeogenesis in liver. This activity is not dependent on insulin action. The gluconeogenic inhibition is likely a result of mitochondria inhibition by BBR. The observation supports that BBR improves glucose metabolism through an insulin-independent pathway.

  14. USP7 Attenuates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis Through Modulation of FoxO1 Gene Promoter Occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jessica A.; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Rodgers, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic forkhead protein FoxO1 is a key component of systemic glucose homeostasis via its ability to regulate the transcription of rate-limiting enzymes in gluconeogenesis. Important in the regulation of FoxO1 transcriptional activity are the modifying/demodifying enzymes that lead to posttranslational modification. Here, we demonstrate the functional interaction and regulation of FoxO1 by herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7; also known as herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease, HAUSP), a deubiquitinating enzyme. We show that USP7-mediated mono-deubiquitination of FoxO1 results in suppression of FoxO1 transcriptional activity through decreased FoxO1 occupancy on the promoters of gluconeogenic genes. Knockdown of USP7 in primary hepatocytes leads to increased expression of FoxO1-target gluconeogenic genes and elevated glucose production. Consistent with this, USP7 gain-of-function suppresses the fasting/cAMP-induced activation of gluconeogenic genes in hepatocyte cells and in mouse liver, resulting in decreased hepatic glucose production. Notably, we show that the effects of USP7 on hepatic glucose metabolism depend on FoxO1. Together, these results place FoxO1 under the intimate regulation of deubiquitination and glucose metabolic control with important implication in diseases such as diabetes. PMID:24694308

  15. Estimation of gluconeogenesis and glucose utilization in carbohydate deficient growing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, F.W.; Egtesadi, S.; Rucker, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    A carbohydrate deficient diet based on food grade oleic acid and soybean oil and a minimally adequate level of casein protein was supplemented with graded levels of glucose (0, 4, 10, 65%), and casein protein (12% basal level plus 4, 6, 20%). Weanling rats were fed the respective diets for 28 days. Under anesthesia in fed state, the right jugular vein and left carotid artery were cannulated. NaH 14 CO 3 and 3 H-glucose labelled on C 6 were injected into aorta via carotid and blood samples taken from vena cava via jugular over a period of 30 minutes. Rate of increase of blood 14 C-glucose was the indicator of gluconeogenesis (GLNG). Disappearance of blood 3 H-glucose was the measure of glucose flux. Relative rate of GLNG was very high in basal unsupplemented rats, and glucose flux was very low. Rats growing rapidly with minimum supplementation (4% glucose or 6% casein) showed the lowest relative rate of GLNG and maximum glucose flux, of the order of 10 mg min -1 kg -1 . GLNG increased with higher levels of glucose and casein, but flux did not increase. The fed state glucose flux extrapolated to 24 hour basis was approximately 2X greater than the dietary intake of glucose and its equivalent of glucogenic precursors in rats fed the basal diet and low levels of supplements. Adjustment for lower flux in post absorptive state, based on flux in fasted rats, reduced the differences between observed flux and intake

  16. Gluconeogenesis from Storage Wax in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Robert A.; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1977-01-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the β oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings. Images PMID:16660087

  17. Non-Classical Gluconeogenesis-Dependent Glucose Metabolism in Rhipicephalus microplus Embryonic Cell Line BME26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Martins da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we evaluated several genes involved in gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and glycogen metabolism, the major pathways for carbohydrate catabolism and anabolism, in the BME26 Rhipicephalus microplus embryonic cell line. Genetic and catalytic control of the genes and enzymes associated with these pathways are modulated by alterations in energy resource availability (primarily glucose. BME26 cells in media were investigated using three different glucose concentrations, and changes in the transcription levels of target genes in response to carbohydrate utilization were assessed. The results indicate that several genes, such as glycogen synthase (GS, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and glucose-6 phosphatase (GP displayed mutual regulation in response to glucose treatment. Surprisingly, the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes was found to increase alongside that of glycolytic enzymes, especially pyruvate kinase, with high glucose treatment. In addition, RNAi data from this study revealed that the transcription of gluconeogenic genes in BME26 cells is controlled by GSK-3. Collectively, these results improve our understanding of how glucose metabolism is regulated at the genetic level in tick cells.

  18. The constitutive activation of Egr-1/C/EBPa mediates the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by enhancing hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ning; Jiang, Shan; Lu, Jia-Ming; Yu, Xiao; Lai, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Jing-Zi; Zhang, Jin-Long; Tao, Wei-Wei; Wang, Xiu-Xing; Xu, Na; Xue, Bin; Li, Chao-Jun

    2015-02-01

    The sequential secretion of insulin and glucagon delicately maintains glucose homeostasis by inhibiting or enhancing hepatic gluconeogenesis during postprandial or fasting states, respectively. Increased glucagon/insulin ratio is believed to be a major cause of the hyperglycemia seen in type 2 diabetes. Herein, we reveal that the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) can be transiently activated by glucagon in hepatocytes, which mediates glucagon-regulated gluconeogenesis by increasing the expression of gluconeogenesis genes. Blockage of Egr-1 function in the liver of mice led to lower fasting blood glucose, better pyruvate tolerance, and higher hepatic glycogen content. The mechanism analysis demonstrated that Egr-1 can directly bind to the promoter of C/EBPa and regulate the expression of gluconeogenesis genes in the later phase of glucagon stimulation. The transient increase of Egr-1 by glucagon kept the glucose homeostasis after fasting for longer periods of time, whereas constitutive Egr-1 elevation found in the liver of db/db mice and high serum glucagon level overactivated the C/EBPa/gluconeogenesis pathway and resulted in hyperglycemia. Blockage of Egr-1 activation in prediabetic db/db mice was able to delay the progression of diabetes. Our results suggest that dysregulation of Egr-1/C/EBPa on glucagon stimulation may provide an alternative mechanistic explanation for type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impairments of hepatic gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis in PPARα-deficient neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, David G; Ercal, Baris; d'Avignon, D André; Dietzen, Dennis J; Crawford, Peter A

    2014-07-15

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα) is a master transcriptional regulator of hepatic metabolism and mediates the adaptive response to fasting. Here, we demonstrate the roles for PPARα in hepatic metabolic adaptations to birth. Like fasting, nutrient supply is abruptly altered at birth when a transplacental source of carbohydrates is replaced by a high-fat, low-carbohydrate milk diet. PPARα-knockout (KO) neonatal mice exhibit relative hypoglycemia due to impaired conversion of glycerol to glucose. Although hepatic expression of fatty acyl-CoA dehydrogenases is imparied in PPARα neonates, these animals exhibit normal blood acylcarnitine profiles. Furthermore, quantitative metabolic fate mapping of the medium-chain fatty acid [(13)C]octanoate in neonatal mouse livers revealed normal contribution of this fatty acid to the hepatic TCA cycle. Interestingly, octanoate-derived carbon labeled glucose uniquely in livers of PPARα-KO neonates. Relative hypoketonemia in newborn PPARα-KO animals could be mechanistically linked to a 50% decrease in de novo hepatic ketogenesis from labeled octanoate. Decreased ketogenesis was associated with diminished mRNA and protein abundance of the fate-committing ketogenic enzyme mitochondrial 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS2) and decreased protein abundance of the ketogenic enzyme β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 (BDH1). Finally, hepatic triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations were increased 6.9- and 2.7-fold, respectively, in suckling PPARα-KO neonates. Together, these findings indicate a primary defect of gluconeogenesis from glycerol and an important role for PPARα-dependent ketogenesis in the disposal of hepatic fatty acids during the neonatal period. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  20. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Späth, Katharina; Boswell, Lyndsey; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

    2015-01-01

    Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg) or vehicle control from day 62 to day102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01) and G6PC (P = 0.057) were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01) and testosterone (P<0.001) in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01) and AR (P<0.05) in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development. PMID:26148093

  1. Glucose kinetics in gluconeogenesis-inhibited rats during rest and exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, L.P.; Rovner, A.S.; Roark, R.R.; Brooks, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the role played by gluconeogenesis in blood glucose homeostasis, female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with mercaptopicolinic acid (MPA), a gluconeogenic inhibitor. Glucose kinetics were assessed by primed, continuous infusion of [U-14C]- and [6(-3)H]glucose via an indwelling jugular catheter at rest and during submaximal exercise at 13.4 m/min on level grade. Blood samples were taken from carotid catheters and analyzed for glucose and lactate concentrations and specific activities. Tissue glycogen samples were obtained from rats after exercise as well as from unexercised animals. When compared with the sham-injected animals, MPA-treated animals had 22% lower (5.92 +/- 0.36 vs. 7.62 +/- 0.21 mM) and 44% higher (1.90 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.32 +/- 0.09 mM) resting arterial glucose and lactate concentrations, respectively. Resting glucose appearance (Ra) rates were 20% lower in the MPA-treated animals (57.2 +/- 7.5 mumol.kg-1.min-1) than in the sham-injected animals (71.1 +/- 12.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1). During exercise, Ra increased to 174.7 +/- 32.8 mumol.kg-1.min-1 in sham-injected animals. In the MPA-treated animals, there was a 35% increase during the first 15 min of exercise, followed by a decrease to the resting values. MPA-treated animals had no measurable glucose recycling at rest or during exercise. Exercise decreased blood glucose concentration (35%) and increased blood lactate concentration (160%) in the MPA-treated animals. Exercising sham-injected animals had increased blood glucose (9.8%) but no change in blood lactate concentration. Moderate depletions in liver and skeletal muscle glycogen contents were observed after exercise

  2. Intestinal gluconeogenesis is crucial to maintain a physiological fasting glycemia in the absence of hepatic glucose production in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penhoat, Armelle; Fayard, Laetitia; Stefanutti, Anne; Mithieux, Gilles; Rajas, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Similar to the liver and kidneys, the intestine has been strongly suggested to be a gluconeogenic organ. However, the precise contribution of the intestine to endogenous glucose production (EGP) remains to be determined. To define the quantitative role of intestinal gluconeogenesis during long-term fasting, we compared changes in blood glucose during prolonged fasting in mice with a liver-deletion of the glucose-6 phosphatase catalytic (G6PC) subunit (LKO) and in mice with a combined deletion of G6PC in both the liver and the intestine (ILKO). The LKO and ILKO mice were studied after 6h and 40 h of fasting by measuring metabolic and hormonal plasmatic parameters, as well as the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in the liver, kidneys and intestine. After a transient hypoglycemic episode (approximately 60 mg/dL) because of their incapacity to mobilize liver glycogen, the LKO mice progressively re-increased their plasma glucose to reach a glycemia comparable to that of wild-type mice (90 mg/dL) from 30 h of fasting. This increase was associated with a rapid induction of renal and intestinal gluconeogenic gene expression, driven by glucagon, glucocorticoids and acidosis. The ILKO mice exhibited a similar induction of renal gluconeogenesis. However, these mice failed to re-increase their glycemia and maintained a plasma glucose level of only 60 mg/dL throughout the 48 h-fasting period. These data indicate that intestinal glucose production is essential to maintain glucose homeostasis in the absence of hepatic glucose production during fasting. These data provide a definitive quantitative estimate of the capacity of intestinal gluconeogenesis to sustain EGP during long-term fasting. © 2013.

  3. A decrease in hepatic microRNA-9 expression impairs gluconeogenesis by targeting FOXO1 in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Caifeng; Chen, Jinfeng; Li, Min; Xuan, Wenying; Su, Dongming; You, Hui; Huang, Yujie; Chen, Nuoqi; Liang, Xiubin

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNA-9 (miR-9) is involved in the regulation of pancreatic beta cell function. However, its role in gluconeogenesis is still unclear. Our objective was to investigate the role of miR-9 in hepatic glucose production (HGP). MiR-9 expression was measured in livers of high-fat diet (HFD) mice and ob/ob mice. The methylation status of the miR-9-3 promoter regions in hepatocytes was determined by the methylation-specific PCR procedure. The binding activity of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b on the miR-9-3 promoter was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and quantitative real-time PCR assays. HGP was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and pyruvate tolerance tests were also performed. Reduced miR-9 expression and hypermethylation of the miR-9-3 promoter were observed in the livers of obese mice. Further study showed that the binding of DNMT1, but not of DNMT3a and DNMT3b, to the miR-9-3 promoter was increased in hepatocytes from ob/ob mice. Knockdown of DNMT1 alleviated the decrease in hepatic miR-9 expression in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression of hepatic miR-9 improved insulin sensitivity in obese mice and inhibited HGP. In addition, deletion of hepatic miR-9 led to an increase in random and fasting blood glucose levels in lean mice. Importantly, silenced forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) expression reversed the gluconeogenesis and glucose production in hepatocytes induced by miR-9 deletion. Our observations suggest that the decrease in miR-9 expression contributes to an inappropriately activated gluconeogenesis in obese mice.

  4. New insights into the nutritional regulation of gluconeogenesis in carnivorous rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): a gene duplication trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandel, Lucie; Seiliez, Iban; Véron, Vincent; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Panserat, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is considered to be a strictly carnivorous fish species that is metabolically adapted for high catabolism of proteins and low utilization of dietary carbohydrates. This species consequently has a "glucose-intolerant" phenotype manifested by persistent hyperglycemia when fed a high-carbohydrate diet. Gluconeogenesis in adult fish is also poorly, if ever, regulated by carbohydrates, suggesting that this metabolic pathway is involved in this specific phenotype. In this study, we hypothesized that the fate of duplicated genes after the salmonid-specific 4th whole genome duplication (Ss4R) may have led to adaptive innovation and that their study might provide new elements to enhance our understanding of gluconeogenesis and poor dietary carbohydrate use in this species. Our evolutionary analysis of gluconeogenic genes revealed that pck1, pck2, fbp1a, and g6pca were retained as singletons after Ss4r, while g6pcb1, g6pcb2, and fbp1b ohnolog pairs were maintained. For all genes, duplication may have led to sub- or neofunctionalization. Expression profiles suggest that the gluconeogenesis pathway remained active in trout fed a no-carbohydrate diet. When trout were fed a high-carbohydrate diet (30%), most of the gluconeogenic genes were non- or downregulated, except for g6pbc2 ohnologs, whose RNA levels were surprisingly increased. This study demonstrates that Ss4R in trout involved adaptive innovation via gene duplication and via the outcome of the resulting ohnologs. Indeed, maintenance of ohnologous g6pcb2 pair may contribute in a significant way to the glucose-intolerant phenotype of trout and may partially explain its poor use of dietary carbohydrates. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Effect of Simulated Microgravity on the Activity of Regulatory Enzymes of Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis in Mice Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Joaquin; Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.; Sharma, S. Chidananda

    2014-02-01

    Gravity supports all the life activities present on earth. Microgravity environments have effect on the biological functions and physiological status of an individual. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of simulated microgravity on important regulatory enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in liver using HLS mice model. Following hind limb unloading of mice for 11 days the animal's average body weights were found to be not different, while the liver weights were decreased and found to be significantly different ( p gluconeogenesis in liver and reciprocally regulated.

  6. Activation of the constitutive androstane receptor inhibits gluconeogenesis without affecting lipogenesis or fatty acid synthesis in human hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Caitlin; Pan, Yongmei; Li, Linhao [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Heyward, Scott; Moeller, Timothy [Bioreclamation In Vitro Technologies, Baltimore, MD 21227 (United States); Swaan, Peter W. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Wang, Hongbing, E-mail: hwang@rx.umaryland.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Objective: Accumulating evidence suggests that activation of mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) alleviates type 2 diabetes and obesity by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis. However, the role of human (h) CAR in energy metabolism is largely unknown. The present study aims to investigate the effects of selective hCAR activators on hepatic energy metabolism in human primary hepatocytes (HPH). Methods: Ligand-based structure–activity models were used for virtual screening of the Specs database ( (www.specs.net)) followed by biological validation in cell-based luciferase assays. The effects of two novel hCAR activators (UM104 and UM145) on hepatic energy metabolism were evaluated in HPH. Results: Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses reveal that activation of hCAR by UM104 and UM145 significantly repressed the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, two pivotal gluconeogenic enzymes, while exerting negligible effects on the expression of genes associated with lipogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Functional experiments show that UM104 and UM145 markedly inhibit hepatic synthesis of glucose but not triglycerides in HPH. In contrast, activation of mCAR by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, a selective mCAR activator, repressed the expression of genes associated with gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis in mouse primary hepatocytes, which were consistent with previous observations in mouse model in vivo. Conclusion: Our findings uncover an important species difference between hCAR and mCAR in hepatic energy metabolism, where hCAR selectively inhibits gluconeogenesis without suppressing fatty acid synthesis. Implications: Such species selectivity should be considered when exploring CAR as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. - Highlights: • Novel hCAR activators were identified by computational and biological approaches. • The role

  7. Activation of the constitutive androstane receptor inhibits gluconeogenesis without affecting lipogenesis or fatty acid synthesis in human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Caitlin; Pan, Yongmei; Li, Linhao; Heyward, Scott; Moeller, Timothy; Swaan, Peter W.; Wang, Hongbing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Accumulating evidence suggests that activation of mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) alleviates type 2 diabetes and obesity by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis. However, the role of human (h) CAR in energy metabolism is largely unknown. The present study aims to investigate the effects of selective hCAR activators on hepatic energy metabolism in human primary hepatocytes (HPH). Methods: Ligand-based structure–activity models were used for virtual screening of the Specs database ( (www.specs.net)) followed by biological validation in cell-based luciferase assays. The effects of two novel hCAR activators (UM104 and UM145) on hepatic energy metabolism were evaluated in HPH. Results: Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses reveal that activation of hCAR by UM104 and UM145 significantly repressed the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, two pivotal gluconeogenic enzymes, while exerting negligible effects on the expression of genes associated with lipogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Functional experiments show that UM104 and UM145 markedly inhibit hepatic synthesis of glucose but not triglycerides in HPH. In contrast, activation of mCAR by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, a selective mCAR activator, repressed the expression of genes associated with gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis in mouse primary hepatocytes, which were consistent with previous observations in mouse model in vivo. Conclusion: Our findings uncover an important species difference between hCAR and mCAR in hepatic energy metabolism, where hCAR selectively inhibits gluconeogenesis without suppressing fatty acid synthesis. Implications: Such species selectivity should be considered when exploring CAR as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. - Highlights: • Novel hCAR activators were identified by computational and biological approaches. • The role

  8. Cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate as a component of a new branch in gluconeogenesis in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorkovenko, A; Roberts, M F

    1993-01-01

    A unique compound, cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (cDPG), is the major soluble carbon and phosphorus solute in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H under optimal conditions of cell growth. It is a component of an unusual branch in gluconeogenesis in these bacteria. [U-13C]acetate pulse-[12C]acetate chase methodology was used to observe the relationship between cDPG and other metabolites (2-phosphoglycerate and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate [2-PG and 2,3-DPG, respectively]) of this branch. It ...

  9. Progressive Impairment of Lactate-based Gluconeogenesis in the Huntington's Disease Mouse Model R6/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Signe Marie Borch; Hasholt, Lis; Nørremølle, Anne; Josefsen, Knud

    2015-04-20

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative illness, where selective neuronal loss in the brain caused by expression of mutant huntingtin protein leads to motor dysfunction and cognitive decline in addition to peripheral metabolic changes. In this study we confirm our previous observation of impairment of lactate-based hepatic gluconeogenesis in the transgenic HD mouse model R6/2 and determine that the defect manifests very early and progresses in severity with disease development, indicating a potential to explore this defect in a biomarker context. Moreover, R6/2 animals displayed lower blood glucose levels during prolonged fasting compared to wild type animals.

  10. GdCl3 reduces hyperglycaemia through Akt/FoxO1-induced suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis in Type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Ning; Dong, Mei; Chen, Fang; Li, Zhong; Chen, Yuanyuan

    2014-07-01

    GdCl3 (gadolinium chloride) has been shown to reduce blood glucose; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Liver gluconeogenesis is an important pathway involved in the maintenance of glucose homoeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of GdCl3 in hepatic gluconeogenesis and explore the precise molecular mechanism. Animals from a classical Type 2 diabetic mouse model, created by exposing C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat diet for 4 months, were treated with GdCl3 or saline. Body weight, blood glucose and insulin sensitivity were monitored. It was observed that GdCl3 significantly reduced blood glucose levels and improved insulin sensitivity. A pyruvate tolerance test showed further that GdCl3 suppressed gluconeogenesis in diabetic mice. In the livers of GdCl3-treated mice, the expression of Pepck (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and G6pase (glucose-6-phosphatase), the key enzymes in gluconeogenesis, were dramatically reduced. Furthermore, experiments in hepatocarcinoma cells revealed that GdCl3 activated the Akt pathway to promote the phosphorylation of FoxO1 (forkhead box O1), leading to the suppression of gluconeogenesis by reducing the expression of PEPCK and G6Pase and resulting in decreased cellular production of glucose. Comparable results were observed in the livers of GdCl3-treated mice. In addition, we have shown that GdCl3 augmented the role of insulin to control hepatic glucose production. We conclude that GdCl3 reduces hyperglycaemia via the Akt/FoxO1-induced suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis, both in Type 2 diabetic mice (in vivo) and in hepatocarcinoma cells (in vitro), suggesting that GdCl3 may be a potential therapeutic agent for diabetes.

  11. Linderane Suppresses Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Inhibiting the cAMP/PKA/CREB Pathway Through Indirect Activation of PDE 3 via ERK/STAT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xie

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3, a cyclic AMP (cAMP-degrading enzyme, in modulating gluconeogenesis remains unknown. Here, linderane, a natural compound, was found to inhibit gluconeogenesis by activating hepatic PDE3 in rat primary hepatocytes. The underlying molecular mechanism and its effects on whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated. The effect of linderane on gluconeogenesis, cAMP content, phosphorylation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB and PDE activity were examined in cultured primary hepatocytes and C57BL/6J mice. The precise mechanism by which linderane activates PDE3 and inhibits the cAMP pathway was explored using pharmacological inhibitors. The amelioration of metabolic disorders was observed in ob/ob mice. Linderane inhibited gluconeogenesis, reduced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1 and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc gene expression, and decreased intracellular cAMP concentration and CREB phosphorylation in rat primary hepatocytes under both basal and forskolin-stimulated conditions. In rat primary hepatocytes, it also increased total PDE and PDE3 activity but not PDE4 activity. The suppressive effect of linderane on the cAMP pathway and gluconeogenesis was abolished by the non-specific PDE inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX and the specific PDE3 inhibitor cilostazol. Linderane indirectly activated PDE3 through extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 activation. Linderane improved glucose and lipid metabolism after chronic oral administration in ob/ob mice. Our findings revealed linderane as an indirect PDE3 activator that suppresses gluconeogenesis through cAMP pathway inhibition and has beneficial effects on metabolic syndromes in ob/ob mice. This investigation highlighted the potential for PDE3 activation in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  12. Determination of Krebs cycle metabolic carbon exchange in vivo and its use to estimate the individual contributions of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to overall glucose output in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consoli, A.; Kennedy, F.; Miles, J.; Gerich, J.

    1987-01-01

    Current isotopic approaches underestimate gluconeogenesis in vivo because of Krebs cycle carbon exchange and the inability to measure intramitochondrial precursor specific activity. We therefore applied a new isotopic approach that theoretically overcomes these limitations and permits quantification of Krebs cycle carbon exchange and the individual contributions of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to overall glucose outputex. [6-3H]Glucose was infused to measure overall glucose output; [2-14C]acetate was infused to trace phosphoenolpyruvate gluconeogenesis and to calculate Krebs cycle carbon exchange as proposed by Katz. Plasma [14C]3-OH-butyrate specific activity was used to estimate intramitochondrial acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) specific activity, and finally the ratio between plasma glucose 14C-specific activity and the calculated intracellular phosphoenolpyruvate 14C-specific activity was used to determine the relative contributions of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to overall glucose output. Using this approach, acetyl CoA was found to enter the Krebs cycle at twice (postabsorptive subjects) and three times (2 1/2-d fasted subjects) the rate of pyruvate, respectively. Gluconeogenesis in postabsorptive subjects (3.36 +/- 0.20 mumol/kg per min) accounted for 28 +/- 2% of overall glucose output and increased twofold in subjects fasted for 2 1/2-d (P less than 0.01), accounting for greater than 97% of overall glucose output. Glycogenolysis in postabsorptive subjects averaged 8.96 +/- 0.40 mumol/kg per min and decreased to 0.34 +/- 0.08 mumol/kg per min (P less than 0.01) after a 2 1/2-d fast. Since these results agree well with previously reported values for gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis based on determinations of splanchnic substrate balance and glycogen content of serial liver biopsies

  13. Decreased hepatic response to glucagon, adrenergic agonists, and cAMP in glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazi, Giuliana R; Frasson, Isabele G; Miksza, Daniele R; de Morais, Hely; de Fatima Silva, Flaviane; Bertolini, Gisele L; de Souza, Helenir M

    2018-05-15

    The response to glucagon and adrenaline in cancer cachexia is poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate the response to glucagon, adrenergic agonists (α and β) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) on glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in liver perfusion of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats with advanced cachexia. Liver ATP content was also investigated. Rats without tumor (healthy) were used as controls. Agonists α (phenylephrine) and β (isoproterenol) adrenergic, instead of adrenaline, and cAMP, the second messenger of glucagon and isoproterenol, were used in an attempt to identify mechanisms involved in the responses. Glucagon (1 nM) stimulated glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and inhibited glycolysis in the liver of healthy and tumor-bearing rats, but their effects were lower in tumor-bearing rats. Isoproterenol (20 µM) stimulated glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in healthy rats and had virtually no effect in tumor-bearing rats. cAMP (9 µM) also stimulated glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and inhibited glycolysis in healthy rats but had practically no effect in tumor-bearing rats. Phenylephrine (2 µM) stimulated glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and inhibited glycolysis and these effects were also lower in tumor-bearing rats than in healthy. Liver ATP content was lower in tumor-bearing rats. In conclusion, tumor-bearing rats with advanced cachexia showed a decreased hepatic response to glucagon, adrenergic agonists (α and β), and cAMP in glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis, which may be due to a reduced rate of regulatory enzyme phosphorylation caused by the low ATP levels in the liver. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Contribution of several amino acids and lactate to gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes isolated from rats fed various diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaloyianni, M.; Freedland, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The contribution under various nutritional regimens of several amino acids and lactate to gluconeogenesis was estimated by measuring the glucose formation from 14C-labeled substrates. Isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated for 60 min in a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer pH 7.4 containing lactate, pyruvate and all the amino acids at concentrations similar to their physiological levels found in rat plasma, with one precursor labeled in each flask. In all conditions, lactate was the major glucose precursor, providing over 60% of the glucose formed. Glutamine and alanine were the major amino acid precursors of glucose, contributing 9.8% and 10.6% of the glucose formed, respectively, in hepatocytes isolated from starved rats. Serine, glycine and threonine also contributed to gluconeogenesis in the starved liver cells at 2.6, 2.1 and 3.8%, respectively, of the glucose formed. The rate of glucose formation from the isolated hepatocytes of the starved rats and those fed either high protein or high fat was higher than that from rats fed a nonpurified diet

  15. Transcription factor 19 interacts with histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation and controls gluconeogenesis via the nucleosome-remodeling-deacetylase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sabyasachi; Sanyal, Sulagna; Srivastava, Dushyant Kumar; Dasgupta, Dipak; Roy, Siddhartha; Das, Chandrima

    2017-12-15

    Transcription factor 19 (TCF19) has been reported as a type 1 diabetes-associated locus involved in maintenance of pancreatic β cells through a fine-tuned regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. TCF19 also exhibits genomic association with type 2 diabetes, although the precise molecular mechanism remains unknown. It harbors both a plant homeodomain and a forkhead-associated domain implicated in epigenetic recognition and gene regulation, a phenomenon that has remained unexplored. Here, we show that TCF19 selectively interacts with histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation through its plant homeodomain finger. Knocking down TCF19 under high-glucose conditions affected many metabolic processes, including gluconeogenesis. We found that TCF19 overexpression represses de novo glucose production in HepG2 cells. The transcriptional repression of key genes, induced by TCF19, coincided with NuRD (nucleosome-remodeling-deacetylase) complex recruitment to the promoters of these genes. TCF19 interacted with CHD4 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4), which is a part of the NuRD complex, in a glucose concentration-independent manner. In summary, our results show that TCF19 interacts with an active transcription mark and recruits a co-repressor complex to regulate gluconeogenic gene expression in HepG2 cells. Our study offers critical insights into the molecular mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of gluconeogenesis and into the roles of chromatin readers in metabolic homeostasis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Liver AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Is Unnecessary for Gluconeogenesis but Protects Energy State during Nutrient Deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton M Hasenour

    Full Text Available AMPK is an energy sensor that protects cellular energy state by attenuating anabolic and promoting catabolic processes. AMPK signaling is purported to regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and substrate oxidation; coordination of these processes is vital during nutrient deprivation or pathogenic during overnutrition. Here we directly test hepatic AMPK function in regulating metabolic fluxes that converge to produce glucose and energy in vivo. Flux analysis was applied in mice with a liver-specific deletion of AMPK (L-KO or floxed control littermates to assess rates of hepatic glucose producing and citric acid cycle (CAC fluxes. Fluxes were assessed in short and long term fasted mice; the latter condition is a nutrient stressor that increases liver AMP/ATP. The flux circuit connecting anaplerosis with gluconeogenesis from the CAC was unaffected by hepatic AMPK deletion in short and long term fasting. Nevertheless, depletion of hepatic ATP was exacerbated in L-KO mice, corresponding to a relative elevation in citrate synthase flux and accumulation of branched-chain amino acid-related metabolites. L-KO mice also had a physiological reduction in flux from glycogen to G6P. These results demonstrate AMPK is unnecessary for maintaining gluconeogenic flux from the CAC yet is critical for stabilizing liver energy state during nutrient deprivation.

  17. Gluconeogenesis, non-essential amino acid synthesis and substrate partitioning in chicken embryos during later development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q; Agarwal, U; Bequette, B J

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to quantify the rate of gluconeogenesis (GNG), non-essential amino-acid (NEAA) synthesis, and substrate partitioning to the Krebs cycle in embryonic (e) day e14 and e19 chicken embryos. An in ovo continuous tracer infusion approach was employed to test the hypotheses that GNG and NEAA synthesis in developing chicken embryo increases from e14 to e19. [ 13 C 6 ]Glucose or [ 13 C 3 ]glycerol was continuously infused (8 h) into the chorio-allantoic compartment of eggs on e14 and e19. Glucose entry rate, Cori cycling, and GNG were higher (P < 0.05) in e19 compared to e14 embryos, presumably to support higher glycogen deposition in liver and muscle. Whereas de novo synthesis of alanine, aspartate, and glutamate via glycolysis and the Krebs cycle was higher (P < 0.01) in e14 embryos, synthesis of these NEAA from glycerol was higher (P < 0.05) in e19 compared to e14 embryos. These patterns of glucose and glycerol utilization suggest a metabolic shift to conserve glucose for glycogen synthesis and an increased utilization of yolk glycerol (from triacylglyceride) after e14. Although the contribution of glycerol to GNG in e19 embryos was higher (P < 0.05) than that in e14 embryos, the contribution of glycerol to GNG (1.3 to 6.0%) was minor. Based on [ 13 C 6 ]glucose tracer kinetics, the activities of both pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in the liver were higher (P < 0.05) in e19 embryos; whereas the higher (P < 0.01) relative activity of liver PC compared to PDH in e14 embryos suggests a greater anaplerotic flux into the Krebs cycle. In summary, the in ovo continuous tracer infusion approach allowed for a measurement of chicken embryo whole body and liver metabolism over a shorter window of development. This study provided quantitative estimates of the developmental shifts in substrate utilization, GNG, and NEAA synthesis by chicken embryos, as well as qualitative estimates of the activities of enzymes central to the Krebs cycle

  18. Fitness of Escherichia coli during urinary tract infection requires gluconeogenesis and the TCA cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Alteri

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogenesis studies traditionally encompass dissection of virulence properties such as the bacterium's ability to elaborate toxins, adhere to and invade host cells, cause tissue damage, or otherwise disrupt normal host immune and cellular functions. In contrast, bacterial metabolism during infection has only been recently appreciated to contribute to persistence as much as their virulence properties. In this study, we used comparative proteomics to investigate the expression of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC cytoplasmic proteins during growth in the urinary tract environment and systematic disruption of central metabolic pathways to better understand bacterial metabolism during infection. Using two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and tandem mass spectrometry, it was found that UPEC differentially expresses 84 cytoplasmic proteins between growth in LB medium and growth in human urine (P<0.005. Proteins induced during growth in urine included those involved in the import of short peptides and enzymes required for the transport and catabolism of sialic acid, gluconate, and the pentose sugars xylose and arabinose. Proteins required for the biosynthesis of arginine and serine along with the enzyme agmatinase that is used to produce the polyamine putrescine were also up-regulated in urine. To complement these data, we constructed mutants in these genes and created mutants defective in each central metabolic pathway and tested the relative fitness of these UPEC mutants in vivo in an infection model. Import of peptides, gluconeogenesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle are required for E. coli fitness during urinary tract infection while glycolysis, both the non-oxidative and oxidative branches of the pentose phosphate pathway, and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway were dispensable in vivo. These findings suggest that peptides and amino acids are the primary carbon source for E. coli during infection of

  19. Insulin-induced inhibition of gluconeogenesis genes, including glutamic pyruvic transaminase 2, is associated with reduced histone acetylation in a human liver cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Kazue; Kamikubo, Michiko; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2017-06-01

    Hepatic glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT; also known as alanine aminotransferase) is a gluconeogenesis enzyme that catalyzes conversions between alanine and pyruvic acid. It is also used as a blood biomarker for hepatic damage. In this study, we investigated whether insulin regulates GPT expression, as it does for other gluconeogenesis genes, and if this involves the epigenetic modification of histone acetylation. Human liver-derived HepG2 cells were cultured with 0.5-100nM insulin for 8h, and the mRNA expression of GPT, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), PCK1, G6PC and FBP1 was measured. We also investigated the extent of histone acetylation around these genes. Insulin suppressed the mRNA expression of gluconeogenesis genes (GPT2, GOT1, GOT2, GGT1, GGT2, G6PC, and PCK1) in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA levels of GPT2, but not GPT1, were decreased by insulin. Histone acetylation was also reduced around GPT2, G6PC, and PCK1 in response to insulin. The expression of GPT2 and other gluconeogenesis genes such as G6PC and PCK1 was suppressed by insulin, in association with decreases in histone H3 and H4 acetylation surrounding these genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. GCN5L1 modulates cross-talk between mitochondria and cell signaling to regulate FoxO1 stability and gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingdi; Scott, Iain; Zhu, Lu; Wu, Kaiyuan; Han, Kim; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Sack, Michael N

    2017-09-12

    The mitochondrial enriched GCN5-like 1 (GCN5L1) protein has been shown to modulate mitochondrial protein acetylation, mitochondrial content and mitochondrial retrograde signaling. Here we show that hepatic GCN5L1 ablation reduces fasting glucose levels and blunts hepatic gluconeogenesis without affecting systemic glucose tolerance. PEPCK and G6Pase transcript levels are downregulated in hepatocytes from GCN5L1 liver specific knockout mice and their upstream regulator, FoxO1 protein levels are decreased via proteasome-dependent degradation and via reactive oxygen species mediated ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. ERK inhibition restores FoxO1, gluconeogenic enzyme expression and glucose production. Reconstitution of mitochondrial-targeted GCN5L1 blunts mitochondrial ROS, ERK activation and increases FoxO1, gluconeogenic enzyme expression and hepatocyte glucose production. We suggest that mitochondrial GCN5L1 modulates post-translational control of FoxO1, regulates gluconeogenesis and controls metabolic pathways via mitochondrial ROS mediated ERK activation. Exploring mechanisms underpinning GCN5L1 mediated ROS signaling may expand our understanding of the role of mitochondria in gluconeogenesis control.Hepatic gluconeogenesis is tightly regulated at transcriptional level and is essential for survival during prolonged fasting. Here Wang et al. show that the mitochondrial enriched GCN5-like 1 protein controls hepatic glucose production by regulating FoxO1 protein levels via proteasome-dependent degradation and, in turn, gluconeogenic gene expression.

  1. TGF-β1/Smad3 Pathway Targets PP2A-AMPK-FoxO1 Signaling to Regulate Hepatic Gluconeogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hariom; Devalaraja, Samir; Chung, Stephanie T.; Rane, Sushil G.

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is essential for normal physiology. Deviation from normal glucose levels, in either direction, increases susceptibility to serious medical complications such as hypoglycemia and diabetes. Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is achieved via functional interactions among various organs: liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, brain, and the endocrine pancreas. The liver is the primary site of endogenous glucose production, especially during states of prolonged fasting. However, enhanced gluconeogenesis is also a signature feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus, elucidating the signaling pathways that regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis would allow better insight into the process of normal endogenous glucose production as well as how this process is impaired in T2D. Here we demonstrate that the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis, both upon prolonged fasting and during T2D. In contrast, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad3 signals suppressed endogenous glucose production. TGF-β1 and Smad3 signals achieved this effect via the targeting of key regulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and FoxO1 proteins. Specifically, TGF-β1 signaling suppressed the LKB1-AMPK axis, thereby facilitating the nuclear translocation of FoxO1 and activation of key gluconeogenic genes, glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. These findings underscore an important role of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling in hepatic gluconeogenesis, both in normal physiology and in the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases such as diabetes, and are thus of significant medical relevance. PMID:28069811

  2. Forkhead Box O6 (FoxO6) Depletion Attenuates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Protects against Fat-induced Glucose Disorder in Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabuig-Navarro, Virtu; Yamauchi, Jun; Lee, Sojin; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yun-Zi; Sadlek, Kelsey; Coudriet, Gina M.; Piganelli, Jon D.; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Miller, Rita; Lowe, Mark; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Dong, H. Henry

    2015-01-01

    Excessive endogenous glucose production contributes to fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. FoxO6 is a distinct member of the FoxO subfamily. To elucidate the role of FoxO6 in hepatic gluconeogenesis and assess its contribution to the pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes, we generated FoxO6 knock-out (FoxO6-KO) mice followed by determining the effect of FoxO6 loss-of-function on hepatic gluconeogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. FoxO6 depletion attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis and lowered fasting glycemia in FoxO6-KO mice. FoxO6-deficient primary hepatocytes were associated with reduced capacities to produce glucose in response to glucagon. When fed a high fat diet, FoxO6-KO mice exhibited significantly enhanced glucose tolerance and reduced blood glucose levels accompanied by improved insulin sensitivity. These effects correlated with attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis in FoxO6-KO mice. In contrast, wild-type littermates developed fat-induced glucose intolerance with a concomitant induction of fasting hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, FoxO6-KO mice displayed significantly diminished macrophage infiltration into liver and adipose tissues, correlating with the reduction of macrophage expression of C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), a factor that is critical for regulating macrophage recruitment in peripheral tissues. Our data indicate that FoxO6 depletion protected against diet-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance by attenuating hepatic gluconeogenesis and curbing macrophage infiltration in liver and adipose tissues in mice. PMID:25944898

  3. TGF-β1/Smad3 Pathway Targets PP2A-AMPK-FoxO1 Signaling to Regulate Hepatic Gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hariom; Devalaraja, Samir; Chung, Stephanie T; Rane, Sushil G

    2017-02-24

    Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is essential for normal physiology. Deviation from normal glucose levels, in either direction, increases susceptibility to serious medical complications such as hypoglycemia and diabetes. Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is achieved via functional interactions among various organs: liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, brain, and the endocrine pancreas. The liver is the primary site of endogenous glucose production, especially during states of prolonged fasting. However, enhanced gluconeogenesis is also a signature feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus, elucidating the signaling pathways that regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis would allow better insight into the process of normal endogenous glucose production as well as how this process is impaired in T2D. Here we demonstrate that the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis, both upon prolonged fasting and during T2D. In contrast, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of TGF-β1/Smad3 signals suppressed endogenous glucose production. TGF-β1 and Smad3 signals achieved this effect via the targeting of key regulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and FoxO1 proteins. Specifically, TGF-β1 signaling suppressed the LKB1-AMPK axis, thereby facilitating the nuclear translocation of FoxO1 and activation of key gluconeogenic genes, glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. These findings underscore an important role of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling in hepatic gluconeogenesis, both in normal physiology and in the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases such as diabetes, and are thus of significant medical relevance. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Forkhead Box O6 (FoxO6) Depletion Attenuates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Protects against Fat-induced Glucose Disorder in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabuig-Navarro, Virtu; Yamauchi, Jun; Lee, Sojin; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yun-Zi; Sadlek, Kelsey; Coudriet, Gina M; Piganelli, Jon D; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Miller, Rita; Lowe, Mark; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Dong, H Henry

    2015-06-19

    Excessive endogenous glucose production contributes to fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. FoxO6 is a distinct member of the FoxO subfamily. To elucidate the role of FoxO6 in hepatic gluconeogenesis and assess its contribution to the pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes, we generated FoxO6 knock-out (FoxO6-KO) mice followed by determining the effect of FoxO6 loss-of-function on hepatic gluconeogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. FoxO6 depletion attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis and lowered fasting glycemia in FoxO6-KO mice. FoxO6-deficient primary hepatocytes were associated with reduced capacities to produce glucose in response to glucagon. When fed a high fat diet, FoxO6-KO mice exhibited significantly enhanced glucose tolerance and reduced blood glucose levels accompanied by improved insulin sensitivity. These effects correlated with attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis in FoxO6-KO mice. In contrast, wild-type littermates developed fat-induced glucose intolerance with a concomitant induction of fasting hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, FoxO6-KO mice displayed significantly diminished macrophage infiltration into liver and adipose tissues, correlating with the reduction of macrophage expression of C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), a factor that is critical for regulating macrophage recruitment in peripheral tissues. Our data indicate that FoxO6 depletion protected against diet-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance by attenuating hepatic gluconeogenesis and curbing macrophage infiltration in liver and adipose tissues in mice. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Gluconeogenesis during endurance exercise in cyclists habituated to a long‐term low carbohydrate high‐fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Christopher C.; Noakes, Timothy D.; Chacko, Shaji K.; Swart, Jeroen; Kohn, Tertius A.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Blood glucose is an important fuel for endurance exercise. It can be derived from ingested carbohydrate, stored liver glycogen and newly synthesized glucose (gluconeogenesis).We hypothesized that athletes habitually following a low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) diet would have higher rates of gluconeogenesis during exercise compared to those who follow a mixed macronutrient diet.We used stable isotope tracers to study glucose production kinetics during a 2 h ride in cyclists habituated to either a LCHF or mixed macronutrient diet.The LCHF cyclists had lower rates of total glucose production and hepatic glycogenolysis but similar rates of gluconeogenesis compared to those on the mixed diet.The LCHF cyclists did not compensate for reduced dietary carbohydrate availability by increasing glucose synthesis during exercise but rather adapted by altering whole body substrate utilization. Abstract Endogenous glucose production (EGP) occurs via hepatic glycogenolysis (GLY) and gluconeogenesis (GNG) and plays an important role in maintaining euglycaemia. Rates of GLY and GNG increase during exercise in athletes following a mixed macronutrient diet; however, these processes have not been investigated in athletes following a low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) diet. Therefore, we studied seven well‐trained male cyclists that were habituated to either a LCHF (7% carbohydrate, 72% fat, 21% protein) or a mixed diet (51% carbohydrate, 33% fat, 16% protein) for longer than 8 months. After an overnight fast, participants performed a 2 h laboratory ride at 72% of maximal oxygen consumption. Glucose kinetics were measured at rest and during the final 30 min of exercise by infusion of [6,6‐2H2]‐glucose and the ingestion of 2H2O tracers. Rates of EGP and GLY both at rest and during exercise were significantly lower in the LCHF group than the mixed diet group (Exercise EGP: LCHF, 6.0 ± 0.9 mg kg−1 min−1, Mixed, 7.8 ± 1.1 mg kg−1 min−1, P Exercise GLY

  6. Supplementation of the sow diet with chitosan oligosaccharide during late gestation and lactation affects hepatic gluconeogenesis of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunyan; Guo, Xiaoyun; Long, Cimin; Fan, Zhiyong; Xiao, Dingfu; Ruan, Zheng; Deng, Ze-yuan; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2015-08-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) has a blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic rats and is widely used as a dietary supplement. However, the effect of COS on the offspring of supplemented mothers is unknown. This experiment investigates the effect of supplementing sows during gestation and lactation on the levels of plasma glucose on suckling piglets. From day 85 of gestation to day 14 of lactation, 40 pregnant sows were divided into two treatment groups and fed either a control diet or a control diet containing 30mgCOS/kg. One 14 day old piglet per pen was selected to collect plasma and tissue (8pens/diet). Performance, hepatic gluconeogenesis genes and proteins expression, amino acids contents in sow milk, hepatic glycogen and free fatty acid were determined. Results showed that supplementation of the maternal diet with COS improved daily gain and weaning weight (Pgluconeogenesis and improved the growth rate of suckling piglets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gluconeogenesis during endurance exercise in cyclists habituated to a long-term low carbohydrate high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Christopher C; Noakes, Timothy D; Chacko, Shaji K; Swart, Jeroen; Kohn, Tertius A; Smith, James A H

    2016-08-01

    Blood glucose is an important fuel for endurance exercise. It can be derived from ingested carbohydrate, stored liver glycogen and newly synthesized glucose (gluconeogenesis). We hypothesized that athletes habitually following a low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) diet would have higher rates of gluconeogenesis during exercise compared to those who follow a mixed macronutrient diet. We used stable isotope tracers to study glucose production kinetics during a 2 h ride in cyclists habituated to either a LCHF or mixed macronutrient diet. The LCHF cyclists had lower rates of total glucose production and hepatic glycogenolysis but similar rates of gluconeogenesis compared to those on the mixed diet. The LCHF cyclists did not compensate for reduced dietary carbohydrate availability by increasing glucose synthesis during exercise but rather adapted by altering whole body substrate utilization. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) occurs via hepatic glycogenolysis (GLY) and gluconeogenesis (GNG) and plays an important role in maintaining euglycaemia. Rates of GLY and GNG increase during exercise in athletes following a mixed macronutrient diet; however, these processes have not been investigated in athletes following a low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) diet. Therefore, we studied seven well-trained male cyclists that were habituated to either a LCHF (7% carbohydrate, 72% fat, 21% protein) or a mixed diet (51% carbohydrate, 33% fat, 16% protein) for longer than 8 months. After an overnight fast, participants performed a 2 h laboratory ride at 72% of maximal oxygen consumption. Glucose kinetics were measured at rest and during the final 30 min of exercise by infusion of [6,6-(2) H2 ]-glucose and the ingestion of (2) H2 O tracers. Rates of EGP and GLY both at rest and during exercise were significantly lower in the LCHF group than the mixed diet group (Exercise EGP: LCHF, 6.0 ± 0.9 mg kg(-1)  min(-1) , Mixed, 7.8 ± 1.1 mg kg(-1)  min(-1) , P < 0.01; Exercise GLY

  8. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is a local mediator in a gut-brain neural axis activating intestinal gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vadder, F; Plessier, F; Gautier-Stein, A; Mithieux, G

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN) promotes metabolic benefits through activation of a gut-brain neural axis. However, the local mediator activating gluconeogenic genes in the enterocytes remains unknown. We show that (i) vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) signaling through VPAC1 receptor activates the intestinal glucose-6-phosphatase gene in vivo, (ii) the activation of IGN by propionate is counteracted by VPAC1 antagonism, and (iii) VIP-positive intrinsic neurons in the submucosal plexus are increased under the action of propionate. These data support the role of VIP as a local neuromodulator released by intrinsic enteric neurons and responsible for the induction of IGN through a VPAC1 receptor-dependent mechanism in enterocytes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Baicalin and its metabolites suppresses gluconeogenesis through activation of AMPK or AKT in insulin resistant HepG-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Jiang, Hongmei; Cao, Shijie; Chen, Qian; Cui, Mingyuan; Wang, Zhijie; Li, Dandan; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Tao; Qiu, Feng; Kang, Ning

    2017-12-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (S. baicalensis), as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, is an important component of several famous Chinese medicinal formulas for treating patients with diabetes mellitus. Baicalin (BG), a main bioactive component of S. baicalensis, has been reported to have antidiabetic effects. However, pharmacokinetic studies have indicated that BG has poor oral bioavailability. Therefore, it is hard to explain the pharmacological effects of BG in vivo. Interestingly, several reports show that BG is extensively metabolized in rats and humans. Therefore, we speculate that the BG metabolites might be responsible for the pharmacological effects. In this study, BG and its three metabolites (M1-M3) were examined their effects on glucose consumption in insulin resistant HepG-2 cells with a commercial glucose assay kit. Real-time PCR and western blot assay were used to confirm genes and proteins of interest, respectively. The results demonstrate that BG and its metabolites (except for M3) enhanced the glucose consumption which might be associated with inhibiting the expression of the key gluconeogenic genes, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), phosphoenolypyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). Further study found that BG and M1 could suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of the AMPK pathway, while M2 could suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Taken together, our findings suggest that both BG and its metabolites have antihyperglycemic activities, and might be the active forms of oral doses of BG in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. The transcription factor Prep1 controls hepatic insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis by targeting nuclear localization of FOXO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulebyakin, Konstantin; Penkov, Dmitry; Blasi, Francesco; Akopyan, Zhanna; Tkachuk, Vsevolod

    2016-12-02

    Liver plays a key role in controlling body carbohydrate homeostasis by switching between accumulation and production of glucose and this way maintaining constant level of glucose in blood. Increased blood glucose level triggers release of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. Insulin represses hepatic glucose production and increases glucose accumulation. Insulin resistance is the main cause of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. Currently thiazolidinediones (TZDs) targeting transcriptional factor PPARγ are used as insulin sensitizers for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. However, TZDs are reported to be associated with cardiovascular and liver problems and stimulate obesity. Thus, it is necessary to search new approaches to improve insulin sensitivity. A promising candidate is transcriptional factor Prep1, as it was shown earlier it could affect insulin sensitivity in variety of insulin-sensitive tissues. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible involvement of transcriptional factor Prep1 in control of hepatic glucose accumulation and production. We created mice with liver-specific Prep1 knockout and discovered that hepatocytes derived from these mice are much more sensitive to insulin, comparing to their WT littermates. Incubation of these cells with 100 nM insulin results in almost complete inhibition of gluconeogenesis, while in WT cells this repression is only partial. However, Prep1 doesn't affect gluconeogenesis in the absence of insulin. Also, we observed that nuclear content of gluconeogenic transcription factor FOXO1 was greatly reduced in Prep1 knockout hepatocytes. These findings suggest that Prep1 may control hepatic insulin sensitivity by targeting FOXO1 nuclear stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous stimulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by feeding in the anterior intestine of the omnivorous GIFT tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jun Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to investigate the roles of anterior intestine in the postprandial glucose homeostasis of the omnivorous Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT. Sub-adult fish (about 173 g were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 8 and 24 h post feeding (HPF after 36 h of food deprivation, and the time course of changes in intestinal glucose transport, glycolysis, glycogenesis and gluconeogenesis at the transcription and enzyme activity level, as well as plasma glucose contents, were analyzed. Compared with 0 HPF (fasting for 36 h, the mRNA levels of both ATP-dependent sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 and facilitated glucose transporter 2 increased during 1-3 HPF, decreased at 8 HPF and then leveled off. These results indicated that intestinal uptake of glucose and its transport across the intestine to blood mainly occurred during 1-3 HPF, which subsequently resulted in the increase of plasma glucose level at the same time. Intestinal glycolysis was stimulated during 1-3 HPF, while glucose storage as glycogen was induced during 3-8 HPF. Unexpectedly, intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGNG was also strongly induced during 1-3 HPF at the state of nutrient assimilation. The mRNA abundance and enzyme activities of glutamic-pyruvic and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminases increased during 1-3 HPF, suggesting that the precursors of IGNG might originate from some amino acids. Taken together, it was concluded that the anterior intestine played an important role in the regulation of postprandial glucose homeostasis in omnivorous tilapia, as it represented significant glycolytic potential and glucose storage. It was interesting that postprandial IGNG was stimulated by feeding temporarily, and its biological significance remains to be elucidated in fish.

  12. Long Noncoding RNA lncSHGL Recruits hnRNPA1 to Suppress Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junpei; Yang, Weili; Chen, Zhenzhen; Chen, Ji; Meng, Yuhong; Feng, Biaoqi; Sun, Libo; Dou, Lin; Li, Jian; Cui, Qinghua; Yang, Jichun

    2018-04-01

    Mammalian genomes encode a huge number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) with unknown functions. This study determined the role and mechanism of a new lncRNA, lncRNA suppressor of hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis (lncSHGL), in regulating hepatic glucose/lipid metabolism. In the livers of obese mice and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the expression levels of mouse lncSHGL and its human homologous lncRNA B4GALT1-AS1 were reduced. Hepatic lncSHGL restoration improved hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and steatosis in obese diabetic mice, whereas hepatic lncSHGL inhibition promoted fasting hyperglycemia and lipid deposition in normal mice. lncSHGL overexpression increased Akt phosphorylation and repressed gluconeogenic and lipogenic gene expression in obese mouse livers, whereas lncSHGL inhibition exerted the opposite effects in normal mouse livers. Mechanistically, lncSHGL recruited heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) to enhance the translation efficiency of CALM mRNAs to increase calmodulin (CaM) protein level without affecting their transcription, leading to the activation of the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and repression of the mTOR/SREBP-1C pathway independent of insulin and calcium in hepatocytes. Hepatic hnRNPA1 overexpression also activated the CaM/Akt pathway and repressed the mTOR/SREBP-1C pathway to ameliorate hyperglycemia and steatosis in obese mice. In conclusion, lncSHGL is a novel insulin-independent suppressor of hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. Activating the lncSHGL/hnRNPA1 axis represents a potential strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and steatosis. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. Metabolism of [2-14C]acetate and its use in assessing hepatic Krebs cycle activity and gluconeogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, W.C.; Magnusson, I.; Chandramouli, V.; Kumaran, K.; Wahren, J.; Landau, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    To examine the fate of the carbons of acetate and to evaluate the usefulness of labeled acetate in assessing intrahepatic metabolic processes during gluconeogenesis, [2-14C]acetate, [2-14C]ethanol, and [1-14C]ethanol were infused into normal subjects fasted 60 h and given phenyl acetate. Distributions of 14C in the carbons of blood glucose and glutamate from urinary phenylacetylglutamine were determined. With [2-14C]acetate and [2-14C]ethanol, carbon 1 of glucose had about twice as much 14C as carbon 3. Carbon 2 of glutamate had about twice as much 14C as carbon 1 and one-half to one-third as much as carbon 4. There was only a small amount in carbon 5. These distributions are incompatible with the metabolism of [2-14C]acetate being primarily in liver. Therefore, [2-14C]acetate cannot be used to study Krebs cycle metabolism in liver and in relationship to gluconeogenesis, as has been done. The distributions can be explained by: (a) fixation of 14CO2 from [2-14C]acetate in the formation of the 14C-labeled glucose and glutamate in liver and (b) the formation of 14C-labeled glutamate in a second site, proposed to be muscle. [1,3-14C]Acetone formation from the [2-14C]acetate does not contribute to the distributions, as evidenced by the absence of 14C in carbons 2-4 of glutamate after [1-14C]ethanol administration

  14. The transcription factor Prep1 controls hepatic insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis by targeting nuclear localization of FOXO1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulebyakin, Konstantin; Penkov, Dmitry; Blasi, Francesco; Akopyan, Zhanna; Tkachuk, Vsevolod

    2016-01-01

    Liver plays a key role in controlling body carbohydrate homeostasis by switching between accumulation and production of glucose and this way maintaining constant level of glucose in blood. Increased blood glucose level triggers release of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. Insulin represses hepatic glucose production and increases glucose accumulation. Insulin resistance is the main cause of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. Currently thiazolidinediones (TZDs) targeting transcriptional factor PPARγ are used as insulin sensitizers for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. However, TZDs are reported to be associated with cardiovascular and liver problems and stimulate obesity. Thus, it is necessary to search new approaches to improve insulin sensitivity. A promising candidate is transcriptional factor Prep1, as it was shown earlier it could affect insulin sensitivity in variety of insulin-sensitive tissues. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible involvement of transcriptional factor Prep1 in control of hepatic glucose accumulation and production. We created mice with liver-specific Prep1 knockout and discovered that hepatocytes derived from these mice are much more sensitive to insulin, comparing to their WT littermates. Incubation of these cells with 100 nM insulin results in almost complete inhibition of gluconeogenesis, while in WT cells this repression is only partial. However, Prep1 doesn't affect gluconeogenesis in the absence of insulin. Also, we observed that nuclear content of gluconeogenic transcription factor FOXO1 was greatly reduced in Prep1 knockout hepatocytes. These findings suggest that Prep1 may control hepatic insulin sensitivity by targeting FOXO1 nuclear stability. - Highlights: • A novel model of liver-specific Prep1 knockout is established. • Ablation of Prep1 in hepatocytes increases insulin sensitivity. • Prep1 controls hepatic insulin sensitivity by regulating localization of FOXO1. • Prep1 regulates

  15. Berberine inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis via the LKB1-AMPK-TORC2 signaling pathway in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Jun; Dong, Hui; Li, Jing-Bin; Xu, Li-Jun; Zou, Xin; Wang, Kai-Fu; Lu, Fu-Er; Yi, Ping

    2015-07-07

    To investigate the molecular mechanisms of berberine inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis in a diabetic rat model. The 40 rats were randomly divided into five groups. One group was selected as the normal group. In the remaining groups (n = 8 each), the rats were fed on a high-fat diet for 1 mo and received intravenous injection of streptozotocin for induction of the diabetic models. Berberine (156 mg/kg per day) (berberine group) or metformin (184 mg/kg per day) (metformin group) was intragastrically administered to the diabetic rats and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) (0.5 mg/kg per day) (AICAR group) was subcutaneously injected to the diabetic rats for 12 wk. The remaining eight diabetic rats served as the model group. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels as well as lipid profile were tested. The expressions of proteins were examined by western blotting. The nuclear translocation of CREB-regulated transcription co-activator (TORC)2 was observed by immunohistochemical staining. Berberine improved impaired glucose tolerance and decreased plasma hyperlipidemia. Moreover, berberine decreased fasting plasma insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Berberine upregulated protein expression of liver kinase (LK)B1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK). The level of phophorylated TORC2 (p-TORC2) protein in the cytoplasm was higher in the berberine group than in the model group, and no significant difference in total TORC2 protein level was observed. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that more TORC2 was localized in the cytoplasm of the berberine group than in the model group. Moreover, berberine treatment downregulated protein expression of the key gluconeogenic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase) in the liver tissues. Our findings revealed that berberine inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis via the regulation of the LKB1-AMPK-TORC2

  16. Simultaneous stimulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by feeding in the anterior intestine of the omnivorous GIFT tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Ti-Yin; Chen, Hai-Yan; Lin, Shi-Mei; Luo, Li; Wang, De-Shou

    2017-06-15

    The present study was performed to investigate the roles of anterior intestine in the postprandial glucose homeostasis of the omnivorous Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). Sub-adult fish (about 173 g) were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 8 and 24 h post feeding (HPF) after 36 h of food deprivation, and the time course of changes in intestinal glucose transport, glycolysis, glycogenesis and gluconeogenesis at the transcription and enzyme activity level, as well as plasma glucose contents, were analyzed. Compared with 0 HPF (fasting for 36 h), the mRNA levels of both ATP-dependent sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 and facilitated glucose transporter 2 increased during 1-3 HPF, decreased at 8 HPF and then leveled off. These results indicated that intestinal uptake of glucose and its transport across the intestine to blood mainly occurred during 1-3 HPF, which subsequently resulted in the increase of plasma glucose level at the same time. Intestinal glycolysis was stimulated during 1-3 HPF, while glucose storage as glycogen was induced during 3-8 HPF. Unexpectedly, intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGNG) was also strongly induced during 1-3 HPF at the state of nutrient assimilation. The mRNA abundance and enzyme activities of glutamic-pyruvic and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminases increased during 1-3 HPF, suggesting that the precursors of IGNG might originate from some amino acids. Taken together, it was concluded that the anterior intestine played an important role in the regulation of postprandial glucose homeostasis in omnivorous tilapia, as it represented significant glycolytic potential and glucose storage. It was interesting that postprandial IGNG was stimulated by feeding temporarily, and its biological significance remains to be elucidated in fish. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. The quantification of gluconeogenesis in healthy men by (2)H2O and [2-(13)C]glycerol yields different results: rates of gluconeogenesis in healthy men measured with (2)H2O are higher than those measured with [2-(13)C]glycerol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermans, M. T.; Pereira Arias, A. M.; Bisschop, P. H.; Endert, E.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The quantification of gluconeogenesis (GNG) by (2)H2O and [2-(13)C]glycerol and the mass isotopomer dilution analysis of glucose does not involve assumptions regarding the enrichment of the oxaloacetate precursor pool. To compare these two methods we measured GNG in six healthy postabsorptive males

  18. Incorporation of radioactivity from [14C]lactate into the glycogen of cultured mouse astroglial cells. Evidence for gluconeogenesis in brain cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dringen, R; Schmoll, D; Cesar, M; Hamprecht, B

    1993-05-01

    A pure population of astroglial cells was selected from heterogeneous astroglia-rich primary cultures in a medium containing sorbitol instead of glucose. It was shown that astroglial cells synthesize glycogen when they are returned to a glucose-containing medium, and that when [14C]lactate is also present the synthesized glycogen is radioactively labelled. Compared with the degree of incorporation of radioactivity in the presence of tritiated glucose, the incorporation of radioactivity from lactate was small but significant. After incubation of astroglial cells with radioactively labelled lactate, the glycogen was isolated and enzymatically hydrolysed to glucose, which was found to be radioactively labelled. Astrocytes are therefore able to convert lactate to glucosyl residues, a metabolic pathway known as gluconeogenesis. It is proposed that astrocytic gluconeogenesis may consume lactic acid formed in neighboring cells such as neurons, during anaerobic glycolysis at times of high energy demand.

  19. Mechanism of increased gluconeogenesis in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Role of alterations in systemic, hepatic, and muscle lactate and alanine metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Consoli, A; Nurjhan, N; Reilly, J J; Bier, D M; Gerich, J E

    1990-01-01

    To assess the mechanisms responsible for increased gluconeogenesis in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we infused [3-14C]lactate, [3-13C]alanine, and [6-3H]glucose in 10 postabsorptive NIDDM subjects and in 9 age- and weight-matched nondiabetic volunteers and measured systemic appearance of alanine and lactate, their release from forearm tissues, and their conversion into plasma glucose (corrected for Krebs cycle carbon exchange). Systemic appearance of lactate and alanine were...

  20. Saponarin activates AMPK in a calcium-dependent manner and suppresses gluconeogenesis and increases glucose uptake via phosphorylation of CRTC2 and HDAC5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Woo-Duck; Lee, Ji Hae; Jia, Yaoyao; Wu, Chunyan; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2015-11-15

    This study investigated the molecular mechanism of saponarin, a flavone glucoside, in the regulation of insulin sensitivity. Saponarin suppressed the rate of gluconeogenesis and increased cellular glucose uptake in HepG2 and TE671 cells by regulating AMPK. Using an in vitro kinase assay, we showed that saponarin did not directly interact with the AMPK protein. Instead, saponarin increased intracellular calcium levels and induced AMPK phosphorylation, which was diminished by co-stimulation with STO-609, an inhibitor of CAMKKβ. Transcription of hepatic gluconeogenesis genes was upregulated by nuclear translocation of CRTC2 and HDAC5, coactivators of CREB and FoxO1 transcription factors, respectively. This nuclear translocation was inhibited by increased phosphorylation of CRTC2 and HDAC5 by saponarin-induced AMPK in HepG2 cells and suppression of CREB and FoxO1 transactivation activities in cells stimulated by saponarin. The results from a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the reduced binding of CRTC2 on the PEPCK and G6Pase promoters. In TE671 cells, AMPK phosphorylated HDAC5, which suppressed nuclear penetration and upregulated GLUT4 transcription, leading to enhanced glucose uptake. Collectively, these results suggest that saponarin activates AMPK in a calcium-dependent manner, thus regulating gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitive determination of glucose in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium by high-performance liquid chromatography with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone derivatization: application to gluconeogenesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zhaoli; Xu, Ping; Zhong, Zeyu; Wang, Fan; Shu, Nan; Zhang, Ji; Tang, Xiange; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    A new pre-column derivative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of d-glucose with 3-O-methyl-d-glucose (3-OMG) as the internal standard was developed and validated in order to study the gluconeogenesis in HepG2 cells. Samples were derivatized with 1-phenyl-3-methy-5-pyrazolone at 70°C for 50 min. Glucose and 3-OMG were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and separated on a YMC-Triart C18 column, with a gradient mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 20 mm ammonium acetate solution containing 0.09% tri-ethylamine at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The eluate were detected using a UV detector at 250 nm. The assay was linear over the range 0.39-25 μm (R(2) = 0.9997, n = 5) and the lower limit of quantitation was 0.39 μm (0.070 mg/mL). Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were gluconeogenesis in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) cultured HepG2 cells. Glucose concentration was determined to be about 1-2.5 μm in this gluconeogenesis assay. In conclusion, this method has been shown to determine small amounts of glucose in DMEM successfully, with lower limit of quantitation and better sensitivity when compared with common commercial glucose assay kits. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The anti-angiogenic effect of dexamethasone in a murine hepatocellular carcinoma model by augmentation of gluconeogenesis pathway in malignant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Fei; Liu, Mingming; Li, Bingwei; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Sheng, Youming; Liu, Shuying; Han, Jianqun; Li, Hongwei; Xiu, Ruijuan

    2016-05-01

    Angiogenesis is a long-term complex process involving various protein factors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Dexamethasone (Dex), considered as a synthetic glucocorticoid drug in clinical therapy, has been reported to have the therapeutic efficacy against liver cancer by intervention of abnormal glycolysis. In this study, we investigated the anti-angiogenic effect of Dex in murine liver cancer and attempted to demonstrate the potential mechanism. The malignant cells H22 were treated with Dex. Western blotting was used to explore the expression of PEPCK and G6Pase which were the two key enzymes that regulated gluconeogenesis. The supernatants from cultured H22 treated by Dex were collected and co-cultured with HUVECs. In vitro, migration assay, transwell assay and tube formation assay were performed to assess for migration, proliferation and tube formation abilities of HUVECs, respectively. In situ murine hepatoma model with green fluorescent protein markers (HepG2-GFP) was constructed to determine angiogenesis after treatment by Dex. PEPCK and G6Pase were almost deficient in H22 compared with normal liver cells NCTC-1469 (P gluconeogenesis could be restored significantly (P gluconeogenesis pathway.

  3. Tetrahydrobiopterin Has a Glucose-Lowering Effect by Suppressing Hepatic Gluconeogenesis in an Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase–Dependent Manner in Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudukadier, Abulizi; Fujita, Yoshihito; Obara, Akio; Ohashi, Akiko; Fukushima, Toru; Sato, Yuichi; Ogura, Masahito; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Hosokawa, Masaya; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction induces insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of eNOS that regulates eNOS activity. In the diabetic state, BH4 is oxidized to 7,8-dihydrobiopterin, which leads to eNOS dysfunction owing to eNOS uncoupling. The current study investigates the effects of BH4 on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice. Single administration of BH4 lowered fasting blood glucose levels in wild-type mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and alleviated eNOS dysfunction by increasing eNOS dimerization in the liver of these mice. Liver has a critical role in glucose-lowering effects of BH4 through suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. BH4 activated AMP kinase (AMPK), and the suppressing effect of BH4 on gluconeogenesis was AMPK-dependent. In addition, the glucose-lowering effect and activation of AMPK by BH4 did not appear in mice with STZ-induced diabetes lacking eNOS. Consecutive administration of BH4 in ob/ob mice ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Taken together, BH4 suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis in an eNOS-dependent manner, and BH4 has a glucose-lowering effect as well as an insulin-sensitizing effect in diabetic mice. BH4 has potential in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23649519

  4. Troxerutin Attenuates Enhancement of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Inhibiting NOD Activation-Mediated Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Treated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zifeng; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Guihong; Shan, Qun; Lu, Jun; Fan, Shaohua; Sun, Chunhui; Wu, Dongmei; Zhang, Cheng; Su, Weitong; Sui, Junwen; Zheng, Yuanlin

    2016-12-25

    Recent evidence suggests that troxerutin, a trihydroxyethylated derivative of natural bioflavonoid rutin, exhibits beneficial effects on diabetes-related symptoms. Here we investigated the effects of troxerutin on the enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis in high-fat diet (HFD)-treated mice and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Mice were divided into four groups: Control group, HFD group, HFD + Troxerutin group, and Troxerutin group. Troxerutin was treated by daily oral administration at doses of 150 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) was used to inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). Our results showed that troxerutin effectively improved obesity and related metabolic parameters, and liver injuries in HFD-treated mouse. Furthermore, troxerutin significantly attenuated enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis in HFD-fed mouse. Moreover, troxerutin notably suppressed nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 transcriptional activation and release of inflammatory cytokines in HFD-treated mouse livers. Mechanismly, troxerutin dramatically decreased Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) expression, as well as interaction between NOD1/2 with interacting protein-2 (RIP2), by abating oxidative stress-induced ER stress in HFD-treated mouse livers, which was confirmed by TUDCA treatment. These improvement effects of troxerutin on hepatic glucose disorders might be mediated by its anti-obesity effect. In conclusion, troxerutin markedly diminished HFD-induced enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis via its inhibitory effects on ER stress-mediated NOD activation and consequent inflammation, which might be mediated by its anti-obesity effect.

  5. Occurrence of a number of enzymes involved in either gluconeogenesis or other processes in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiani, Franco; Moscatello, Stefano; Ferradini, Nicoletta; Gardi, Tiziano; Battistelli, Alberto; Walker, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    It is uncertain whether the enzymes pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) or isocitrate lyase (ICL) are present in the pericarp of grape, in which they could function in gluconeogenesis. The occurrence of these and other enzymes was investigated in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In particular, the abundance of the enzymes aldolase, glutamine synthase (GS), acid invertase, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), PPDK and ICL were determined during the development of the pericarp of the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Zibibbo. PPDK and ICL were not detected at any stage of development. Each of the other enzymes showed different changes in abundance during development. However, for a given enzyme its changes in abundance were similar in each cultivar. In the ripe pericarp of Cabernet Sauvignon, PEPC, cytosolic GS and aldolase were equally distributed between the vasculature and parenchyma cells of the flesh and skin. The absence or very low abundance of PPDK provides strong evidence that any gluconeogenesis from malate utilises phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The absence or very low abundance of ICL in the pericarp precludes any gluconeogenesis from ethanol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Troxerutin Attenuates Enhancement of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Inhibiting NOD Activation-Mediated Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Treated Mice

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    Zifeng Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that troxerutin, a trihydroxyethylated derivative of natural bioflavonoid rutin, exhibits beneficial effects on diabetes-related symptoms. Here we investigated the effects of troxerutin on the enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis in high-fat diet (HFD-treated mice and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Mice were divided into four groups: Control group, HFD group, HFD + Troxerutin group, and Troxerutin group. Troxerutin was treated by daily oral administration at doses of 150 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA was used to inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress. Our results showed that troxerutin effectively improved obesity and related metabolic parameters, and liver injuries in HFD-treated mouse. Furthermore, troxerutin significantly attenuated enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis in HFD-fed mouse. Moreover, troxerutin notably suppressed nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB p65 transcriptional activation and release of inflammatory cytokines in HFD-treated mouse livers. Mechanismly, troxerutin dramatically decreased Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD expression, as well as interaction between NOD1/2 with interacting protein-2 (RIP2, by abating oxidative stress-induced ER stress in HFD-treated mouse livers, which was confirmed by TUDCA treatment. These improvement effects of troxerutin on hepatic glucose disorders might be mediated by its anti-obesity effect. In conclusion, troxerutin markedly diminished HFD-induced enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis via its inhibitory effects on ER stress-mediated NOD activation and consequent inflammation, which might be mediated by its anti-obesity effect.

  7. The gluconeogenesis pathway is involved in maintenance of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in bovine intestinal content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolande Bertin

    Full Text Available Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC are responsible for outbreaks of food- and water-borne illness. The bovine gastrointestinal tract (GIT is thought to be the principle reservoir of EHEC. Knowledge of the nutrients essential for EHEC growth and survival in the bovine intestine may help in developing strategies to limit their shedding in bovine faeces thus reducing the risk of human illnesses. To identify specific metabolic pathways induced in the animal GIT, the transcriptome profiles of EHEC O157:H7 EDL933 during incubation in bovine small intestine contents (BSIC and minimal medium supplemented with glucose were compared. The transcriptome analysis revealed that genes responsible for the assimilation of ethanolamine, urea, agmatine and amino acids (Asp, Thr, Gly, Ser and Trp were strongly up-regulated suggesting that these compounds are the main nitrogen sources for EHEC in BSIC. A central role for the gluconeogenesis pathway and assimilation of gluconeogenic substrates was also pinpointed in EHEC incubated in BSIC. Our results suggested that three amino acids (Asp, Ser and Trp, glycerol, glycerol 3-phosphate, L-lactate and C4-dicarboxylates are important carbon sources for EHEC in BSIC. The ability to use gluconeogenic substrates as nitrogen sources (amino acids and/or carbon sources (amino acids, glycerol and lactate may provide a growth advantage to the bacteria in intestinal fluids. Accordingly, aspartate (2.4 mM, serine (1.9 mM, glycerol (5.8 mM and lactate (3.6 mM were present in BSIC and may represent the main gluconeogenic substrates potentially used by EHEC. A double mutant of E. coli EDL933 defective for phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PpsA and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PckA, unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA intermediates was constructed. Growth competition experiments between EHEC EDL933 and the isogenic mutant strain in BSIC clearly showed a significant competitive growth advantage of the wild-type strain

  8. The gluconeogenesis pathway is involved in maintenance of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in bovine intestinal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Yolande; Deval, Christiane; de la Foye, Anne; Masson, Luke; Gannon, Victor; Harel, Josée; Martin, Christine; Desvaux, Mickaël; Forano, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are responsible for outbreaks of food- and water-borne illness. The bovine gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is thought to be the principle reservoir of EHEC. Knowledge of the nutrients essential for EHEC growth and survival in the bovine intestine may help in developing strategies to limit their shedding in bovine faeces thus reducing the risk of human illnesses. To identify specific metabolic pathways induced in the animal GIT, the transcriptome profiles of EHEC O157:H7 EDL933 during incubation in bovine small intestine contents (BSIC) and minimal medium supplemented with glucose were compared. The transcriptome analysis revealed that genes responsible for the assimilation of ethanolamine, urea, agmatine and amino acids (Asp, Thr, Gly, Ser and Trp) were strongly up-regulated suggesting that these compounds are the main nitrogen sources for EHEC in BSIC. A central role for the gluconeogenesis pathway and assimilation of gluconeogenic substrates was also pinpointed in EHEC incubated in BSIC. Our results suggested that three amino acids (Asp, Ser and Trp), glycerol, glycerol 3-phosphate, L-lactate and C4-dicarboxylates are important carbon sources for EHEC in BSIC. The ability to use gluconeogenic substrates as nitrogen sources (amino acids) and/or carbon sources (amino acids, glycerol and lactate) may provide a growth advantage to the bacteria in intestinal fluids. Accordingly, aspartate (2.4 mM), serine (1.9 mM), glycerol (5.8 mM) and lactate (3.6 mM) were present in BSIC and may represent the main gluconeogenic substrates potentially used by EHEC. A double mutant of E. coli EDL933 defective for phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PpsA) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PckA), unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates was constructed. Growth competition experiments between EHEC EDL933 and the isogenic mutant strain in BSIC clearly showed a significant competitive growth advantage of the wild-type strain further

  9. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis in weaned rats fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitose Sugiyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We explored the effects of Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT on gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis in the liver of weaned male rats fed high fat, carbohydrate-free diets. The rats of three experimental groups and control were fed for 10 days. The diets were high fat, carbohydrate-free diets consisting either of a corn oil or MCT, and high protein carbohydrate-free diet and a control (high carbohydrate diet. The hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase activity increased in the experimental groups. Despite the elevated G6Pase activity in these groups, hepatic activities of glutamic alanine transaminase (GAT, pyruvate carboxylase (PC and arginase differed among the experimental groups. The HF-corn oil rats showed elevation of PC activity, but no elevation of GAT activity, and the lowest arginase activity among the three groups. The HF-MCT diet-fed rats showed higher GAT and arginase activities than the HF-corn oil group. In the HP diet-fed rats, GAT and arginase activities enhanced, PC did not.

  10. Cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate as a component of a new branch in gluconeogenesis in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkovenko, A; Roberts, M F

    1993-07-01

    A unique compound, cyclic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (cDPG), is the major soluble carbon and phosphorus solute in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H under optimal conditions of cell growth. It is a component of an unusual branch in gluconeogenesis in these bacteria. [U-13C]acetate pulse-[12C]acetate chase methodology was used to observe the relationship between cDPG and other metabolites (2-phosphoglycerate and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate [2-PG and 2,3-DPG, respectively]) of this branch. It was demonstrated that cells could grow exponentially under conditions in which 2-PG and 2,3-DPG, rather than cDPG, were the major solutes. While the total concentration of these three phosphorylated molecules was maintained, rapid interconversion of 13C label among them was observed. Label flow from 2-PG to 2,3-DPG to cDPG to polymer is the usual direction in this pathway in exponentially growing cells, while the reverse reactions sometimes predominate in the stationary phase. Evidence of the presence of a polymeric compound in this pathway was provided by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (one-dimensional and two-dimensional INADEQUATE) studies of solubilized cell debris.

  11. Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver of catfish fed with different concentrations of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates

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    J.F.B. Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The activities of enzymes from a number of metabolic pathways have been used as a tool to evaluate the best use of nutrients on fish performance. In the present study the catfish Rhamdia quelen was fed with diets containing crude protein-lipid-carbohydrate (% as follows: treatment (T T1: 19-19-44; T2: 26-15-39; T3: 33-12-33; and T4: 40-10-24. The fish were held in tanks of re-circulated, filtered water with controlled temperature and aeration in 2000L experimental units. The feeding experiment lasted 30 days. The following enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism were determined: Glucokinase (GK, Phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK-1, Pyruvate kinase (PK, Fructose-1,6-biphosphatase 1 (FBP-1. The activities of 6 phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH were also assayed. The influence of nutrient levels on the enzyme activities is reported. The increase of dietary protein plus reduction of carbohydrates and lipids attenuates the glycolytic activity and induces hepatic gluconeogenesis as a strategy to provide metabolic energy from amino acids. The fish performance was affected by the concentrations of protein, lipid and carbohydrates in the diet. The greatest weight gain was obtained in fish fed diet T4 containing 40.14% of crude protein, 9.70% of lipids, and 24.37% of carbohydrate, respectively.

  12. Role of the availability of substrates on hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis in the fasted late pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzano, A.; Lasuncion, M.A.; Herrera, E.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the role of gluconeogenetic substrate availability on glucose production in the fasted late pregnant rat. Virgin and 21-day pregnant rats were studied after 24 hours' food deprivation. Pregnant animals showed decreased circulating glucose and gluconeogenic amino acid and increased plasma glycerol concentration. Glucose formation was studied in vivo two, five, and ten minutes after the intravenous administration of two concentrations of 14 C-alanine, 14 C-pyruvate, or 14 C-glycerol. Concentrations of 0.2 mmols of 14 C-glycerol or 14 C-pyruvate, but not of 14 C-alanine, enhanced 14 C-glucose production in pregnant rats, whereas 1 mmol of any of the three 14 C-substrates always enhanced 14 C-glucose production in these rats. Both 1 mmol/L and 5 mmol/L 14 C-alanine increased 14 C-glucose formation in 90-minute-incubated liver slices of fasted pregnant rats, in spite of decreased cytosolic activity of alanine aminotransferase. The three substrates enhanced in vitro renal gluconeogenesis in pregnant rats. Under all experimental conditions studied, labeled glycerol was converted more efficiently into glucose than equivalent amounts of any other substrate used, and this difference was greater in pregnant, than in virgin animals. Results indicate that, in spite of enhanced gluconeogenetic activity, maternal glucose production in the fasted state at late gestation is limited by the deficiency of certain substrates, such as amino acids. It is proposed that glycerol derived from enhanced maternal adipose tissue lipolysis constitutes a preferential gluconeogenetic substrate in comparison with others, such as alanine, that are more efficiently transferred through the placenta to the fetus

  13. Jejunal gluconeogenesis associated with insulin resistance level and its evolution after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Repiso, Carolina; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Moreno-Ruiz, Francisco J; Alcain-Martinez, Guillermo; Rodriguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Garcia-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Intestinal gluconeogenesis (GNG) may play an important role in glucose homeostasis, but there is little information about the condition in humans. To study the relationship between intestinal GNG and insulin resistance, its association with the evolution of morbidly obese patients after bariatric surgery, and the effect of insulin and or leptin. Regional university hospital, Malaga (Spain). Jejunal mRNA expression of genes involved in GNG was analyzed in 3 groups of morbidly obese patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: with low insulin resistance (MO-low-IR), with high insulin resistance (MO-high-IR), and with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin (MO-metf-T2D). Also, intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) from MO-low-IR were incubated with different doses of insulin and or leptin. In MO-high-IR, glutaminase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6 Pase), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1 α), and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1 c (SREBP-1 c) expressions were significantly higher than in MO-low-IR. In MO-metf-T2 D, only PEPCK was significantly lower than in MO-high-IR. In IEC, an incubation with a high glucose and insulin dose produced an increase of PEPCK and SREBP-1 c, and a decrease of glutaminase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), and PGC-1 α expression. At high doses of leptin, G6 Pase and FBPase were significantly increased. The improvement of insulin resistance 3 months after bariatric surgery was positively associated with high G6 Pase and FBPase expression. mRNA expression of genes involved in GNG is increased in the jejunum of MO-high-IR, and regulated by insulin and or leptin. High mRNA expression of genes involved in GNG is associated with a better evolution of insulin resistance after bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gluconeogenesis is associated with high rates of tricarboxylic acid and pyruvate cycling in fasting northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Cory D; Houser, Dorian S; Fowler, Melinda A; Costa, Daniel P; Crocker, Daniel E

    2012-08-01

    Animals that endure prolonged periods of food deprivation preserve vital organ function by sparing protein from catabolism. Much of this protein sparing is achieved by reducing metabolic rate and suppressing gluconeogenesis while fasting. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) endure prolonged fasts of up to 3 mo at multiple life stages. During these fasts, elephant seals maintain high levels of activity and energy expenditure associated with breeding, reproduction, lactation, and development while maintaining rates of glucose production typical of a postabsorptive mammal. Therefore, we investigated how fasting elephant seals meet the requirements of glucose-dependent tissues while suppressing protein catabolism by measuring the contribution of glycogenolysis, glycerol, and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to endogenous glucose production (EGP) during their natural 2-mo postweaning fast. Additionally, pathway flux rates associated with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were measured specifically, flux through phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate cycling. The rate of glucose production decreased during the fast (F(1,13) = 5.7, P = 0.04) but remained similar to that of postabsorptive mammals. The fractional contributions of glycogen, glycerol, and PEP did not change with fasting; PEP was the primary gluconeogenic precursor and accounted for ∼95% of EGP. This large contribution of PEP to glucose production occurred without substantial protein loss. Fluxes through the TCA cycle, PEPCK, and pyruvate cycling were higher than reported in other species and were the most energetically costly component of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism. The active pyruvate recycling fluxes detected in elephant seals may serve to rectify gluconeogeneic PEP production during restricted anaplerotic inflow in these fasting-adapted animals.

  15. The role of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in the cytoprotection of neuroblastoma cells against 1-methyl 4-phenylpyridinium ion toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth; Soliman, Karam F A

    2003-01-01

    1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) is a mitochondrial Complex I inhibitor and is frequently used to investigate the pathological degeneration of neurons associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). In vitro, extracellular concentration of glucose is one of the most critical factors in establishing the vulnerability of neurons to MPP+ toxicity. While glucose is the primary energy fuel for the brain, central nervous system (CNS) neurons can also take up and utilize other metabolic intermediates for energy. In this study, we compared various monosaccharides, disaccharides, nutritive/non-nutritive sugar alcohols, glycolytic and gluconeogenic metabolic intermediates for their cytoprotection against MPP+ in murine brain neuroblastoma cells. Several monosaccharides were effective against MMP+ (500 microM) including glucose, fructose and mannose, which restored cell viability to 109 +/- 5%, 70 +/- 5%, 99 +/- 3% of live controls, respectively. Slight protective effects were observed in the presence of 3-phosphoglyceric acid and glucose-6-phosphate; however, no protective effects were exhibited by galactose, sucrose, sorbitol, mannitol, glycerol or various gluconeogenic and ketogenic amino acids. On the other hand, fructose 1,6 bisphosphate and gluconeogenic energy intermediates [pyruvic acid, malic acid and phospho(enol)pyruvate (PEP)] were neuroprotective against MPP+. The gluconeogenic intermediates elevated intracellular levels of ATP and reduced propidium iodide (PI) nucleic acid staining to live controls, but did not alter the MPP(+)-induced loss of mitochondrial O2 consumption. These data indicate that malic acid, pyruvic acid and PEP contribute to anaerobic substrate level phosphorylation. The use of hydrazine sulfate to impede gluconeogenesis through PEP carboxykinase (PEPCK) inhibition heightened the protective effects of energy substrates possibly due to attenuated ATP demands from pyruvate carboxylase (PC) activity and pyruvate mitochondrial transport. It was

  16. The Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2)-dependent Tup1 Conversion (PIPTC) Regulates Metabolic Reprogramming from Glycolysis to Gluconeogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bong-Kwan; Emr, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Glucose/carbon metabolism is a fundamental cellular process in living cells. In response to varying environments, eukaryotic cells reprogram their glucose/carbon metabolism between aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and/or gluconeogenesis. The distinct type of glucose/carbon metabolism that a cell carries out has significant effects on the cell's proliferation and differentiation. However, it is poorly understood how the reprogramming of glucose/carbon metabolism is regulated. Here, we report a novel endosomal PI(3,5)P2 lipid-dependent regulatory mechanism that is required for metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Certain gluconeogenesis genes, such as FBP1 (encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1) and ICL1 (encoding isocitrate lyase 1) are under control of the Mig1 repressor and Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor complex. We previously identified the PI(3,5)P2-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC), a mechanism to convert Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor to Cti6-Cyc8-Tup1 coactivator. We demonstrate that the PIPTC plays a critical role for transcriptional activation of FBP1 and ICL1. Furthermore, without the PIPTC, the Cat8 and Sip4 transcriptional activators cannot be efficiently recruited to the promoters of FBP1 and ICL1, suggesting a key role for the PIPTC in remodulating the chromatin architecture at the promoters. Our findings expand our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for metabolic reprogramming in eukaryotes to include key regulation steps outside the nucleus. Given that Tup1 and the metabolic enzymes that control PI(3,5)P2 are highly conserved among eukaryotes, our findings may provide important insights toward understanding glucose/carbon metabolic reprogramming in other eukaryotes, including humans. PMID:23733183

  17. The role of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II in the regulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis in newborn mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchais, Julien; Boutant, Marie; Fauveau, Véronique; Qing, Lou Dan; Sabra-Makke, Lina; Bossard, Pascale; Vasseur-Cognet, Mireille; Pégorier, Jean-Paul

    2015-05-15

    Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) is an orphan nuclear receptor involved in the control of numerous functions in various organs (organogenesis, differentiation, metabolic homeostasis, etc.). The aim of the present work was to characterize the regulation and contribution of COUP-TFII in the control of hepatic fatty acid and glucose metabolisms in newborn mice. Our data show that postnatal increase in COUP-TFII mRNA levels is enhanced by glucagon (via cAMP) and PPARα. To characterize COUP-TFII function in the liver of suckling mice, we used a functional (dominant negative form; COUP-TFII-DN) and a genetic (shRNA) approach. Adenoviral COUP-TFII-DN injection induces a profound hypoglycemia due to the inhibition of gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation secondarily to reduced PEPCK, Gl-6-Pase, CPT I, and mHMG-CoA synthase gene expression. Using the crossover plot technique, we show that gluconeogenesis is inhibited at two different levels: 1) pyruvate carboxylation and 2) trioses phosphate synthesis. This could result from a decreased availability in fatty acid oxidation arising cofactors such as acetyl-CoA and reduced equivalents. Similar results are observed using the shRNA approach. Indeed, when fatty acid oxidation is rescued in response to Wy-14643-induced PPARα target genes (CPT I and mHMG-CoA synthase), blood glucose is normalized in COUP-TFII-DN mice. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that postnatal increase in hepatic COUP-TFII gene expression is involved in the regulation of liver fatty acid oxidation, which in turn sustains an active hepatic gluconeogenesis that is essential to maintain an appropriate blood glucose level required for newborn mice survival. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Simultaneous determination of glucose turnover, alanine turnover, and gluconeogenesis in human using a double stable-isotope-labeled tracer infusion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martineau, A.; Lecavalier, L.; Falardeau, P.; Chiasson, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    We have developed and validated a new method to measure simultaneously glucose turnover, alanine turnover, and gluconeogenesis in human, in steady and non-steady states, using a double stable-isotope-labeled tracer infusion and GC-MS analysis. The method is based on the concomitant infusion and dilution of D-[2,3,4,6,6-2H5]glucose and L-[1,2,3-13C3]alanine. The choice of the tracers was done on the basis of a minimal overlap between the ions of interest and those arising from natural isotopic abundances. Alanine was chosen as the gluconeogenic substrate because it is the major gluconeogenic amino acid extracted by the liver and, with lactate, constitutes the bulk of the gluconeogenic precursors. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained during simultaneous infusion of trace amounts of both stable isotope labeled compounds with the radioactive tracers (D-[3-3H]glucose and L-[1,2,3-14C3]alanine) in a normal and a diabetic subject; the radiolabeled tracers were used as the accepted reference procedure. A slight overestimation of glucose turnover (7.3 versus 6.8 in normal and 10.8 versus 9.2 mumol/kg min in diabetic subject) was noticed when the stable isotope-labeled tracers were used. For the basal turnover rate of alanine, similar values were obtained with both methods (6.2 mumol/kg min). For gluconeogenesis, higher values were observed in the basal state with the stable isotopes (0.42 versus 0.21 mumol/kg min); however, these differences disappeared in the postprandial period after the ingestion of a mixed meal. Despite those minor differences, the overall correlation with the reference method was excellent for glucose turnover (r = 0.87) and gluconeogenesis (r = 0.86)

  19. The phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2)-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC) regulates metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bong-Kwan; Emr, Scott D

    2013-07-12

    Glucose/carbon metabolism is a fundamental cellular process in living cells. In response to varying environments, eukaryotic cells reprogram their glucose/carbon metabolism between aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and/or gluconeogenesis. The distinct type of glucose/carbon metabolism that a cell carries out has significant effects on the cell's proliferation and differentiation. However, it is poorly understood how the reprogramming of glucose/carbon metabolism is regulated. Here, we report a novel endosomal PI(3,5)P2 lipid-dependent regulatory mechanism that is required for metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Certain gluconeogenesis genes, such as FBP1 (encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1) and ICL1 (encoding isocitrate lyase 1) are under control of the Mig1 repressor and Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor complex. We previously identified the PI(3,5)P2-dependent Tup1 conversion (PIPTC), a mechanism to convert Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor to Cti6-Cyc8-Tup1 coactivator. We demonstrate that the PIPTC plays a critical role for transcriptional activation of FBP1 and ICL1. Furthermore, without the PIPTC, the Cat8 and Sip4 transcriptional activators cannot be efficiently recruited to the promoters of FBP1 and ICL1, suggesting a key role for the PIPTC in remodulating the chromatin architecture at the promoters. Our findings expand our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for metabolic reprogramming in eukaryotes to include key regulation steps outside the nucleus. Given that Tup1 and the metabolic enzymes that control PI(3,5)P2 are highly conserved among eukaryotes, our findings may provide important insights toward understanding glucose/carbon metabolic reprogramming in other eukaryotes, including humans.

  20. NFE2 Induces miR-423-5p to Promote Gluconeogenesis and Hyperglycemia by Repressing the Hepatic FAM3A-ATP-Akt Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weili; Wang, Junpei; Chen, Zhenzhen; Chen, Ji; Meng, Yuhong; Chen, Liming; Chang, Yongsheng; Geng, Bin; Sun, Libo; Dou, Lin; Li, Jian; Guan, Youfei; Cui, Qinghua; Yang, Jichun

    2017-07-01

    Hepatic FAM3A expression is repressed under obese conditions, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This study determined the role and mechanism of miR-423-5p in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism by repressing FAM3A expression. miR-423-5p expression was increased in the livers of obese diabetic mice and in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with decreased FAM3A expression. miR-423-5p directly targeted FAM3A mRNA to repress its expression and the FAM3A-ATP-Akt pathway in cultured hepatocytes. Hepatic miR-423-5p inhibition suppressed gluconeogenesis and improved insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and fatty liver in obese diabetic mice. In contrast, hepatic miR-423-5p overexpression promoted gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia and increased lipid deposition in normal mice. miR-423-5p inhibition activated the FAM3A-ATP-Akt pathway and repressed gluconeogenic and lipogenic gene expression in diabetic mouse livers. The miR-423 precursor gene was further shown to be a target gene of NFE2, which induced miR-423-5p expression to repress the FAM3A-ATP-Akt pathway in cultured hepatocytes. Hepatic NFE2 overexpression upregulated miR-423-5p to repress the FAM3A-ATP-Akt pathway, promoting gluconeogenesis and lipid deposition and causing hyperglycemia in normal mice. In conclusion, under the obese condition, activation of the hepatic NFE2/miR-423-5p axis plays important roles in the progression of type 2 diabetes and NAFLD by repressing the FAM3A-ATP-Akt signaling pathway. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Deletion of hepatic FoxO1/3/4 genes in mice significantly impacts on glucose metabolism through downregulation of gluconeogenesis and upregulation of glycolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Xiong

    Full Text Available Forkhead transcription factors FoxO1/3/4 have pleiotrophic functions including anti-oxidative stress and metabolism. With regard to glucose metabolism, most studies have been focused on FoxO1. To further investigate their hepatic functions, we generated liver-specific FoxO1/3/4 knockout mice (LTKO and examined their collective impacts on glucose homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions. As compared to wild-type mice, LTKO mice had lower blood glucose levels under both fasting and non-fasting conditions and they manifested better glucose and pyruvate tolerance on regular chow diet. After challenged by a high-fat diet, wild-type mice developed type 2 diabetes, but LTKO mice remained euglycemic and insulin-sensitive. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we examined the roles of SIRT6 (Sirtuin 6 and Gck (glucokinase in the FoxO-mediated glucose metabolism. Interestingly, ectopic expression of SIRT6 in the liver only reduced gluconeogenesis in wild-type but not LTKO mice whereas knockdown of Gck caused glucose intolerance in both wild-type and LTKO mice. The data suggest that both decreased gluconeogenesis and increased glycolysis may contribute to the overall glucose phenotype in the LTKO mice. Collectively, FoxO1/3/4 transcription factors play important roles in hepatic glucose homeostasis.

  2. Amino Acids Attenuate Insulin Action on Gluconeogenesis and Promote Fatty Acid Biosynthesis via mTORC1 Signaling Pathway in trout Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Dai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Carnivores exhibit poor utilization of dietary carbohydrates and glucose intolerant phenotypes, yet it remains unclear what are the causal factors and underlying mechanisms. We aimed to evaluate excessive amino acids (AAs-induced effects on insulin signaling, fatty acid biosynthesis and glucose metabolism in rainbow trout and determine the potential involvement of mTORC1 and p38 MAPK pathway. Methods: We stimulated trout primary hepatocytes with different AA levels and employed acute administration of rapamycin to inhibit mTORC1 activation. Results: Increased AA levels enhanced the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1, S6, and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1 on Ser302 but suppressed Akt and p38 phosphorylation; up-regulated the expression of genes related to gluconeogenesis and fatty acid biosynthesis. mTORC1 inhibition not only inhibited the phosphorylation of mTORC1 downstream targets, but also blunted IRS-1 Ser302 phosphorylation and restored excessive AAs-suppressed Akt phosphorylation. Rapamycin also inhibited fatty acid biosynthetic and gluconeogenic gene expression. Conclusion: High levels of AAs up-regulate hepatic fatty acid biosynthetic gene expression through an mTORC1-dependent manner, while attenuate insulin-mediated repression of gluconeogenesis through elevating IRS-1 Ser302 phosphorylation, which in turn impairs Akt activation and thereby weakening insulin action. We propose that p38 MAPK probably also involves in these AAs-induced metabolic changes.

  3. Energy utilization and gluconeogenesis in isolated leech segmental ganglia: Quantitative studies on the control and cellular localization of endogenous glycogen.

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    Pennington, A J; Pentreath, V W

    1988-01-01

    The isolated segmental ganglia of the horse leech Haemopis sanguisuga were used as a model system to study the utilization and control of glycogen stores within nervous tissue. The glycogen in the ganglia was extracted and assayed fluorimentrically and its cellular localization and turnover studied by autoradiography in conjunction with [(3)H]glucose. We measured the glycogen after various periods of electrical stimulation and after incubation with K(+), Ca(2+), ouabain and glucose. The results for each experimental ganglion were compared to a paired control ganglion and the results analysed by paired t-tests. Electrical stimulation caused sequential changes in glycogen levels: a reduction of up to 67% (5-10 min); followed by an increase of up to 124% (between 15-50 min); followed by a reduction of up to 63% (60-90 min). Values were calculated for glucose utilization (e.g. 0.53 ?mol glucose/gm wet weight/min after 90 min) and estimates derived for glucose consumption per action potential per neuron (e.g. 0.12 fmol at 90 min). Glucose (1.5-10 mM) increased the amount of glycogen (1.5 mM by 30% at 60 min) and attenuated the effects of electrical stimulation. Ouabain (1 mM) blocked the effect of 5 min electrical stimulation. Nine millimolar K(+) increased glycogen by 27% after 10 min and decreased glycogen by 34% after 60 min; 3 mM Ca(2+) had no effect after 10 or 20 min and decreased glycogen by 29% after 60 min. Other concentrations of K(+) and Ca(2+) reduced glycogen after 60 min. Autoradiographic analysis demonstrated that the effects of elevated K(+) were principally within the glial cells. We conclude that (i) the glycogen stores in the glial cells of leech segmental ganglia provide an endogenous energy source which can support sustained neuronal activity, (ii) both electrical stimulation and elevated K(+) can induce gluconeogenesis within the ganglia, (iii) that electrical activation of neurons produces changes in the glycogen in the glial cells which are

  4. Gluconeogenesis during starvation and refeeding phase is affected by previous dietary carbohydrates levels and a glucose stimuli during early life in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii

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    Xiaofang Liang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gluconeogenesis responses was assessed during a short starvation period and subsequent refeeding in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii previously fed different dietary carbohydrates levels and experienced to a glucose stimuli during early life. The sturgeon larvae were previously fed either a high glucose diet (G or a low glucose diet (F from the first feeding to yolk absorption (8 to 12 d post-hatching [dph]. Each group of fish was sub-divided into 2 treatments at 13 dph and was fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (H or a low carbohydrate diet (L until 20 wk. In the current study, the fish in 4 groups (GL, FL, GH and FH were experienced to starvation for 21 d following by re-feeding of their corresponding diets for 21 d. Fish were sampled at postprandial 6 and 24 h before starvation (P6h and P24h, starvation 7, 14 and 21 d (S7, S14 and S21 and 1, 7, 14 and 21 d during refeeding (R1, R7, R14 and R21. Plasma samples during refeeding were taken at P6h at each time point. Glycaemia levels, liver and muscle glycogen contents, activities and mRNA levels of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes were examined. We found that both dietary carbohydrate levels and early glucose stimuli significantly affected the metabolic responses to starvation and refeeding in Siberian sturgeon (P < 0.05. During prolonged starvation, Siberian sturgeon firstly mobilized the liver glycogen and then improved gluconeogenesis when the dietary carbohydrates were abundant, whereas preserved the liver glycogen stores at a stable level and more effectively promoted gluconeogenesis when the dietary carbohydrates are absent to maintain glucose homoeostasis. During refeeding, as most teleostean, Siberian sturgeon failed controlling the activities and mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic forms (PEPCK-C, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, but particularly controlled phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mitochondrial forms (PEPCK-M activities and mRNA expression

  5. DHEA-induced modulation of renal gluconeogenesis, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid profile in the control- and dexamethasone-treated rabbits. Metabolic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiersztan, Anna; Nagalski, Andrzej; Nalepa, Paweł; Tempes, Aleksandra; Trojan, Nina; Usarek, Michał; Jagielski, Adam K

    2016-02-01

    In view of antidiabetic and antiglucocorticoid effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) both in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken: (i) to elucidate the mechanism of action of both dexamethasone phosphate (dexP) and DHEA on glucose synthesis in primary cultured rabbit kidney-cortex tubules and (ii) to investigate the influence of DHEA on glucose synthesis, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid profile in the control- and dexP-treated rabbits. Data show, that in cultured kidney-cortex tubules dexP significantly stimulated gluconeogenesis by increasing flux through fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). DexP-induced effects were dependent only upon glucocorticoid receptor. DHEA decreased glucose synthesis via inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and suppressed the dexP-induced stimulation of renal gluconeogenesis. Studies with the use of inhibitors of DHEA metabolism in cultured renal tubules showed for the first time that DHEA directly affects renal gluconeogenesis. However, in view of analysis of glucocorticoids and DHEA metabolites levels in urine, it seems likely, that testosterone may also contribute to DHEA-evoked effects. In dexP-treated rabbits, plasma glucose level was not altered despite increased renal and hepatic FBPase and G6Pase activities, while a significant elevation of both plasma insulin and HOMA-IR was accompanied by a decline of ISI index. It thus appears that increased insulin levels were required to maintain normoglycaemia and to compensate the insulin resistance. DHEA alone affected neither plasma glucose nor lipid levels, while it increased insulin sensitivity and diminished both renal and hepatic G6Pase activities. Surprisingly, DHEA co-administrated with dexP did not alter insulin sensitivity, while it partially suppressed the dexP-induced elevation of renal G6Pase activity and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride contents. As (i) gluconeogenic pathway in rabbit is similar to that in human, and (ii) DHEA counteracts several

  6. Irisin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis and increases glycogen synthesis via the PI3K/Akt pathway in type 2 diabetic mice and hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Yan; Shi, Chang-Xiang; Gao, Run; Sun, Hai-Jian; Xiong, Xiao-Qing; Ding, Lei; Chen, Qi; Li, Yue-Hua; Wang, Jue-Jin; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2015-11-01

    Increased glucose production and reduced hepatic glycogen storage contribute to metabolic abnormalities in diabetes. Irisin, a newly identified myokine, induces the browning of white adipose tissue, but its effects on gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of irisin on gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis in hepatocytes with insulin resistance, and its therapeutic role in type 2 diabetic mice. Insulin resistance was induced by glucosamine (GlcN) or palmitate in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and mouse primary hepatocytes. Type 2 diabetes was induced by streptozotocin/high-fat diet (STZ/HFD) in mice. In HepG2 cells, irisin ameliorated the GlcN-induced increases in glucose production, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) expression, and glycogen synthase (GS) phosphorylation; it prevented GlcN-induced decreases in glycogen content and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) p110α subunit level, and the phosphorylation of Akt/protein kinase B, forkhead box transcription factor O1 (FOXO1) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). These effects of irisin were abolished by the inhibition of PI3K or Akt. The effects of irisin were confirmed in mouse primary hepatocytes with GlcN-induced insulin resistance and in human HepG2 cells with palmitate-induced insulin resistance. In diabetic mice, persistent subcutaneous perfusion of irisin improved the insulin sensitivity, reduced fasting blood glucose, increased GSK3 and Akt phosphorylation, glycogen content and irisin level, and suppressed GS phosphorylation and PEPCK and G6Pase expression in the liver. Irisin improves glucose homoeostasis by reducing gluconeogenesis via PI3K/Akt/FOXO1-mediated PEPCK and G6Pase down-regulation and increasing glycogenesis via PI3K/Akt/GSK3-mediated GS activation. Irisin may be regarded as a novel therapeutic strategy for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. © 2015

  7. Duodenal-jejunal bypass surgery up-regulates the expression of the hepatic insulin signaling proteins and the key regulatory enzymes of intestinal gluconeogenesis in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

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    Sun, Dong; Wang, Kexin; Yan, Zhibo; Zhang, Guangyong; Liu, Shaozhuang; Liu, Fengjun; Hu, Chunxiao; Hu, Sanyuan

    2013-11-01

    Duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB), which is not routinely applied in metabolic surgery, is an effective surgical procedure in terms of type 2 diabetes mellitus resolution. However, the underlying mechanisms are still undefined. Our aim was to investigate the diabetic improvement by DJB and to explore the changes in hepatic insulin signaling proteins and regulatory enzymes of gluconeogenesis after DJB in a non-obese diabetic rat model. Sixteen adult male Goto-Kakizaki rats were randomly divided into DJB and sham-operated groups. The body weight, food intake, hormone levels, and glucose metabolism were measured. The levels of protein expression and phosphorylation of insulin receptor-beta (IR-β) and insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2) were evaluated in the liver. We also detected the expression of key regulatory enzymes of gluconeogenesis [phosphoenoylpyruvate carboxykinase-1 (PCK1), glucose-6-phosphatase-alpha (G6Pase-α)] in small intestine and liver. DJB induced significant diabetic improvement with higher postprandial glucagons-like peptide 1, peptide YY, and insulin levels, but without weight loss. The DJB group exhibited increased expression and phosphorylation of IR-β and IRS-2 in liver, up-regulated the expression of PCK1 and G6Pase-α in small intestine, and down-regulated the expression of these enzymes in liver. DJB is effective in up-regulating the expression of the key proteins in the hepatic insulin signaling pathway and the key regulatory enzymes of intestinal gluconeogenesis and down-regulating the expression of the key regulatory enzymes of hepatic gluconeogenesis without weight loss. Our study helps to reveal the potential role of hepatic insulin signaling pathway and intestinal gluconeogenesis in ameliorating insulin resistance after metabolic surgery.

  8. Down-Regulation of Renal Gluconeogenesis in Type II Diabetic Rats Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery: A Potential Mechanism in Hypoglycemic Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yi; Lin, Ning; Yan, Hong-Tao; Luo, Hao; Chen, Guang-Yu; Cui, Jian-Feng; Shi, Li; Chen, Tao; Wang, Tao; Tang, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study was initiated to evaluate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on renal gluconeogenesis in type 2 diabetic rats and its relationship with hormonal parameters. Methods Diabetic rats were induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 35 mg/kg) combined with a high-fat diet. They were then randomly divided into three groups: diabetes model group (DM group, n = 8), sham Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group (SRYGB group, n = 8), and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group (RYGB group, n = 14). Another 8 normal rats comprised the normal control group (NC group, n = 8). Body weight, glucose, serum lipid, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), leptin, and adiponectin were measured pre- and postoperatively. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), insulin receptor-α (IR-α), insulin receptor-β (IR-β), and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (Gsk3b) were measured in renal cortex by using RT-PCR and Western immune-blot analyses on the 4th week after operation. Results Following RYGB surgery, surgery-treated rats showed significantly improved oral glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance as well as increased post-gavage insulin levels and serum circulating levels of GLP-1 and adiponectin. RT-PCR and Western immune-blot analyses showed PEPCK and G6Pase protein and mRNA to be significantly decreased in the renal cortex in the RYGB group (p insulin signal pathway in the renal cortex and increased circulating adiponectin concentrations may contribute to the decline of renal gluconeogenesis following RYGB surgery. PMID:25832593

  9. ERK2-Mediated Phosphorylation of Transcriptional Coactivator Binding Protein PIMT/NCoA6IP at Ser298 Augments Hepatic Gluconeogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Kishore V. L.; Kain, Vasundhara; Behera, Soma; Suraj, Sashidhara Kaimal; Babu, Phanithi Prakash; Kar, Anand; Panda, Sunanda; Zhu, Yi-jun; Jia, Yuzhi; Thimmapaya, Bayar; Reddy, Janardan K.; Misra, Parimal

    2013-01-01

    PRIP-Interacting protein with methyl transferase domain (PIMT) serves as a molecular bridge between CREB-binding protein (CBP)/ E1A binding protein p300 (Ep300) -anchored histone acetyl transferase and the Mediator complex sub-unit1 (Med1) and modulates nuclear receptor transcription. Here, we report that ERK2 phosphorylates PIMT at Ser298 and enhances its ability to activate PEPCK promoter. We observed that PIMT is recruited to PEPCK promoter and adenoviral-mediated over-expression of PIMT in rat primary hepatocytes up-regulated expression of gluconeogenic genes including PEPCK. Reporter experiments with phosphomimetic PIMT mutant (PIMTS298D) suggested that conformational change may play an important role in PIMT-dependent PEPCK promoter activity. Overexpression of PIMT and Med1 together augmented hepatic glucose output in an additive manner. Importantly, expression of gluconeogenic genes and hepatic glucose output were suppressed in isolated liver specific PIMT knockout mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, consistent with reporter experiments, PIMTS298D but not PIMTS298A augmented hepatic glucose output via up-regulating the expression of gluconeogenic genes. Pharmacological blockade of MAPK/ERK pathway using U0126, abolished PIMT/Med1-dependent gluconeogenic program leading to reduced hepatic glucose output. Further, systemic administration of T4 hormone to rats activated ERK1/2 resulting in enhanced PIMT ser298 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of PIMT led to its increased binding to the PEPCK promoter, increased PEPCK expression and induction of gluconeogenesis in liver. Thus, ERK2-mediated phosphorylation of PIMT at Ser298 is essential in hepatic gluconeogenesis, demonstrating an important role of PIMT in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia. PMID:24358311

  10. Celecoxib and Ibuprofen Restore the ATP Content and the Gluconeogenesis Activity in the Liver of Walker-256 Tumor-Bearing Rats

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    Camila Oliveira de Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of celecoxib and ibuprofen, both non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, on the decreased gluconeogenesis observed in liver of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. Methods: Celecoxib and ibuprofen (both at 25 mg/Kg were orally administered for 12 days, beginning on the same day when the rats were inoculated with Walker-256 tumor cells. Results: Celecoxib and ibuprofen treatment reversed the reduced production of glucose, pyruvate, lactate and urea from alanine as well as the reduced production of glucose from pyruvate and lactate in perfused liver from tumor-bearing rats. Besides, celecoxib and ibuprofen treatment restored the decreased ATP content, increased triacylglycerol levels and reduced mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1, while ibuprofen treatment restored the reduced mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα in the liver of tumor-bearing rats. Both treatments tended to decrease TNFα, IL6 and IL10 in the liver of tumor-bearing rats. Finally, the treatment with celecoxib, but not with ibuprofen, reduced the growth of Walker-256 tumor. Conclusion: Celecoxib and ibuprofen restored the decreased gluconeogenesis in the liver of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. These effects did not involve changes in tumor growth and probably occurred by anti-inflammatory properties of these NSAIDs, which increased expression of genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (PPARα and CPT1 and consequently the ATP production, normalizing the energy status in the liver of tumor-bearing rats.

  11. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atageldiyeva, Kuralay; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Mizumoto, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Yasutaka; Honjo, Jun; Takiyama, Yumi; Abiko, Atsuko; Makino, Yuichi; Haneda, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCHD) and treated with/without the SGLT-2 inhibitor, ipragliflozin. We compared metabolic parameters, gene expression for transcripts related to glucose and fat metabolism, and glycogen content in the kidney and the liver among the groups. SGLT2i but not LCHD improved glucose excursion after an oral glucose load compared to NCHD, although all groups presented comparable non-fasted glycemia. Both the LCHD and SGLT2i treatments increased calorie-intake, whereas only the LCHD increased body weight compared to the NCHD, epididimal fat mass and developed insulin resistance. Gene expression of certain gluconeogenic enzymes was simultaneously upregulated in the kidney of SGLT2i treated group, as well as in the liver of the LCHD treated group. The SGLT2i treated groups showed markedly lower glycogen content in the liver, but induced glycogen accumulation in the kidney. We conclude that LCHD induces deleterious metabolic changes in the non-diabetic mice. Our results suggest that SGLT2i induced gluconeogenesis mainly in the kidney, whereas for LCHD it was predominantly in the liver.

  12. Key enzymes of gluconeogenesis are dose-dependently reduced in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-treated rats

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    Weber, L.W.D.; Rozman, K. (Kansas Univ., Kansas City, KS (USA). Dept. of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen (GSF), Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Toxikologie); Lebofsky, M. (Kansas Univ., Kansas City, KS (USA). Dept. of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics); Greim, H. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen (GSF), Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Toxikologie)

    1991-02-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats (240-245 g) were dosed ip with 5, 15, 25, or 125 {mu}g/kg -,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in corn oil. Ad libitum-fed and pair-fed controls received vehicle (4 ml/kg) alone. Two or 8 days after dosing five rats of each group were sacrificed, their livers removed and assayed for the activities of three gluconeogenic enzymes, (phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK; EC 4.1.1.32), pyruvate carboxylase (PC; EC 6.4.1.1.), and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase, EC 3.1.3.9)), and one glycolytic enzyme (pyruvate kinase (PK; EC 2.7.1.40)) by established procedures. The activity of PK was not affected by TCDD at either time point. The activity of G-6-Phase tended to be decreased in TCDD-treated animals, as compared to pair-fed controls, but the decrease was variable without an apparent dose-response. The activity of PEPCK was significantly decreased 2 days after dosing, but a clear dose-response was apparent only at the 8-day time point. Maximum loss of activity at the highest dose was 56% below pair-fed control levels. PC activity was slightly decreased 2 days after TCDD treatment and displayed statistically significant, dose-dependent reduction by 8 days after dosing with a 49% loss of enzyme activity after the highest dose. It is concluded that inhibition of gluconeogenesis by TCDD previously demonstrated in vivo is probably due to decreased activities of PEPCK and PC. The data also support the prevailing view that PEPCK and PC are rate-determining enzymes in gluconeogenesis. (orig.).

  13. Localisation of gluconeogenesis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-cycle enzymes and first functional analysis of the TCA cycle in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Tobias; Pfaff, Nils; Gross, Uwe; Bohne, Wolfgang

    2008-08-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii displays some unusual localisations of carbohydrate converting enzymes, which is due to the presence of a vestigial, non-photosynthetic plastid, referred to as the apicoplast. It was recently demonstrated that the single pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) in T. gondii is exclusively localised inside the apicoplast but absent in the mitochondrion. This raises the question about expression, localisation and function of enzymes for the tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-cycle, which normally depends on PDH generated acetyl-CoA. Based on the expression and localisation of epitope-tagged fusion proteins, we show that all analysed TCA cycle enzymes are localised in the mitochondrion, including both isoforms of malate dehydrogenase. The absence of a cytosolic malate dehydrogenase suggests that a typical malate-aspartate shuttle for transfer of reduction equivalents is missing in T. gondii. We also localised various enzymes which catalyse the irreversible steps in gluconeogenesis to a cellular compartment and examined mRNA expression levels for gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle genes between tachyzoites and in vitro bradyzoites. In order to get functional information on the TCA cycle for the parasite energy metabolism, we created a conditional knock-out mutant for the succinyl-CoA synthetase. Disruption of the sixth step in the TCA cycle should leave the biosynthetic parts of the cycle intact, but prevent FADH2 production. The succinyl-CoA synthetase depletion mutant displayed a 30% reduction in growth rate, which could be restored by supplementation with 2 microM succinate in the tissue culture medium. The mitochondrial membrane potential in these parasites was found to be unaltered. The lack of a more severe phenotype suggests that a functional TCA cycle is not essential for T. gondii replication and for maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential.

  14. Orphan Nuclear Receptor Small Heterodimer Partner Negatively Regulates Growth Hormone-mediated Induction of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis through Inhibition of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5) Transactivation*

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    Kim, Yong Deuk; Li, Tiangang; Ahn, Seung-Won; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Hwang, Seung-Lark; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Chul-Ho; Lee, In-Kyu; Chiang, John Y. L.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a key metabolic regulator mediating glucose and lipid metabolism. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase superfamily and regulates cell cycle progression. The orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP: NR0B2) plays a pivotal role in regulating metabolic processes. Here, we studied the role of ATM on GH-dependent regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis in the liver. GH induced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6-phosphatase gene expression in primary hepatocytes. GH treatment and adenovirus-mediated STAT5 overexpression in hepatocytes increased glucose production, which was blocked by a JAK2 inhibitor, AG490, dominant negative STAT5, and STAT5 knockdown. We identified a STAT5 binding site on the PEPCK gene promoter using reporter assays and point mutation analysis. Up-regulation of SHP by metformin-mediated activation of the ATM-AMP-activated protein kinase pathway led to inhibition of GH-mediated induction of hepatic gluconeogenesis, which was abolished by an ATM inhibitor, KU-55933. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that SHP physically interacted with STAT5 and inhibited STAT5 recruitment on the PEPCK gene promoter. GH-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis was decreased by either metformin or Ad-SHP, whereas the inhibition by metformin was abolished by SHP knockdown. Finally, the increase of hepatic gluconeogenesis following GH treatment was significantly higher in the liver of SHP null mice compared with that of wild-type mice. Overall, our results suggest that the ATM-AMP-activated protein kinase-SHP network, as a novel mechanism for regulating hepatic glucose homeostasis via a GH-dependent pathway, may be a potential therapeutic target for insulin resistance. PMID:22977252

  15. Berberine Attenuates Development of the Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Lipid Metabolism Disorder in Type 2 Diabetic Mice and in Palmitate-Incubated HepG2 Cells through Suppression of the HNF-4α miR122 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengnan; Zhang, Ming; Yu, Yang; Lan, Xiaoxin; Yao, Fan; Yan, Xin; Chen, Li; Hatch, Grant M

    2016-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) has been shown to exhibit protective effects against diabetes and dyslipidemia. Previous studies have indicated that BBR modulates lipid metabolism and inhibits hepatic gluconeogensis by decreasing expression of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-4α (HNF-4α). However, the mechanism involved in this process was unknown. In the current study, we examined the mechanism of how BBR attenuates hepatic gluconeogenesis and the lipid metabolism alterations observed in type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice and in palmitate (PA)-incubated HepG2 cells. Treatment with BBR for 4 weeks improve all biochemical parameters compared to T2D mice. Treatment of T2D mice for 4 weeks or treatment of PA-incubated HepG2 cells for 24 h with BBR decreased expression of HNF-4α and the microRNA miR122, the key gluconeogenesis enzymes Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and the key lipid metabolism proteins Sterol response element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), Fatty acid synthase-1 (FAS-1) and Acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCα) and increased Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1(CPT-1) compared to T2D mice or PA-incubated HepG2 cells. Expression of HNF-4α in HepG2 cells increased expression of gluconeogenic and lipid metabolism enzymes and BBR treatment or knock down of miR122 attenuated the effect of HNF-4α expression. In contrast, BBR treatment did not alter expression of gluconeogenic and lipid metabolism enzymes in HepG2 cells with knockdown of HNF-4α. In addition, miR122 mimic increased expression of gluconeogenic and lipid metabolism enzymes in HepG2 cells with knockdown of HNF-4α. These data indicate that miR122 is a critical regulator in the downstream pathway of HNF-4α in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. The effect of BBR on hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism is mediated through HNF-4α and is regulated downstream of miR122. Our data provide new evidence to support HNF-4α and miR122

  16. Infliximab treatment prevents hyperglycemia and the intensification of hepatic gluconeogenesis in an animal model of high fat diet-induced liver glucose overproduction

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    Karissa Satomi Haida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of infliximab on gluconeogenesis in an animal model of diet-induced liver glucose overproduction was investigated. The mice were treated with standard diet (SD group or high fat diet (HFD group. HFD group were randomly divided and treated either with saline (100 µl/dose, ip, twice a day or infliximab (10 µg in 100 µl saline per dose, ip, twice a day, i.e., 0.5 mg/kg per day. SD group also received saline. The treatment with infliximab or saline started on the first day of the introduction of the HFD and was maintained during two weeks. After this period, the mice were fasted (15 h and anesthetized. After laparotomy, blood was collected for glucose determination followed by liver perfusion in which L-alanine (5 mM was used as gluconeogenic substrate. HFD group treated with saline showed higher (p < 0.05 liver glucose production from L-alanine and fasting hyperglycemia. However, these metabolic changes were prevented by infliximab treatment. Therefore, this study suggested that infliximab could prevent the glucose overproduction and hyperglycemia related with glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes.

  17. Hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis in cereal aleurone is strongly cultivar-dependent and gibberellin action involves SLENDER1 but not GAMYB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastmond, Peter J; Jones, Russell L

    2005-11-01

    Storage oil is a major constituent in the cereal aleurone layer. The aim of this study was to investigate how gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) regulate conversion of oil to sugar in barley aleurone. The activity of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL) was surveyed in eight barley cultivars. Surprisingly, some cultivars do not require GA for the induction of ICL (e.g. Himalaya), whereas some do (e.g. Golden Promise). Furthermore, in Golden Promise, GA also stimulates triacylglycerol breakdown and enhances the net flux of carbon from acetate to sugar. In contrast, ABA strongly represses ICL activity and the flux of carbon from oil to sugar in both Golden Promise and Himalaya. Biolistics using a promoter reporter showed that GA and ABA regulate ICL at the level of transcription. Studies using barley and rice mutants and pharmacological agents show that GA-dependent induction of ICL activity is mediated by SLENDER1 and requires cGMP, but does not involve the transcription factor GAMYB. Gibberellin and ABA therefore act antagonistically to regulate gluconeogenesis in the aleurone layer as well as controlling the production and secretion of hydrolases into the starchy endosperm. We suggest that the variation between different barley cultivars might be a result of selective breeding to alter seed dormancy.

  18. Carbon-14 tracer studies in the metabolism of isolated rat-liver parenchymal cells under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellhofer, G.; Mueller, C.; Stetten, C. von; Gruber, E.

    1977-01-01

    In rat liver perfusion experiments under conditions of gluconeogenesis from lactate and pyruvate, 14 C-labeling patterns of metabolites with (1- 14 C)-labeled and (2- 14 C)-labeled lactate or pyruvate. [ 14 C]bicarbonate and [1- 14 C]octanoate as tracers have been obtained which do not agree with generally assumed reaction schemes. The experiments have been repeated with incubations of isolated rat-liver parenchymal cells. The results demonstrate that the discrepancies between expected and analysed 14 C-labeling patterns of metabolites were still existent. From this observation, it may be concluded that 14 C-labelling patterns of metabolites are indicative for the existence of still unknown metabolic relationships in liver parenchymal cells. Furthermore, the results of our experiments prove that conclusions based on the exclusive analysis of metabolite levels are of limited value for studying intracellular events, because of uncharacterized compartmentations, which become evident in 14 C-tracer studies. It cannot be answered by our studies whether the apparent existence of differently labelled species of citrate, oxoglutarate, or acetyl-CoA represent intracellular compartmentation, or whether it is the result of metabolic heterogeneity of liver parenchym cells. (orig.) [de

  19. Murine remote preconditioning increases glucose uptake and suppresses gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes via a brain-liver neurocircuit, leading to counteracting glucose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Chiharu; Matsumoto, Waka; Naganuma, Seiji; Furihata, Mutsuo; Inoue, Keiji; Kakinuma, Yoshihiko

    2018-05-01

    Our previous study revealed that cyclic hindlimb ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) activates cardiac acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis through the cholinergic nervous system and cell-derived ACh accelerates glucose uptake. However, the mechanisms regulating glucose metabolism in vivo remain unknown. We investigated the effects and mechanisms of IR in mice under pathophysiological conditions. Using IR-subjected male C57BL/6J mice, the effects of IR on blood sugar (BS), glucose uptake, central parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity, hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression and those of ACh on hepatocellular glucose uptake were assessed. IR decreased BS levels by 20% and increased c-fos immunoreactivity in the center of the PNS (the solitary tract and the dorsal motor vagal nucleus). IR specifically downregulated hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression and activities (glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and accelerated hepatic glucose uptake. Transection of a hepatic vagus nerve branch decreased this uptake and reversed BS decrease. Suppressed gluconeogenic enzyme expression was reversed by intra-cerebroventricular administration of a choline acetyltransferase inhibitor. Moreover, IR significantly attenuated hyperglycaemia in murine model of type I and II diabetes mellitus. IR provides another insight into a therapeutic modality for diabetes mellitus due to regulating gluconeogenesis and glucose-uptake and advocates an adjunctive mode rectifying disturbed glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 13C and 31P NMR study of gluconeogenesis: utilization of 13C-labeled substrates by perfused liver from streptozotocin-diabetic and untreated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of 13 C-labeled substrates was followed by 13 C and 31 P NMR in perfused liver from the streptozotocin-treated rat model of insulin-dependent diabetes. Comparison was made with perfused liver from untreated littermates, fasted either 24 or 12 h. The major routes of pyruvate metabolism were followed by a 13 C NMR approach that provided for the determination of the metabolic fate of several substances simultaneously. The rate of gluconeogenesis was 2-4-fold greater and β-hydroxybutyrate production was 50% greater in liver from the chronically diabetic rats as compared with the control groups. Large differences in the distribution of 13 C label in hepatic alanine were measured between diabetic and control groups. The biosyntheses of 13 C-labeled glutathione and N-carbamoylaspartate were monitored in time-resolved 13 C NMR spectra of perfused liver. Assignments for the resonances of glutathione and N-carbamoylaspartate were made with the aid of 13 C NMR studies of perchloric acid extracts of the freeze-clamped livers. 13 C NMR spectroscopy of the perfusates provided a convenient, rapid assay of the rate of oxidation of [2- 13 C]ethanol, the hepatic output of [2- 13 ]acetaldehyde, and the accumulation of [2- 13 C]acetate in the perfusate. By 31 P NMR spectroscopy, carbamoyl phosphate was measured in all diabetic livers and an unusual P,P'-diesterified pyrophosphate was observed in one-fourth of the diabetic livers examined. Neither of these phosphorylated metabolites was detected in control liver. Both 13 C and 31 P NMR were useful in defining changes in hepatic metabolism in experimental diabetes

  1. The contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism of ripening peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) flesh is negligible. Implications for the occurrence of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiani, Franco; Farinelli, Daniela; Moscatello, Stefano; Battistelli, Alberto; Leegood, Richard C; Walker, Robert P

    2016-04-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine the contribution of stored malate and citrate to the substrate requirements of metabolism in the ripening flesh of the peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivar Adriatica. In the flesh, stored malate accumulated before ripening could contribute little or nothing to the net substrate requirements of metabolism. This was because there was synthesis and not dissimilation of malate throughout ripening. Stored citrate could potentially contribute a very small amount (about 5.8%) of the substrate required by metabolism when the whole ripening period was considered, and a maximum of about 7.5% over the latter part of ripening. The second aim of this study was to investigate why phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) an enzyme utilised in gluconeogenesis from malate and citrate is present in peach flesh. The occurrence and localisation of enzymes utilised in the metabolism of malate, citrate and amino acids were determined in peach flesh throughout its development. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (essential for the synthesis of malate and citrate) was present in the same cells and at the same time as PEPCK and NADP-malic enzyme (both utilised in the dissimilation of malate and citrate). A hypothesis is presented to explain the presence of these enzymes and to account for the likely occurrence of gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca Prevents Metabolism Disorder via Regulating the Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis-TCA Cycle and PPARα Signaling Activation in Golden Hamsters Fed a High-Fat, High-Fructose Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wenting; Li, Hongxiang; Xiang, Jiamei; Yi, Fan; Xu, Lijia; Jiang, Baoping; Xiao, Peigen

    2018-01-01

    Maca ( Lepidium meyenii Walpers) has been used as a dietary supplement and ethnomedicine for centuries. Recently, maca has become a high profile functional food worldwide because of its multiple biological activities. This study is the first explorative research to investigate the prevention and amelioration capacity of the aqueous extract of black maca (AEM) on high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced metabolism disorder in golden hamsters and to identify the potential mechanisms involved in these effects. For 20 weeks, 6-week-old male golden hamsters were fed the following respective diets: (1) a standard diet, (2) HFD, (3) HFD supplemented with metformin, or (4) HFD supplemented with three doses of AEM (300, 600, or 1,200 mg/kg). After 20 weeks, the golden hamsters that received daily AEM supplementation presented with the beneficial effects of improved hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in vivo . Based on the hepatic metabolomic analysis results, alterations in metabolites associated with pathological changes were examined. A total of 194 identified metabolites were mapped to 46 relative metabolic pathways, including those of energy metabolism. In addition, via in silico profiling for secondary maca metabolites by a joint pharmacophore- and structure-based approach, a compound-target-disease network was established. The results revealed that 32 bioactive compounds in maca targeted 16 proteins involved in metabolism disorder. Considering the combined metabolomics and virtual screening results, we employed quantitative real-time PCR assays to verify the gene expression of key enzymes in the relevant pathways. AEM promoted glycolysis and inhibited gluconeogenesis via regulating the expression of key genes such as Gck and Pfkm . Moreover, AEM upregulated tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux by changing the concentrations of intermediates and increasing the mRNA levels of Aco2 , Fh , and Mdh2 . In addition, the lipid

  3. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca Prevents Metabolism Disorder via Regulating the Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis-TCA Cycle and PPARα Signaling Activation in Golden Hamsters Fed a High-Fat, High-Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Wan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers has been used as a dietary supplement and ethnomedicine for centuries. Recently, maca has become a high profile functional food worldwide because of its multiple biological activities. This study is the first explorative research to investigate the prevention and amelioration capacity of the aqueous extract of black maca (AEM on high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFD-induced metabolism disorder in golden hamsters and to identify the potential mechanisms involved in these effects. For 20 weeks, 6-week-old male golden hamsters were fed the following respective diets: (1 a standard diet, (2 HFD, (3 HFD supplemented with metformin, or (4 HFD supplemented with three doses of AEM (300, 600, or 1,200 mg/kg. After 20 weeks, the golden hamsters that received daily AEM supplementation presented with the beneficial effects of improved hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in vivo. Based on the hepatic metabolomic analysis results, alterations in metabolites associated with pathological changes were examined. A total of 194 identified metabolites were mapped to 46 relative metabolic pathways, including those of energy metabolism. In addition, via in silico profiling for secondary maca metabolites by a joint pharmacophore- and structure-based approach, a compound-target-disease network was established. The results revealed that 32 bioactive compounds in maca targeted 16 proteins involved in metabolism disorder. Considering the combined metabolomics and virtual screening results, we employed quantitative real-time PCR assays to verify the gene expression of key enzymes in the relevant pathways. AEM promoted glycolysis and inhibited gluconeogenesis via regulating the expression of key genes such as Gck and Pfkm. Moreover, AEM upregulated tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle flux by changing the concentrations of intermediates and increasing the mRNA levels of Aco2, Fh, and Mdh2. In addition, the lipid

  4. 3-(2-amino-ethyl)-5-[3-(4-butoxyl-phenyl)-propylidene]-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (K145) ameliorated dexamethasone induced hepatic gluconeogenesis through activation of Akt/FoxO1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanan; Qiao, Jiayun; Mu, Biao; Zuo, Bingfeng; Yuan, Jihong

    2017-11-04

    3-(2-amino-ethyl)-5-[3-(4-butoxyl-phenyl)-propylidene]-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (K145) is identified as a selective SphK2 inhibitor. It was previously reported as an anti-tumor agent, in this study we demonstrated that K145 was able to regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and improve glucose intolerance in mice. C57BL/6 mice treated with dexamethasone injection were used as experimental animals, which exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and increased gluconeogenetic enzymes. After K145 treatment, we found that the impairment of glucose tolerance and gluconeogenetic genes mRNA expression were improved. Besides, both in vivo and in votro studies suggested that K145 stimulated insulin dependent Akt phosphorylation and subsequently activates FoxO1 phosphorylation therefore inhibited gluconeogenetic genes expression including PEPCK and G6pase. Our study figures out a potential extent increase the value of developing K145 as therapeutic candidate for diabetes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. HNF-4α regulated miR-122 contributes to development of gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism disorders in Type 2 diabetic mice and in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengnan; Zhang, Ming; Yu, Yang; Xue, Huan; Lan, Xiaoxin; Liu, Shuping; Hatch, Grant; Chen, Li

    2016-11-15

    Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-4α (HNF-4α) is a key nuclear receptor protein required for liver development. miR-122 is a predominant microRNA expressed in liver and is involved in the regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. HNF-4α is know to regulate expression of miR-122 in liver. We examined how HNF-4α regulated gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism through miR-122 in vivo and in vitro. Expression of miR-122, HNF-4α, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), sterol response elementary binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthase-1 (FAS-1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) and acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACCα) were determined in livers of Type 2 diabetic mice and in insulin resistant palmitate-treated HepG2 cells. CPT-1 and phosphorylated ACCα expression were significantly decreased in livers of Type 2 diabetic mice and in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells compared to controls. In contrast, expression of miR-122, HNF-4α, PEPCK, G6Pase, SREBP-1, FAS-1 and ACCα were significantly elevated in liver of Type 2 diabetic mice and in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells compared to controls. Expression of HNF-4α increased whereas siRNA knockdown of HNF-4α decreased miR-122 levels in HepG2 cells compared to controls. In addition, expression of HNF-4α in HepG2 cells increased PEPCK, G6Pase, SREBP-1, FAS-1, ACCα mRNA and protein expression and decreased CPT-1 and p-ACCα mRNA and protein expression compared to controls. Addition of miR-122 inhibitors attenuated the HNF-4α mediated effect on expression of these gluconeogenic and lipid metabolism proteins. The results indicate that HNF-4α regulated miR-122 contributes to development of the gluconeogenic and lipid metabolism alterations observed in Type 2 diabetic mice and in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Proton therapy of hormone-secreting hypophyseal adenomas: gluconeogenesis assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnova, L.A.; Konnov, B.A.; Mel'nikov, L.A.; Lebedeva, N.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of blood plasma aminograms of patients with hormone secreting hypophyseal adenomas (somatotropinomas and prolactinomas), that were obtained before and after a course of proton therapy, has confirmed the gluconeogenic effect of hypophyseal hormones and evidenced the relationship between this effect and dismetabolism of some amino acids

  7. Precursors for liver gluconeogenesis in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2013-01-01

    -organ transfer of nitrogen from catabolised AA. AAs seem to be prioritised for anabolic purposes, indicating the relevance of investigating effects of supplying additional protein to post partum dairy cows. Combining data from quantitative and qualitative experimental techniques on L-lactate metabolism point...... to the conclusion that the quantitatively most important adaptation of metabolism to support the increased glucose demand in the immediate post partum period is endogenous recycling of glucogenic carbon through lactate. This is mediated by a dual site of adaptation of metabolism in the liver and in the peripheral...

  8. Gluconeogenesis: An ancient biochemical pathway with a new twist

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Amrein, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of sugars from simple carbon sources is critical for survival of animals under limited nutrient availability. Thus, sugar-synthesizing enzymes should be present across the entire metazoan spectrum. Here, we explore the evolution of glucose and trehalose synthesis using a phylogenetic analysis of enzymes specific for the two pathways. Our analysis reveals that the production of trehalose is the more ancestral biochemical process, found in single cell organisms and primitive metazoans...

  9. Inborn Errors of Metabolism with Hypoglycemia Glycogen Storage Diseases and Inherited Disorders of Gluconeogenesis : Glycogen Storage Diseases and Inherited Disorders of Gluconeogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinstein, David A.; Steuerwald, Ulrike; De Souza, Carolina F. M.; Derks, Terry G. J.

    Although hyperinsulinism is the predominant inherited cause of hypoglycemia in the newborn period, inborn errors of metabolism are the primary etiologies after 1 month of age. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism often present with hypoglycemia when fasting occurs. The presentation, diagnosis, and

  10. Maltase-glucoamylase modulates gluconeogenesis and sucrase-isomaltase dominates starch digestion glucogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six enzyme activities are needed to digest starch to absorbable free glucose; 2 luminal alpha-amylases (AMY) and 4 mucosal maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) subunit activities are involved in the digestion. The AMY activities break down starch to soluble oligomeric dextrins; mu...

  11. Effect of long-term chronic irradiation on gluconeogenesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulikova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1982-01-01

    The incorporation of 14 C-acetate in glucose in the blood and in glycogen in the liver of rats chronically irradiated with gamma radiation was observed in vivo. During the period of observation the concentration of glycogen in the liver was increased. Increased acetate incorporation in glycogen was, however, observed only on day 30 of exposure. No changes in glucose concentration and acetate incorporation in glucose in the blood were observed. (M.D.)

  12. Glucagon regulates gluconeogenesis through KAT2B- and WDR5-mediated epigenetic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskjær, Kim; Hogan, Meghan F; Lackey, Denise

    2013-01-01

    assays, we show that histone H3 acetylation at Lys 9 (H3K9Ac) was elevated over gluconeogenic genes and contributed to increased hepatic glucose production during fasting and in diabetes. Dephosphorylation of CRTC2 promoted increased H3K9Ac through recruitment of the lysine acetyltransferase 2B (KAT2B...... decreased gluconeogenic gene expression, consequently breaking the cycle. Administration of a small-molecule KAT2B antagonist lowered circulating blood glucose concentrations in insulin resistance, suggesting that this enzyme may be a useful target for diabetes treatment....

  13. A genome-wide siRNA screen to identify modulators of insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruojing Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatic insulin resistance impairs insulin's ability to suppress hepatic glucose production (HGP and contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Although the interests to discover novel genes that modulate insulin sensitivity and HGP are high, it remains challenging to have a human cell based system to identify novel genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify genes that modulate hepatic insulin signaling and HGP, we generated a human cell line stably expressing beta-lactamase under the control of the human glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC promoter (AH-G6PC cells. Both beta-lactamase activity and endogenous G6PC mRNA were increased in AH-G6PC cells by a combination of dexamethasone and pCPT-cAMP, and reduced by insulin. A 4-gene High-Throughput-Genomics assay was developed to concomitantly measure G6PC and pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-4 (PDK4 mRNA levels. Using this assay, we screened an siRNA library containing pooled siRNA targeting 6650 druggable genes and identified 614 hits that lowered G6PC expression without increasing PDK4 mRNA levels. Pathway analysis indicated that siRNA-mediated knockdown (KD of genes known to positively or negatively affect insulin signaling increased or decreased G6PC mRNA expression, respectively, thus validating our screening platform. A subset of 270 primary screen hits was selected and 149 hits were confirmed by target gene KD by pooled siRNA and 7 single siRNA for each gene to reduce G6PC expression in 4-gene HTG assay. Subsequently, pooled siRNA KD of 113 genes decreased PEPCK and/or PGC1alpha mRNA expression thereby demonstrating their role in regulating key gluconeogenic genes in addition to G6PC. Last, KD of 61 of the above 113 genes potentiated insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that they suppress gluconeogenic gene by enhancing insulin signaling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results support the proposition that the proteins encoded by the genes identified in our cell-based druggable genome siRNA screen hold the potential to serve as novel pharmacological targets for the treatment of T2D.

  14. daf-16/FoxO promotes gluconeogenesis and trehalose synthesis during starvation to support survival

    OpenAIRE

    Hibshman, Jonathan D; Doan, Alexander E; Moore, Brad T; Kaplan, Rebecca EW; Hung, Anthony; Webster, Amy K; Bhatt, Dhaval P; Chitrakar, Rojin; Hirschey, Matthew D; Baugh, L Ryan

    2017-01-01

    eLife digest Most animals rarely have access to a constant supply of food, and so have evolved ways to cope with times of plenty and times of shortage. Insulin is a hormone that travels throughout the body to signal when an animal is well fed. Insulin signaling inhibits the activity of a protein called FoxO, which otherwise switches on and off hundreds of genes to control the starvation response. The roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans, has been well studied in the laboratory, and often has to ...

  15. Exercise-induced regulation of key factors in substrate choice and gluconeogenesis in mouse liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob Grunnet; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Hassing, Helle Adser

    2015-01-01

    As the demand for hepatic glucose production increases during exercise, regulation of liver substrate choice and gluconeogenic activity becomes essential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a single exercise bout on gluconeogenic protein content and regulation of enzymes...... involved in substrate utilization in the liver. Mice were subjected to 1 h of treadmill exercise, and livers were removed immediately, 4 or 10 h after exercise. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) mRNA contents in the liver increased immediately after exercise, while...... phosphorylation decreased immediately after exercise may indicate that carbohydrates rather than fatty acids are utilized for oxidation in the liver during non-exhaustive exercise....

  16. Correction for the metabolic exchange of 14C for 12C atoms in the pathway of gluconeogenesis in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetenyi, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Methods designed for estimation of the synthesis of plasma glucose are based on the transfer of 14 C atoms from a selected precursor (substrate) such as lactate or alanine. This approach was shown to lead to an underestimation of the true synthesis of glucose because of the metabolic exchange of 14 C atoms for 12 C atoms in the hepatic oxaloacetate pool. From the incorporation of 14 C atoms from intravenously infused [2- 14 C]acetate into plasma glucose, the extent of the metabolic exchange has been estimated. In normal dogs, metabolic exchange leads to an underestimation of plasma glucose synthesis from plasma lactate or alanine by a factor of 2.2 +/- 0.07, i.e., by 55%. In insulin-deprived diabetic dogs, the factor was found to be 1.8 +/- 0.05. In longterm fasted dogs, the factor may be higher than in the postabsorptive state, whereas treatment with methylprednisolone has no effect. The assumptions and sources of possible errors in the estimation of the extent of metabolic exchange are reviewed

  17. Correction for the metabolic exchange of 14C for 12C atoms in the pathway of gluconeogenesis in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetenyi, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Methods designed for estimation of the synthesis of plasma glucose are based on the transfer of 14 C atoms from a selected precursor (substrate) such as lactate or alanine. This approach was shown to lead to an underestimation of the true synthesis of glucose because of the metabolic exchange of 14 C atoms for 12 C atoms in the hepatic oxaloacetate pool. From the incorporation of 14 C atoms from intravenously infused [2- 14 C]acetate into plasma glucose, the extent of the metabolic exchange has been estimated. In normal dogs, metabolic exchange leads to an under-estimation of plasma glucose synthesis from plasma lactate or alanine by a factor of 2.2 +/- 0.07, i.e., by 55%. In insulin-deprived diabetic dogs, the factor was found to be 1.8 +/- 0.05. In long-term fasted dogs, the factor may be higher than in the postabsorptive state, whereas treatment with methylprednisolone has no effect. The assumptions and sources of possible errors in the estimation of the extent of metabolic exchange are reviewed

  18. Comparative metabonomics of Wenxin Keli and Verapamil reveals differential roles of gluconeogenesis and fatty acid ?-oxidation in myocardial injury protection

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Miaomiao; Wang, Qiuying; Chen, Jingrui; Wang, Yanan; Fan, Guanwei; Zhu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Metabonomics/metabolomics is a rapid technology for comprehensive profiling of small molecule metabolites in cells, tissues, or whole organisms, the application of which has led to understanding pathophysiologic mechanisms of cardiometabolic diseases, defining predictive biomarkers for those diseases, and also assessing the efficacious effects of incident drugs. In this study, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics was employed to identify the metabolic changes in rat plas...

  19. Lactate production and absence of gluconeogenesis from placental transferred substrates in fetuses from fed and 48-H starved rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacin, M.; Lasuncion, M.A.; Herrera, E.

    1987-07-01

    Fed and 48-h starved rats were infused on day 21.5 of gestation for 20 min through the left uterine artery with (U-/sup 14/C-)-D-glucose, (U-/sup 14/C)-glycerol, or (U-/sup 14/C)-L-alanine. The mother and fetuses from both uterine horns were processed separately for radioactivity measurements in plasma and liver. Differences in radioactivity values between fetuses from the left and the right sides are used as indexes of placental transference of the infused tracers prior to their distribution and transformation in the maternal circulation. After infusion of (U-/sup 14/C)-D-glucose, (U-/sup 14/C)-glycerol, or (U-/sup 14/C)-L-alanine, plasma radioactivity values and specific activities corresponding to the respective infused tracer appeared much higher in fetuses from the left than the right uterine side. Plasma /sup 14/C-lactate values also were higher in the left than the right fetuses indicating that fetoplacental structures produced lactate from those placentally transferred /sup 14/C-metabolites. No difference in plasma /sup 14/C-glucose between left and right uterine horn fetuses was observed after maternal infusion with either (U-/sup 14/C)-glycerol or (U-/sup 14/C)-L-alanine, either in fed or 48-h starved rats. In the mother both (U-/sup 14/C)-glycerol and (U-/sup 14/C)-L-alanine were efficiently converted to /sup 14/C-glucose, and this process was significantly enhanced with starvation. /sup 14/C-fatty acids present in fetal liver after maternal infusions with either (U-/sup 14/C)-D-glucose or (U-/sup 14/C)-glycerol were decreased by starvation whereas no fatty acid synthesis from (U-/sup 14/C)-L-alanine was detected.

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for xylose metabolism requires gluconeogenesis and the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway for aerobic xylose assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccharomyces strains engineered to ferment xylose using Scheffersomyces stipitis xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes appear to be limited by metabolic imbalances due to differing cofactor specificities of XR and XDH. The S. stipitis XR, which uses nicotinamide adenine dinucl...

  1. Acute inhibition of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase does not affect gluconeogenesis but directs gluconeogenic flux toward glycogen in fasted rats. A pharmacological study with the chlorogenic acid derivative S4048

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, T. H.; van der Sluijs, F. H.; Wiegman, C. H.; Baller, J. F.; Gustafson, L. A.; Burger, H. J.; Herling, A. W.; Kuipers, F.; Meijer, A. J.; Reijngoud, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Effects of acute inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase activity by the chlorogenic acid derivative S4048 on hepatic carbohydrate fluxes were examined in isolated rat hepatocytes and in vivo in rats. Fluxes were calculated using tracer dilution techniques and mass isotopomer distribution analysis in

  2. Acute inhibition of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase does not affect gluconeogenesis but directs gluconeogenic flux toward glycogen in fasted rats - A pharmacological study with the chlorogenic acid derivative S4048

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, TH; van der Sluijs, FH; Wiegman, CH; Baller, JFW; Gustafson, LA; Burger, HJ; Herling, AW; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Reijngoud, DJ

    2001-01-01

    Effects of acute inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase activity by the chlorogenic acid derivative S4048 on hepatic carbohydrate fluxes were examined in isolated rat hepatocytes and in vivo in rats. Fluxes were calculated using tracer dilution techniques and mass isotopomer distribution analysis in

  3. Gut-Brain Glucose Signaling in Energy Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soty, Maud; Gautier-Stein, Amandine; Rajas, Fabienne; Mithieux, Gilles

    2017-06-06

    Intestinal gluconeogenesis is a recently identified function influencing energy homeostasis. Intestinal gluconeogenesis induced by specific nutrients releases glucose, which is sensed by the nervous system surrounding the portal vein. This initiates a signal positively influencing parameters involved in glucose control and energy management controlled by the brain. This knowledge has extended our vision of the gut-brain axis, classically ascribed to gastrointestinal hormones. Our work raises several questions relating to the conditions under which intestinal gluconeogenesis proceeds and may provide its metabolic benefits. It also leads to questions on the advantage conferred by its conservation through a process of natural selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 437 ... ... Stimulates Gluconeogenesis In Hypoproteinemic Albino Rat ... Oropharynx and Tongue of the Guinea Fowl (Numida Meleagris) ... Vol 7, No 3 (2010), Growth and reproductive performances of weaner pigs fed maize ...

  5. In silico cloning and bioinformatic analysis of PEPCK gene in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a critical gluconeogenic enzyme, catalyzes the first committed step in the diversion of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates toward gluconeogenesis. According to the relative conservation of homologous gene, a bioinformatics strategy was applied to clone Fusarium ...

  6. Prediction of net hepatic release of glucose using a “hybrid” mechanistic model in ruminants applied to positive energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    Bahloul, Lahlou; Ortigues, Isabelle; Vernet, Jean; Lapierre, Helène; Noziere, Pierre; Sauvant, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Ruminants depend on hepatic gluconeogenesis to meet most of their metabolic demand for glucose which relies on availability of precursors from diet supply and animal requirements (Loncke et al., 2010). Several mechanistic models of the metabolic fate of nutrients across the liver exist that have been parameterized for dairy cows. They cannot be directly used to predict hepatic gluconeogenesis in all types of ruminants in different physiological status. A hybrid mechanistic model of nutrient f...

  7. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier mediates high fat diet-induced increases in hepatic TCA cycle capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Rauckhorst, Adam J.; Gray, Lawrence R.; Sheldon, Ryan D.; Fu, Xiaorong; Pewa, Alvin D.; Feddersen, Charlotte R.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.; Cox, James E.; Burgess, Shawn C.; Taylor, Eric B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most gluconeogenic flux is routed through mitochondria. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby gating pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis. Disruption of the hepatocyte MPC attenuates hyperglycemia in mice during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity but exerts minimal effects on glycemia in normal chow diet (NCD)-fed conditions. T...

  8. Bile Routing Modification Reproduces Key Features of Gastric Bypass in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Daisy; Barataud, Aude; De Vadder, Filipe; Vinera, Jennifer; Zitoun, Carine; Duchampt, Adeline; Mithieux, Gilles

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the role of bile routing modification on the beneficial effects of gastric bypass surgery on glucose and energy metabolism. Gastric bypass surgery (GBP) promotes early improvements in glucose and energy homeostasis in obese diabetic patients. A suggested mechanism associates a decrease in hepatic glucose production to an enhanced intestinal gluconeogenesis. Moreover, plasma bile acids are elevated after GBP and bile acids are inhibitors of gluconeogenesis. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, we performed bile diversions from the bile duct to the midjejunum or the mid-ileum to match the modified bile delivery in the gut occurring in GBP. Body weight, food intake, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and food preference were analyzed. The expression of gluconeogenesis genes was evaluated in both the liver and the intestine. Bile diversions mimicking GBP promote an increase in plasma bile acids and a marked improvement in glucose control. Bile bioavailability modification is causal because a bile acid sequestrant suppresses the beneficial effects of bile diversions on glucose control. In agreement with the inhibitory role of bile acids on gluconeogenesis, bile diversions promote a blunting in hepatic glucose production, whereas intestinal gluconeogenesis is increased in the gut segments devoid of bile. In rats fed a high-fat-high-sucrose diet, bile diversions improve glucose control and dramatically decrease food intake because of an acquired disinterest in fatty food. This study shows that bile routing modification is a key mechanistic feature in the beneficial outcomes of GBP.

  9. The functional state of perfused liver tissue in X-ray irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikova, G.V.; Dokshina, G.A.; Lapteva, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of studying the functional state of perfused liver tissue isolated from rates after irradiation in the 18.06x10 - 2 Kl/kg dose, which has been estimated by transamination process rate catalized alanine-(KF 2.6x1.2, ALT and aspartate by aminotransferases (KF 2.6x1.1, ACT), gluconeogenesis and urea production intensity presented. When comparing the results obtained on the perfused liver deprived of homeostatic body effects it has been found that the liver isolated from the body for the first 24 hours of the radiation sickness development possesses a higher radiation activity which manifests itself in intensification of the processes of gluconeogenesis and transamination with substrate addition. The third 24 hours upon irradiation in the isolated liver the intensity of the gluconeogenesis and transamination processes is attenuated

  10. Functional state of perfused liver tissue in X-ray irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovikova, G.V.; Dokshina, G.A.; Lapteva, T.A. (Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Biologii i Biofiziki)

    1981-01-01

    The results of studying the functional state of perfused liver tissue isolated from rats after irradiation in the 18.06x10/sup -2/ Kl/kg dose, which has been estimated by transamination process rate catalized alanine-(KF 2.6x1.2, ALT and aspartate by aminotransferases (KF 2.6x1.1, ACT), gluconeogenesis and urea production intensity presented. When comparing the results obtained on the perfused liver deprived of homeostatic body effects it has been found that the liver isolated from the body for the first 24 hours of the radiation sickness development possesses a higher radiation activity which manifests itself in intensification of the processes of gluconeogenesis and transamination with substrate addition. The third 24 hours upon irradiation in the isolated liver the intensity of the gluconeogenesis and transamination processes is attenuated.

  11. Metabolic alterations during ascosporogenesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    Sporulation of S. cerevisiae has been shown to alter the profiles of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. The enhancement in the levels of total cellular carbohydrates could be correlated with the enhancement in fructose 1,6-diphosphatase and trehalose-phosphate synthetase. The latter activity could account for the 15-fold increase in trehalose levels in sporulating cells. Glucose-6-phosphatase, pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase showed continuous decline during ascosporogenesis. The relative incorporation of radioactivity from possible precursors of gluconeogenesis indicated that acetate-2- 14 C alone could contribute to carbohydrate synthesis. (author)

  12. Persistent neonatal hypoglycemia: Diagnosis and management

    OpenAIRE

    Marles, Sandra L; Casiro, Oscar G

    1998-01-01

    Maintenance of plasma glucose depends on a normal endocrine system, functional enzyme levels for glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis and other processes, and there must be an adequate supply of endogenous fat, glycogen and substrates of gluconeogenesis. Neonatal hypoglycemia should be defined as serum glucose less than 2.2 mmol/L in the first 72 h of life and less than 2.5 mmol/L thereafter. The purpose of this paper is to review the more uncommon causes of hypoglycemia in the full term, apparent...

  13. Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C.

    1991-01-01

    Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-[U- 14 C]malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification

  14. Effect of miglitol (BAY m-1099) on fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sels, J P; Kingma, P J; Wolffenbuttel, B H; Menheere, P P; Branolte, J H; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, A C

    BACKGROUND: In type 2 diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose values are increased due to increased glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. As miglitol (BAY m-1099), an absorbable alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, can inhibit glycogenolysis, we investigated whether 200 mg miglitol ingested at bedtime could

  15. Distinct C/EBPalpha motifs regulate lipogenic and gluconeogenic gene expression in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas A; Bereshchenko, Oxana; Garcia-Silva, Susana

    2007-01-01

    gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. In vivo deletion of a proline-histidine rich domain (PHR), dephosphorylated at S193 by insulin signaling, dysregulated genes involved in the generation of acetyl-CoA and NADPH for triglyceride synthesis and led to increased hepatic lipogenesis. These promoters bound SREBP-1...

  16. Glucose kinetics during fasting in young children with severe and non-severe malaria in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlmans, Wilco; van Kempen, Anne; Ackermans, Mariëtte; de Metz, Jesse; Kager, Piet; Sauerwein, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Fasting could be an important factor in the induction of hypoglycemia in children with malaria because fasting results in a decrease in endogenous glucose production. The influence of extended fasting on plasma glucose concentration, glucose production, and gluconeogenesis were measured using

  17. Transient impairment of the adaptive response to fasting in FXR-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cariou, B; van Harmelen, K; Duran-Sandoval, D; van Dijk, T; Grefhorst, A; Bouchaert, E; Fruchart, JC; Gonzalez, FJ; Kuipers, F; Staels, B

    2005-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been suggested to play a role in gluconeogenesis. To determine whether FXR modulates the response to fasting in vivo, FXR-deficient (FXR-/-) and wild-type mice were submitted to fasting for 48 h. Our results demonstrate that FXR modulates the kinetics of

  18. Roles of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases in the Control of Glucose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sook Han

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucose homeostasis is tightly controlled by the regulation of glucose production in the liver and glucose uptake into peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Under prolonged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is mainly responsible for glucose production in the liver, which is essential for tissues, organs, and cells, such as skeletal muscle, the brain, and red blood cells. Hepatic gluconeogenesis is controlled in part by the concerted actions of transcriptional regulators. Fasting signals are relayed by various intracellular enzymes, such as kinases, phosphatases, acetyltransferases, and deacetylases, which affect the transcriptional activity of transcription factors and transcriptional coactivators for gluconeogenic genes. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs were recently added to the list of enzymes that are critical for regulating transcription in hepatic gluconeogenesis. In this review, we briefly discuss general aspects of PRMTs in the control of transcription. More specifically, we summarize the roles of four PRMTs: PRMT1, PRMT 4, PRMT 5, and PRMT 6, in the control of hepatic gluconeogenesis through specific regulation of FoxO1- and CREB-dependent transcriptional events.

  19. Glucose kinetics and pregnancy outcome in Indian women with low and normal body mass indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal energy demands are met from the oxidation of maternally supplied glucose and amino acids. During the fasted state, the glucose supply is thought to be met by gluconeogenesis. Underweight women with low body mass index (BMI) might be unable to adequately supply amino acids to satisfy the demand...

  20. A design for the control of apoptosis in genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Nao; Noguchi, Misa; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We have engineered a system that holds potential for use as a safety switch in genetically modified yeasts. Human apoptotic factor BAX (no homolog in yeast), under the control of the FBP1 (gluconeogenesis enzyme) promoter, was conditionally expressed to induce yeast cell apoptosis after glucose depletion. Such systems might prove useful for the safe use of genetically modified organisms.

  1. Two Alkaloids from Bulbs of Lycoris sanguinea MAXIM. Suppress PEPCK Expression by Inhibiting the Phosphorylation of CREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Sook; Tajima, Miki; Takahashi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Yuji; Umemura, Mariko; Nakano, Haruo; Park, Hyun Sun; Inoue, Hideshi

    2016-10-01

    In the fasting state, gluconeogenesis is upregulated by glucagon. Glucagon stimulates cyclic adenosine monophosphate production, which induces the expression of key enzymes for gluconeogenesis, such as cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), which are involved in gluconeogenesis through the protein kinase A/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway. Using a luciferase reporter gene assay, a methanol extract of the bulbs of Lycoris sanguinea M AXIM. var. kiushiana Makino was found to suppress cAMP-enhanced PEPCK-C promoter activity. In addition, two alkaloids, lycoricidine and lycoricidinol, in the extract were identified as active constituents. In forskolin-stimulated human hepatoma cells, these alkaloids suppressed the expression of a reporter gene under the control of cAMP response element and also prevented increases in the endogenous levels of phosphorylated CREB and PEPCK mRNA expression. These results suggest that lycoricidine and lycoricidinol suppress PEPCK-C expression by inhibiting the phosphorylation of CREB and may thus have the potential to prevent excessive gluconeogenesis in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Influence of prolonged starvation on glucose kinetics in pregnant patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thien, Huynh; Ackermans, M. T.; Weverling, G. J.; Thanh Chien, V. O.; Endert, E.; Kager, P. A.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2004-01-01

    Hypoglycaemia is a recognised complication of malaria in pregnancy, but its pathophysiology is not well understood. We studied the influence of fasting on glucose production and gluconeogenesis by infusion of [6,6-H-2(2)]glucose and ingestion of (H2O)-H-2 in 20 female subjects, eight pregnant

  3. Effect of chronic renal failure with metabolic acidosis on alanine metabolism in isolated liver cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano, N.; Sturm, J. M.; Meijer, A. J.; El-Mir, M. Y.; Novaretti, R.; Reynier, J. P.; Leverve, X. M.

    2004-01-01

    Background Et aims: Decreased ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis from atanine have been reported during chronic renal failure in rat. This study addressed the respective roles of plasma-membrane transport and intracellular metabolism in these abnormalities of alanine pathways. Methods: In hepatocytes

  4. Biotin carboxylases in mitochondria and the cytosol from skeletal and cardiac muscle as detected by avidin binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkeby, S.; Moe, D.; Bøg-Hansen, T. C.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Biotin carboxylases in mammalian cells are regulatory enzymes in lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. In this study, endogenous biotin in skeletal and cardiac muscle was detected using avidin conjugated with alkaline phosphatase and applied in high concentrations to muscle sections. The avidin binding

  5. Glucconeogenesis in Dairy Cows: The Secret of Making Sweet Milk from Sour Dough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschenbach, Jörg R; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Donkin, Shawn S

    2010-01-01

    Gluconeogenesis is a crucial process to support glucose homeostasis when nutritional supply with glucose is insufficient. Because ingested carbohydrates are efficiently fermented to short-chain fatty acids in the rumen, ruminants are required to meet the largest part of their glucose demand by de...

  6. Cortisol and Corticotrophin in Burned Patients,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    patients until pulsatile secretion or if a lengthy time course for the effect of the second postburn day, and when we have examined other such neuronal ...effect as a sole stimulus for gluconeogenesis in dogs but may may also point to a fruitful area of investigation in the future. __ __ __ _______ ___. >.

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Factor ERLIN2: Oncogenic Roles and Molecular Targeting of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    S Hong, KG Park, IK Lee, CS Choi, RW Hanson, HS Choi and SH Koo. Regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by an ER-bound tran- scription factor...cytoplasmic free Ca2+ without generation of inositol phos- phates in NG115-401L neuronal cells. Bio- chem J 1988; 253: 81-86. [17] Y Sagara and G

  8. Muscle and Liver Carbohydrates: Response to Military Task Performance by Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    rapidly synthesize glycogen from three-carbon compounds generated by muscle metabolism and taken up by the liver ( gluconeogenesis ). 20 UNPUBLISHED DATA...49008 Glial cell line-derived neturotrophic factor (GDNF) is a recently discovered nerrotrophic factor that afflets peripheral motor neurons . Increased

  9. TORCing up metabolic control in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietakangas, Ville; Cohen, Stephen M

    2008-05-01

    Transducer of regulated CREB activity 2 (TORC2) is a coactivator of CREB and an important regulator of energy balance in mammals through control of gluconeogenesis in the liver. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Wang and coworkers (2008) report an intriguing role for Drosophila TORC in the neuronal regulation of metabolism.

  10. [Nutrient sensing by the gastro-intestinal nervous system and control of energy homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Mithieux

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal nerves are crucial in the sensing of nutrients and hormones and its translation in terms of control of food intake. Major macronutrients like glucose and proteins are sensed by the extrinsic nerves located around the portal vein walls, which signal to the brain and account for the satiety phenomenon they promote. Glucose is sensed in the portal vein by neurons expressing the glucose receptor SGLT3, which activates the main regions of the brain involved in the control of food intake. Proteins indirectly act on food intake by inducing intestinal gluconeogenesis and its sensing by the portal glucose sensor. The mechanism involves a prior antagonism by peptides of the μ-opioid receptors present in the portal vein nervous system and a reflex arc with the brain inducing intestinal gluconeogenesis. In a comparable manner, short chain fatty acids produced from soluble fibers act via intestinal gluconeogenesis to exert anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. In the case of propionate, the mechanism involves a prior activation of the free fatty acid receptor FFAR3 present in the portal nerves and a reflex arc initiating intestinal gluconeogenesis. © Société de Biologie, 2016.

  11. Metabolic effects of portal vein sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithieux, G

    2014-09-01

    The extrinsic gastrointestinal nerves are crucial in the sensing of nutrients and hormones and its translation in terms of control of food intake. Major macronutrients like glucose and protein are sensed by the extrinsic nerves located in the portal vein walls, which signal to the brain and account for the satiety phenomenon they promote. Glucose is sensed in the portal vein by neurons expressing the glucose receptor SGLT3, which activate the main regions of the brain involved in the control of food intake. Proteins indirectly act on food intake by inducing intestinal gluconeogenesis and its sensing by the portal glucose sensor. The mechanism involves a prior antagonism by peptides of the μ-opioid receptors present in the portal vein nervous system and a reflex arc with the brain inducing intestinal gluconeogenesis. In a comparable manner, short-chain fatty acids produced from soluble fibre act via intestinal gluconeogenesis to exert anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. In the case of propionate, the mechanism involves a prior activation of the free fatty acid receptor FFAR3 present in the portal nerves and a reflex arc initiating intestinal gluconeogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. FGF21 maintains glucose homeostasis by mediating the cross talk between liver and brain during prolonged fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qingning; Zhong, Ling; Zhang, Jialiang; Wang, Yu; Bornstein, Stefan R; Triggle, Chris R; Ding, Hong; Lam, Karen S L; Xu, Aimin

    2014-12-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is a main source of blood glucose during prolonged fasting and is orchestrated by endocrine and neural pathways. Here we show that the hepatocyte-secreted hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) induces fasting gluconeogenesis via the brain-liver axis. Prolonged fasting induces activation of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in the liver and subsequent hepatic production of FGF21, which enters into the brain to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis for release of corticosterone, thereby stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Fasted FGF21 knockout (KO) mice exhibit severe hypoglycemia and defective hepatic gluconeogenesis due to impaired activation of the HPA axis and blunted release of corticosterone, a phenotype similar to that observed in PPARα KO mice. By contrast, intracerebroventricular injection of FGF21 reverses fasting hypoglycemia and impairment in hepatic gluconeogenesis by restoring corticosterone production in both FGF21 KO and PPARα KO mice, whereas all these central effects of FGF21 were abrogated by blockage of hypothalamic FGF receptor-1. FGF21 acts directly on the hypothalamic neurons to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), thereby stimulating the expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone by activation of the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein. Therefore, FGF21 maintains glucose homeostasis during prolonged fasting by fine tuning the interorgan cross talk between liver and brain. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  13. Separation of the gluconeogenic and mitochondrial functions of pgc-1α through s6 kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lustig, Y.; Ruas, J.L.; Estall, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator that powerfully regulates many pathways linked to energy homeostasis. Specifically, PGC-1α controls mitochondrial biogenesis in most tissues but also initiates important tissue-specific functions, including fiber type switching in skeletal muscle and glucon......PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator that powerfully regulates many pathways linked to energy homeostasis. Specifically, PGC-1α controls mitochondrial biogenesis in most tissues but also initiates important tissue-specific functions, including fiber type switching in skeletal muscle...... of gluconeogenesis in cultured hepatocytes and in vivo, while leaving the functions of PGC-1α as an activator of mitochondrial and fatty acid oxidation genes completely intact. These phosphorylations interfere with the ability of PGC-1α to bind to HNF4α, a transcription factor required for gluconeogenesis, while...

  14. The metabolic effects of diuron in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Simões, Mellina; Bracht, Lívia; Parizotto, Angela Valderrama; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar

    2017-09-01

    A systematic study on the effects of diuron on the hepatic metabolism was conducted with emphasis on parameters linked to energy metabolism. The experimental system was the isolated perfused rat liver. The results demonstrate that diuron inhibited biosynthesis (gluconeogenesis) and ammonia detoxification, which are dependent of ATP generated within the mitochondria. Conversely, it stimulated glycolysis and fructolysis, which are compensatory phenomena for an inhibited mitochondrial ATP generation. Furthermore, diuron diminished the cellular ATP content under conditions where the mitochondrial respiratory chain was the only source of this compound. Besides the lack of circulating glucose due to gluconeogenesis inhibition, one can expect metabolic acidosis due to excess lactate production, impairment of ammonia detoxification and cell damage due to a deficient maintenance of its homeostasis. Some of the general signs of toxicity that were observed in diuron-treated rats can be attributed, partly at least, to the effects of the herbicide on energy metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary incorporation of whey proteins and galactooligosaccharides exhibits improvement in glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in high fat diet fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Kavadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was planned to investigate the effectiveness of whey protein isolate (WPI of high purity and a galactooligosaccharides (GOS preparation on glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance under high fat diet (45.47% energy from fat fed conditions in C57BL/6 mice. The mRNA expression of genes related to gluconeogenesis was also examined. Methods: Fasting blood glucose level, serum insulin & GLP-1 (ELISA were measured; HOMA-IR determined in different treatment groups. mRNA expression of gluconeogenesis genes in liver and small intestine tissues analysed by qRT-PCR. Results: Dietary incorporation of WPI/GOS alone or in combination was observed to significantly resist (p [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 326-332

  16. Lactate metabolism in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the healthy liver there is a splanchnic net-uptake of lactate caused by gluconeogenesis. It has previously been shown that patients with acute liver failure in contrast have a splanchnic release of lactate caused by a combination of accelerated glycolysis in the splanchnic region...... and a reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Aims. The aims of the present study were to investigate lactate metabolism and kinetics in patients with chronic liver disease compared with a control group with normal liver function. Methods. A total of 142 patients with chronic liver disease and 14 healthy controls...... underwent a liver vein catheterization. Blood samples from the femoral artery and the hepatic and renal veins were simultaneously collected before and after stimulation with galactose. Results. The fasting lactate levels, both in the hepatic vein and in the femoral artery, were higher in the patients than...

  17. Interplay between FGF21 and insulin action in the liver regulates metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emanuelli, Brice; Vienberg, Sara G; Smyth, Graham

    2014-01-01

    gluconeogenesis in these animals. Improvements in blood sugar were due in part to increased glucose uptake in brown fat, browning of white fat, and overall increased energy expenditure. These effects were preserved even after removal of the main interscapular brown fat pad. In contrast to its retained effects...... of insulin action in the liver by increasing energy metabolism via activation of brown fat and browning of white fat, but intact liver insulin action is required for FGF21 to control hepatic lipid metabolism....

  18. Toxicological Effects during and following Persistent Insulin-Induced Hypoglycaemia in Healthy Euglycaemic Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi F. H.; Molck, Anne-Marie; Berthelsen, Line O.

    2017-01-01

    the effects of persistent IIH and their reversibility in euglycaemic rats. Histopathological changes in insulin-infused animals included partly reversible axonal and reversible myofibre degeneration in peripheral nerve and skeletal muscle tissue, respectively, as well as reversible pancreatic islet atrophy...... and partly reversible increase in unilocular adipocytes in brown adipose tissue. Additionally, results suggested increased gluconeogenesis. The observed hyperphagia, the pancreatic, peripheral nerve and skeletal muscle changes were considered related to the hypoglycaemia. Cessation of insulin infusion...

  19. Distribution of glucose transporters in renal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Szablewski, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Kidneys play an important role in glucose homeostasis. Renal gluconeogenesis prevents hypoglycemia by releasing glucose into the blood stream. Glucose homeostasis is also due, in part, to reabsorption and excretion of hexose in the kidney. Lipid bilayer of plasma membrane is impermeable for glucose, which is hydrophilic and soluble in water. Therefore, transport of glucose across the plasma membrane depends on carrier proteins expressed in the plasma membrane. In humans, there are three famil...

  20. The biology of glucagon and the consequences of hyperglucagonemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Kuhre, Rune E; Pedersen, Jens; Knop, Filip K; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    The proglucagon-derived peptide hormone, glucagon, comprises 29 amino acids. Its secretion from the pancreatic α cells is regulated by several factors. Glucagon increases blood glucose levels through gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Elevated plasma concentrations of glucagon, hyperglucagonemia, may contribute to diabetes. However, hyperglucagonemia is also observed in other clinical conditions than diabetes, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, glucagon-producing tumors and after ga...

  1. Arctigenin, a natural compound, activates AMP-activated protein kinase via inhibition of mitochondria complex I and ameliorates metabolic disorders in ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S-L; Yu, R-T; Gong, J; Feng, Y; Dai, Y-L; Hu, F; Hu, Y-H; Tao, Y-D; Leng, Y

    2012-05-01

    Arctigenin is a natural compound that had never been previously demonstrated to have a glucose-lowering effect. Here it was found to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and the mechanism by which this occurred, as well as the effects on glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated. 2-Deoxyglucose uptake and AMPK phosphorylation were examined in L6 myotubes and isolated skeletal muscle. Gluconeogenesis and lipid synthesis were evaluated in rat primary hepatocytes. The acute and chronic effects of arctigenin on metabolic abnormalities were observed in C57BL/6J and ob/ob mice. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were measured using the J-aggregate-forming dye, JC-1. Analysis of respiration of L6 myotubes or isolated mitochondria was conducted in a channel oxygen system. Arctigenin increased AMPK phosphorylation and stimulated glucose uptake in L6 myotubes and isolated skeletal muscles. In primary hepatocytes, it decreased gluconeogenesis and lipid synthesis. The enhancement of glucose uptake and suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid synthesis by arctigenin were prevented by blockade of AMPK activation. The respiration of L6 myotubes or isolated mitochondria was inhibited by arctigenin with a specific effect on respiratory complex I. A single oral dose of arctigenin reduced gluconeogenesis in C57BL/6J mice. Chronic oral administration of arctigenin lowered blood glucose and improved lipid metabolism in ob/ob mice. This study demonstrates a new role for arctigenin as a potent indirect activator of AMPK via inhibition of respiratory complex I, with beneficial effects on metabolic disorders in ob/ob mice. This highlights the potential value of arctigenin as a possible treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus embryogenesis and starvation larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, J.G. de; Mentizingen, L.G.; Logullo, C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab.de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP); Andrade, C.P. de; Vaz Junior, Itabajara [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Daffre, S.; Esteves, E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is considered a key rate controlling enzyme in gluconeogenesis pathway. Gluconeogenesis is a highly regulated process, catalyzed by several enzymes subject to regulation by insulin. Normally, insulin rapidly and substantially inhibits PEPCK gene transcription and the PEPCK activity is proportional to the rate of gene transcription. The transcriptional regulation of the PEPCK gene has been extensively studied. CREM is the transcription factor that bind efficiently to the putative cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in PEPCK gene. Several other transcription factors can bind to this element and activate transcription. In oviparous animals, such as bovine tick R. microplus, the embryonic development occurs outside the maternal organism, implying that all the nutrients necessary for embryogenesis must be present in the oocytes. We observed the relationship between the main energy sources and the morphogenetic changes that occur during R. microplus tick embryogenesis. Energy homeostasis is maintained by glycogen mobilization in the beginning of embryogenesis, as its content is drastically decreased during the first five days of development. Afterwards, the activity of the gluconeogenesis enzyme PEPCK increases enormously, as indicated by a concomitant increase in glucose content (Moraes et al., 2007). Here, we analyzed PEPCK gene transcription by qPCR during the embryogenesis and starvation larvae. The PEPCK transcription was higher at first and 15th day eggs of the development. In larvae the levels of PEPCK transcripts is increased at fifth day after hatch. However, the activity is continuous increased in larvae the form first up to 15th day. Now we are investigating the involvement of CREM in the PEPCK gene transcription in these cells. In this sense, we obtained CREM sequence from TIGR ESTs R. microplus bank and designed the specific primers to qPCR. Taken together our results suggest the involvement of PEPCK to the

  3. Dynamics of some conjugated enzymes of aminonitrogen metabolism in the liver of the irradiated body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskij, V.I.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in the activity of five conjugated enzymes of the aminonitrogen metabolism in subcellular fractions of liver tissue have been studied on irradiated (450 R) rabbits during thirty days after exposure. These changes are peculiar for their manifestation in time, their depth and trend. It is suggested that in the early period of radiation damage, gluconeogenesis is enhanced, and in the later period, biosynthesis of pyrimidine bases is intensified

  4. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus embryogenesis and starvation larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, J.G. de; Mentizingen, L.G.; Logullo, C.; Andrade, C.P. de; Vaz Junior, Itabajara; Daffre, S.; Esteves, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is considered a key rate controlling enzyme in gluconeogenesis pathway. Gluconeogenesis is a highly regulated process, catalyzed by several enzymes subject to regulation by insulin. Normally, insulin rapidly and substantially inhibits PEPCK gene transcription and the PEPCK activity is proportional to the rate of gene transcription. The transcriptional regulation of the PEPCK gene has been extensively studied. CREM is the transcription factor that bind efficiently to the putative cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in PEPCK gene. Several other transcription factors can bind to this element and activate transcription. In oviparous animals, such as bovine tick R. microplus, the embryonic development occurs outside the maternal organism, implying that all the nutrients necessary for embryogenesis must be present in the oocytes. We observed the relationship between the main energy sources and the morphogenetic changes that occur during R. microplus tick embryogenesis. Energy homeostasis is maintained by glycogen mobilization in the beginning of embryogenesis, as its content is drastically decreased during the first five days of development. Afterwards, the activity of the gluconeogenesis enzyme PEPCK increases enormously, as indicated by a concomitant increase in glucose content (Moraes et al., 2007). Here, we analyzed PEPCK gene transcription by qPCR during the embryogenesis and starvation larvae. The PEPCK transcription was higher at first and 15th day eggs of the development. In larvae the levels of PEPCK transcripts is increased at fifth day after hatch. However, the activity is continuous increased in larvae the form first up to 15th day. Now we are investigating the involvement of CREM in the PEPCK gene transcription in these cells. In this sense, we obtained CREM sequence from TIGR ESTs R. microplus bank and designed the specific primers to qPCR. Taken together our results suggest the involvement of PEPCK to the

  5. Glucose production and storage in hepatocytes isolated from normal versus diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivieri, M.C.; Dragland-Meserve, C.J.; Parker Botelho, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    The rates of glucose production and storage were compared in hepatocytes isolated from normal versus insulin-resistant diabetic rats. A single low-dose (40 mg/kg) IV injection of streptozotocin to 250 g rats resulted in a Type II diabetic animal model which was hyperglycemic with normal insulin levels. Addition of 8 mM 14 C-lactate and 2 mM pyruvate to hepatocytes resulted in a linear increase in total glucose production ( 14 C-glucose and unlabeled glucose) and incorporation into glycogen measured over 120 min. The rate of gluconeogenesis was estimated from the production of 14 C-glucose and the rate of glycogenolysis was estimated from the production of unlabeled glucose in cells incubated in the presence or absence of 14 C-labelled substrate. There was not significant difference in total glucose production in hepatocytes isolated from normal versus diabetic rats, however, the contribution from gluconeogenesis versus glycogenolysis was significantly different. Following a 1 h incubation of cells from normal rats, 42% of the total glucose production was due to gluconeogenesis and 58% was due to glycogenolysis. In cells from diabetic rats, 83% of total glucose production was from gluconeogenesis and 17% from glycogenolysis. Also, incubation with 14 C-lactate/pyruvate resulted in a 3.3-fold increase in 14 C-glucose incorporation into glycogen in hepatocytes isolated from normal rats compared to diabetic rats. These data suggest that alterations occur in the rate-limiting enzymes responsible for glucose production and storage in hepatocytes isolated from a rat model of insulin-resistant Type II diabetes

  6. Isotopic Determination of Region of Origin in Modern Peoples: Applications for Identification of U.S. War-Dead From the Vietnam Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    contribution of gluconeogenesis to glucose production in humans. Here, body water was enriched with 2H2O and the ratio of 2H bound to carbon-5 versus carbon-2...corn increased, but corn-based snacks such as popcorn, chips, and sodas/colas sweetened with high- fructose corn syrup are essentially a staple of...hydrogen, the internationally accepted standard of standard mean ocean water (SMOW or V-SMOW) is used (Hoefs 2004). The heavy isotopes of strontium and

  7. PGC-1α functions as a co-suppressor of XBP1s to regulate glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaemin Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis by activating HNF4α and FoxO1. PGC-1α expression in the liver is highly elevated in obese and diabetic conditions, leading to increased hepatic glucose production. We previously showed that the spliced form of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s suppresses FoxO1 activity and hepatic gluconeogenesis. The shared role of PGC-1α and XBP1s in regulating FoxO1 activity and gluconeogenesis led us to investigate the probable interaction between PGC-1α and XBP1s and its role in glucose metabolism. Methods: We investigated the biochemical interaction between PGC-1α and XBP1s and examined the role of their interaction in glucose homeostasis using animal models. Results: We show that PGC-1α interacts with XBP1s, which plays an anti-gluconeogenic role in the liver by suppressing FoxO1 activity. The physical interaction between PGC-1α and XBP1s leads to suppression of XBP1s activity rather than its activation. Upregulating PGC-1α expression in the liver of lean mice lessens XBP1s protein levels, and reducing PGC-1α levels in obese and diabetic mouse liver restores XBP1s protein induction. Conclusions: Our findings reveal a novel function of PGC-1α as a suppressor of XBP1s function, suggesting that hepatic PGC-1α promotes gluconeogenesis through multiple pathways as a co-activator for HNF4α and FoxO1 and also as a suppressor for anti-gluconeogenic transcription factor XBP1s. Keywords: PGC-1α, XBP1s, Glucose homeostasis, ER stress, UPR, Insulin resistance

  8. The switch from fermentation to respiration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by the Ert1 transcriptional activator/repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Najla; Jacques, Pierre-Etienne; Klimova, Natalia; Guo, Xiao; Ricciardi, Alessandra; Robert, François; Turcotte, Bernard

    2014-10-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentation is the major pathway for energy production, even under aerobic conditions. However, when glucose becomes scarce, ethanol produced during fermentation is used as a carbon source, requiring a shift to respiration. This adaptation results in massive reprogramming of gene expression. Increased expression of genes for gluconeogenesis and the glyoxylate cycle is observed upon a shift to ethanol and, conversely, expression of some fermentation genes is reduced. The zinc cluster proteins Cat8, Sip4, and Rds2, as well as Adr1, have been shown to mediate this reprogramming of gene expression. In this study, we have characterized the gene YBR239C encoding a putative zinc cluster protein and it was named ERT1 (ethanol regulated transcription factor 1). ChIP-chip analysis showed that Ert1 binds to a limited number of targets in the presence of glucose. The strongest enrichment was observed at the promoter of PCK1 encoding an important gluconeogenic enzyme. With ethanol as the carbon source, enrichment was observed with many additional genes involved in gluconeogenesis and mitochondrial function. Use of lacZ reporters and quantitative RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that Ert1 regulates expression of its target genes in a manner that is highly redundant with other regulators of gluconeogenesis. Interestingly, in the presence of ethanol, Ert1 is a repressor of PDC1 encoding an important enzyme for fermentation. We also show that Ert1 binds directly to the PCK1 and PDC1 promoters. In summary, Ert1 is a novel factor involved in the regulation of gluconeogenesis as well as a key fermentation gene. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Reducing preoperative fasting time: A trend based on evidence

    OpenAIRE

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Dock-Nascimento, Diana Borges

    2010-01-01

    Preoperative fasting is mandatory before anesthesia to reduce the risk of aspiration. However, the prescribed 6-8 h of fasting is usually prolonged to 12-16 h for various reasons. Prolonged fasting triggers a metabolic response that precipitates gluconeogenesis and increases the organic response to trauma. Various randomized trials and meta-analyses have consistently shown that is safe to reduce the preoperative fasting time with a carbohydrate-rich drink up to 2 h before surgery. Benefits re...

  10. A Thapsigargin-Resistant Intracellular Calcium Sequestering Compartment in Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-31

    have a major impact on neuronal intracellular signaling. Most of the ER in neurons and glia appears to accumulate calcium by energy driven ion pumps...secretion of exocrine, endocrine, and neurocrine products, regulation of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis , intracellular transport, secretion of fluids...the RyRs [140]. Furthermore, the intracellular expression of these receptor-channels in neuronal ER is also reciprocal with RyRs located primarily in

  11. Proceedings of the US Army Institute of Surgical Research Anniversary Symposium (40th), Held in San Antonio, Texas on October 26-27, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    nervous system neuronal populations, and definition of the effects of burn injury on zinc metabolism. In addition to the specific research projects, DL...hepatic gluconeogenesis is accelerated, providing essential fuel for reparative and inflammatory tissues to optimize host defenses and ensure wound repair...appearance of ectopic supraependymal neurons in the third ventricle just above the medial basal hypothalamus (15). Just as this resetting is

  12. The crystal structure of a multifunctional protein: Phosphoglucose isomerase/autocrine motility factor/neuroleukin

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuh-Ju; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Wei-Shone; Wu, Rong-Tsun; Meng, Menghsiao; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng

    1999-01-01

    Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) plays a central role in both the glycolysis and the gluconeogenesis pathways. We present here the complete crystal structure of PGI from Bacillus stearothermophilus at 2.3-Å resolution. We show that PGI has cell-motility-stimulating activity on mouse colon cancer cells similar to that of endogenous autocrine motility factor (AMF). PGI can also enhance neurite outgrowth on neuronal progenitor cells similar to that observed for neuroleukin. The results confirm tha...

  13. Energy metabolism in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    The liver is an essential metabolic organ, and its metabolic function is controlled by insulin and other metabolic hormones. Glucose is converted into pyruvate through glycolysis in the cytoplasm, and pyruvate is subsequently oxidized in the mitochondria to generate ATP through the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. In the fed state, glycolytic products are used to synthesize fatty acids through de novo lipogenesis. Long-chain fatty acids are incorporated into triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and/or cholesterol esters in hepatocytes. These complex lipids are stored in lipid droplets and membrane structures, or secreted into the circulation as very low-density lipoprotein particles. In the fasted state, the liver secretes glucose through both glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. During pronged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is the primary source for endogenous glucose production. Fasting also promotes lipolysis in adipose tissue, resulting in release of nonesterified fatty acids which are converted into ketone bodies in hepatic mitochondria though β-oxidation and ketogenesis. Ketone bodies provide a metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues. Liver energy metabolism is tightly regulated by neuronal and hormonal signals. The sympathetic system stimulates, whereas the parasympathetic system suppresses, hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin stimulates glycolysis and lipogenesis but suppresses gluconeogenesis, and glucagon counteracts insulin action. Numerous transcription factors and coactivators, including CREB, FOXO1, ChREBP, SREBP, PGC-1α, and CRTC2, control the expression of the enzymes which catalyze key steps of metabolic pathways, thus controlling liver energy metabolism. Aberrant energy metabolism in the liver promotes insulin resistance, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  14. RMND5 from Xenopus laevis Is an E3 Ubiquitin-Ligase and Functions in Early Embryonic Forebrain Development

    OpenAIRE

    Pfirrmann, Thorsten; Villavicencio-Lorini, Pablo; Subudhi, Abinash K.; Menssen, Ruth; Wolf, Dieter H.; Hollemann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the Gid-complex functions as an ubiquitin-ligase complex that regulates the metabolic switch between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In higher organisms six conserved Gid proteins form the CTLH protein-complex with unknown function. Here we show that Rmnd5, the Gid2 orthologue from Xenopus laevis, is an ubiquitin-ligase embedded in a high molecular weight complex. Expression of rmnd5 is strongest in neuronal ectoderm, prospective brain, eyes and ciliated cells of t...

  15. European Science Notes. Volume 40, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    increase during A representative governing board senescence; this suggests that basal oversees the activities of the Center. gluconeogenesis is...cultures of sensory neurons and they derive from the same number of Schwann cells that reproduce the morpho- cells. These and other results led to logical...bithorax function com- munoreactive neurons in the central pletely. Because of this observation, nervous system of DrosophiZa MeZanogas- Morata et al. have

  16. Branched-Chain Amino and Keto Acid Biochemistry and Cellular Biology in Central Nervous System Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-21

    proceeded through the BCKDC, they result in ubiquitously produced small molecules involved in various metabolic pathways, such as gluconeogenesis ...I. Nissim, L. Hertz, Precursors of glutamic acid nitrogen in primary neuronal cultures: studies with 15N, Neurochem Res 15 (1990) 1191-1196. 35...amino acid transamination. J Neurochem 66(1):378-85. Yudkoff M, Nissim I, Hertz L. 1990. Precursors of glutamic acid nitrogen in primary neuronal

  17. Endocrine and Metabolic Changes during Exhaustive Multifactorial Military Stress. Results from Studies during the Ranger Training Course of the Norwegian Military Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    effect is due to secondary mechanisms. In the brain, noradrenaline serves as neurotransmitter for the neurones in the locus coeruleus, which have a...stimulates energy mobilization at many levels. First of all cortisol stimulates gluconeogenesis through the stimulation of relevant hepatic enzyme...behaviour, mood, neuronal excitability and electrical activity. Behavioural changes are observed both in excess states such as Cushing’s disease and

  18. Characteristics of (3H)2-Deoxyglucose Uptake by Slices of Rat Cerebral Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-17

    changes occur (Quastel, 1969). Unlike in liver and in kidney, there is no appreciable gluconeogenesis from pyruvate or from lactate in brain...Bachelard 1976). When the neuronal activity of whole brain in vivo is increased by electrical stimulation, metabolic changes occur including...respiration can increase up to 10 times their resting rates (Bachelard, 1970). These are examples of the close association between neuronal ac- tivity and

  19. Energy Metabolism in the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    The liver is an essential metabolic organ, and its metabolic activity is tightly controlled by insulin and other metabolic hormones. Glucose is metabolized into pyruvate through glycolysis in the cytoplasm, and pyruvate is completely oxidized to generate ATP through the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In the fed state, glycolytic products are used to synthesize fatty acids through de novo lipogenesis. Long-chain fatty acids are incorporated into triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters in hepatocytes, and these complex lipids are stored in lipid droplets and membrane structures, or secreted into the circulation as VLDL particles. In the fasted state, the liver secretes glucose through both breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis) and de novo glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis). During pronged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is the primary source of endogenous glucose production. Fasting also promotes lipolysis in adipose tissue to release nonesterified fatty acids which are converted into ketone bodies in the liver though mitochondrial β oxidation and ketogenesis. Ketone bodies provide a metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues. Liver metabolic processes are tightly regulated by neuronal and hormonal systems. The sympathetic system stimulates, whereas the parasympathetic system suppresses, hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin stimulates glycolysis and lipogenesis, but suppresses gluconeogenesis; glucagon counteracts insulin action. Numerous transcription factors and coactivators, including CREB, FOXO1, ChREBP, SREBP, PGC-1α, and CRTC2, control the expression of the enzymes which catalyze the rate-limiting steps of liver metabolic processes, thus controlling liver energy metabolism. Aberrant energy metabolism in the liver promotes insulin resistance, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). PMID:24692138

  20. Physiological and pathophysiological functions of SIRT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, M; Mac-Marcjanek, K; Wozniak, L A

    2009-03-01

    The human SIRT1 is a nuclear enzyme from the class III histone deacetylases (HDACs) which is widely distributed in mammalian tissues. A variety of SIRT1 substrates hints that this protein is involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including cell survival, apoptosis, gluconeogenesis, adipogenesis, lipolysis, stress resistance, muscle differentiation, and insulin secretion. This review emphasizes catalytic properties of SIRT1 and its role in apoptosis, insulin pathway, and neuron survival.

  1. CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein-β Is a Transcriptional Regulator of Peroxisome-Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Coactivator-1α in the Regenerating Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haitao; Peiris, T. Harshani; Mowery, A.; Le Lay, John; Gao, Yan; Greenbaum, Linda E.

    2008-01-01

    The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is induced in the liver in response to fasting and coordinates the activation of targets necessary for increasing energy production for gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. After partial hepatectomy, the liver must restore its mass while maintaining metabolic homeostasis to ensure survival. Here we report that PGC-1α is rapidly and dramatically induced after hepatectomy, with an amplitude of induc...

  2. Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on hepatocyte metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzer, Yoni; Chapnik, Nava; Froy, Oren

    2017-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays crucial roles in the development, maintenance, plasticity and homeostasis of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Perturbing BDNF signaling in mouse brain results in hyperphagia, obesity, hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Currently, little is known whether BDNF affects liver tissue directly. Our aim was to determine the metabolic signaling pathways activated after BDNF treatment in hepatocytes. Unlike its effect in the brain, BDNF did not lead to activation of the liver AKT pathway. However, AMP protein activated kinase (AMPK) was ∼3 times more active and fatty acid synthase (FAS) ∼2-fold less active, suggesting increased fatty acid oxidation and reduced fatty acid synthesis. In addition, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) was ∼3.5-fold less active together with its output the gluconeogenic transcript phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck), suggesting reduced gluconeogenesis. The levels of glycogen synthase kinase 3b (GSK3b) was ∼3-fold higher suggesting increased glycogen synthesis. In parallel, the expression levels of the clock genes Bmal1 and Cry1, whose protein products play also a metabolic role, were ∼2-fold increased and decreased, respectively. In conclusion, BDNF binding to hepatocytes leads to activation of catabolic pathways, such as fatty acid oxidation. In parallel gluconeogenesis is inhibited, while glycogen storage is triggered. This metabolic state mimics that of after breakfast, in which the liver continues to oxidize fat, stops gluconeogenesis and replenishes glycogen stores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of liver glucose metabolism after refeeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognstad, R.

    1987-01-01

    Refeeding or infusing glucose to rats fasted for 24 hr or more causes rapid liver glycogen synthesis, the carbon source now considered to be largely from gluconeogenesis. While substrate cycling between plasma glucose and liver glucose-6P is known to occur, this cycling has apparently been ignored when calculations are made of % contribution of direct and indirect pathways to liver glycogen synthesis, or when hepatic glucose output is calculated from glucose turnover minus the glucose infusion rate. They show that, isotopically, an estimate of the fluxes of liver glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase is required to quantitate sources of carbon for liver glycogen synthesis, and to measure hepatic glucose output (or uptake). They propose a method to estimate these fluxes, involving a short infusion of a 14 C labelled gluconeogenic precursor plus (6T)glucose, with determination of isotopic yields in liver glycogen and total glucose. Given also the rate of liver glycogen synthesis, this procedure permits the estimation of net gluconeogenesis and hepatic glucose output or uptake. Also, in vitro evidence against the notion of a drastic zonation of liver carbohydrate metabolism is presented, e.g. raising the glucose concentration from 10 to 25 mM increases the 14 C yield from H 14 CO 3 - in lactate, with the increased pyruvate kinase flux and decreased gluconeogenesis occurring in the same cell type, not opposing pathways in different hepatocyte types (as has been postulated by some to occur in vivo after refeeding

  4. Effect and the probable mechanisms of silibinin in regulating insulin resistance in the liver of rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jiayin; Zhi, Min; Gao, Xiang; Hu, Pinjin; Li, Chujun; Yang, Xiaobo [Department of Gastroenterology, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China)

    2013-03-15

    Our previous study has shown that reduced insulin resistance (IR) was one of the possible mechanisms for the therapeutic effect of silibinin on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. In the present study, we investigated the pathways of silibinin in regulating hepatic glucose production and IR amelioration. Forty-five 4- to 6-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into a control group, an HFD group (high-fat diet for 6 weeks) and an HFD + silibinin group (high-fat diet + 0.5 mg kg{sup -1}·day{sup -1} silibinin, starting at the beginning of the protocol). Both subcutaneous and visceral fat was measured. Homeostasis model assessment-IR index (HOMA-IR), intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed. The expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and of genes associated with hepatic gluconeogenesis was evaluated. Silibinin intervention significantly protected liver function, down-regulated serum fat, and improved IR, as shown by decreased HOMA-IR and increased ITT slope. Silibinin markedly prevented visceral obesity by reducing visceral fat, enhanced lipolysis by up-regulating ATGL expression and inhibited gluconeogenesis by down-regulating associated genes such as Forkhead box O1, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. Silibinin was effective in ameliorating IR in NAFLD rats. Reduction of visceral obesity, enhancement of lipolysis and inhibition of gluconeogenesis might be the underlying mechanisms.

  5. The Csr System Regulates Escherichia coli Fitness by Controlling Glycogen Accumulation and Energy Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Morin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the posttranscriptional regulatory system Csr was postulated to influence the transition from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis. Here, we explored the role of the Csr system in the glucose-acetate transition as a model of the glycolysis-to-gluconeogenesis switch. Mutations in the Csr system influence the reorganization of gene expression after glucose exhaustion and disturb the timing of acetate reconsumption after glucose exhaustion. Analysis of metabolite concentrations during the transition revealed that the Csr system has a major effect on the energy levels of the cells after glucose exhaustion. This influence was demonstrated to result directly from the effect of the Csr system on glycogen accumulation. Mutation in glycogen metabolism was also demonstrated to hinder metabolic adaptation after glucose exhaustion because of insufficient energy. This work explains how the Csr system influences E. coli fitness during the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis switch and demonstrates the role of glycogen in maintenance of the energy charge during metabolic adaptation.

  6. Effect and the probable mechanisms of silibinin in regulating insulin resistance in the liver of rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jiayin; Zhi, Min; Gao, Xiang; Hu, Pinjin; Li, Chujun; Yang, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that reduced insulin resistance (IR) was one of the possible mechanisms for the therapeutic effect of silibinin on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. In the present study, we investigated the pathways of silibinin in regulating hepatic glucose production and IR amelioration. Forty-five 4- to 6-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into a control group, an HFD group (high-fat diet for 6 weeks) and an HFD + silibinin group (high-fat diet + 0.5 mg kg -1 ·day -1 silibinin, starting at the beginning of the protocol). Both subcutaneous and visceral fat was measured. Homeostasis model assessment-IR index (HOMA-IR), intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed. The expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and of genes associated with hepatic gluconeogenesis was evaluated. Silibinin intervention significantly protected liver function, down-regulated serum fat, and improved IR, as shown by decreased HOMA-IR and increased ITT slope. Silibinin markedly prevented visceral obesity by reducing visceral fat, enhanced lipolysis by up-regulating ATGL expression and inhibited gluconeogenesis by down-regulating associated genes such as Forkhead box O1, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. Silibinin was effective in ameliorating IR in NAFLD rats. Reduction of visceral obesity, enhancement of lipolysis and inhibition of gluconeogenesis might be the underlying mechanisms

  7. Somatostatin: a metabolic regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dileepan, K.N.; Wagle, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    Somatostatin, the hypothalamic release-inhibiting factor, has been found to stimulate gluconeogenesis in rat kidney cortical slices. Stimulation by somatostatin was linear and dose-dependent. Other bioactive peptides such as cholecystokinin, gastro-intestinal peptide, secretin, neurotensin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, pancreatic polypeptide, beta endorphin and substance P did not affect the renal gluconeogenic activity. Somatostatin-induced gluconeogenesis was blocked by phentolamine (alpha adrenergic antagonist) and prazosin (alpha 1 adrenergic antagonist) but not by propranolol (beta adrenergic antagonist) and yohimbine (alpha 2 adrenergic antagonist) suggesting that the effect is via alpha 1 adrenergic stimuli. Studies on the involvement of Ca 2+ revealed that tissue depletion and omission of Ca 2+ from the reaction mixture would abolish the stimulatory effect of somatostatin. Furthermore, somatostatin enhanced the uptake of 45 calcium in renal cortical slices which could be blocked by lanthanum, an inhibitor of Ca 2+ influx. It is proposed that the stimulatory effect of somatostatin on renal gluconeogenesis is mediated by alpha 1 adrenergic receptors, or those which functionally resemble the alpha 1 receptors and that the increased influx of Ca 2+ may be the causative factor for carrying out the stimulus. 88 references

  8. Elevated TCA cycle function in the pathology of diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance and fatty liver[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapati, Santhosh; Sunny, Nishanth E.; Kucejova, Blanka; Fu, Xiaorong; He, Tian Teng; Méndez-Lucas, Andrés; Shelton, John M.; Perales, Jose C.; Browning, Jeffrey D.; Burgess, Shawn C.

    2012-01-01

    The manner in which insulin resistance impinges on hepatic mitochondrial function is complex. Although liver insulin resistance is associated with respiratory dysfunction, the effect on fat oxidation remains controversial, and biosynthetic pathways that traverse mitochondria are actually increased. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the site of terminal fat oxidation, chief source of electrons for respiration, and a metabolic progenitor of gluconeogenesis. Therefore, we tested whether insulin resistance promotes hepatic TCA cycle flux in mice progressing to insulin resistance and fatty liver on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 32 weeks using standard biomolecular and in vivo 2H/13C tracer methods. Relative mitochondrial content increased, but respiratory efficiency declined by 32 weeks of HFD. Fasting ketogenesis became unresponsive to feeding or insulin clamp, indicating blunted but constitutively active mitochondrial β-oxidation. Impaired insulin signaling was marked by elevated in vivo gluconeogenesis and anaplerotic and oxidative TCA cycle flux. The induction of TCA cycle function corresponded to the development of mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, hepatic oxidative stress, and inflammation. Thus, the hepatic TCA cycle appears to enable mitochondrial dysfunction during insulin resistance by increasing electron deposition into an inefficient respiratory chain prone to reactive oxygen species production and by providing mitochondria-derived substrate for elevated gluconeogenesis. PMID:22493093

  9. Elevated TCA cycle function in the pathology of diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance and fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapati, Santhosh; Sunny, Nishanth E; Kucejova, Blanka; Fu, Xiaorong; He, Tian Teng; Méndez-Lucas, Andrés; Shelton, John M; Perales, Jose C; Browning, Jeffrey D; Burgess, Shawn C

    2012-06-01

    The manner in which insulin resistance impinges on hepatic mitochondrial function is complex. Although liver insulin resistance is associated with respiratory dysfunction, the effect on fat oxidation remains controversial, and biosynthetic pathways that traverse mitochondria are actually increased. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the site of terminal fat oxidation, chief source of electrons for respiration, and a metabolic progenitor of gluconeogenesis. Therefore, we tested whether insulin resistance promotes hepatic TCA cycle flux in mice progressing to insulin resistance and fatty liver on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 32 weeks using standard biomolecular and in vivo (2)H/(13)C tracer methods. Relative mitochondrial content increased, but respiratory efficiency declined by 32 weeks of HFD. Fasting ketogenesis became unresponsive to feeding or insulin clamp, indicating blunted but constitutively active mitochondrial β-oxidation. Impaired insulin signaling was marked by elevated in vivo gluconeogenesis and anaplerotic and oxidative TCA cycle flux. The induction of TCA cycle function corresponded to the development of mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, hepatic oxidative stress, and inflammation. Thus, the hepatic TCA cycle appears to enable mitochondrial dysfunction during insulin resistance by increasing electron deposition into an inefficient respiratory chain prone to reactive oxygen species production and by providing mitochondria-derived substrate for elevated gluconeogenesis.

  10. Fructose Consumption, Lipogenesis, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Horst, Kasper W; Serlie, Mireille J

    2017-09-06

    Increased fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, but a causal role of fructose in these metabolic diseases remains debated. Mechanistically, hepatic fructose metabolism yields precursors that can be used for gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Fructose-derived precursors also act as nutritional regulators of the transcription factors, including ChREBP and SREBP1c, that regulate the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis and DNL genes. In support of these mechanisms, fructose intake increases hepatic gluconeogenesis and DNL and raises plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in humans. However, epidemiological and fructose-intervention studies have had inconclusive results with respect to liver fat, and there is currently no good human evidence that fructose, when consumed in isocaloric amounts, causes more liver fat accumulation than other energy-dense nutrients. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the seemingly contradicting literature on fructose and NAFLD. We outline fructose physiology, the mechanisms that link fructose to NAFLD, and the available evidence from human studies. From this framework, we conclude that the cellular mechanisms underlying hepatic fructose metabolism will likely reveal novel targets for the treatment of NAFLD, dyslipidemia, and hepatic insulin resistance. Finally, fructose-containing sugars are a major source of excess calories, suggesting that a reduction of their intake has potential for the prevention of NAFLD and other obesity-related diseases.

  11. Somatostatin: a metabolic regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dileepan, K.N.; Wagle, S.R.

    1985-12-23

    Somatostatin, the hypothalamic release-inhibiting factor, has been found to stimulate gluconeogenesis in rat kidney cortical slices. Stimulation by somatostatin was linear and dose-dependent. Other bioactive peptides such as cholecystokinin, gastro-intestinal peptide, secretin, neurotensin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, pancreatic polypeptide, beta endorphin and substance P did not affect the renal gluconeogenic activity. Somatostatin-induced gluconeogenesis was blocked by phentolamine (alpha adrenergic antagonist) and prazosin (alpha/sub 1/ adrenergic antagonist) but not by propranolol (beta adrenergic antagonist) and yohimbine (alpha/sub 2/ adrenergic antagonist) suggesting that the effect is via alpha/sub 1/ adrenergic stimuli. Studies on the involvement of Ca/sup 2 +/ revealed that tissue depletion and omission of Ca/sup 2 +/ from the reaction mixture would abolish the stimulatory effect of somatostatin. Furthermore, somatostatin enhanced the uptake of /sup 45/calcium in renal cortical slices which could be blocked by lanthanum, an inhibitor of Ca/sup 2 +/ influx. It is proposed that the stimulatory effect of somatostatin on renal gluconeogenesis is mediated by alpha/sub 1/ adrenergic receptors, or those which functionally resemble the alpha/sub 1/ receptors and that the increased influx of Ca/sup 2 +/ may be the causative factor for carrying out the stimulus. 88 references.

  12. Renal glucose metabolism in normal physiological conditions and in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahli, Mazen; Gerich, John E

    2017-11-01

    The kidney plays an important role in glucose homeostasis via gluconeogenesis, glucose utilization, and glucose reabsorption from the renal glomerular filtrate. After an overnight fast, 20-25% of glucose released into the circulation originates from the kidneys through gluconeogenesis. In this post-absorptive state, the kidneys utilize about 10% of all glucose utilized by the body. After glucose ingestion, renal gluconeogenesis increases and accounts for approximately 60% of endogenous glucose release in the postprandial period. Each day, the kidneys filter approximately 180g of glucose and virtually all of this is reabsorbed into the circulation. Hormones (most importantly insulin and catecholamines), substrates, enzymes, and glucose transporters are some of the various factors influencing the kidney's role. Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased renal glucose uptake and release in the fasting and the post-prandial states. Additionally, glucosuria in these patients does not occur at plasma glucose levels that would normally produce glucosuria in healthy individuals. The major abnormality of renal glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetes appears to be impaired renal glucose release during hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence that metformin exerts its anti-diabetic effects through inhibition of complex 1 of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, M R; Doran, E; Halestrap, A P

    2000-06-15

    Although metformin is widely used for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes, its mode of action remains unclear. Here we provide evidence that its primary site of action is through a direct inhibition of complex 1 of the respiratory chain. Metformin(50 microM) inhibited mitochondrial oxidation of glutamate+malate in hepatoma cells by 13 and 30% after 24 and 60 h exposure respectively, but succinate oxidation was unaffected. Metformin also caused time-dependent inhibition of complex 1 in isolated mitochondria, whereas in sub-mitochondrial particles inhibition was immediate but required very high metformin concentrations (K(0.5),79 mM). These data are compatible with the slow membrane-potential-driven accumulation of the positively charged drug within the mitochondrial matrix leading to inhibition of complex 1. Metformin inhibition of gluconeogenesis from L-lactate in isolated rat hepatocytes was also time- and concentration-dependent, and accompanied by changes in metabolite levels similar to those induced by other inhibitors of gluconeogenesis acting on complex 1. Freeze-clamped livers from metformin-treated rats exhibited similar changes in metabolite concentrations. We conclude that the drug's pharmacological effects are mediated, at least in part, through a time-dependent, self-limiting inhibition of the respiratory chain that restrains hepatic gluconeogenesis while increasing glucose utilization in peripheral tissues. Lactic acidosis, an occasional side effect, canal so be explained in this way.

  14. Co-ordinate regulation of genes involved in storage lipid mobilization in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylott, E L; Hooks, M A; Graham, I A

    2001-05-01

    Molecular genetic approaches in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Col0) are shedding new light on the role and control of the pathways associated with the mobilization of lipid reserves during oilseed germination and post-germinative growth. Numerous independent studies have reported on the expression of individual genes encoding enzymes from the three major pathways: beta-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis. However, a single comprehensive study of representative genes and enzymes from the different pathways in a single plant species has not been done. Here we present results from Arabidopsis that demonstrate the co-ordinate regulation of gene expression and enzyme activities for the acyl-CoA oxidase- and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase-mediated steps of beta-oxidation, the isocitrate lyase and malate synthase steps of the glyoxylate cycle and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase step of gluconeogenesis. The mRNA abundance and enzyme activities increase to a peak at stage 2, 48 h after the onset of seed germination, and decline thereafter either to undetectable levels (for malate synthase and isocitrate lyase) or low basal levels (for the genes of beta-oxidation and gluconeogenesis). The co-ordinate induction of all these genes at the onset of germination raises the possibility that a global regulatory mechanism operates to induce the expression of genes associated with the mobilization of storage reserves during the heterotrophic growth period.

  15. Effect and the probable mechanisms of silibinin in regulating insulin resistance in the liver of rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver

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    Jiayin Yao

    Full Text Available Our previous study has shown that reduced insulin resistance (IR was one of the possible mechanisms for the therapeutic effect of silibinin on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in rats. In the present study, we investigated the pathways of silibinin in regulating hepatic glucose production and IR amelioration. Forty-five 4- to 6-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into a control group, an HFD group (high-fat diet for 6 weeks and an HFD + silibinin group (high-fat diet + 0.5 mg kg-1·day-1 silibinin, starting at the beginning of the protocol. Both subcutaneous and visceral fat was measured. Homeostasis model assessment-IR index (HOMA-IR, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test (ITT were performed. The expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL and of genes associated with hepatic gluconeogenesis was evaluated. Silibinin intervention significantly protected liver function, down-regulated serum fat, and improved IR, as shown by decreased HOMA-IR and increased ITT slope. Silibinin markedly prevented visceral obesity by reducing visceral fat, enhanced lipolysis by up-regulating ATGL expression and inhibited gluconeogenesis by down-regulating associated genes such as Forkhead box O1, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. Silibinin was effective in ameliorating IR in NAFLD rats. Reduction of visceral obesity, enhancement of lipolysis and inhibition of gluconeogenesis might be the underlying mechanisms.

  16. Haloaniline-induced in vitro nephrotoxicity: effects of 4-haloanilines and 3,5-dihaloanilines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S K; Anestis, D K; Henderson, T T; Rankin, G O

    2000-04-03

    Haloanilines are widely used as chemical intermediates in the manufacture of pesticides, dyes and drugs. The purpose of this study was to examine the in vitro nephrotoxic effects of the four 4-haloaniline and four 3,5-dihaloaniline isomers using renal cortical slices obtained from the kidneys of untreated, male Fischer 344 rats. Renal cortical slices were incubated with a haloaniline hydrochloride (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mM, final concentration) or vehicle for 2 h, and toxicity determined by monitoring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and changes in tissue gluconeogenesis capacity. At the concentrations tested, none of the 4-haloanilines increased LDH release. 4-Bromoaniline reduced gluconeogenesis at the lowest concentration (0.1 mM), but 4-iodoaniline 2.0 mM induced the largest decrease in gluconeogenesis (92% downward arrow). Among the 3,5-dihaloanilines, 3,5-dibromoaniline proved to be the most potent nephrotoxicant and 3,5-difluoroaniline the least potent nephrotoxicant. LDH release was increased by the dibromo (1.0 and 2. 0 mM), dichloro (2.0 mM) and diiodo (2.0 mM) derivatives, but not by 3,5-difluoroaniline. These results demonstrate that 3, 5-dihaloanilines are generally more potent nephrotoxicants in vitro than the 4-haloaniline isomers, and that bromo and iodo substitutions enhanced the nephrotoxic potential of aniline to the greatest degree.

  17. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianyou; Liu, Tongjun; Han, Linna; Liu, Yongmei

    2009-11-23

    Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Alloxan and adrenalin induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The effects of corn silk on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic beta-cells, hepatic glycogen and gluconeogenesis in hyperglycemic mice were studied respectively. After the mice were orally administered with corn silk extract, the blood glucose and the HbA1c were significantly decreased in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice (p corn silk extract 15 days later. Also, the body weight of the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice was increased gradually. However, ascension of blood glucose induced by adrenalin and gluconeogenesis induced by L-alanine were not inhibited by corn silk extract treatment (p > 0.05). Although corn silk extract increased the level of hepatic glycogen in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice, there was no significant difference between them and that of the control group(p > 0.05). Corn silk extract markedly reduced hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The action of corn silk extract on glycaemic metabolism is not via increasing glycogen and inhibiting gluconeogenesis but through increasing insulin level as well as recovering the injured beta-cells. The results suggest that corn silk extract may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people in terms of this modern pharmacological study.

  18. Leucine supplementation protects from insulin resistance by regulating adiposity levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Binder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leucine supplementation might have therapeutic potential in preventing diet-induced obesity and improving insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are at present unclear. Additionally, it is unclear whether leucine supplementation might be equally efficacious once obesity has developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed chow or a high-fat diet (HFD, supplemented or not with leucine for 17 weeks. Another group of HFD-fed mice (HFD-pairfat group was food restricted in order to reach an adiposity level comparable to that of HFD-Leu mice. Finally, a third group of mice was exposed to HFD for 12 weeks before being chronically supplemented with leucine. Leucine supplementation in HFD-fed mice decreased body weight and fat mass by increasing energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and locomotor activity in vivo. The decreased adiposity in HFD-Leu mice was associated with increased expression of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP-3 in the brown adipose tissue, better insulin sensitivity, increased intestinal gluconeogenesis and preservation of islets of Langerhans histomorphology and function. HFD-pairfat mice had a comparable improvement in insulin sensitivity, without changes in islets physiology or intestinal gluconeogenesis. Remarkably, both HFD-Leu and HFD-pairfat mice had decreased hepatic lipid content, which likely helped improve insulin sensitivity. In contrast, when leucine was supplemented to already obese animals, no changes in body weight, body composition or glucose metabolism were observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that leucine improves insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice by primarily decreasing adiposity, rather than directly acting on peripheral target organs. However, beneficial effects of leucine on intestinal gluconeogenesis and islets of Langerhans's physiology might help prevent type 2 diabetes development. Differently, metabolic benefit of leucine supplementation

  19. A Critical Role of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 and 5 (FABP4/5) in the Systemic Response to Fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A. A.; Iso, Tatsuya; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Obokata, Masaru; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Goto, Kosaku; Hishiki, Takako; Nagahata, Yoshiko; Matsui, Hiroki; Sano, Motoaki; Kobayashi, Masaki; Kikuchi, Osamu; Sasaki, Tsutomu; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Masami; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Suematsu, Makoto; YoshitoTsushima; Endo, Keigo; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    During prolonged fasting, fatty acid (FA) released from adipose tissue is a major energy source for peripheral tissues, including the heart, skeletal muscle and liver. We recently showed that FA binding protein 4 (FABP4) and FABP5, which are abundantly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages, are prominently expressed in capillary endothelial cells in the heart and skeletal muscle. In addition, mice deficient for both FABP4 and FABP5 (FABP4/5 DKO mice) exhibited defective uptake of FA with compensatory up-regulation of glucose consumption in these tissues during fasting. Here we showed that deletion of FABP4/5 resulted in a marked perturbation of metabolism in response to prolonged fasting, including hyperketotic hypoglycemia and hepatic steatosis. Blood glucose levels were reduced, whereas the levels of non-esterified FA (NEFA) and ketone bodies were markedly increased during fasting. In addition, the uptake of the 125I-BMIPP FA analogue in the DKO livers was markedly increased after fasting. Consistent with an increased influx of NEFA into the liver, DKO mice showed marked hepatic steatosis after a 48-hr fast. Although gluconeogenesis was observed shortly after fasting, the substrates for gluconeogenesis were reduced during prolonged fasting, resulting in insufficient gluconeogenesis and enhanced hypoglycemia. These metabolic responses to prolonged fasting in DKO mice were readily reversed by re-feeding. Taken together, these data strongly suggested that a maladaptive response to fasting in DKO mice occurred as a result of an increased influx of NEFA into the liver and pronounced hypoglycemia. Together with our previous study, the metabolic consequence found in the present study is likely to be attributed to an impairment of FA uptake in the heart and skeletal muscle. Thus, our data provided evidence that peripheral uptake of FA via capillary endothelial FABP4/5 is crucial for systemic metabolism and may establish FABP4/5 as potentially novel targets for the

  20. Effects of insulin on perfused liver from streptozotocin-diabetic and untreated rats: 13C NMR assay of pyruvate kinase flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of insulin in vitro on perfused liver from streptozotocin-diabetic rats and their untreated littermates during gluconeogenesis from either [3- 13 C]alanine + ethanol or [2- 13 C]pyruvate + NH 4 Cl + ethanol were studied by 13 C NMR. A 13 C NMR determination of the rate of pyruvate kinase flux under steady-state conditions of active gluconeogenesis was developed; this assay includes a check on the reuse of recycled pyruvate. The preparations studied provided gradations of pyruvate kinase flux within the confines of the assay's requirement of active gluconeogenesis. By this determination, the rate of pyruvate kinase flux was 0.74 +/- 0.04 of the gluconeogenic rate in liver from 24-h-fasted controls; in liver from 12-h fasted controls, relative pyruvate kinase flux increased to 1.0 +/- 0.2. In diabetic liver, this flux was undetectable by the authors NMR method. Insulin's hepatic influence in vitro was greatest in the streptozotocin model of type 1 diabetes: upon treatment of diabetic liver with 7 nM insulin in vitro, a partial reversal of many of the differences noted between diabetic and control liver was demonstrated by 13 C NMR. A major effect of insulin in vitro upon diabetic liver was the induction of a large increase in the rate of pyruvate kinase flux, bringing relative and absolute fluxes up to the levels measured in 24-h-fasted controls. By way of comparison, the effects of ischemia on diabetic liver were studied by 13 C NMR to test whether changes in allosteric effectors under these conditions could also increase pyruvate kinase flux. A large increase in this activity was demonstrated in ischemic diabetic liver

  1. Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity, glucose homeostasis and plasma amino acid concentrations in the most TCDD-susceptible and the most TCDD-resistant rat strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viluksela, M.; Pohjanvirta, R.; Tuomisto, J.T.; Tuomisto, J. (National Public Health Inst., Laboratory of Toxicology, Kuopio (Finland)); Unkila, M. (Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Univ. of Kuopio (Finland)); Stahl, B.U.; Rozman, K.K. (Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States) Section of Environmental Toxicology, GSF-Institut fuer Toxikologie, Neuherberg (Germany))

    1999-08-01

    Reduced gluconeogenesis due to decreased activity of key gluconeogenic enzymes in liver, together with feed refusal, has been suggested to play an important role in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced lethality in rats. This study was carried out to further analyse the toxicological significance of reduced gluconeogenesis by comparing dose-responses and time-courses of effects of TCDD on the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in liver, liver glycogen concentration as well as plasma concentrations of glucose and amino acids in both genders of TCDD-sensitive Long-Evans (L-E) rats and TCDD-resistant Han/Wistar (H/W) rats. A dose-dependent decrease in PEPCK activity was observed in H/W rats, but in L-E rats the activity was not decreased. However, TCDD impaired the strong increase in liver PEPCK activity observed in pair-fed controls of the L-E strain. Liver glycogen concentrations were severely decreased in L-E rats and moderately in H/W rats. This effect seems to be secondary to reduced feed intake, since a similar decrease was seen in pair-fed controls. Decreases in plasma glucose concentrations were also more profound in L-E rats than in H/W rats, but pair-fed controls were generally less affected. Circulating concentrations of amino acids were markedly increased in TCDD-treated L-E rats, which is likely to reflect increased mobilization of amino acids and their decreased metabolism in liver. Reduction of liver PEPCK activity cannot account for the sensitivity difference of these two strains of rats in terms of mortality. Nevertheless, the response of both strains of TCDD-treated rats regarding gluconeogenesis is different from that seen in pair-fed controls and suggesting that impairment of this pathway contributes to the development of the wasting syndrome. (orig.) With 7 figs., 2 tabs., 47 refs.

  2. Effect of bacterial sepsis on gluconeogenic capacity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, J.M. Jr.; Saba, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Since sepsis places increased demands on the host for energy and on other substrates for tissue repair and host defense, hepatic gluconeogenesis is critical for the host's adaptation to sepsis. Substrate-stimulated gluconeogenesis (i.e., gluconeogenic capacity) was assessed by the alanine load method in mannoheptulose-pretreated rats made septic by cecal ligation after laparotomy, as well as by cecal ligation and puncture after laparotomy. Fasted rats subjected to laparotomy only (sham-ligated) and fasted, nonoperated rats (controls) were investigated simultaneously. Following an overnight (-18 to 0 hr) fast, nonoperated animals converted 17.9 +/- 1.5% of [ 14 C]alanine to [ 14 C]glucose. Continued fasting in nonoperated animals resulted in enhanced (P less than 0.05) gluconeogenic capacity (6 hr = 27.2 +/- 3.0%; 24 hr = 26.2 +/- 1.9%; and 48 hr = 28.5 +/- 2.6%) relative to Time 0. Laparotomy alone (sham ligation) delayed the fasting-induced increase (P less than 0.05) in gluconeogenesis capacity (6 hr = 21.1 +/- 1.2%; 24 hr = 18.5 +/- 1.3%; 48 hr = 27.8 +/- 1.0%) relative to Time 0. In contrast, postoperative sepsis produced a sustained depression (P less than 0.05) of gluconeogenic capacity relative to nonoperated sham-ligated controls at 48 hr (cecal ligation, 18.4 +/- 1.4%; and cecal ligation and puncture, 18.8 +/- 1.2%). Thus, (1) fasting enhances hepatic gluconeogenic capacity; (2) surgical trauma transiently blunts the gluconeogenic response to fasting; and (3) sepsis undermines the gluconeogenic response to fasting

  3. Actions of juglone on energy metabolism in the rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saling, Simoni Cristina; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Mito, Márcio Shigueaki; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar

    2011-01-01

    Juglone is a phenolic compound used in popular medicine as a phytotherapic to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, it also acts as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation in isolated liver mitochondria and, thus, may interfere with the hepatic energy metabolism. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of juglone on several metabolic parameters in the isolated perfused rat liver. Juglone, in the concentration range of 5 to 50 μM, stimulated glycogenolysis, glycolysis and oxygen uptake. Gluconeogenesis from both lactate and alanine was inhibited with half-maximal effects at the concentrations of 14.9 and 15.7 μM, respectively. The overall alanine transformation was increased by juglone, as indicated by the stimulated release of ammonia, urea, L-glutamate, lactate and pyruvate. A great increase (9-fold) in the tissue content of α-ketoglutarate was found, without a similar change in the L-glutamate content. The tissue contents of ATP were decreased, but those of ADP and AMP were increased. Experiments with isolated mitochondria fully confirmed previous notions about the uncoupling action of juglone. It can be concluded that juglone is active on metabolism at relatively low concentrations. In this particular it resembles more closely the classical uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol. Ingestion of high doses of juglone, thus, presents the same risks as the ingestion of 2,4-dinitrophenol which comprise excessive compromising of ATP production, hyperthermia and even death. Low doses, i.e., moderate consumption of natural products containing juglone, however, could be beneficial to health if one considers recent reports about the consequences of chronic mild uncoupling. -- Highlights: ► We investigated how juglone acts on liver metabolism. ► The actions on hepatic gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and ureogenesis. ► Juglone stimulates glycolysis and ureagenesis and inhibits gluconeogenesis. ► The cellular ATP content is diminished. ► Juglone can

  4. Evidence for dual control mechanism regulating hepatic glucose output in nondiabetic men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clore, J.N.; Glickman, P.S.; Helm, S.T.; Nestler, J.E.; Blackard, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The authors previously reported a fall in hepatic glucose output (HGO) during sleep accompanied by reductions in glucose utilization (Rd) and free fatty acids (FFAs). This study was undertaken to determine the potential role of changes in Rd and FFA on HGO in nondiabetic men. To determine if the fall in HGO during sleep could be reversed by FFA elevation, seven nondiabetic men underwent [3-3H]glucose infusions from 2200 to 0800, with heparin (90 mU.kg-1.min-1) added at 0200. Glucose appearance (Ra) fell from 11.7 ± 1.1 at 2430 to 8.9 ± 0.8 mumol.kg-1.min-1 (P less than 0.05) at 0200. The fall in Ra was associated with decreases in FFA (0.57 ± 0.10 to 0.48 ± 0.07 mM) and glycerol (0.08 ± 0.01 to 0.06 ± 0.01 mM). Infusion of heparin significantly increased FFA and glycerol (1.09 ± 0.21 and 0.11 ± 0.01 mM, respectively, P less than 0.01) and resulted in a significant fall in plasma alanine, suggesting that gluconeogenesis had been increased. However, rates of glucose turnover were indistinguishable from overnight studies without heparin. In additional studies (n = 6), intralipid and heparin-induced FFA elevation (from 0.61 ± 0.07 to 0.95 ± 0.05 mM, P less than 0.01) stimulated gluconeogenesis ([U-14C]alanine to glucose) twofold (188 ± 22% increase compared to 114 ± 6% in saline control studies, P less than 0.01). However, despite increasing gluconeogenesis, overall HGO did not change (10.6 ± 0.5 vs. 10.7 ± 0.6 mumol.kg-1.min-1) during lipid infusion

  5. Metabolic Fate of Fructose Ingested with and without Glucose in a Mixed Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Theytaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of pure fructose stimulates de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. This may however not be relevant to typical nutritional situations, where fructose is invariably ingested with glucose. We therefore assessed the metabolic fate of fructose incorporated in a mixed meal without or with glucose in eight healthy volunteers. Each participant was studied over six hours after the ingestion of liquid meals containing either 13C-labelled fructose, unlabeled glucose, lipids and protein (Fr + G or 13C-labelled fructose, lipids and protein, but without glucose (Fr, or protein and lipids alone (ProLip. After Fr + G, plasma 13C-glucose production accounted for 19.0% ± 1.5% and 13CO2 production for 32.2% ± 1.3% of 13C-fructose carbons. After Fr, 13C-glucose production (26.5% ± 1.4% and 13CO2 production (36.6% ± 1.9% were higher (p < 0.05 than with Fr + G. 13C-lactate concentration and very low density lipoprotein VLDL 13C-palmitate concentrations increased to the same extent with Fr + G and Fr, while chylomicron 13C-palmitate tended to increase more with Fr + G. These data indicate that gluconeogenesis, lactic acid production and both intestinal and hepatic de novo lipogenesis contributed to the disposal of fructose carbons ingested together with a mixed meal. Co-ingestion of glucose decreased fructose oxidation and gluconeogenesis and tended to increase 13C-pamitate concentration in gut-derived chylomicrons, but not in hepatic-borne VLDL-triacylglycerol (TG. This trial was approved by clinicaltrial. gov. Identifier is NCT01792089.

  6. The Csr System Regulates Escherichia coli Fitness by Controlling Glycogen Accumulation and Energy Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Manon; Ropers, Delphine; Cinquemani, Eugenio; Portais, Jean-Charles; Enjalbert, Brice; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel

    2017-10-31

    In the bacterium Escherichia coli , the posttranscriptional regulatory system Csr was postulated to influence the transition from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis. Here, we explored the role of the Csr system in the glucose-acetate transition as a model of the glycolysis-to-gluconeogenesis switch. Mutations in the Csr system influence the reorganization of gene expression after glucose exhaustion and disturb the timing of acetate reconsumption after glucose exhaustion. Analysis of metabolite concentrations during the transition revealed that the Csr system has a major effect on the energy levels of the cells after glucose exhaustion. This influence was demonstrated to result directly from the effect of the Csr system on glycogen accumulation. Mutation in glycogen metabolism was also demonstrated to hinder metabolic adaptation after glucose exhaustion because of insufficient energy. This work explains how the Csr system influences E. coli fitness during the glycolysis-gluconeogenesis switch and demonstrates the role of glycogen in maintenance of the energy charge during metabolic adaptation. IMPORTANCE Glycogen is a polysaccharide and the main storage form of glucose from bacteria such as Escherichia coli to yeasts and mammals. Although its function as a sugar reserve in mammals is well documented, the role of glycogen in bacteria is not as clear. By studying the role of posttranscriptional regulation during metabolic adaptation, for the first time, we demonstrate the role of sugar reserve played by glycogen in E. coli Indeed, glycogen not only makes it possible to maintain sufficient energy during metabolic transitions but is also the key component in the capacity of cells to resume growth. Since the essential posttranscriptional regulatory system Csr is a major regulator of glycogen accumulation, this work also sheds light on the central role of posttranscriptional regulation in metabolic adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Morin et al.

  7. Antidiabetic Effects of Momordica charantia (Karela in Male long Evans Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Karim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic effect of Momordica charantia (Karela has been reported from many laboratories. To our knowledge the underlying biochemical mechanism of action of this important clinical effect has not been reported. During the course of investigation of this aspect of the herbal fruit, it was reported from our laboratory that ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia suppressed gluconeogenesis in normal and streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats by depressing the hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase. The herbal extract had also enhanced the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the rate limiting enzyme of hexose monophosphate shunt (a pathway for the oxidation of glucose.

  8. Propionate supplementation improves nitrogen use by reducing urea flux in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Bequette, B J

    2015-10-01

    Feeding and postruminal infusion of propionate is known to increase N retention in ruminants. Our aim was to determine the role of rumen propionate on urea N recycling and gluconeogenesis in growing sheep. In Exp. 1, wether sheep ( = 6; 32.5 ± 3.57 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed to 1.8 × ME requirement a concentrate-type ration (172 g CP/kg DM and 10.4 MJ ME/kg DM) and continuously infused into the rumen with isoenergetic (10% of dietary ME intake) solutions of either sodium acetate (control) or sodium propionate for 9-d periods in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, a different group of wether sheep ( = 5; 33.6 ± 3.70 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed, on an isonitrogenous basis, either a control (151 g CP/kg DM and 8.4 MJ ME/kg DM) or sodium propionate-supplemented (139 g CP/kg DM and 8.9 MJ ME/kg DM) diet at 2-h intervals. [N] urea was continuously infused intravenously for the last 5 d of each period, and total urine was collected by vacuum and feces were collected by a harness bag. Over the last 12 h, [C]glucose was continuously infused intravenously and hourly blood samples were collected during the last 5 h. Propionate treatments increased ( urea entry (synthesis) rate (UER) in Exp. 1; however, sodium propionate infusion tended ( urea elimination (UUE). In Exp. 2, feeding propionate increased ( urea N/d, leading to a reduction ( urea N/d). Between the 2 experiments, the proportion of UER recycled to the gut was greater with the forage-type diet in Exp. 2 (approximately 60%) compared with the concentrate-type diet in Exp. 1 (approximately 40%), although urea N fluxes across the gut remained unchanged in both experiments. In Exp. 1, glucose entry and gluconeogenesis were greater ( < 0.05) and plasma glucose tended ( < 0.1) to be greater with sodium propionate infusion than with sodium acetate infusion, but there was no difference in Cori cycling. In Exp. 2, glucose entry, gluconeogenesis, Cori cycling, and plasma glucose increased ( < 0

  9. Physiology of the endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelking, L R

    1997-11-01

    The endocrine pancreas is composed of nests of cells called the islets of Langerhans, which comprise only about 20% of pancreatic cell mass and secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin is anabolic, increasing storage of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids, while glucagon namely stimulates hepatic glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis. Somatostatin acts as a paracrine agent to inhibit both insulin and glucagon release, and, therefore, to modulate their output. This article explores factors controlling release of these hormones, as well as the way in which they affect fuel metabolism in the whole animal.

  10. Pancreatic α-cell hyperplasia and hyperglucagonemia due to a mutation of the glucagon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larger, Etienne; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Hansen, L.H.

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose production by activating specific glucagon receptors in the liver, which in turn increase hepatic glycogenolysis as well as gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis from amino acids. Conversely, glucagon secretion is regulated by concentrations of glucose and amino acids...... to hyperglucagonemia and α-cell hyperplasia, as well as elevated plasma amino acid levels. Together with the glucagon-induced hypoaminoacidemia in glucagonoma patients, our case supports recent suggestions that amino acids may provide the feedback link between the liver and the pancreatic α-cells....

  11. Communication: Limitations of the stochastic quasi-steady-state approximation in open biochemical reaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philipp; Straube, Arthur V.; Grima, Ramon

    2011-11-01

    It is commonly believed that, whenever timescale separation holds, the predictions of reduced chemical master equations obtained using the stochastic quasi-steady-state approximation are in very good agreement with the predictions of the full master equations. We use the linear noise approximation to obtain a simple formula for the relative error between the predictions of the two master equations for the Michaelis-Menten reaction with substrate input. The reduced approach is predicted to overestimate the variance of the substrate concentration fluctuations by as much as 30%. The theoretical results are validated by stochastic simulations using experimental parameter values for enzymes involved in proteolysis, gluconeogenesis, and fermentation.

  12. Developments in the tracer measurement of gluconeogensis and glycogenesis in vivo: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziuk, J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments in the continuing effort to accurately measure gluconeogenetic rates are presented in the symposium. Problems and assumptions are discussed. Mathematical methods that form a basis for further progress are also given. A direct application to the measurement of the gluconeogenetic component of glycogen formation is then described. A further application to the assessment of gluconeogenesis in the fetal component of the fetal-maternal system is discussed. Finally, the importance of tracer sampling and infusion sites in turnover measurement is treated in detail

  13. Calculation of the pentose phosphate and Embden-Myerhoff pathways from a single incubation with [U-14C]- and [5-3H]glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Fallon, J.V.; Wright, R.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A method that simultaneously determines Embden-Myerhoff pathway and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activities from an incubation with [U- 14 C]- and [5- 3 H]glucose is presented. The method relies on the use of unlabeled pyruvate and lactate to dilute out radiolabel entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Gluconeogenesis from pyruvate is prevented by the use of an incubation chamber that maintains a CO 2 (and bicarbonate) free environment. The method, which includes the contribution by the recycling steps of the PPP, is especially useful when biological material is limited or developmental timing is critical

  14. Transcriptional switches in the control of macronutrient metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Alan

    2008-06-01

    This review shows how some transcription factors respond to alterations in macronutrients. Carbohydrates induce enzymes for their metabolism and fatty acid synthesis. Fatty acids reduce carbohydrate processing, induce enzymes for their metabolism, and increase both gluconeogenesis and storage of fat. Fat stores help control carbohydrate uptake by other cells. The following main transcription factors are discussed: carbohydrate response element-binding protein; sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, cyclic AMP response element-binding protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma.

  15. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic and N-aspartic acids, and 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender- and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...

  16. A bioenergetics systems evaluation of ketogenic diet liver effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutfles, Lewis J; Wilkins, Heather M; Koppel, Scott J; Weidling, Ian W; Selfridge, J Eva; Tan, Eephie; Thyfault, John P; Slawson, Chad; Fenton, Aron W; Zhu, Hao; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2017-09-01

    Ketogenic diets induce hepatocyte fatty acid oxidation and ketone body production. To further evaluate how ketogenic diets affect hepatocyte bioenergetic infrastructure, we analyzed livers from C57Bl/6J male mice maintained for 1 month on a ketogenic or standard chow diet. Compared with the standard diet, the ketogenic diet increased cytosolic and mitochondrial protein acetylation and also altered protein succinylation patterns. SIRT3 protein decreased while SIRT5 protein increased, and gluconeogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial biogenesis pathway proteins were variably and likely strategically altered. The pattern of changes observed can be used to inform a broader systems overview of how ketogenic diets affect liver bioenergetics.

  17. Nutritional mitigation of winter thermal stress in gilthead seabream associated metabolic pathways and potential indicators of nutritional state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Nadege; Silva, Tomé S.; Wulff, Tune

    2016-01-01

    and phenylalanine/tyrosine catabolism, and induced higher aerobic metabolism and gluconeogenesis. Results support the notion that WF diet had a positive effect on fish nutritional state by partially counteracting the effect of thermal stress and underlined the sensitivity of proteome data for nutritional....... A total of 404 protein spots, out of 1637 detected, were differentially expressed between the two groups of fish. Mass spectrometry analysis of selected spots suggested that WF diet improved oxidative stress defense, reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress, enhanced metabolic flux through methionine cycle...... and metabolic profiling purposes. Intragroup variability and co-measured information were also used to pinpoint which proteins displayed a stronger relation with fish nutritional state....

  18. Hyperammonaemia, plasma aminoacid imbalance, and blood-brain aminoacid transport: a unified theory of portal-systemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J H; Ziparo, V; Jeppsson, B; Fischer, J E

    1979-10-13

    It is proposed that hyperammonaemia in liver cirrhosis or after portacaval shunt contributes to plasma neutral aminoacid imbalance and to increased activity of the blood-brain neutral amino-acid transport system. Plasma neutral aminoacid concentrations are deranged, partly, but not completely, because ammonia stimulates glucagon secretion; a high rate of gluconeogenesis and hyperinsulinaemia follow. Brain uptake of neutral aminoacids rises because ammonia stimulates brain-glutamine synthesis, which results in rapid exchange of brain glutamine for plasma neutral aminoacids. Hyperammonaemia therefore contributes to encephalopathy indirectly, by raising the brain concentration of neutral aminoacids which after neurotransmitter metabolism, rather than directly, by toxic effects on neuronal metabolism.

  19. [Coactivators in energy metabolism: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Chang, Yong-sheng; Fang, Fu-de

    2009-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC1) family is highly expressed in tissues with high energy metabolism. They coactivate transcription factors in regulating genes engaged in processes such as gluconeogenesis, adipose beta-oxydation, lipoprotein synthesis and secretion, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Protein conformation studies demonstrated that they lack DNA binding domains and act as coactivators through physical interaction with transcription factors. PGC1 activity is regulated at transcription level or by multiple covalent chemical modifications such as phosphorylation, methylation and acetylation/deacetylation. Abnormal expression of PGC1 coactivators usually is closely correlated with diseases such as diabetes, obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, and arterial and brain neuron necrosis diseases.

  20. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation Reduces Oxidative Stress and Prolongs Survival in Rats with Advanced Liver Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifuji-Moroka, Rumi; Hara, Nagisa; Miyachi, Hirohide; Sugimoto, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Hideaki; Fujita, Naoki; Gabazza, Esteban C.; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Long-term supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) is associated with prolonged survival and decreased frequency of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the pharmaceutical mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. We investigated whether continuous BCAA supplementation increases survival rate of rats exposed to a fibrogenic agent and influences the iron accumulation, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Further, the effects of BCAA on gluconeogenesis in cultured cells were also investigated. A significant improvement in cumulative survival was observed in BCAA-supplemented rats with advanced cirrhosis compared to untreated rats with cirrhosis (PBCAA supplementation was associated with reduction of iron contents, reactive oxygen species production and attenuated fibrosis in the liver. In addition, BCAA ameliorated glucose metabolism by forkhead box protein O1 pathway in the liver. BCAA prolongs survival in cirrhotic rats and this was likely the consequences of reduced iron accumulation, oxidative stress and fibrosis and improved glucose metabolism in the liver. PMID:23936183

  1. Selective Insulin Resistance in the Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Shoko; Nakamura, Motonobu; Suzuki, Masashi; Satoh, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Seki, George

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance has been characterized as attenuation of insulin sensitivity at target organs and tissues, such as muscle and fat tissues and the liver. The insulin signaling cascade is divided into major pathways such as the PI3K/Akt pathway and the MAPK/MEK pathway. In insulin resistance, however, these pathways are not equally impaired. For example, in the liver, inhibition of gluconeogenesis by the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) 2 pathway is impaired, while lipogenesis by the IRS1 pathway is preserved, thus causing hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. It has been recently suggested that selective impairment of insulin signaling cascades in insulin resistance also occurs in the kidney. In the renal proximal tubule, insulin signaling via IRS1 is inhibited, while insulin signaling via IRS2 is preserved. Insulin signaling via IRS2 continues to stimulate sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule and causes sodium retention, edema, and hypertension. IRS1 signaling deficiency in the proximal tubule may impair IRS1-mediated inhibition of gluconeogenesis, which could induce hyperglycemia by preserving glucose production. In the glomerulus, the impairment of IRS1 signaling deteriorates the structure and function of podocyte and endothelial cells, possibly causing diabetic nephropathy. This paper mainly describes selective insulin resistance in the kidney, focusing on the proximal tubule. PMID:27247938

  2. Loss of Hepatic Mitochondrial Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Confers Resistance to Diet-Induced Obesity and Glucose Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Choi, Joseph; Selen Alpergin, Ebru S; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas; Scafidi, Susanna; Riddle, Ryan C; Wolfgang, Michael J

    2017-07-18

    The liver has a large capacity for mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, which is critical for systemic metabolic adaptations such as gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid oxidation in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD), we generated mice with a liver-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (Cpt2 L-/- mice). Paradoxically, Cpt2 L-/- mice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance with an absence of liver damage, although they exhibited serum dyslipidemia, hepatic oxidative stress, and systemic carnitine deficiency. Feeding an HFD induced hepatokines in mice, with a loss of hepatic fatty acid oxidation that enhanced systemic energy expenditure and suppressed adiposity. Additionally, the suppression in hepatic gluconeogenesis was sufficient to improve HFD-induced glucose intolerance. These data show that inhibiting hepatic fatty acid oxidation results in a systemic hormetic response that protects mice from HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gain of glucose-independent growth upon metastasis of breast cancer cells to the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyu; Lee, Ho-Jeong; Wu, Xuefeng; Huo, Lei; Kim, Sun-Jin; Xu, Lei; Wang, Yan; He, Junqing; Bollu, Lakshmi Reddy; Gao, Guang; Su, Fei; Briggs, James; Liu, Xiaojing; Melman, Tamar; Asara, John M.; Fidler, Isaiah J.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Locasale, Jason W.; Weihua, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer brain metastasis is resistant to therapy and a particularly poor prognostic feature in patient survival. Altered metabolism is a common feature of cancer cells but little is known as to what metabolic changes benefit breast cancer brain metastases. We found that brain-metastatic breast cancer cells evolved the ability to survive and proliferate independent of glucose due to enhanced gluconeogenesis and oxidations of glutamine and branched chain amino acids, which together sustain the non-oxidative pentose pathway for purine synthesis. Silencing expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPs) in brain metastatic cells reduced their viability and improved the survival of metastasis-bearing immunocompetent hosts. Clinically, we showed that brain metastases from human breast cancer patients expressed higher levels of FBP and glycogen than the corresponding primary tumors. Together, our findings identify a critical metabolic condition required to sustain brain metastasis, and suggest that targeting gluconeogenesis may help eradicate this deadly feature in advanced breast cancer patients. PMID:25511375

  4. Liver Proteome in Diabetes Type 1 Rat Model: Insulin-Dependent and -Independent Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Camila Pereira; Boone, Cory H T; Grove, Ryan A; Adamcova, Dana; Fernandes, Ana Angélica Henrique; Adamec, Jiri; de Magalhães Padilha, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) is a major public health problem that continues to burden the healthcare systems worldwide, costing exponentially more as the epidemic grows. Innovative strategies and omics system diagnostics for earlier diagnosis or prognostication of DM1 are essential to prevent secondary complications and alleviate the associated economic burden. In a preclinical study design that involved streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM1, insulin-treated STZ-induced DM1, and control rats, we characterized the insulin-dependent and -independent changes in protein profiles in liver samples. Digested proteins were subjected to LC-MS E for proteomic data. Progenesis QI data processing and analysis of variance were utilized for statistical analyses. We found 305 proteins with significantly altered abundance among the control, DM1, and insulin-treated DM1 groups (p < 0.05). These differentially regulated proteins were related to enzymes that function in key metabolic pathways and stress responses. For example, gluconeogenesis appeared to return to control levels in the DM1 group after insulin treatment, with the restoration of gluconeogenesis regulatory enzyme, FBP1. Insulin administration to DM1 rats also restored the blood glucose levels and enzymes of general stress and antioxidant response systems. These observations are crucial for insights on DM1 pathophysiology and new molecular targets for future clinical biomarkers, drug discovery, and development. Additionally, we underscore that proteomics offers much potential in preclinical biomarker discovery for diabetes as well as common complex diseases such as cancer, dementia, and infectious disorders.

  5. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation reduces oxidative stress and prolongs survival in rats with advanced liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoh Iwasa

    Full Text Available Long-term supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA is associated with prolonged survival and decreased frequency of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the pharmaceutical mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. We investigated whether continuous BCAA supplementation increases survival rate of rats exposed to a fibrogenic agent and influences the iron accumulation, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Further, the effects of BCAA on gluconeogenesis in cultured cells were also investigated. A significant improvement in cumulative survival was observed in BCAA-supplemented rats with advanced cirrhosis compared to untreated rats with cirrhosis (P<0.05. The prolonged survival due to BCAA supplementation was associated with reduction of iron contents, reactive oxygen species production and attenuated fibrosis in the liver. In addition, BCAA ameliorated glucose metabolism by forkhead box protein O1 pathway in the liver. BCAA prolongs survival in cirrhotic rats and this was likely the consequences of reduced iron accumulation, oxidative stress and fibrosis and improved glucose metabolism in the liver.

  6. Segmental heterogeneity of enzymatic response during compensatory renal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, T.; Bergeron, M.

    1985-01-01

    The activities of DNA polymerase α and key enzymes of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis were measured in different segments of the rat nephron at various times (up to 96 hrs) following a unilateral nephrectomy (UNx). Tubule fragments were obtained after collagenase treatment followed by centrifugation on a Percoll gradient. The DNA polymerase α activity in control rats showed moderate and similar values in different segmental extracts as well as in the whole kidney extract (1700-1800 μμmole[ 3 H] dAMP/mg DNA). In Unx rats, activity in proximal tubules (PT) measured at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs after nephrectomy represented an increase of 60%, 200%, 420% and 370% respectively over control values. Distal tubule fragments (DT) showed only minor increases. The results demonstrate that the proximal tubule accounts for most of the compensatory renal growth (CRG) in the remaining kidney. The gluconeogenic and glycolytic enzymes were confined to the PT and those of glycolysis to the DT fragments. Following UNx, the specific activities of these enzymes were not modified in the remaining kidney; however, the overall activity of gluconeogenesis was increased as a result of the cell hyperplasia occurring in the PT. The work also illustrates that biochemical studies of CRG on the whole organ may provide misleading information due to the presence of heterogeneous cell populations in the mammalian kidney and to their uneven response in CRG

  7. Distribution and phylogenies of enzymes of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway from archaea and hyperthermophilic bacteria support a gluconeogenic origin of metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron S. Ronimus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes of the gluconeogenic/glycolytic pathway (the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP pathway, the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, the reductive pentose phosphate cycle and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway are widely distributed and are often considered to be central to the origins of metabolism. In particular, several enzymes of the lower portion of the EMP pathway (the so-called trunk pathway, including triosephosphate isomerase (TPI; EC 5.3.1.1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH; EC 1.2.1.12/13, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK; EC 2.7.2.3 and enolase (EC 4.2.1.11, are extremely well conserved and universally distributed among the three domains of life. In this paper, the distribution of enzymes of gluconeogenesis/glycolysis in hyperthermophiles—microorganisms that many believe represent the least evolved organisms on the planet—is reviewed. In addition, the phylogenies of the trunk pathway enzymes (TPIs, GAPDHs, PGKs and enolases are examined. The enzymes catalyzing each of the six-carbon transformations in the upper portion of the EMP pathway, with the possible exception of aldolase, are all derived from multiple gene sequence families. In contrast, single sequence families can account for the archaeal and hyperthermophilic bacterial enzyme activities of the lower portion of the EMP pathway. The universal distribution of the trunk pathway enzymes, in combination with their phylogenies, supports the notion that the EMP pathway evolved in the direction of gluconeogenesis, i.e., from the bottom up.

  8. Pantothenate kinase 1 is required to support the metabolic transition from the fed to the fasted state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Leonardi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme A (CoA biosynthesis is regulated by the pantothenate kinases (PanK, of which there are four active isoforms. The PanK1 isoform is selectively expressed in liver and accounted for 40% of the total PanK activity in this organ. CoA synthesis was limited using a Pank1(-/- knockout mouse model to determine whether the regulation of CoA levels was critical to liver function. The elimination of PanK1 reduced hepatic CoA levels, and fasting triggered a substantial increase in total hepatic CoA in both Pank1(-/- and wild-type mice. The increase in hepatic CoA during fasting was blunted in the Pank1(-/- mouse, and resulted in reduced fatty acid oxidation as evidenced by abnormally high accumulation of long-chain acyl-CoAs, acyl-carnitines, and triglycerides in the form of lipid droplets. The Pank1(-/- mice became hypoglycemic during a fast due to impaired gluconeogenesis, although ketogenesis was normal. These data illustrate the importance of PanK1 and elevated liver CoA levels during fasting to support the metabolic transition from glucose utilization and fatty acid synthesis to gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. The findings also suggest that PanK1 may be a suitable target for therapeutic intervention in metabolic disorders that feature hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  9. Treatment update: thiazolidinediones in combination with metformin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Stafford

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available John M Stafford1, Tom Elasy21Division of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vanderbilt University; 2Vanderbilt Eskind Diabetes Clinic, Vanderbilt University Medical CenterAbstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 is characterized by excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis, increased insulin resistance and a progressive inability of pancreatic beta cells to produce sufficient insulin. DM2 evolves as a progression from normal glucose tolerance, to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT to frank diabetes mellitus, reflecting the establishment of insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Insulin resistance not only contributes to impaired glycemic control in DM2, but to the development of hypertension, dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction. Cardiovascular disease is the primary morbidity for patients with DM2. The onset of insulin resistance and cardiovascular insult likely occurs well before the onset of IGT is detected clinically. Biguanides and thiazolidinediones (TZDs are two classes of oral agents for the management of DM2 that improve insulin resistance, and thus have potential cardiovascular benefits beyond glycemic control alone. Metformin additionally inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis. The combined use of two of these agents targets key pathophysiologic defects in DM2. Single pill combinations of rosiglitazone/metformin and pioglitazone/metformin have recently been approved for use in the US and Europe. This article reviews the clinical data behind the use of metformin in combination with TZDs for the management of diabetes, its impact on vascular health, side effects and potential mechanisms of action for combined use.Keywords: thiazolidinediones; metformin; Type 2 diabetes

  10. Treatment update: thiazolidinediones in combination with metformin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Stafford

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available John M Stafford1, Tom Elasy21Division of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vanderbilt University; 2Vanderbilt Eskind Diabetes Clinic, Vanderbilt University Medical CenterAbstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 is characterized by excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis, increased insulin resistance and a progressive inability of pancreatic beta cells to produce sufficient insulin. DM2 evolves as a progression from normal glucose tolerance, to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT to frank diabetes mellitus, reflecting the establishment of insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Insulin resistance not only contributes to impaired glycemic control in DM2, but to the development of hypertension, dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction. Cardiovascular disease is the primary morbidity for patients with DM2. The onset of insulin resistance and cardiovascular insult likely occurs well before the onset of IGT is detected clinically. Biguanides and thiazolidinediones (TZDs are two classes of oral agents for the management of DM2 that improve insulin resistance, and thus have potential cardiovascular benefits beyond glycemic control alone. Metformin additionally inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis. The combined use of two of these agents targets key pathophysiologic defects in DM2. Single pill combinations of rosiglitazone/metformin and pioglitazone/metformin have recently been approved for use in the US and Europe. This article reviews the clinical data behind the use of metformin in combination with TZDs for the management of diabetes, its impact on vascular health, side effects and potential mechanisms of action for combined use.Keywords: thiazolidinediones; metformin; Type 2 diabetes

  11. The GLP-1 Analogue Exenatide Improves Hepatic and Muscle Insulin Sensitivity in Diabetic Rats: Tracer Studies in the Basal State and during Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic Clamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogues (e.g., exenatide increase insulin secretion in diabetes but less is known about their effects on glucose production or insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Methods. Four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: nondiabetic (control, C; nondiabetic + exenatide (C + E; diabetic (D; diabetic + exenatide (D + E with diabetes induced by streptozotocin and high fat diet. Infusion of 3-3H-glucose and U-13C-glycerol was used to measure basal rates of appearance (Ra of glucose and glycerol and gluconeogenesis from glycerol (GNG. During hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, glucose uptake into gastrocnemius muscles was measured with 2-deoxy-D-14C-glucose. Results. In the diabetic rats, exenatide reduced the basal Ra of glucose (P<0.01 and glycerol (P<0.01 and GNG (P<0.001. During the clamp, Ra of glucose was also reduced, whereas the rate of disappearance of glucose increased and there was increased glucose uptake into muscle (P<0.01 during the clamp. In the nondiabetic rats, exenatide had no effect. Conclusion. In addition to its known effects on insulin secretion, administration of the GLP-1 analogue, exenatide, is associated with increased inhibition of gluconeogenesis and improved glucose uptake into muscle in diabetic rats, implying improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  12. Effects of an Agaricus blazei Aqueous Extract Pretreatment on Paracetamol-Induced Brain and Liver Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia A. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of an Agaricus blazei aqueous extract pretreatment on paracetamol injury in rats was examined not only in terms of the classical indicators (e.g., levels of hepatic enzymes in the plasma but also in terms of functional and metabolic parameters (e.g., gluconeogenesis. Considering solely the classical indicators for tissue damage, the results can be regarded as an indication that the A. blazei extract is able to provide a reasonable degree of protection against the paracetamol injury in both the hepatic and brain tissues. The A. blazei pretreatment largely prevented the increased levels of hepatic enzymes in the plasma (ASP, ALT, LDH, and ALP and practically normalized the TBARS levels in both liver and brain tissues. With respect to the functional and metabolic parameters of the liver, however, the extract provided little or no protection. This includes morphological signs of inflammation and the especially important functional parameter gluconeogenesis, which was impaired by paracetamol. Considering these results and the long list of extracts and substances that are said to have hepatoprotective effects, it would be useful to incorporate evaluations of functional parameters into the experimental protocols of studies aiming to attribute or refute effective hepatoprotective actions to natural products.

  13. Estimation of glucose carbon recycling in children with glycogen storage disease: A 13C NMR study using [U-13C]glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalderon, B.; Korman, S.H.; Gutman, A.; Lapidot, A.

    1989-01-01

    A stable isotope procedure to estimate hepatic glucose carbon recycling and thereby elucidate the mechanism by which glucose is produced in patients lacking glucose 6-phosphatase is described. A total of 10 studies was performed in children with glycogen storage disease type I (GSD-I) and type III (GSD-III) and control subjects. A primed dose-constant nasogastric infusion of D-[U- 13 C]glucose or an infusion diluted with nonlabeled glucose solution was administered following different periods of fasting. Hepatic glucose carbon recycling was estimated from 13 C NMR spectra. The values obtained for GSD-I patients coincided with the standard [U- 13 C]glucose dilution curve. These results indicate that the plasma glucose of GSD-I subjects comprises only a mixture of 99% 13 C-enriched D-[U- 13 C]glucose and unlabeled glucose but lacks any recycled glucose. Significantly different glucose carbon recycling values were obtained for two GSD-III patients in comparison to GSD-I patients. The results eliminate a mechanism for glucose production in GSD-I children involving gluconeogenesis. However, glucose release by amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity would result in endogenous glucose production of non- 13 C-labeled and nonrecycled glucose carbon, as was found in this study. In GSD-III patients gluconeogenesis is suggested as the major route for endogenous glucose synthesis. The contribution of the triose-phosphate pathway in these patients has been determined

  14. The Effect of Phloroglucinol, A Component of Ecklonia cava Extract, on Hepatic Glucose Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Yoon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phloroglucinol is a phenolic compound that is one of the major compounds in Ecklonia cava (brown alga. It has many pharmacological activities, but its anti-diabetic effect is not yet fully explored. In this study, we investigated the effect of phloroglucinol on the control of blood glucose levels and the regulation of hepatic glucose production. Phloroglucinol significantly improved glucose tolerance in male C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet (HFD and inhibited glucose production in mouse primary hepatocytes. The expression of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and glucose-6-phosphatase mRNA and protein (G6Pase, enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, were inhibited in liver tissue from phloroglucinol-treated mice and in phloroglucinol-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, phloroglucinol treatment increased phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα in HepG2 cells. Treatment with compound C, an AMPKα inhibitor, inhibited the increase of phosphorylated AMPKα and the decrease of PEPCK and G6Pase expression caused by phloroglucinol treatment. We conclude that phloroglucinol may inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis via modulating the AMPKα signaling pathway, and thus lower blood glucose levels.

  15. Posthemorrhage glycogen and lactate metabolism in the liver: an experimental study with postprandial rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boija, P.O.; Nylander, G.; Suhaili, A.; Ware, J.

    1988-01-01

    Glycogen and lactate metabolism was studied in livers from three groups of postprandial rats sustaining 70 mm Hg hemorrhagic hypotension for variable periods, 60 min (60H group), 120 min (120H group), and nonbled controls. The donor livers were investigated after completed hemorrhage using an in vitro perfusion system with L-lactate as substrate, together with U- 14 C-lactate. The residual glycogen stores were determined after perfusions. The incorporation of labelled lactate to glucose was increased in the 120H group by 66.7% and 116.8% compared to the 60H group and controls (p less than 0.01), but glycogenolysis was still the main source of glucose released in the 120H group. Glycogen formation from labelled lactate was 46.6% higher in the 120H group compared to controls (p less than 0.05) and lactate oxidation was decreased by 67.5% (p less than 0.05). The data suggest that hepatocytes are capable of rapid change from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis during hemorrhagic hypovolemia. However, energy-sparing glycogen breakdown is given priority over gluconeogenesis as long as glycogen remains available

  16. The relationship between gluconeogenic substrate supply and glucose production in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoor, F.; Peters, E.J.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between gluconeogenic precursor supply and glucose production has been investigated in 14-h and 86-h fasted humans. In protocols 1 and 2 [6,6-2H]glucose and [15N2]urea were infused to measure glucose and urea production rates (Ra) in response to infusions of glycerol and alanine. In protocol 3 first [15N]alanine, [3-13C]lactate, and [6,6-2H]glucose were infused before and during administration of dichloroacetate (DCA) to determine the response of glucose Ra to decreased fluxes of pyruvate, alanine, and lactate, then alanine was infused with DCA and glucose Ra measured. After a 14-h fast, neither alanine nor glycerol increased glucose Ra. Basal glucose Ra decreased by one-third after 86 h of fasting, yet glycerol and alanine infusions had no effect on glucose Ra. Glycerol always reduced urea Ra (P less than 0.05), suggesting that glycerol competitively inhibited gluconeogenesis from amino acids. DCA decreased the fluxes of pyruvate, alanine (P less than 0.01), and glucose Ra (P less than 0.01), which was prevented by alanine infusion. These findings suggest that (1) the reduction in glucose Ra after an 86-h fast is not because of a shortage of gluconeogenic substrate; (2) nonetheless, the importance of precursor supply to maintain basal glucose Ra is confirmed by the response to DCA; (3) an excess of one gluconeogenic substrate inhibits gluconeogenesis from others

  17. Effect of tolbutamide on 14C-sodium bicarbonate and 14C-alanine metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunjathoor, V.V.; Ye, Y.; Pillai, U.A.; Ferguson, P.W.; Medon, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Tolbutamide (TOLB) is a sulfonylurea commonly used in the treatment of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Studies have shown that TOLB affects gluconeogenesis and glycolysis from various substrates in the liver. Specifically, TOLB inhibits gluconeogenesis from lactate in a dose-dependent manner. In order to further clarify tolbutamide's mechanism of action, its effect on the incorporation of 14 C from NaH 14 CO 3 and 14 C-alanine into glucose, lactate or pyruvate in the presence of lactate was measured. Rat hepatocytes were incubated with lactate (2.0 mM) with or without TOLB (1.0 mM) in the presence of NaH 14 CO 3 or 14 C-alanine. TOLB inhibited the incorporation of C 14 from NaHCO 3 and alanine into glucose by 55 and 56%, respectively. TOLB did not alter the incorporation of C 14 from NaHCO 3 into lactate or pyruvate. TOLB did not affect the incorporation of 14 C from alanine into lactate but produced a pooling of 14 C as pyruvate. The authors data support studies demonstrating the TOLB produces its actions, in part, by increasing the concentration of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and inhibiting pyruvate carboxylase

  18. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier mediates high fat diet-induced increases in hepatic TCA cycle capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauckhorst, Adam J; Gray, Lawrence R; Sheldon, Ryan D; Fu, Xiaorong; Pewa, Alvin D; Feddersen, Charlotte R; Dupuy, Adam J; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Cox, James E; Burgess, Shawn C; Taylor, Eric B

    2017-11-01

    Excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most gluconeogenic flux is routed through mitochondria. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) transports pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby gating pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis. Disruption of the hepatocyte MPC attenuates hyperglycemia in mice during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity but exerts minimal effects on glycemia in normal chow diet (NCD)-fed conditions. The goal of this investigation was to test whether hepatocyte MPC disruption provides sustained protection from hyperglycemia during long-term HFD and the differential effects of hepatocyte MPC disruption on TCA cycle metabolism in NCD versus HFD conditions. We utilized long-term high fat feeding, serial measurements of postabsorptive blood glucose and metabolomic profiling and 13 C-lactate/ 13 C-pyruvate tracing to investigate the contribution of the MPC to hyperglycemia and altered hepatic TCA cycle metabolism during HFD-induced obesity. Hepatocyte MPC disruption resulted in long-term attenuation of hyperglycemia induced by HFD. HFD increased hepatic mitochondrial pyruvate utilization and TCA cycle capacity in an MPC-dependent manner. Furthermore, MPC disruption decreased progression of fibrosis and levels of transcript markers of inflammation. By contributing to chronic hyperglycemia, fibrosis, and TCA cycle expansion, the hepatocyte MPC is a key mediator of the pathophysiology induced in the HFD model of T2D. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  19. The Aspergillus nidulans acuL gene encodes a mitochondrial carrier required for the utilization of carbon sources that are metabolized via the TCA cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipphi, Michel; Oestreicher, Nathalie; Nicolas, Valérie; Guitton, Audrey; Vélot, Christian

    2014-07-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans, the utilization of acetate as sole carbon source requires several genes (acu). Most of them are also required for the utilization of fatty acids. This is the case for acuD and acuE, which encode the two glyoxylate cycle-specific enzymes, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, respectively, but also for acuL that we have identified as AN7287, and characterized in this study. Deletion of acuL resulted in the same phenotype as the original acuL217 mutant. acuL encodes a 322-amino acid protein which displays all the structural features of a mitochondrial membrane carrier, and shares 60% identity with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate/fumarate mitochondrial antiporter Sfc1p (also named Acr1p). Consistently, the AcuL protein was shown to localize in mitochondria, and partial cross-complementation was observed between the S. cerevisiae and A. nidulans homologues. Extensive phenotypic characterization suggested that the acuL gene is involved in the utilization of carbon sources that are catabolized via the TCA cycle, and therefore require gluconeogenesis. In addition, acuL proves to be co-regulated with acuD and acuE. Overall, our data suggest that AcuL could link the glyoxylate cycle to gluconeogenesis by exchanging cytoplasmic succinate for mitochondrial fumarate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal protein restriction induces alterations in insulin signaling and ATP sensitive potassium channel protein in hypothalami of intrauterine growth restriction fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomei; Qi, Ying; Gao, Hong; Jiao, Yisheng; Gu, Hui; Miao, Jianing; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. To investigate the mechanisms behind this "metabolic imprinting" phenomenon, we examined the impact of maternal undernutrition on insulin signaling pathway and the ATP sensitive potassium channel expression in the hypothalamus of intrauterine growth restriction fetus. Intrauterine growth restriction rat model was developed through maternal low protein diet. The expression and activated levels of insulin signaling molecules and K(ATP) protein in the hypothalami which were dissected at 20 days of gestation, were analyzed by western blot and real time PCR. The tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the insulin receptor substrate 2 and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase p85α in the hypothalami of intrauterine growth restriction fetus were markedly reduced. There was also a downregulation of the hypothalamic ATP sensitive potassium channel subunit, sulfonylurea receptor 1, which conveys the insulin signaling. Moreover, the abundances of gluconeogenesis enzymes were increased in the intrauterine growth restriction livers, though no correlation was observed between sulfonylurea receptor 1 and gluconeogenesis enzymes. Our data suggested that aberrant intrauterine milieu impaired insulin signaling in the hypothalamus, and these alterations early in life might contribute to the predisposition of the intrauterine growth restriction fetus toward the adult metabolic disorders.

  1. SWATH label-free proteomics analyses revealed the roles of oxidative stress and antioxidant defensing system in sclerotia formation of Polyporus umbellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Tian, Xiaofang; Wang, Chunlan; Zeng, Xu; Xing, Yongmei; Ling, Hong; Yin, Wanqiang; Tian, Lixia; Meng, Zhixia; Zhang, Jihui; Guo, Shunxing

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the initiation and maturing mechanisms is important for rational manipulating sclerotia differentiation and growth from hypha of Polyporus umbellatus. Proteomes in P. umbellatus sclerotia and hyphae at initial, developmental and mature phases were studied. 1391 proteins were identified by nano-liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in Data Dependant Acquisition mode, and 1234 proteins were quantified successfully by Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment ion spectra-MS (SWATH-MS) technology. There were 347 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in sclerotia at initial phase compared with those in hypha, and the DEP profiles were dynamically changing with sclerotia growth. Oxidative stress (OS) in sclerotia at initial phase was indicated by the repressed proteins of respiratory chain, tricarboxylic acid cycle and the activation of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathways were determined based on DEPs. The impact of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis on sclerotium induction was further verified by glycerol addition assays, in which 5% glycerol significantly increased sclerotial differentiation rate and biomass. It can be speculated that OS played essential roles in triggering sclerotia differentiation from hypha of P. umbellatus, whereas antioxidant activity associated with glycolysis is critical for sclerotia growth. These findings reveal a mechanism for sclerotial differentiation in P. umbellatus, which may also be applicable for other fungi.

  2. PGC-1α regulates alanine metabolism in muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatazawa, Yukino; Qian, Kun; Gong, Da-Wei; Kamei, Yasutomi

    2018-01-01

    The skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, depositing energy as protein/amino acids, which are degraded in catabolic conditions such as fasting. Alanine is synthesized and secreted from the skeletal muscle that is used as substrates of gluconeogenesis in the liver. During fasting, the expression of PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator of nuclear receptors, is increased in the liver and regulates gluconeogenesis. In the present study, we observed increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and alanine aminotransferase 2 (ALT2) in the skeletal muscle during fasting. In C2C12 myoblast cells overexpressing PGC-1α, ALT2 expression was increased concomitant with an increased alanine level in the cells and medium. In addition, PGC-1α, along with nuclear receptor ERR, dose-dependently enhanced the ALT2 promoter activity in reporter assay using C2C12 cells. In the absence of glucose in the culture medium, mRNA levels of PGC-1α and ALT2 increased. Endogenous PGC-1α knockdown in C2C12 cells reduced ALT2 gene expression level, induced by the no-glucose medium. Taken together, in the skeletal muscle, PGC-1α activates ALT2 gene expression, and alanine production may play roles in adaptation to fasting.

  3. Ethanol and Acetate Acting as Carbon/Energy Sources Negatively Affect Yeast Chronological Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Orlandi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the chronological lifespan (CLS is defined as the length of time that a population of nondividing cells can survive in stationary phase. In this phase, cells remain metabolically active, albeit at reduced levels, and responsive to environmental signals, thus simulating the postmitotic quiescent state of mammalian cells. Many studies on the main nutrient signaling pathways have uncovered the strong influence of growth conditions, including the composition of culture media, on CLS. In this context, two byproducts of yeast glucose fermentation, ethanol and acetic acid, have been proposed as extrinsic proaging factors. Here, we report that ethanol and acetic acid, at physiological levels released in the exhausted medium, both contribute to chronological aging. Moreover, this combined proaging effect is not due to a toxic environment created by their presence but is mainly mediated by the metabolic pathways required for their utilization as carbon/energy sources. In addition, measurements of key enzymatic activities of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis, together with respiration assays performed in extreme calorie restriction, point to a long-term quiescent program favoured by glyoxylate/gluconeogenesis flux contrary to a proaging one based on the oxidative metabolism of ethanol/acetate via TCA and mitochondrial respiration.

  4. Exercise and deficient carbohydrate storage and intake as causes of hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J B

    1989-03-01

    Exercise is associated with a marked increase in glucose uptake by muscle, which is initially supported by breakdown of hepatic glycogen and subsequently by increased gluconeogenesis. If hepatic glucose production is inadequate, hypoglycemia results. During exercise there is decreased plasma insulin and increased catecholamines, glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone, which contribute to but are not essential for the increased hepatic output of glucose. Although insulin concentrations fall, insulin sensitivity is increased. However, the augmented glucose uptake by muscle is due to other factors. The symptoms of exhaustion during exercise are not due to hypoglycemia, and prevention of hypoglycemia may not prolong the time of exercise to exhaustion. During severe caloric restriction, hepatic glucose production decreases and free fatty acids and ketone bodies become important sources of calories. Although under these circumstances hepatic gluconeogenesis is usually sufficient to prevent hypoglycemia, with very severe caloric restriction hypoglycemia can result. With starvation, insulin concentrations fall while growth hormone and glucagon increase. Frequently the usual symptoms of hypoglycemia are absent in individuals with hypoglycemia from severe caloric restriction. Hypoglycemia from severe caloric restriction has not been totally restricted to underdeveloped areas of the world. In such patients no endocrine abnormalities have been found, and hypoglycemia has persisted despite administration of large amounts of carbohydrate. Pregnancy and lactation could predispose to hypoglycemia in the face of inadequate caloric intake.

  5. Loss of Hepatic Mitochondrial Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Confers Resistance to Diet-Induced Obesity and Glucose Intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver has a large capacity for mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, which is critical for systemic metabolic adaptations such as gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. To understand the role of hepatic fatty acid oxidation in response to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD, we generated mice with a liver-specific deficiency of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation (Cpt2L−/− mice. Paradoxically, Cpt2L−/− mice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance with an absence of liver damage, although they exhibited serum dyslipidemia, hepatic oxidative stress, and systemic carnitine deficiency. Feeding an HFD induced hepatokines in mice, with a loss of hepatic fatty acid oxidation that enhanced systemic energy expenditure and suppressed adiposity. Additionally, the suppression in hepatic gluconeogenesis was sufficient to improve HFD-induced glucose intolerance. These data show that inhibiting hepatic fatty acid oxidation results in a systemic hormetic response that protects mice from HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.

  6. Diabetes in Patients With Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, A M; Thompson, C J; Sherlock, M

    2017-02-01

    Acromegaly is a clinical syndrome which results from growth hormone excess. Uncontrolled acromegaly is associated with cardiovascular mortality, due to an excess of risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiomegaly. Diabetes mellitus is a frequent complication of acromegaly with a prevalence of 12-37%. This review will provide an overview of a number of aspects of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance in acromegaly including the following: 1. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of abnormalities of glucose homeostasis 2. The impact of different management options for acromegaly on glucose homeostasis 3. The management options for diabetes mellitus in patients with acromegaly RECENT FINDINGS: Growth hormone and IGF-1 have complex effects on glucose metabolism. Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and increased gluconeogenesis combine to produce a metabolic milieu which leads to the development of diabetes in acromegaly. Treatment of acromegaly should ameliorate abnormalities of glucose metabolism, due to reversal of insulin resistance and a reduction in gluconeogenesis. Recent advances in medical therapy of acromegaly have varying impacts on glucose homeostasis. These adverse effects influence management choices in patients with acromegaly who also have diabetes mellitus or glucose intolerance. The underlying mechanisms of disorders of glucose metabolism in patients with acromegaly are complex. The aim of treatment of acromegaly is normalisation of GH/IGF-1 with reduction of co-morbidities. The choice of therapy for acromegaly should consider the impact of therapy on several factors including glucose metabolism.

  7. Bezafibrate ameliorates diabetes via reduced steatosis and improved hepatic insulin sensitivity in diabetic TallyHo mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Franko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recently, we have shown that Bezafibrate (BEZ, the pan-PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activator, ameliorated diabetes in insulin deficient streptozotocin treated diabetic mice. In order to study whether BEZ can also improve glucose metabolism in a mouse model for fatty liver and type 2 diabetes, the drug was applied to TallyHo mice. Methods: TallyHo mice were divided into an early (ED and late (LD diabetes progression group and both groups were treated with 0.5% BEZ (BEZ group or standard diet (SD group for 8 weeks. We analyzed plasma parameters, pancreatic beta-cell morphology, and mass as well as glucose metabolism of the BEZ-treated and control mice. Furthermore, liver fat content and composition as well as hepatic gluconeogenesis and mitochondrial mass were determined. Results: Plasma lipid and glucose levels were markedly reduced upon BEZ treatment, which was accompanied by elevated insulin sensitivity index as well as glucose tolerance, respectively. BEZ increased islet area in the pancreas. Furthermore, BEZ treatment improved energy expenditure and metabolic flexibility. In the liver, BEZ ameliorated steatosis, modified lipid composition and increased mitochondrial mass, which was accompanied by reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis. Conclusions: Our data showed that BEZ ameliorates diabetes probably via reduced steatosis, enhanced hepatic mitochondrial mass, improved metabolic flexibility and elevated hepatic insulin sensitivity in TallyHo mice, suggesting that BEZ treatment could be beneficial for patients with NAFLD and impaired glucose metabolism. Keywords: Bezafibrate, Glucose metabolism, Insulin resistance, Lipid metabolism, NAFLD

  8. Methods of measuring metabolism during surgery in humans: focus on the liver-brain relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battezzati, Alberto; Bertoli, Simona

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to review recent advances in setting methods and models for measuring metabolism during surgery in humans. Surgery, especially solid organ transplantation, may offer unique experimental models in which it is ethically acceptable to gain information on difficult problems of amino acid and protein metabolism. Two areas are reviewed: the metabolic study of the anhepatic phase during liver transplantation and brain microdialysis during cerebral surgery. The first model offers an innovative approach to understand the relative role of liver and extrahepatic organs in gluconeogenesis, and to evaluate whether other organs can perform functions believed to be exclusively or almost exclusively performed by the liver. The second model offers an insight to intracerebral metabolism that is closely bound to that of the liver. The recent advances in metabolic research during surgery provide knowledge immediately useful for perioperative patient management and for a better control of surgical stress. The studies during the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation have showed that gluconeogenesis and glutamine metabolism are very active processes outside the liver. One of the critical organs for extrahepatic glutamine metabolism is the brain. Microdialysis studies helped to prove that in humans there is an intense trafficking of glutamine, glutamate and alanine among neurons and astrocytes. This delicate network is influenced by systemic amino acid metabolism. The metabolic dialogue between the liver and the brain is beginning to be understood in this light in order to explain the metabolic events of brain damage during liver failure.

  9. Lactate: link between glycolytic and oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, George A

    2007-01-01

    Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilised continuously under fully aerobic conditions. 'Cell-cell' and 'intracellular lactate shuttle' concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signalling. Examples of cell-cell shuttles include lactate exchanges (i) between white-glycolytic and red-oxidative fibres within a working muscle bed; (ii) between working skeletal muscle and heart; and (iii) between tissues of net lactate release and gluconeogenesis. Lactate shuttles exist in diverse tissues including in the brain, where a shuttle between astrocytes and neurons is linked to glutamatergic signalling. Because lactate, the product of glycogenolysis and glycolysis, is disposed of by oxidative metabolism, lactate shuttling unites the two major processes of cellular energy transduction. Lactate disposal is mainly through oxidation, especially during exercise when oxidation accounts for 70-75% of removal and gluconeogenesis the remainder. Lactate flux occurs down proton and concentration gradients that are established by the mitochondrial lactate oxidation complex. Marathon running is a power activity requiring high glycolytic and oxidative fluxes; such activities require lactate shuttling. Knowledge of the lactate shuttle is yet to be imparted to the sport.

  10. Anti-obesogenic effects of WY14643 (PPAR-alpha agonist): Hepatic mitochondrial enhancement and suppressed lipogenic pathway in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Flavia Maria Silva; Graus-Nunes, Francielle; Rachid, Tamiris Lima; Barreto, Aline Barcellos; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2017-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presents with growing prevalence worldwide, though its pharmacological treatment remains to be established. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a PPAR-alpha agonist on liver tissue structure, ultrastructure, and metabolism, focusing on gene and protein expression of de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis pathways, in diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (three months old) received a control diet (C, 10% of lipids, n = 10) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 50% of lipids, n = 10) for ten weeks. These groups were subdivided to receive the treatment (n = 5 per group): C, C-alpha (PPAR-alpha agonist, 2.5 mg/kg/day mixed in the control diet), HFD and HFD-alpha group (PPAR-alpha agonist, 2.5 mg/kg/day mixed in the HFD). The effects were compared with biometrical, biochemical, molecular biology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. HFD showed greater body mass (BM) and insulinemia than C, both of which were tackled by the treatment in the HFD-alpha group. Increased hepatic protein expression of glucose-6-phosphatase, CHREBP and gene expression of PEPCK in HFD points to increased gluconeogenesis. Treatment rescued these parameters in the HFD-alpha group, eliciting a reduced hepatic glucose output, confirmed by the smaller GLUT2 expression in HFD-alpha than in HFD. Conversely, favored de novo lipogenesis was found in the HFD group by the increased expression of PPAR-gamma, and its target gene SREBP-1, FAS and GK when compared to C. The treatment yielded a marked reduction in the expression of all lipogenic factors. TEM analyses showed a greater numerical density of mitochondria per area of tissue in treated than in untreated groups, suggesting an increase in beta-oxidation and the consequent NAFLD control. PPAR-alpha activation reduced BM and treated insulin resistance (IR) and NAFLD by increasing the number of mitochondria and reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis protein and gene

  11. Actions of juglone on energy metabolism in the rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saling, Simoni Cristina; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Mito, Marcio Shigueaki; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar, E-mail: adebracht@uol.com.br

    2011-12-15

    Juglone is a phenolic compound used in popular medicine as a phytotherapic to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, it also acts as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation in isolated liver mitochondria and, thus, may interfere with the hepatic energy metabolism. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of juglone on several metabolic parameters in the isolated perfused rat liver. Juglone, in the concentration range of 5 to 50 {mu}M, stimulated glycogenolysis, glycolysis and oxygen uptake. Gluconeogenesis from both lactate and alanine was inhibited with half-maximal effects at the concentrations of 14.9 and 15.7 {mu}M, respectively. The overall alanine transformation was increased by juglone, as indicated by the stimulated release of ammonia, urea, L-glutamate, lactate and pyruvate. A great increase (9-fold) in the tissue content of {alpha}-ketoglutarate was found, without a similar change in the L-glutamate content. The tissue contents of ATP were decreased, but those of ADP and AMP were increased. Experiments with isolated mitochondria fully confirmed previous notions about the uncoupling action of juglone. It can be concluded that juglone is active on metabolism at relatively low concentrations. In this particular it resembles more closely the classical uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol. Ingestion of high doses of juglone, thus, presents the same risks as the ingestion of 2,4-dinitrophenol which comprise excessive compromising of ATP production, hyperthermia and even death. Low doses, i.e., moderate consumption of natural products containing juglone, however, could be beneficial to health if one considers recent reports about the consequences of chronic mild uncoupling. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated how juglone acts on liver metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The actions on hepatic gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and ureogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Juglone stimulates glycolysis and ureagenesis and

  12. Hexachlorobenzene impairs glucose metabolism in a rat model of porphyria cutanea tarda: a mechanistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzetti, Marta Blanca; Taira, Maria Cristina; Lelli, Sandra Marcela; Viale, Leonor Carmen San Martin de [Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428BGA, Ciudad Autonoma Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dascal, Eduardo; Basabe, Juan Carlos [Centro de Investigaciones Endocrinologicas (CEDIE). Hospital de Ninos, Dr. Ricardo Gutierrez, C1425EDF, Ciudad Autonoma Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-01-01

    response of the organism to stimulate gluconeogenesis. They showed for the first time that HCB causes impairment of the gluconeogenic pathway. Therefore, the reduced levels of glucose would thus be the consequence of decreased gluconeogenesis, enhanced glucose storage, and unaffected glycolysis. The impairment of gluconeogenesis (especially for PEPCK) and the related variation in glucose levels caused by HCB treatment could be a consequence of the oxidative stress produced by the fungicide. Tryptophan adds its effect to this decrease in the higher phases of HCB intoxication, where its levels overcome the control values possibly owing to the drastic decline of URO-D. This derangement of carbohydrates leads porphyric hepatocytes to have lower levels of free glucose. These results contribute to our understanding of the protective and modulatory effect that diets rich in carbohydrates have in hepatic porphyria disease. (orig.)

  13. The concentration of free amino acids in blood serum of dairy cows with primary ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczuk, J; Brodzki, P; Brodzki, A; Kurek, Ł

    2018-03-01

    Ketosis is a common condition found in the initial stages of lactation in high-yielding dairy cows. The major cause of ketosis is a negative energy balance. During the energy deficiency, proteolysis processes develop parallel to lipolysis. During proteolysis, muscle tissue can be used as a source of amino acid. To date, the participation of amino acids in gluconeogenesis (glucogenic amino acids) and ketogenesis (ketogenic amino acids) has not been determined in detail. This paper presents the study on determination of the parameters of protein and free amino acid metabolism in blood serum of dairy cows with primary ketosis compared to healthy cows. This study contributes to better understanding of the role of amino acids in pathogenesis of ketosis. A total of 30 cows, divided into two groups: experimental (15 cows with ketosis) and control (15 healthy cows), were included in the study. The concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, urea, and free amino acids were determined in peripheral blood. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of glutamine, glutamic acid, isoleucine (p≤0.001), and tyrosine (p≤0.05) were found in cows with primary ketosis compared to healthy cows. Significant decrease in the concentrations of asparagine, histidine, methionine, and serine (p≤0.001), alanine, leucine, lysine and proline (p≤0.05) was observed. Significant increase of total ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids (p≤0.05), and an increased ratio of total ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids to total amino acids (p≤0.001) were noted in cows with ketosis. In our study, the changes, in particular observed in amino acid concentration in cows with primary ketosis, indicate its intensive use in both ketogenesis and gluconeogenesis processes. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the role that amino acids play in gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis will improve ketosis diagnostics and monitoring the course of a ketosis episode. Perhaps, the

  14. Krüppel-like factor 15: Regulator of BCAA metabolism and circadian protein rhythmicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liyan; Hsieh, Paishiun N; Sweet, David R; Jain, Mukesh K

    2018-04-01

    Regulation of nutrient intake, utilization, and storage exhibits a circadian rhythmicity that allows organisms to anticipate and adequately respond to changes in the environment across day/night cycles. The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine are important modulators of metabolism and metabolic health - for example, their catabolism yields carbon substrates for gluconeogenesis during periods of fasting. Krüppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) has recently emerged as a critical transcriptional regulator of BCAA metabolism, and the absence of this transcription factor contributes to severe pathologies such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and heart failure. This review highlights KLF15's role as a central regulator of BCAA metabolism during periods of fasting, throughout day/night cycles, and in experimental models of muscle disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic effects of exercise in the golden fish Salminus maxillosus "dourado" (Valenciennes, 1849

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Moraes

    Full Text Available Strenuous exercise in fish is usually a consequence of migration, reproduction, and spawning. Varying among fishes, this kind of stress is associated with blood glucose and lactate increase, in relation to which two major groups are distinguishable: the "lactate releasers" and "non-lactate releasers". Unlike strenuous exercise, sustained swimming imposes a variety of effort that results in distinct kinetic types of blood lactate and glucose. Compared to Platichthys stellatus and Oncorhynchus mikyiss, blood lactate of Salminus maxillosus (dourado was lower after exercise, whereas recovery time was greater. Great demands were made of white muscle, and dourado is not a lactate releaser. Two different metabolic tendencies were observed in sustained and intense swimming. Gluconeogenesis was observed during recovery, as well as the alanine cycle which recomposes the lactate tissue pattern. Full recovery after intensive exertion required more than 24 hours.

  16. Involvement of endocrine system in a patient affected by glycogen storage disease 1b: speculation on the role of autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Daniela; Della Casa, Roberto; Balivo, Francesca; Minopoli, Giorgia; Rossi, Alessandro; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2014-03-19

    Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD1b) is an inherited metabolic defect of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis due to mutations of the SLC37A4 gene and to defective transport of glucose-6-phosphate. The clinical presentation of GSD1b is characterized by hepatomegaly, failure to thrive, fasting hypoglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Patients affected by GSD1b also show neutropenia and/or neutrophil dysfunction that cause increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. GSD1b patients are also at risk for inflammatory bowel disease. Occasional reports suggesting an increased risk of autoimmune disorders in GSD1b patients, have been published. These complications affect the clinical outcome of the patients. Here we describe the occurrence of autoimmune endocrine disorders including thyroiditis and growth hormone deficiency, in a patient affected by GSD1b. This case further supports the association between GSD1b and autoimmune diseases.

  17. Prediction of the mechanism of action of fusaricidin on Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Bang; Yin, Chun-Yun; Zhou, Ying; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2012-01-01

    Long-term use of antibiotics has engendered a large number of resistant pathogens, which pose a serious threat to human health. Here, we investigated the mechanism of fusaricidin antibacterial activity toward Bacillus subtilis and characterized the pathways responsible for drug resistance. We found that σ(w), an extracytoplasmic function sigma factor, plays an important role in the resistance to fusaricidins during the initial 5 minutes of drug addition. Approximately 18 genes were induced more than 3-fold, of which 66.7% are known to be regulated by σ(w). Over the following 3 h, fusaricidins induced 194 genes more than three-fold, and most were associated with classes of antibiotic-responsive stimulons. Moreover, the fusaricidin treatment increased the catabolism of fatty and amino acids but strongly repressed glucose decomposition and gluconeogenesis. In summary, our data provide insight into the mechanism of fusaricidin activity, on which we based our suggested strategies for the development of novel antibiotic agents.

  18. Studies of insulin resistance in congenital generalized lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvik, O; Vestergaard, H; Trygstad, O

    1996-01-01

    suppressed lipid oxidation in the controls. It is concluded that patients with congenital generalized lipodystrophy may present severe insulin resistance with regard to hepatic glucose production as well as muscle glycogen synthesis and lipid oxidation. The results suggest a postreceptor defect in the action......, immunoreactive protein and mRNA levels. The patients had fasting hyperinsulinaemia, and the rate of total glucose disposal was severely impaired, primarily due to a decreased non-oxidative glucose metabolism. In the patient studied with muscle biopsy, the expected activation of glycogen synthase by insulin did...... not occur. In both patients there was severely increased hepatic glucose output in the basal state, suggesting a failure of insulin to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis. During insulin infusion a substantially elevated rate of lipid oxidation remained in the patients, in contrast to the almost completely...

  19. Transcriptional and chromatin regulation during fasting – The genomic era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ido; Hager, Gordon L.

    2015-01-01

    An elaborate metabolic response to fasting is orchestrated by the liver and is heavily reliant upon transcriptional regulation. In response to hormones (glucagon, glucocorticoids) many transcription factors (TFs) are activated and regulate various genes involved in metabolic pathways aimed at restoring homeostasis: gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis and amino acid shuttling. We summarize the recent discoveries regarding fasting-related TFs with an emphasis on genome-wide binding patterns. Collectively, the summarized findings reveal a large degree of co-operation between TFs during fasting which occurs at motif-rich DNA sites bound by a combination of TFs. These new findings implicate transcriptional and chromatin regulation as major determinants of the response to fasting and unravels the complex, multi-TF nature of this response. PMID:26520657

  20. The biology of glucagon and the consequences of hyperglucagonemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Kuhre, Rune E; Pedersen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    with a particular focus on diabetes, and finally speculate that the primary physiological importance of glucagon may not reside in glucose homeostasis but in regulation of amino acid metabolism exerted via a hitherto unrecognized hepato-pancreatic feedback loop.......The proglucagon-derived peptide hormone, glucagon, comprises 29 amino acids. Its secretion from the pancreatic α cells is regulated by several factors. Glucagon increases blood glucose levels through gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Elevated plasma concentrations of glucagon, hyperglucagonemia......, may contribute to diabetes. However, hyperglucagonemia is also observed in other clinical conditions than diabetes, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, glucagon-producing tumors and after gastric bypass surgery. Here, we review the current literature on hyperglucagonemia in disease...

  1. The human hepatocyte cell lines IHH and HepaRG: models to study glucose, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanez, Carolina Huaman; Caron, Sandrine; Briand, Olivier; Dehondt, Hélène; Duplan, Isabelle; Kuipers, Folkert; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Clavey, Véronique; Staels, Bart

    2012-07-01

    Metabolic diseases reach epidemic proportions. A better knowledge of the associated alterations in the metabolic pathways in the liver is necessary. These studies need in vitro human cell models. Several human hepatoma models are used, but the response of many metabolic pathways to physiological stimuli is often lost. Here, we characterize two human hepatocyte cell lines, IHH and HepaRG, by analysing the expression and regulation of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Our results show that the glycolysis pathway is activated by glucose and insulin in both lines. Gluconeogenesis gene expression is induced by forskolin in IHH cells and inhibited by insulin in both cell lines. The lipogenic pathway is regulated by insulin in IHH cells. Finally, both cell lines secrete apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, an effect promoted by increasing glucose concentrations. These two human cell lines are thus interesting models to study the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism.

  2. Seasonal shifts in accumulation of glycerol biosynthetic gene transcripts in mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordie D. Fraser

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Winter mortality is a major factor regulating population size of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Glycerol is the major cryoprotectant in this freeze intolerant insect. We report findings from a gene expression study on an overwintering mountain pine beetle population over the course of 35 weeks. mRNA transcript levels suggest glycerol production in the mountain pine beetle occurs through glycogenolytic, gluconeogenic and potentially glyceroneogenic pathways, but not from metabolism of lipids. A two-week lag period between fall glycogen phosphorylase transcript and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase transcript up-regulation suggests that gluconeogenesis serves as a secondary glycerol-production process, subsequent to exhaustion of the primary glycogenolytic source. These results provide a first look at the details of seasonal gene expression related to the production of glycerol in the mountain pine beetle.

  3. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate Alters the Synthesis and β-Oxidation of Fatty Acids and Hinders ATP Supply in Mouse Testes via UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS-Based Metabonomics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guolin; Zhou, Lili; Liu, Wei; Cui, Yuan; Xie, Wenping; Chen, Huiming; Yu, Wenlian; Li, Wentao; Li, Haishan

    2017-06-21

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is considered to be an environmental endocrine disruptor at high levels of general exposure. Studies show that DEHP may cause testicular toxicity on human being. In this study, metabonomics techniques were used to identify differential endogenous metabolites, draw the network metabolic pathways, and conduct network analysis, to determine the underlying mechanisms of testicular toxicity induced by DEHP. The results showed that DEHP inhibited synthesis and accelerated β-oxidation of fatty acids and impaired the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and gluconeogenesis, resulting in lactic acid accumulation and an insufficient ATP supply in the microenvironment of the testis. These alterations led to testicular atrophy and, thus, may be the underlying causes of testicular toxicity. DEHP also inhibited peroxisome proliferator activated receptors in the testis, which may be another potential reason for the testicular atrophy. These findings provided new insights to better understand the mechanisms of testicular toxicity induced by DEHP exposure.

  4. Enhanced hepatic insulin signaling in the livers of high altitude native rats under basal conditions and in the livers of low altitude native rats under insulin stimulation: a mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dera, Hussain; Eleawa, Samy M; Al-Hashem, Fahaid H; Mahzari, Moeber M; Hoja, Ibrahim; Al Khateeb, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of the liver in lowering fasting blood glucose levels (FBG) in rats native to high (HA) and low altitude (LA) areas. As compared with LA natives, besides the improved insulin and glucose tolerance, HA native rats had lower FBG, at least mediated by inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and activation of glycogen synthesis. An effect that is mediated by the enhancement of hepatic insulin signaling mediated by the decreased phosphorylation of TSC induced inhibition of mTOR function. Such effect was independent of activation of AMPK nor stabilization of HIF1α, but most probably due to oxidative stress induced REDD1 expression. However, under insulin stimulation, and in spite of the less activated mTOR function in HA native rats, LA native rats had higher glycogen content and reduced levels of gluconeogenic enzymes with a more enhanced insulin signaling, mainly due to higher levels of p-IRS1 (tyr612).

  5. Hyper-G stress-induced hyperglycemia in rats mediated by glucoregulatory hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daligcon, B. C.; Oyama, J.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with possible relations of the hyperglycemic response of rats exposed to hyper-G stress to (1) alterations in blood levels of the glucoregulatory hormones and gluconeogenic substrates, and (2) changes in insulin response on muscle glucose uptake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g were used in the study. The results of the experiments indicate that the initial rapid rise in blood glucose of rats exposed to hyper-G stress is mediated by increases in circulating catecholamines and glucagon, both potent stimulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Lactate, derived from epinephrine stimulation of muscle glycogenolysis, appears to be a major precursor for the initial rise in blood glucose. The inhibition of the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by muscle tissues may be a factor in the observed sustained hyperglycemia.

  6. Circulating Glucagon 1-61 Regulates Blood Glucose by Increasing Insulin Secretion and Hepatic Glucose Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J.; Kuhre, Rune E.; Hornburg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    that PG 1-61 dose-dependently increases levels of cAMP, through the glucagon receptor, and increases insulin secretion and protein levels of enzymes regulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In rats, PG 1-61 increases blood glucose and plasma insulin and decreases plasma levels of amino acids in......Glucagon is secreted from pancreatic α cells, and hypersecretion (hyperglucagonemia) contributes to diabetic hyperglycemia. Molecular heterogeneity in hyperglucagonemia is poorly investigated. By screening human plasma using high-resolution-proteomics, we identified several glucagon variants, among...... which proglucagon 1-61 (PG 1-61) appears to be the most abundant form. PG 1-61 is secreted in subjects with obesity, both before and after gastric bypass surgery, with protein and fat as the main drivers for secretion before surgery, but glucose after. Studies in hepatocytes and in β cells demonstrated...

  7. Carbon isotope effects in carbohydrates and amino acids of photosynthesizing organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivlev, A.A.; Kaloshin, A.G.; Koroleva, M.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    The analysis of the carbon isotope distribution in carbohydrates and amino acids of some photosynthesizing organisms revealed the close relationship between distribution and the pathways of biosynthesis of the molecules. This relationship is explained on the basis of the previously proposed mechanism of carbon isotope fractionation in a cell, in which the chief part is played by kinetic isotope effects in the pyruvate decarboxylation reaction progressively increased in the conjugated processes of gluconeogenesis. Isotope differences of C 2 and C 3 fragments arising in decarboxylation of pyruvate, as well as isotope differences of biogenic acceptor and environmental CO 2 appearing in assimilation are the main reasons of the observed intramolecular isotopic heterogeneity of biomolecules. The heterogeneity is preserved in metabolites owing to an incomplete mixing of carbon atoms in biochemical reactions. The probable existence of two pools of carbohydrates in photosynthesizing organisms different in isotopic composition is predicted. Two types of intramolecular isotope distribution in amino acids are shown. (author)

  8. Glycogen synthesis in liver and skeletal muscle after exercise: participation of the gluconeogenic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Hepatic glycogenesis occurs by both the uptake of plasma glucose (direct pathway) as well as from gluconeogenesis (indirect pathway). In vitro studies suggest that skeletal muscle can also synthesize glycogen from lactate. The purpose of the present studies was to assess the contribution of the indirect pathway to liver and muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise with various substrata infusions. The authors hypothesis was the contribution of the indirect pathway of hepatic glycogenesis would increase after exercise. To this end, fasted rats were depleted of glycogen by exhaustive exercise; a second group of fasted rats remained rested. Both groups were then infused intravenously with glucose containing tracer quantities of [6- 3 H] and [U- 14 C] glucose for 4 hrs. The ensuing hyperglycemic response was exaggerated in post-exercised rats; whereas, plasma lactate levels were lower than those of nonexercised rats. The percent of hepatic glycogen synthesized from gluconeogenic precursors did not differ between exercised (39%) and nonexercised (36%) rats

  9. The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis in Vertebrates: Gut Microbiota Effect, a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Hua Huang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is integral to an organism’s digestive structure and has been shown to play an important role in producing substrates for gluconeogenesis and energy production, vasodilator, and gut motility. Numerous studies have demonstrated that variation in diet types is associated with the abundance and diversity of the gut microbiota, a relationship that plays a significant role in nutrient absorption and affects gut size. The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis states (ETH that the metabolic requirement of relatively large brains is offset by a corresponding reduction of the other tissues, such as gut size. However, how the trade-off between gut size and brain size in vertebrates is associated with the gut microbiota through metabolic requirements still remains unexplored. Here, we review research relating to and discuss the potential influence of gut microbiota on the ETH.

  10. Transcriptome sequencing revealed differences in the response of renal cancer cells to hypoxia and CoCl2 treatment [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Zhigalova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human cancer cells are subjected to hypoxic conditions in many tumours. Hypoxia causes alterations in the glycolytic pathway activation through stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Currently, two approaches are commonly used to model hypoxia: an alternative to generating low-oxygen conditions in an incubator, cells can be treated with CoCl2. We performed RNA-seq experiments to study transcriptomes of human Caki-1 cells under real hypoxia and after CoCl2 treatment. Despite causing transcriptional changes of a much higher order of magnitude for the genes in the hypoxia regulation pathway, CoCl2 treatment fails to induce alterations in the glycolysis / gluconeogenesis pathway. Moreover, CoCl2 caused aberrant activation of other oxidoreductases in glycine, serine and threonine metabolism pathways.

  11. Isoform expression in the multiple soluble malate dehydrogenase of Hoplias malabaricus (Erythrinidae, Characiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Aquino-Silva

    Full Text Available Kinetic properties and thermal stabilities of Hoplias malabaricus liver and skeletal muscle unfractionated malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 and its isolated isoforms were analyzed to further study the possible sMDH-A* locus duplication evolved from a recent tandem duplication. Both A (A1 and A2 and B isoforms had similar optima pH (7.5-8.0. While Hoplias A isoform could not be characterized as thermostable, B could as thermolabile. A isoforms differed from B isoform in having higher Km values for oxaloacetate. The possibly duplicated A2 isoform showed higher substrate affinity than the A1. Hoplias duplicated A isoforms may influence the direction of carbon flow between glycolisis and gluconeogenesis.

  12. Application of isotopes to the study of lactate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.

    1986-01-01

    The use of 14 C as tracer to measure lactate turnover and oxidation and its role in gluconeogenesis are discussed. Lactate is formed as well as utilized in many cells, and most of it in the body is present within cells so that interpretation of 14 C data from labelled lactate is more complex and more difficult than that of compounds present largely extracellularly, such as glucose. Apparent uptake of [ 14 C]lactate may occur in the absence of net lactate utilization, and 14 CO 2 production does not provide a measure of true lactate oxidation. In vivo sites of tracer administration and sampling of blood are of critical significance for evaluation of lactate turnover, lactate space, its incorporation into glucose, and oxidation

  13. The effects of hypoglycin on glucose metabolism in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, H.; Billington, D.; Taylor, J.R.; Sherratt, H.S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of glucose metabolism were evaluated in rats deprived of food 15 to 21 h after the administration of hypoglycaemic doses of hypoglycin (100 mg/kg body wt.) by following changes in the specific radioactivities of 14 C and 3 H in blood glucose after an intravenous dose of [U- 14 C,2- 3 H]glucose. During this time, recycling of glucose through the Cori cycle was virtually abolished, the rate of irreversible disposal of glucose and its total body mass were both decreased by about 70%, whereas there was little effect on the mean transit time for glucose. It was concluded that hypoglycaemia is due to inhibition of gluconeogenesis. (author)

  14. Isoform expression in the multiple soluble malate dehydrogenase of Hoplias malabaricus (Erythrinidae, Characiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino-Silva M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic properties and thermal stabilities of Hoplias malabaricus liver and skeletal muscle unfractionated malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 and its isolated isoforms were analyzed to further study the possible sMDH-A* locus duplication evolved from a recent tandem duplication. Both A (A1 and A2 and B isoforms had similar optima pH (7.5-8.0. While Hoplias A isoform could not be characterized as thermostable, B could as thermolabile. A isoforms differed from B isoform in having higher Km values for oxaloacetate. The possibly duplicated A2 isoform showed higher substrate affinity than the A1. Hoplias duplicated A isoforms may influence the direction of carbon flow between glycolisis and gluconeogenesis.

  15. Cellular applications of 31P and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulman, R.G.; Brown, T.R.; Ugurbil, K.; Ogawa, S.; Cohen, S.M.; den Hollander, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of cells and purified mitochondria are discussed to show the kind of information that can be obtained in vivo. In suspensions of Escherichia coli both phosphorus-31 and carbon-13 NMR studies of glycolysis of bioenergetics are presented. In rat liver cells the pathways of gluconeogenesis from carbon-13-labeled glycerol are followed by carbon-13 NMR. In the intact liver cells cytosolic and mitochondrial pH's were separately measured by phosphorus-31 NMR. In purified mitochondria the internal and external concentrations of inorganic phosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate were determined by phosphorus-31 while the pH difference across the membrane was measured simultaneously

  16. PCAF Improves Glucose Homeostasis by Suppressing the Gluconeogenic Activity of PGC-1α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PGC-1α plays a central role in hepatic gluconeogenesis and has been implicated in the onset of type 2 diabetes. Acetylation is an important posttranslational modification for regulating the transcriptional activity of PGC-1α. Here, we show that PCAF is a pivotal acetyltransferase for acetylating PGC-1α in both fasted and diabetic states. PCAF acetylates two lysine residues K328 and K450 in PGC-1α, which subsequently triggers its proteasomal degradation and suppresses its transcriptional activity. Adenoviral-mediated expression of PCAF in the obese mouse liver greatly represses gluconeogenic enzyme activation and glucose production and improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Moreover, liver-specific knockdown of PCAF stimulates PGC-1α activity, resulting in an increase in blood glucose and hepatic glucose output. Our results suggest that PCAF might be a potential pharmacological target for developing agents against metabolic disorders associated with hyperglycemia, such as obesity and diabetes.

  17. Approaching to DM2 through sodium-glucose cotransporter-2: does it make sense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Julián

    2016-11-01

    The kidney is involved in glucose homeostasis through three main mechanisms: renal gluconeogenesis, renal glucose consumption and glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule. Glucose reabsorption is one of the most relevant physiological functions of the kidney, through which filtered glucose is fully recovered, urine is free of glucose, and calorie loss is prevented. Approximately 90% of the glucose is reabsorbed in the S1 segment of the proximal tubule, where GLUT2 and SGLT2 transporters are located, while the remaining 10% is reabsorbed in the S3 segment by SGLT1 and GLUT1 transporters. In patients with hyperglycaemia, the kidney continues reabsorbing glucose, and hyperglycaemia is maintained. Most renal glucose reabsorption is mediated by the SGLT2 transporter. Several experimental and clinical studies suggest that pharmacological blockade of this transporter might be beneficial in the management of hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial biotin protein ligases aid in understanding holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendini, Nicole R; Bailey, Lisa M; Booker, Grant W; Wilce, Matthew C; Wallace, John C; Polyak, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    The attachment of biotin onto the biotin-dependent enzymes is catalysed by biotin protein ligase (BPL), also known as holocarboxylase synthase HCS in mammals. Mammals contain five biotin-enzymes that participate in a number of important metabolic pathways such as fatty acid biogenesis, gluconeogenesis and amino acid catabolism. All mammalian biotin-enzymes are post-translationally biotinylated, and therefore activated, through the action of a single HCS. Substrate recognition by BPLs occurs through conserved structural cues that govern the specificity of biotinylation. Defects in biotin metabolism, including HCS, give rise to multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD). Here we review the literature on this important enzyme. In particular, we focus on the new information that has been learned about BPL's from a number of recently published protein structures. Through molecular modelling studies insights into the structural basis of HCS deficiency in MCD are discussed.

  19. Biotin protein ligase from Candida albicans: expression, purification and development of a novel assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendini, Nicole R; Bailey, Lisa M; Booker, Grant W; Wilce, Matthew C J; Wallace, John C; Polyak, Steven W

    2008-11-15

    Biotin protein ligase (BPL) is an essential enzyme responsible for the activation of biotin-dependent enzymes through the covalent attachment of biotin. In yeast, disruption of BPL affects important metabolic pathways such as fatty acid biosynthesis and gluconeogenesis. This makes BPL an attractive drug target for new antifungal agents. Here we report the cloning, recombinant expression and purification of BPL from the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. The biotin domains of acetyl CoA carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase were also cloned and characterised as substrates for BPL. A novel assay was established thereby allowing examination of the enzyme's properties. These findings will facilitate future structural studies as well as screening efforts to identify potential inhibitors.

  20. Low Adiponectin Levels and Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Patients With Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan S; Pedersen, Sune H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced in adipose tissue, directly suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulating fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake...... 5.3-6.1]) 6% (n = 38) developed T2DM. Risk of T2DM was analyzed using a competing risk analysis. RESULTS: Low adiponectin levels were associated with increased risk of T2DM (P age, sex, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, current smoking.......001). Importantly, plasma adiponectin added to the predictive value of blood glucose, with the combination of high blood glucose and low plasma adiponectin, vastly increasing the risk of developing T2DM (HR 9.6 [3.7-25.3]; P

  1. Heat stress induced changes in metabolic regulators of donkeys from arid tracts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataria N.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To find out heat stress induced changes in metabolic regulators of donkeys from arid tracts in India, blood samples were collected to harvest the serum during moderate and extreme hot ambiences. The metabolic enzymes determined were sorbitol dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, ornithine carbamoyl transferase, gammaglutamayl transferase, 5’nucleotidase, glucose-6-phosphatase, arginase, and aldolase. The mean values of all the serum enzymes increased significantly (p≤0.05 during hot ambience as compared to respective values during moderate ambience. It was concluded that increased activity of all the enzymes in the serum was due to modulation of metabolic reactions to combat the effect of hot ambience on the animals. Activation of gluconeogenesis along with hexose monophosphate shunt and urea cycle probably helped the animals to combat the heat stress.

  2. The liver in regulation of iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Gautam; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2017-09-01

    The liver is one of the largest and most functionally diverse organs in the human body. In addition to roles in detoxification of xenobiotics, digestion, synthesis of important plasma proteins, gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, and storage, the liver also plays a significant role in iron homeostasis. Apart from being the storage site for excess body iron, it also plays a vital role in regulating the amount of iron released into the blood by enterocytes and macrophages. Since iron is essential for many important physiological and molecular processes, it increases the importance of liver in the proper functioning of the body's metabolism. This hepatic iron-regulatory function can be attributed to the expression of many liver-specific or liver-enriched proteins, all of which play an important role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. This review focuses on these proteins and their known roles in the regulation of body iron metabolism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Involvement of glucagon-like peptide-1 in the glucose-lowering effect of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahne, Emilie; Hansen, Morten; Brønden, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is an oral antihyperglycaemic drug used in the first-line treatment of type 2 diabetes. Metformin's classic and most well-known blood glucose-lowering mechanisms include reduction of hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, intravenously...... administered metformin is ineffective and recently, metformin was shown to increase plasma concentrations of the glucose-lowering gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which may contribute to metformin's glucose-lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms behind metformin......-induced increments in GLP-1 levels remain unknown, but it has been hypothesized that metformin stimulates GLP-1 secretion directly and/or indirectly and that metformin prolongs the half-life of GLP-1. Also, it has been suggested that metformin may potentiate the glucose-lowering effects of GLP-1 by increasing target...

  4. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-09-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression. © FEMS 2015.

  5. Cloning and characterization of Escherichia coli DUF299: a bifunctional ADP-dependent kinase - Pi-dependent pyrophosphorylase from bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnell Jim N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase (PEPS; EC 2.7.9.2 catalyzes the synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate from pyruvate in Escherichia coli when cells are grown on a three carbon source. It also catalyses the anabolic conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in gluconeogenesis. A bioinformatics search conducted following the successful cloning and expression of maize leaf pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase regulatory protein (PDRP revealed the presence of PDRP homologs in more than 300 bacterial species; the PDRP homolog was identified as DUF299. Results This paper describes the cloning and expression of both PEPS and DUF299 from E. coli and establishes that E. coli DUF299 catalyzes both the ADP-dependent inactivation and the Pi-dependent activation of PEPS. Conclusion This paper represents the first report of a bifunctional regulatory enzyme catalysing an ADP-dependent phosphorylation and a Pi-dependent pyrophosphorylation reaction in bacteria.

  6. Chronic Uridine Administration Induces Fatty Liver and Pre-Diabetic Conditions in Mice.

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    Yasuyo Urasaki

    Full Text Available Uridine is a pyrimidine nucleoside that exerts restorative functions in tissues under stress. Short-term co-administration of uridine with multiple unrelated drugs prevents drug-induced liver lipid accumulation. Uridine has the ability to modulate liver metabolism; however, the precise mechanism has not been delineated. In this study, long-term effects of uridine on liver metabolism were examined in both HepG2 cell cultures and C57BL/6J mice. We report that uridine administration was associated with O-GlcNAc modification of FOXO1, increased gluconeogenesis, reduced insulin signaling activity, and reduced expression of a liver-specific fatty acid binding protein FABP1. Long-term uridine feeding induced systemic glucose intolerance and severe liver lipid accumulation in mice. Our findings suggest that the therapeutic potentials of uridine should be designed for short-term acute administration.

  7. The Role of Leptin in Maintaining Plasma Glucose During Starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Rachel J; Shulman, Gerald I

    2018-03-01

    For 20 years it has been known that concentrations of leptin, a hormone produced by the white adipose tissue (WAT) largely in proportion to body fat, drops precipitously with starvation, particularly in lean humans and animals. The role of leptin to suppress the thyroid and reproductive axes during a prolonged fast has been well defined; however, the impact of leptin on metabolic regulation has been incompletely understood. However emerging evidence suggests that, in starvation, hypoleptinemia increases activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, promoting WAT lipolysis, increasing hepatic acetyl-CoA concentrations, and maintaining euglycemia. In addition, leptin may be largely responsible for mediating a shift from a reliance upon glucose metabolism (absorption and glycogenolysis) to fat metabolism (lipolysis increasing gluconeogenesis) which preserves substrates for the brain, heart, and other critical organs. In this way a leptin-mediated glucose-fatty acid cycle appears to maintain glycemia and permit survival in starvation.

  8. Effects of kinins on glucose metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, W H; Jauch, K W; Wolfe, R R; Schildberg, F W

    1990-01-01

    Current concepts of the physiological importance of the kinin/prostaglandin system view these tissue factors as part of a defense system, which protects tissues from potentially noxious factors, such as hypoxia or destructive inflammatory reactions. This kinin-triggered defense reaction includes an improvement in cellular energy metabolism. The latter is brought about in peripheral tissues by an increased availability of glucose for anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis, whereas in liver tissue, energy-consuming reactions such as gluconeogenesis are attenuated. There is evidence that such favorable effects can also be produced in man when kinins are administered systemically. Prostaglandins are most likely the second messengers of kinin-induced metabolic effects. Thus, it may be advantageous to increase the availability of kinins either by exogenous infusion or by inhibiting endogenous degradation during postoperative stress or in diseases such as diabetes mellitus, in which glucose metabolism is severely disturbed.

  9. Hepatic Insulin Resistance Following Chronic Activation of the CREB Coactivator CRTC2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogan, Meghan F; Ravnskjaer, Kim; Matsumura, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    and dephosphorylation of the cAMP regulated CREB coactivators CRTC2 and CRTC3. In parallel, decreases in circulating insulin also increase gluconeogenic gene expression via the de-phosphorylation and activation of the forkhead transcription factor FOXO1. Hepatic gluconeogenesis is increased in insulin resistance where...... increased gluconeogenic gene expression under fasting as well as feeding conditions. Circulating glucose concentrations were constitutively elevated in CRTC2S171,275A expressing mice, leading to compensatory increases in circulating insulin concentrations that enhance FOXO1 phosphorylation. Despite...... accompanying decreases in FOXO1 activity, hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression remained elevated in CRTC2S171,275A mice demonstrating that chronic increases in CRTC2 activity in the liver are indeed sufficient to promote hepatic insulin resistance and to disrupt glucose homeostasis....

  10. Liver protein expression in dairy cows with high liver triglycerides in early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Fatty liver is a frequent subclinical health disorder in dairy cows that may lead to disorders related to the liver function. However, the effect of triglyceride (TG) accumulation on liver metabolic pathways is still unclear. The objective was, therefore, to characterize quantitative differences...... in the liver proteome between early lactation dairy cows with a low or high liver TG content. The liver proteome analysis indicated that a high liver TG content in early lactation dairy cows is associated with increased oxidation of saturated fatty acids, oxidative stress, and urea synthesis...... and decreasedoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, liver gluconeogenesis is apparently not impaired by an increased liver TG content. Based on correlations between liver proteins and plasma components, we suggest that future studies investigate the sensitivity and specificity of plasma aspartate...

  11. Metabolic and growth response of mink (Neovison vison) kits until 10 weeks of age when exposed to different dietary protein provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Caroline; Fink, Rikke; Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank

    2012-01-01

    to solid feed. The capacity to regulate the rate of gluconeogenesis was even more limited in young mink kits than in adult dams. However, young mink kits can regulate protein oxidation in response to dietary protein supply, probably by adapting the size of the liver and kidneys to the level of protein......Growth performance and metabolism were investigated in mink kits (n = 210) exposed to the same dietary treatment as their dams (n = 30), i.e. high (HP; 61% of metabolisable energy, ME), medium (MP; 48% of ME) or low (LP; 30% of ME) protein supply, from birth until 10 weeks of age. The kits were...... the heaviest. After transition to solid feed MP kits weighed most at nine weeks of age (p age, the kits fed the LP diet retained less (p

  12. Crosstalk between gastrointestinal neurons and the brain in the control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithieux, Gilles

    2014-10-01

    Recent data have emphasized that the gastrointestinal nervous system is preponderant in the sensing of nutrients and hormones and its translation in terms of control of food intake by the central nervous system. More specifically, the gastrointestinal neural system participates in the control of hunger via the sensing of at least two major macronutrients, e.g. glucose and protein, which may control hunger sensations from the portal vein. Protein are first sensed by mu-opioid receptors present in the portal vein walls to induce intestinal gluconeogenesis-via a reflex arc and next portal glucose sensing. The gastrointestinal nervous system may also account for the rapid benefits of gastric bypass surgeries on energy homeostasis (hunger and body weight) and glucose homeostasis (insulin sensitivity). This knowledge provides novel mechanisms of control of body weight, which might be useful to envision future approaches of prevention or treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing preoperative fasting time: A trend based on evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Dock-Nascimento, Diana Borges

    2010-03-27

    Preoperative fasting is mandatory before anesthesia to reduce the risk of aspiration. However, the prescribed 6-8 h of fasting is usually prolonged to 12-16 h for various reasons. Prolonged fasting triggers a metabolic response that precipitates gluconeogenesis and increases the organic response to trauma. Various randomized trials and meta-analyses have consistently shown that is safe to reduce the preoperative fasting time with a carbohydrate-rich drink up to 2 h before surgery. Benefits related to this shorter preoperative fasting include the reduction of postoperative gastrointestinal discomfort and insulin resistance. New formulas containing amino acids such as glutamine and other peptides are being studied and are promising candidates to be used to reduce preoperative fasting time.

  14. RMND5 from Xenopus laevis is an E3 ubiquitin-ligase and functions in early embryonic forebrain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirrmann, Thorsten; Villavicencio-Lorini, Pablo; Subudhi, Abinash K; Menssen, Ruth; Wolf, Dieter H; Hollemann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the Gid-complex functions as an ubiquitin-ligase complex that regulates the metabolic switch between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In higher organisms six conserved Gid proteins form the CTLH protein-complex with unknown function. Here we show that Rmnd5, the Gid2 orthologue from Xenopus laevis, is an ubiquitin-ligase embedded in a high molecular weight complex. Expression of rmnd5 is strongest in neuronal ectoderm, prospective brain, eyes and ciliated cells of the skin and its suppression results in malformations of the fore- and midbrain. We therefore suggest that Xenopus laevis Rmnd5, as a subunit of the CTLH complex, is a ubiquitin-ligase targeting an unknown factor for polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation for proper fore- and midbrain development.

  15. Immunocytochemical detection of the microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase in human brain astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J E; Hume, R; Busuttil, A; Burchell, A

    1993-10-01

    Using an antibody raised against the catalytic subunit of glucose-6-phosphatase, this enzyme was immunolocalized in many astrocytes in 20 normal human brains. Double immunofluorescence studies showed co-localization of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) with glucose-6-phosphatase in astrocytes. However, not all GFAP-positive cells were also glucose-6-phosphatase positive, indicating that some astrocytes do not contain demonstrable expression of this enzyme. Reactive astrocytes in a variety of abnormal brains were strongly glucose-6-phosphatase positive, but neoplastic astrocytes were often only weakly positive. Expression of the enzyme could not be demonstrated in radial glia, neurons or oligodendroglia. Astrocytes normally contain glycogen and the demonstration that some astrocytes also contain glucose-6-phosphatase indicates that they are competent for both glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, which may be critical for neuronal welfare.

  16. RMND5 from Xenopus laevis is an E3 ubiquitin-ligase and functions in early embryonic forebrain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Pfirrmann

    Full Text Available In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the Gid-complex functions as an ubiquitin-ligase complex that regulates the metabolic switch between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In higher organisms six conserved Gid proteins form the CTLH protein-complex with unknown function. Here we show that Rmnd5, the Gid2 orthologue from Xenopus laevis, is an ubiquitin-ligase embedded in a high molecular weight complex. Expression of rmnd5 is strongest in neuronal ectoderm, prospective brain, eyes and ciliated cells of the skin and its suppression results in malformations of the fore- and midbrain. We therefore suggest that Xenopus laevis Rmnd5, as a subunit of the CTLH complex, is a ubiquitin-ligase targeting an unknown factor for polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation for proper fore- and midbrain development.

  17. [Energy expenditure at rest and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllerová, D; Matĕjková, D; Rusavý, Z; Müller, L

    1998-01-01

    Adult human body has to have, because of every day fluctuating energy intake and energy needs, very precious adaptive mechanisms for maintenance of heat homeostasis in the body and nearly stable body weight and body composition, which are optimal for life and reproduction. These short term functioning adaptive mechanisms are called "empty biochemical mechanisms", where chemically bound energy is transformed to heat without work performance. These mechanisms are present on the cellular level (substrates cycles, uncoupling of respiration chain), on the interorgan metabolic level (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis between liver and adipose tissue-glucose-lactate cycle). Central nervous system controls them via many factors; the most important are catecholamines, leptin, insulin, thyroid hormones, cortisol, growth and sex hormones. Neurotransmitters and neuronal net influence energy intake and other behavior. Obesity seems to be associated with the amelioration or overcoming of possibilities of function short-term effective adaptive mechanisms.

  18. The role of insulin receptor signaling in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plum, Leona; Schubert, Markus; Brüning, Jens C

    2005-03-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) is expressed in various regions of the developing and adult brain, and its functions have become the focus of recent research. Insulin enters the central nervous system (CNS) through the blood-brain barrier by receptor-mediated transport to regulate food intake, sympathetic activity and peripheral insulin action through the inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and reproductive endocrinology. On a molecular level, some of the effects of insulin converge with those of the leptin signaling machinery at the point of activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), resulting in the regulation of ATP-dependent potassium channels. Furthermore, insulin inhibits neuronal apoptosis via activation of protein kinase B in vitro, and it regulates phosphorylation of tau, metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein and clearance of beta-amyloid from the brain in vivo. These findings indicate that neuronal IR signaling has a direct role in the link between energy homeostasis, reproduction and the development of neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Anaplerotic roles of pyruvate carboxylase in mammalian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitrapakdee, S; Vidal-Puig, A; Wallace, J C

    2006-04-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate. PC serves an anaplerotic role for the tricarboxylic acid cycle, when intermediates are removed for different biosynthetic purposes. In liver and kidney, PC provides oxaloacetate for gluconeogenesis. In adipocytes PC is involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis and glyceroneogenesis, and is regulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, suggesting that PC is involved in the metabolic switch controlling fuel partitioning toward lipogenesis. In islets, PC is necessary for glucose-induced insulin secretion by providing oxaloacetate to form malate that participates in the 'pyruvate/malate cycle' to shuttle 3C or 4C between mitochondria and cytoplasm. Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia impair this cycle and affect glucose-stimulated insulin release. In astrocytes, PC is important for de novo synthesis of glutamate, an important excitatory neurotransmitter supplied to neurons. Transcriptional studies of the PC gene pinpoint some transcription factors that determine tissue-specific expression.

  20. Satiety and the role of μ-opioid receptors in the portal vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vadder, Filipe; Gautier-Stein, Amandine; Mithieux, Gilles

    2013-12-01

    Mu-opioid receptors (MORs) are known to influence food intake at the brain level, through their involvement in the food reward system. MOR agonists stimulate food intake. On the other hand, MOR antagonists suppress food intake. MORs are also active in peripheral organs, especially in the small intestine where they control the gut motility. Recently, an indirect role in the control of food intake was ascribed to MORs in the extrinsic gastrointestinal neural system. MORs present in the neurons of the portal vein walls sense blood peptides released from the digestion of dietary protein. These peptides behave as MOR antagonists. Their MOR antagonist action initiates a gut-brain circuitry resulting in the induction of intestinal gluconeogenesis, a function controlling food intake. Thus, periportal MORs are a key mechanistic link in the satiety effect of protein-enriched diets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid (System N/A) transporters of the SLC38 gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Bryan; Erickson, Jeffrey D

    2004-02-01

    The sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporters (SNAT) of the SLC38 gene family resemble the classically-described System A and System N transport activities in terms of their functional properties and patterns of regulation. Transport of small, aliphatic amino acids by System A subtypes (SNAT1, SNAT2, and SNAT4) is rheogenic and pH sensitive. The System N subtypes SNAT3 and SNAT5 also countertransport H(+), which may be key to their operation in reverse, and have narrower substrate profiles than do the System A subtypes. Glutamine emerges as a favored substrate throughout the family, except for SNAT4. The SLC38 transporters undoubtedly play many physiological roles including the transfer of glutamine from astrocyte to neuron in the CNS, ammonia detoxification and gluconeogenesis in the liver, and the renal response to acidosis. Probing their regulation has revealed additional roles, and recent work has considered SLC38 transporters as therapeutic targets in neoplasia.

  2. A brain-liver circuit regulates glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocai, Alessandro; Obici, Silvana; Schwartz, Gary J; Rossetti, Luciano

    2005-01-01

    Increased glucose production (GP) is the major determinant of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. Previous studies suggested that lipid metabolism within specific hypothalamic nuclei is a biochemical sensor for nutrient availability that exerts negative feedback on GP. Here we show that central inhibition of fat oxidation leads to selective activation of brainstem neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and markedly decreases liver gluconeogenesis, expression of gluconeogenic enzymes, and GP. These effects require central activation of ATP-dependent potassium channels (K(ATP)) and descending fibers within the hepatic branch of the vagus nerve. Thus, hypothalamic lipid sensing potently modulates glucose metabolism via neural circuitry that requires the activation of K(ATP) and selective brainstem neurons and intact vagal input to the liver. This crosstalk between brain and liver couples central nutrient sensing to peripheral nutrient production and its disruption may lead to hyperglycemia.

  3. Interplay between H6PDH and 11β-HSD1 implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fan; Chen, Li; Fan, Zheng; Teng, Fei; Zhao, Yali; Guan, Fengying; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Yanjun

    2017-09-01

    Extensive studies have been performed on the role of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) in metabolic diseases. Our previous study reported glucose could directly regulate hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) and 11β-HSD1. Recently, we further investigated the interplay of H6PDH and 11β-HSD1 and their roles in hepatic gluconeogenesis and insulin resistance to elucidate the importance of H6PDH and 11β-HSD1 in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM rats model and H6PDH or 11β-HSD1 siRNA transfected in CBRH-7919 cells were used to explore the effect of H6PDH and 11β-HSD1 in T2DM. The results showed that the expression and activity of H6PDH and 11β-HSD1 in livers of diabetic rats were increased, with the expressions of PEPCK and G6Pase or liver corticosterone increased apparently. It also showed that H6PDH siRNA and 11β-HSD1 siRNA could inhibit the protein expression and enzyme activity by each other. With H6PDH siRNA, the enhancement of gluconeogenesis was blocked and insulin resistance stimulated by corticosterone was reduced. H6PDH and 11β-HSD1 might be the effective and prospective targets for T2DM and metabolic syndromes, based on the interplay between these two enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interaction of the endocrine system with inflammation: a function of energy and volume regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Rainer H

    2014-02-13

    During acute systemic infectious disease, precisely regulated release of energy-rich substrates (glucose, free fatty acids, and amino acids) and auxiliary elements such as calcium/phosphorus from storage sites (fat tissue, muscle, liver, and bone) are highly important because these factors are needed by an energy-consuming immune system in a situation with little or no food/water intake (sickness behavior). This positively selected program for short-lived infectious diseases is similarly applied during chronic inflammatory diseases. This review presents the interaction of hormones and inflammation by focusing on energy storage/expenditure and volume regulation. Energy storage hormones are represented by insulin (glucose/lipid storage and growth-related processes), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (muscle and bone growth), androgens (muscle and bone growth), vitamin D (bone growth), and osteocalcin (bone growth, support of insulin, and testosterone). Energy expenditure hormones are represented by cortisol (breakdown of liver glycogen/adipose tissue triglycerides/muscle protein, and gluconeogenesis; water retention), noradrenaline/adrenaline (breakdown of liver glycogen/adipose tissue triglycerides, and gluconeogenesis; water retention), growth hormone (glucogenic, lipolytic; has also growth-related aspects; water retention), thyroid gland hormones (increase metabolic effects of adrenaline/noradrenaline), and angiotensin II (induce insulin resistance and retain water). In chronic inflammatory diseases, a preponderance of energy expenditure pathways is switched on, leading to typical hormonal changes such as insulin/IGF-1 resistance, hypoandrogenemia, hypovitaminosis D, mild hypercortisolemia, and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Though necessary during acute inflammation in the context of systemic infection or trauma, these long-standing changes contribute to increased mortality in chronic

  5. Hypoglycaemia related to inherited metabolic diseases in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douillard Claire

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In non-diabetic adult patients, hypoglycaemia may be related to drugs, critical illness, cortisol or glucagon insufficiency, non-islet cell tumour, insulinoma, or it may be surreptitious. Nevertheless, some hypoglycaemic episodes remain unexplained, and inborn errors of metabolism (IEM should be considered, particularly in cases of multisystemic involvement. In children, IEM are considered a differential diagnosis in cases of hypoglycaemia. In adulthood, IEM-related hypoglycaemia can persist in a previously diagnosed childhood disease. Hypoglycaemia may sometimes be a presenting sign of the IEM. Short stature, hepatomegaly, hypogonadism, dysmorphia or muscular symptoms are signs suggestive of IEM-related hypoglycaemia. In both adults and children, hypoglycaemia can be clinically classified according to its timing. Postprandial hypoglycaemia can be an indicator of either endogenous hyperinsulinism linked to non-insulinoma pancreatogenic hypoglycaemia syndrome (NIPHS, unknown incidence in adults or very rarely, inherited fructose intolerance. Glucokinase-activating mutations (one family are the only genetic disorder responsible for NIPH in adults that has been clearly identified so far. Exercise-induced hyperinsulinism is linked to an activating mutation of the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (one family. Fasting hypoglycaemia may be caused by IEM that were already diagnosed in childhood and persist into adulthood: glycogen storage disease (GSD type I, III, 0, VI and IX; glucose transporter 2 deficiency; fatty acid oxidation; ketogenesis disorders; and gluconeogenesis disorders. Fasting hypoglycaemia in adulthood can also be a rare presenting sign of an IEM, especially in GSD type III, fatty acid oxidation [medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD, ketogenesis disorders (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, and gluconeogenesis disorders (fructose-1,6-biphosphatase deficiency].

  6. Gallic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-01

    Herein, we investigated the hypoglycemic effect of plant gallic acid (GA) on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell culture model and on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats with a high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. Our hypothesis is that GA ameliorates hyperglycemia via alleviating hepatic insulin resistance by suppressing hepatic inflammation and improves abnormal hepatic carbohydrate metabolism by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis and enhancing the hepatic glycogenesis and glycolysis pathways in HFD-induced diabetic rats. Gallic acid increased glucose uptake activity by 19.2% at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. In HFD-induced diabetic rats, GA significantly alleviated hyperglycemia, reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test, and reduced the scores of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. The levels of serum C-peptide and fructosamine and cardiovascular risk index scores were also significantly decreased in HFD rats treated with GA. Moreover, GA up-regulated the expression of hepatic insulin signal transduction-related proteins, including insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, and glucose transporter 2, in HFD rats. Gallic acid also down-regulated the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins, such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and up-regulated expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and glycolysis-related proteins, including hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and aldolase, in HFD rats. Our findings indicate that GA has potential as a health food ingredient to prevent diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New Nordic Diet versus Average Danish Diet: A Randomized Controlled Trial Revealed Healthy Long-Term Effects of the New Nordic Diet by GC-MS Blood Plasma Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco; Acar, Evrim; Gürdeniz, Gözde; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne; Dragsted, Lars O; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-06-03

    A previous study has shown effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) to stimulate weight loss and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obese Danish women and men in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study. This work demonstrates long-term metabolic effects of the NND as compared with an Average Danish Diet (ADD) in blood plasma and reveals associations between metabolic changes and health beneficial effects of the NND including weight loss. A total of 145 individuals completed the intervention and blood samples were taken along with clinical examinations before the intervention started (week 0) and after 12 and 26 weeks. The plasma metabolome was measured using GC-MS, and the final metabolite table contained 144 variables. Significant and novel metabolic effects of the diet, resulting weight loss, gender, and intervention study season were revealed using PLS-DA and ASCA. Several metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects, higher levels of vaccenic acid and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic, and N-aspartic acids and 1,5-anhydro-d-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy diets high in fish, vegetables, fruit, and whole grain facilitated weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity by increasing ketosis and gluconeogenesis in the fasting state.

  8. The molecular and metabolic influence of long term agmatine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Itzhak; Horyn, Oksana; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Chen, Pan; Li, Changhong; Wehrli, Suzanne L; Nissim, Ilana; Yudkoff, Marc

    2014-04-04

    Agmatine (AGM), a product of arginine decarboxylation, influences multiple physiologic and metabolic functions. However, the mechanism(s) of action, the impact on whole body gene expression and metabolic pathways, and the potential benefits and risks of long term AGM consumption are still a mystery. Here, we scrutinized the impact of AGM on whole body metabolic profiling and gene expression and assessed a plausible mechanism(s) of AGM action. Studies were performed in rats fed a high fat diet or standard chow. AGM was added to drinking water for 4 or 8 weeks. We used (13)C or (15)N tracers to assess metabolic reactions and fluxes and real time quantitative PCR to determine gene expression. The results demonstrate that AGM elevated the synthesis and tissue level of cAMP. Subsequently, AGM had a widespread impact on gene expression and metabolic profiling including (a) activation of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-α and its coactivator, PGC1α, and (b) increased expression of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ and genes regulating thermogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and carnitine biosynthesis and transport. The changes in gene expression were coupled with improved tissue and systemic levels of carnitine and short chain acylcarnitine, increased β-oxidation but diminished incomplete fatty acid oxidation, decreased fat but increased protein mass, and increased hepatic ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis but decreased glycolysis. These metabolic changes were coupled with reduced weight gain and a curtailment of the hormonal and metabolic derangements associated with high fat diet-induced obesity. The findings suggest that AGM elevated the synthesis and levels of cAMP, thereby mimicking the effects of caloric restriction with respect to metabolic reprogramming.

  9. GABA dramatically improves glucose tolerance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed with high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabipour, Shahla; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Ardeshir; Sharifi, Mohammadreza; Soltani, Nepton

    2018-05-05

    Skeletal muscle, hepatic insulin resistance, and beta cell dysfunction are the characteristic pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GABA has an important role in pancreatic islet cells. The present study attempted to clarify the possible mechanism of GABA to improve glucose tolerance in a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Fifty Wistar rats were divided into five groups: NDC that was fed the normal diet, CD which received a high-fat diet with streptozotocin, CD-GABA animals that received GABA via intraperitoneal injection, plus CD-Ins1 and CD-Ins2 groups which were treated with low and high doses of insulin, respectively. Body weight and blood glucose were measured weekly. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), urine volume, amount of water drinking, and food intake assessments were performed monthly. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was done for assessing insulin resistance. Plasma insulin and glucagon were measured. Abdominal fat was measured. Glucagon receptor, Glucose 6 phosphatase, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase genes expression were evaluated in liver and Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) genes expression and protein translocation were evaluated in the muscle. GABA or insulin therapy improved blood glucose, insulin level, IPGTT, ITT, gluconeogenesis pathway, Glucagon receptor, body weight and body fat in diabetic rats. GLUT4 gene and protein expression increased. GABA whose beneficial effect was comparable to that of insulin, also increased glucose infusion rate during an euglycemic clamp. GABA could improve insulin resistance via rising GLUT4 and also decreasing the gluconeogenesis pathway and Glucagon receptor gene expression. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. EFFECT OF THIOPROPANOL ON AMINO ACID TURNOVER AND REDOX STATUS IN ALLOXAN DIABETIC RAT LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Decreased cellular thiol levels seen in diabetes mellitus (DM may be in part attributed to increased free radical generation. The free radical mediated oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DM and its complications. The relative deficiency or non-availability of insulin in DM affects the metabolism of biomolecules, specifically the carbohydrate metabolism. The insulin-mimicking actions of various thiols have been studied. In our previous study, we have documented that 3-mercapto- 1-propanol (Thiopropanol, a low molecular weight thiol, at the dosage employed has increased glucose utilisation in alloxandiabetic rat liver tissue probably by favouring utilisation of glucose through glycolysis and HMP pathway. It is known that insulin inhibits gluconeogenesis by inhibiting the key enzymes of the same and by controlling the channelling of amino acids for the glucose biosynthesis through gluconeogenic pathway. A study was undertaken to assess the effects of thiopropanol (TP on amino acid turnover and the redox status in alloxan diabetic rat liver. METHODS Male albino rats weighing 150-250 g were used. Diabetes was induced using alloxan monohydrate. Rats were divided into normal and diabetic groups. Levels of amino acid nitrogen (AAN, alanine, total thiol (-SH groups, TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and activities of alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST were estimated in liver specimens of normal, control-alloxan diabetic and TP-exposed-alloxan-diabetic rats. RESULTS The results showed a significant increase (p<0.001 in AAN levels, alanine levels, and total -SH groups concentration; and a significant decrease (p<0.001 in TBARS levels, ALT and AST activities in TP-exposed-alloxan diabetic liver slices as compared to control-alloxan diabetic liver slices. CONCLUSIONS Hence, it may be concluded that TP, at the concentration employed, inhibits gluconeogenesis from amino acids probably by

  11. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during bed rest: effect on recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. P.; Donaldson, M. R.; Leskiw, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.; Baggett, D. W.; Boden, G.

    2003-01-01

    Bed rest is associated with a loss of protein from the weight-bearing muscle. The objectives of this study are to determine whether increasing dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) during bed rest improves the anabolic response after bed rest. The study consisted of a 1-day ambulatory period, 14 days of bed rest, and a 4-day recovery period. During bed rest, dietary intake was supplemented with either 30 mmol/day each of glycine, serine, and alanine (group 1) or with 30 mmol/day each of the three BCAAs (group 2). Whole body protein synthesis was determined with U-(15)N-labeled amino acids, muscle, and selected plasma protein synthesis with l-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine. Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were determined with l-[U-(13)C(3)]alanine and [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose. During bed rest, nitrogen (N) retention was greater with BCAA feeding (56 +/- 6 vs. 26 +/- 12 mg N. kg(-1). day(-1), P < 0.05). There was no effect of BCAA supplementation on either whole body, muscle, or plasma protein synthesis or the rate of 3-MeH excretion. Muscle tissue free amino acid concentrations were increased during bed rest with BCAA (0.214 +/- 0.066 vs. 0.088 +/- 0.12 nmol/mg protein, P < 0.05). Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were unchanged with bed rest but were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the BCAA group in the recovery phase. In conclusion, the improved N retention during bed rest is due, at least in part, to accretion of amino acids in the tissue free amino acid pools. The amount accreted is not enough to impact protein kinetics in the recovery phase but does improve N retention by providing additional essential amino acids in the early recovery phase.

  12. Transcriptomic responses of the liver and adipose tissues to altered carbohydrate-fat ratio in diet: an isoenergetic study in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mitsuru; Yasuoka, Akihito; Shimizu, Manae; Saito, Yoshikazu; Kumakura, Kei; Asakura, Tomiko; Nagai, Toshitada

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the effects of altered dietary carbohydrate and fat balance on liver and adipose tissue transcriptomes, 3-week-old rats were fed three kinds of diets: low-, moderate-, and high-fat diets (L, M, and H) containing a different ratio of carbohydrate-fat (C-F) (65:15, 60:20, and 35:45 in energy percent, respectively). The rats consumed the diets for 9 weeks and were subjected to biochemical and DNA microarray analyses. The rats in the H-group exhibited lower serum triacylglycerol (TG) levels but higher liver TG and cholesterol content than rats in the L-group. The analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between each group (L vs M, M vs H, and L vs H) in the liver revealed about 35% of L vs H DEGs that were regulated in the same way as M vs H DEGs, and most of the others were L- vs H-specific. Gene ontology analysis of these L vs H DEGs indicated that those related to fatty acid synthesis and circadian rhythm were enriched. Interestingly, about 30% of L vs M DEGs were regulated in a reverse way compared with L vs H and M vs H DEGs. These reversed liver DEGs included M-up/H-down genes ( Sds for gluconeogenesis from amino acids) and M-down/H-up genes ( Gpd2 for gluconeogenesis from glycerol, Agpat9 for TG synthesis, and Acot1 for beta-oxidation). We also analyzed L vs H DEGs in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues and found that both oxidation and synthesis of fatty acids were inhibited in these tissues. These results indicate that the alteration of dietary C-F balance differentially affects the transcriptomes of metabolizing and energy-storing tissues.

  13. Effect of elevated total CoA levels on metabolic pathways in cultured hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, C.A.; Smith, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Livers from fasted rats have 30% higher total CoA levels than fed rats. To determine whether this increase of total CoA influences metabolism, the rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis were measured in hepatocytes with cyanamide (CYM) or pantothenate (PA) deficient medium used to vary total CoA levels independently of hormonal status. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were incubated 14 hrs with Bt 2 cAMP, dexamethasone + theophylline in PA deficient medium or with CYM (500 μM) + PA, rinsed and preincubated 0.5 hr to remove the CYM. Hepatocytes treated with CYM had total CoA levels 10-24% higher than PA deficient cells and lower rates of glucose production from lactate + pyruvate (L/P) or from alanine (0.23 +/- 0.05 and 0.089 +/- 0.02 μm/mg protein, respectively in CYM treated cells compared to 0.33 +/- 0.06 and 0.130 +/- 0.006 in PA deficient cells). This decrease was not due to CYM per se, as the direct addition of CYM stimulated glucose production from L/P. CYM treated cells with 15-40% higher total CoA and 30% higher fatty acyl-CoA levels had the same rates of [ 14 C]-palmitate oxidation as PA deficient cells. However, rates of ketogenesis were lower in CYM treated cells (163 +/- 11 nm/mg compared to 217 +/- 14 nm/mg protein). These results suggest that physiological alterations of hepatic total CoA levels are not necessary for fasting rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis

  14. The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Linna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism. Methods Alloxan and adrenalin induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The effects of corn silk on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c, insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic β-cells, hepatic glycogen and gluconeogenesis in hyperglycemic mice were studied respectively. Results After the mice were orally administered with corn silk extract, the blood glucose and the HbA1c were significantly decreased in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice (p 0.05. Although corn silk extract increased the level of hepatic glycogen in the alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice, there was no significant difference between them and that of the control group(p > 0.05. Conclusion Corn silk extract markedly reduced hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The action of corn silk extract on glycaemic metabolism is not via increasing glycogen and inhibiting gluconeogenesis but through increasing insulin level as well as recovering the injured β-cells. The results suggest that corn silk extract may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people in terms of this modern pharmacological study.

  15. Insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Chul-gon; Kim, Dong-il; Park, Min-jung; Choi, Joo-hee [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jieun; Wi, Anjin; Park, Whoashig [Jeollanamdo Forest Resources Research Institute, Naju 520-833 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Ho-jae [College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-741 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-hyun, E-mail: parksh@chonnam.ac.kr [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-05

    Previously, we reported that CARM1 undergoes ubiquitination-dependent degradation in renal podocytes. It was also reported that CARM1 is necessary for fasting-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis. Based on these reports, we hypothesized that treatment with insulin, a hormone typically present under the ‘fed’ condition, would inhibit gluconeogenesis via CARM1 degradation. HepG2 cells, AML-12 cells, and rat primary hepatocytes were treated with insulin to confirm CARM1 downregulation. Surprisingly, insulin treatment increased CARM1 expression in all cell types examined. Furthermore, treatment with insulin increased histone 3 methylation at arginine 17 and 26 in HepG2 cells. To elucidate the role of insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation, the HA-CARM1 plasmid was transfected into HepG2 cells. CARM1 overexpression did not increase the expression of lipogenic proteins generally increased by insulin signaling. Moreover, CARM1 knockdown did not influence insulin sensitivity. Insulin is known to facilitate hepatic proliferation. Like insulin, CARM1 overexpression increased CDK2 and CDK4 expression. In addition, CARM1 knockdown reduced the number of insulin-induced G2/M phase cells. Moreover, GFP-CARM1 overexpression increased the number of G2/M phase cells. Based on these results, we concluded that insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation. These observations indicate that CARM1 plays an important role in liver pathophysiology. - Highlights: • Insulin treatment increases CARM1 expression in hepatocytes. • CARM1 overexpression does not increase the expression of lipogenic proteins. • CARM1 knockdown does not influence insulin sensitivity. • Insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation.

  16. Acetic acid treatment in S. cerevisiae creates significant energy deficiency and nutrient starvation that is dependent on the activity of the mitochondrial transcriptional complex Hap2-3-4-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitanovic, Ana; Bonowski, Felix; Heigwer, Florian; Ruoff, Peter; Kitanovic, Igor; Ungewiss, Christin; Wölfl, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic pathways play an indispensable role in supplying cellular systems with energy and molecular building blocks for growth, maintenance and repair and are tightly linked with lifespan and systems stability of cells. For optimal growth and survival cells rapidly adopt to environmental changes. Accumulation of acetic acid in stationary phase budding yeast cultures is considered to be a primary mechanism of chronological aging and induction of apoptosis in yeast, which has prompted us to investigate the dependence of acetic acid toxicity on extracellular conditions in a systematic manner. Using an automated computer controlled assay system, we investigated and model the dynamic interconnection of biomass yield- and growth rate-dependence on extracellular glucose concentration, pH conditions and acetic acid concentration. Our results show that toxic concentrations of acetic acid inhibit glucose consumption and reduce ethanol production. In absence of carbohydrates uptake, cells initiate synthesis of storage carbohydrates, trehalose and glycogen, and upregulate gluconeogenesis. Accumulation of trehalose and glycogen, and induction of gluconeogenesis depends on mitochondrial activity, investigated by depletion of the Hap2-3-4-5 complex. Analyzing the activity of glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate kinase (PYK), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) we found that while high acetic acid concentration increased their activity, lower acetic acids concentrations significantly inhibited these enzymes. With this study we determined growth and functional adjustment of metabolism to acetic acid accumulation in a complex range of extracellular conditions. Our results show that substantial acidification of the intracellular environment, resulting from accumulation of dissociated acetic acid in the cytosol, is required for acetic acid toxicity, which creates a state of energy deficiency and nutrient starvation.

  17. Blood amino acids profile responding to heat stress in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of heat stress on milk protein and blood amino acid profile in dairy cows. Methods Twelve dairy cows with the similar parity, days in milk and milk yield were randomly divided into two groups with six cows raised in summer and others in autumn, respectively. Constant managerial conditions and diets were maintained during the experiment. Measurements and samples for heat stress and no heat stress were obtained according to the physical alterations of the temperature-humidity index. Results Results showed that heat stress significantly reduced the milk protein content (p<0.05. Heat stress tended to decrease milk yield (p = 0.09. Furthermore, heat stress decreased dry matter intake, the concentration of blood glucose and insulin, and glutathione peroxidase activity, while increased levels of non-esterified fatty acid and malondialdehyde (p<0.05. Additionally, the concentrations of blood Thr involved in immune response were increased under heat stress (p<0.05. The concentration of blood Ala, Glu, Asp, and Gly, associated with gluconeogenesis, were also increased under heat stress (p<0.05. However, the concentration of blood Lys that promotes milk protein synthesis was decreased under heat stress (p<0.05. Conclusion In conclusion, this study revealed that more amino acids were required for maintenance but not for milk protein synthesis under heat stress, and the decreased availability of amino acids for milk protein synthesis may be attributed to competition of immune response and gluconeogenesis.

  18. Mice with a targeted deletion of the type 2 deiodinase are insulin resistant and susceptible to diet induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Marsili

    Full Text Available The type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2 converts the pro-hormone thyroxine into T3 within target tissues. D2 is essential for a full thermogenic response of brown adipose tissue (BAT, and mice with a disrupted Dio2 gene (D2KO have an impaired response to cold. BAT is also activated by overfeeding.After 6-weeks of HFD feeding D2KO mice gained 5.6% more body weight and had 28% more adipose tissue. Oxygen consumption (V0(2 was not different between genotypes, but D2KO mice had an increased respiratory exchange ratio (RER, suggesting preferential use of carbohydrates. Consistent with this, serum free fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were lower in D2KO mice on a HFD, while hepatic triglycerides were increased and glycogen content decreased. Neither genotype showed glucose intolerance, but D2KO mice had significantly higher insulin levels during GTT independent of diet. Accordingly, during ITT testing D2KO mice had a significantly reduced glucose uptake, consistent with insulin resistance. Gene expression levels in liver, muscle, and brown and white adipose tissue showed no differences that could account for the increased weight gain in D2KO mice. However, D2KO mice have higher PEPCK mRNA in liver suggesting increased gluconeogenesis, which could also contribute to their apparent insulin resistance.We conclude that the loss of the Dio2 gene has significant metabolic consequences. D2KO mice gain more weight on a HFD, suggesting a role for D2 in protection from diet-induced obesity. Further, D2KO mice appear to have a greater reliance on carbohydrates as a fuel source, and limited ability to mobilize and to burn fat. This results in increased fat storage in adipose tissue, hepatic steatosis, and depletion of liver glycogen in spite of increased gluconeogenesis. D2KO mice are also less responsive to insulin, independent of diet-induced obesity.

  19. Insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, Chul-gon; Kim, Dong-il; Park, Min-jung; Choi, Joo-hee; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, Anjin; Park, Whoashig; Han, Ho-jae; Park, Soo-hyun

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported that CARM1 undergoes ubiquitination-dependent degradation in renal podocytes. It was also reported that CARM1 is necessary for fasting-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis. Based on these reports, we hypothesized that treatment with insulin, a hormone typically present under the ‘fed’ condition, would inhibit gluconeogenesis via CARM1 degradation. HepG2 cells, AML-12 cells, and rat primary hepatocytes were treated with insulin to confirm CARM1 downregulation. Surprisingly, insulin treatment increased CARM1 expression in all cell types examined. Furthermore, treatment with insulin increased histone 3 methylation at arginine 17 and 26 in HepG2 cells. To elucidate the role of insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation, the HA-CARM1 plasmid was transfected into HepG2 cells. CARM1 overexpression did not increase the expression of lipogenic proteins generally increased by insulin signaling. Moreover, CARM1 knockdown did not influence insulin sensitivity. Insulin is known to facilitate hepatic proliferation. Like insulin, CARM1 overexpression increased CDK2 and CDK4 expression. In addition, CARM1 knockdown reduced the number of insulin-induced G2/M phase cells. Moreover, GFP-CARM1 overexpression increased the number of G2/M phase cells. Based on these results, we concluded that insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation. These observations indicate that CARM1 plays an important role in liver pathophysiology. - Highlights: • Insulin treatment increases CARM1 expression in hepatocytes. • CARM1 overexpression does not increase the expression of lipogenic proteins. • CARM1 knockdown does not influence insulin sensitivity. • Insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation

  20. RNAi screening in primary human hepatocytes of genes implicated in genome-wide association studies for roles in type 2 diabetes identifies roles for CAMK1D and CDKAL1, among others, in hepatic glucose regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Haney

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association (GWA studies have described a large number of new candidate genes that contribute to of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D. In some cases, small clusters of genes are implicated, rather than a single gene, and in all cases, the genetic contribution is not defined through the effects on a specific organ, such as the pancreas or liver. There is a significant need to develop and use human cell-based models to examine the effects these genes may have on glucose regulation. We describe the development of a primary human hepatocyte model that adjusts glucose disposition according to hormonal signals. This model was used to determine whether candidate genes identified in GWA studies regulate hepatic glucose disposition through siRNAs corresponding to the list of identified genes. We find that several genes affect the storage of glucose as glycogen (glycolytic response and/or affect the utilization of pyruvate, the critical step in gluconeogenesis. Of the genes that affect both of these processes, CAMK1D, TSPAN8 and KIF11 affect the localization of a mediator of both gluconeogenesis and glycolysis regulation, CRTC2, to the nucleus in response to glucagon. In addition, the gene CDKAL1 was observed to affect glycogen storage, and molecular experiments using mutant forms of CDK5, a putative target of CDKAL1, in HepG2 cells show that this is mediated by coordinate regulation of CDK5 and PKA on MEK, which ultimately regulates the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6, a critical step in the insulin signaling pathway.

  1. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects of Sargassum yezoense in db/db mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su-Nam; Lee, Woojung; Bae, Gyu-Un; Kim, Yong Kee

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sargassum yezoense (SY) treatment improved glucose and lipid impairment in vivo. ► This pharmacological action is associated with PPARα/γ dual activation. ► It decreases the expression of G6Pase for gluconeogenesis in liver. ► It increases the expression of UCP3 for lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. ► There are no significant side effects such as body weight gain and hepatomegaly. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been considered to be desirable targets for metabolic syndrome, even though their specific agonists have several side effects including body weight gain, edema and tissue failure. Previously, we have reported in vitro effects of Sargassum yezoense (SY) and its ingredients, sargaquinoic acid (SQA) and sargahydroquinoic acid (SHQA), on PPARα/γ dual transcriptional activation. In this study, we describe in vivo pharmacological property of SY on metabolic disorders. SY treatment significantly improved glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice model. More importantly, there are no significant side effects such as body weight gain and hepatomegaly in SY-treated animals, indicating little side effects of SY in liver and lipid metabolism. In addition, SY led to a decrease in the expression of G6Pase for gluconeogenesis in liver responsible for lowering blood glucose level and an increase in the expression of UCP3 in adipose tissue for the reduction of total and LDL-cholesterol level. Altogether, our data suggest that SY would be a potential therapeutic agent against type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders by ameliorating the glucose and lipid metabolism.

  2. Acetic acid treatment in S. cerevisiae creates significant energy deficiency and nutrient starvation that is dependent on the activity of the mitochondrial transcriptional complex Hap2-3-4-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanovic, Ana; Bonowski, Felix; Heigwer, Florian [Institute for Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg (Germany); Ruoff, Peter [Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Organelle Research, University of Stavanger, Stavanger (Norway); Kitanovic, Igor; Ungewiss, Christin; Wölfl, Stefan, E-mail: wolfl@uni-hd.de [Institute for Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-09-21

    Metabolic pathways play an indispensable role in supplying cellular systems with energy and molecular building blocks for growth, maintenance and repair and are tightly linked with lifespan and systems stability of cells. For optimal growth and survival cells rapidly adopt to environmental changes. Accumulation of acetic acid in stationary phase budding yeast cultures is considered to be a primary mechanism of chronological aging and induction of apoptosis in yeast, which has prompted us to investigate the dependence of acetic acid toxicity on extracellular conditions in a systematic manner. Using an automated computer controlled assay system, we investigated and model the dynamic interconnection of biomass yield- and growth rate-dependence on extracellular glucose concentration, pH conditions and acetic acid concentration. Our results show that toxic concentrations of acetic acid inhibit glucose consumption and reduce ethanol production. In absence of carbohydrates uptake, cells initiate synthesis of storage carbohydrates, trehalose and glycogen, and upregulate gluconeogenesis. Accumulation of trehalose and glycogen, and induction of gluconeogenesis depends on mitochondrial activity, investigated by depletion of the Hap2-3-4-5 complex. Analyzing the activity of glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate kinase (PYK), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) we found that while high acetic acid concentration increased their activity, lower acetic acids concentrations significantly inhibited these enzymes. With this study we determined growth and functional adjustment of metabolism to acetic acid accumulation in a complex range of extracellular conditions. Our results show that substantial acidification of the intracellular environment, resulting from accumulation of dissociated acetic acid in the cytosol, is required for acetic acid toxicity, which creates a state of energy deficiency and nutrient starvation.

  3. Time-dependent effect of p-Aminophenol (PAP) toxicity in renal slices and development of oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, R. Christopher; Terneus, Marcus V.; Kiningham, Kinsley K.; Valentovic, Monica

    2005-01-01

    p-Aminophenol (PAP), a metabolite of acetaminophen, is nephrotoxic. This study investigated PAP-mediated changes as a function of time that occur prior to loss of membrane integrity. Experiments further evaluated the development of oxidative stress by PAP. Renal slices from male Fischer 344 (F344) rats (N = 4-6) were exposed to 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mM PAP for 15-120 min under oxygen and constant shaking at 37 o C. Pyruvate-stimulated gluconeogenesis, adenine nucleotide levels, and total glutathione (GSH) levels were diminished in a concentration- and time-dependent manner prior to detection of a rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels were increased by PAP suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. Western blot analysis confirmed a rise in 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-adducted proteins in tissues exposed to 0.1 and 0.25 mM PAP for 90 min. The appearance of 4-HNE-adducted proteins at the 0.1 mM concentration of PAP occurred prior to development of increased LDH leakage. Pretreatment with 1 mM glutathione (GSH) for 30 min only partially reduced PAP toxicity as LDH values were less severely depleted relative to tissues not pretreated with GSH. In contrast, pretreatment for 15 min with 2 mM ascorbic acid completely protected against PAP toxicity. Further studies showed that ascorbic acid pretreatment prevented PAP-mediated depletion of GSH. In summary, PAP rapidly depletes GSH and adenine nucleotides and inhibits gluconeogenesis prior to a rise in LDH leakage. PAP induces oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in GSSG and 4-HNE-adducted proteins. Ascorbic acid pretreatment prevents PAP toxicity by maintaining GSH status

  4. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects of Sargassum yezoense in db/db mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su-Nam, E-mail: snkim@kist.re.kr [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woojung [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Gyu-Un [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Cell Fate Control, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Kee, E-mail: yksnbk@sookmyung.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sargassum yezoense (SY) treatment improved glucose and lipid impairment in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This pharmacological action is associated with PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} dual activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It decreases the expression of G6Pase for gluconeogenesis in liver. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It increases the expression of UCP3 for lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There are no significant side effects such as body weight gain and hepatomegaly. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been considered to be desirable targets for metabolic syndrome, even though their specific agonists have several side effects including body weight gain, edema and tissue failure. Previously, we have reported in vitro effects of Sargassum yezoense (SY) and its ingredients, sargaquinoic acid (SQA) and sargahydroquinoic acid (SHQA), on PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} dual transcriptional activation. In this study, we describe in vivo pharmacological property of SY on metabolic disorders. SY treatment significantly improved glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice model. More importantly, there are no significant side effects such as body weight gain and hepatomegaly in SY-treated animals, indicating little side effects of SY in liver and lipid metabolism. In addition, SY led to a decrease in the expression of G6Pase for gluconeogenesis in liver responsible for lowering blood glucose level and an increase in the expression of UCP3 in adipose tissue for the reduction of total and LDL-cholesterol level. Altogether, our data suggest that SY would be a potential therapeutic agent against type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders by ameliorating the glucose and lipid metabolism.

  5. Contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to alanine and lactate metabolism in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consoli, A.; Nurjhan, N.; Reilly, J.J. Jr.; Bier, D.M.; Gerich, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    To quantitate alanine and lactate gluconeogenesis in postabsorptive humans and to test the hypothesis that muscle is the principal source of these precursors, we infused normal volunteers with [3-14C]lactate, [3-13C]alanine, and [6-3H]glucose and calculated alanine and lactate incorporation into plasma glucose corrected for tricarboxylic acid cycle carbon exchange, the systemic appearance of these substrates, and their forearm fractional extraction, uptake, and release. Forearm alanine and lactate fractional extraction averaged 37 +/- 3 and 27 +/- 2%, respectively; muscle alanine release (2.94 +/- 0.27 mumol.kg body wt-1.min-1) accounted for approximately 70% of its systemic appearance (4.18 +/- 0.31 mumol.kg body wt-1.min-1); muscle lactate release (5.51 +/- 0.42 mumol.kg body wt-1.min-1) accounted for approximately 40% of its systemic appearance (12.66 +/- 0.77 mumol.kg body wt-1.min-1); muscle alanine and lactate uptake (1.60 +/- 0.7 and 3.29 +/- 0.36 mumol.kg body wt-1.min-1, respectively) accounted for approximately 30% of their overall disappearance from plasma, whereas alanine and lactate incorporation into plasma glucose (1.83 +/- 0.20 and 4.24 +/- 0.44 mumol.kg body wt-1.min-1, respectively) accounted for approximately 50% of their disappearance from plasma. We therefore conclude that muscle is the major source of plasma alanine and lactate in postabsorptive humans and that factors regulating their release from muscle may thus exert an important influence on hepatic gluconeogenesis

  6. Hepatic glycogen in humans. II. Gluconeogenetic formation after oral and intravenous glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziuk, J.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of glycogen that is formed by gluconeogenetic pathways during glucose loading was quantitated in human subjects. Oral glucose loading was compared with its intravenous administration. Overnight-fasted subjects received a constant infusion or [3- 3 H]glucose and a marker for gluconeogenesis, [U- 14 C]lactate or sodium [ 14 C]bicarbonate [ 14 C]bicarbonate. An unlabeled glucose load was then administered. Postabsorptively, or after glucose infusion was terminated, a third tracer ([6- 3 H]glucose) infusion was initiated along with a three-step glucagon infusion. Without correcting for background stimulation of [ 14 C]glucose production or for dilution of 14 C with citric acid cycle carbon in the oxaloacetate pool, the amount of glycogen mobilized by the glucagon infusion that was produced by gluconeogenesis during oral glucose loading was 2.9 +/- 0.7 g calculated from [U- 14 C]-lactate incorporation and 7.4 +/- 1.3 g calculated using [ 14 C]bicarbonate as a gluconeogenetic marker. During intravenous glucose administration the latter measurement also yielded 7.2 +/- 1.1 g. When the two corrections above are applied, the respective quantities became 5.3 +/- 1.7 g for [U- 14 C]lactate as tracer and 14.7 +/- 4.3 and 13.9 +/- 3.6 g for oral and intravenous glucose with [ 14 C]bicarbonate as tracer (P less than 0.05, vs. [ 14 C]-lactate as tracer). When [2- 14 C]acetate was infused, the same amount of label was incorporated into mobilized glycogen regardless of which route of glucose administration was used. Comparison with previous data also suggests that 14 CO 2 is a potentially useful marker for the gluconeogenetic process in vivo

  7. Time-restricted feeding improves insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Heekyung; Chou, Winjet; Sears, Dorothy D; Patterson, Ruth E; Webster, Nicholas J G; Ellies, Lesley G

    2016-12-01

    Menopause is associated with significant hormonal changes that result in increased total body fat and abdominal fat, amplifying the risk for metabolic syndrome and diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer in postmenopausal women. Intermittent fasting regimens hold significant health benefit promise for obese humans, however, regimens that include extreme daytime calorie restriction or daytime fasting are generally associated with hunger and irritability, hampering long-term compliance and adoption in the clinical setting. Time-restricted feeding (TRF), a regimen allowing eating only during a specific period in the normal circadian feeding cycle, without calorie restriction, may increase compliance and provide a more clinically viable method for reducing the detrimental metabolic consequences associated with obesity. We tested TRF as an intervention in a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity. Metabolic parameters were measured using Clinical Laboratory Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS) and we carried out glucose tolerance tests. We also stained liver sections with oil red O to examine steatosis and measured gene expression related to gluconeogenesis. Preexisting metabolic disease was significantly attenuated during 7 weeks of TRF. Despite having access to the same high fat diet (HFD) as ad libitum fed (ALF) mice, TRF mice experienced rapid weight loss followed by a delayed improvement in insulin resistance and a reduced severity of hepatic steatosis by having access to the HFD for only 8h during their normal nocturnal feeding period. The lower respiratory exchange ratio in the TRF group compared with the ALF group early in the dark phase suggested that fat was the predominant fuel source in the TRF group and correlated with gene expression analyses that suggested a switch from gluconeogenesis to ketogenesis. In addition, TRF mice were more physically active than ALF fed mice. Our data support further analysis of TRF as a clinically viable form of

  8. Metabolic response of Geobacter sulfurreducens towards electron donor/acceptor variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovley Derek R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geobacter sulfurreducens is capable of coupling the complete oxidation of organic compounds to iron reduction. The metabolic response of G. sulfurreducens towards variations in electron donors (acetate, hydrogen and acceptors (Fe(III, fumarate was investigated via 13C-based metabolic flux analysis. We examined the 13C-labeling patterns of proteinogenic amino acids obtained from G. sulfurreducens cultured with 13C-acetate. Results Using 13C-based metabolic flux analysis, we observed that donor and acceptor variations gave rise to differences in gluconeogenetic initiation, tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, and amino acid biosynthesis pathways. Culturing G. sulfurreducens cells with Fe(III as the electron acceptor and acetate as the electron donor resulted in pyruvate as the primary carbon source for gluconeogenesis. When fumarate was provided as the electron acceptor and acetate as the electron donor, the flux analysis suggested that fumarate served as both an electron acceptor and, in conjunction with acetate, a carbon source. Growth on fumarate and acetate resulted in the initiation of gluconeogenesis by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and a slightly elevated flux through the oxidative tricarboxylic acid cycle as compared to growth with Fe(III as the electron acceptor. In addition, the direction of net flux between acetyl-CoA and pyruvate was reversed during growth on fumarate relative to Fe(III, while growth in the presence of Fe(III and acetate which provided hydrogen as an electron donor, resulted in decreased flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Conclusions We gained detailed insight into the metabolism of G. sulfurreducens cells under various electron donor/acceptor conditions using 13C-based metabolic flux analysis. Our results can be used for the development of G. sulfurreducens as a chassis for a variety of applications including bioremediation and renewable biofuel production.

  9. The Molecular and Metabolic Influence of Long Term Agmatine Consumption*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Itzhak; Horyn, Oksana; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Chen, Pan; Li, Changhong; Wehrli, Suzanne L.; Nissim, Ilana; Yudkoff, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Agmatine (AGM), a product of arginine decarboxylation, influences multiple physiologic and metabolic functions. However, the mechanism(s) of action, the impact on whole body gene expression and metabolic pathways, and the potential benefits and risks of long term AGM consumption are still a mystery. Here, we scrutinized the impact of AGM on whole body metabolic profiling and gene expression and assessed a plausible mechanism(s) of AGM action. Studies were performed in rats fed a high fat diet or standard chow. AGM was added to drinking water for 4 or 8 weeks. We used 13C or 15N tracers to assess metabolic reactions and fluxes and real time quantitative PCR to determine gene expression. The results demonstrate that AGM elevated the synthesis and tissue level of cAMP. Subsequently, AGM had a widespread impact on gene expression and metabolic profiling including (a) activation of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-α and its coactivator, PGC1α, and (b) increased expression of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ and genes regulating thermogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and carnitine biosynthesis and transport. The changes in gene expression were coupled with improved tissue and systemic levels of carnitine and short chain acylcarnitine, increased β-oxidation but diminished incomplete fatty acid oxidation, decreased fat but increased protein mass, and increased hepatic ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis but decreased glycolysis. These metabolic changes were coupled with reduced weight gain and a curtailment of the hormonal and metabolic derangements associated with high fat diet-induced obesity. The findings suggest that AGM elevated the synthesis and levels of cAMP, thereby mimicking the effects of caloric restriction with respect to metabolic reprogramming. PMID:24523404

  10. Digital gene expression analysis of male and female bud transition in Metasequoia reveals high activity of MADS-box transcription factors and hormone-mediated sugar pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Liang, Haiying; Li, Lan; Tang, Sha; Han, Xiao; Wang, Congpeng; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2015-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides is a famous redwood tree of ecological and economic importance, and requires more than 20 years of juvenile-to-adult transition before producing female and male cones. Previously, we induced reproductive buds using a hormone solution in juvenile Metasequoia trees as young as 5-to-7 years old. In the current study, hormone-treated shoots found in female and male buds were used to identify candidate genes involved in reproductive bud transition in Metasequoia. Samples from hormone-treated cone reproductive shoots and naturally occurring non-cone setting shoots were analyzed using 24 digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiles using Illumina, generating a total of 69,520 putative transcripts. Next, 32 differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, including the upregulation of MADS-box transcription factors involved in male bud transition and flowering time control proteins involved in female bud transition. These differentially expressed transcripts were associated with 243 KEGG pathways. Among the significantly changed pathways, sugar pathways were mediated by hormone signals during the vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition, including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Key enzymes were identified in these pathways, including alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD) and glutathione dehydrogenase for the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway, and glucanphosphorylase for sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Our results increase our understanding of the reproductive bud transition in gymnosperms. In addition, these studies on hormone-mediated sugar pathways increase our understanding of the relationship between sugar and hormone signaling during female and male bud initiation in Metasequoia.

  11. Digital gene expression analysis of male and female bud transition in Metasequoia reveals high activity of MADS-box transcription factors and hormone-mediated sugar pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eZhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metasequoiaglyptostroboidies is a famous redwood tree of ecological and economic importance, and requires more than 20 years of juvenile-to-adult transition before producing female and male cones. Previously, we induced reproductive buds using a hormone solution in juvenile Metasequoia trees as young as5-to-7years old. In the current study, hormone-treated shoots found in female and male buds were used to identify candidate genes involved in reproductive bud transition in Metasequoia. Samples from hormone-treated cone reproductive shoots and naturally occurring non-cone setting shoots were analyzed using 24 digital gene expression (DGE tag profiles using Illumina, generating a total of 69,520 putative transcripts. Next, 32 differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, including the upregulation of MADS-box transcription factors involved in male bud transition and flowering time control proteins involved in female bud transition. These differentially expressed transcripts were associated with 243 KEGG pathways. Among the significantly changed pathways, sugar pathways were mediated by hormone signals during the vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition, including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Key enzymes were identified in these pathways, including alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD and glutathione dehydrogenase for the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway, and glucanphosphorylase for sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Our results increase our understanding of the reproductive bud transition in gymnosperms. In addition, these studies on hormone-mediated sugar pathways increase our understanding of the relationship between sugar and hormone signaling during female and male bud initiation in Metasequoia.

  12. Impact of embryo number and maternal undernutrition around the time of conception on insulin signaling and gluconeogenic factors and microRNAs in the liver of fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Shervi; Morrison, Janna L; Williams-Wyss, Olivia; Suter, Catherine M; Humphreys, David T; Ozanne, Susan E; Zhang, Song; MacLaughlin, Severence M; Kleemann, David O; Walker, Simon K; Roberts, Claire T; McMillen, I Caroline

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to determine whether exposure of the oocyte and/or embryo to maternal undernutrition results in the later programming of insulin action in the liver and factors regulating gluconeogenesis. To do this, we collect livers from singleton and twin fetal sheep that were exposed to periconceptional (PCUN; -60 to 7 days) or preimplantation (PIUN; 0-7 days) undernutrition at 136-138 days of gestation (term = 150 days). The mRNA and protein abundance of insulin signaling and gluconeogenic factors were then quantified using qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, and global microRNA expression was quantified using deep sequencing methodology. We found that hepatic PEPCK-C mRNA (P < 0.01) and protein abundance and the protein abundance of IRS-1 (P < 0.01), p110β (P < 0.05), PTEN (P < 0.05), CREB (P < 0.01), and pCREB (Ser(133); P < 0.05) were decreased in the PCUN and PIUN singletons. In contrast, hepatic protein abundance of IRS-1 (P < 0.01), p85 (P < 0.01), p110β (P < 0.001), PTEN (P < 0.01), Akt2 (P < 0.01), p-Akt (Ser(473); P < 0.01), and p-FOXO-1 (Thr24) (P < 0.01) was increased in twins. There was a decrease in PEPCK-C mRNA (P < 0.01) but, paradoxically, an increase in PEPCK-C protein (P < 0.001) in twins. Both PCUN and PIUN altered the hepatic expression of 23 specific microRNAs. We propose that the differential impact of maternal undernutrition in the presence of one or two embryos on mRNAs and proteins involved in the insulin signaling and gluconeogenesis is explained by changes in the expression of a suite of specific candidate microRNAs.

  13. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different molecular mechanisms of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 response to sodium lactate and calcium lactate during lactic acid production.

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    Jiayang Qin

    Full Text Available Lactate production is enhanced by adding calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide during fermentation. However, Bacillus coagulans 2-6 can produce more than 180 g/L L-lactic acid when calcium lactate is accumulated, but less than 120 g/L L-lactic acid when sodium lactate is formed. The molecular mechanisms by which B. coagulans responds to calcium lactate and sodium lactate remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic methods based on high-throughput RNA sequencing were applied to study gene expression changes in B. coagulans 2-6 cultured in non-stress, sodium lactate stress and calcium lactate stress conditions. Gene expression profiling identified 712 and 1213 significantly regulated genes in response to calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, respectively. Gene ontology assignments of the differentially expressed genes were performed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 'ATP-binding cassette transporters' were significantly affected by calcium lactate stress, and 'amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism' was significantly affected by sodium lactate stress. It was also found that lactate fermentation was less affected by calcium lactate stress than by sodium lactate stress. Sodium lactate stress had negative effect on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes but positive effect on the expression of 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle' genes. However, calcium lactate stress had positive influence on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes and had minor influence on 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle' genes. Thus, our findings offer new insights into the responses of B. coagulans to different lactate stresses. Notably, our RNA-seq dataset constitute a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by lactate stress in the future and identify potential targets for genetic engineering to further improve L-lactic acid production by B. coagulans.

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals different molecular mechanisms of Bacillus coagulans 2-6 response to sodium lactate and calcium lactate during lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Landong; Zhu, Beibei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yao, Qingshou; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Lactate production is enhanced by adding calcium carbonate or sodium hydroxide during fermentation. However, Bacillus coagulans 2-6 can produce more than 180 g/L L-lactic acid when calcium lactate is accumulated, but less than 120 g/L L-lactic acid when sodium lactate is formed. The molecular mechanisms by which B. coagulans responds to calcium lactate and sodium lactate remain unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptomic methods based on high-throughput RNA sequencing were applied to study gene expression changes in B. coagulans 2-6 cultured in non-stress, sodium lactate stress and calcium lactate stress conditions. Gene expression profiling identified 712 and 1213 significantly regulated genes in response to calcium lactate stress and sodium lactate stress, respectively. Gene ontology assignments of the differentially expressed genes were performed. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that 'ATP-binding cassette transporters' were significantly affected by calcium lactate stress, and 'amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism' was significantly affected by sodium lactate stress. It was also found that lactate fermentation was less affected by calcium lactate stress than by sodium lactate stress. Sodium lactate stress had negative effect on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes but positive effect on the expression of 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. However, calcium lactate stress had positive influence on the expression of 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' genes and had minor influence on 'citrate cycle (TCA cycle)' genes. Thus, our findings offer new insights into the responses of B. coagulans to different lactate stresses. Notably, our RNA-seq dataset constitute a robust database for investigating the functions of genes induced by lactate stress in the future and identify potential targets for genetic engineering to further improve L-lactic acid production by B. coagulans.

  15. Coordinated multitissue transcriptional and plasma metabonomic profiles following acute caloric restriction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Colin; Kerrison, Nicola D; Cooray, Anisha; Piper, Matthew D W; Lingard, Steven J; Barton, Richard H; Schuster, Eugene F; Blanc, Eric; Gems, David; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Thornton, Janet M; Partridge, Linda; Withers, Dominic J

    2006-11-27

    Caloric restriction (CR) increases healthy life span in a range of organisms. The underlying mechanisms are not understood but appear to include changes in gene expression, protein function, and metabolism. Recent studies demonstrate that acute CR alters mortality rates within days in flies. Multitissue transcriptional changes and concomitant metabolic responses to acute CR have not been described. We generated whole genome RNA transcript profiles in liver, skeletal muscle, colon, and hypothalamus and simultaneously measured plasma metabolites using proton nuclear magnetic resonance in mice subjected to acute CR. Liver and muscle showed increased gene expressions associated with fatty acid metabolism and a reduction in those involved in hepatic lipid biosynthesis. Glucogenic amino acids increased in plasma, and gene expression for hepatic gluconeogenesis was enhanced. Increased expression of genes for hormone-mediated signaling and decreased expression of genes involved in protein binding and development occurred in hypothalamus. Cell proliferation genes were decreased and cellular transport genes increased in colon. Acute CR captured many, but not all, hepatic transcriptional changes of long-term CR. Our findings demonstrate a clear transcriptional response across multiple tissues during acute CR, with congruent plasma metabolite changes. Liver and muscle switched gene expression away from energetically expensive biosynthetic processes toward energy conservation and utilization processes, including fatty acid metabolism and gluconeogenesis. Both muscle and colon switched gene expression away from cellular proliferation. Mice undergoing acute CR rapidly adopt many transcriptional and metabolic changes of long-term CR, suggesting that the beneficial effects of CR may require only a short-term reduction in caloric intake.

  16. CsrA and Cra influence Shigella flexneri pathogenesis.

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    Gore, Aja L; Payne, Shelley M

    2010-11-01

    Shigella flexneri is a facultative intracellular pathogen that invades and disrupts the colonic epithelium. In order to thrive in the host, S. flexneri must adapt to environmental conditions in the gut and within the eukaryotic cytosol, including variability in the available carbon sources and other nutrients. We examined the roles of the carbon consumption regulators CsrA and Cra in a cell culture model of S. flexneri virulence. CsrA is an activator of glycolysis and a repressor of gluconeogenesis, and a csrA mutant had decreased attachment and invasion of cultured cells. Conversely, Cra represses glycolysis and activates gluconeogenesis, and the cra mutant had an increase in both attachment and invasion compared to the wild-type strain. Both mutants were defective in plaque formation. The importance of the glycolytic pathway in invasion and plaque formation was confirmed by testing the effect of a mutation in the glycolysis gene pfkA. The pfkA mutant was noninvasive and had cell surface alterations as indicated by decreased sensitivity to SDS and an altered lipopolysaccharide profile. The loss of invasion by the csrA and pfkA mutants was due to decreased expression of the S. flexneri virulence factor regulators virF and virB, resulting in decreased production of Shigella invasion plasmid antigens (Ipa). These data indicate that regulation of carbon metabolism and expression of the glycolysis gene pfkA are critical for synthesis of the virulence gene regulators VirF and VirB, and both the glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways influence steps in S. flexneri invasion and plaque formation.

  17. Activation of pregnane X receptor by pregnenolone 16 α-carbonitrile prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in AKR/J mice.

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    Yongjie Ma

    Full Text Available Pregnane X receptor (PXR is known to function as a xenobiotic sensor to regulate xenobiotic metabolism through selective transcription of genes responsible for maintaining physiological homeostasis. Here we report that the activation of PXR by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN in AKR/J mice can prevent the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. The beneficial effects of PCN treatment are seen with reduced lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver, and lack of hepatic accumulation of lipid and lipid storage in the adipose tissues. RT-PCR analysis of genes involved in gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis reveal that PCN treatment on high-fat diet-fed mice reduces expression in the liver of G6Pase, Pepck, Cyp7a1, Cd36, L-Fabp, Srebp, and Fas genes and slightly enhances expression of Cyp27a1 and Abca1 genes. RT-PCR analysis of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue show that PCN treatment reduces expression of Pparγ2, Acc1, Cd36, but increases expression of Cpt1b and Pparα genes in mice fed with high-fat diet. Similarly, PCN treatment of animals on high-fat diet increases expression in brown adipose tissue of Pparα, Hsl, Cpt1b, and Cd36 genes, but reduces expression of Acc1 and Scd-1 genes. PXR activation by PCN in high-fat diet fed mice also increases expression of genes involved in thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue including Dio2, Pgc-1α, Pgc-1β, Cidea, and Ucp-3. These results verify the important function of PXR in lipid and energy metabolism and suggest that PXR represents a novel therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.

  18. Energy metabolism and metabolomics response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to sulfide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongyu; Li, Erchao; Suo, Yantong; Xu, Zhixin; Jia, Yongyi; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao; Gu, Zhimin

    2017-02-01

    The toxicity and poisoning mechanisms of sulfide were studied in Litopenaeus vannamei from the perspective of energy metabolism and metabolomics. The lethal concentrations of sulfide in L. vannamei (LC50) at 24h, 48h, 72h, and 96h were determined. Sulfide at a concentration of 0, 1/10 (425.5μg/L), and 1/5 (851μg/L) of the LC 50 at 96h was used to test the