Sample records for globules blancs possibilites

  1. Michel Blanc 1952-2009

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department


    We deeply regret to announce the death of Mr Michel BLANC on 27 November 2009. Mr BLANC, who was born on 4 April 1952, was a member of the IT Department and had worked at CERN since 1 January 1978. The Director-General has sent his family a message of condolence on behalf of the CERN personnel. Social Affairs It was with great sadness that we learned of the death of our friend and colleague Michel Blanc on the evening of Friday 27 November. Everyone who knew him, especially those who had spent many years with him in the Computer Centre where he worked since his arrival at CERN in 1978, but also his more recent colleagues, will always remember his good humour, his quick wit and his amazing zest for life. He made staunch friends during his thirty years at CERN and often kept in touch with them after they left the Organization. His passion for motorcycling and for walks with his wife, his two sons and his friends were some of his great joys in life. Michel took a well-earned early retirement in Octobe...

  2. Aasta film - joonisfilm "Mont Blanc" / Verni Leivak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leivak, Verni, 1966-


    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis aasta 2001 parima filmi tiitli Priit Tenderi joonisfilmile "Mont Blanc" : Eesti Joonisfilm 2001.Ka filmikriitikute eelistused kinodes ja televisioonis 2001. aastal näidatud filmide osas

  3. The scientific observatories on Mont Blanc. (United States)

    Richalet, J P


    Since the first ascent of Mont Blanc by Jacques Balmat and Dr. Michel-Gabriel Paccard in 1786, numerous scientific events have taken place on the highest peak of Europe. Horace Benédict de Saussure, since his first ascent in 1787, made numerous observations on barometric pressure, temperature, geology, and mountain sickness on Mont Blanc. Over the next 100 years, scientists and physicians climbed Mont Blanc and made many interesting although anecdotal reports. Science on Mont Blanc exploded at the end of the 19th century. A major player at that time was Joseph Vallot (1854-1925), who constructed an observatory in 1890 at 4,358 m on the Rochers des Bosses and then moved it in 1898 to a better location at 4,350 m. There Vallot and invited scientists made observations over more than 30 years: studies in geology, glaciology, astronomy, cartography, meteorology, botany, physiology and medicine were performed and published in the seven volumes of the Annales de l'Observatoire du Mont Blanc, between 1893 and 1917, and in the Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. While Jules Janssen and Xaver Imfeld were preparing the construction of the new observatory on the top of Mont Blanc, Dr. Jacottet died in 1891 at the Observatoire Vallot from a disease that was clearly attributed by Dr. Egli-Sinclair to the effect of high altitude. This was probably the first case of high altitude pulmonary edema documented by an autopsy and suspected to be directly due to high altitude. Extensive studies on ventilation were made from 1886 to 1900. Increase in ventilation with altitude was documented, with the phenomenon of "ventilatory acclimatization." Paul Bert's theories on the role of oxygen in acute mountain sickness were confirmed in 1903 and 1904 by studying the effects of oxygen inhalation. In 1913, Vallot documented for the first time the decrease in physical performance at the top of Mont Blanc using squirrels. After that pioneering era, few studies were done until 1984, when a

  4. Septembre en noir et blanc (1977). Alea


    Carmignani, Paul


    1. L'ANCIEN ET LE NOUVEAU LA PUBLICATION de Septembre en noir et blanc trois ans après la parution (en 1974) du troisième et dernier volume de The Civil War (le second date de 1963 et le premier de 1958), marque le retour au roman d'un auteur qui vient de consacrer vingt ans de sa vie à faire œuvre d'historien. Hormis cette “hénaurme” trilogie, S. Foote n'a inscrit, entre 1954 et 1974, que deux titres à son actif, à savoir : The Night Before Chancellorsville and Other Civil War Stories (1957)...

  5. Adaptaciones LIJ de Tirant lo Blanc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Ramon i Ferrer


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan las adaptaciones de Tirant lo Blanc a la narrativa infantil y juvenil. Han quedado excluidas aquellas obras que no han considerado la novela en su totalidad así como otros géneros que también han pretendido que la obra de Martorell llegara a un público infantil y juvenil. En primer lugar, se ha establecido el corpus de estudio y, seguidamente, se ha elaborado un catalálogo en el cual se valoran la selección de secuencias del hipotexto verbal, los elementos paratextuales que han concurrido en cada uno de los volúmenes, así como la adecuación al tramo lector al que supuestamente va dirigida la publicación. This paper analyses Tirant lo Blanc narrative adaptations on Children’s and Young Adults Literature. The works which have not considered the novel as a whole have been excluded, as well as other genres which have also wanted to adapt Martorell’s work for the same audience. The study begins by establishing the corpus of the books. Then, a catalogue has been made in order to assess the hypotext sequences selection, the paratextual elements within each of the volumes, and the adaptation adequacy of the contents of the books to the target reader

  6. Microwave spectral lines in galactic dust globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.N.; Barrett, A.H.


    In order to better understand galactic dust globules, a program of mapping several molecular transitions in these clouds has been undertaken. The results of observations of the J=1→0 rotational transitions of CO, 13 CO, C 18 O, and CS, the J=2→1rotational transitions of CS and C 34 S, the J, K=1, 1 and J, K=2, 2 inversion transitions of NH 3 , the J/sub KKprime/=1 11 →1 10 and J/sub KKprime/=2 12 →2 11 transitions of H 2 CO, and the OH 2 Pi/sub 3/2/F=2→2 and F=1→1 transitions are reported here. Twelve globules have been selected for observation; seven of these were studied in detail and the remainder observed only sparsely. A strong positive correlation appears to exist between the spatial extent of the molecular emission (or absorption) and the optical features of the globule. Even the main isotope of CO shows this correlation between dust extinction and molecular emission. Close examination of the Palomar prints reveals dust wherever CO is observed, and CO is probably a good tracer of dust extinction.The simultaneous observation of many molecular transitions has proven useful in obtaining reliable physical parameters for the dust globules. For example, CO and NH 3 are reliable thermometers of the kinetic temperature, and CS and NH 3 are indicators of the total gas density. The kinetic temperatures of the globules are almost always approx.10 K, and the derived H 2 densities are 10/sup 3.4/-10/sup 4.5/ cm -3 . The density in the core of the globules could well be larger than these value, which represent an average for the entire cloud. The kinetic temperature appears uniform across each cloud (within a few kelvins), in agreement with theoretical predictions. All of the globules studied in detail appear to be gravitationally bound and collapsing objects. Rotation has been observed in at least two globules (B163 and B163 SW). The projected axis of rotation is in a direction opposite to that of the Galaxy

  7. Dark Globule in IC 1396 (IRAC) (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view of inset NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope image of a glowing stellar nursery provides a spectacular contrast to the opaque cloud seen in visible light (inset). The Elephant's Trunk Nebula is an elongated dark globule within the emission nebula IC 1396 in the constellation of Cepheus. Located at a distance of 2,450 light-years, the globule is a condensation of dense gas that is barely surviving the strong ionizing radiation from a nearby massive star. The globule is being compressed by the surrounding ionized gas. The dark globule is seen in silhouette at visible-light wavelengths, backlit by the illumination of a bright star located to the left of the field of view.The Spitzer Space Telescope pierces through the obscuration to reveal the birth of new protostars, or embryonic stars, and previously unseen young stars. The infrared image was obtained by Spitzer's infrared array camera. The image is a four-color composite of invisible light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8.0 microns (red). The filamentary appearance of the globule results from the sculpting effects of competing physical processes. The winds from a massive star, located to the left of the image, produce a dense circular rim comprising the 'head' of the globule and a swept-back tail of gas.A pair of young stars (LkHa 349 and LkHa 349c) that formed from the dense gas has cleared a spherical cavity within the globule head. While one of these stars is significantly fainter than the other in the visible-light image, they are of comparable brightness in the infrared Spitzer image. This implies the presence of a thick and dusty disc around LkHa 349c. Such circumstellar discs are the precursors of planetary systems. They are much thicker in the early stages of stellar formation when the placental planet-forming material (gas and dust) is still present.

  8. Mature ovarian teratoma with large floating fat globules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hye Min; Kim, See Hyung; Hwang, Il Seon [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Mature ovarian teratoma (dermoid cyst), a germ cell neoplasm, is one of the most common ovarian tumors. It is composed of derivatives of three germ cell layers. A mature ovarian teratoma with intracystic fat globules is rare. The pathogenesis on the formation of fat globules is unclear. Here we present a pathologically proven cystic ovarian teratoma with three large floating fat globules in a young woman with CT and MR findings.

  9. Neutrino astronomy at Mont Blanc: from LSD to LSD-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saavedra, O.; Aglietta, M.; Badino, G.


    In this paper we present the upgrading of the LSD experiment, presently running in the Mont Blanc Laboratory. The data recorded during the period when supernova 1987A exploded are analysed in detail. The research program of LSD-2, the same experiment as LSD but with an higher sensitivity to search for neutrino burst from collapsing stars, is also discussed

  10. Distribution et reproduction de l'elanion blanc ( Elanus caeruleus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude préliminaire porte sur le statut de la reproduction d'une population de l'elanion blanc (Elanus caeruleus): En tout 32 couples répartis sur 155km2 récemment installés dans un secteur de la vallée de la Medjerda en Tunisie septentrionale. L'étude réalisée pendant deux saisons (1998 et 1999), et ce, dans une ...

  11. Sugar-induced molten-globule model. (United States)

    Davis-Searles, P R; Morar, A S; Saunders, A J; Erie, D A; Pielak, G J


    Proteins denature at low pH because of intramolecular electrostatic repulsions. The addition of salt partially overcomes this repulsion for some proteins, yielding a collapsed conformation called the A-state. A-states have characteristics expected for the molten globule, a notional kinetic protein folding intermediate. Here we show that the addition of neutral sugars to solutions of acid-denatured equine ferricytochrome c induces formation of the A-state in the absence of added salt. We characterized the structure and stability of the sugar-induced A-state with circular dichroism spectropolarimetry (CD) and NMR-monitored hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments. We also examined the stability of the sugar-induced A-state as a function of sugar size and concentration. The results are interpreted using several models and we conclude that the stabilizing effect is consistent with increased steric repulsion between the protein and the sugar solutions.

  12. La technologie offre de nouvelles possibilités aux femmes | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    information et de la communication (TIC), il ne s'agit pas d'une simple question de fossé numérique à combler. À son avis, il s'agit en fait d'exploiter les possibilités des TIC non seulement en tant qu'outils de communication, mais ...

  13. La technologie offre de nouvelles possibilités aux femmes | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    information et de la communication (TIC), il ne s'agit pas d'une simple question de fossé numérique à combler. À son avis, il s'agit en fait d'exploiter les possibilités des TIC non seulement en tant qu'outils de communication, mais ...

  14. Fractal Globule as a model of DNA folding in eukaryotes (United States)

    Imakaev, Maksim; Mirny, Leonid


    A recent study (Lieberman-Aiden et al., Science, 2009) observed that the structure of the genome, on the scale of a few megabases, is consistent with a fractal globule. The fractal globule is a quasi-equilibrium state of a polymer after a rapid collapse. First proposed theoretically in 1988, this structure had never been simulated. Fractal globule was seen as a state, in which each subchain is compact, and doesn't mix with other subchains due to their mutual unentanglement (topological constraints). We use GPU-assisted dynamics to create fractal globules of different sizes and observe their dynamics. Our simulations confirm that a polymer after rapid collapse has compact subchains. We measure the scaling of looping probability of a subchain with it's length, and observe the remarkably robust inverse proportionality. Dynamic simulation of the equilibration of this state show that it exhibits Rose type subdiffusion. Due to diffusion, fractal globule quickly degrades to a quasi-equilibrium state, in which subchains of a polymer are mixed, but topologically unentangled. We propose that separation of spatial and topological equilibration of a polymer chain might have implications in different fields of physics.

  15. [Globule size and the activation energy of an enzymatic process]. (United States)

    Krishtalik, L I


    The charge transfer reactions demand the polar medium reorganization the main part in the process energy being contributed by solvent reorganization. Protein globule excludes a part of the solvent from the interaction with the charge being transfered. Thus a strong decrease of the reorganization energy and hence of the activation energy is achieved (the gain of some kcal/mole). The effect rises at first rapidly with the globule radius but it becomes practically constant after some optimal radius is reached. The estimation of the optimal radius gives values of the order of magnitude of the enzymes molecule sizes.

  16. L'eau dans les villes : de multiples menaces… et possibilités | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 déc. 2010 ... Les migrants ruraux se rendent généralement en ville dans l'espoir d'y trouver un plus grand éventail de possibilités et un gagne-pain plus sûr, mais souvent, leurs tentatives échouent. D'après les Nations Unies, un milliard de gens vivent dans les bidonvilles, essentiellement en Asie (550 millions), ...

  17. Subnuclear globules in simple mucinous glands of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Susanne; Ingeholm, P.


    Pyloric and duodenal Brunner glands may be the site of a peculiar cytoplasmic change characterized by clear vacuoles or glassy eosinophilic globules, occupying a subnuclear position with displacement of the nuclei towards the lumenal surface. To our knowledge this previously documented,5,6 although...

  18. Effect of some stabilizing agents on globule characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of some stabilizing agents (cassava, maize and bentonite mucilages) on globule characteristics and rheological properties of oil in water emulsions. Emulsions were prepared by mixing varying proportions of the mucilages with Arachis oil in the ratio of 60:40 (oil: water) with the aid of a ...

  19. Patrick Blanc'i rippuvad aiad / Urmas Grišakov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grišakov, Urmas, 1942-2013


    Prantsuse botaaniku ja aiakujundaja Patrick Blanc'i taeva poole kõrguvad rohelised seinad võimaldavad tänapäeval imetleda inimese loovuse ja teadmiste koostöös sündinut. Kujundaja on oma töödega tõestanud, et taimed võivad edukalt kasvada ka vertikaalselt üksteise kohal. Patrick Blanc'i kodulehekülg:

  20. Rosette nebula globules: Seahorse giving birth to a star (United States)

    Mäkelä, M. M.; Haikala, L. K.; Gahm, G. F.


    Context. The Rosette nebula is an H II region ionized mainly by the stellar cluster NGC 2244. Elephant trunks, globules, and globulettes are seen at the interface where the H II region and the surrounding molecular shell meet. Aims: We have observed a field in the northwestern part of the Rosette nebula where we study the small globules protruding from the shell. Our aim is to measure their properties and study their star-formation history in continuation of our earlier study of the features of the region. Methods: We imaged the region in broadband near-infrared (NIR) JsHKs filters and narrowband H2 1-0 S(1), Pβ, and continuum filters using the SOFI camera at the ESO/NTT. The imaging was used to study the stellar population and surface brightness, create visual extinction maps, and locate star formation. Mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer IRAC and WISE and optical NOT images were used to further study the star formation and the structure of the globules. The NIR and MIR observations indicate an outflow, which is confirmed with CO observations made with APEX. Results: The globules have mean number densities of 4.6 × 104 cm-3. Pβ is seen in absorption in the cores of the globules where we measure visual extinctions of 11-16 mag. The shell and the globules have bright rims in the observed bands. In the Ks band 20 to 40% of the emission is due to fluorescent emission in the 2.12 μmH2 line similar to the tiny dense globulettes we studied earlier in a nearby region. We identify several stellar NIR excess candidates and four of them are also detected in the Spitzer IRAC 8.0 μm image and studied further. We find an outflow with a cavity wall bright in the 2.124 μmH2 line and at 8.0 μm in one of the globules. The outflow originates from a Class I young stellar object (YSO) embedded deep inside the globule. An Hα image suggests the YSO drives a possible parsec-scale outflow. Despite the morphology of the globule, the outflow does not seem to run inside the dusty fingers

  1. Proteome profile and biological activity of caprine, bovine and human milk fat globules. (United States)

    Spertino, Stefano; Cipriani, Valentina; De Angelis, Chiara; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Marsano, Francesco; Cavaletto, Maria


    Upon combining bidimensional electrophoresis with monodimensional separation, a more comprehensive analysis of the milk fat globule membrane has been obtained. The proteomic profile of caprine milk fat globules revealed the presence of butyrophilin, lactadherin and perilipin as the major proteins, they were also associated to bovine and human milk fat globule membranes. Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase has been detected only in monodimensional gels. Biological activity of milk fat globules has been evaluated in Caco2-cells, as a representative model of the intestinal barrier. The increase of cell viability was indicative of a potential nutraceutical role for the whole milk fat globule, suggesting a possible employment in milk formula preparation.

  2. Milk fat globule membrane and buttermilks: from composition to valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderghem, C.


    Full Text Available Buttermilk, the by-product from butter manufacture, is low cost and available in large quantities but has been considered for many years as invaluable. However, over the last two decades it has gained considerable attention due to its specific composition in proteins and polar lipids from the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM. The aim of this review is to take stock of current buttermilk knowledge. Firstly, the milk fat globule membrane composition and structure are described. Secondly, buttermilk and its associated products are defined according to the milk fat making process. Structure and mean composition of these products are summarized from recent dairy research data and related to technological properties, especially the emulsifying properties provided by MFGM components. Finally, new applications are presented, leading to promising valorizations of buttermilk and its derivate products.

  3. Anticariogenic and phytochemical evaluation of Eucalyptus globules Labill. (United States)

    Ishnava, Kalpesh B.; Chauhan, Jenabhai B.; Barad, Mahesh B.


    In the present study, in vitro anticariogenic potential of ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol and aqueous extracts of plant leaves of Eucalyptus globules Labill. were evaluated by using four cariogenic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. Agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used for this purpose. The ethyl acetate extracted fraction of plant leaves showed good inhibitory effects against all selected bacteria. In Eucalyptus globules, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts found highly effective against, Lactobacillus acidophilus with MIC value of 0.031 and 0.062 mg/mL, respectively. Qualitative phytochemical investigation of above extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, phenolic compounds, steroids, cardiac glycosides and terpenes. Based on the MIC value and bioautography, ethyl acetate of plant leaf was selected for further study. Further investigation on the structure elucidation of the bioactive compound using IR, GC-MS and NMR techniques revealed the presence of alpha-farnesene, a sesquiterpene. Eucalyptus globules plant leaf extracts have great potential as anticariogenic agents that may be useful in the treatment of oral disease. PMID:23961222

  4. Sulfur globule oxidation in green sulfur bacteria is dependent on the dissimilatory sulfite reductase system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holkenbrink, Carina; Ocón Barbas, Santiago; Mellerup, Anders


    Green sulfur bacteria oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to sulfate with extracellular globules of elemental sulfur as intermediate. Here we investigated which genes are involved in the formation and consumption of these sulfur globules in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum. We show...... that sulfur globule oxidation is strictly dependent on the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) system. Deletion of dsrM/CT2244 or dsrT/CT2245 or the two dsrCABL clusters (CT0851-CT0854, CT2247-2250) abolished sulfur globule oxidation and prevented formation of sulfate from sulfide, whereas deletion of dsr...

  5. Whole Genome Sequence of the Treponema Fribourg-Blanc: Unspecified Simian Isolate Is Highly Similar to the Yaws Subspecies (United States)

    Zobaníková, Marie; Strouhal, Michal; Mikalová, Lenka; Čejková, Darina; Ambrožová, Lenka; Pospíšilová, Petra; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Chen, Lei; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Šmajs, David


    Background Unclassified simian strain Treponema Fribourg-Blanc was isolated in 1966 from baboons (Papio cynocephalus) in West Africa. This strain was morphologically indistinguishable from T. pallidum ssp. pallidum or ssp. pertenue strains, and it was shown to cause human infections. Methodology/Principal Findings To precisely define genetic differences between Treponema Fribourg-Blanc (unclassified simian isolate, FB) and T. pallidum ssp. pertenue strains (TPE), a high quality sequence of the whole Fribourg-Blanc genome was determined with 454-pyrosequencing and Illumina sequencing platforms. Combined average coverage of both methods was greater than 500×. Restriction target sites (n = 1,773), identified in silico, of selected restriction enzymes within the Fribourg-Blanc genome were verified experimentally and no discrepancies were found. When compared to the other three sequenced TPE genomes (Samoa D, CDC-2, Gauthier), no major genome rearrangements were found. The Fribourg-Blanc genome clustered with other TPE strains (especially with the TPE CDC-2 strain), while T. pallidum ssp. pallidum strains clustered separately as well as the genome of T. paraluiscuniculi strain Cuniculi A. Within coding regions, 6 deletions, 5 insertions and 117 substitutions differentiated Fribourg-Blanc from other TPE genomes. Conclusions/Significance The Fribourg-Blanc genome showed similar genetic characteristics as other TPE strains. Therefore, we propose to rename the unclassified simian isolate to Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue strain Fribourg-Blanc. Since the Fribourg-Blanc strain was shown to cause experimental infection in human hosts, non-human primates could serve as possible reservoirs of TPE strains. This could considerably complicate recent efforts to eradicate yaws. Genetic differences specific for Fribourg-Blanc could then contribute for identification of cases of animal-derived yaws infections. PMID:23638193

  6. Whole genome sequence of the Treponema Fribourg-Blanc: unspecified simian isolate is highly similar to the yaws subspecies. (United States)

    Zobaníková, Marie; Strouhal, Michal; Mikalová, Lenka; Cejková, Darina; Ambrožová, Lenka; Pospíšilová, Petra; Fulton, Lucinda L; Chen, Lei; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M; Smajs, David


    Unclassified simian strain Treponema Fribourg-Blanc was isolated in 1966 from baboons (Papio cynocephalus) in West Africa. This strain was morphologically indistinguishable from T. pallidum ssp. pallidum or ssp. pertenue strains, and it was shown to cause human infections. To precisely define genetic differences between Treponema Fribourg-Blanc (unclassified simian isolate, FB) and T. pallidum ssp. pertenue strains (TPE), a high quality sequence of the whole Fribourg-Blanc genome was determined with 454-pyrosequencing and Illumina sequencing platforms. Combined average coverage of both methods was greater than 500×. Restriction target sites (n = 1,773), identified in silico, of selected restriction enzymes within the Fribourg-Blanc genome were verified experimentally and no discrepancies were found. When compared to the other three sequenced TPE genomes (Samoa D, CDC-2, Gauthier), no major genome rearrangements were found. The Fribourg-Blanc genome clustered with other TPE strains (especially with the TPE CDC-2 strain), while T. pallidum ssp. pallidum strains clustered separately as well as the genome of T. paraluiscuniculi strain Cuniculi A. Within coding regions, 6 deletions, 5 insertions and 117 substitutions differentiated Fribourg-Blanc from other TPE genomes. The Fribourg-Blanc genome showed similar genetic characteristics as other TPE strains. Therefore, we propose to rename the unclassified simian isolate to Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue strain Fribourg-Blanc. Since the Fribourg-Blanc strain was shown to cause experimental infection in human hosts, non-human primates could serve as possible reservoirs of TPE strains. This could considerably complicate recent efforts to eradicate yaws. Genetic differences specific for Fribourg-Blanc could then contribute for identification of cases of animal-derived yaws infections.

  7. Dust in the outer layers of the Barnard 5 globule (United States)

    Il'in, V. B.; Efimov, Yu S.; Khudyakova, T. N.; Prokopjeva, M. S.; Varivoda, V. V.


    We present the results of our UBVRI polarimetric observations of a dozen stars located close to the well-studied Bok globule Barnard 5 (B5), with several of the stars being seen through its outer layers (with AV up to ˜3 mag). Using recent astrometric, spectroscopic and photometric surveys, we estimate the distance, spectral class and visual extinction for the observed stars and find that the results are in a good agreement with the available 3D extinction maps. We use a two-layer dust model of interstellar polarization towards B5, in which the layer closer to us is an extension of the Taurus cloud complex, and the farther one (including B5 and its halo) is related to the Perseus cloud complex (d ≈ 280-350 pc). Using spectral, photometric and polarimetric data on about 30 additional stars, we estimate the parameters of the former layer as λmax ≈ 0.56 μm, Pmax ≈ 0.7 per cent, θ ≈ 50°, AV ≈ 0.7 mag, and show that the observed wavelength dependence of the position angle for the stars observed generally agrees with the two-layer model. We find that when the stars are seen through the globule layers with AV = 2-3 mag, λmax ≈ 0.6-0.8 μm, which differs significantly from the λmax = 0.52-0.58 μm obtained by us for the diffuse interstellar medium in the direction of B5. We discuss the correlation of λmax with the optical thickness into the globule as well as other correlations of the extinction and polarization parameters.

  8. In situ observation of D-rich carbonaceous globules embedded in NWA 801 CR2 chondrite (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Minako; Kobayashi, Sachio; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi


    Eighty-five D-rich carbonaceous particles were identified in the matrix of the NWA 801 CR2 chondrite using isotope microscopy. The occurrence of 67 D-rich carbonaceous particles was characterized using secondary electron microscopy combined with X-ray elemental mapping. The close association of H and C, and D-enrichment suggests that the D-rich carbonaceous particles correspond to organic matter. The D-rich organic particles were scattered ubiquitously throughout the matrix at a concentration of approximately 660 ppm. The morphology of the D-rich carbonaceous particles is globular up to about 1 μm in diameter and is classified into four types: ring globules, round globules, irregular-shaped globules, and globule aggregates. The ring globules are ring-shaped organic matter containing silicate and/or oxide, with or without a void in the center. This is the first report of silicate and oxide grains surrounded by D-rich organic matter. The globule aggregates are composed of several D-rich organic globules mixed with silicates. Morphology of ring globules is very similar to core-mantle grain produced in the molecular cloud or in the outer solar nebula inferring by astronomy, suggesting that the organic globules have formed by UV photolysis in the ice mantle. Silicates or oxides attached to D-rich organic globules are the first observation among chondrites so far and may be unique nature of CR2 chondrites. The hydrogen isotopic compositions of the ring globules, round globules, irregular-shaped globules, and globule aggregates are δD = 3000-4800, 2900-8100, 2700-11,000, and 2500-11,000‰, respectively. Variations of D/H ratio of these organic globules seemed to be attributed to variations of D/H ratio of the organic radicals or differences of content of the D-rich organic radicals. There are no significant differences in the hydrogen isotopic compositions among the four types of D-rich carbonaceous matter. The D-enrichments suggest that these organic globules have

  9. Réponse du fonio blanc ( Digitaria exilis Stapf) à l'inoculation avec ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Réponse du fonio blanc (Digitaria exilis Stapf) à l'inoculation avec des champignons mycorhiziens à arbuscules en conditions semi-contrôlées. Fatou Ndoye, Abdala G. Diedhiou, Moustapha Gueye, Dioumacor Fall, Adeline Barnaud, Mame O. Sy, Kandioura Noba, Diegane Diouf, Aboubacry Kane ...

  10. Topological switching between an alpha-beta parallel protein and a remarkably helical molten globule.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, S.M.; Westphal, A.H.; Toorn, M. aan den; Lindhoud, S.; Mierlo, C.P. van


    Partially folded protein species transiently exist during folding of most proteins. Often these species are molten globules, which may be on- or off-pathway to native protein. Molten globules have a substantial amount of secondary structure but lack virtually all the tertiary side-chain packing

  11. Topological switching between an a-ß parallel protein and a remarkably helical molten globule.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, S.M.; Westphal, A.H.; Toorn, aan den M.; Lindhoud, S.; Mierlo, van C.P.M.


    Partially folded protein species transiently exist during folding of most proteins. Often these species are molten globules, which may be on- or off-pathway to native protein. Molten globules have a substantial amount of secondary structure but lack virtually all the tertiary side-chain packing

  12. Chromatin in fractal globule state: evidence from comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanasieva K. S.


    Full Text Available At higher order levels chromatin is organized into loops that appear as a result of contacts between distant loci. The aim of this work was to investigate the length distribution of the DNA loops in nucleoids obtained after lysis of either whole cells or isolated cell nuclei. Methods. We used single cell gel electrophoresis to analyze the kinetics of the DNA loop migration from the two nucleoid types. Results. The kinetics of the DNA exit was found to have specific features for the two types of nucleoids. At the same time, in both cases, the DNA amount in the electrophoretic track depends linearly on the length of the longest loops in the track. Conclusions. We have concluded that for the loops up to ~ 100 kb the length distribution appears to be consistent with the fractal globule organization.

  13. Proteomics of the milk fat globule membrane from Camelus dromedarius. (United States)

    Saadaoui, Besma; Henry, Céline; Khorchani, Touhami; Mars, Mohamed; Martin, Patrice; Cebo, Christelle


    Camel milk has been widely characterized with regards to casein and whey proteins. However, in camelids, almost nothing is known about the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), the membrane surrounding fat globules in milk. The purpose of this study was thus to identify MFGM proteins from Camelus dromedarius milk. Major MFGM proteins (namely, fatty acid synthase, xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin, lactadherin, and adipophilin) already evidenced in cow milk were identified in camel milk using MS. In addition, a 1D-LC-MS/MS approach led us to identify 322 functional groups of proteins associated with the camel MFGM. Dromedary MFGM proteins were then classified into functional categories using DAVID (the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) bioinformatics resources. More than 50% of MFGM proteins from camel milk were found to be integral membrane proteins (mostly belonging to the plasma membrane), or proteins associated to the membrane. Enriched GO terms associated with MFGM proteins from camel milk were protein transport (p-value = 1.73 × 10(-14)), translation (p-value = 1.08 × 10(-11)), lipid biosynthetic process (p-value = 6.72 × 10(-10)), hexose metabolic process (p-value = 1.89 × 10(-04)), and actin cytoskeleton organization (p-value = 2.72 × 10(-04)). These findings will help to contribute to a better characterization of camel milk. Identified MFGM proteins from camel milk may also provide new insight into lipid droplet formation in the mammary epithelial cell. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Major proteins of the goat milk fat globule membrane. (United States)

    Cebo, C; Caillat, H; Bouvier, F; Martin, P


    Fat is present in milk as droplets of triglycerides surrounded by a complex membrane derived from the mammary epithelial cell called milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Although numerous studies have been published on human or bovine MFGM proteins, to date few studies exist on MFGM proteins from goat milk. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the protein composition of the goat MFGM. Milk fat globule membrane proteins from goat milk were separated by 6% and 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE and were Coomassie or periodic acid-Schiff stained. Most of MFGM proteins [mucin-1, fatty acid synthase, xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin, lactadherin (MFG EGF-8, MFG-E8), and adipophilin] already described in cow milk were identified in goat milk using peptide mass fingerprinting. In addition, lectin staining provided a preliminary characterization of carbohydrate structures occurring on MFGM proteins from goat milk depending on alpha(S1)-casein genotype and lactation stage. We provide here first evidence of the presence of O-glycans on fatty acid synthase and xanthine oxidase from goat milk. A prominent difference between the cow and the goat species was demonstrated for lactadherin. Indeed, whereas 2 polypeptide chains were easily identified by peptide mass fingerprinting matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight analysis within bovine MFGM proteins, lactadherin from goat milk consisted of a single polypeptide chain. Another striking observation was the presence of caseins associated with MFGM preparations from goat milk, whereas virtually no caseins were found in MFGM extracts from bovine milk. Taken together, these observations strongly support the existence of a singular secretion mode previously hypothesized in the goat.

  15. Intramedullary fat globules related to bone trauma: a new MR imaging finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Adelaine; Grando, Higor; Fliszar, Evelyne; Pathria, Mini; Resnick, Donald [UCSD Radiology, Musculoskeletal Division, San Diego, CA (United States); Chang, Eric Y. [UCSD Radiology, Musculoskeletal Division, San Diego, CA (United States); VA San Diego Healthcare System, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)


    The purpose of this study is to describe intraosseous fat globules related to bone trauma that are detectable with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to define the relationship of this finding to fracture and bone contusion, to establish the frequency and associated findings. A proposed pathogenesis is presented. We retrospectively reviewed 419 knee MRI examinations in patients with a history of recent injury and MRI findings of fracture or bone contusion. As a control population, 268 knee MRI examinations in patients without MRI findings of recent bone injury were also reviewed. Eight of 419 (1.9 %) patients with acute or subacute knee injury with positive findings of osseous trauma on MRI demonstrated intraosseous fat globules. The mean age of patients with fat globules was greater than that of those without fat globules, and the finding was more commonly seen in women. Fat globules were hyperintense to the normal fatty marrow present elsewhere in the bone on TI-weighted imaging and had a surrounding halo of high signal intensity on fluid-sensitive imaging. Intramedullary fat globules related to bone injury visible on MRI are thought to be due to coalesced fat released by the necrosis of fatty marrow cells. The pathogenesis is supported by histologic studies of fat globules related to osteomyelitis, bone contusions and fractures. As the medullary cavity of long bones in older patients contains more fat than hematopoetic bone marrow, it is likely that this finding is more common with advancing age. (orig.)

  16. Drug Use on Mont Blanc: A Study Using Automated Urine Collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Robach

    Full Text Available Mont Blanc, the summit of Western Europe, is a popular but demanding high-altitude ascent. Drug use is thought to be widespread among climbers attempting this summit, not only to prevent altitude illnesses, but also to boost physical and/or psychological capacities. This practice may be unsafe in this remote alpine environment. However, robust data on medication during the ascent of Mont Blanc are lacking. Individual urine samples from male climbers using urinals in mountain refuges on access routes to Mont Blanc (Goûter and Cosmiques mountain huts were blindly and anonymously collected using a hidden automatic sampler. Urine samples were screened for a wide range of drugs, including diuretics, glucocorticoids, stimulants, hypnotics and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5 inhibitors. Out of 430 samples analyzed from both huts, 35.8% contained at least one drug. Diuretics (22.7% and hypnotics (12.9% were the most frequently detected drugs, while glucocorticoids (3.5% and stimulants (3.1% were less commonly detected. None of the samples contained PDE-5 inhibitors. Two substances were predominant: the diuretic acetazolamide (20.6% and the hypnotic zolpidem (8.4%. Thirty three samples were found positive for at least two substances, the most frequent combination being acetazolamide and a hypnotic (2.1%. Based on a novel sampling technique, we demonstrate that about one third of the urine samples collected from a random sample of male climbers contained one or several drugs, suggesting frequent drug use amongst climbers ascending Mont Blanc. Our data suggest that medication primarily aims at mitigating the symptoms of altitude illnesses, rather than enhancing performance. In this hazardous environment, the relatively high prevalence of hypnotics must be highlighted, since these molecules may alter vigilance.

  17. Drug Use on Mont Blanc: A Study Using Automated Urine Collection (United States)

    Robach, Paul; Trebes, Gilles; Lasne, Françoise; Buisson, Corinne; Méchin, Nathalie; Mazzarino, Monica; de la Torre, Xavier; Roustit, Matthieu; Kérivel, Patricia; Botré, Francesco; Bouzat, Pierre


    Mont Blanc, the summit of Western Europe, is a popular but demanding high-altitude ascent. Drug use is thought to be widespread among climbers attempting this summit, not only to prevent altitude illnesses, but also to boost physical and/or psychological capacities. This practice may be unsafe in this remote alpine environment. However, robust data on medication during the ascent of Mont Blanc are lacking. Individual urine samples from male climbers using urinals in mountain refuges on access routes to Mont Blanc (Goûter and Cosmiques mountain huts) were blindly and anonymously collected using a hidden automatic sampler. Urine samples were screened for a wide range of drugs, including diuretics, glucocorticoids, stimulants, hypnotics and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Out of 430 samples analyzed from both huts, 35.8% contained at least one drug. Diuretics (22.7%) and hypnotics (12.9%) were the most frequently detected drugs, while glucocorticoids (3.5%) and stimulants (3.1%) were less commonly detected. None of the samples contained PDE-5 inhibitors. Two substances were predominant: the diuretic acetazolamide (20.6%) and the hypnotic zolpidem (8.4%). Thirty three samples were found positive for at least two substances, the most frequent combination being acetazolamide and a hypnotic (2.1%). Based on a novel sampling technique, we demonstrate that about one third of the urine samples collected from a random sample of male climbers contained one or several drugs, suggesting frequent drug use amongst climbers ascending Mont Blanc. Our data suggest that medication primarily aims at mitigating the symptoms of altitude illnesses, rather than enhancing performance. In this hazardous environment, the relatively high prevalence of hypnotics must be highlighted, since these molecules may alter vigilance. PMID:27253728

  18. The research program of the Liquid Scintillation Detector (LSD) in the Mont Blanc Laboratory (United States)

    Dadykin, V. L.; Yakushev, V. F.; Korchagin, P. V.; Korchagin, V. B.; Malgin, A. S.; Ryassny, F. G.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Talochkin, V. P.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Badino, G.


    A massive (90 tons) liquid scintillation detector (LSD) has been running since October 1984 in the Mont Blanc Laboratory at a depth of 5,200 hg/sq cm of standard rock. The research program of the experiment covers a variety of topics in particle physics and astrophysics. The performance of the detector, the main fields of research are presented and the preliminary results are discussed.

  19. qualite des eaux du bandama-blanc (cote d'ivoire) et de ses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    161. Qualité des eaux du Bandama-blanc (Côte d'Ivoire). ECHANTILLONNAGE ET ANALYSE DES. MICRO-ALGUES. Des récoltes destinées à l'étude des ...... saumâtre. Thèse de doctorat, Université. Paul Cézanne (Aix-Marseille III), 307 p. Compère P. 1989. Flore pratique des algues d'eau douce de Belgique. Tome 2.

  20. Classification of Argentinean Sauvignon blanc wines by UV spectroscopy and chemometric methods. (United States)

    Azcarate, Silvana Mariela; Cantarelli, Miguel Ángel; Pellerano, Roberto Gerardo; Marchevsky, Eduardo Jorge; Camiña, José Manuel


    Argentina is an important worldwide wine producer. In this country, there are several recognizable provinces that produce Sauvignon blanc wines: Neuquén, Río Negro, Mendoza, and San Juan. The analysis of the provenance of these white wines is complex and requires the use of expensive and time-consuming techniques. For this reason, this work discusses the determination of the provenance of Argentinean Sauvignon blanc wines by the use of UV spectroscopy and chemometric methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The proposed method requires low-cost equipment and short-time analysis in comparison with other techniques. The results are in very good agreement with results based on the geographical origin of Sauvignon blanc wines. This manuscript describes a method to determine the geographical origin of Sauvignon wines from Argentina. The main advantage of this method is the use of nonexpensive techniques, such as UV-Vis spectroscopy. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. ALP-RISK, a smartphone app for collecting data on geomorphic phenomena at high altitude in the Mont Blanc region (United States)

    Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip


    A network of observers (mountain guides, hut keepers and mountaineers) has been created from 2005 for the Mont Blanc massif in order to acquire data on rockfall in permafrost-affected rock walls. This network, fully operational since 2007, is based on observation sheets or oral communications and has documented nearly 350 events with volume between 100 and 45,000 m3. Their analysis confirmed and helped to better understand the role of the permafrost degradation as main triggering factor. To i) reinforce this network, ii) facilitate its observation work and iii) develop it as well in space (the whole Mont Blanc region, or eventually the whole western Alps) as in a thematic point of view (all glacial and periglacial brutal phenomena), the Alp-Risk app has been created in the framework of the Alcotra PrévRisk Mont-Blanc project. The latter (2011-13) has been developed to improve the prevention of individual and collective natural hazards around the Mont Blanc massif. The app was created for I-Phones and Androids in three languages (French, English and Italian) and allows, as intuitively and quickly as possible, transmitting data on natural hazards in high mountain (snow and ice avalanche, landslides and rockfalls, landslides, moraine destabilization, water pocket outburst flood, torrential flood, and others) to both practitioners (observations available directly on the app via an interface web), scientists, and possibly local managers. Alp-Risk thus constitutes a new step for participatory science in the Mont Blanc region.

  2. Possibilità di utilizzo agricolo di fertilizzanti di nuova formulazione derivanti da sotto prodotti del ciclo conciario




    Il cromo, nella forma trivalente (CrIII)è un importante componente per la salute umana e animale, mentre il CrVI è altamente tossico e cancerogeno causando la morte se ingerito ad elevate dosi. Negli ultimi anni sono stati definiti i limiti accettabili del contenuto di cromo nei biosolidi o fanghi di conceria per una loro utilizzazione nel suolo in agricoltura. In questa ricerca si è studiato la possibilità di riutilizzo in agricoltura dei fanghi e di altri sottoprodotti del ciclo conciario c...

  3. Influence of Mucilage Viscosity On The Globule Structure And Stability Of Certain Starch Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhumwangho MU


    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the influence of mucilage viscosity on the globule structure (i.e. size and number of certain starch emulsions. The starches investigated were cassava, potato and maize. The emulsions were prepared by mixing the starch mucilage of a predetermined concentration 4%w/v with arachis oil in the ratio 50:50, using a silverson mixer fitted with a dispersator head. The emulsions were stored at room temperature (28±20C for 7 days. Changes in globule size were monitored by photomicroscopy. Viscosities of the mucilage and those of resulting emulsions were determined using a capillary flow method. The viscosities of the emulsions expressed as time of flow (seconds, were 680 (cassava starch, 369 (potato starch and 270 (Maize starch, and for the mucilage 510 (cassava, 336 (potato and 248 (maize. The corresponding mean globule sizes of the fresh emulsions were (µm 28±6, 42±6 and 45±5 respectively. The increase in globule size during storage (measure of globule coalescence rate was 1.8±0.2µm day -1 (cassava, 3.5±0.2µm day -1 (potato and 4.6±0.3µm day -1 (maize. Thus, a higher viscosity of the dispersion medium is associated with the production of finer and more stable emulsions.

  4. The Effect of Sterilization on Size and Shape of Fat Globules in Model Processed Cheese Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tremlová


    Full Text Available Model cheese samples from 4 independent productions were heat sterilized (117 °C, 20 minutes after the melting process and packing with an aim to prolong their durability. The objective of the study was to assess changes in the size and shape of fat globules due to heat sterilization by using image analysis methods. The study included a selection of suitable methods of preparation mounts, taking microphotographs and making overlays for automatic processing of photographs by image analyser, ascertaining parameters to determine the size and shape of fat globules and statistical analysis of results obtained. The results of the experiment suggest that changes in shape of fat globules due to heat sterilization are not unequivocal. We found that the size of fat globules was significantly increased (p < 0.01 due to heat sterilization (117 °C, 20 min, and the shares of small fat globules (up to 500 μm2, or 100 μm2 in the samples of heat sterilized processed cheese were decreased. The results imply that the image analysis method is very useful when assessing the effect of technological process on the quality of processed cheese quality.

  5. Globules, dark clouds, and low mass pre-main sequence stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyland, A.R.


    The current observational and theoretical literature on Bok globules and their relationship to star formation is reviewed. Recent observations of globules at optical, infrared, and far infrared wavelengths are shown to provide important constraints on their structure and evolutionary status, and the suggestion that many globules are gravitationally unstable is seriously questioned. Dark clouds associated with T associations are well-known sites of recent and continuing star formation. In recent years molecular observations and far infrared surveys have provided maps of such regions from which possible sites of star formation may be identified. Optical (Hα) and near infrared surveys have enabled a clear identification of pre-main sequence (PMS) objects within the clouds. Methods of distinguishing these from background objects and the nature of their infrared excesses are examined in the light of recent observations in the near and far infrared. The perennial question as to the existence of anomalous reddening within dark clouds is also investigated. (Auth.)

  6. Organic Globules from the Cold Far Reaches of the Proto-Solar Disk (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.


    Keiko Nakamura-Messenger and colleagues at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, studied minute globules of organic material in the Taglish Lake carbonaceous chondrite. This meteorite was collected soon after it fell, so is fresh and likely to be uncontaminated with terrestrial organic compounds. Using microanalytical techniques the NASA team found that the globules had hydrogen and nitrogen isotopic compositions consistent with chemical reactions at strikingly frigid temperatures, only 10 to 20 K (-253 to -263 degrees C). Temperatures that low occur in cold, interstellar molecular clouds like the one that collapsed to form the Solar System or in the outermost part of the disk surrounding the Sun when it was forming. These organic globules might represent the type of prebiotic carbon compounds that were delivered to young Earth.

  7. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berna, Amalia Z.; Trowell, Stephen; Clifford, David; Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel


    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  8. The restoration of thrust systems and displacement continuity around the Mont Blanc massif, NW external Alpine thrust belt (United States)

    Butler, Robert W. H.

    Foreland-propagating external thrust belts may be considered as essentially plane strain phenomena so that displacements can be correlated throughout their linked, three-dimensional fault geometry. This approach has been applied to part of the northwest external French-Swiss Alps, around the Mont Blanc basement massif. Imbricates of basement and cover sequences on the SW margin of this massif restore to a width in excess of 77 km with an implicit shortening of at least 67 km. These displacements can be correlated with those in the neighbouring Helvetic nappes by transferring movements, via lateral branch lines, onto the Mont Blanc thrust. By reappraising thrust geometries, the Helvetic/Ultrahelvetic nappe complex has been restored to a width of 114 km to the ESE of the Aiguilles Rouges basement massif. Displacements on the internal (SE) margin of the Mont Blanc massif, estimated by balanced sections and a restoration of the Ultrahelvetic klippen in the sub-alps, exceed 59 km. Thrust continuity, incorporating the restorations of nappes and imbricate geometries around the Mont Blanc massif, is illustrated on a crude, restored branch-line map which also serves as a preliminary palaeogeographic reconstruction. External thrust systems, to the east of the external Belledonne/Aiguilles Rouges massif, restore to a width of at least 140 km in the footwall to the Frontal Pennine thrust.

  9. Effects of Size and Stability of Native Fat Globules on the Formation of Milk Gel Induced by Rennet. (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Wang, Yuhan; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng


    Rennet-induced gelation crucially impacts cheese structure. In this study, effects of the size and stability of native fat globules on the kinetics of rennet-induced coagulation were revealed by determining the caseinomacropeptide release rate and rheological properties of milk. Moreover, the mobility and stability of fat globules during renneting was revealed using diffusing wave spectroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. By use of a 2-stage gravity separation combined centrifugation scheme, native fat globules were selectively separated into small (SFG, D 4,3 = 1.87 ± 0.02 μm) and large fat globules (LFG, D 4,3 = 5.65 ± 0.03 μm). The protein and fat content of SFG and LFG milk were then standardized to 3.2 g/100 mL and 1.2 g/100 mL, respectively. The milk containing different sized globules were then subjected to renneting experiments in the laboratory. Reduction of globule size accelerated the aggregation of casein micelles during renneting, giving a shorter gelation time and earlier 1/l * change. The gel produced from LFG milk was broken due to coalescent fat globules and generated coarser gel strands compared to the finer strands formed with SFG milk. Structural differences were also confirmed with a higher final storage modulus of the curd made from SFG milk than that from the LFG. In conclusion, the size of fat globules affects the aggregation of casein micelles. Moreover, fat globule coalescence and creaming during renneting, also affects the structure of the rennet gel. A better understanding of the size of globules effect on milk gelation could lead to the development of cheese with specific properties. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Star-Formation in Free-Floating Evaporating Gaseous Globules (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    How the evolutionary details of the star formation process (e.g., IMF, binary fraction, star formation efficiency, total extent and mass of star clusters) depend on the local environment is a major question in astrophysics. Massive stars have a strong feedback effect on their environment, via their winds, UV radiation, and ultimately, supernova blast waves, all of which can alter the likelihood for the formation of stars in nearby clouds and limit the accretion process of nearby protostars. But the complex structural make-up (revealed in exquisite detail by many modern studies using HST, Spitzer, WISE, & Herschel) of star-forming clouds in massive star-forming regions (MSFRs) has made it difficult, in spite of decades of study, to reach definitive, quantitative conclusions about the various physical processes at play in producing ``triggered" star formation. All of these issues can now be addressed using a newly recognized class of stellar nurseries embedded within giant HII regions: free-floating Evaporating Gaseous Globules having cometary shapes (frEGGs). We serendipitously discovered two frEGGs in the Cygnus massive star-forming region with HST. Our preliminary exmaination of the Spitzer archive has revealed a potentially much larger number. We used molecular-line observations showing the presence of dense clouds with total masses of cold molecular gas exceeding 0.5 to a few Msun associated with these objects, thereby disproving the initial hypothesis based on their morphology that these were similar to the proplyds (cometary-shaped photoevaporating protoplanetary disks) found in Orion (Sahai et al. 2012a,b). By virtue of their distinct, isolated morphologies, frEGGS offer us an exciting, new "clean-cut" probe of the star formation process in the vicinity of massive star clusters. And finally, frEGGs offer us an opportunity to study the earliest analogs of the physical environment where our Sun was born, since, like frEGGs, the protosolar nebula is believed to

  11. About iron globules formed at cooling of iron-contained plasma (United States)

    Bulina, N. V.; Gromyko, A. I.; Bondarenko, G. V.; Marachevsky, A. V.; Chekanova, L. A.; Prokof'ev, D. E.; Churilov, G. N.


    This paper is devoted to the investigation of iron globules that are formed during cooling of the iron-carbon-helium plasma and as a result of destruction of a natural ball lightning. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and ferromagnetic resonance investigations were carried out. The magnetization values of the samplers were determined.

  12. Infrared study of new star cluster candidates associated to dusty globules (United States)

    Soto King, P.; Barbá, R.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Jaque, M.; Firpo, V.; Nilo, J. L.; Soto, M.; Minniti, D.


    We present results from a study of a sample of small star clusters associated to dusty globules and bright-rimmed clouds that have been observed under ESO/Chile public infrared survey Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV). In this short communication, we analyse the near-infrared properties of a set of four small clusters candidates associated to dark clouds. This sample of clusters associated to dusty globules are selected from the new VVV stellar cluster candidates developed by members of La Serena VVV Group (Barbá et al. 2014). Firstly, we are producing color-color and color-magnitude diagrams for both, cluster candidates and surrounding areas for comparison through PSF photometry. The cluster positions are determined from the morphology on the images and also from the comparison of the observed luminosity function for the cluster candidates and the surrounding star fields. Now, we are working in the procedures to establish the full sample of clusters to be analyzed and methods for subtraction of the star field contamination. These clusters associated to dusty globules are simple laboratories to study the star formation relatively free of the influence of large star-forming regions and populous clusters, and they will be compared with those clusters associated to bright-rimmed globules, which are influenced by the energetic action of nearby O and B massive stars.

  13. Coil–globule transition of a polymer involved in excluded-volume interactions with macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odagiri, Kenta; Seki, Kazuhiko


    Polymers adopt extended coil and compact globule states according to the balance between entropy and interaction energies. The transition of a polymer between an extended coil state and compact globule state can be induced by changing thermodynamic force such as temperature to alter the energy/entropy balance. Previously, this transition was theoretically studied by taking into account the excluded-volume interaction between monomers of a polymer chain using the partition function. For binary mixtures of a long polymer and short polymers, the coil-globule transition can be induced by changing the concentration of the shorter polymers. Here, we investigate the transition caused by short polymers by generalizing the partition function of the long polymer to include the excluded-volume effect of short polymers. The coil-globule transition is studied as a function of the concentration of mixed polymers by systematically varying Flory’s χ-parameters. We show that the transition is caused by the interplay between the excluded-volume interaction and the dispersion state of short polymers in the solvent. We also reveal that the same results can be obtained by combining the mixing entropy and elastic energy if the volume of a long polymer is properly defined

  14. Na-Fe-Phosphate Globules in Impact Metal-Troilite Associations of Chelyabinsk Meteorite (United States)

    Sharygin, V. V.; Karmanov, N. S.; Podgornykh, N. M.


    Multi- and monophase phosphate globules have been found in the impact metal-troilite aggregates of the Chelyabinsk chondrite. Their phase composition varies and they contain galileiite, sarcopside, graftonite and Na-Fe-phosphate Na2(Fe,Mn)5(PO4)4.

  15. Effect of galactose on acid induced molten globule state of Soybean Agglutinin: Biophysical approach (United States)

    Alam, Parvez; Naseem, Farha; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Khan, Rizwan Hasan


    In the present study the formation of molten globule-like unfolding intermediate Soybean Agglutinin (SBA) in acidic pH range has been established with the help of acrylamide quenching, intrinsic fluorescence, ANS fluorescence measurement, far UV CD and dynamic light scattering measurement. A marked increase in ANS fluorescence was observed at pH 2.2. Ksv of acrylamide quenching was found to be higher at pH 2.2 than that of native SBA at pH 7. Far UV CD spectra of pH induced state suggest that SBA shows significant retention of secondary structure closure to native. Hydrodynamic radius of SBA at pH 2.2 was found be more as compared to native state and also in other pH induced states. Further we checked the effect of galactose on the molten globule state of SBA. This study suggests that SBA exist as molten globule at pH 2.2 and this study will help in acid induced molten globule state of other proteins.

  16. Topological switching between an alpha-beta parallel protein and a remarkably helical molten globule. (United States)

    Nabuurs, Sanne M; Westphal, Adrie H; aan den Toorn, Marije; Lindhoud, Simon; van Mierlo, Carlo P M


    Partially folded protein species transiently exist during folding of most proteins. Often these species are molten globules, which may be on- or off-pathway to native protein. Molten globules have a substantial amount of secondary structure but lack virtually all the tertiary side-chain packing characteristic of natively folded proteins. These ensembles of interconverting conformers are prone to aggregation and potentially play a role in numerous devastating pathologies, and thus attract considerable attention. The molten globule that is observed during folding of apoflavodoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii is off-pathway, as it has to unfold before native protein can be formed. Here we report that this species can be trapped under nativelike conditions by substituting amino acid residue F44 by Y44, allowing spectroscopic characterization of its conformation. Whereas native apoflavodoxin contains a parallel beta-sheet surrounded by alpha-helices (i.e., the flavodoxin-like or alpha-beta parallel topology), it is shown that the molten globule has a totally different topology: it is helical and contains no beta-sheet. The presence of this remarkably nonnative species shows that single polypeptide sequences can code for distinct folds that swap upon changing conditions. Topological switching between unrelated protein structures is likely a general phenomenon in the protein structure universe.

  17. Pinot blanc and Pinot gris arose as independent somatic mutations of Pinot noir. (United States)

    Vezzulli, Silvia; Leonardelli, Lorena; Malossini, Umberto; Stefanini, Marco; Velasco, Riccardo; Moser, Claudio


    Somatic mutation is a natural mechanism which allows plant growers to develop new cultivars. As a source of variation within a uniform genetic background, it also represents an ideal tool for studying the genetic make-up of important traits and for establishing gene functions. Layer-specific molecular characterization of the Pinot family of grape cultivars was conducted to provide an evolutionary explanation for the somatic mutations that have affected the locus of berry colour. Through the study of the structural dynamics along chromosome 2, a very large deletion present in a single Pinot gris cell layer was identified and characterized. This mutation reveals that Pinot gris and Pinot blanc arose independently from the ancestral Pinot noir, suggesting a novel parallel evolutionary model. This proposed 'Pinot-model' represents a breakthrough towards the full understanding of the mechanisms behind the formation of white, grey, red, and pink grape cultivars, and eventually of their specific enological aptitude.

  18. On the correlation between Mont Blanc and Baksan underground detectors in February 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudakov, A.E.


    According to the author, there is a correlation directly between the Mont Blanc (LSD) and Baksan data, two quite similar underground scintillation detectors. The idea is: if something really happens that activates the gravitational antennas (G.A.) signal and that, after 1.2 s, gives a signal in a particular scintillator, then there should be a chance to observe a quasi-simultaneous signal in another, possibly very distant scintillator. The big distance between the Baksan and LSD detectors should exclude the common electrical power supply as a possible source of correlation. Another advantage of the suggested search could be a simplicity of statistical analysis when the duration of the signal (in the scintillation counter) is much less than the correlation time interval (1 s). In this report, the author discusses both positive and negative evidence concerning the LSD-Baksan correlation

  19. Possibilités de valorisation économique des plantes médicinales et aromatiques en Guyane


    Kodjoed-Bonneton, J.F.; Sauvain, Michel


    Ce rapport fait la synthèse des recherches menées depuis un an par l'ORSTOM sur le marché des plantes médicinales et aromatiques et leurs possibilités de valorisation économique en Guyane. La première partie aborde l'étude du marché avec certains pays de la CEE; on y retrouve la liste des plantes tropicales importées par ces pays, les acheteurs concernés et les fiches détaillées des plantes retenues pour un développement agricole. Dans la seconde partie, sont formulées des recommandations en ...

  20. Multi-decadal evolution of ice/snow covers in the Mont-Blanc massif (France) (United States)

    Guillet, Grégoire; Ravanel, Ludovic


    Dynamics and evolution of the major glaciers of the Mont-Blanc massif have been vastly studied since the XXth century. Ice/snow covers on steep rock faces as part of the cryosphere however remain poorly studied with only qualitative descriptions existing. The study of ice/snow covers is primordial to further understand permafrost degradation throughout the Mont-Blanc massif and to improve safety and prevention for mountain sports practitioners. This study focuses on quantifying the evolution of ice/snow covers surface during the past century using a specially developed monoplotting tool using Bayesian statistics and Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms. Combining digital elevation models and photographs covering a time-span of 110 years, we calculated the ice/snow cover surface for 3 study sites — North faces of the Tour Ronde (3792 m a.s.l.) and the Grandes Jorasses (4208 m a.s.l.) and Triangle du Tacul (3970 m a.s.l.) — and deduced the evolution of their area throughout the XXth century. First results are showing several increase/decrease periods. The first decrease in ice/snow cover surface occurs between the 1940's and the 1950's. It is followed by an increase up to the 1980's. Since then, ice/snow covers show a general decrease in surface which is faster since the 2010's. Furthermore, the gain/loss during the increase/decrease periods varies with the considered ice/snow cover, making it an interesting cryospheric entity of its own.

  1. Coil-Globule Transition of PNIPAM in Non-Ionic Surfactant Mesophase (United States)

    Jijo, V. J.; Sharma, K. P.; Mathew, R.; Rajamohanan, P. R.; Guruswamy, K.


    We investigate the Coil-Globule transition of linear poly N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) in the hexagonal (H1) mesophase of a non ionic surfactant, C12E9 in water, by Turbidimetry, NMR and SAXS. For aqueous PNIPAM, the LCST (coil-globule transition temperature), TPNIPAM, is 35 C, whereas the H1 phase transitions to a micellar phase at a temperature, THI, of 45 C. As PNIPAM is added to the C12E9/H2O system; depending on the ratio of C12E9:H2O, TPNIPAM changes. It is observed that at 42wt% of C12E9 (viz. 58wt% water; micellar phase), the TPNIPAM is 33 C. At 44wt% of C12E9 (viz. 56wt% water), the H1 phase forms and the the coil-globule transition for PNIPAM starts at 28 C. For 50wt% C12E9, the transition starts from 13 C and for 60wt% C12E9 in water, PNIPAM does not even shows the phase transition even as below as 5 C. It is observed using optical microscopy that the PNIPAM is trapped at the domain boundaries of the H1 phase. The decrease in the coil globule transition temperature, TPNIPAM, is not only because of the hydrophobic interactions but also due to the competition between polymer and C12E9 for water in the H1 phase. The inability of PNIPAM to become a complete globule at higher temperature may be due to the adsorption of C12E9.

  2. Relationship between fat globule size and chemical and fatty acid composition of cow's milk in mid lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosima Scolozzi


    Full Text Available The milk in 57 Italian Fresian cows in mid lactation was analysed in order to define the relationship between some qualitative milk parameters and the size of milk fat globules. The study focused on the morphometric evaluation of milk fat globules, chemical parameteres and fatty acid composition of the milk. The results show that a prevalence of milk fat globules with a diameter 6 um was associated (P<0.01 with greater milk yield nad a higher percentage of lactose, non-fat dry matter and ash............

  3. Relationship between fat globule size and chemical and fatty acid composition of cow's milk in mid lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Martini


    Full Text Available The milk in 57 Italian Fresian cows in mid lactation was analysed in order to define the relationship between some qualitative milk parameters and the size of milk fat globules. The study focused on the morphometric evaluation of milk fat globules, chemical parameteres and fatty acid composition of the milk. The results show that a prevalence of milk fat globules with a diameter 6 um was associated (P<0.01 with greater milk yield nad a higher percentage of lactose, non-fat dry matter and ash............

  4. Milk fat globule membrane glycoproteins: Valuable ingredients for lactic acid bacteria encapsulation? (United States)

    Guerin, Justine; Burgain, Jennifer; Gomand, Faustine; Scher, Joël; Gaiani, Claire


    The membrane (Milk Fat Globule Membrane - MFGM) surrounding the milk fat globule is becoming increasingly studied for its use in food applications due to proven nutritional and technological properties. This review focuses first on current researches which have been led on the MFGM structure and composition and also on laboratory and industrial purification and isolation methods developed in the last few years. The nutritional, health benefits and techno-functional properties of the MFGM are then discussed. Finally, new techno-functional opportunities of MFGM glycoproteins as a possible ingredient for Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) encapsulation are detailed. The ability of MFGM to form liposomes entrapping bioactive compounds has been already demonstrated. One drawback is that liposomes are too small to be used for bacteria encapsulation. For the first time, this review points out the numerous advantages to use MFGM glycoproteins as a protecting, encapsulating matrix for bacteria and especially for LAB.

  5. Atomistic simulation for coil-to-globule transition of poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate). (United States)

    Min, Sa Hoon; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Kim, Byeong-Su


    The coil-to-globule transition of poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) in aqueous solution was investigated by all-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The polymer consistent force field (PCFF) was applied to the PDMAEMA model with a proper protonation state. The structural analysis indicates a distinct difference in the hydration state of particular functional groups of PDMAEMA as well as in the conformational state of PDMAEMA below and above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). In particular, by monitoring the motion of water molecules, we observe that water molecules in the vicinity of the carbonyl group are relatively restricted to the motion in the globule state due to the extended relaxation time of hydrogen bonds among water molecules. The degree of protonation was also adjusted to study the effect of protonation on the conformational state of PDMAEMA.

  6. Comparative proteomics of milk fat globule membrane in different species reveals variations in lactation and nutrition. (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Xinyu; Zhang, Weiqing; Liu, Lu; Pang, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Shuwen; Lv, Jiaping


    In present study, 312, 554, 175 and 143 proteins were identified and quantified by label-free quantitative proteomics in human, cow, goat and yak milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), respectively. Fifty proteins involved in vesicle mediate transport and milk fat globule secretion were conserved among species. Moreover, proteins involved in lipid synthesis and secretion (xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase, stomatin and CD36), showed different expression pattern and the host defense proteins exhibited various profiles within species. Notably, the content and activity of lipid catabolic enzymes were significantly higher in human MFGM, which could be indicative of the superior fat utilization in breast fed infants. Our findings unraveled the significant differences in protein composition of human milk and conventionally used substitutes of it. The in-depth study of lipid metabolic enzymes in human MFGM will probably contribute to the improvement of the fat utilization through modulation of lipid catabolic enzymes in infant formula. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM) Proteins of Chianina and Holstein Cattle Breed Milk Samples Through Proteomics Methods


    Lorraine Pariset; Silvia Bongiorni; Alessio Valentini; Lello Zolla; Leonardo Murgiano; Anna Maria Timperio


    Identification of proteins involved in milk production is important to understand the biology of lactation. Many studies have advanced the understanding of mammary function and milk secretion, but the critical molecular mechanisms implicated in milk fat secretion is still incomplete. Milk Fat Globules are secreted from the apical surface of the mammary cells, surrounded by a thin membrane bilayer, the Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM), formed by proteins which have been suggested to be cholest...

  8. Influence of Fermentation Temperature, Yeast Strain, and Grape Juice on the Aroma Chemistry and Sensory Profile of Sauvignon Blanc Wines. (United States)

    Deed, Rebecca C; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Gardner, Richard C


    Sauvignon blanc wine, balanced by herbaceous and tropical aromas, is fermented at low temperatures (10-15 °C). Anecdotal accounts from winemakers suggest that cold fermentations produce and retain more "fruity" aroma compounds; nonetheless, studies have not confirmed why low temperatures are optimal for Sauvignon blanc. Thirty-two aroma compounds were quantitated from two Marlborough Sauvignon blanc juices fermented at 12.5 and 25 °C, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains EC1118, L-1528, M2, and X5. Fourteen compounds were responsible for driving differences in aroma chemistry. The 12.5 °C-fermented wines had lower 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and higher alcohols but increased fruity acetate esters. However, a sensory panel did not find a significant difference between fruitiness in 75% of wine pairs based on fermentation temperature, in spite of chemical differences. For wine pairs with significant differences (25%), the 25 °C-fermented wines were fruitier than the 12.5 °C-fermented wines, with high fruitiness associated with 3MH. We propose that the benefits of low fermentation temperatures are not derived from increased fruitiness but a better balance between fruitiness and greenness. Even so, since 75% of wines showed no significant difference, higher fermentation temperatures could be utilized without detriment, lowering costs for the wine industry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Elena CULEA


    Full Text Available In order to establish the dynamics of the physical-chemical parameters of flavoured wines and vermouth type wines, obtained by the addition of hydroalcoholic macerates from plants to the Sauvignon Blanc wine variety, we analyzed certain physical and chemical characteristics (D 20 20, Alcool %, Total dry extract g/l, Free sugar g/l, Unreducing extract g /l, Total Acidity g/l C4H6O6, Free SO2 mg/l Total SO2 mg/l for 9 samples. Compared to the main wine parameters, the tested parameters had the following evolution: Alcoholic strength, Free sugar and Density increased in vermouth type wines, Total acidity decreased slightly in flavoured wines and more obvious in vermouth type wines. The total dry extract increased sharply in vermouth type wines and the unreducing extract decreased sharply in vermouth type wines. The amount of Free SO2 was higher in flavoured wines, but Total SO2 had lower values, both for flavoured wines and vermouth type wines, comparative to Sauvignon Blanc wine. Plants macerates added to the Sauvignon Blanc basic wine, influenced most of the physical-chemical parameters and provided new qualitative features to resulting beverages.

  10. A skin color mutation of grapevine, from black-skinned Pinot Noir to white-skinned Pinot Blanc, is caused by deletion of the functional VvmybA1 allele. (United States)

    Yakushiji, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shozo; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Tae Jeong, Soek; Sueta, Tamotsu; Mitani, Nobuhito; Azuma, Akifumi


    A white-wine grape, Pinot Blanc, is thought to be a white-skinned mutant of a red-wine grape, Pinot Noir. Pinot Noir was heterozygous for VvmybA1. One allele was the non-functional VvmybA1a, and the other was the functional VvmybA1c. In Pinot Blanc, however, only VvmybA1a was observed, and the amount of VvmybA1 DNA in Pinot Blanc was half that in Pinot Noir. These findings suggest that deletion of VvmybA1c from Pinot Noir resulted in Pinot Blanc.

  11. Perceived minerality in sauvignon blanc wine: Chemical reality or cultural construct? (United States)

    Parr, Wendy V; Valentin, Dominique; Breitmeyer, Jason; Peyron, Dominique; Darriet, Philippe; Sherlock, Robert; Robinson, Brett; Grose, Claire; Ballester, Jordi


    The study aimed to determine the relationship between perceived mineral character in wine and wine chemical composition. We investigated the sensory properties and chemical composition of sauvignon blanc wines from two major sauvignon-producing countries, New Zealand and France. Sensory experiments employing 16 wines (8 French, 8 New Zealand) were conducted in Marlborough, New Zealand and in three regions of France, namely Bordeaux, Burgundy, and the Sancerre/Loire region. Wine professionals (31 New Zealanders and 32 French professionals) sensorially characterised the 16 wines under three conditions, bouquet only (ortho-nasal olfaction), palate only (nose clip condition), and full tasting (global condition: ortho-nasal olfaction, retronasal olfaction, taste, trigeminal stimulation). Sensory data from the global condition only are reported in this article. Physical and chemical analyses conducted on all wines included wine standard parameters, elemental composition, volatile aroma composition, and measures of organic acids. Major results demonstrate that (i) on average French and New Zealand wines were perceived similarly in intensity of mineral character, although judgments to individual wines differed as a function of participant culture; (ii) French and NZ participants drew on different information to make their sensory judgments; and (iii) several aspects of wine composition associated positively with perception of mineral character while others associated negatively, the significant associations differing as a function of participant culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Perception of mineral character in Sauvignon blanc wine: inter-individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Veronica Parr


    Full Text Available Of the descriptors employed to characterize wine organoleptically, minerality is arguably one of the most enigmatic. The aim of the work described in this article was to delineate the nature of perceived minerality in Sauvignon wine, specifically its sensorial reality for experienced wine professionals from France and New Zealand. Participants evaluated 16 Sauvignon blanc wines (8 French; 8 New Zealand under three conditions, ortho-nasal olfaction, palate only (Nose-clip condition, and by full tasting (global perception. Data from the global condition only are reported here. Key results include: i that although there were quantitative differences in perception of minerality as a function of culture, there was substantial agreement conceptually between French and New Zealand participants in terms of the sensorial experience of minerality; and ii that perceived minerality associated significantly with other key wine descriptors, notably presence of citrus, stone-related characters (e.g., flinty or chalky/calcareous notes, and reductive notes, along with absence of Sauvignon varietal characteristics (passion fruit; green notes. Of particular interest, no significant, direct association was found between perceived sourness/acidity and minerality judgments for either culture.

  13. Tirant lo Blanc o la pau no passa pels exèrcits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antònia Carré


    Full Text Available Tirant lo Blanc o la pau no passa pels exèrcits és un metatext que té bàsicament dos objectius: 1 permetre, a partir d'una lectura activa i creativa de la novel·la de Joanot Martorell, acostar-se als aspectes cavallerescos de l'Edat Mitjana i aprofundir en el concepte de literatura existent aleshores, basat en la reconstrucció i recreació de textos a través de la manipulació de les obres que formaven part del patrimoni cultural de l'època, i 2 possibilitar, a partir de l'anàlisi d'un dels eixos temàtics principals de la novel·la com és la guerra, la reflexió (telemàtica sobre els valors que fonamenten una societat plural i democràtica a les portes del segle XXI: la sensibilització davant de les injustícies i els abusos de poder, la tolerància, la solidaritat, el respecte pel medi ambient, en definitiva, la valoració de la cultura per la pau.

  14. Grape cluster microclimate influences the aroma composition of Sauvignon blanc wine. (United States)

    Martin, Damian; Grose, Claire; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Stuart, Lily; Albright, Abby; McLachlan, Andrew


    New Zealand Sauvignon blanc (SB) wines are characterised by a distinctive combination of tropical-fruity and green-herbaceous aromatic compounds. The influence of sunlight exposure of grape clusters on juice and wine composition was investigated, with the aim of manipulating aromatic compounds in SB wine. In the absence of basal leaf removal SB clusters naturally exposed to sunlight were riper than shaded clusters, evidenced by higher total soluble solids (TSS) and proline, and lower malic acid, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) and arginine. Volatile thiols in wines did not differ between shaded and exposed clusters. At equivalent TSS, cluster exposure had little or no effect on malic acid concentration. Conversely, wine from shaded clusters had almost double the IBMP concentration of wine from exposed clusters at equivalent TSS. The effects on SB juice and wine composition of natural variations in cluster microclimate are not comparable with the effects of cluster exposure created through leaf removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Orsay, Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses primarily infect intestinal cells in Caenorhabditis nematodes. (United States)

    Franz, Carl J; Renshaw, Hilary; Frezal, Lise; Jiang, Yanfang; Félix, Marie-Anne; Wang, David


    The discoveries of Orsay, Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses, three viruses infecting either Caenorhabditis elegans or its relative Caenorhabditis briggsae, enable the study of virus-host interactions using natural pathogens of these two well-established model organisms. We characterized the tissue tropism of infection in Caenorhabditis nematodes by these viruses. Using immunofluorescence assays targeting proteins from each of the viruses, and in situ hybridization, we demonstrate viral proteins and RNAs localize to intestinal cells in larval stage Caenorhabditis nematodes. Viral proteins were detected in one to six of the 20 intestinal cells present in Caenorhabditis nematodes. In Orsay virus-infected C. elegans, viral proteins were detected as early as 6h post-infection. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and capsid proteins of Orsay virus exhibited different subcellular localization patterns. Collectively, these observations provide the first experimental insights into viral protein expression in any nematode host, and broaden our understanding of viral infection in Caenorhabditis nematodes. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary prebiotics, milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin affects structural neurodevelopment in the young piglet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Mudd


    Full Text Available Introduction: Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM and lactoferrin have been identified as two components that have potential to affect neurodevelopment. While concentrations of some MFGM constituents in infant formulas are within human milk range, they may not be present at optimal or clinically effective levels. However, lactoferrin levels of infant formulas are consistently reported to be lower than human milk. This study sought to provide a novel combination of prebiotics, bovine-derived milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin and assess their influence on neurodevelopment. Methods: Twenty-four male piglets were provided either TEST (n=12 or CONT (n=12 diet from 2 to 31 d of age. Piglets underwent spatial T-maze assessment starting at 17 d of age, were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging at 30 d of age, and were euthanized for tissue collection at 31 d of age. Results: Diffusion tensor imaging revealed differences in radial (P = 0.032 and mean (P = 0.028 diffusivities in the internal capsule, where CONT piglets had higher rates of diffusion compared with TEST piglets. Voxel-based morphometry indicated larger (P < 0.05 differences in cortical grey and white matter concentrations, with CONT piglets having larger tissue clusters in these regions compared with TEST piglets. In the spatial T-maze assessment, CONT piglets exhibited shorter latency to choice compared with TEST piglets on d 2 of acquisition and d 3 and 4 of reversal. Conclusion: Observed differences in microstructure maturation of the internal capsule and cortical tissue concentrations suggest that piglets provided TEST diet were more advanced developmentally than piglets provided CONT diet. Therefore, supplementation of infant formula with prebiotics, milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin may support neurodevelopment in human infants.

  17. X-ray microprobe measurements of the chemical compositions of ALH84001 carbonate globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, G.J.; Sutton, S.R.; Keller, L.P.


    We measured minor element contents of carbonate from ALH84001 and report trends in tbe Ca, V, Mn and Sr in carbonate and the associated magnetite bands. McKay et al. suggested that carbonate globules in the ALH84001 meteorite from Mars contained evidence consistent with the development of bacterial life early in the history of Mars. This result provoked an extensive study of the ALH84001 meteorite. More recently Thomas-Keprta et al. have published a study showing that the magnetite associated with carbonate rims are of the size and shape produced by terrestrial bacteria. This paper has revived interest in ALH84001. The typical ALH84001 carbonate globule consists of four regions: a core of Fe-rich carbonate, a thin magnetite-rich band, a rim of Mn-rich carbonate, and another thin magnetite-rich band. Trace element analysis of each of these phases may allow us to address several important questions about these carbonates: (1) The origin of the magnetite-rich bands in the ALH84001 carbonate globules. If the magnetites are derived from the underlying carbonate through thermal decomposition (as proposed by Golden et al.), then we expect to see 'inherited' trace elements in these magnetite bands. (2) The origin of the rim carbonate, by determining whether the carbonate in the core has the same trace elements as the rim carbonates. (3) The age of the rim carbonate. Borg et al. dated the formation of the rim carbonate using the Rb/Sr chronometer. Borg et al. performed their measurements on an aliquot of what they called a high-Rb, low-Sr carbonate separate from the rim. We previously measured the trace element contents of chips from core and rim carbonates from an ALH84001 carbonate globule using an X-Ray Microprobe on Beamline X26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source. These measurements showed the rim carbonate had a very low Rb content, with Sr>>Rb, inconsistent with the ∼5 ppm Rb reported by Borg et al. in the sample they dated by the Rb/Sr chronometer. The large

  18. Repertori d'aliments en el "Tirant lo Blanc": "e dinaren-se ab molt gran plaer"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Baile


    Full Text Available This paper tries to compile the repertoire of foods contained in Tirant lo Blanc or, taking cue from Josep Pla and his classic work El que hem menjat, what the characters of our chivalry novel eat (and drink. We do not want to observe any kind of ritual when sitting at the table nor study any culinary process, but we would like to attend specifically to each element (meats, vegetables, fruits, drinks which contributes to the nutrition of Tirant, Carmesina and the rest of characters as an approximate way for analysis over feeding habits through the 15th century, especially regarding those people belonging to nobility.

  19. Llibre Blanc de l’Eurodistricte Català Transfronterer: creació de projecte i reestructuració territorial


    Castañer i Vivas, Margarida


    En aquest article, s’hi presenta el procés d’elaboració, la metodologia, les reflexions i les conclusions del Llibre Blanc de l’Eurodistricte Català Transfronterer elaborat per la Mission Opérationnelle Transfrontalière (MOT) i la Universitat de Girona (UdG). L’estudi té per objectiu acompanyar la definició i l’emergència d’un projecte de territori transfronterer basat en la realitat d’un àmbit territorial compartit entre el departament dels Pirineus Orientals i les comarques de la província ...

  20. Fitting a Turbulent Cloud Model to CO Observations of Starless Bok Globules (United States)

    Hegmann, M.; Hengel, C.; Röllig, M.; Kegel, W. H.

    We present observations of five starless Bok globules in transitions of 12CO (J=2-1 and {J=3-2}), 13CO (J=2-1), and C18O (J=2-1) which have been obtained at the Heinrich-Hertz-Telescope. For an analysis of the data we use the model of Kegel et al. (see e.g. Piehler & Kegel 1995, A&A 297, 841; Hegmann & Kegel 2000, A&A 359, 405) which describes an isothermal sphere stabilized by turbulent and thermal pressure. This approach deals with the full NLTE radiative transfer problem and accounts for a turbulent velocity field with finite correlation length. By a comparison of observed and calculated line profiles we are able not only to determine the kinetic temperature, hydrogen density and CO coloumn density of the globules, but also to study the properties of the turbulent velocity field, i.e. the variance of its one-point-distribution and its correlation length. We consider our model to be an alternative tool for the evaluation of molecular lines emitted by molecular clouds. The model assumptions are certainly closer to reality than the assumptions behind the standard evaluation models, as for example the LVG model. Our current study shows that that the results obtained from our model can differ significantly from those obtained from a LVG analysis.

  1. On urea's ability to stabilize the globule state of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). (United States)

    Pica, Andrea; Graziano, Giuseppe


    Experimental measurements have shown that urea decreases the temperature of the coil-to-globule collapse transition of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), whereas tetramethylurea increases the collapse temperature [J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131, 9304]. These data indicate that urea is a stabilizing agent of the globule state in contrast to its denaturing action towards globular proteins. The effect of urea and tetramethylurea on the conformational stability of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) is investigated by means of the theoretical approach developed to explain the existence of cold denaturation [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 14245; Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014, 16, 21755], and already used to rationalize the effect of sodium salts on the collapse temperature [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, 17, 27750]. It is necessary to take into account the delicate trade-off between the increase in the magnitude of the solvent-excluded volume effect caused by urea and tetramethylurea addition to water, and the increase in the magnitude of the energetic interactions among the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) surface and water and co-solvent molecules.

  2. Enzymatic Detoxication, Conformational Selection, and the Role of Molten Globule Active Sites* (United States)

    Honaker, Matthew T.; Acchione, Mauro; Zhang, Wei; Mannervik, Bengt; Atkins, William M.


    The role of conformational ensembles in enzymatic reactions remains unclear. Discussion concerning “induced fit” versus “conformational selection” has, however, ignored detoxication enzymes, which exhibit catalytic promiscuity. These enzymes dominate drug metabolism and determine drug-drug interactions. The detoxication enzyme glutathione transferase A1–1 (GSTA1–1), exploits a molten globule-like active site to achieve remarkable catalytic promiscuity wherein the substrate-free conformational ensemble is broad with barrierless transitions between states. A quantitative index of catalytic promiscuity is used to compare engineered variants of GSTA1–1 and the catalytic promiscuity correlates strongly with characteristics of the thermodynamic partition function, for the substrate-free enzymes. Access to chemically disparate transition states is encoded by the substrate-free conformational ensemble. Pre-steady state catalytic data confirm an extension of the conformational selection model, wherein different substrates select different starting conformations. The kinetic liability of the conformational breadth is minimized by a smooth landscape. We propose that “local” molten globule behavior optimizes detoxication enzymes. PMID:23649628

  3. Data from proteomic characterization and comparison of mammalian milk fat globule proteomes by iTRAQ analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Yang


    Full Text Available Milk fat globules memebrane (MFGM-enriched proteomes from Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, horse, and human were extracted and identified by an iTRAQ quantification proteomic approach. Proteomes data were analyzed by bioinformatic and multivariate statistical analysis and used to present the characteristic traits of the MFGM proteins among the studied mammals. The data of this study are also related to the research article “Proteomic characterization and comparison of mammalian milk fat globule proteomes by iTRAQ analysis” in the Journal of Proteomics [1].

  4. Interrupted hydrogen/deuterium exchange reveals the stable core of the remarkably helical molten globule of alpha-beta parallel protein flavodoxin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, S.M.; Mierlo, C.P. van


    Kinetic intermediates that appear early during protein folding often resemble the relatively stable molten globule intermediates formed by several proteins under mildly denaturing conditions. Molten globules have a substantial amount of secondary structure but lack virtually all tertiary side-chain

  5. Interrupted hydrogen/deuterium exchange reveals the stable core of the remarkably helical molten globule of a-ß parallel protein flavodoxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, S.M.; Mierlo, van C.P.M.


    Kinetic intermediates that appear early during protein folding often resemble the relatively stable molten globule intermediates formed by several proteins under mildly denaturing conditions. Molten globules have a substantial amount of secondary structure but lack virtually all tertiary side-chain

  6. The influence of casein haplotype on morphometric characteristics of fat globules and fatty acid composition of milk in Italian Holstein cows. (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio


    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of casein haplotypes (αS1-, β-, and κ-caseins) on morphometric characteristics of fat globules and fatty acid composition of Italian Holstein milk. Casein haplotypes were determined by isoelectric focusing; milk fat globule size was measured by using a fluorescence microscope; and fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography. Casein haplotype significantly affected the fat globule size, the percentage incidence of each globule size class on total measured milk fat globules, and fatty acid composition. A higher incidence of smaller milk fat globules was associated with the BB-A(2)A(2)-BB genotype (αS1-, β-, and κ-casein haplotypes, respectively), whereas small globules were not detected in BB-A(2)A(1)-AA milk, but that milk had the highest percentage of large globules. A higher content of monounsaturated fatty acids was associated with the BB-A(2)A(2)-AB genotype, whereas higher contents of conjugated linoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were detected in BB-A(1)A(1)-AA milk. Our results indicate that casein haplotype could affect fat characteristics and, therefore, the nutritional and technological quality of milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of low-molecular-weight emulsifiers in O/W-emulsions on microviscosity of non-solidified oil in fat globules and the mobility of emulsifiers at the globule surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Merete B.; Erichsen, Henriette Rifbjerg; Andersen, Mogens Larsen


    Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was used to measure the mobility of the spin probe TEMPO in O/W-emulsions. This allowed determination of temperature-dependent microviscosity of the liquid fraction in lipid globules. Six hydrogenated palm kernel oil (HPKO) based emulsions containing...

  8. Effect of homogenization and heat treatment on the behavior of protein and fat globules during gastric digestion of milk. (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Cui, Jian; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder


    The effects of homogenization and heat treatment on the formation and the breakdown of clots during gastric digestion of whole milk were investigated using a human gastric simulator. Homogenization and heat treatment led to formation of coagula with fragmented and crumbled structures compared with the coagulum formed from raw whole milk, but a larger fraction of the protein and more fat globules were incorporated into the coagula induced by action of the milk-clotting enzyme pepsin. The fat globules in the whole milk appeared to be embedded in the clots as they formed. After formation of the clot, the greater numbers of pores in the structures of the clots formed with homogenized milk and heated whole milk led to greater rates of protein hydrolysis by pepsin, which resulted in faster release of fat globules from the clots into the digesta. Coalescence of fat globules occurred both in the digesta and within the protein clots no matter whether they were in homogenized or heated milk samples. The formation of clots with different structures and hence the changes in the rates of protein hydrolysis and the release of milk fat into the digesta in the stomach provide important information for understanding the gastric emptying of milk and the potential to use this knowledge to manipulate the bioavailability of fat and other fat-soluble nutrients in dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Solubilization and purification of xanthine oxidase from bovine milk fat globule membrane. (United States)

    Spitsberg, V L; Gorewit, R C


    Bovine milk xanthine oxidase (XO) was isolated and purified from milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). The method included the following steps: solubilization of XO from MFGM in 200 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) at pH 8.0, fractionation of solubilized proteins with ammonium sulfate, chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose with gradient elution, and rechromatography of the XO fraction for final purification. The method is highly reproducible, is comparatively simple, and provides highly pure enzyme. Purified XO, analyzed by (8%) SDS-PAGE, had only one band of 140-150 kDa. XO showed a high specific activity of 2.5 units/mg of protein and an A280: A450 ratio of 4.8. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  10. Capturing molten globule state of α-lactalbumin through constant pH molecular dynamics simulations (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Nicholus; Rani, Pooja; Biswas, Parbati


    The recently developed methods of constant pH molecular dynamics directly captures the correlation between protonation and conformation to probe protein structure, function, and dynamics. In this work, we investigate the effect of pH on the conformational properties of the protein human α-lactalbumin. Constant pH simulations at both acidic and alkaline medium indicate the formation of the molten globule state, which is in accordance with the previous experimental observations (especially, in acidic medium). The size of the protein measured by its radius of gyration (RG) exhibits a marked increase in both acidic and alkaline medium, which matches with the corresponding experimentally observed value of RG found in the molten globule. The probability of native contacts is also considerably reduced at acidic and basic pH as compared to that of native structure crystallized at neutral pH. The mean fractal dimension D2 of the protein records a sharp increase in basic medium as compared to those in neutral and acidic solutions implying a significant pH induced conformational change. The mean square fluctuations of all residues of the entire protein are found to increase by several folds in both acidic and basic medium, which may be correlated with the normalized solvent accessibility of the residues indicating role of solvent accessible surface area on protein internal dynamics. The helices comprising the α-domain of the protein are moderately preserved in the acidic and alkaline pH. However, the β-sheet structures present in the β-domain are completely disrupted in both acidic as well as basic pH.

  11. Sequence charge decoration dictates coil-globule transition in intrinsically disordered proteins (United States)

    Firman, Taylor; Ghosh, Kingshuk


    We present an analytical theory to compute conformations of heteropolymers—applicable to describe disordered proteins—as a function of temperature and charge sequence. The theory describes coil-globule transition for a given protein sequence when temperature is varied and has been benchmarked against the all-atom Monte Carlo simulation (using CAMPARI) of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In addition, the model quantitatively shows how subtle alterations of charge placement in the primary sequence—while maintaining the same charge composition—can lead to significant changes in conformation, even as drastic as a coil (swelled above a purely random coil) to globule (collapsed below a random coil) and vice versa. The theory provides insights on how to control (enhance or suppress) these changes by tuning the temperature (or solution condition) and charge decoration. As an application, we predict the distribution of conformations (at room temperature) of all naturally occurring IDPs in the DisProt database and notice significant size variation even among IDPs with a similar composition of positive and negative charges. Based on this, we provide a new diagram-of-states delineating the sequence-conformation relation for proteins in the DisProt database. Next, we study the effect of post-translational modification, e.g., phosphorylation, on IDP conformations. Modifications as little as two-site phosphorylation can significantly alter the size of an IDP with everything else being constant (temperature, salt concentration, etc.). However, not all possible modification sites have the same effect on protein conformations; there are certain "hot spots" that can cause maximal change in conformation. The location of these "hot spots" in the parent sequence can readily be identified by using a sequence charge decoration metric originally introduced by Sawle and Ghosh. The ability of our model to predict conformations (both expanded and collapsed states) of IDPs at

  12. Alternating Syntagm on the Texture of the Work En blanc et noir by Debussy: An Analogy to Silent Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menan Medeiros Duwe


    Full Text Available We will reveal the concept of alternating syntagm as an important feature of cinematic narrative made possible by a certain arrangement off rames during the montage. In the first part of this article we apply the concept as suggested by Rebecca Leydon (2001 to show that analogous situations can be identified in the music of Debussy's late period by using a representative sample: episodes in the second piece of the work En blanc et noir derived from a textural analysis that is based on Wallace Berry’s theories (1987. This analytical approach will allow us to discuss in the second part of the article the possibility of establishing analogies between Debussy’s works and silent film, within the context of the period of question, comparing Leydon’s proposal to Scott Paulin (2010 criticism on this subject. The discussion calls attention to the correlation between artistic media tending to imitate the thought processes of the early twentieth century.

  13. Test of Blanc's law for negative ion mobility in mixtures of SF6 with N2, O2 and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinojosa, G; Urquijo, J de


    We have measured the mobility of negative ion species drifting in mixtures of SF 6 with N 2 , O 2 and air. The pulsed Townsend experiment was used for this purpose. The conditions of the experiment, high pressures and low values of the reduced electric field, E/N, ensured that the majority species drifting in the gap was SF 6 - , to which the present mobilities are ascribed. The extrapolated, zero field mobilities for several mixture compositions were used to test them successfully with Blanc's law. Moreover, the measured zero field SF 6 - mobilities in air could also be explained in terms of the measured mobilities for this ionic species in N 2 and O 2

  14. Microbial communities established on Mont Blanc summit with Saharan dust deposition (United States)

    Chuvochina, M.; Alekhina, I.; Normand, P.; Petit, J. R.; Bulat, S.


    Dust originating from the Sahara desert can be uplifted during storms, transported across the Mediterranean towards the Alpine region and deposited during snowfalls. The microbes associated with dust particles can be involved in establishing microbiota in icy environments as well as affect ecosystem and human health. Our objective was to use a culture-free DNA-based approach to assess bacterial content and diversity and furthermore, to identify ‘icy' microbes which could be brought on the Mont Blanc (MtBl) summit with Saharan dust and became living in the snow. Saharan dust fallout on MtBl summit from one event (MB5, event June 2006) vs. control libraries and that from another event (May 2008) were collected in Grenoble (SD, 200 m a.s.l.) and at Col du Dome (MB-SD, 4250 m a.s.l.). Soil from Ksar Ghilane (SS, Saharan desert, Tunisia, March 2008) was taken for overall comparison as a possible source population. Fresh snow falling in Grenoble (85) was collected as example of diversity in this area. To assess the microbial diversity 16S rRNA gene libraries (v3-v5 region) were constructed for corresponding dust-snow samples (MB5, SS, SD, 85 and MB-SD) along with clear snow samples and several controls. For both MB5 and MB-SD samples full-gene technique was evoked in attempt to differentiate reproduced bacteria from damaged DNA. Before sequencing the clones were rybotyped. All clone libraries were distinct in community composition except for some single phylotypes (or closely related groups) overlap. Thus, clone libraries from two different events that were collected at Col du Dome area within 2 year interval (MB5 and MB-SD) were different in community composition except one of the abundant phylotype from MB-SD library (Geodermatophilus sp.) which was shared (98% sequence similarity) with single representative from MB-5 library. These bacteria are pigmented and radiation-resistant, so it could be an indicator of desert origin for our sequences. For MB5 library two

  15. Proteomic characterization and comparison of mammalian milk fat globule proteomes by iTRAQ analysis. (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Ma, Lu; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Wang, Jiaqi


    Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins are known to be involved in many biological functions; however, their components and inter-species complexity have not yet been completely elucidated. We investigated the protein composition of the MFGM-enriched fraction from Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, horse, and human. Extracted proteins from the MFGM-enriched fractions were identified and quantified by an iTRAQ proteomic approach. We identified 520 protein species categorized as biological processes, cellular components and molecular function according to their annotation. Cellular process, localization, transport, signal transduction, and response to stimulus were the most common biological processes; binding and catalytic activities were the most prevalent molecular functions. Pathway analysis revealed several pathways, including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Quantified MFGM-enriched proteins were subjected to discriminative proteomic profiling by principal component analysis and a hierarchical clustering method, and then organized into four major clusters: (1) Holstein, Jersey, and yak milk; (2) buffalo and goat milk; (3) Holstein, Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat milk; and (4) camel, horse, and human milk. These novel quantitative data provide insight into the protein composition of the MFGM and their potential physiological functions, and highlight the significant differences in the MFGM fractions among mammalian species. Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins have exhibited a relatively larger diversity than other milk fractions, and implicated health beneficial effects. Proteomic analysis of MFGM protein was mainly focused on human, bovine and goat in previous studies. Recently, there is an increasing demand for natural milk from minor dairy animals. Differences in protein components were not yet elucidated that required the integration of this information across

  16. Etude de l'effet de l'amodiaquine sur les globules rouges infectés ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ces images sont ensuite utilisées pour étudier l'interaction du médicament avec les globules rouges en fonction des concentrations, en ayant recours à des techniques d'analyse multivariée telles que la classification hiérarchique, la méthode des k-moyennes et l'analyse en composante principale. Les résultats obtenus ...

  17. Jorge Marín y un capítulo de la difusión de "Tirant lo Blanc" en la revista "Destino"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Vicent Garcia Raffi


    Full Text Available From the publication of a lengthy article written by Jorge Marin in the Catalan magazine Destino in 1968, around the relationship between Tirant lo Blanc and the English world, this note aims to clarify the context of this issue. The note summerizes the personality of its author, pseudonym of Josep Manyé i Vendrell, his mostly journalistic work, and his relationship with the Catalan culture during his exile in England.

  18. Reconstruction of glacier fluctuations in the Mont-Blanc massif, western Alps: a multi-­-method approach (United States)

    Lehmann, Benjamin; Valla, Pierre G.; King, Georgina E.; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Christl, Marcus; Herman, Frederic


    Providing tight spatial and temporal constraints on Late Pleistocene glacier fluctuations remains an important challenge for understanding glacier and glacial erosion responses to climatic change. Paleo-glacier reconstructions are often scarce, discrete and spatially-limited during the Lateglacial and Holocene times, which makes their use as a paleoclimate proxy sometimes challenging. Here we focus on the Mer de Glace glacier (Mont-Blanc massif, France) where glacier reconstructions over the Little Ice Age (LIA, Vincent et al. 2014) and since the Mid Holocene (Le Roy et al., 2015) reveal important glacier fluctuations and ice thickness variations. LGM trimline mapping (Coutterand et al., 2006) and cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating on the Italian side of the massif (Wirsig et al., 2016) give important indications on the maximum ice thickness at the LGM and the timing of ice surface lowering in this area. However, continuous records of the Mer de Glace fluctuations have to precisely constrained to provide valuable record of local climate and erosion with time. Therefore, we collected samples of granitic polished bedrock surfaces between the LGM ice surface ( 2505 m a.s.l, Coutterand et al., 2006) and the present-day glacier (1920 m a.s.l) covering 600 m of elevation for the ice surface fluctuations. We first used cosmogenic 10Be dating on quartz (Gosse and Phillips, 2001) to constrain ice surface fluctuations during the Lateglacial and Holocene. Given that cosmic rays exposure produces 10Be over the first 3 m below the rock surface, multiple exposure history from complex glacier fluctuations would be difficult to quantify using this chronometer. To improve the temporal resolution for such complex exposure history, we combined cosmogenic 10Be dating on quartz with OSL surface exposure dating (Sohbati et al., 2011). OSL surface exposure dating is sensitive to light, based on the progressive bleaching of the OSL signal in a rock sample that depends on its exposure time


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahai, R.; Güsten, R.; Morris, M. R.


    We report the detection of strong and compact molecular line emission (in the CO J = 3-2, 4-3, 6-5, 7-6, 13 CO J = 3-2, HCN, and HCO + J = 4-3 transitions) from a cometary-shaped object (Carina-frEGG1) in the Carina star-forming region (SFR) previously classified as a photoevaporating protoplanetary disk (proplyd). We derive a molecular mass of 0.35 M ☉ for Carina-frEGG1, which shows that it is not a proplyd, but belongs to a class of free-floating evaporating gas globules (frEGGs) recently found in the Cygnus SFR by Sahai et al. Archival adaptive optics near-IR (Ks) images show a central hourglass-shaped nebula. The derived source luminosity (about 8-18 L ☉ ), the hourglass morphology, and the presence of collimated jets seen in Hubble Space Telescope images imply the presence of a jet-driving, young, low-mass star deeply embedded in the dust inside Carina-frEGG1. Our results suggest that the true nature of many or most such cometary-shaped objects seen in massive SFRs and previously labeled as proplyds has been misunderstood, and that these are really frEGGs.

  20. Milk fat globule membrane isolate induces apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. (United States)

    Zanabria, Romina; Tellez, Angela M; Griffiths, Mansel; Corredig, Milena


    A native milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) isolate obtained from raw milk was assessed for its anticarcinogenic capacity using a colon cancer cell line (HT-29). To prevent microbial contamination and eliminate the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the milk used for MFGM isolation, the milk was obtained from the mammary glands of cows using a catheter. Cell proliferation assays demonstrated a reduction of exponentially growing cancer cells of up to 53%, expressed as DNA synthesis (BrdU test), after 72 h stimulation with 100 μg of MFGM protein per mL. Using a similar MFGM concentration, the sulforhodamine B assay resulted in 57% reduction of cell density after 48 h incubation. This bioactivity was comparable to that of known anticancer drugs, 0.1 mM melphalan and 20 μM C2-ceramide, which achieved a cell division reduction of 25 and 40%, respectively, under the same experimental conditions. The toxic effect of the MFGM extracts on HT-29 cells was confirmed by the significant reduction in lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (LDH) by the residual viable cells. An increase of caspase-3 activity (up to 26%) led to the conclusion that MFGM has an apoptotic effect on HT-29 cancer cells.

  1. Yak milk fat globules from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Membrane lipid composition and morphological properties. (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Huang, Ziyu; Liu, Hongna; Zhang, Yan; Ren, Fazheng


    Yak milk fat products constitute the base of Qinghai-Tibetan pastoralists' daily food intake. Despite the great importance of fat in processing and pastoralists' health, studies about yak milk fat are scarce. In this study, the lipid composition and the morphological properties of milk fat globule membranes (MFGMs) of yak milk were investigated. The results demonstrated that the yak milk had a higher cholesterol and sphingomyelin content compared to cow milk. In situ structural investigations performed at 25 °C by confocal microscopy showed the presence of lipid domains in yak MFGM, with a larger number and wider size range compared to cow milk. Moreover, the simultaneous localization of glycosylated molecules and polar lipids indicated that glycosylated molecules could be integrated into the lipid domains in yak MFGM. Different characteristics in yak MFGM could be related to the lipid composition and may affect the functions of yak milk lipids during processing and digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Muneaki; Oya, Yoko; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sakai, Nami [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Lefloch, Bertrand; Kahane, Claudine [Universite de Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Caux, Emmanuel; Vastel, Charlotte [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Sakai, Takeshi [Department of Communication Engineering and Informatics, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Hirota, Tomoya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Aikawa, Yuri [Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)


    We report the first evidence of a hot corino in a Bok globule. This is based on ALMA observations in the 1.2 mm band toward the low-mass Class 0 protostar IRAS 19347+0727 in B335. Saturated complex organic molecules (COMs), CH{sub 3}CHO, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and NH{sub 2}CHO, are detected in a compact region within a few 10 au around the protostar. Additionally, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN, and CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3} are tentatively detected. Carbon-chain related molecules, CCH and c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}, are also found in this source, whose distributions are extended over a scale of a few 100 au. On the other hand, sulfur-bearing molecules CS, SO, and SO{sub 2} have both compact and extended components. Fractional abundances of the COMs relative to H{sub 2} are found to be comparable to those in known hot corino sources. Though the COMs lines are as broad as 5–8 km s{sup −1}, they do not show obvious rotation motion in the present observation. Thus, the COMs mainly exist in a structure whose distribution is much smaller than the synthesized beam (0.″58 × 0.″52).

  3. Phagocytosis mechanism of apoptotic granulosa cells regulated by milk-fat globule-EGF factor 8. (United States)

    Naka, Mayumi; Kusakabe, Ken; Takeshita, Ai; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Ito, Yuko; Shibata, Masa-Aki; Otsuki, Yoshinori


    In the process of ovary sexual maturation, most immature ovarian follicles degrade into atretic follicles accompanied by apoptosis in granulosa cells. Macrophages can recognize apoptotic cells through specific binding with phosphatidylserine (PS), exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells, which is mediated by milk-fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8). In the present research, we examined the involvement of the MFG-E8-dependent phagocytosis system in the atretic follicles of developing mouse ovaries. The number of atretic follicles and DNA-fragmented granulosa cells significantly increased in B6C3F1 mice during 2 to 6 weeks. Chromatin-condensed granulosa cells were engulfed by macrophages, which existed in the stroma or atretic follicles, or by neighboring normal granulosa cells. MFG-E8 mRNA increased in ovaries during 2 to 6 weeks, and immunoreactivity of MFG-E8 was detected at the surface of apoptotic cells existing around the antrum. Immunoelectron microscopic study revealed MFG-E8-positive signals on the membrane of apoptotic cells near macrophages, but apoptotic cells engulfed by neighboring granulosa cells showed few signals. Anti-Fas antibody elevated the annexin-V-positive reaction in isolated granulosa cells from 3-week-old mouse ovaries. MFG-E8 seems to act on the phagocytosis of apoptotic granulosa cells via macrophages and contribute to the regression process of atretic follicles.

  4. Unified View on the Mean-Field Order of Coil-Globule Transition (United States)

    Yang, Delian; Wang, Qiang


    It is well known that a polymer chain immersed in a small-molecule solvent undergoes the coil-globule transition (CGT) as the solvent quality changes. In the study of CGT, a mean-field theory, either of the Flory-type or the self-consistent field theory, has been commonly used; the transition order predicted by the mean-field theory, however, has been controversial. By examining the first- and second-order derivatives of the Helmholtz free energy with respect to the solvent equality, the continuity of which defines the transition order but has not been reported in the literature, we concluded that the mean-field CGT of a polymer chain of finite length N exhibits the type-I behavior; that is, it is either a first-order phase transition, a critical point, or a crossover depending on the location of the critical point. It becomes a second-order phase transition with respect to the solvent equality characterized by the Flory-Huggins parameter χ (or equivalently the second virial coefficient v or the temperature T) only in the limit of N --> ∞ . Even in this limit, it still has the type-I behavior with respect to vN 1 / 2 (or equivalently (1 - 2 χ) N 1 / 2). Financial support for this work was provided by NSF CAREER Award CBET-0847016, which is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Dynamic study of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during the spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc in Jingyang, China. (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Liu, Yanlin


    The evolution of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes during spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc planted in 1957 in Jingyang region of China was followed in this study. Using a combination of colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium, sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis, a total of 686 isolates were identified at the species level. The six species identified were S. cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis) and Trichosporon coremiiforme. This is the first report of T. coremiiforme as an inhabitant of grape must. Three new colony morphologies on WLN medium and one new 5.8S-ITS-RFLP profile are described. Species of non-Saccharomyces, predominantly H. opuntiae, were found in early stages of fermentation. Subsequently, S. cerevisiae prevailed followed by large numbers of P. kudriavzevii that dominated at the end of fermentations. Six native genotypes of S. cerevisiae were determined by interdelta sequence analysis. Genotypes III and IV were predominant. As a first step in exploring untapped yeast resources of the region, this study is important for monitoring the yeast ecology in native fermentations and screening indigenous yeasts that will produce wines with regional characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Grapevine Plasticity in Response to an Altered Microclimate: Sauvignon Blanc Modulates Specific Metabolites in Response to Increased Berry Exposure. (United States)

    Young, Philip R; Eyeghe-Bickong, Hans A; du Plessis, Kari; Alexandersson, Erik; Jacobson, Dan A; Coetzee, Zelmari; Deloire, Alain; Vivier, Melané A


    In this study, the metabolic and physiological impacts of an altered microclimate on quality-associated primary and secondary metabolites in grape (Vitis vinifera) 'Sauvignon Blanc' berries was determined in a high-altitude vineyard. The leaf and lateral shoot removal in the bunch zones altered the microclimate by increasing the exposure of the berries. The physical parameters (berry diameter and weight), primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids), as well as bunch temperature and leaf water potential were predominantly not affected by the treatment. The increased exposure led to higher levels of specific carotenoids and volatile terpenoids in the exposed berries, with earlier berry stages reacting distinctly from the later developmental stages. Plastic/nonplastic metabolite responses could be further classified to identify metabolites that were developmentally controlled and/or responded to the treatment in a predictable fashion (assessed over two consecutive vintages). The study demonstrates that grapevine berries exhibit a degree of plasticity within their secondary metabolites and respond physiologically to the increased exposure by increasing metabolites with potential antioxidant activity. Taken together, the data provide evidence that the underlying physiological responses relate to the maintenance of stress pathways by modulating antioxidant molecules in the berries. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Evolution of hut access facing glacier shrinkage in the Mer de Glace basin (Mont Blanc massif, France) (United States)

    Mourey, Jacques; Ravanel, Ludovic


    Given the evolution of high mountain environment due to global warming, mountaineering routes and huts accesses are more and more strongly affected by glacial shrinkage and concomitant gravity processes, but almost no studies have been conducted on this relationship. The aim of this research is to describe and explain the evolution over the last century of the access to the five alpine huts around the Mer de Glace glacier (Mont Blanc massif), the larger French glacier (length = 11.5 km, area = 30 km²), a major place for Alpine tourism since 1741 and the birthplace of mountaineering, by using several methods (comparing photographs, surveying, collecting historical documents). While most of the 20th century shows no marked changes, loss of ice thickness and associated erosion of lateral moraines generate numerous and significant changes since the 1990s. Boulder falls, rockfalls and landslides are the main geomorphological processes that affect the access, while the glacier surface lowering makes access much longer and more unstable. The danger is then greatly increased and the access must be relocated and/or equipped more and more frequently (e.g. a total of 520 m of ladders has been added). This questions the future accessibility to the huts, jeopardizing an important part of mountaineering and its linked economy in the Mer de Glace area.

  8. Comparative proteomics of milk fat globule membrane proteins from transgenic cloned cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunchao Sui

    Full Text Available The use of transgenic livestock is providing new methods for obtaining pharmaceutically useful proteins. However, the protein expression profiles of the transgenic animals, including expression of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM proteins, have not been well characterized. In this study, we compared the MFGM protein expression profile of the colostrum and mature milk from three lines of transgenic cloned (TC cattle, i.e., expressing recombinant human α-lactalbumin (TC-LA, lactoferrin (TC-LF or lysozyme (TC-LZ in the mammary gland, with those from cloned non-transgenic (C and conventionally bred normal animals (N. We identified 1, 225 proteins in milk MFGM, 166 of which were specifically expressed only in the TC-LA group, 265 only in the TC-LF group, and 184 only in the TC-LZ group. There were 43 proteins expressed only in the transgenic cloned animals, but the concentrations of these proteins were below the detection limit of silver staining. Functional analysis also showed that the 43 proteins had no obvious influence on the bovine mammary gland. Quantitative comparison revealed that MFGM proteins were up- or down-regulated more than twofold in the TC and C groups compared to N group: 126 in colostrum and 77 in mature milk of the TC-LA group; 157 in colostrum and 222 in mature milk of the TC-LF group; 49 in colostrum and 98 in mature milk of the TC-LZ group; 98 in colostrum and 132 in mature milk in the C group. These up- and down-regulated proteins in the transgenic animals were not associated with a particular biological function or pathway, which appears that expression of certain exogenous proteins has no general deleterious effects on the cattle mammary gland.

  9. Milk fat globule is an alternative to mammary epithelial cells for gene expression analysis in buffalo. (United States)

    Chen, Qiuming; Wu, Yanjun; Zhang, Mingyuan; Xu, Wenwen; Guo, Xiaoping; Yan, Xueyu; Deng, Haiying; Jiang, Qinyang; Yang, Xiurong; Lan, Ganqiu; Guo, Yafen; Qin, Guangsheng; Jiang, Hesheng


    Owing to the difficulty in obtaining mammary gland tissue from lactating animals, it is difficult to test the expression levels of genes in mammary gland. The aim of the current study was to identify if milk fat globule (MFG) in buffalo milk was an alternative to mammary gland (MG) and milk somatic cell (MSC) for gene expression analysis. Six buffalos in late lactation were selected to collect MFG and MSC, and then MG was obtained by surgery. MFG was stained with acridine orange to successfully visualise RNA and several cytoplasmic crescents in MFG. The total RNA in MFG was successfully isolated and the integrity was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. We analysed the cellular components in MFG, MG and MSC through testing the expression of cell-specific genes by qRT-PCR. The results showed that adipocyte-specific gene (AdipoQ) and leucocyte-specific genes (CD43, CSF1 and IL1α) in MFG were not detected, whereas epithelial cell marker genes (Keratin 8 and Keratin 18) in MFG were higher than in MSC and lower than in MG, fibroblast marker gene (vimentin) in MFG was significantly lower than in MG and MSC, milk protein genes (LALBA, BLG and CSN2) and milk fat synthesis-related genes (ACC, BTN1A1, FABP3 and FAS) in MFG were higher than in MG and MSC. In conclusion, the total RNA in MFG mainly derives from mammary epithelial cells and can be used to study the functional gene expression of mammary epithelial cells.

  10. Milk fat globule E-8 and interleukin 17 in systemic lupus erythematosus: partners in crime?

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    Lamiaa Madkour


    Full Text Available Objectives: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multi-factorial, autoimmune disease with a wide array of manifestations. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL-17 has been implicated in the inflammatory response and tissue damage in SLE; however, its correlation with disease activity is still questionable. Meanwhile, efficient clearance of apoptotic cells is required for immune tolerance. An abnormally low or high level of milk fat globule (MFG-E8 can result in impaired apoptotic cell clearance and the subsequent autoimmune response. In this study, we endeavoured to compare the levels of MFG-E8 and IL-17 in SLE patients and healthy controls and to reveal the alleged association of these levels with SLE disease activity. Material and methods: Serum samples from 57 SLE patients and 30 healthy control subjects were examined for quantitation of MFG-E8 and IL-17 levels using ELISA. Systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity was calculated using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI. Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of the patients were also recorded. Results : We report that serum MFG-E8 levels were significantly elevated in the sera of SLE patients compared to healthy controls (p-value = 0.019. Likewise, IL-17 levels were higher in SLE patients (p-value < 0.001. A positive correlation was revealed between MFG-E8 level and proteinuria. Surprisingly, there was a poor correlation between disease activity and the levels of either IL-17 or MFG-E8. Conclusions : Although serum MFG-E8 and IL-17 levels were higher in SLE patients than in normal controls, our results indicate that they cannot accurately reflect the disease activity. Meanwhile, further studies are needed to assess MFG-E8 and IL-17 as potential therapeutic targets in SLE patients.

  11. Molten globule of hemoglobin proceeds into aggregates and advanced glycated end products.

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    Afshin Iram

    Full Text Available Conformational alterations of bovine hemoglobin (Hb upon sequential addition of glyoxal over a range of 0-90% v/v were investigated. At 20% v/v glyoxal, molten globule (MG state of Hb was observed by altered tryptophan fluorescence, high ANS binding, existence of intact heme, native-like secondary structure as depicted by far-UV circular dichroism (CD and ATR-FTIR spectra as well as loss in tertiary structure as confirmed by near-UV CD spectra. In addition, size exclusion chromatography analysis depicted that MG state at 20% v/v glyoxal corresponded to expanded pre-dissociated dimers. Aggregates of Hb were detected at 70% v/v glyoxal. These aggregates of Hb had altered tryptophan environment, low ANS binding, exposed heme, increased β-sheet secondary structure, loss in tertiary structure, enhanced thioflavin T (ThT fluorescence and red shifted Congo Red (CR absorbance. On incubating Hb with 30% v/v glyoxal for 0-20 days, advanced glycation end products (AGEs were detected on day 20. These AGEs were characterised by enhanced tryptophan fluorescence at 450 nm, exposure of heme, increase in intermolecular β-sheets, enhanced ThT fluorescence and red shift in CR absorbance. Comet assay revealed aggregates and AGEs to be genotoxic in nature. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the amorphous structure of aggregates and branched fibrils of AGEs. The transformation of α-helix to β-sheet usually alters the normal protein to amyloidogenic resulting in a variety of protein conformational disorders such as diabetes, prion and Huntington's.

  12. Shocked and Scorched: Free-Floating Evaporating Gas Globules and Star Formation in Cygnus (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Claussen, M. J.; Morris, M. R.


    We report molecular line observations of a new class of Free-floating Evaporating Gas Globules with tadpole shapes (i.e., FrEGGs), recently discovered in the Cygnus star-forming region. We serendipitously found two of these in an HST imaging survey, including one of the most prominent members of this class (IRAS20324+4057: the Tadpole). Our molecular-line observations, carried out with the Arizona Radio Observatory's mm-wave telescopes, include on-the-fly maps in the CO and 13CO J=2-1 lines as well as pointed observations in the J=3-2 line of the high-density tracers HCO+ and N2H+. These data show the presence of dense molecular cores with total masses of cold molecular gas exceeding one to a few Msun in almost all FrEGGs. Our radio continuum imaging of 3 FrEGGs, as well as Halpha images from the IPHAS survey reveal bright photo-ionized peripheries around these objects. We infer that FrEGGs are dense, star-forming molecular cores that originated in the Cygnus cloud and are now being photoevaporated by the ultraviolet radiation field of the Cyg OB2 cluster, and shaped by the ram pressure of strong wind sources. The extended tails in some of the largest objects show wiggles likely resulting from Kelvin-Helmoltz instabilities. We find evidence for non-thermal radio emission in the Tadpole, with the radio emission peaking strongly along the shock/ionization front at its head, possibly as a result of a compressed magnetic layer in this front that is interacting with cosmic rays associated with the Cyg OB2 association.

  13. Shocked and Scorched - Free-Floating Evaporating Gas Globules and Star Formation (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Morris, Mark R.; Claussen, Mark J.


    Massive stars have a strong feedback effect on their environment, via their winds, UV radiation, and ultimately, supernova blast waves, all of which can alter the likelihood for the formation of stars in nearby clouds and limit the accretion process of nearby protostars. Free-floating Evaporating Gaseous Globules, or frEGGs, are a newly recognized class of stellar nurseries embedded within the giant HII regions found in massive star-formation region (MSFRs). We recently discovered the prototype frEGG in the Cygnus MSFR with HST. Further investigation using the Spitzer and Herschel archives have revealed a much larger number (>50) in Cygnus and other MSFRs. Our molecular-line observations of these show the presence of dense clouds with total masses of cool molecular gas exceeding 0.5 to a few Msun associated with these objects, thereby disproving the initial hypothesis based on their morphology that these have an origin similar to the proplyds (cometary-shaped photoevaporating protoplanetary disks) found in Orion. We report the results of our molecular-line studies and detailed high-resolution optical (with HST) or near-IR (with AO at the Keck Observatory) imaging of a few frEGGs in Cygnus, Carina and the W5 MSFRs. The images show the presence of young stars with associated outflow cavities and/or jets in the heads of the tadpole-shaped frEGGs. These results support our hypothesis that frEGGs are density concentrations originating in giant molecular clouds, that, when subject to the compression by the strong winds and ionization from massive stars in these MSFRs, become active star-forming cores. In summary, by virtue of their distinct, isolated morphologies, frEGGs offer us a clean probe of triggered star formation on small scales in the vicinity of massive stars.

  14. Comparative Proteomics of Milk Fat Globule Membrane Proteins from Transgenic Cloned Cattle (United States)

    Wang, Jianwu; Zhang, Ran; Guo, Chengdong; Yu, Tian; Li, Ning


    The use of transgenic livestock is providing new methods for obtaining pharmaceutically useful proteins. However, the protein expression profiles of the transgenic animals, including expression of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins, have not been well characterized. In this study, we compared the MFGM protein expression profile of the colostrum and mature milk from three lines of transgenic cloned (TC) cattle, i.e., expressing recombinant human α-lactalbumin (TC-LA), lactoferrin (TC-LF) or lysozyme (TC-LZ) in the mammary gland, with those from cloned non-transgenic (C) and conventionally bred normal animals (N). We identified 1, 225 proteins in milk MFGM, 166 of which were specifically expressed only in the TC-LA group, 265 only in the TC-LF group, and 184 only in the TC-LZ group. There were 43 proteins expressed only in the transgenic cloned animals, but the concentrations of these proteins were below the detection limit of silver staining. Functional analysis also showed that the 43 proteins had no obvious influence on the bovine mammary gland. Quantitative comparison revealed that MFGM proteins were up- or down-regulated more than twofold in the TC and C groups compared to N group: 126 in colostrum and 77 in mature milk of the TC-LA group; 157 in colostrum and 222 in mature milk of the TC-LF group; 49 in colostrum and 98 in mature milk of the TC-LZ group; 98 in colostrum and 132 in mature milk in the C group. These up- and down-regulated proteins in the transgenic animals were not associated with a particular biological function or pathway, which appears that expression of certain exogenous proteins has no general deleterious effects on the cattle mammary gland. PMID:25133402

  15. Carbonate- and silicate-rich globules in the kimberlitic rocks of northwestern Tarim large igneous province, NW China: Evidence for carbonated mantle source (United States)

    Cheng, Zhiguo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; Hou, Tong; Zhang, Dongyang


    We report carbonate- and silicate-rich globules and andradite from the Wajilitage kimberlitic rocks in the northwestern Tarim large igneous province, NW China. The carbonate-rich globules vary in size from 1 to 3 mm, and most have ellipsoidal or round shape, and are composed of nearly pure calcite. The silicate-rich globules are elliptical to round in shape and are typically larger than the carbonate-rich globules ranging from 2 to several centimeters in diameter. They are characterized by clear reaction rims and contain several silicate minerals such as garnet, diopside and phlogopite. The silicate-rich globules, reported here for the first time, are suggested to be related to the origin of andradite within the kimberlitic rocks. Our results show that calcite in the carbonate-rich globules has a high XCa (>0.97) and is characterized by extremely high concentrations of the total rare earth elements (up to 1500 ppm), enrichment in Sr (8521-10,645 ppm) and LREE, and remarkable depletion in Nd, Ta, Zr, Hf and Ti. The calcite in the silicate-rich globules is geochemically similar to those in the carbonate-rich globules except the lower trace element contents. Garnet is dominantly andradite (And59.56-92.32Grs5.67-36.03Pyr0.36-4.61Spe0-0.33) and is enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and relatively depleted in Rb, Ba, Th, Pb, Sr, Zr and Hf. Phlogopite in the silicate-rich globules has a high Mg# ranging from 0.93 to 0.97. The composition of the diopside is Wo45.82-51.39En39.81-49.09Fs0.88-0.95 with a high Mg# ranging from 0.88 to 0.95. Diopside in the silicate-rich globules has low total rare earth element (REE) contents (14-31 ppm) and shows middle REE- (Eu to Gd), slight light REE- and heavy REE-enrichment with elevated Zr, Hf and Sr contents and a negative Nb anomaly in the normalized diagram. The matrix of the kimberlitic rocks are silica undersaturated (27.92-29.31 wt.% SiO2) with low Al2O3 (4.51-5.15 wt.%) and high CaO (17.29-17.77 wt.%) contents. The

  16. Body measures and milk production, milk fat globules granulometry and milk fatty acid content in Cabannina cattle breed

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    Ricardo Communod


    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to achieve scientific information about body measures and milk production of Cabannina cattle, a local breed reared in northern Italy. Fourteen body measures and five morphologic indexes were recorded from 86 heads enrolled in the herd book. Low differences between males and females of the same age-class were shown. Body measures were generally greater than those reported in previous studies, probably due to recent crosses. With reference to milk production, 991 test-day records from 128 lactations of 59 cows were analysed. Average milk daily production was 8 kg/d in 1st lactation to 10.61 in 3rd (P<0.05; the parameters of the Wood equation draw atypical curves with the exception of curves from spring calving cows. Only 74.5% of lactations with an adjusted R2 >0.75 showed a standard curve, with low persistence (7.7%, high value of d at peak (103 d and peak production of 20.18 kg of milk. Moreover, 100 milk samples (40 to 220 d of lactation were submitted to a granulometric survey by laser scatter technique in order to evaluate the dimensions of fat globules; then milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography, and desaturase indexes were determined. Cabannina cows showed small fat globules with high specific surface. Furthermore mean diameter of milk fat globules decreased during lactation then rose. Milk fat contained high levels of cis-MUFA, and high desaturase indexes. In conclusion, the low size of Cabannina cattle orients for a limited meat production. Instead milk production has a higher economic potential, aimed at cheese production and human nutrition.

  17. Observation of persistent α-helical content and discrete types of backbone disorder during a molten globule to ordered peptide transition via deep-UV resonance Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Brown, Mia C; Mutter, Andrew; Koder, Ronald L; JiJi, Renee D; Cooley, Jason W


    The molten globule state can aide in the folding of a protein to a functional structure and is loosely defined as an increase in structural disorder with conservation of the ensemble secondary structure content. Simultaneous observation of persistent secondary structure content with increased disorder has remained experimentally problematic. As a consequence, modeling how the molten globule state remains stable and how it facilitates proper folding remains difficult due to a lack of amenable spectroscopic techniques to characterize this class of partially unfolded proteins. Previously, deep-UV resonance Raman (dUVRR) spectroscopy has proven useful in the resolution of global and local structural fluctuations in the secondary structure of proteins. In this work, dUVRR was employed to study the molten globule to ordered transition of a model four-helix bundle protein, HP7. Both the average ensemble secondary structure and types of local disorder were monitored, without perturbation of the solvent, pH, or temperature. The molten globule to ordered transition is induced by stepwise coordination of two heme molecules. Persistent dUVRR spectral features in the amide III region at 1295-1301 and 1335-1338 cm -1 confirm previous observations that HP7 remains predominantly helical in the molten globule versus the fully ordered state. Additionally, these spectra represent the first demonstration of conserved helical content in a molten globule protein. With successive heme binding significant losses are observed in the spectral intensity of the amide III 3 and S regions (1230-1260 and 1390 cm -1 , respectively), which are known to be sensitive to local disorder. These observations indicate that there is a decrease in the structural populations able to explore various extended conformations, with successive heme binding events. DUVRR spectra indicate that the first heme coordination between two helical segments diminishes exploration of more elongated backbone structural

  18. Effet d'un deficit hydrique sur le trefle blanc (Trifolium repens L.). I. Role d'un apport de potassium


    Shamsun-Noor, L.; Robin, Christophe; Guckert, Armand


    Le comportement du trèfle blanc (Trifolium repens L cv Crau) est étudié en situation de contrainte hydrique et après réhydratation en liaison avec la fertilisation potassique. Le déficit en eau occasionne une décroissance progressive importante du potentiel hydrique des feuilles et une fermeture rapide des stomates. Ces manifestations sont accompagnées d’une chute de l’activité photosynthétique et de la fixation symbiotique de l’azote. En présence de potassium, la diminution de l’activité...

  19. Comparison of Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM Proteins of Chianina and Holstein Cattle Breed Milk Samples Through Proteomics Methods

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    Lorraine Pariset


    Full Text Available Identification of proteins involved in milk production is important to understand the biology of lactation. Many studies have advanced the understanding of mammary function and milk secretion, but the critical molecular mechanisms implicated in milk fat secretion is still incomplete. Milk Fat Globules are secreted from the apical surface of the mammary cells, surrounded by a thin membrane bilayer, the Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM, formed by proteins which have been suggested to be cholesterolemia-lowering factors, inhibitors of cancer cell growth, vitamin binders, bactericidal, suppressors of multiple sclerosis. Using a proteomic approach, we compared MFGM from milk samples of individuals belonging to two different cattle breeds, Chianina and Holstein, representative of selection for milk and meat traits, respectively. We were able to isolate some of the major MFGM proteins in the examined samples and to identify differences between the protein fractions of the two breeds. We detected differences in the amount of proteins linked to mammary gland development and lipid droplets formation, as well as host defence mechanisms. We have shown that proteomics is a suitable, unbiased method for the study of milk fractions proteins and a powerful tool in nutritional genomics.

  20. Indications of the prominent role of elemental sulfur in the formation of the varietal thiol 3-mercaptohexanol in Sauvignon blanc wine. (United States)

    Araujo, Leandro Dias; Vannevel, Sebastian; Buica, Astrid; Callerot, Suzanne; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Kilmartin, Paul A; du Toit, Wessel J


    Elemental sulfur is a fungicide traditionally used to control Powdery Mildew in the production of grapes. The presence of sulfur residues in grape juice has been associated with increased production of hydrogen sulfide during fermentation, which could take part in the formation of the varietal thiol 3-mercaptohexanol. This work examines whether elemental sulfur additions to Sauvignon blanc juice can increase the levels of sought-after varietal thiols. Initial trials were performed in South Africa and indicated a positive impact of sulfur on the levels of thiols. Further experiments were then carried out with New Zealand Sauvignon blanc and confirmed a positive relationship between elemental sulfur additions and wine varietal thiols. The formation of hydrogen sulfide was observed when the addition of elemental sulfur was made to clarified juice, along with an increase in further reductive sulfur compounds. When the addition of sulfur was made to pressed juice, prior to clarification, the production of reductive sulfur compounds was drastically decreased. Some mechanistic considerations are also presented, involving the reduction of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide prior to fermentation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. 3D Detection, Quantification and Correlation of Slope Failures with Geologic Structure in the Mont Blanc massif (United States)

    Allan, Mark; Dunning, Stuart; Lim, Michael; Woodward, John


    A thorough understanding of supply from landslides and knowledge of their spatial distribution is of fundamental importance to high-mountain sediment budgets. Advances in 3D data acquisition techniques are heralding new opportunities to create high-resolution topographic models to aid our understanding of landscape change through time. In this study, we use a Structure-from-Motion Multi-View Stereo (SfM-MVS) approach to detect and quantify slope failures at selected sites in the Mont Blanc massif. Past and present glaciations along with its topographical characteristics have resulted in a high rate of geomorphological activity within the range. Data for SfM-MVS processing were captured across variable temporal scales to examine short-term (daily), seasonal and annual change from terrestrial, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and helicopter perspectives. Variable spatial scales were also examined ranging from small focussed slopes (~0.01 km2) to large valley-scale surveys (~3 km2). Alignment and registration were conducted using a series of Ground Control Points (GCPs) across the surveyed slope at various heights and slope aspects. GCPs were also used to optimise data and reduce non-linear distortions. 3D differencing was performed using a multiscale model-to-model comparison algorithm (M3C2) which uses variable thresholding across each slope based on local surface roughness and model alignment quality. Detected change was correlated with local slope structure and 3D discontinuity analysis was undertaken using a plane-detection and clustering approach (DSE). Computation of joint spacing was performed using the classified data and normal distances. Structural analysis allowed us to assign a Slope Mass Rating (SMR) and assess the stability of each slope relative to the detected change and determine likely failure modes. We demonstrate an entirely 3D workflow which preserves the complexity of alpine slope topography to compute volumetric loss using a variable threshold. A

  2. [The interrelation between the secretory function of the bovine udder and the amount of prolactin receptors on the membranes of the milk fat globules during lactogenesis]. (United States)

    Larina, M M; Tumanova, E B; Popova, A A


    The prolactin receptors number reaches its maximal level in proestrus. The data obtained suggest a correlation between high-affinity prolactin receptors concentration on the milk fat globule membranes during proestrus and the cow milk yield. The membranes may provide a model for assessing the functional state and secretory activity of the cow mammary gland.

  3. Bovine milk proteome: Quantitative changes in normal milk exosomes, milk fat globule membranes and whey proteomes resulting from Staphylococcus aureus mastitis (United States)

    Knowledge of milk protein composition/expression in healthy cows and cows with mastitis will provide information important for the dairy food industry, mammary biology and immune function in the mammary gland. To facilitate maximum protein discovery, milk was fractioned into whey, milk fat globule ...

  4. Geomatics techniques applied to time series of aerial images for multitemporal geomorphological analysis of the Miage Glacier (Mont Blanc). (United States)

    Perotti, Luigi; Carletti, Roberto; Giardino, Marco; Mortara, Giovanni


    The Miage glacier is the major one in the Italian side of the Mont Blanc Massif, the third by area and the first by longitudinal extent among Italian glaciers. It is a typical debris covered glacier, since the end of the L.I.A. The debris coverage reduces ablation, allowing a relative stability of the glacier terminus, which is characterized by a wide and articulated moraine apparatus. For its conservative landforms, the Miage Glacier has a great importance for the analysis of the geomorphological response to recent climatic changes. Thanks to an organized existing archive of multitemporal aerial images (1935 to present) a photogrammetric approach has been applied to detect recent geomorphological changes in the Miage glacial basin. The research team provided: a) to digitize all the available images (still in analogic form) through photogrammetric scanners (very low image distortions devices) taking care of correctly defining the resolution of the acquisition compared to the scale mapping images are suitable for; b) to import digitized images into an appropriate digital photogrammetry software environment; c) to manage images in order, where possible, to carried out the stereo models orientation necessary for 3D navigation and plotting of critical geometric features of the glacier. Recognized geometric feature, referring to different periods, can be transferred to vector layers and imported in a GIS for further comparisons and investigations; d) to produce multi-temporal Digital Elevation Models for glacier volume changes; e) to perform orthoprojection of such images to obtain multitemporal orthoimages useful for areal an planar terrain evaluation and thematic analysis; f) to evaluate both planimetric positioning and height determination accuracies reachable through the photogrammetric process. Users have to known reliability of the measures they can do over such products. This can drive them to define the applicable field of this approach and this can help them to

  5. Le vote blanc et nul en Wallonie : analyse écologique et individuelle Blank and null votes in Wallonia: an ecological and individual analysis

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    Geoffrey Pion


    Full Text Available Le vote blanc et nul est probablement le comportement de vote le plus laissé pour compte dans les études électorales. Pourtant dans une démocratie comme la Belgique, ce vote n’est pas négligeable et présente une géographie atypique mettant en exergue les régions frontalières. Nous analyserons donc dans cet article ce comportement de vote méconnu de manière à la fois écologique et individuelle. Après avoir bâti un modèle de régression tentant de rendre compte de la variation spatiale du vote blanc et nul en Wallonie grâce à des variables démographiques et socio-économiques, nous étudierons les informations issues de près de 2000 bulletins de votes blancs et nuls récupérés dans des services d’archives électorales. L’étude mettra ainsi en lumière l’opposition entre votes blancs et nuls ruraux et urbains. Les premiers, très nombreux notamment le long des frontières nationales, revêtent le caractère soit d’une abstention cachée soit d’un désintérêt pour la politique belge de la part d’électeurs tournés vers les pays frontaliers. Les seconds sont quant à eux la combinaison d’un rejet de la politique et d’une méconnaissance des règles électorales par les classes populaires et les primo-votants.Blank and null votes are probably the electoral behaviour least taken into account by electoral studies. Though, in a democracy like Belgium, these votes are far from negligible and offer an untypical geography which underlines border areas. This paper will analyze this unknown electoral behaviour in an ecological and individual way. We will first build a multiple regression model in order to try to debrief the spatial variation of blank and null votes in Wallonia thanks to demographic and socioeconomic variables. Secondly, we will study the information retained by more than 2000 spoiled ballot papers. The study will highlight the opposition between rural and urban blank and null votes. The first ones

  6. L’effet de l’ovotransferrine sur les enveloppes bactériennes dans les conditions physicochimiques du blanc d’oeuf


    Rezazadeh Ghazvini, Raheleh


    Les protéines de blanc d'oeuf telles que l’ovotransferrine jouent un rôle important dans la défense contre l'invasion bactérienne. L'ovotransferrine a une capacité de liaison du fer, ce qui induit une activité bactériostatique en limitant le fer dans l'environnement des bactéries. Outre le mécanisme bien connu de la privation de fer (Baron et al 2016, pour revue), plusieurs auteurs ont suggéré que l'activité antimicrobienne de l'ovotransferrine pourrait résulter de son effet direct sur les me...

  7. The Mont Blanc neutrinos from SN 1987A: Could they have been monochromatic (8 MeV) tachyons with m2 = - 0.38 keV2? (United States)

    Ehrlich, Robert


    According to conventional wisdom the 5 h early Mont Blanc burst probably was not associated with SN 1987A, but if it was genuine, some exotic physics explanation had to be responsible. Here we consider one truly exotic explanation, namely faster-than-light neutrinos having mν2 = - 0.38 keV2. It is shown that the Mont Blanc burst is consistent with the distinctive signature of that explanation i.e., an 8 MeV antineutrino line from SN 1987A. It is further shown that a model of core collapse supernovae involving dark matter particles of mass 8 MeV would in fact yield an 8 MeV antineutrino line. Moreover, that dark matter model predicts 8 MeV ν ,νbar and e+e- pairs from the galactic center, a place where one would expect large amounts of dark matter to collect. The resulting e+ would create γ - rays from the galactic center, and a fit to MeV γ - ray data yields the model's dark matter mass, as well as the calculated source temperature and angular size. These good fits give indirect experimental support for the existence of an 8 MeV antineutrino line from SN 1987A. More direct support comes from the spectrum of N ∼ 1000 events recorded by the Kamiokande-II detector on the day of SN 1987A, which appear to show an 8 MeV line atop the detector background. This νbar line, if genuine, has been well-hidden for 30 years because it occurs very close to the peak of the background. This fact might ordinarily justify extreme skepticism. In the present case, however, a more positive view is called for based on (a) the very high statistical significance of the result (30σ), (b) the use of a detector background independent of the SN 1987A data using a later K-II data set, and (c) the observation of an excess above the background spectrum whose central energy and width both agree with that of an 8 MeV νbar line broadened by 25% resolution. Most importantly, the last observation is in accord with the prior prediction of an 8 MeV νbar line based on the Mont Blanc data, and

  8. Study of the variables which influence the impregnation of globules, compressed tablets and tablet triturates used in homeopathy

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    Fernanda Santos de Souza


    Full Text Available Globules, compressed tablets and tablet triturates are solid dosage forms used in homeopathy. Divergences can be noted between the preparation techniques described in official compendiums as well as those applied in homeopathic pharmacies. The difficulty associated with standardization of the impregnation of these dosage forms occurs due to the lack of detail provided for the techniques in the literature, leaving it up to each pharmacy to decide on the exact method of preparation. The objective was to optimize the impregnation technique, through investigating the variables that influence the impregnation of globules, compressed tablets and tablet triturates, applying the statistical tool of factorial design. The independent variables were the dosage form, percentage and type of impregnation and drying temperature, and the dependent variables were the mass gain, disintegration time, friability and hardness. For the globules, the greatest mass gain was for 10% impregnation and drying at 20 ºC. For the tablet triturates and compressed tablets the greatest mass gain was for 15% impregnation and there was no difference between the results obtained using simple and triple impregnation or different drying temperatures. The results can contribute to improving the final product quality, besides aiding in the establishment of standardized techniques for the official compendiums.Glóbulos, comprimidos e tabletes são formas farmacêuticas sólidas utilizadas em homeopatia. Constatam-se divergências entre técnicas de preparação descritas nos compêndios oficiais, bem como em farmácias homeopáticas. A dificuldade de padronização na impregnação destas formas farmacêuticas também ocorre devido à falta de detalhamento das técnicas na literatura existente, deixando para cada farmácia a escolha de como executá-las. O objetivo foi otimizar a técnica de impregnação, através do estudo de variáveis que interferem na impregnação de gl

  9. Etude des possibilités de sélection de la précocité sexuelle chez la truite arc-en-ciel (Salmo gairdneri R.

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    Des croisements factoriels entre des géniteurs ayant maturé pour la première fois à des âges variés (de 1 à 3 ans pour les mâles, de 2 à 4 ans pour les femelles ont permis de préciser les possibilités de sélection individuelle et les effets respectifs des parents mâle et femelle. L'effet du parent mâle sur la fréquence de mâles et de femelles précoces dans la descendance est net ; l'effet du parent femelle apparaît plus limité. Une estimation de l'héritabilité de la précocité sexuelle est proposée (h2 = 0,3 et les possibilités d'amélioration génétique de ce caractère sont présentées et discutées.

  10. Determination of the physical parameters of Bok-globules by means of a stochastical radiative transfer method (United States)

    Hengel, C.; Hegmann, M.; Röllig, M.; Kegel, W. H.

    During the last years, one of the key projects of the Astrophysics group at the University of Frankfurt was the theoretical examination of the influence of turbulence and density fluctuations on the formation of interstellar molecular lines, especially CO lines (Albrecht & Kegel 1987, Kegel et al. 1993, Piehler & Kegel 1995, Hegmann 1999). Based on an approach by G. Traving and collaborators (cf. Gail et al. 1974), a numerical code has been developed to deal with the NLTE problem in an isothermal spherical cloud being stabelized by turbulent and thermal pressure, considering the turbulent velocity field to be stochastic. Our model has been primarily constructed to achieve theoretical insight in the fundamental mechanisms of line formation under more realistic conditions. In view of the stage of development, the model has actually reached, we seriously think of it as an alternative tool for the evaluation of molecular lines emitted by molecular clouds, especially as the model assumptions are certainly closer to reality than the assumptions behind the standard evaluation methods such as e. g. LVG analysis. The objects the physics of which we believe to be closest to our model assumptions are starless Bok globules. We thus have performed observations at the HHT, where we have collected data of five Bok globules in the CO(2-1), CO(3-2), 13CO(2-1) and C18O(2-1) lines. In my contribution I will adress the question, if and how the physical parameters derived by our analysis of the observational data (central H2 density, temperature, correlation length of the turbulent velocity field, and mean square turbulent velocity) differ from the results of an LVG analysis (they do!) and what these findings imply from a physical point of view as well as from a critical viewpoint on the practice of data evaluation. I will talk about problems of our model at its current stage and possible consequences for an improvement of the model, and I will finally give an outlook, how, with

  11. Effect of temperature on the microstructure of fat globules and the immunoglobulin-mediated interactions between fat and bacteria in natural raw milk creaming. (United States)

    D'Incecco, P; Ong, L; Pellegrino, L; Faoro, F; Barbiroli, A; Gras, S


    Natural creaming of raw milk is the first step in production of Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano Protected Denomination of Origin cheeses. This process decreases the fat content and plays an important role in the removal of clostridia species that may cause late-blowing defects in ripened cheeses. Partial coalescence of fat globules-that may influence fat behavior in cheese making and affect the microstructure of fat in the final cheese product-was observed at creaming temperatures higher than 22°C by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The widespread practice of heating of milk at 37°C before creaming at 8°C resulted in important changes in the size distribution of fat globules in raw milk, potentially altering the ability of fat to entrap clostridia spores. We investigated the role of immunoglobulin classes in both the clustering of fat globules and the agglutination of Clostridium tyrobutyricum to fat globules during creaming. Immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy showed that IgA and IgM but not IgG were involved in both clustering and agglutination. Both vegetative cells and spores were clearly shown to agglutinate to fat droplets, a process that was suppressed by thermal denaturation of the immunoglobulins. The debacterization of raw milk through natural creaming was improved by the addition of purified immunoglobulins. Overall, these findings provide not only a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during the natural creaming but also practical insights into how the process of creaming may be optimized in cheese production plants. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

  12. Effects of emulsifying components in the continuous phase of cream on the stability of fat globules and the physical properties of whipped cream. (United States)

    Ihara, K; Hirota, M; Akitsu, T; Urakawa, K; Abe, T; Sumi, M; Okawa, T; Fujii, T


    The emulsifying components in cream are very important in controlling the physical characteristics of whipped cream. The effects of those components on the stability of fat globules and the physical characteristics of whipped cream were investigated. A low-molecular-weight emulsifier, and protein ingredients such as sodium caseinate and a casein partial hydrolysate (casein peptides), were used as emulsifying components in this investigation. The viscosity of deaerated whipped cream (called the serum viscosity) was measured to evaluate the degree of fat-globule aggregation. Furthermore, the shape-retention ability, which is the degree of reduction in the firmness of whipped cream between immediately after whipping and after 1d of refrigeration, was explored. The addition of the low-molecular-weight emulsifier in the continuous phase of dairy cream, which does not contain added low-molecular-weight emulsifiers, increased the stability of the fat globules and reduced the shape-retention ability of the whipped cream. The addition of protein ingredients (sodium caseinate and casein peptides) to the continuous phase of dairy cream had little effect. However, the addition of casein peptide in the continuous phase of dairy cream together with the low-molecular-weight emulsifier reduced the effect of the low-molecular-weight emulsifier on the stabilization of fat globules and the shape-retention ability of the whipped cream. The addition of casein peptide did not recover the serum viscosity; thus, other mechanisms might underlie this phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hyaline globule-like structures in undifferentiated sarcoma cells of malignant müllerian mixed tumor of the fallopian tube. (United States)

    Kuroda, Naoto; Inui, Yasunobu; Ohara, Masahiko; Hirouchi, Takashi; Mizuno, Keiko; Kubo, Ayumi; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Enzan, Hideaki; Lee, Gang-Hong


    Malignant müllerian mixed tumors (MMMTs) of the fallopian tube are very rare neoplasms, and we present such a case with unusual findings here. A 57-year-old Japanese woman, after she received a medical checkup, underwent salpingo-oophorectomy on the suspicion of ovarian cancer. At the time of operation, the main tumor was present predominantly in the fallopian tube. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of carcinoma and sarcoma components. The carcinoma showed moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The sarcoma consisted of predominantly undifferentiated sarcoma and focally rhabdomyosarcomatous cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the differentiation toward rhabdomyosarcoma was confirmed. Interestingly, the cytoplasm of undifferentiated sarcoma cells contained hyaline globule-like structures. These structures showed a positive reaction for PAS, and these structures were not digested by the diastase pretreatment. Ultrastructurally, hyaline globule-like structures corresponded to lysosomes. Finally, pathologists should keep in mind that undifferentiated sarcoma cells in MMMT of the fallopian tube may contain hyaline globule-like structures in the cytoplasm.

  14. N-glycosylation proteomic characterization and cross-species comparison of milk fat globule membrane proteins from mammals. (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Weiyu; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Ma, Lu; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi


    Glycosylation of proteins has been implicated in various biological functions and has received much attention; however, glycoprotein components and inter-species complexity have not yet been elucidated fully in milk proteins. N-linked glycosylation sites and glycoproteins in milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fractions were investigated by combining N-glycosylated peptides enrichment and high-accuracy Q Exactive identification, to map the N-glycoproteome profiles in Holstein and Jersey cows, buffaloes, yaks, goats, camels, horses, and humans. A total of 399 N-glycoproteins with 677 glycosylation sites were identified in the MFGM fractions of the studied mammals. Most glycosylation sites in humans were classified as known and those in the other studied mammals as unknown, according to Swiss-Prot annotations. Functionally, most of the identified glycoproteins were associated with the 'response to stimulus' GO category. N-glycosylated protein components of MFGM fractions from Holstein and Jersey cows, buffaloes, yaks, and goats were more similar to each other compared with those of camels, horses and human. The findings increased the number of known N-glycosylation sites in the milk from dairy animal species, revealed the complexity of the MFGM glycoproteome, and provided useful information to further explore the mechanism of MFGM glycoproteins biosynthesis among the studied mammals. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Phosphoproteomics of the goat milk fat globule membrane: New insights into lipid droplet secretion from the mammary epithelial cell. (United States)

    Henry, Céline; Saadaoui, Besma; Bouvier, Frédéric; Cebo, Christelle


    Mechanisms of milk lipid secretion are highly controversial. Analyzing the fine protein composition of the "milk fat globule membrane" (MFGM), the triple-layered membrane surrounding milk lipid droplets (LDs) can provide mechanistic clues to better understand LD biosynthesis and secretion pathways in mammary epithelial cells (MECs). We therefore combined a high-sensitive Q-Exactive LC-MS/MS analysis of MFGM-derived peptides to the use of an in-house database intended to improve protein identification in the goat species. Using this approach, we performed the identification of 442 functional groups of proteins in the MFGM from goat milk. To get a more dynamic view of intracellular mechanisms driving LD dynamics in the MECs, we decided to investigate for the first time whether MFGM proteins were phosphorylated. MFGM proteins were sequentially digested by lysine-C and trypsin proteases and the resulting peptides were fractionated by a strong cation exchange chromatography. Titanium beads were used to enrich phosphopeptides from strong cation exchange chromatography eluted fractions. This approach lets us pinpoint 271 sites of phosphorylation on 124 unique goat MFGM proteins. Enriched GO terms associated with phosphorylated MFGM proteins were protein transport and actin cytoskeleton organization. Gained data are discussed with regard to lipid secretory mechanisms in the MECs. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001039 ( © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Pulsed electric field processing preserves the antiproliferative activity of the milk fat globule membrane on colon carcinoma cells. (United States)

    Xu, S; Walkling-Ribeiro, M; Griffiths, M W; Corredig, M


    The present work evaluated the effect of processing on the antiproliferative activities of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) extracts. The antiproliferative activity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells of untreated MFGM extracts were compared with those extracted from pasteurized cream, thermally treated cream, or cream subjected to pulsed electrical field (PEF) processing. The PEF with a 37 kV/cm field strength applied for 1,705μs at 50 and 65°C was applied to untreated cream collected from a local dairy. Heating at 50 or 65°C for 3min (the passage time in the PEF chamber) was also tested to evaluate the heating effect during PEF treatments. The MFGM extracted from pasteurized cream did not show an antiproliferative activity. On the other hand, isolates from PEF-treated cream showed activity similar to that of untreated samples. It was also shown that PEF induced interactions between β-lactoglobulin and MFGM proteins at 65°C, whereas the phospholipid composition remained unaltered. This work demonstrates the potential of PEF not only a means to produce a microbiologically safe product, but also as a process preserving the biofunctionality of the MFGM. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in milk fat globules and mammary cells - Implications for milk cholesterol secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mani, O; Körner, M; Ontsouka, C E


    to test whether 1) ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression and subcellular localization in mammary epithelial cells (MEC) change during the pregnancy-lactation cycle, and 2) these 2 proteins were present in milk fat globules (MFG). Expression and localization in MEC were investigated in bovine MG tissues......, was higher during the end of lactation (12.2 ± 0.24) and the DP (12.5 ± 0.22) as compared with during early lactation (10.2 ± 0.65). In contrast, no significant change in ABCG1 expression existed between the stages. Throughout the cycle, ABCA1 and ABCG1 were detected in the apical (41.9 ± 24.8 and 49.0 ± 4.......96% of cows, respectively), basal (56.2 ± 28.1 and 54.6 ± 7.78% of cows, respectively), or entire cytoplasm (56.8 ± 13.4 and 61.6 ± 14.4% of cows, respectively) of MEC, or showed combined localization. Unlike ABCG1, ABCA1 was absent at the apical aspect of MEC during early lactation. Immunolabeling...

  18. Evaluation of six sample preparation procedures for qualitative and quantitative proteomics analysis of milk fat globule membrane. (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Anderson, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheng


    Proteomic analysis of membrane proteins is challenged by the proteins solubility and detergent incompatibility with MS analysis. No single perfect protocol can be used to comprehensively characterize the proteome of membrane fraction. Here, we used cow milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteome analysis to assess six sample preparation procedures including one in-gel and five in-solution digestion approaches prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The largest number of MFGM proteins were identified by suspension trapping (S-Trap) and filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) methods, followed by acetone precipitation without clean-up of tryptic peptides method. Protein identifications with highest average coverage was achieved by Chloroform/MeOH, in-gel and S-Trap methods. Most distinct proteins were identified by FASP method, followed by S-Trap. Analyses by Venn diagram, principal-component analysis, hierarchical clustering and the abundance ranking of quantitative proteins highlight differences in the MFGM fraction by the all sample preparation procedures. These results reveal the biased proteins/peptides loss occurred in each protocol. In this study, we found several novel proteins that were not observed previously by in-depth proteomics characterization of MFGM fraction in milk. Thus, a combination of multiple procedures with orthologous properties of sample preparation was demonstrated to improve the protein sequence coverage and expression level accuracy of membrane samples. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. On the effect of sodium salts on the coil-to-globule transition of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). (United States)

    Pica, Andrea; Graziano, Giuseppe


    It has been shown that sodium salts significantly affect the temperature of the coil-to-globule collapse transition of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) [J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127, 14505]. Since this phenomenon resembles the cold renaturation of globular proteins, it can be studied by means of the theoretical approach devised to rationalise the occurrence and the mechanism of cold denaturation [G. Graziano, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 14245; Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014, 16, 21755]. It emerges that the collapse transition is driven by the decrease in the solvent-excluded volume in order to maximise the translational entropy of water molecules and ions. At a given temperature, the aqueous solutions of sodium salts have densities higher than that of water. For this reason, the magnitude of the solvent-excluded volume effect proves to be larger, stabilizing the globular conformations of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). On the other hand, two large ions, iodide and thiocyanate, are poorly hydrated and stabilise the coil conformations of the polymer by a preferential binding mechanism.

  20. Effect of feeding camphor (Eucalyptus Globules) levels on some immunity characteristics, growth and gut microflora of japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Taleb, A.M.; Salah, H.M.; Ezzat, I.E.; El Barkouky, E.


    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding Eucalyptus globules Egypt to Japanese quail diet on performance and some metabolic functions and immunity. Four hundred,one day old, unsexed japanese quails were used in this study. Quails were divided equally into four groups containing 100 birds in each. Each group contained 4 replicates of 25 birds. Group one was supplemented with 1% Egypt in basal diet, group two was supplemented with 2% Egypt in basal diet, group three was used as negative control (-ve)without any addition of antibiotic in diet or water, while group four represented the positive control (+ ve) by addition antibiotics (0.5 g neomycin sulphate +0.5 g oxytetracyclin) in drinking water for 5 days post hatching. The experimented diet contained 3200 Kcal ME/kg and 24% crude proteins. The end of the experiment was terminated when birds were 6 weeks old. Body weight, mortality, some organs weighs and some blood parameters were measured and some microbial population of small intestines was counted. Results indicated that the addition of Egypt led to significant increase in quails body weights, spleen, bursa and ovary and the measures of total proteins, globulins, haemagglutination inhibition (HI)and triiodothyronine (T3). Decrease in mortality ratio and less counts of microflora and salmonella of gut were also achieved as a result of diet camphor addition

  1. Short communication: Annatto in Cheddar cheese-derived whey protein concentrate is primarily associated with milk fat globule membrane. (United States)

    Zhu, D; Damodaran, S


    The yellow color of Cheddar cheese whey arises from a residual amount of annatto that partitions into the whey during Cheddar cheese manufacture. Bleaching of the color using hydrogen peroxide or benzoyl peroxide is often a prerequisite to produce an acceptable neutral-colored whey protein concentrate and isolate. However, the use of these strong oxidizing agents often generates off-flavors as a result of lipid oxidation and results in loss of nutritive value due to protein oxidation. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of partitioning of annatto between protein, milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), and aqueous (serum) phases of cheese whey so that a simple method can be developed to remove annatto from cheese whey. The MFGM was separated from Cheddar cheese whey using a recently developed novel method. Quantitative analysis of the distribution of annatto in the fat-free whey protein isolate (WPI), the MFGM fractions, and the serum phase revealed that annatto was not bound to the protein fraction but was mostly distributed between the serum phase and the MFGM fraction. The results showed that a colorless WPI or whey protein concentrate could be produced from Cheddar cheese whey by separation of MFGM from the whey, followed by diafiltration. This approach will negate the need for using bleaching agents. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dust evolution, a global view: III. Core/mantle grains, organic nano-globules, comets and surface chemistry. (United States)

    Jones, A P


    Within the framework of The Heterogeneous dust Evolution Model for Interstellar Solids (THEMIS), this work explores the surface processes and chemistry relating to core/mantle interstellar and cometary grain structures and their influence on the nature of these fascinating particles. It appears that a realistic consideration of the nature and chemical reactivity of interstellar grain surfaces could self-consistently and within a coherent framework explain: the anomalous oxygen depletion, the nature of the CO dark gas, the formation of 'polar ice' mantles, the red wing on the 3 μm water ice band, the basis for the O-rich chemistry observed in hot cores, the origin of organic nano-globules and the 3.2 μm 'carbonyl' absorption band observed in comet reflectance spectra. It is proposed that the reaction of gas phase species with carbonaceous a-C(:H) grain surfaces in the interstellar medium, in particular the incorporation of atomic oxygen into grain surfaces in epoxide functional groups, is the key to explaining these observations. Thus, the chemistry of cosmic dust is much more intimately related with that of the interstellar gas than has previously been considered. The current models for interstellar gas and dust chemistry will therefore most likely need to be fundamentally modified to include these new grain surface processes.

  3. Influence of seasonal variation and ultra high temperature processing on lipid profile and fat globule structure of Swedish cow milk. (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Pickova, Jana; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José L; Langton, Maud


    To investigate the effects of seasonal variations and processing on cow milk fat, raw milk collected in six individual months and corresponding ultra high temperature (UHT) milk were analyzed. Similar seasonal variations in lipid classes and fatty acid composition were found in raw and UHT milk. Under commercial processing, lipid content was standardized to approximately 1.5% in UHT milk. Decreased diameter of fat droplets (around 1µm) and thinner globule membranes were observed, as revealed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The distribution of lipid classes was modified with a decreased proportion of triacylglycerol accompanied by the increase of phospholipids and free fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids C12:0 and C14:0, trans-fatty acids including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), polyunsaturated fatty acids C18:2(n-6) and C18:3(n-3), showed increased proportions in UHT milk. These results provide an indication of the effect of UHT processing on milk lipid properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Site-specific hydration dynamics in the nonpolar core of a molten globule by dynamic nuclear polarization of water. (United States)

    Armstrong, Brandon D; Choi, Jennifer; López, Carlos; Wesener, Darryl A; Hubbell, Wayne; Cavagnero, Silvia; Han, Songi


    Water-protein interactions play a direct role in protein folding. The chain collapse that accompanies protein folding involves extrusion of water from the nonpolar core. For many proteins, including apomyoglobin (apoMb), hydrophobic interactions drive an initial collapse to an intermediate state before folding to the final structure. However, the debate continues as to whether the core of the collapsed intermediate state is hydrated and, if so, what the dynamic nature of this water is. A key challenge is that protein hydration dynamics is significantly heterogeneous, yet suitable experimental techniques for measuring hydration dynamics with site-specificity are lacking. Here, we introduce Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization at 0.35 T via site-specific nitroxide spin labels as a unique tool to probe internal and surface protein hydration dynamics with site-specific resolution in the molten globular, native, and unfolded protein states. The (1)H NMR signal enhancement of water carries information about the local dynamics of the solvent within ∼10 Å of a spin label. EPR is used synergistically to gain insights on local polarity and mobility of the spin-labeled protein. Several buried and solvent-exposed sites of apoMb are examined, each bearing a covalently bound nitroxide spin label. We find that the nonpoloar core of the apoMb molten globule is hydrated with water bearing significant translational dynamics, only 4-6-fold slower than that of bulk water. The hydration dynamics of the native state is heterogeneous, while the acid-unfolded state bears fast-diffusing hydration water. This study provides a high-resolution glimpse at the folding-dependent nature of protein hydration dynamics.

  5. Structural characterization of polysaccharides from Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc wines: Anti-inflammatory activity in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. (United States)

    Bezerra, Iglesias de Lacerda; Caillot, Adriana Rute Cordeiro; Palhares, Lais Cristina Gusmão Ferreira; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes Paixão; Chavante, Suely Ferreira; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi


    The structural characterization of the polysaccharides and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties of Cabernet Franc (WCF), Cabernet Sauvignon (WCS) and Sauvignon Blanc (WSB) wines were studied for the first time in this work. The polysaccharides of wines gave rise to three fractions of polysaccharides, namely (WCF) 0.16%, (WCS) 0.05% and (WSB) 0.02%; the highest one was chosen for isolation of polysaccharides (WCF). It was identified the presence of mannan, formed by a sequence of α-d-Manp (1 → 6)-linked and side chains O-2 substituted for α-d-mannan (1 → 2)-linked; type II arabinogalactan, formed by (1 → 3)-linked β-d-Galp main chain, substituted at O-6 by (1 → 6)-linked β-d-Galp side chains, and nonreducing end-units of arabinose 3-O-substituted; type I rhamnogalacturonan formed by repeating (1 → 4)-α-d-GalpA-(1 → 2)-α-L-Rhap groups; and traces of type II rhamnogalacturonan. The polysaccharide mixture and isolated fractions inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and mediator (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cholesterol strongly affects the organization of lipid monolayers studied as models of the milk fat globule membrane: Condensing effect and change in the lipid domain morphology. (United States)

    Murthy, Appala Venkata Ramana; Guyomarc'h, Fanny; Paboeuf, Gilles; Vié, Véronique; Lopez, Christelle


    The biological membrane that surrounds the milk fat globules exhibits phase separation of polar lipids that is poorly known. The objective of this study was to investigate the role played by cholesterol in the organization of monolayers prepared as models of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction experiments allowed characterization of the gel to liquid crystalline phase transition temperature of lipids, Tm ~35°C, in vesicles prepared with a MFGM lipid extract. For temperature below Tm, atomic force microscopy revealed phase separation of lipids at 30 mN·m(-1) in Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of the MFGM lipid extract. The high Tm lipids form liquid condensed (LC) domains that protrude by about 1.5 nm from the continuous liquid expanded (LE) phase. Cholesterol was added to the MFGM extract up to 30% of polar lipids (cholesterol/milk sphingomyelin (MSM) molar ratio of 50/50). Compression isotherms evidenced the condensing effect of the cholesterol onto the MFGM lipid monolayers. Topography of the monolayers showed a decrease in the area of the LC domains and in the height difference H between the LC domains and the continuous LE phase, as the cholesterol content increased in the MFGM lipid monolayers. These results were interpreted in terms of nucleation effects of cholesterol and decrease of the line tension between LC domains and LE phase in the MFGM lipid monolayers. This study revealed the major structural role of cholesterol in the MFGM that could be involved in biological functions of this interface (e.g. mechanisms of milk fat globule digestion). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of ANS binding to partially unfolded α-lactalbumin: correlation of endothermic to exothermic changeover with formation of authentic molten globules. (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyung; Yun, Soi; Mok, K H; Lee, E K


    A fluorescent reporter, 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS), can serve as a reference molecule for conformational transition of a protein because its aromatic carbons have strong affinity with hydrophobic cores of partially unfolded molten globules. Using a typical calcium-binding protein, bovine α-lactalbumin (BLA), as a model protein, we compared the ANS binding thermodynamics to the decalcified (10 mM EDTA treated) apo-BLA at two representative temperatures: 20 and 40 °C. This is because the authentic molten globule is known to form more heavily at an elevated temperature such as 40 °C. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments revealed that the BLA-ANS interactions at both temperatures were entropy-driven, and the dissociation constants were similar on the order of 10(-4)  M, but there was a dramatic changeover in the binding thermodynamics from endothermic at 20 °C to exothermic at 40 °C. We believe that the higher subpopulation of authentic molten globules at 40 °C than 20 °C would be responsible for the results, which also indicate that weak binding is sufficient to alter the ANS binding mechanisms. We expect that the thermodynamic properties obtained from this study would serve as a useful reference for investigating the binding of other hydrophobic ligands such as oleic acid to apo-BLA, because oleic acid is known to have tumor-selective cytotoxicity when complexed with partially unfolded α-lactalbumin. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effect of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) heat treatment of bovine milk on the activities of some enzymes, the milk fat globule and pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Jonatan A.; Nielsen, Martin Thorup; Hammershøj, Marianne


    This study investigated the effects of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) treatment at temperatures 70–150 C on the enzymatic activities of the indigenous milk enzymes alkaline phosphatase, lactoperoxidase (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and plasmin in comparison with two...... reference heat treatments of 63 C for 30 s and of 72 C for 15 s by indirect heating. Milk fat globule (MFG) size distributions and pH were also monitored. Alkaline phosphatase, LPO, XO and LPL activities decreased with increasing LSI temperature. Plasmin activity was increased at temperatures

  9. Purification of MUC1 from bovine milk-fat globules and characterization of a corresponding full-length cDNA clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Andersen, Mikkel Holmen; Nielsen, Rune L.


    The highly glycosylated protein MUC1 was purified from bovine milk-fat globule membranes by a procedure involving detergent extraction, ion-exchange chromatography and reverse-phase chromatography. The identity of the purified mucin protein was confirmed by N-terminal sequencing and partial amino...... acid sequences obtained by peptide mapping. The complete amino acid sequence of MUC1 was determined by cloning and sequencing the corresponding bovine mammary gland cDNA, which was shown to encode a protein of 580 amino acid residues comprising a cleavable signal peptide of 22 residues. The deduced...

  10. Identification of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in milk fat globules and mammary cells--implications for milk cholesterol secretion. (United States)

    Mani, O; Körner, M; Ontsouka, C E; Sorensen, M T; Sejrsen, K; Bruckmaier, R M; Albrecht, C


    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 play an important role in cellular cholesterol homeostasis, but their function in mammary gland (MG) tissue remains elusive. A bovine MG model that allows repeated MG sampling in identical animals at different functional stages was used to test whether 1) ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression and subcellular localization in mammary epithelial cells (MEC) change during the pregnancy-lactation cycle, and 2) these 2 proteins were present in milk fat globules (MFG). Expression and localization in MEC were investigated in bovine MG tissues at the end of lactation, during the dry period (DP), and early lactation using immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence approaches. The presence of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in MFG isolated from fresh milk was determined by immunofluorescence. The ABCA1 protein expression in MEC, expressed as arbitrary units, was higher during the end of lactation (12.2±0.24) and the DP (12.5±0.22) as compared with during early lactation (10.2±0.65). In contrast, no significant change in ABCG1 expression existed between the stages. Throughout the cycle, ABCA1 and ABCG1 were detected in the apical (41.9±24.8 and 49.0±4.96% of cows, respectively), basal (56.2±28.1 and 54.6±7.78% of cows, respectively), or entire cytoplasm (56.8±13.4 and 61.6±14.4% of cows, respectively) of MEC, or showed combined localization. Unlike ABCG1, ABCA1 was absent at the apical aspect of MEC during early lactation. Immunolabeling experiments revealed the presence of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in MFG membranes. Findings suggest a differential, functional stage-dependent role of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in cholesterol homeostasis of the MG epithelium. The presence of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in MFG membranes suggests that these proteins are involved in cholesterol exchange between MEC and alveolar milk. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Heterogeneity of equilibrium molten globule state of cytochrome c induced by weak salt denaturants under physiological condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidur Rahaman

    Full Text Available While many proteins are recognized to undergo folding via intermediate(s, the heterogeneity of equilibrium folding intermediate(s along the folding pathway is less understood. In our present study, FTIR spectroscopy, far- and near-UV circular dichroism (CD, ANS and tryptophan fluorescence, near IR absorbance spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS were used to study the structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the native (N, denatured (D and intermediate state (X of goat cytochorme c (cyt-c induced by weak salt denaturants (LiBr, LiCl and LiClO4 at pH 6.0 and 25°C. The LiBr-induced denaturation of cyt-c measured by Soret absorption (Δε400 and CD ([θ]409, is a three-step process, N ↔ X ↔ D. It is observed that the X state obtained along the denaturation pathway of cyt-c possesses common structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the molten globule (MG state. The MG state of cyt-c induced by LiBr is compared for its structural and thermodynamic parameters with those found in other solvent conditions such as LiCl, LiClO4 and acidic pH. Our observations suggest: (1 that the LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c retains the native Met80-Fe(III axial bond and Trp59-propionate interactions; (2 that LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c is more compact retaining the hydrophobic interactions in comparison to the MG states induced by LiCl, LiClO4 and 0.5 M NaCl at pH 2.0; and (3 that there exists heterogeneity of equilibrium intermediates along the unfolding pathway of cyt-c as highly ordered (X1, classical (X2 and disordered (X3, i.e., D ↔ X3 ↔ X2 ↔ X1 ↔ N.

  12. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII attenuates sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. (United States)

    Cen, Cindy; Aziz, Monowar; Yang, Weng-Lang; Zhou, Mian; Nicastro, Jeffrey M; Coppa, Gene F; Wang, Ping


    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is most commonly caused by sepsis in critically ill patients, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of sepsis-induced AKI is generally accepted to include direct inflammatory injury, endothelial cell dysfunction, and apoptosis. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8) is a secretory glycoprotein with a known role in the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance and regulation of inflammation. We hypothesize that administration of recombinant mouse MFG-E8 (rmMFG-E8) can protect mice from kidney injuries caused by sepsis. Sepsis was induced in 8-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). rmMFG-E8 or phosphate-buffered saline (vehicle) was injected intravenously at a dosage of 20 μg/kg body weight at time of CLP (n = 5-8 mice per group). After 20 h, serum and renal tissue were harvested for various analyses. The renal injury markers blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were determined by enzymatic and chemical reactions, respectively. The gene expression analysis was carried out by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. At 20 h after CLP, serum levels of BUN and creatinine were both significantly increased in the vehicle group compared with the sham group, whereas the mice treated with rmMFG-E8 had a significant reduction in BUN and creatinine levels by 28% and 24.1%, respectively (BUN: 197.7 ± 23.6 versus 142.3 ± 20.7 mg/dL; creatinine: 0.83 ± 0.12 versus 0.63 ± 0.06 mg/dL; P sepsis through inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine, as well as through the activation of endothelial cells. Thus, MFG-E8 may have a therapeutic potential for treating AKI induced by sepsis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The air and noise situation in the alpine transit valleys of Fréjus, Mont-Blanc, Gotthard and Brenner

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    Jürg Thudium


    Full Text Available Les conséquences du trafic routier, en termes de nuisances sonores et de qualité de l’air, ont été analysées et comparées pour quatre vallées de transit alpin (Fréjus, Mont Blanc, Gothard et Brenner durant l’année 2004. Au regard du trafic alpin dans son ensemble, des disparités considérables apparaissent entre les vallées étudiées, mais également à l’intérieur de ces mêmes vallées. Les immissions (concentration de polluants produites par unité d’émission du trafic routier sont deux à trois fois plus élevées dans ces vallées alpines qu’en plaine. Ceci s’explique principalement par la topographie et le climat particuliers de ces vallées. À de nombreux points d’observation, les seuils d’immission ont été dépassés. Les vallées sont également affectées durement par la pollution sonore. « L’effet amphithéâtre » transporte le bruit à des altitudes supérieures, qui n’auraient pas été exposées à autant d’irradiation acoustique si la source de nuisances était située à égale distance, mais dans un « paysage ouvert ». De plus, la protection contre le bruit qui se réfléchit sur les pentes est malaisée. En résumé, toutes les vallées de transit étudiées peuvent être considérées comme des régions sensibles.The environmental consequences of road transport with regard to air and noise in the transit valleys of Fréjus, Mont-Blanc, Gotthard, and Brenner have been analysed and compared with each other for the year 2004. In respect of the share of transport passing through the Alps in transport as a whole, there are in part considerable differences between the valleys under investigation as well as within the individual valleys. The air pollution produced per emission unit of road transport is two to three times higher than in the open country, mainly because of the topography and the climate. At numerous monitoring points, the thresholds for the air pollution were exceeded

  14. Mechanisms for the export of archaeal lipids down the water column in the upwelling area off Cape Blanc, North-West Africa (United States)

    Ebersbach, Friederike; Goldenstein, Nadine; Iversen, Morten; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe


    Transport mechanisms of microbial membrane lipids from surface waters to the seafloor are poorly understood. In particular, pelagic archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) from planktonic archaea are frequently used for reconstruction of ancient sea surface temperatures (Schouten et al. 2013). Because planktonic archaea are too small and neutrally buoyant to sink independently, transport vehicles for efficient export of fossil archaeal biomarkers to the sediment are required. The surface ocean is coupled with the deep ocean through biogenic sinking particles, a process known as the biological pump (Volk and Hoffert 1985). Two different pathways for particle formation, mainly taking place in the mesopelagic zone, are distinguished: Direct aggregation of phytoplankton blooms or grazing, resulting in phyto-detrital aggregates or reprocessed faecal material, respectively. Grazing and packaging into sinking particles is a possible export mechanism for GDGTs (Huguet et al. 2006). Moreover, it is assumed that phyto-detrital aggregates also play an important role in transporting GDGTs to the deep (Mollenhauer et al. 2015), but processes behind this pathway remain unclear. However, there are only few studies that link GDGT signals in sinking particles to the composition of the exported particulate matter (e.g. Yamamoto et al., 2012; Mollenhauer et al. 2015). Here we investigate sinking particles and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from spring blooms in 2012 and 2013 in the upwelling region in the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Blanc, Mauritania. We compare for the first time material from free-floating sediment traps (100, 200 and 400 m; purely sinking particles) with sinking particles and SPM from size fractionated in-situ pump (ISP) filters (several depths between 40 and 2350 m). This setup allows to relate the signal from archaeal lipids to (i) the flux of particulate organic carbon and the particle assemblages as revealed by the characterisation of

  15. Functional Role of Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor VIII in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses and Inflammatory/Autoimmune Diseases

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    Young-Su Yi


    Full Text Available Inflammation involves a series of complex biological processes mediated by innate immunity for host defense against pathogen infection. Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the major causes of serious diseases, including a number of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases, cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8 is a secreted protein found in vertebrates and was initially discovered as a critical component of the milk fat globule. Previously, a number of studies have reported that MFG-E8 contributes to various biological functions including the phagocytic removal of damaged and apoptotic cells from tissues, the induction of VEGF-mediated neovascularization, the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and the promotion of mucosal healing. Recently, emerging studies have reported that MFG-E8 plays a role in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. This review describes the characteristics of MFG-E8-mediated signaling pathways, summarizes recent findings supporting the roles of MFG-E8 in inflammatory responses and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, and discusses MFG-E8 targeting as a potential therapeutic strategy for the development of anti-inflammatory/autoimmune disease drugs.

  16. A four-year record of UK‧37- and TEX86-derived sea surface temperature estimates from sinking particles in the filamentous upwelling region off Cape Blanc, Mauritania (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Gesine; Basse, Andreas; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Fischer, Gerhard


    Lipid biomarker records from sinking particles collected by sediment traps can be used to study the seasonality of biomarker production as well as processes of particle formation and settling, ultimately leading to the preservation of the biomarkers in sediments. Here we present records of the biomarker indices U37K ‧ based on alkenones and TEX86 based on isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), both used for the reconstruction of sea surface temperatures (SST). These records were obtained from sinking particles collected using a sediment trap moored in the filamentous upwelling zone off Cape Blanc, Mauritania, at approximately 1300 water depth during a four-year time interval between 2003 and 2007, and supplemented by U37K ‧ and TEX86 determined on suspended particulate matter collected from surface waters in the study area. Mass and lipid fluxes are highest during peak upwelling periods between October and June. The alkenone and GDGT records both display pronounced seasonal variability. Sinking velocities calculated from the time lag between measured SST maxima and minima and corresponding index maxima and minima in the trap samples are higher for particles containing alkenones (14-59 m d-1) than for GDGTs (9-17 m d-1). It is suggested that GDGTs are predominantly exported from shallow waters by incorporation in opal-rich particles. SST estimates based on the U37K ‧ index correspond to the amplitude observed fluctuations in SST during the study period. Temperature estimates based on TEX86 show smaller seasonal amplitudes, which can be explained by either predominant production of GDGTs during the warm season, or a contribution of GDGTs exported from deep waters, which are in this region known to carry GDGTs in a distribution that translates to a high TEX86 signal.

  17. Time series of in-situ particle properties and sediment trap fluxes in the coastal upwelling filament off Cape Blanc, Mauritania (United States)

    Nowald, N.; Iversen, M. H.; Fischer, G.; Ratmeyer, V.; Wefer, G.


    We compared particle data from a moored video camera system with sediment trap derived fluxes at ∼1100 m depth in the highly dynamic coastal upwelling system off Cape Blanc, Mauritania. Between spring 2008 and winter 2010 the trap collected settling particles in 9-day intervals, while the camera recorded in-situ particle abundance and size-distribution every third day. Particle fluxes were highly variable (40-1200 mg m-2 d-1) and followed distinct seasonal patterns with peaks during spring, summer and fall. The particle flux patterns from the sediment traps correlated to the total particle volume captured by the video camera, which ranged from1 to 22 mm3 l-1. The measured increase in total particle volume during periods of high mass flux appeared to be better related to increases in the particle concentrations, rather than to increased average particle size. We observed events that had similar particle fluxes, but showed clear differences in particle abundance and size-distribution, and vice versa. Such observations can only be explained by shifts in the composition of the settling material, with changes both in particle density and chemical composition. For example, the input of wind-blown dust from the Sahara during September 2009 led to the formation of high numbers of comparably small particles in the water column. This suggests that, besides seasonal changes, the composition of marine particles in one region underlies episodical changes. The time between the appearance of high dust concentrations in the atmosphere and the increase lithogenic flux in the 1100 m deep trap suggested an average settling rate of 200 m d-1, indicating a close and fast coupling between dust input and sedimentation of the material.

  18. The matter of preservation: A comparison of recent organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in sediment trap and core top sediments off Cape Blanc (NW Africa) (United States)

    Rüßbült, Annegret; Zonneveld, Karin A. F.; Pospelova, Vera


    During the last decades, organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) have become a valuable tool for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. It is known that the sedimentary record depends on several factors like initial cyst production and preservation. Therefore it is necessary to know, to what extent the assemblage in the sediment reflects the primary signal produced in the water column. In this study, we compare undisturbed core top sediments with sediment trap data covering the same time intervals. Both, core and trap, were retrieved at a similar location off Cape Blanc (NW Africa) where high productivity of organic material takes place due to costal upwelling. The samples of trap CBi analyzed for dinocysts were collected over 5 years (2003-2008) and compared to assemblages found in 2 mm interval sections of core GeoB 14103-7. 210Pb dating revealed an age of 2.5 years per core sample, leading to a comparison of the upper 6 mm with CBi 1-5. The dinocyst species composition in core and trap sediments is similar. Both assemblages are dominated by heterotrophic species. However, while the most common species in the trap, Brigantidinium spp., makes up over 50% of each sample, it is less abundant in the core where it forms only 13% of the assemblage. Core samples are dominated by Protoperidinium monospinum with an average of 28%. This species is underrepresented in CBi with 3% abundance. Over time the proportions of the individual species show minor variations both in core and trap samples. We therefore assume that the strong differences in association composition are due to post-depositional processes altering the assemblages in the sediments like degradation or bioturbation rather than to changes in initial cyst production or differences in source areas of trap and sediment core.

  19. Non-equilibrium effects evidenced by vibrational spectra during the coil-to-globule transition in poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) subjected to an ultrafast heating-cooling cycle. (United States)

    Deshmukh, Sanket A; Kamath, Ganesh; Suthar, Kamlesh J; Mancini, Derrick C; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S


    Molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with finite element calculations are used to explore the conformational dynamics of a thermo-sensitive oligomer, namely poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), subjected to an ultra-fast heating-cooling cycle. Finite element (FE) calculations were used to predict the temperature profile resulting from laser-induced heating of the polymer-aqueous system. The heating rate (∼0.6 K ps(-1)) deduced from FE calculations was used to heat an aqueous solution of PNIPAM consisting of 30 monomeric units (30-mer) from 285 K to 315 K. Non-equilibrium effects arising from the ultra-fast heating-cooling cycle results in a hysteresis during the coil-to-globule transition. The corresponding atomic scale conformations were characterized by monitoring the changes in the vibrational spectra, which provided a reliable metric to study the coil-to-globule transition in PNIPAM and vice-versa across the LCST. The vibrational spectra of bonds involving atoms from the oligomer backbone and the various side-groups (amide I, amide II, and the isopropyl group of PNIPAM) of the oligomers were analyzed to study the conformational changes in the oligomer corresponding to the observed hysteresis. The differences in the vibrational spectra calculated at various temperatures during heating and cooling cycles were used to understand the coil-to-globule and globule-to-coil transitions in the PNIPAM oligomer and identify the changes in the relative interactions between various atoms in the backbone and in the side groups of the oligomer with water. The shifts in the computed vibrational spectral peaks and the changes in the intensity of peaks for the different regions of PNIPAM, seen across the LCST during the heating cycle, are in good agreement with previous experimental studies. The changes in the radius of gyration (Rg) and vibrational spectra for amide I and amide II regions of PNIPAM suggest a clear coil-to-globule transition at ∼301 K during the

  20. Possibilités de contribution de la gazéification Lurgi à notre approvisionnement énergétique futur Potential Contribution of Lurgi Gasification to Our Future Energy Supplies

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    Eckert G.


    Full Text Available Pour la valorisation du charbon, la gazéification est une possibilité immédiatement utilisable et industriellement éprouvée, qui présente l'avantage de permettre la production des formes d'énergie secondaire, auxquelles nous sommes habitués. Indépendamment du produit final, une unité de conversion du charbon est toujours constituée d'étapes de transformation successives, mettant en oeuvre des procédés adaptés, parmi lesquels la gazéification de charbon proprement dite constitue la première étape qui n'est cependant qu'une opération parmi d'autres. Le traitement des gaz et la séparation des produits secondaires sont mis en oeuvre également et sont importants dans l'ensemble du complexe de traitement. Dans la communication présentée, trois possibilités différentes sont évoquées : - production de gaz de chauffage de différents pouvoirs calorifiques ; - production de méthanol et transformation éventuelle de celui-ci en essence ; - production d'hydrocarbures par la synthèse de Fischer-Tropsch. Une approche économique générale dégage une idée d'ensemble sur la situation et l'intérêt des techniques de conversion du charbon à l'heure actuelle. For the upgrading of coal, gasification is an immediately available and industrially well-proven possibility which has the advantage of making it possible to produce the types of secondary energy to which we have become accustomed. Independently of the end product, a coal conversion plant always consists of successive transformation steps making use of suitable processes, among which coal gasification itself is the first such step, although being only one operation among others. Gas processing and secondary products separation are also implemented and are important in the overall processing complex. This article brings out three different possibilities: (a production of fuel gas with different heating values; (b production of methanol and eventual transformation into gasoline

  1. Le multiculturalisme comme aberration mortifère : « l’ethno-nationalisme blanc » du British National Party

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    Pascale Sempéré


    Full Text Available Le British National Party est un parti politique britannique d’extrême droite qui a entrepris depuis quelques années de sortir de la marginalité. Si la stratégie électoraliste qu’il a mise en place depuis la fin des années 1990 ne lui vaut qu’une très légère progression dans les urnes, cette progression est bien présente, et elle témoigne sans aucun doute d’une bien plus large banalisation de ses idées. Au-delà de l’édulcoration tactique menée par sa propagande, le British National Party est pourtant resté le même, tant dans ses soubassements idéologiques que dans ses buts politiques. Cette permanence est visible au cœur même de son discours sur la question raciale et elle motive son rejet sans appel du multiculturalisme au nom de « l’ethnonationalisme blanc ». C’est le but de cet article que de la mettre en évidence, ainsi que d’en souligner les modalités propagandistes et les prolongements programmatiques. L’étude est synchronique et s’appuie sur la vitrine extérieure du parti, sa cyberpropagande.The British National Party is currently the biggest far right party in Great Britain. Since the late 1990’s, it has been trying to enter the political mainstream through a recalibration of its style and discourse, with electoral breakthroughs as its focal point. The tactical shift has not yielded large scale success so far, but the party has undeniably managed to gain ground at local elections. However, the normalization strategy engineered by its leader, Nick Griffin, has left its core neo nazi ideological tenets unimpaired. The paper examines the way racism remains its quintessential characteristic and naturally leads to the utter rejection of multiculturalism in the name of “white ethno-nationalism”. It demonstrates the mixture of essentialist and differentialist discourse strategies the BNP resorts to as well as the rhetorical and thematic figures it develops in support of its racism. It

  2. Calendar-dated glacier variations in the western European Alps during the Neoglacial: the Mer de Glace record, Mont Blanc massif (United States)

    Le Roy, Melaine; Nicolussi, Kurt; Deline, Philip; Astrade, Laurent; Edouard, Jean-Louis; Miramont, Cécile; Arnaud, Fabien


    Holocene glacier records from the western European Alps are still sparse, although a number of sites are well suited to constraining pre- and early- Little Ice Age (LIA) glacier advances. The present study provides the first dendrochronologically-based and calendar-dated Neoglacial glacier chronology for the Mont Blanc massif, French Alps. It is based on the analysis of over 240 glacially buried Pinus cembra subfossil logs and wood remains found either embedded-in-till or as detrital material in the Mer de Glace right lateral moraine. Only a few of the samples were found to be 'formally in situ' but we show that some logs were 'virtually in situ' (not rooted but showing little or no evidence of reworking) and could be used to accurately reconstruct past glacier margin behavior in space and time. Uncertainties regarding the other samples may relate to original growth location and/or to outer wood decay. The resulting dates (followed by a '+') were therefore considered maximum-limiting ages for glacier advances. The main burial events - interpreted as glacier advances - occurred between ca 1655+ and 1544+ BC, between ca 1230+ and 1105+ BC, between ca 1013+ and 962+/937+ BC, at ca 802-777 BC, after 608+ BC, between 312 and 337 AD, between ca 485+ AD and 606+ AD, between 1120 and 1178 AD, between ca 1248 and 1278+/1296 AD, and after 1352+ AD. These advances predate the late LIA maxima known from historical sources. The magnitude of the advances gradually increased to culminate in three near-Neoglacial maxima during the 7th, 12th and 13th centuries AD, followed by a first LIA/Neoglacial maximum in the second half of the 14th century AD. The pattern of Neoglacial events described here is coherent with Central and Eastern Alpine glacier chronologies. This indicates marked synchronicity of late Holocene glacier variability and forcing at a regional scale, although occasional differences could be detected between 'Western' and 'Eastern' records. The Mer de Glace record also

  3. Caracterização física, química e sensorial do vinho branco seco sauvignon blanc tratado com polivinilpolipirrolidona (PVPP

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    Ivana M. Pereira


    Full Text Available A evolução química e sensorial de um vinho depende da possível presença de oxigênio e também da natureza e concentração dos compostos fenólicos, da temperatura, da concentração de dióxido de enxofre e das características físico-químicas iniciais do vinho. A oxidação de vinhos brancos e suas consequências na cor e no aroma prejudicam sua qualidade e devem ser evitadas. O nível de fenóis em vinhos pode ser reduzido pelo uso de produtos enológicos, tais como: gelatina, caseína, carvão ativado ou polímeros como a polivinilpolipirrolidona (PVPP. A remoção de compostos fenólicos tem um efeito favorável na cor e na sensibilidade do vinho à oxidação. Foram avaliadas as características físicas, químicas e sensoriais do vinho branco seco Sauvignon blanc tratado com PVPP, nas concentrações de 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5g/l. A redução nos teores de fenóis totais e de flavonóides, assim como a diminuição na intensidade de cor, foram diretamente proporcionais ao aumento na concentração do polímero. Os tratamentos com PVPP não alteraram os valores de pH e a acidez total das amostras. Doses de PVPP acima de 0,5g/l exerceram pouca influência na remoção dos ácidos 4-hidroxibenzóico e 4-hidroxi-3,5-dimetoxibenzóico. O uso de 1,5g/hl de PVPP removeu significativamente os ácidos 3,4-dihidroxibenzóico e 4-hidroxi-3-metoxibenzóico. Em todas as concentrações estudadas, o polímero foi bastante seletivo para 3,3',4',5,7-pentahidroxiflavanona (catequina. Os resultados mostraram que as características sensoriais das amostras tratadas foram similares às da amostra sem tratamento, devido aos baixos teores de fenóis totais e de flavonóides.

  4. Modelling rock wall permafrost degradation in the Mont Blanc massif from the LIA to the end of the 21st century (United States)

    Magnin, Florence; Josnin, Jean-Yves; Ravanel, Ludovic; Pergaud, Julien; Pohl, Benjamin; Deline, Philip


    High alpine rock wall permafrost is extremely sensitive to climate change. Its degradation has a strong impact on landscape evolution and can trigger rockfalls constituting an increasing threat to socio-economical activities of highly frequented areas; quantitative understanding of permafrost evolution is crucial for such communities. This study investigates the long-term evolution of permafrost in three vertical cross sections of rock wall sites between 3160 and 4300 m above sea level in the Mont Blanc massif, from the Little Ice Age (LIA) steady-state conditions to 2100. Simulations are forced with air temperature time series, including two contrasted air temperature scenarios for the 21st century representing possible lower and upper boundaries of future climate change according to the most recent models and climate change scenarios. The 2-D finite element model accounts for heat conduction and latent heat transfers, and the outputs for the current period (2010-2015) are evaluated against borehole temperature measurements and an electrical resistivity transect: permafrost conditions are remarkably well represented. Over the past two decades, permafrost has disappeared on faces with a southerly aspect up to 3300 m a.s.l. and possibly higher. Warm permafrost (i.e. > - 2 °C) has extended up to 3300 and 3850 m a.s.l. in N and S-exposed faces respectively. During the 21st century, warm permafrost is likely to extend at least up to 4300 m a.s.l. on S-exposed rock walls and up to 3850 m a.s.l. depth on the N-exposed faces. In the most pessimistic case, permafrost will disappear on the S-exposed rock walls at a depth of up to 4300 m a.s.l., whereas warm permafrost will extend at a depth of the N faces up to 3850 m a.s.l., but possibly disappearing at such elevation under the influence of a close S face. The results are site specific and extrapolation to other sites is limited by the imbrication of local topographical and transient effects.

  5. Thermodynamic characterization of cytochrome c at low pH. Observation of the molten globule state and of the cold denaturation process. (United States)

    Kuroda, Y; Kidokoro, S; Wada, A


    Several reports have pointed out the existence of intermediate states (both kinetic and equilibrium intermediate) between the native and the denatured states. The molten globule state, a compact intermediate state in which the secondary structure is formed but the tertiary structure fluctuates considerably, is currently being studied intensively because of its possible implication in the folding process of several proteins. We have examined the thermal stability of horse cytochrome c at low pH between 2.0 and 3.2 and different potassium chloride concentrations by absorbance of the Soret band, far and near-ultraviolet circular dichroism (u.v. c.d.) and tryptophan fluorescence using a multidimensional spectrophotometer. The concentration of potassium chloride ranged from 0 M to 0.5 M. The experimental thermal denaturation curves show that: (1) the helical content of cytochrome c remains stable at higher temperature when the concentration of salt is increased; whereas (2) the extent of ordering of the tertiary structure is weakly dependent on salt concentration; and (3) for cytochrome c, the stabilization of the molten globule state is induced by the binding of anions. Other salts such as NaCl, LiCl, potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe(CN)6) and Na2SO4 may also be used to stabilize the molten globule state. The thermodynamic analysis of the denaturation curves of c.d. at 222 nm and c.d. at 282 nm shows that, whereas a two-state (native and denatured) transition is observed at low-salt concentration, the far and near-u.v. c.d. melting curves of cytochrome c do not coincide with each other at high-salt concentration, and a minimum of three different thermodynamic states (IIb, intermediate or IIc, and denatured) is necessary to achieve a sufficient analysis. The intermediate state (called IIc) is attributed to the molten globule state because of its high secondary structure content and the absence of tertiary structure. Therefore, at low pH, cytochrome c is present in at least

  6. Identification and characterization of molten globule-like state of hen egg-white lysozyme in presence of salts under alkaline conditions. (United States)

    Ansari, M A; Zubair, S; Atif, S M; Kashif, M; Khan, N; Rehan, M; Anwar, T; Iqbal, A; Owais, M


    In the present study, we elucidated the effect of potassium salts on alkali denatured hen egg white lysozyme (EC using intrinsic/extrinsic fluorescence as well circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods. Intrinsic fluorescence studies revealed that various potassium salts mediate stabilization of lysozyme against alkali denaturation. Far and near UV CD spectrum studies, showed that 2M KCl induced appreciable amount of secondary structure with minimum tertiary contacts in lysozyme at pH 12.6. Acrylamide quenching studies suggest that at pH 12.6, the presence of 2M KCl causes reduced accessibility of the quencher to tryptophan residues of the protein presumably because of its compact conformation. In summary, the results of present study suggest that lysozyme attains a compact folded intermediate with molten globule like characteristics at alkaline pH in presence of potassium chloride.

  7. trans-C18:1 isomers in cheeses enriched in unsaturated fatty acids and manufactured with different milk fat globule sizes. (United States)

    Briard-Bion, Valerie; Juaneda, Pierre; Richoux, Romain; Guichard, Elisabeth; Lopez, Christelle


    Increasing the knowledge on dietary fat composition, mainly the minor components, will improve the nutritional value of foods and their labeling. In this study, we examined the trans-octadecenoic acid (C18:1) composition of Emmental cheeses enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) and manufactured with milks produced by cows selected to produce small and large fat globules. The FA composition of the milks was not significantly ( P > 0.05) different from the FA composition of the corresponding Emmental cheeses. Increasing the unsaturated FA content of the cheeses using dietary manipulations lead to an increase in the trans-C18:1 and changed their isomeric profiles. In milk fat produced with the linseed-enriched diet, the trans-10 C18:1 concentration was greater than trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid), which is classically the major trans-C18:1 in milk fat. The content in trans-C18:1 and more particularly in trans-10 C18:1 was negatively correlated with the size of fat globules ( r (2) = 0. 82 and 0.87, respectively) and related to milk fat depression. The trans-C18:1 content was negatively correlated with the saturated FA (slope = -0.35; r (2) = 0.81) and positively correlated with the unsaturated (slope = 0.29; r (2) = 0.85) and monounsaturated (slope = 0.32; r (2) = 0.81) FA. Focusing on the health-related considerations of fat in food products, further nutritional studies are needed to elucidate the role of trans-C18:1 isomers.

  8. Surface and thickness variations of Brenva Glacier tongue (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) in the second half of the 20th century by historical maps and aerial photogrammetry comparisons (United States)

    D Agata, C.; Zanutta, A.; Muzzu Martis, D.; Mancini, F.; Smiraglia, C.


    Aim of this contribution is the evaluation of volumetric and surface variations of Brenva Glacier (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) during the second half of the 20th century, by GIS-based processing of maps and aerial photogrammetry technique. Brenva Glacier is a typical debris covered glacier, located in a valley on the S-E side of the Mont Blanc. The glacier covers a surface of 7 kmq and shows a length of 7,6 km at maximum. The glacier snout reaches 1415 m a.s.l., which is the lowest glacier terminus of the Italian Alps. To evaluate glacier variations different historical maps were used: 1) The 1959 Map, at the scale 1:5.000, by EIRA (Ente Italiano Rilievi Aerofotogrammetrici, Firenze), from terrestrial photogrammetric survey, published in the Bollettino del Comitato Glaciologico Italiano, 2, n. 19, 1971. 2) The 1971 Map, at the scale 1:5.000, from aerial photogrammetry (Alifoto, Torino) published in the Bollettino del Comitato Glaciologico Italiano, 2, n. 20, 1972. 3) The 1988 Map, at the scale 1:10.000, (Region Aosta Valley, Regional Technical Map) from 1983 aerial photogrammetric survey. 4) The 1999 Map, at the scale 1:10.000, (Region Aosta Valley, Regional Technical Map) from 1991 aerial photogrammetry survey. For the same purpose the following aereal photographs were used: 1) The 1975 image, CGR (Italian General Company aerial Surveys) flight RAVDA (Administrative Autonomous Region Aosta Valley), at the scale 1:17.000. 2) The 1991 image, CGR (Italian General Company aerial Surveys) flight RAVDA (Administrative Autonomous Region Aosta Valley), at the scale 1:17.000. Aerial imageries have been acquired over a long period from 1975 to 1991. The black and white images were scanned at suitable resolution if compared with the imagery scale and several models, representing the glacier tongue area, oriented using the inner and outer orientation parameters delivered with the images, were produced. The digital photogrammetric system, after orientation and matching, produces

  9. Monsieur Etienne Blanc Premier vice-président de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Délégué aux finances, à l'administration générale, aux économies budgétaires et aux politiques transfrontalières

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    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth


    Monsieur Etienne Blanc Premier vice-président de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Délégué aux finances, à l'administration générale, aux économies budgétaires et aux politiques transfrontalières

  10. Quand Hollywood lave plus blanc...

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    André Bleikasten


    Full Text Available Alexandre Dumas pensait (je cite de mémoire que « l’on peut violer l’Histoire à condition de lui faire un bel enfant ». Il savait de quoi il parlait, il lui en avait fait d’assez beaux. La métaphore, c’est entendu, n’est pas du meilleur goût, mais, s’agissant de la question toujours controversée de l’adaptation cinématographique, l’idée me paraît assez juste. Un cinéaste peut s’emparer d’un roman pour le malmener, le triturer et le défigurer, le tirer vers lui au point de le rendre méconnais...

  11. Thermal conditions of rock slopes below unstable infrastructure in Alpine permafrost area: the cases of the Cosmiques hut and the Grands Montets cable-car station (Mont Blanc massif) (United States)

    Duvillard, Pierre-Allain; Magnin, Florence; Mörtl, Christian; Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip


    Thermal state of steep permafrost-affected rock faces is crucial to assess the safety and reliability of mountain infrastructure as current permafrost degradation affects the rock slope stability. In the Mont-Blanc massif, 23 infrastructures are built on such a rock face with 13 of them that are characterized by a high risk of destabilization (Duvillard et al., 2015), including the upper station of the Grands Montets cable car (3325 m a.s.l.) as well as the Cosmiques hut (3613 m a.s.l.) on which we will focus. These two buildings have already been affected by different geomorphological processes. A rockfall event (600 m3) occurred for example on the SE face on the Arête inférieure des Cosmiques on the 21st of August 1998 (Ravanel et al., 2013) and the Grands Montets case shows a slow subsidence of the stairway over the last decade. In order to better assess the role of the permafrost in these processes and to gain insight on possible future geomorphic activity, we characterized the current permafrost conditions and simulated its changes up to the end of the 21st century using two complementary approaches: (i) the result of ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography) surveys carried out in October 2016 on the northern and southern faces right below the Cosmiques hut (at the level of the foundations) and at the Aiguilles des Grands Montets; (ii) the modeling of mean annual rock surface temperature for 2016 and at the end of the 21st century (Magnin et al., in rev.). Duvillard P.-A., Ravanel L., Deline P. (2015). Risk assessment of infrastructure destabilisation due to global warming in the high French Alps. Journal of Alpine Research, 103 (2). Magnin F., Josnin J.-Y., Ravanel L., Pergaud J., Pohl B., Deline P. (in rev.). Modelling rock wall permafrost degradation in the Mont Blanc massif from the LIA to the end of the 21st century. The Cryosphere Discuss., doi:10.5194/tc-2016-132. Ravanel L., Deline P., Lambiel C. and Vincent C. (2013). Instability of a high alpine

  12. The eruptive history of the Trous Blancs pit craters, La Réunion Island: The origin of a 24 km long lava flow (United States)

    Walther, Georg; Frese, Ingmar; Di Muro, Andrea; Kueppers, Ulrich; Michon, Laurent; Métrich, Nicole


    The assessment of volcanic hazards is strongly based on the past eruptive behaviour of volcanoes and its morphological parameters. Since past eruption characteristics and their frequency provide the best probabilities of such eruptions for the future, understanding the complete eruptive history of a volcano is one of the most powerful tools in assessing the potential hazards or eruptions. At Piton de la Fournaise (PdF) volcano (La Réunion, Indian Ocean), the most frequent style of activity is the effusion of lava flows, which pose the greatest hazard by invasion of inhabited areas and destruction of human property. Here we examined the eruptive history of a previously uninvestigated area, believed to be the origin of a 24 km long lava flow. The eruptions recurrence time of PdF is about one eruption every 9 months in the central caldera. Besides this central activity, eruptive vents have been built along three main rift zones cutting the edifice during the last 50 kyrs. In this study we focused on the largest rift zone of about 15 km width and 20 km length, which extends in a north westerly direction between PdF and the nearby Piton des Neiges volcanic complex. This rift zone is typified by deep seismicity (up to 30 km), emitting mostly primitive magmas, indicative of high fluid pressures (up to 5 kbar) and large volume eruptions. Our area of investigation focused on four consecutively aligned pit craters called the Trous Blancs. These have been identified [1] as the source area of one of the youngest (ca. 6 kyrs) and largest lava field, which extends for 24 km from a height of 1800m asl, passing Le Tampon and Saint Pierre city, until it reaches the coast. To gain insight into the development of this eruption and possible future similar activity, we collected new field data (including stratigraphic logs, a geological map of the area, C-14 dating and geochemical analyses of the eruptive products). Fieldwork revealed that the eruption initiated with intense

  13. Les mises en récit d’un demi-siècle d’ascensions anglo-saxonnes au Mont-Blanc, voyage initiatique entre science et aventure(1787-1851

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    Michel Tailland


    Full Text Available Entre 1787 et 1851, les relations des ascensions au Mont-Blanc réalisées par des alpinistes britanniques présentent, en dépit de formes différentes, une « véritable unité sur le plan du contenu », à savoir : une expérience extraordinaire, la description détaillée d’un accident ou des souffrances des participants, des éléments précurseurs de la mesure d’une performance, et « une part non négligeable réservée aux expériences et aux observations scientifiques ».

  14. Dynamiques d’innovation dans l’alimentation des bovins - lait : une analyse du processus de diffusion de la démarche « Bleu-Blanc-Coeur » et de ses répercussions


    Magrini, Marie-Benoît; Duru, Michel


    La démarche « Bleu-Blanc-Coeur » (BBC) d’amélioration de la qualité nutritionnelle des produits animaux par un mode d’alimentation riche en oméga-3 a fait l’objet d’essais et de réflexions auprès de nombreux acteurs des filières animales ; elle est aujourd’hui reconnue par les autorités publiques comme une démarche innovante combinant des enjeux multiples (santé, environnement...). L’analyse historique montre comment les acteurs qui s’en sont saisi ont pu changer leurs pratiques ainsi que les...


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    Sulaeman Sulaeman


    Full Text Available The experiments investigated the reproductive performance of the domesticated broodstock of the silver perch and the relationship between various degrees of oil globule fragmentation and egg quality. Six years old of second generation broodstock (n=3 were evaluated based on the fecundity, fertilisation rate, hatching rate, the degree of oil fragmentation of egg, and the quality of embryos and larvae produced. The fragmentation were grouped into three categories: un-fragmented (cat-1, moderately fragmented (cat-2, and highly fragmented (cat-3. The results showed that the broodstock had a relatively high fecundity (132,400 ± 7,22, fertilization rate (94.27 ± 1.28%, and hatching rates (87.94 ± 1.23%. The survival rate of larvae at 12 days post hatching (dph in cat-1 (71.3 ± 0.9% was higher than cat-2 (66.7 ± 0.9% whereas cat-2 was higher than cat-3 (61.3 ± 0.3%. The eggs was dominated by cat-1 (78.11 ± 2.44% which was significantly higher than cat-2 (21.26 ± 2.45% and cat-3 ones (0.40 ± 0.21%. The survival rate of embryo at 20 hours post spawning (hps and hatching rate of cat-1 (95.33 ± 0.00% and 93.33 ± 0.00% and cat-2 (90.00 ± 0.00% and 85.00 ± 0.00% were significantly higher than cat-3 (72.33 ± 1.76% and 60.33 ± 0.00%. The total length (TL of the larvae of cat-1 and cat-2 (8.44 ± 0.21 mm and 8.35 ± 0.23 mm respectively were significantly higher than larvae of cat-3 (7.09 ± 0.14 mm. No significant difference was found in the larval deformities among any categories. In conclusion, the reproductive performance of six year-old broodstock silver perch showing acceptable performance and egg categorisation based on oil globule fragmentation can be used as a useful tool to indicate eggs quality of silver perch.

  16. Milk Fat Globule-Epidermal Growth Factor-8 Pretreatment Attenuates Apoptosis and Inflammation via the Integrin-β3 Pathway after Surgical Brain Injury in Rats

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    Yicai Xiao


    Full Text Available Iatrogenic brain injury inevitably occurs in neurosurgical operations, leading to brain edema, ischemia, intracranial hematoma, and other postoperative complications, eventually worsening neurological outcomes of patients. If apoptotic cells are not rapidly eliminated by phagocytic engulfment, they may communicate with surrounding cells to undergo secondary necrosis and releasing toxic signals. Recent studies have shown that milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-8 (MFGE8, which promotes phagocytosis and inhibits inflammation, is an endogenous protective factor in response to brain infarction, Alzheimer’s disease, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and prion disease. In the present study, we sought to investigate the different effects of both pretreated and posttreated recombinant milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-8 (rhMFGE8 for the surgical brain injury (SBI rat model and potential involvement of its receptor integrin β3 for apoptosis and neuroinflammation after SBI. One hundred and sixty-seven male rats were employed in the preset study. Experiment 1 was performed to evaluate neurological scores and MFGE8, cleaved caspase-3 (CC3, and interleukine-1 beta (IL-1β levels at 3, 24, and 120 h after SBI. Experiment 2 was performed to evaluate the effects of rhMFGE8 pretreatment (10 min before SBI and rhMFGE8 posttreatment (6 h after SBI on brain edema at 24 and 72 h after SBI. Experiment 3 was performed to evaluate the potential anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of rhMFGE8 pretreatment and posttreatment. Experiment 4 sought to investigate the involvement of the integrin-β3 signal in the effects of MFGE8 pretreatment. Our data showed rhMFGE8 pretreatment alleviated neurological deficits and decreased brain water content and apoptotic cells in the SBI model, which exhibited neurological dysfunction, apoptosis, and inflammation. Meanwhile, MFGE8 siRNA, which inhibited endogenous MFGE8 expression, significantly increased IL-1

  17. Light rhythmic exercise with dietary milk fat globule membrane improves physical fitness in an elderly Japanese population: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. (United States)

    Yoshinaka, Yasuko; Soga, Satoko; Ota, Noriyasu; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Kimura, Misaka


    This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of home-based, light gymnastic exercise plus dietary milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) intake on physical fitness of an elderly Japanese sample in a pilot, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Seventy-one subjects (male, n = 13; female, n = 58) were randomly assigned into two groups: placebo (n = 35 [male, n = 6; female, n = 29]) and MFGM group (n = 36 [male, n = 7; female, n = 29]). The intervention was eight weeks. Subjects ingested either MFGM (1 g/day) or placebo tablets daily and engaged in an exercise program daily. Physical function tests were performed at baseline and after four and eight weeks. Foot tapping and open-close stepping scores significantly increased from baseline to eight weeks in the MFGM group. Study results suggest daily MFGM ingestion might further enhance the effects of light-intensity exercise in healthy elderly people.

  18. Dietary milk fat globule membrane supplementation combined with regular exercise improves skeletal muscle strength in healthy adults: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. (United States)

    Soga, Satoko; Ota, Noriyasu; Shimotoyodome, Akira


    Our previous studies demonstrated that dietary supplementation with milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) combined with habitual exercise improved muscle strength by stimulating neuromuscular development in mice. This study aimed to demonstrate the beneficial effects of dietary MFGM supplementation plus regular exercise on muscle strength and neuromuscular function in healthy humans. The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Fourteen Japanese adults aged 31-48 years took daily MFGM (1 g) or placebo tablets during the 4-week study period and attended a training program twice a week. Physical function tests and surface electromyography (EMG) were conducted at baseline and at the end of the study period. The MFGM group had significantly greater leg extension strength than the placebo group after the 4-week study period. Surface EMG showed that the MFGM group had a significantly higher root mean square amplitude than the placebo group, which indicated that the MFGM group had higher motor unit activity. Dietary MFGM supplementation combined with regular exercise improves skeletal muscle strength, which may be due to increased motor unit recruitment in healthy Japanese middle-aged adults.

  19. Molten Globule-Like Partially Folded State of Bacillus licheniformis α-Amylase at Low pH Induced by 1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoroisopropanol

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    Adyani Azizah Abd Halim


    Full Text Available Effect of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP on acid-denatured Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BLA at pH 2.0 was investigated by far-UV CD, intrinsic fluorescence, and ANS fluorescence measurements. Addition of increasing HFIP concentrations led to an increase in the mean residue ellipticity at 222 nm (MRE222 nm up to 1.5 M HFIP concentration beyond which it sloped off. A small increase in the intrinsic fluorescence and a marked increase in the ANS fluorescence were also observed up to 0.4 M HFIP concentration, both of which decreased thereafter. Far- and near-UV CD spectra of the HFIP-induced state observed at 0.4 M HFIP showed significant retention of the secondary structures closer to native BLA but a disordered tertiary structure. Increase in the ANS fluorescence intensity was also observed with the HFIP-induced state, suggesting exposure of the hydrophobic clusters to the solvent. Furthermore, thermal denaturation of HFIP-induced state showed a non-cooperative transition. Taken together, all these results suggested that HFIP-induced state of BLA represented a molten globule-like state at pH 2.0.

  20. Quantitative proteomic analysis of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk samples through iTRAQ labeling. (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Cong, Min; Peng, Xiuming; Wu, Junrui; Wu, Rina; Liu, Biao; Ye, Wenhui; Yue, Xiqing


    Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins have many functions. To explore the different proteomics of human and bovine MFGM, MFGM proteins were separated from human and bovine colostrum and mature milk, and analyzed by the iTRAQ proteomic approach. A total of 411 proteins were recognized and quantified. Among these, 232 kinds of differentially expressed proteins were identified. These differentially expressed proteins were analyzed based on multivariate analysis, gene ontology (GO) annotation and KEGG pathway. Biological processes involved were response to stimulus, localization, establishment of localization, and the immune system process. Cellular components engaged were the extracellular space, extracellular region parts, cell fractions, and vesicles. Molecular functions touched upon were protein binding, nucleotide binding, and enzyme inhibitor activity. The KEGG pathway analysis showed several pathways, including regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, neurotrophin signaling pathway, leukocyte transendothelial migration, tight junction, complement and coagulation cascades, vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway, and adherens junction. These results enhance our understanding of different proteomes of human and bovine MFGM across different lactation phases, which could provide important information and potential directions for the infant milk powder and functional food industries.

  1. PENGARUH KOMPOSOSI LAPISAN PADA PERMUKAAN GLOBULA MINYAK EMULSI SEBELUM PENGERINGAN SEMPROT TERHADAP SIFAT-SIFAT MIKROKAMSUL TRIGLISERIDA KAYA ASAM LEMAK W-3 [The Effect of the Composition of Adsorbed Layer at Globule Interface of -3 Fatty Acids Enriched Triglyceride Prior to Spray Drying on its Microcapsule Properties

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    Moch Adnan2


    Full Text Available Emulsification is the critical factor in microencapsulation by spray drying method. Sodium caseinate is a protein with good emulsifying properties. The properties could be improved by phospholipids addition in the emulsification. Phospholipids addition which stabilized oil globule might change the composition of adsorbed layer.This research was conducted to analyze the changes in composition at oil globule interface by analyzing emulsion systems of triglyceride enriched by -3 fatty acids at 5% (w/v stabilized by sodium caseinate (10% w/v and addition of phospholipids at 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; and 2,5% (w/v. The changes in composition of adsorbed layer could be determined from the changes in phospholipids and adsorbed protein concentrations at oil globule interface. Analyses were done to measure the possibility of casein-phospholipids complex, phospholipids and protein adsorption concentration at interface, and adsorbed protein.The increase of phospholipids concentration in the emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate changed the composition of adsorbed layer at interface. There was phospholipids increase and adsorbed protein decrease at oil globule interface. These changes were caused by casein-phospholipids complex which that decreased surface activity and displacement protein by phospholipids that was adsorbed at oil globule interface.Changes of composition of casein-phospholipids at oil globule prior to microcapsulation process caused changes in the properties of microcapsule produced. The increasing phospholipids and decreasing casein concentrations at oil globule interface decreased the quality of the microcapsule, including decreasing in microencapsulation efficiency, in oxidative stability, and decreasing in EPA+DHA content.

  2. Study of a novel agent for TCA precipitated proteins washing - comprehensive insights into the role of ethanol/HCl on molten globule state by multi-spectroscopic analyses. (United States)

    Eddhif, Balkis; Lange, Justin; Guignard, Nadia; Batonneau, Yann; Clarhaut, Jonathan; Papot, Sébastien; Geffroy-Rodier, Claude; Poinot, Pauline


    Sample preparation for mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a key step for ensuring reliable data. In gel-free experimental workflows, protein purification often starts with a precipitation stage using trichloroacetic acid (TCA). In presence of TCA, proteins precipitate in a stable molten globule state making the pellet difficult to solubilize in aqueous buffer for proteolytic digestion and MS analysis. In this context, the objective of this work was to study the suitability of a novel agent, ethanol/HCl, for the washing of TCA-precipitated proteins. This method optimized the recovery of proteins in aqueous buffer (50 to 96%) while current organic solvents led to losses of material. Following a mechanistic study, the effect of ethanol/HCl on the conformation of TCA-precipitated proteins was investigated. It was shown that the reagent triggered the unfolding of TCA-stabilized molten globule into a reversible intermediate, characterized by a specific Raman signature, which favored protein subsequent resolubilization. Finally, the efficiency of ethanol/HCl for the washing of TCA-precipitated proteins extracted from a biofilm, a soil or a mouse liver was demonstrated (data available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008110). Being versatile and simple, it could be of great interest to include an ethanol/HCl wash-step to produce high-quality protein extracts. In mass spectrometry-based proteomics workflows, proteins precipitation and/or washing usually involves the use of acetone. In fact, this solvent is effective for removing both biological interferences (e.g. lipids) and chemicals employed in protein extraction/purification protocols (e.g. TCA, SDS). However, the use of acetone can lead to significant protein losses. Moreover, when proteins are precipitated with TCA, the acetone-treated precipitate remains hard to disperse, leading to poor resolubilization of proteins in aqueous buffers. Here, we investigated the use of ethanol/HCl for washing TCA

  3. Preservation of protein globules and peptidoglycan in the mineralized cell wall of nitrate-reducing, iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria: a cryo-electron microscopy study. (United States)

    Miot, J; Maclellan, K; Benzerara, K; Boisset, N


    Iron-oxidizing bacteria are important actors of the geochemical cycle of iron in modern environments and may have played a key role all over Earth's history. However, in order to better assess that role on the modern and the past Earth, there is a need for better understanding the mechanisms of bacterial iron oxidation and for defining potential biosignatures to be looked for in the geologic record. In this study, we investigated experimentally and at the nanometre scale the mineralization of iron-oxidizing bacteria with a combination of synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). We show that the use of cryo-TEM instead of conventional microscopy provides detailed information of the successive iron biomineralization stages in anaerobic nitrate-reducing iron-oxidizing bacteria. These results suggest the existence of preferential Fe-binding and Fe-oxidizing sites on the outer face of the plasma membrane leading to the nucleation and growth of Fe minerals within the periplasm of these cells that eventually become completely encrusted. In contrast, the septa of dividing cells remain nonmineralized. In addition, the use of cryo-TEM offers a detailed view of the exceptional preservation of protein globules and the peptidoglycan within the Fe-mineralized cell walls of these bacteria. These organic molecules and ultrastructural details might be protected from further degradation by entrapment in the mineral matrix down to the nanometre scale. This is discussed in the light of previous studies on the properties of Fe-organic interactions and more generally on the fossilization of mineral-organic assemblies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. A major prolactin-binding complex on human milk fat globule membranes contains cyclophilins A and B: the complex is not the prolactin receptor. (United States)

    Lorenson, Mary Y; Ueda, Eric K; Chen, KuanHui E; Walker, Ameae M


    Prolactin (PRL) in milk influences maturation of gastrointestinal epithelium and development of both the hypothalamo-pituitary and immune systems of offspring. Here, we demonstrate that most PRL in human milk is part of a novel, high-affinity, multicomponent binding complex found on the milk fat globule membrane and not in whey. To examine properties of the complex, a sensitive ELISA was developed such that human PRL (hPRL) binding to the complex was measured by loss of hPRL detectability; thus, as much as 50 ng of hPRL was undetectable in the presence of 10 μl of human milk. Using the same methodology, no comparable complex formation was observed with human serum or amniotic fluid. hPRL complexation in milk was rapid, time dependent, and cooperative. Antibodies to or competitors of the hPRL receptor (placental lactogen and growth hormone) showed the hPRL receptor was not involved in the complex. However, hPRL complexation was antagonized by cyclosporine A and anti-cyclophilins. The complex was very stable, resisting dissociation in SDS, urea, and dithiothreitol. Western analysis revealed an ∼75-kDa complex that included hPRL, cyclophilins A and B, and a 16-kDa cyclophilin A. Compared with noncomplexed hPRL, complexed hPRL in whole milk showed similar activation of STAT5 but markedly delayed activation of ERK. Alteration of signaling suggests that complex formation may alter hPRL biological activity. This is the first report of a unique, multicomponent, high-capacity milk fat reservoir of hPRL; all other analyses of milk PRL have utilized defatted milk.

  5. Entraînement de globules d'huile par un tensio-actif. Etude de la formation du banc Mobilization of Oil Ganglia by a Surfactant Analysis of Bank Formation

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    Moulu J. C.


    Full Text Available Lors de l'injection d'une solution de tensio-actif dans un gisement déjà balayé par de l'eau, l'huile résiduelle, piégée sous la forme de globules discontinus, est remise en mouvement et se regroupe éventuellement sous la forme d'un banc d'huile. Le but de la présente étude est d'expliquer la formation de ce banc au cours d'un tel déplacement. Les résultats d'expériences réalisées en micromodèles de billes de verre permettent de constater que : - la récupération globale est corrélable avec le nombre capillaire Nc= uVdf/O, u et Vdf étant la viscosité et la vitesse de Darcy du fluide injecté, O la tension interfaciale avec l'huile en place ; - la vitesse des globules varie différemment avec u, Vdf, O et tend vers la même limite plus grande que la vitesse du fluide injecté pour de grandes valeurs du nombre capillaire Nc ; - le banc d'huile ne se forme que dans le cas où la vitesse des globules atteint celle du fluide injecté. L'huile déplacée reste alors groupée avec une saturation importante au niveau du front de tensio-actif. When a surfactant solution is injected into a reservoir previously waterflooded, the residual oil trapped as discontinuous ganglia is mobilized and eventually bunched together forming an oil bank. The aim of this study is to explain the formation of this bank during such a drive. The results of experiments performed in micromodels of glass beads show that: a Overall recovery can be correlated with the capillary number, Nc = uVfd/O, in which u and Vfd are the viscosity a and Darcy velocity of the injected fluid and O is the interfacial tension with the oil in place. b Ganglia velocity varies differently with u, Vfd and O, and it tends towards the same limit faster than the velocity of the injected fluid for high values of the capillary number Nc. c The oil bank is formed only in the case where globule velocity attaints that of injected fluid. the dispaced oil then remains bunched, with high

  6. Classification of grape berries according to diameter and total soluble solids to study the effect of light and temperature on methoxypyrazine, glutathione, and hydroxycinnamate evolution during ripening of Sauvignon blanc (Vitis vinifera L.). (United States)

    Suklje, Katja; Lisjak, Klemen; Česnik, Helena Baša; Janeš, Lucija; Du Toit, Wessel; Coetzee, Zelmari; Vanzo, Andreja; Deloire, Alain


    Grape berries were classified according to diameter and total soluble solids (TSS) to study the effect of light and temperature on methoxypyrazines (MPs), glutathione (GSH), and hydroxycinnamates (HCAs) during the ripening of Sauvignon blanc. The light exposure of the fruiting zone was modified within leaf and lateral removal at the phenological stage berry of peppercorn size and no removal (control). In comparison to the control, the concentration of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) was below the limit of detection in leaf removal 2 weeks before harvest. Leaf removal had no significant influence on GSH and HCAs in the grape juice at harvest. Berry diameter significantly influenced the concentration of IBMP in the grape juice and did not influence the concentration of GSH and HCAs. At harvest, the concentrations of IBMP in grape juices of similar TSS in the control were 12.6 and 5.2 ng/L in 15.5 and 13.5 mm berry diameter classes, respectively. Furthermore, the study showed that berries of the same diameter were not at the same physiological ripening level (not the same TSS).

  7. Nèg Blanc sa a (Aquela negra branca – desafiando as categorias de cor, nacionalidade e pertença a partir de um olhar afro-brasileiro sobre o Haiti

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    Renata de Melo Rosa


    Full Text Available Resumo  Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a centralidade da categoria de pessoa no Haiti contemporâneo, a qual se funda a partir dos sentidos contextuais atribuídos à noção de nèg, (que em tradução livre para o português pode ser entendida como “negro/a” que antecede e funda, ao mesmo tempo, a categoria de pessoa. No entanto, mesmo que a categoria de pessoa no Haiti se ancore em uma nomenclatura “racial”, nèg não é uma categoria necessariamente atrelada à cor da pele, mas à qualidade da pertença de cada sujeito à nação haitiana. Identificar-se e ser identificado como um “nèg” atualiza, no processo identitário e no diálogo inter-subjetivo, diacríticos importantes, cujos sentidos são dados coletiva e contextualmente na rede de significados tecidas no contexto haitiano. Assim, pela natureza contextual e por sua constante dinâmica, é possível que uma “pessoa” que, aos olhos ocidentais, possa se assemelhar com o que nós entendemos como um/a “negro/a” no Brasil, no Haiti esta mesma “pessoa” pode não estar imediatamente identificada como um nèg ou como uma pessoa que  “pertença” ao Haiti. Em outras palavras, é preciso que cada nèg (para continuar sendo nèg e, portanto, “pessoa” atualize, de acordo com os contornos da cultura haitiana que inscrevem um nèg, as diversas obrigações rituais de pertença a esta categoria. Vista desta perspectiva, a categoria nèg pode ser ritualizada por um (a haitiano (a branco (a, desde que os rituais de pertença à nação também sejam atualizados, tornando o sujeito em um (a Nég Blanc (negro branco, expressão que dá título a este artigo. Por último, esta reflexão propõe que a categoria nèg como sinônimo da categoria de pessoa é uma contra narrativa às tentativas de inferiorização racial vigentes no período colonial francês. Palavras chave: nèg; noção de pessoa; Haiti; nação, categorias de cor. Nèg Blanc sa a (Aquella negra

  8. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII-derived peptide MSP68 is a cytoskeletal immunomodulator of neutrophils that inhibits Rac1. (United States)

    Hendricks, Louie; Aziz, Monowar; Yang, Weng-Lang; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F; Symons, Marc; Wang, Ping


    Prolonged neutrophil infiltration leads to exaggerated inflammation and tissue damage during sepsis. Neutrophil migration requires rearrangement of their cytoskeleton. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII-derived short peptide 68 (MSP68) has recently been shown to be beneficial in sepsis-induced tissue injury and mortality. We hypothesize that MSP68 inhibits neutrophil migration by modulating small GTPase Rac1-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangements. Bone marrow-derived neutrophils (BMDNs) or whole lung digest isolated neutrophils were isolated from 8 to 10 wk old C57BL/6 mice by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The purity of BMDN was verified by flow cytometry with CD11b/Gr-1 staining. Neutrophils were stimulated with N-formylmethionine-leucine-phenylalanine (f-MLP) (10 nM) in the presence or absence of MSP68 at 10 nM or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used to induce sepsis, and MSP68 was administered at 1 mg/kg intravenously. Cytoskeletal organization was assessed by phalloidin staining, followed by analysis using fluorescence microscopy. Activity of the Rac1 GTPase in f-MLP or CLP-activated BMDN in the presence or absence of MSP68 was assessed by GTPase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity was determined by western blot densitometry. BMDN treatment with f-MLP increased cytoskeletal remodeling as revealed by the localization of filamentous actin to the periphery of the neutrophil. By contrast, cells pretreated with MSP68 had considerably reduced filamentous actin polymerization. Cytoskeletal spreading is associated with the activation of the small GTPase Rac1. We found BMDN-treated with f-MLP or that were exposed to sepsis by CLP had increased Rac1 signaling, whereas the cells pretreated with MSP68 had significantly reduced Rac1 activation (P Rac1-MAP kinase-mediated neutrophil motility. Thus, MSP68 is a novel therapeutic candidate for regulating inflammation and tissue damage caused

  9. The roles of a novel anti-inflammatory factor, milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8, in patients with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease. (United States)

    Dai, Wen; Li, Yan; Lv, Yong-nan; Wei, Chuan-dong; Zheng, Hong-yun


    Inflammation is now considered a main pathogenic factor in coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CHD), and it has a positive correlation with plaque vulnerability. A novel anti-inflammatory factor, milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8), has been reported as having prominent anti-inflammatory effects in sepsis. However, few studies have reported on the association between MFG-E8 and CHD. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the serum MFG-E8 concentrations in patients with different stages of CHD or without CHD. Then, we studied the associations among MFG-E8, Gensini score, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in Chinese patients with CHD to illustrate the role of MFG-E8 in CHD. A total of 176 controls and 295 patients with CHD were selected for this study. To evaluate CHD severity, we calculated the Gensini score for all of the subjects. Serum levels of MFG-E8 were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit; serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), triglyceride (TG), and hs-CRP were detected by an automatic biochemistry analyzer; and fibrinogen (FIB) was analyzed with an automatic coagulation analyzer. Compared with the controls, the CHD group had a lower level of MFG-E8 (673.20±112.34 ng/mL vs. 134.89±4.74 ng/mL, p<0.001). The level of serum MFG-E8 in the acute myocardial infarction group (118.07±10.10 ng/mL) was significantly less than that in the stable angina group (p=0.025). Further analysis showed that MFG-E8 had a negative association with the Gensini score and the hs-CRP level (r=-0.590, p<0.001; r=-0.105, p=0.022, respectively). In addition, multiple regression analysis of the association between MFG-E8 and the main cardiovascular risk factors in our cases showed that MFG-E8 had a negative association with hs-CRP and a positive association with LDL-c (all p<0.05). The serum level of MFG-E8 was negatively associated with





    toxiques. Dans le cadre de l'élaboration d'une stratégie de développement de cette molécule visant à augmenter l'index thérapeutique tout en réduisant la toxicité, nous avons étudié l'effet de quelques facteurs sur la cytotoxicité induite par l'amphotéricine B associée à des lipoprotéines du sérum sanguin chez le globule rouge humain (modèle universel de cellules animales supérieures). Dans notre travail nous avons abordé d'une part, les effets des caractéristiques des lipoprot...

  11. Diez portainjertos de vid: Efectos sobre el crecimiento, la producción y la composición de la uva del cv. Sauvignon blanc en la denominación de origen rueda (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuste Jesus


    Full Text Available The knowledge of the behaviour of different grapevine rootstocks is basic to achieve a good adaptation of vine to its growing area. With the objective of knowing the agronomic and qualitative response of cv. Sauvignon Blanc to the use of several rootstocks, a trial was established in 2006 in the D.O. Rueda. The vines are vertical trellised, with bilateral Royat cordon pruning, and the vine spacing is 2.60 m × 1.25 m. The row orientation is NNW (N-25°. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with 4 replications and elemental plot of 60 vines. Over the period 2010–2014 it has been developed the study of the following 10 rootstocks (treatments: 110R, 101-14M, 420A, 3309C, 41B, 161-49C, 196-17C, Fercal, Gravesac and RGM. The rootstocks 420A and 41B showed a production higher than 50% with respect to 196-17C and 161-49C, and higher to 100% than RGM, due to the number of clusters per vine and, in greater amount, to the cluster weight. Fercal and Gravesac showed an increase of pruning wood weight of 24% with respect to 196-17C and 161-49C, and 90% with respect to RGM, mainly due to the shoot weight. The sugar concentration increased with 101-14M, 196-17C and Fercal, and became reduced with 161-49C, 41B and RGM. The pH of must was reduced with Fercal whereas the titratable acidity increased, which also showed increase with Gravesac and 161-49C. The tartaric acid hardly increased slightly with Fercal and 161-49C, whereas the malic acid increased with Gravesac and Fercal, and was reduced with 41B, 3309C, RGM and 101-14M. The potassium concentration increased with 196-17C, Gravesac and Fercal, and was reduced with 41B, 161-49C, 420A and 3309C. The effects observed show alternatives for rootstock election according to the growing conditions and objectives of the vineyard.

  12. The Italian drilling project of the Mont Blanc road tunnel in the late fifties: an example of no geological care and lack of ethics in carrying out a big work. (United States)

    Gosso, Guido; Croce, Giuseppe; Matteucci, Ruggero; Peppoloni, Silvia; Piacente, Sandra; Wasowski, Janusz


    In the first decade after the Second World War Italy was rushing to recover a positive role among European countries; basic needs as road communications with European neighbours became main priorities. The necessity of a rapid connection with South-eastern France, a subject already debated between the two nations over more than 50 years, appeared then on first line; the two countries convened on a joint investment for the construction of a tunnel across the international border of Mont Blanc, along the shortest track between Courmayeur and Chamonix. The political agreements were in favour of the quickest start of the drilling operations and such obligation imposed on the Italian side an impoverishment of the project content, specially concerning geological issues. No surveys were performed on fracture systems, cataclastic zones and faults, on the few rock ridges standing above the tunnel line and outcropping through thick talus cones, moraines, ice tongues and their related ice plateaus. Metasediments, migmatites and poorly foliated granites were to be drilled. Three Italian academics were allowed by the drilling company to track the working progress and collect rocks for comparison with other Alpine types; they mapped the lithology and the fault zonesall along the freshly excavated tunnel; the results of such survey appeared after the end of works. Geologists from Florence University published the surface granite faulting pattern 20 years after the road tunnel became operative. Such geological cares could have located the risky zones in time for the tunnel project, mitigating the catastrophic effects of sudden drainage of subglacial water from the Vallée Blanche ice plateau (Ghiacciaio del Gigante) at progression 3800m, that caused dramatic accidents and affected negatively the economy of the drilling. Also the wallrock temperature drops, measured during the drill, should have warned the company management on the location of dangerous fracture zones. Anxiety of

  13. Biotoxicité hématologique du sulfate de cadmium chez les rats Wistar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le sang a servi à l'hémogramme avec le Sysmex XN-1000. Les résultats ont montré que le cadmium a entrainé une augmentation des globules blancs, une diminution des globules rouges, de l'hémoglobine et des hématocrites chez les mâles comme chez les femelles par rapport au témoin. Le cadmium a entrainé une ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.


    The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

  15. Etude des possibilites de contamination des aliments de rues au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foods poisoning due to microbial toxins are widespread throughout the world. These foods poisoning are prevalent in African countries were street alimentation enable 80% of urban populations to feed themselves easily and at lower price. The street foods constitute a major public health problem because of the multiplicity ...

  16. Sulla possibilità di misurare la solidarietà

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Guido Balandi


    Full Text Available The author proposes to verify the hypothesis implicit in the title of the study: whether solidarity present in a social order is measurable in the sense that it is possible to verify the presence of more or less solidarity and therefore the compatibility of solidarity and other principles, in particular that of the free market. In the first part of the study the author defines the notion of solidarity which he intends to inform his own research, specifically a system of social protection, but different from that utilized in investigations of a sociological or historical character. He excludes, therefore, the protection of health from his own field of research, considering this inspired by principles in part diverse from those which inform other compartments of the social security order. He then deals with the central theme of the study, evaluating the »quantity« of solidarity present in the pension systems, both public and complementary, and in the forms of tutelage for the conditions of general need in the labour market. Having received a positive reply to the question posed in the title, the author finally passes in review the normative principles in regard to solidarity present in the text of the Constitution for Europe in the recently signed treaty, concluding with a positive note on the possibility – where supported by political will and capacity – that from this text the presence of solidarity in the social orders of the continent will be reinforced.

  17. The possibilites of increasing lignan content in food

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulichová, J.; Híc, P.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Houška, M.


    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2016), s. 649-655 E-ISSN 1337-0960 R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1210258 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : lignan * polyphenol * antioxidant capacity * soft fruit products Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  18. Résultats de recherche | Page 35 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les lymphocytes B, un type de globules blancs du système immunitaire, produisent et exportent des anticorps qui cherchent des microbes et des toxines, s'y fixent et les neutralisent. Projet. -. Améliorer l'immunité innée des macrophages par la modulation des protéines tyrosine phosphatases : recensement complet des ...

  19. Effects of exercise and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM supplementation on body composition, physical function, and hematological parameters in community-dwelling frail Japanese women: a randomized double blind, placebo-controlled, follow-up trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunkyung Kim

    Full Text Available To investigate the combined and separate effects of exercise and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM supplementation on frailty, physical function, physical activity level, and hematological parameters in community-dwelling elderly Japanese women.A total of 131 frail, elderly women over 75 years were randomly assigned to one of four groups: exercise and MFGM supplementation (Ex+MFGM, exercise and placebo (Ex+Plac, MFGM supplementation, or the placebo group. The exercise group attended a 60-minute training program twice a week for three months, and the MFGM group ingested 1g of the MFGM supplement in pill form, daily for 3 months. The primary outcome measure was change in frailty status based on Fried's frailty phenotype. Secondary outcome measures included body composition, physical function and hematological parameters, and interview survey components assessing lifestyle factors. Participants were followed for 4 months post-intervention.Significant group × time interactions were observed for usual walking speed (P = 0.005, timed up & go (P<0.001, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3/insulin-like growth factor 1 ratio (P = 0.013. The frailty components revealed that weight loss, exhaustion, low physical activity, and slow walking speed were reversed, but low muscle strength did not significantly changed. Frailty reversal rate was significantly higher in the Ex+MFGM (57.6% than in the MFGM (28.1% or placebo (30.3% groups at post-intervention (χ2 = 8.827, P = 0.032, and at the follow-up was also significantly greater in the Ex+MFGM (45.5% and Ex+Plac (39.4% groups compared with the placebo (15.2% group (χ2 = 8.607, P = 0.035. The exercise+MFGM group had the highest odds ratio (OR for frailty reversal at post-intervention and follow-up (OR = 3.12, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.13-8.60; and OR = 4.67, 95% CI = 1.45-15.08, respectively.This study suggests that interventions including exercise and nutrition can improve frailty status

  20. Estudo dos fatores impregnação e secagem nas características de glóbulos utilizados em homeopatia Study of impregnation and drying factors in the characteristics of globules used in homeopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana E. Diehl


    Full Text Available Glóbulos são uma das formas farmacêuticas mais dispensadas em farmácias homeopáticas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar técnicas de impregnação especificadas na Farmacopéia Homeopática Brasileira 2ª Edição e Manual de Normas Técnicas para Farmácia Homeopática 3ª Edição e na prática em farmácias homeopáticas do município de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. As variáveis de formulação percentual de insumo ativo (3 e 10% e tipo de impregnação (simples e tríplice e a variável de processo temperatura de secagem (20 e 50ºC foram analisadas através de planejamento fatorial 2³. As respostas estudadas foram o peso antes e após impregnação e o tempo de desagregação. Os resultados mostraram maior diferença de peso com impregnação a 10 % e secagem a 50ºC, independente do tipo de impregnação. O tempo de desagregação não foi influenciado pelas variáveis em estudo (p Globules are one of the most dosage forms dispensed in homeopathic pharmacies in Brazil. This work aimed at comparing different impregnation techniques specified in the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia 2 Edition and Manual of Technical Norms for Homeopathic Pharmacy 3 Edition and the practical in homeopathic pharmacies in the city of Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The formulations variables percent active raw material (3 and 10%, impregnation type (simple and triple and the process variable drying temperature (20 and 50ºC were analyzed through a factorial design 2³. The studied answers were the weight before and after the impregnation and time of disaggregation. The results show a larger weight difference with the 10% impregnation and the drying of 50ºC, regardless of the impregnation type. The time of disaggregation wasn't influenced by the studied variables (p < 0.05. The best homogeneity was verified for the formulation with triple impregnation at 10%.

  1. Managing a Coastal Bluegum (Eucalyptus globules) forest (United States)

    Ralph S. Osterling


    Eucalyptus was thought to be a replacement to oak and other hardwoods for many products. Thousands of acres have been planted and now are in need of management. Management techniques are discussed in context with a coastal stand of approximately 300 acres of mixed aged bluegum. Potential markets are explored.

  2. Tėvo ir dukters ryšio restauravimo galimybė Hélène Cixous kūriniuose Viduje ir Taigi, mano tėvo laiškai | La possibilité de restaurer le rapport entre le père et la fille dans les oeuvres d’Hélène Cixous Dedans et Or, les lettres de mon père

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neringa Mikalauskienė


    Full Text Available Dans cet article, on débat une possibilité de restau­rer le rapport entre le père et la fille dans les oeuvres d’Hélène Cixous Dedans (1967 et Or, les lettres de mon père (1997.L’analyse des textes de Cixous est fondée sur la méthode psychanalytique de la critique littéraire à partir des thèses principales de Freud et de Lacan. Nous supposons que c’est le langage (oral ainsi qu’écrit qui montre le rapport entre le père et sa fille dans les oeuvres de Cixous.L’image du père dans les oeuvres d’Hélène Cixous est reconstruite d’après les souvenirs de l’enfance. Dans le roman Dedans on trouve le père idéal avec qui la narratrice fait son identité à l’aide du langage. Mais la langue se transforme toujours, ce qui menace de réfuter la stabilité de son monde. On suppose que le meilleur mode de reconstituer l’ordre précédent, c’est d’écrire un récit sur le père en tant qu’une figure figée. Ainsi on constitue, sur le plan de l’art, un nouveau rapport avec le père à travers le statut d’une oeuvre d’art. L’image du père omnipo­tent est transformée en père-personnage qui devient subordonné à la volonté de l’auteur de conserver tout ce qu’elle avait établi dans son imaginaire et de le présenter au lecteur comme elle le veut.Donc l’analyse des oeuvres montre que la pos­sibilité de restaurer le rapport entre le père et la fille n’existe pas au sens propre. Mais nous considérons que les textes de cette auteure sont intéressants en tant que des exemples de la littérature contemporaine qui représente la synthèse des genres.

  3. Modélisation pluie-débit en région tropicale humide : application des réseaux de neurones sur quatre stations hydrométriques du Bandama Blanc (Bada, Marabadiassa, Tortiya et Bou situées au Nord de la Côte d'Ivoire. Thèse de l'Université de Cocody (Côte d'Ivoire, 2007, 219 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Blaise Koffi


    Full Text Available La relation pluie-débit fait l'objet de nombreuses études, à cause de son importance dans la mise en œuvre de nombreux projets de développement. La communauté scientifique, dans le souci de faire face aux problèmes d'eau, tels que les inondations et les sècheresses, utilise différents modèles. Mais ces modèles sont généralement confrontés à la non-linéarité de la relation pluie-débit. Dans le cas du Bandama Blanc, objet de cette étude, cette non-linéarité est accentuée par la présence de plusieurs barrages à vocation agro-pastorale situés dans la partie nord de la zone d'étude et qui utilisent les eaux de ce fleuve. Ce mémoire de thèse traite donc de la modélisation des débits mensuels du Bandama Blanc, aux stations de Bada, Marabadiassa, Tortiya et Bou, à l'aide des réseaux de neurones, déjà éprouvés dans ce contexte de relation non-linéaire. Elle projette de fournir des outils plus robustes aux hydrologues africains pour la simulation et la prévision des débits des rivières jaugées. Pour atteindre cet objectif, deux Perceptrons Multicouches entraînés avec l'algorithme de la rétropropagation de l'erreur ont été construits. Le premier modèle a été utilisé seulement en simulation et le second en simulation et en prévision. Le modèle conceptuel GR2M, a été utilisé pour valider les résultats obtenus avec les réseaux de neurones. Pour cette étude, une importante base de données climatiques (pluie et température et hydrométriques (débits mensuels a été utilisée. Les résultats obtenus sont forts satisfaisants et nettement supérieurs à ceux obtenus avec le modèle conceptuel global GR2M. En effet, les réseaux de neurones parviennent à expliquer plus de 70 % de la variation des débits, avec des coefficients de corrélation de Pearson qui excèdent 0,80. Cependant ces modèles arrivent difficilement à simuler et à faire la prévision des débits extrêmes (étiages et crues,

  4. White book on energies; Livre blanc sur les energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, N


    The energy policy in France has to answer two challenges: the first one is the climatic change and the greenhouse effect, the second one is to conceive an energy policy taking into account the evolutions and economical realities. four objectives have to guide the action of the government, the guarantee to the right of access to energy for every citizen, the fight against the climatic warming, the preservation of a national independence, the keeping of a competitive energy. This book includes a summary of works and conclusions of the National Debate on energies, hold during the first semester of 2003, the government propositions, a whole of cards detailing some aspects of government propositions, especially financial propositions. (N.C.)

  5. Moult in the Mediterranean monk seal from Cap Blanc, western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is different to that of the Hawaiian monk seal and elephant seals, as Mediterranean monk seals partly moult in the water. The intermoult period was close to one year except in females nursing a pup. Such females have longer intermoult periods and can even moult whilst still lactating. In males, the process of developing ...

  6. "Noir, blanc, jaune et alors...!" ("Black, White, Yellow and...!"). (United States)

    Basaille, Jean-Paul


    Eleven foreign students from different countries produced a series of radio programs on diverse topics to be broadcast on a local French radio station. Through the experience, the students learned much about the culture in which they were studying, and expressed their own culture and individuality. (MSE)

  7. Pourquoi le « Disque Blanc » des Beatles est-il Blanc ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Gensane


    Full Text Available Dans « Strawberry Fields Forever » (février 1967, John Lennon prévient, dans une perspective postmoderne, que la représentation artistique est impossible car « nothing is real ». Au même moment, Paul McCartney propose, avec « Penny Lane » (février 1967, une des plus troublantes définitions de ce qu’est la représentation artistique : « And though she feels as if she’s in a play / She is anyway ». Que se passe-t-il, en effet, lorsque l’art est sciemment accepté comme un faux-semblant à la foi...

  8. Las pedagogías críticas: un lenguaje de la posibilidad para la universidad y sus maestros (Critical Pedagogies: a Language of Possibility for the University and its Teachers(Les pédagogies critiques: un langage de la possibilité pour l′université et ses professeurs (As pedagogias críticas: uma linguagem da possibilidade para a universidade e seus mestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedad Ramírez Pardo


    Full Text Available ResumenEl ensayo destaca los aportes de las pedagogías críticas para repensar el papel de la universidad y sus maestros en la sociedad. Reivindica la autonomía, la crítica, la libertad aca- démica y la recuperación del maestro como intelectual trans- formativo, con capacidad para pensar la sociedad y construir un discurso que conjugue el lenguaje de la crítica con el de la posibilidad; maestros que se perciban a sí mismos con ca- pacidad y opciones para enfrentar constructivamente la complejidad del mundo social y potenciar desde su rol, con sus estudiantes la transformación del orden establecido.AbstractThis research article highlights the contributions of critical pedagogies to rethink the role of the university and its teachers in society. Claimed autonomy, critical, acade- mic freedom and intellectual recovery teacher as transformative, capable of thinking about society and create a discourse that combines the language of critique with the language of possibility; teachers who perceive themselves to capacity and decisions to address constructively the complexity of the social world and boost from his role, with his students the transformation of the established order.RésuméL'essai met en valeur les contributions des pédagogies critiques pour repenser le rôle de l'université et ses professeurs dans la société. Revendique l'autonomie, la cri- tique, la liberté académique et la récupération du professeur en tant qu’intellectuel transformateur, avec la capacité pour penser la société et construire un discours que conjugue le langage de la critique avec celui de la possibilité; professeurs que se perçoivent à eux-mêmes avec la capacité et les choix pour faire face d'une manière constructive la complexité du monde social et encourager depuis son rôle, et avec ses étudiants la transformation de l’ordre établit.ResumoO ensaio destaca as contribuições das pedagogias críticas para repensar o papel da

  9. Scaling Research Results: Design and Evaluation | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... deux facettes des enzymes de modification de l'ADN endogène : promouvoir les mutations génétiques ainsi que la réparation du génome. Les lymphocytes B, un type de globules blancs du système immunitaire, produisent et exportent des anticorps qui cherchent des microbes et des toxines, s'y fixent et les neutralisent.

  10. Résultats de recherche | Page 35 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... deux facettes des enzymes de modification de l'ADN endogène : promouvoir les mutations génétiques ainsi que la réparation du génome. Les lymphocytes B, un type de globules blancs du système immunitaire, produisent et exportent des anticorps qui cherchent des microbes et des toxines, s'y fixent et les neutralisent.

  11. Ce que nous faisons | Page 14 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... deux facettes des enzymes de modification de l'ADN endogène : promouvoir les mutations génétiques ainsi que la réparation du génome. Les lymphocytes B, un type de globules blancs du système immunitaire, produisent et exportent des anticorps qui cherchent des microbes et des toxines, s'y fixent et les neutralisent.

  12. Effet du Kétoconazole sur le temps d'immobilité et la réponse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La depression est installée suite aux perturbations des activités de l'axe corticotrope et du système immunitaire. L'objectif de cette étude est d'explorer les effets du ketoconazole (KTCZ), un dérivé d'imidazole, inhibiteur de stréroїdogénèse surrénalienne, sur les variations du nombre de globules blancs totaux et des ...

  13. Résultats de recherche | Page 15 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... deux facettes des enzymes de modification de l'ADN endogène : promouvoir les mutations génétiques ainsi que la réparation du génome. Les lymphocytes B, un type de globules blancs du système immunitaire, produisent et exportent des anticorps qui cherchent des microbes et des toxines, s'y fixent et les neutralisent.

  14. Stimuler les possibilités d'emploi pour les jeunes TANZANIE 9 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    éducation a des répercussions sur le rende- ment de l'éducation. Par exemple, un travailleur qui a achevé des études postsecondaires ou universitaires gagne un salaire envi- ron 40 fois plus élevé que celui d'un travailleur sans instruction,.

  15. Fonds d'intervention rapide afin de pouvoir saisir les possibilités de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chargé(e) de projet. Katherine Murphy (Everett). Institution. University of Cape Town. Pays d' institution. Afrique du Sud. Site internet. Institution. Bénéficiaire(s) non spécifié(s) -- Réservoir. Pays d' institution. Canada. Chargé(e) de projet. Pierre Valere, Nketcha Nana. Institution. Université de Yaoundé II.

  16. Jeunes agripreneurs : Élargir les possibilités pour les jeunes dans le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    'est-à-dire les produits à base de soja et de manioc) à des entreprises commerciales conjointes. Il permettra aux jeunes femmes et aux jeunes hommes (de jeunes agripreneurs, ou entrepreneurs en agriculture) : - d'acquérir des compétences ...

  17. Les possibilités pour la réconciliation The possibilities of reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada Urošević


    Full Text Available Le roman Comment tuer Apostol ? de l’écrivain macédonien Slobodan Micković (1935-2002, paru en 1994, s’intéresse à l’image du « Jeune Turc ». Habitué à l’image stéréotypée de l’Empire ottoman comme période historique où règnent le despotisme asiatique, l’obscurantisme et la corruption, le lecteur y trouvera une nouvelle situation : à côté des représentants de l’ancienne Turquie, il y a maintenant, aussi, des « Jeunes Turcs » – des gens qui pensent d’une façon différente et qui luttent en faveur d’une Turquie moderne et européanisée. Parmi ces derniers est Ouvaïs-bey, colonel de l’armée turque, héros principal du roman. L’action du roman se déroule en 1908 – dans une période où, sous la pression des nouvelles forces dans la société turque, le sultan est obligé d’accepter des réformes. Mais, parallèlement aux idées progressistes, en Ouvaïs-bey vivent des obsessions du passé : durant son enfance, quelqu’un a tué son père, et, selon ouï-dire, ce serait Apostol, le voïvode d’un groupe de rebelles macédoniens qui se battent contre le pouvoir ottoman. Élevé avec la pensée de la vengeance, Ouvaïs-bey mènera plusieurs fois des actions pour saisir le chef légendaire des « comitadjis ». Il finit par l’attraper. Mais, pendant l’agonie du rebelle blessé, Ouvaïs-bey apprend qu’Apostol est innocent – les meurtriers sont des brigands turcs. Toute la haine qu’il a gardée contre cet homme, tous ses projets pour se venger – tout cela perd sa raison d’être. Il comprend qu’il existait une chance pour une possible réconciliation entre eux – mais que cette chance est manquée. Tout cela était un fatal malentendu. Au même moment, le chef des rebelles sort une bombe cachée. Tous deux meurent dans l’explosion. L’idée de l’auteur est claire : les deux peuples, l’un oppresseur et l’autre oppressé auraient pu vivre ensemble, égaux en droits, dans un pays réformé – mais cette prise de conscience est venue trop tard. La morale qui se dégage de ce roman est : la multiethnicité implique l’oubli des anciennes rancunes.The novel comment tuer apostol (how to kill apostol by the macedonian writer slobodan micković (1935-2002 first appeared in 1994. Anyone familiar with the cliché image of the ottoman empire as dominated by asian despotism, obscurantism and corruption will be surprised: alongside time-worn veterans of the sublime porte, there are the so-called young turks, innovators who fought to modernize and, if you will, europeanize their country. The young turks included ouvaïs-bey, an army colonel, the novel's protagonist. The story is set in 1908 when, under the pressure of new forces within turkish society, the sultan was forced to accept reform. In keeping with the ideas that were infiltrating what we now call turkey, ouvaïs-bey is haunted by his past: he was still a child when his father was murdered. The culprit was supposedly apostol, who belonged to a group of rebel macedonians who resisted the power of the ottomans. Raised with a taste for vengeance, ouvaïs-bey led numerous campaigns to capture the legendary chief of the 'comitadji'. He finally managed to arrest him, in order to find, just as the wounded rebel is dying in agony, that apostol is innocent and that his father's killers were actually turkish bandits. Thus all the hatred toward this man that he harboured, all his dreams of revenge, suddenly lose their meaning. Whether or not there'd been any chance of reconciliation, he lost it once and for all, he now realized. It was all a terrible misunderstanding. And then the rebel chief reveals a bomb and they all die in the explosion. The author's idea is thus clarified: the two peoples — the oppressors and the oppressed — could have peacefully coexisted, with equal rights, in a reformed society. But dawn broke too late. The moral of the story ? Multiethnicity is all about burying hatchets.

  18. Possibilité de financement pour l'égalité des sexes et le changement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 mars 2018 ... Le CRDI est heureux d'annoncer une nouvelle occasion de financement qui vise à favoriser des mesures de lutte contre les changements climatiques efficaces et à long terme, afin de réduire les inégalités sociales, de promouvoir une plus grande égalité entre les sexes, et d'autonomiser les femmes et les ...

  19. Advanced Authoring Technologies, Capabilities and Opportunities (Technologies avancees d’authoring, possibilites et opportunites) (United States)


    en matière d’ « authoring », de conception, de développement, et de maintenance des environnements pédagogiques informatisés, de façon rapide...des caractéristiques fonctionnelles d’un environnement d’étude de telle façon que des systèmes informatisés puissent l’interpréter correctement et

  20. Risques et possibilités liés aux changements climatiques pour les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... sociaux et environnementaux précis. Le projet permettra de diffuser des résultats aux milieux d'affaires, aux professionnels du développement, et aux principaux décideurs. Le partenaire local, Fundación Impulsora de un Nuevo Sector en la Economia Sistema B, possède des bureaux au Chili, en Colombie et au Pérou.

  1. Jeunes agripreneurs : Élargir les possibilités pour les jeunes dans le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    activités agro-alimentaires en vue d'assurer la transformation agricole et l'emploi des jeunes en Afrique. Ce projet déterminera, élaborera et mettra à l'essai sur le terrain des modèles d'entreprise créatifs et audacieux pour aider les jeunes ...

  2. Le savoir offre aux jeunes des milieux urbains d'autres possibilités ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 août 2016 ... Les chercheurs du CRDI en Côte d'Ivoire recommandent que les responsables des politiques s'attaquent d'urgence au chômage chez les jeunes. ... Kuluna à Kinshasa, se considèrent comme « socialement morts » et se tournent vers la vie de gang pour avoir un sentiment d'appartenance à la collectivité.

  3. Stimuler les possibilités d'emploi pour les jeunes en Tanzanie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 déc. 2015 ... ... Résoudre le problème de l'emloi des jeunes en Afrique. Liens connexes : Youth Employment Promotion a Priority Agenda for Tanzania, The Guardian (en anglais); Report: National Stakeholders Consultative Workshop on Youth Employment (PDF, 1,74 Mo) (en anglais); Vidéo de l'atelier sur YouTube ...

  4. Possibilités offertes par les élevages associés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depelchin, J.


    Full Text Available Possibilities of inlegrated animal production. This papier gives a possible schedule for setting up a department of statistics or biometry in a new teaching institution in a developing country, in cooperation with some older institution. It is mainly based on twelve years' experience of cooperation between a Belgian and a Moroccan agricultural teaching institution.

  5. Femmes et gouvernance locale - exploration de nouvelles possibilités

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Journal articles. ICTs and black women's empowerment : unmasking domination in several layers. Download PDF. Journal articles. Exploring new media technologies among young South African Women. Download PDF. Reports. Qualitative report for the Young women Govern South Africa project within the Women-Gov ...

  6. L'optimisation des ressources : risques et possibilités pour la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    il y a modulation des risques. De nombreux bailleurs de fonds investissent de façon soutenue dans la recherche au service du développement, reconnaissant les risques inévitables que cela comporte. Ils estiment souvent que la meilleure manière d'aborder l'optimisation des ressources consacrées à la recherche est de ...

  7. MOOCs e biblioteche accademiche: tra possibilità di “esserci” e criticità


    Testoni, Laura


    I MOOCs (Massive open online courses) sono corsi online di carattere accademico aperti a tutti e senza limiti di iscrizione.Obiettivo di questo contributo è delineare il dibattito sullo sviluppo dei MOOCs e sul loro impatto sui servizi informativi delle biblioteche accademiche.Nella prima parte dell'articolo vengono descritti i MOOC come fenomeno didattico emergente nell'ambito dell'educazione superiore e accademica.Lo sviluppo di piattaforme come Coursera, EdX e Udacity nel 2012 apre una fas...

  8. Natura di guerra. Possibilità ecocritiche sullo sfondo dei videogiochi strategici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Toniolo


    Full Text Available Una possibile lettura ecocritica di tre videogiochi strategici in tempo reale, ambientati in con¬testi differenti (uno storico, uno fantasy e uno fantascientifico, per individuare, sullo sfondo di un genere dominato dall’ideologia dello scontro bellico, un rapporto del videogiocatore e delle civiltà in gioco con l’ambiente.

  9. L'eau dans les villes : de multiples menaces… et possibilités | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 déc. 2010 ... Les habitants des bidonvilles ont de la difficulté à se procurer de l'eau potable à un coût abordable. Qu'il s'agisse de l'eau de boisson ou de celle destinée aux usages ménagers, ils sont forcés de la payer de 10 à 20 fois plus cher – et parfois 200 fois plus cher – que les citadins riches qui ont accès aux ...

  10. Risques et possibilités liés aux changements climatiques pour les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Elles assurent la promotion du changement culturel dans le sens de la production et de la consommation durables, notamment des produits de consommation de masse plus sains tels que ... Un numéro spécial de la revue met en lumière les conclusions d'une étude financée par le CRDI sur le travail rémunéré des femmes.

  11. The possibilites of coal seam underground excavation in Republic of Macedonia with high productive excavation methods


    Despodov, Zoran; Doneva, Nikolinka; Mijalkovski, Stojance


    The paper presents mining and geology properties of coal deposits in R.Macedonia predetermined for underground exploitation. Also it will be shown the way of coal seams preparation and development for underground excavation with longwall mining methods. Based on mining and geology properties of coal and it’s caloric value it will be observed the possibilities for application on the longwall mining which is among excavation methods with highest production and capacity applied in the contemp...

  12. Uva da tavola ipocalorica, possibilità di coltivazione e nuove prospettive di mercato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Antonacci


    Full Text Available According to the CODEX STAN 255 (2007, table grapes can be harvested when the refractometric index reaches at least 16° Brix. Grapes with a lower refractometric index are accepted provided the sugar/acid ratio (Total Soluble Solids/Tritatable Acidity – TSS/TA is at least equal to 20:1 if the Brix level is comprised between 12.5° and 14° Brix, 18:1 if the Brix level is comprised between 14° and 16° Brix. Some table grapes grown in Mediterranean climate can accumulate TSS higher than 16° Brix, with low levels of acidity, thus leading to a TSS/AT ratio even greater than 30: 1. Grapes that accumulate TSS less than 12.5° Brix and low TA levels, hardly reach the recommended ratio TSS/TA of 20:1, rather stopping at lower values. Based on these considerations in 2012 an experimental trial of four years started on a total of 103 table grape cvs. Phenological phases in relation to the acidic and sugar content were measured in order to assess the TSS/TA ratio and build regression lines with TSS. Almost all cvs. showed a significant linear regression, with R2 values higher than 0.80 and a standard error between 00.18 and 1.74. TSS values of 103 cvs. at TSS/TA ratio of 20:1, predicted by means of linear regression equations, , were subjected to cluster analysis based on Euclidean Distance. We identified nine clusters, of which the first two with the predicted TSS between 10.04° and 11.77° Brix (7 cvs. and 12.08° and 12.62° Brix (7 cvs., respectively. Some of the cvs. showing TSS values below 12.5° Brix at the TSS/TA of 20: 1, were subjected to a test panel of 24 tasters, who were asked to indicate the acceptability of these grapes on hedonic scale of 9 points. Preliminary results showed that for some table grapes with TSS below 12.5° Brix, a SST/AT ratio lower than the recommended 20:1 can be proposed, while preserving an acceptability by the consumer. These results suggest a more modern perspective on grapes nutritional intake, which takes into account the real needs of Western countries where diabetes, hyperglycemia, obesity and cardiovascular diseases are the main dismetabolisms arising from a diet too rich in calories. These grapes thus represent a new frontier and an opportunity for producers of table grapes, who want to enterprise a market share on “grape diet”, and represent a genetic basis for breeding aimed at obtaining new hypocaloric grape cultivars.

  13. General architecture of the alpha-helical globule. (United States)

    Murzin, A G; Finkelstein, A V


    A model is presented for the arrangement of alpha-helices in globular proteins. In the model, helices are placed on certain ribs of "quasi-spherical" polyhedra. The polyhedra are chosen so as to allow the close packing of helices around a hydrophobic core and to stress the collective interactions of the individual helices. The model predicts a small set of stable architectures for alpha-helices in globular proteins and describes the geometries of the helix packings. Some of the predicted helix arrangements have already been observed in known protein structures; others are new. An analysis of the three-dimensional structures of all proteins for which co-ordinates are available shows that the model closely approximates the arrangements and packing of helices actually observed. The average deviations of the real helix axes from those in the model polyhedra is +/- 20 degrees in orientation and +/- 2 A in position (1 A = 0.1 nm). We also show that for proteins that are not homologous, but whose helix arrangements are described by the same polyhedron, the root-mean-square difference in the position of the C alpha atoms in the helices is 1.6 to 3.0 A.

  14. Economic outlook for radiometric selection of ores; Possibilites ouvertes en matiere economique par selection radiometrique des minerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formery, P.; Ziegler, V. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Usine du Bouchet, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The value of an ore can be increased by cutting off it's poor fractions. This selection may be realized at two stages: - part of the ore in situ is unable to cover it's extraction and treatment costs, this defines the 'underground cut-off grade'; - another portion of already extracted ore is unable to cover it's transport and treatment costs; this defines the 'surface cut off grade'. These selections are easily feasible owing to the property of uranium ores of emitting gamma radiations. A diagram makes possible a fast forecast on the effect of this selection upon the weight and metal yields. An attempt is made as well in order to provide the expected effect of the composition of underground cut off and surface cut off. This cut off however, being realized through an appreciation of the radiations, involves an alteration of the weight and metal yields which calls for a correction. A survey of the economic interest of the cut-off is done and an example of valorisation in a given deposit of a section at the limit of operability is proposed. (author) [French] On peut augmenter la valeur d'un minerai en retranchant des fractions pauvres de minerai. Cette selection peut etre realisee a deux stades: - eviter l'abattage d'un minerai incapable de supporter les frais d'extraction et de traitement. On definit ainsi une teneur de 'coupure fond'; - eviter de traiter chimiquement des fractions de minerai deja extraites mais dont la teneur ne justifie pas le transport et le traitement. On definit ainsi une teneur de coupure jour. La propriete des minerais d'uranium d'emettre des rayonnements gamma dont la densite est liee a la teneur permet de realiser tres aisement cette selection. On propose un diagramme permettant de prevoir rapidement l'incidence de cette selection sur les rendements poids et metal. On a tente de prevoir l'effet d'une composition des coupures fond et jour. Toutefois, la coupure etant realisee par une appreciation des rayonnements, il s'introduit une certaine alteration des rendements poids et metal. Une correction s'est donc averee indispensable. Une etude concernant l'interet economique de la coupure a ete faite et un exemple de valorisation possible au sein d'un gisement d'un quartier a la limite d'exploitabilite a ete donne. (auteur)

  15. Accroître les possibilités des jeunes dans les régions rurales en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En s'appuyant sur les précédentes recherches appuyées par le CRDI, le projet, mis en œuvre par la Universidad de los Andes à Bogota, cherchera à acquérir une connaissance ... Amélioration des débouchés économiques en Amérique latine : Des projets de réduction de la pauvreté aux moyens de subsistance durables.

  16. Troposphere delays from ground-based GNSS-R - self-calibration and new possibilites for atmosphere research (United States)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Strandberg, Joakim; Haas, Rüdiger


    Ground-based GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) has been proven to be a useful tool for a variety of geophysical applications. In particular, the fact that in most cases existing GNSS sites can be used for reflectometry purposes makes this concept very appealing. Successful ground-based GNSS-R applications include sea-level monitoring, soil moisture , snow or vegetation. By a recent approach by Strandberg et al. (2016) it was demonstrated that it is feasible to carry out rigorous inverse modeling of signal to noise ratio (SNR) data in order to improve the retrieved parameters concerning accuracy and precision. Based on the concept of inverse modelling, as we discuss in this paper, it can be shown that it is possible to account for troposphere delays by means of self-calibration which means that target parameters will not be biased by unmodeled atmosphere excess path delays. This implies that also troposphere delay information can be deduced from the SNR pattern that is related to multi-path interference. Thus, we can access troposphere information related to domains which are below the antenna and laterally offset and thus are not sensed with classical GNSS applications. In order to motivate this new concept, we will discuss the idea of troposphere self-calibration in GNSS-R processing and demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach concerning accuracy and precision of the target parameters. It will be shown how troposphere contributions need to be considered in inverse modeling and a thorough interpretation of the obtained troposphere parameters will be given. We will also provide an outlook concerning the question how and to which extent ground-based GNSS-R observations could contribute to atmosphere research and which novel applications could emerge.

  17. Accroître les possibilités économiques pour les jeunes dans les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le projet utilisera différentes méthodes de formation (formation en salle de cours, méthodes d'étude de cas pratiques, visites sur place et simulations d'entreprise) pour perfectionner les compétences des jeunes afin qu'ils puissent jouer un rôle dans les entreprises du secteur de la volaille et du poisson. Il s'appuiera sur un ...

  18. L'algue rouge Eucheuma spinosum possibilités d'exploitation et de culture aux Antilles


    Barbaroux, Olivier; Perez, René; Dreno, Jean-paul


    L'industrie française des algues rouges qui occupe en 1983 le 2e rang mondial, extrait des polysaccharides appelés carraghénanes de certaines espèces d'algues telles que Chondrus crispus, Gigartina stellata, G. skotsbergi, Eucheuma cottonii, E. spinosum, Iridea sp. La principale propriété de ces carraghénanes est de réagir avec les composants du lait pour donner du gel à fine structure, d'ou leur utilisation dans tous les dérivés actuels du lait (pâtisserie, flans, crèmes, glaces, fromages, l...

  19. Déterminer l'incidence de l'industrie extractive sur les possibilités ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Ghana et la Côte d'Ivoire sont des pays voisins possédant des ressources et des environnements socio-culturels similaires, mais dont les stratégies de développement économique sont très différentes. Ce projet permettra de déterminer dans quelle mesure les différences dans les schémas de croissance et la création ...

  20. L'inclusion financière pour promouvoir les possibilités économiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 mai 2016 ... Les virements de fonds ou les paiements en ligne sont une seconde nature pour bon nombre de personnes. Pourtant, des millions de personnes dans le monde luttent pour pouvoir accéder à des services financiers de base. L'inclusion financière, soit l'amélioration de l'accès et de la disponibilité des ...

  1. Accroître les possibilités pour les jeunes vulnérables : entendre leur ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le but est de définir des solutions qui prennent en compte les motivations et les aspirations des jeunes NEET, tout en produisant des emplois. Espacio Pu¿blico au Chili sera l'institution coordonnatrice du projet. ... Institution. Espacio Público. Institution Country. Chile. Institution Website. ...

  2. Adaptation level as the basic health status characteristics: possibilitics of its assessment and forecasting of desadaptation violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysochyna I.L.


    Full Text Available On the basis of comprehensive survey with integrative assessment of health state (medical history data, physical examination, anthropometry, battery of psychological tests (Eysenck, Shmishek’s Personality Inventory (teen version, tapping - test by E.P. Ilyin, children's questionnaire of neuroses; test for rapid assessment of health, activity and mood, anxiety diagnosis by Spielberg - Khanin; Luscher test, color relations test level of adaptation was defined in 236 children from orphanages aged from 4 to 18 years. The manifestations of maladjustment were registered both on psychological level (neuroticism, high anxiety, decreased performance, activity and psychological endurance, sleep disturbance, presence of accentuation and neurotic disorders and somatic level (recurrent acute respiratory infections, poor physical development, exacerbation of chronic foci of infection and burdened biological history; this summarizes conclusions on a low level of health status of children in orphanages. The author has developed mathematical models of adaptation assessment and prediction of desadaptation, which allowed to identify children at risk for the development of adaptation disorders and children with maladjustment; according to the level and severity of maladaptive disorders correction programs are designed.

  3. Utilization possibilites of waste products from fishing and hunting to biogas and bio-oil production in Uummannaq County

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Jørgensen, Marianne Willemoes


    the specific conditions that apply in Uummannaq County. The best alternatives were evaluated to be biogas production and utilization of fat from the fish waste to produce bio-oil. The results showed that with the price of energy in Greenland in 2009 of 3,71 DKR per kWh, the waste in Uummannaq County would......In spring 2007 a project was carried out at the Arctic Technology Centre in which research of various possibilities of utilizing waste products from fishing and hunting generated in Uummannaq County was performed. Numerous alternatives were identified in the project, which were weighed against...... amount to approximately 6 million DKR when using biogas production and 5,7 million DKR when using bio-oil. Compared with the energy used in Uummannaq County today, the biogas production would be able to supply 17 percent of the energy and bio-oil production would cover approximately 16 percent....

  4. Étude de la possibilité d'utilisation du rônier comme armature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its mechanical performances and its durability in the numerous traditional constructions, allow to envisage its use as reinforcement in the concrete. Four points bending test has been made on eighteen beams among which six witnesses not armed and armed with steel and, twelve in wooden reinforced concrete of treated ...

  5. Influence of Brownfield Conversion on Evaluating Real Estate and Implemeting the Possibilites of Urban Brownfields in Lithuanian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Bielinskas


    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of brownfield in Lithuania. The paper overviews Lithuanian and foreign experience of integrating the introduced areas into the urban framework based on social, economic, ecological and cultural contextuality. The main problem, on Lithuanian scale, is the absence of an official definition of urban brownfield. The legal framework in Lithuania does not contain any provisions to be processed. The article is aimed at identifying potential threats to the areas in respect of criteria for urban brownfields, and, according to this review, at revealing possible uses of this land. One of the most effective ways of urban sustainable development is the conversion of former military, industrial and other land accepted as the legacy of the Soviet regime. The authors have established a causal relationship resulting in the emergence of the urban areas of wilderness and developed guidance on using them. The authors have analysed and evaluated the existing real estate developers and current trends towards opportunities for private and public partnership (PPP in Lithuania. Although PPP is widespread in most of European countries, it is a rare phenomenon in Lithuania, and has no deep-rooted tradition of this kind of investment in urban infrastructure; however, evaluation is one of the most potential ways to revitalize abandoned urban territories. Based on practices of foreign countries, the authors have identified PPP as a priority.

  6. Accroître les possibilités économiques pour les femmes et les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le manque de transformation des structures économiques représente une difficulté de taille pour la croissance soutenue de l'Afrique, ainsi que pour sa capacité de lutter contre le sousemploi et le chômage chez les jeunes et combler les écarts entre les sexes. La célébration de l'Afrique en croissance — une forte ...

  7. Possibilités et avantages des plantes médicinales en Amérique latine

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 févr. 2011 ... Nous avons donc demandé à une guérisseuse — une botánica — de se joindre à l'équipe. À notre grande surprise, aucun des botánicos ne connaissait de plantes utilisables pour la reproduction. Il nous est vite apparu que la botánica connaissait autant les plantes “ neutres ” que celles qui sont à l'usage ...

  8. Possibilités de franchissement du seuil de Beaucaire par les aloses du Rhône

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Douze barrages ont été construits depuis 1947 sur le Rhône à l'aval de LYON. Aucun des dispositifs de franchissement prévus pour les poissons migrateurs ne donne satisfaction, en particulier en ce qui concerne la remontée des aloses (Alosa alosa et Alosa fallax nilotica. De nombreuses observations réalisées sur le seuil de Beaucaire ont permis de déterminer la vitesse de nage et le comportement des aloses dans l'échelle à ralentisseurs de type LACHADENEDE installée sur cet ouvrage. Aucune alose ne s'engage dans la passe quand la vitesse moyenne y excède 1,5 m/s. L'inefficacité de ce dispositif de franchissement s'explique par son manque d'attractivité et ses caractéristiques hydrauliques inadéquates, compte tenu des faibles capacités de nage des aloses.

  9. Oenological and Quality Characteristic on Young White Wines (Sauvignon Blanc: Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilbett Briones-Labarca


    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP has shown to have an effect of enhancing some properties without detrimental effects on important quality characteristics, such as colour, pH, and turbidity. This suggests that this technique can be used as an alternative to the existing methods used in wine industry processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HHP on aroma compounds and also sensory and quality properties of young white wine. HHP treatment did not influence physicochemical parameters, total phenols, and flavonoid contents of white wine; however, the results from analysis of wine indicate that there was a great variation in the concentration of free and total sulphur dioxide (SO2 values and antioxidant capacity of white wine after HHP application. The sensory attributes, such as taste, odour, and overall quality, were not affected by HHP processing at 300 MPa. The chromatic characteristics changed slightly after applying HHP, but these changes could not be visually perceived because they were less than 5%. The use of this technique has the potential to decrease the amount of SO2 added to raw grapes thus maintaining the same properties found in untreated wine. This study provided valuable insights into the biochemical and sensory composition of commercial white wine and how this might change during HHP processing.

  10. qualite des eaux du bandama-blanc (cote d'ivoire) et de ses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Université Nangui Abrogoua, UFR Science et Gestion de l'Environnement, Laboratoire d'Environnement et de Biologie. Aquatique, 02 BP ..... P. Osc illatoria ten uis C. Agardh ex Gom on t. X. X. X. 2. 3. V. P. Osc illatoria s alina. Bis w as. X. X. X. X. 3. 1. V. P. Ps eu da na ba en a cf. lim ne tic a Kom àrek. X. X. X. X. 3. 1. V. P.

  11. White certificate: how to launch the system?; Les certificats blancs: comment lancer le systeme?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    White certificates are a supple and suitable economical system for the quest of diffuse energy saving. It relies on the energy distribution networks and is complementary to other existing system (fiscality, regulation, etc). It is an open system, based on a market logics in order to make energy savings where they are the less costly. This document gathers the synthesis of the conference about white certificates, held in Paris in October 2005, the presentations (transparencies) given by J. Percebois (Creden) about the French system of energy savings and by P. Guyonnet (ATEE) about the way to launch the system of white certificates. The debate with the audience is also reported. (J.S.)

  12. Ecofisiologia da videira (Vitis vinifera L.) sob cultivo protegido, variedades Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet sauvignon e Merlot


    Fernandes, Gabriella Vanderlinde


    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Genéticos Vegetais, Florianópolis, 2014. O Estado de Santa Catarina tem se destacado no cenário nacional pelo potencial na produção de vinhos finos de qualidade, em função da altitude. No entanto, algumas regiões de Santa Catarina, como o município em estudo, Rancho Queimado, apresentam elevada pluviosidade no período de maturação e colheita, além de riscos d...

  13. White book Escrime. Climatic simulation studies; Livre blanc Escrime. Etude des simulations climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terray, L. [CERFACS, 31 - Toulouse (France); Braconnot, P. [Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace IPSL/LSCE, CEA-Orme des Merisiers, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    The ESCRIME project aims to manage the analysis realized on the climatic simulations on the framework of the fourth report of the GIEC (group of intergovernmental experts on the climate evolution), in particularly the simulations based on french models. This white book is constituted by 8 chapters: the global scenario, the climatic sensibility, the variation modes, the regionalization and the extremes, the hydrological cycle, the polar regions and the cryo-sphere, the carbon cycle, detection and attributions. (A.L.B.)

  14. Réponse du fonio blanc (Digitaria exilis Stapf) à l'inoculation avec ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    31 juil. 2016 ... avec G. verriculosum, G. manihotis et R. irregularis a amélioré significativement la biomasse des plants de fonio. Des effets positifs significatifs de l'inoculation mycorhizienne ont également été observés en fonction des espèces de CMA avec des augmentations sur la biomasse totale (+14,44% à +45,56%) ...

  15. R.G. Gallego. Blanc sur Noir. Arles : Actes Sud, Paris, 2003.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Daucé


    Full Text Available Gallego’s book, which was first published in Moscow in 2002, was immediately translated into many European languages. The speed of implementing foreign language versions shows the importance of this text, a testimony of common life in Soviet orphanages. Gallego was born in Moscow in 1968 from a Spanish mother. Strongly handicapped at his birth, Ruben Gallego was separated from his mother and transferred from orphanages to asylums till1990. Thanks to the perestroika and the opening of Russia,...

  16. El Laberinto de Fortuna, strophes 63-84 : l’œuvre au blanc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis BEZLER


    Full Text Available Le Laberinto de Fortuna de Juan de Mena renvoie au labyrinthe du Grand Œuvre. La preuve de cette thèse est fournie dans le présent article, où l’on essaie de déchiffrer le symbolisme alchimique du Cercle de la Lune (strophes 63-84.El sentido alegórico de El Laberinto de Fortuna de Juan de Mena remite al mundo de la alquimia. La prueba de ello se facilita en este artículo en el que se intenta descifrar el simbolismo alquímico del Círculo de la Luna (estrofas 63-84.

  17. N Reactor Production Assurance Program blance of plant evaluation: report of findings and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, E.N.; Bitten, E.J.


    Fourteen tasks were identified by UNC Nuclear Industries for evaluating the life expectancy of N Reactor structures, systems and components in the Balance of Plant portion of the Production Assurance Program. A Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) evaluation team was assigned to each of these fourteen tasks. A uniform set of criteria was used by all teams in evaluating the problems that may be encountered during the extended plant operating lifetime. The overall conclusion is that extended life to those Balance of Plant components and systems studied can be achieved. Problems with the potential for compromising that conclusion are identified, and feasible solutions are provided

  18. Papillary haemangioma. A distinctive cutaneous haemangioma of the head and neck area containing eosinophilic hyaline globules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmeijer, A. J. H.; Fletcher, C. D. M.


    Aims: To investigate and define a morphologically distinctive group of cutaneous papillary haemangiomas. Methods and results: Eleven patients (seven male, four female, age range 1-77 years, median 57) were identified with a solitary bluish cutaneous papule (median size 11 mm) arising in the head and

  19. Electromagnetic shielding of polypyrrole-sawdust composites: polypyrrole globules and nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babayan, V.; Kazantseva, N. E.; Moučka, R.; Stejskal, Jaroslav


    Roč. 24, č. 8 (2017), s. 3445-3451 ISSN 0969-0239 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : wood sawdust * conducting polymer * nanotubes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.417, year: 2016

  20. Resistance to high level of Cu (Copper) by arbuscular mycorrhizal, saprobe Fungi and Eucalyptus globules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriagada, C.; Pereira, G.; Machuca, A.; Alvear, M.; Martin, J.; Ocampo, J.


    The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chorophyll, root length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was measured in Eucalyptus globulus Labill., plants growing in soil with high level of Cu were investigated. The application of Cu inhibited the development of mycelia of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii and the hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) Glomus mosseaae and G. deserticola in vitro. (Author)

  1. The molten-globule residual structure is critical for reflavination of glucose oxidase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garajová, K.; Zimmermann, M.; Petrenčáková, M.; Dzurová, L.; Nemergut, M.; Škultéty, L'udovít; Žoldák, G.; Sedlák, E.


    Roč. 230, NOV 2017 (2017), s. 74-83 ISSN 0301-4622 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Deflavination * Thermal stability * Hofmeister anions Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.402, year: 2016

  2. Gene expression in the human mammary epithelium during lactation: the milk fat globule transcriptome. (United States)

    The molecular physiology underlying human milk production is largely unknown because of limitations in obtaining tissue samples. Determining gene expression in normal lactating women would be a potential step toward understanding why some women struggle with or fail at breastfeeding their infants. R...

  3. A novel infant milk formula concept: Mimicking the human milk fat globule structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallier, Sophie; Vocking, Karin; Post, Jan Andries; Van De Heijning, Bert; Acton, Dennis; Van Der Beek, Eline M.; Van Baalen, Ton


    Human milk (HM) provides all nutrients to support an optimal growth and development of the neonate. The composition and structure of HM lipids, the most important energy provider, have an impact on the digestion, uptake and metabolism of lipids. In HM, the lipids are present in the form of dispersed

  4. Les leucopénies chez le chien et le chat : étude rétrospective des cas examinés à l'E.N.V.T. de 1995 a 2001


    Beaufils, Emmanuelle


    La leucopénie se définit en général comme un nombre de globules blancs circulants inférieur à 6.109/l chez le chien et à 5.109/i chez le chat. Cette anomalie peut se produire dans de nombreuses circonstances qui sont rappelées dans la première partie. Puis l'auteur a tenté de quantifier la part de chaque trouble dans les causes de leucopénie ; pour cela on a répertorié tous les hémogrammes comportant une leucopénie réalisés à l'ENVT entre 1995 et 2001. Ensuite les causes ont été identifiées, ...

  5. Counsel meetings about the White book on energies; Reunion de concertation sur le livre blanc sur les energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillard, D


    These reunions aim to discuss the opinion of experts on the energy about the law project on the energies, integrated in the White Book. The first reunion concerns the control of the energy demand, the second reunion is devoted to the territory and social solidarities, the renewable energies development and the situation of Corsica and the overseas territories. The third reunion deals with the supply security. (A.L.B.)

  6. The Aiguille du Midi (Mont Blanc massif, European Alps): a unique high-Alpine site to study bedrock permafrost (United States)

    Deline, P.; Bölhert, R.; Coviello, V.; Cremonese, E.; Gruber, S.; Jaillet, S.; Krautblatter, M.; Morra di Cella, U.; Noetzli, J.; Pogliotti, P.; Ravanel, L.; Sadier, B.; Verleysdonk, S.


    Permafrost and its change in steep high-Alpine rock walls remain insufficiently understood because of the difficulties of in situ measurements. A large proportion of permafrost studies is mainly based on modelling, with a few existing instrumented sites and a resulting lack of process understanding. Yet, a number of rockfalls that occurred in the last decade in the Alps are likely related to climatically-driven permafrost degradation, as indicated by ice in starting zones, increased air temperature, and modelling studies. Starting off in the framework of the French-Italian PERMAdataROC project and presently under development within the EU co-funded project PermaNET (Permafrost long-term monitoring network:, our investigations at the Aiguille du Midi begin in 2005. The summit (3842 m a.s.l) is accessible from Chamonix by a cable car which was built at the end of the 1950s. Half a million tourists visit the site each year. Because of its elevation, geometry, and year-round accessibility to rock slopes of diverse aspects and to galleries, the site was chosen for: - Monitoring of the thermal regime in steep rock walls. Sensors with one or three thermistors were installed since 2005 at depths of 3, 10, 30 and 55 cm, and three 15-thermistor chains were set up in 10-m-deep boreholes this autumn, at all aspects and with slope angles in the range 60-90° (determining e.g. the presence and influence of snow). - Measurements of high altitude climatic data (air temperature and humidity, incoming and outgoing solar radiation, wind speed and direction) perpendicular to the rockwall surface, by movable automatic weather stations. Together with the rock temperature measurements, these data are used for physically-based model validation or statistical models construction of rock temperature distribution and variability in the rock walls. - Making an ‘in and out’ 3D-high-resolution DEM of the Aiguille by long-range (rock walls) and short-range (galleries) terrestrial laser scanning. - Surveying the distribution of permafrost in the rock mass and its seasonal evolution during the year using electrical resistivity tomography and laboratory testing of temperature-resistivity behaviour of the local granite. Complementary instrumentation and research (e.g. numerical modelling, laser scanning) are planned for the next months. The combination of process understanding, statistical analyses and/or modelling will help to improve our understanding of where, why and how permafrost degradation in mountains occurs. Secondly, we are interested in how a reduction in the uncertainty of data, process understanding and models may contribute to our predictive skill of corresponding effects.

  7. The Aiguille du Midi (Mont Blanc massif): a unique high-Alpine site to study bedrock permafrost (United States)

    Deline, P.; Coviello, V.; Cremonese, E.; Gruber, S.; Krautblatter, M.; Malet, S. Jaillet (1), E.; Morra di Cella, U.; Noetzli, J.; Pogliotti, P.; Verleysdonk, S.


    Permafrost and its change in steep high-Alpine rock walls remain insufficiently understood because of the difficulties of in situ measurements. A large proportion of permafrost studies is mainly based on modelling, with a few existing instrumented sites and a resulting lack of process understanding. Yet, a number of rockfalls that occurred in the last decade in the Alps are likely related to climatically-driven permafrost degradation, as indicated by ice in starting zones, increased air temperature, and modelling studies. Starting off in the framework of the French-Italian PERMAdataROC project and presently under development within the EU co-funded project PermaNET (Permafrost long-term monitoring network:, our investigations at the Aiguille du Midi begin in 2005. The summit (3842 m a.s.l) is accessible from Chamonix by a cable car which was built at the end of the 1950s. Half a million tourists visit the site each year. Because of its elevation, geometry, and year-round accessibility to rock slopes of diverse aspects and to galleries, the site was chosen for: - Monitoring of the thermal regime in steep rock walls. Thermistors were installed at depths of 2, 10, 30 and 55 cm, at all aspects and with slope angles in the range 60-90° (determining e.g. the presence and influence of snow). - Measurements of high altitude climatic data (air temperature and humidity, incoming and outgoing solar radiation, wind speed and direction) perpendicular to the rockwall surface, by movable automatic weather stations. Together with the rock temperature measurements, these data (see Morra et al., poster in session CR4.1) can be used for physically-based model validation (see Pogliotti et al., oral presentation in session CR4.1) or statistical models construction of rock temperature distribution and variability in the rock walls. - Making a 3D-high-resolution DEM by long-range (rock walls) and short-range (galleries) terrestrial laser scanning. - Surveying the distribution of permafrost in the rock mass and its seasonal evolution during the year using electrical resistivity tomography and laboratory testing of temperature-resistivity behaviour of the local granite (see Krautblatter et al., poster in session CR4.1). During the next months, the following complementary instrumentation and research will be accomplished: - Numerical modelling of the 3-D distribution and evolution of temperature fields in the subsurface, based on the combination of a distributed energy balance model and a 3-D heat conduction scheme for the subsurface. - Installation of thermistor chains in shallow boreholes (up to a depth of 10 m) to monitor temperatures and to parametrize and validate rock temperature models. - Infrared thermography, using a handheld thermographic camera, to produce diachronic images of the rockwall radiative temperatures. - Numerical modelling of rock fractures and water flow in unsaturated fractures. - Monitoring of the morphological activity of the Arête des Cosmiques SE face - SE Pilastre by long-range terrestrial laserscanning. The combination of process understanding, statistical analyses and/or modelling will help to improve our understanding of where, why and how permafrost degradation in mountains occurs. Secondly, we are interested in how a reduction in the uncertainty of data, process understanding and models may contribute to our predictive skill of corresponding effects. As an illustration of this innovative research project, the poster presents some first results of the investigations at the Aiguille du Midi.

  8. Static and dynamic efficiency of white certificate schemes; L'efficacite statique et dynamique des dispositifs de -certificats blancs-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudet, L.G. [CIRED-ENPC, 94 - Nogent-sur-Marne (France); Finon, D. [CIRED-CNRS, 94 - Nogent-sur-Marne (France)


    White Certificate Schemes mandate energy companies to promote energy efficiency through flexibility mechanisms, including the trading of energy savings. They can be characterized as a quantity-based, baseline-and-credit system for the diffusion of energy efficient technologies. This paper compares experiences with White Certificate Schemes in Great Britain, Italy and France, in order to identify the basic drivers of each, and ultimately offer an original interpretation as an adaptive instrument, in the sense that it can take different forms in response to specific institutional contexts. A first analysis shows that Schemes perform well in terms of static efficiency, i.e. they are cost-effective and generate net social benefits over the period considered, though with large discrepancies rooted in different technological potentials. Regarding dynamic efficiency, i.e. the ability to induce and sustain technological change over the long haul, market transformation occurred in Great Britain, but was poorly incentivized in Italy and France by inadequate compliance cost recovery rules. Substantial organizational change has occurred in every country, mainly by strengthening vertical relationships between obliged parties and upstream businesses. Overall, the obligation (rather than the market component) drives the early phases of the Schemes. (authors)

  9. The contributions of the white book on the energies; Les contributions au livre blanc sur les energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document provides the contributions to the white book on the energies of the following associations: the Academy of Technology, the ADECA (association for the development of agricultural fuels), the ADEME (agency of the environment and the energy mastership), the AEPN (association of ecologists for the nuclear), the AFG (french association of the gas) and Uprigaz (professional union of the private industries of the gas) and CFPB (french committee of the butane and the propane), the AMORCE (association of local and professional collectivities responsible of the cogeneration, the local energy management and the municipal wastes management), the APSA (association for the protection of the Abers sites), the ATEE (technical association energy environment), Jean Besson, the CEA (atomic energy center), the CFE-CGC (french confederation of the frame CGC), the CFTC (french confederation of the christian), CLER (joining committee on the renewable energies), CNISF (national council of french engineers and scientists), CNPA (national council of the automotive industry, branch of fuels retailers), Concorde energy, B. Dessus and B. Laponche, right to the energy-SOS Futur, EAF (french autonomous electric power), EDF, FEE (France wind energy), FFPI (french federation of independent oil fielders) and UFIP (french union of petroleum industries) and UIP (union of oil importers), FG3E (french federation of administrator enterprises in equipment services, the energy and the environment), FILMM (national syndicate of isolating mineral wools manufacturers) and SNPA (national syndicate of cell plastics), Gaz de Bordeaux, Gaz De France, GPAE (Group of autonomous producers of hydro-energy), HESPUL, IFP (french institute of petroleum), H. Nifenecker, PS (socialist party), RARE (regional agencies of the energy and the environment), Rhonalenergie-environment, RTE (electric power transport network), SER (syndicat of the renewable energies), SFEN (french society of the nuclear energy), Total, UFE (french union of the electric power), Electralabel France, GPAE (group of autonomous producers of hydro energy), CNR (national company of the Rhone), SHEM (hydroelectric power society of the south), UMP (union for a popular movement), UNIDEN (union of enterprises using the energy), the greens, WWF (world wildlife foundation). (A.L.B.)

  10. Grapevine Plasticity in Response to an Altered Microclimate: Sauvignon Blanc Modulates Specific Metabolites in Response to Increased Berry Exposure1 (United States)

    du Plessis, Kari; Jacobson, Dan A.


    In this study, the metabolic and physiological impacts of an altered microclimate on quality-associated primary and secondary metabolites in grape (Vitis vinifera) ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ berries was determined in a high-altitude vineyard. The leaf and lateral shoot removal in the bunch zones altered the microclimate by increasing the exposure of the berries. The physical parameters (berry diameter and weight), primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids), as well as bunch temperature and leaf water potential were predominantly not affected by the treatment. The increased exposure led to higher levels of specific carotenoids and volatile terpenoids in the exposed berries, with earlier berry stages reacting distinctly from the later developmental stages. Plastic/nonplastic metabolite responses could be further classified to identify metabolites that were developmentally controlled and/or responded to the treatment in a predictable fashion (assessed over two consecutive vintages). The study demonstrates that grapevine berries exhibit a degree of plasticity within their secondary metabolites and respond physiologically to the increased exposure by increasing metabolites with potential antioxidant activity. Taken together, the data provide evidence that the underlying physiological responses relate to the maintenance of stress pathways by modulating antioxidant molecules in the berries. PMID:26628747

  11. The utopia of cross-border regions : territorial transformation and cross-border governance on Espace Mont-Blanc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lissandrello, Enza


    The theories on globalisation, internationalisation, post-nationalism or trans-nationalism dismiss the concept of 'territoriality' within the paradigm of the beyond the 'nation-state' sovereignty. In this work, a diverse idea is sustained: borders and territoriality are not just lost terms within

  12. Coupe à blanc : Activités illégales d'exploitation forestière et de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    On y expose et analyse les pratiques illégales de l'industrie forestière et du commerce du bois dans quatre pays tropicaux. ... Le CRDI investit dans des solutions locales aux problèmes auxquels l'Inde est confrontée, comme le stress thermique, la gestion de l'eau et les migrations liées aux changements climatiques.

  13. Results of low energy background measurements with the Liquid Scintillation Detector (LSD) of the Mont Blanc Laboratory (United States)

    Aglietta, M.; Badino, G.; Bologna, G. F.; Castagnoli, C.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G. C.; Vernetto, S.; Dadykin, V. L.


    The 90 tons liquid scintillation detector (LSD) is fully running since October 1984, at a depth of 5,200 hg/sq cm of standard rock underground. The main goal is to search for neutrino bursts from collapsing stars. The experiment is very sensitive to detect low energy particles and has a very good signature to gamma-rays from (n,p) reaction which follows the upsilon e + p yields n + e sup + neutrino capture. The analysis of data is presented and the preliminary results on low energy measurements are discussed.



    Evangelos Tsampalas; Sarris Dimitrios; Panagoula Papadimitropoulou; Maria Vergou; Victoria Zakopoulou


    The difficulty in reading and writing, spelling mistakes and poor speech are considered as the main elements that characterize students with dyslexia. If one thinks that most of the things in a class are based on writing and reading, then the importance of such a learning difficulty is that it is recognized as soon as possible and with appropriate strategies that people with dyslexia can be helped in their progress. The main aim of the current study was to stress the contribution of early dia...

  15. Learning Paths and Learning Styles in Dyslexia: Possibilites and Effectiveness--Case Study of Two Elementary School Students Aged 7 Years Old (United States)

    Tsampalas, Evangelos; Dimitrios, Sarris; Papadimitropoulou, Panagoula; Vergou, Maria; Zakopoulou, Victoria


    The difficulty in reading and writing, spelling mistakes and poor speech are considered as the main elements that characterize students with dyslexia. If one thinks that most of the things in a class are based on writing and reading, then the importance of such a learning difficulty is that it is recognized as soon as possible and with appropriate…

  16. Pratiche di sopravvivenza e di dissoluzione. Una testimonianza sulle possibilità di ripresa nelle pratiche coreografiche di Altroteatro e Sistemi dinamici altamente instabili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Sini


    Full Text Available This article submits some opportunities of reprise, expressed in the choreographic work of Altroteatro and Sistemi dinamici altamente instabili, of which the author has personal experience. This is the theoretical contextualization of the choreographic research in Italy, implemented through the tools of analysis of the movement and of the choreographic practices. The documented experiences raise some issues related to the possibility and the actualization of the idea of choreographic repertoire, questioning the methods of transmission/incorporation and preservation of the choreography in contemporary times, and the role of the dancer related to the choreographic creation. The body (of the dancer, of the audience and of the researcher emerges as a possible living archive, as a vehicle of knowledges, as a medium of experiences - induced, aware, sensitive and affective -, holder of the memory of the new performativity and protagonist of its historicizing.

  17. Les possibilités d’une île. De l’utopie vers l’hétérotopie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Doyon-Gosselin


    Full Text Available L’île comme espace de la fiction, comme matériau d’imaginaire, ouvre un champ de réflexion des plus stimulants. Parce qu’elle se présente dans plusieurs œuvres contemporaines, qu’elle met en scène des analogies, des quêtes intérieures et existentielles ou actualise des mythes anciens, elle demande à être cadrée dans une analyse de synthèse. Cet article travaille ainsi à débusquer la signification accordée à l’île dans la fiction littéraire et télévisuelle contemporaine. Cette étude tente de cibler les spécificités heuristiques de ce lieu aussi bien que les contraintes diégétiques et thématiques qu’il sous-tend.As a setting for fiction and a material of imagination, the island opens up an exceptionally stimulating field of thought. Given its portrayal in numerous contemporary works of fiction, its presentation of analogies as well as inner and existential quests, and the way in which it updates ancient myths, the island inherently lends itself to synthetic analysis. As such, this article works towards uncovering the meaning granted to the island in contemporary works of fiction, whether in novels or in television series. It specifically targets the heuristic specificities of this island in contemporary fiction, as well as its underpinning diegetic and thematic constraints.

  18. Durer au travail dans les métiers de l'informatique : quelles conditions de possibilité ? : Etude sociologique des devenirs de cadres informaticiens


    Poussou-Plesse, Marielle; Denis, Duplan; Constance, Perrin-Joly; Guillemard, Anne-Marie


    La recherche pose la question de la longévité professionnelle dans les métiers de l'informatique dans le cadre d'un système d'emploi. Le fait économique structurant de ces métiers est bien leur inscription dans une chaîne de valeur distinguant des fabricants (constructeurs de matériel informatique et éditeurs de logiciels), des intermédiaires (au premier chef, des Sociétés de services et d'ingénierie informatiques) et des utilisateurs finaux. Ces maillons constituent des segments d'employeurs...

  19. Report on the possibilities of long-term storage of irradiated nuclear fuels; Rapport sur les possibilites d'entreposage a long terme de combustibles nucleaires irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report aims at giving a legislative aspect to the many rules that govern the activities of the back-end of the fuel cycle in France. These activities concern the unloading of spent nuclear fuels, their reprocessing, storage, recycling and definitive disposal. The following points are reviewed and commented: the management of non-immediately reprocessed fuels (historical reasons of the 'all wastes reprocessing' initial choice, evolution of the economic and political context, the future reprocessing or the definitive disposal of spent fuels in excess); the inevitable long-term storage of part of the spent fuels (quantities and required properties of long-term stored fuels, the eventuality of a definitive disposal of spent fuels); the criteria that long-term storage facilities must fulfill (confinement measures, reversibility, surveillance and control during the whole duration of the storage); storage concept to be retained (increase of storage pools capacity, long-term storage in pools of reprocessing plants, centralized storage in pools, surface dry-storage on power plant sites, reversible underground storage, subsurface storage and storage/disposal in galleries, surface dry-storage facilities); the preliminary studies for the creation of long-term storage facilities (public information, management by a public French organization, clarifying of the conditions of international circulation of spent fuels); problems linked with the presence of foreign spent fuels in France (downstream of the reprocessing cycle, foreign plutonium and wastes re-shipment); conclusions and recommendations. (J.S.)

  20. Apprentissage dans un Environnement Informatique: Possibilite, Nature, Transfert des Acquis (Learning within an Information Environment: Possibilities, Native, and Transfer of Ideas). (United States)

    Dagher, Antoine


    Examines possibilities for learning offered by a piece of software, Fonctuse, likely to encourage the linking of algebraic and graphical representations of functions. Studied the influence of prior algebraic knowledge on the cognitive processes and constructions of knowledge at play in this environment. (Author/MKR)

  1. Vantaggi del riscaldamento ad induzione, nuove possibilità di efficienza e flessibilità per i laminatoi per prodotti lunghi


    Lainati, A.


    Alcune soluzioni impiantistiche che prevedono l’usodi sistemi di riscaldo ad induzione sono già di comuneapplicazione, ma hanno comunque un potenziale diulteriore miglioramento, altre sono tuttora oggetto disviluppo prototipale e potranno essere presto introdottesu scala industriale. Tra le più significative aree diapplicazione delle tecnologie di riscaldo ad induzione sievidenziano l’ottimizzazione del ciclo di riscaldo dellebillette, il controllo accurato del profilo termico della barranel ...

  2. Adaptation possibilities of the nuclear electricity production to the demand; Possibilites d'adaptation de la production d'electricite nucleaires a la demande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C


    Meeting about the CO{sub 2} emissions from electric heating showed that the leak of adaptation from nuclear reactors led the use of thermal power plants (coal, petroleum, gas) to control the demand variations. This argument is analyzed in the document: is it possible to replace those thermal power plants by nuclear reactors? In this framework the author analyzes the network needs, the electricity sources and the demand answer and the specificities of the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  3. Stockage de chaleur en aquifère et flexibilité de la demande électrique: quelles possibilités?


    Paulus, Claire; Bolly, Pierre-Yves; Hermans, Thomas; Koo Seen Lin, Emma; Robert, Tanguy


    Dans les contextes de la flexibilité de la demande électrique (EDSM) et du stockage de chaleur en aquifère, le dimensionnement et le fonctionnement de systèmes géothermiques ouverts (ATES) sont étroitement liés à la géologie du site, hétérogène et complexe par définition. Afin de pouvoir développer des outils de modélisation prédictive fiable, nous avons développé une méthodologie de collecte de données spatialisées et à haute résolution temporelle de la subsurface combinant de la tomographie...

  4. Créer des possibilités d'emploi pour les jeunes en Afrique de l'Est ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    adéquation des besoins des employeurs du secteur privé avec les compétences offertes par les jeunes, et la facilitation de partenariats pour créer un système collaboratif et connecté qui met l'accent sur les besoins des jeunes.

  5. Etude des possibilités de valorisation agricole des écumes et de la bagasse de canne à sucre de SOSUHO (Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makita-Ngadi, J.


    Full Text Available Study on the possibilities of agricultural valorisation of sugarcane scums and bagasse of SOSUHO (Gabon. As a first step towards the general use of organic fertilizers in improving poor agricultural yields of soils in the province of Haut-Ogooue, in Gabon, we studied germination and growth of seven different types of plants (maize, Zea mays L. var. 60 ; rice Oryza sativa Var. 1345 ; cacao-tree, Theobroma cacao Var. Forastero ; gombo, Hibiscus esculantus Clenson Spineless var ; culin, Cucurbita pepo Basma var ; aubergine, Solanum melongena, Asgrow var ; soya-bean, Glycine max tropical var. on two six months old sugar cane residues. These residues, froth and bagasse were used by hemselves or mixed with earth or sand. By comparison with commercial compost, we found that froth and bagasse do not inhibit the germination of the seeds studied. However, we found that the growth of all species studied was better in froth than in bagasse. The results of chemical analysis carried out on these residues can explain partially the good growth observed in froth themselves or mixed with earth.

  6. Les possibilités de limitation des émissions de plomb par les véhicules automobiles Possibilities of Limiting Leaded Exhaust from Automotive Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth J.


    Full Text Available Les additifs plombés permettent de satisfaire les besoins en octane des moteurs automobiles actuels. Dans le cadre de la lutte contre la pollution automobile, il est envisagé de réduire ou de supprimer le plomb présent dans les carburants. La suppression brutale, tout en présentant certains avantages, entraîne de nombreux inconvénients, d'ordre purement technique mais également d'ordre financier. La mise au point d'un dispositif de captation, par les sociétés Texaco et Octel, semble permettre d'envisager de maintenir la présence de plomb dans les carburants, tout en réduisant les émissions à l'échappement. Les travaux effectués à l'UTAC ont permis de tester ces dispositifs sur une endurance de 31 000 km. Les résultats obtenus ont permis de dégager un gain d'efficacité d'environ 60 %, les paramètres, bruit et pollution (CO et HC restant par ailleurs inchangés. Leaded additives enable the octane requirements of existing automotive engines to be satisfied. However, as part of the fight against automotive pollution, plans are being drawn up to reduce or eliminate the lead present in fuels. A sudden elimination, although having some advantages, would create a great many disadvantages of a purely technical as well as financiel nature. Texaco and Octet have developed a trapping device that appears to enable lead to be retained in fuels at the same time as reducing exhaust emissions. This device has undergone a 31,000-kilometer endurance test at UTAC. The results reveal an efficiency gain of 60 %, while the noise and pollution (CO and HC parameters remain the same.

  7. Polypyrrole prepared in the presence of methyl orange and ethyl orange: nanotubes versus globules in conductivity enhancement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, Yu; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav


    Roč. 5, č. 17 (2017), s. 4236-4245 ISSN 2050-7526 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polypyrrole * nanotubes * conducting polymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 5.256, year: 2016

  8. Filter-aided sample preparation with dimethyl labeling to identify and quantify milk fat globule membrane proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Boeren, J.A.; Vries, de S.C.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hettinga, K.A.


    Bovine milk is a major nutrient source in many countries and it is produced at an industrial scale. Milk is a complex mixture of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. The composition of the bovine milk samples can vary depending on the genetic makeup of the bovine species as well as

  9. A chemically modified [alpha]-amylase with a molten-globule state has entropically driven enhanced thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail; Poljak, Anne; De Francisci, Davide; Guerriero, Gea; Pilak, Oliver; Burg, Dominic; Raftery, Mark J.; Parkin, Don M.; Trewhella, Jill; Cavicchioli, Ricardo (Sydney); (New South)


    The thermostability properties of TAA were investigated by chemically modifying carboxyl groups on the surface of the enzyme with AMEs. The TAA{sub MOD} exhibited a 200% improvement in starch-hydrolyzing productivity at 60 C. By studying the kinetic, thermodynamic and biophysical properties, we found that TAA{sub MOD} had formed a thermostable, MG state, in which the unfolding of the tertiary structure preceded that of the secondary structure by at least 20 C. The X-ray crystal structure of TAA{sub MOD} revealed no new permanent interactions (electrostatic or other) resulting from the modification. By deriving thermodynamic activation parameters of TAA{sub MOD}, we rationalised that thermostabilisation have been caused by a decrease in the entropy of the transition state, rather than being enthalpically driven. Far-UV CD shows that the origin of decreased entropy may have arisen from a higher helical content of TAA{sub MOD}. This study provides new insight into the intriguing properties of an MG state resulting from the chemical modification of TAA.

  10. 36 Etude de l'effet de l'amodiaquine sur les globules rouges infectés ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    techniques d'analyse multivariée telles que la classification hiérarchique, la méthode des k-moyennes et l'analyse en ... techniques such as hierarchical classification, k-means method and principal component analysis techniques. The ..... [7] - ERIC W. WEISSTEIN,''K-means Clustering Algorithm'' from Wolfram Mathworld.

  11. Butter making from caprine creams: effect of washing treatment on phospholipids and milk fat globule membrane proteins distribution. (United States)

    Lamothe, Sophie; Robitaille, Gilles; St-Gelais, Daniel; Britten, Michel


    A washing treatment was applied to caprine cream before churning in order to improve phospholipids and MFGM protein purification from buttermilk and butter serum. Cream obtained from a first separation was diluted with water and separated a second time using pilot plant equipment. Regular and washed creams were churned to produce buttermilk and butter, from which butter serum was extracted. The washing treatment allowed a significant decrease of the casein content. As a result, the phospholipids-to-protein ratios in washed buttermilk and butter serum were markedly increased by 2.1 and 1.7-folds respectively, which represents an advantage for the production of phospholipids concentrates. However, when compared with bovine cream, lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios were observed when the washing treatment was applied to caprine cream. A higher concentration of MFGM protein and a lower retention of phospholipids during washing treatment are responsible for the lower phospholipids-to-protein ratios in buttermilk and butter serum obtained from caprine cream. The phospholipids distribution in the butter making process was similar to the one obtained from bovine regular and washed cream. Phospholipids were preferentially concentrated in the butter serum rather than the buttermilk fraction. This simple approach permitted the production of caprine and bovine butter sera extracts containing up to 180 and 240 g phospholipids/kg sera, respectively, on a dry basis.

  12. Étude in vitro de l'effet antifalcémiant des globules rouges et de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La drépanocytose est une hémoglobinopathie largement répandue chez les populations africaines noires. Actuellement, très peu de traitements conventionnels existent sur le marché, d'où le recours à la médecine traditionnelle. Maytenus senegalensis est une plante prescrite par les tradipraticiens dans la prise en charge ...

  13. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition and antimicrobal activities of some of Lamiaceae family species and Eucaliptus (Eucaliptus globules M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pecarski Danijela M.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of four essential oils that belong to Lamiaceae family (sage, oregano, thyme and eucalyptus oil. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS revealed that the highest percent of essential oils 98.93% include three classes of compounds - monoterpene hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and oxidized monoterpenes. The main components are oxidized monoterpenes: carvacrol (59.03%; thymol (36.12%, eucalyptol (20.66%, hydrocarbon monoterpenes: limonene (30.96% and α-pinene (12.21% and aromatic monoterpene, p-cymene (22.25% All essential oils showed great potential of antimicrobial activity against several bacteria and yeast C. albicans, using the agar diffusion method with wells. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for the essential oils has been determined by the broth dilution method and valued in the range from 1 to 5 μL/m, depending on the essential oil and bacteria tested, and up to 100 μL/ml for C. albicans. The essential oils of Lamiaceae family exhibited a strong antibacterial activity for tested microorganisms, while the essential oils of thyme were especially recognized.

  14. Combined effects of sleep deprivation and strenuous exercise on cognitive performances during The North Face® Ultra Trail du Mont Blanc® (UTMB®). (United States)

    Hurdiel, Rémy; Pezé, Thierry; Daugherty, Johanna; Girard, Julien; Poussel, Mathias; Poletti, Laurence; Basset, Patrick; Theunynck, Denis


    This study investigated the effects of combined sleep deprivation and strenuous exercise on cognitive and neurobehavioral performance among long-distance runners completing one of the most difficult ultramarathons in the world. Seventeen runners participated. Each had a wrist-worn actigraph throughout the race to record their sleep time. In addition, each individual's performance in 10-min response-time tests before and after the race was recorded and a questionnaire enabled participants to report any difficulties they experienced during the competition. During race completion times of 27 to 44 h, combined acute lack of sleep (12 ± 17 min of rest during the race) and strenuous exercise (168.0 km) had marked adverse effects on cognitive performances ranging from mere lengthening of response time to serious symptoms such as visual hallucinations. This study suggests that regardless of rest duration and time in race, cognitive performances of ultramarathoners are adversely affected.

  15. Écologie des espèces d'Armillaria du sapin blanc (Abies alba) dans les Pyrénées espagnoles


    Oliva , Jonàs; Suz , Laura M.; Colinas , Carlos


    International audience; We describe the distribution and the ecology of three Armillaria species observed in silver fir (Abies alba) forests of the Pyrenees.* We surveyed the presence and abundance of Armillaria above and belowground in 29 stands. Isolates were identified by the PCR-RFLP pattern of the IGS-1 region of their ribosomal DNA. We measured several ecological and management parameters of each stand in order to describe Armillaria infected sites.* Armillaria cepistipes was the most a...

  16. "Le panache blanc" - bílý chochol na klobouku : gaskoňští kadeti a emblémy Cyrana z Bergeraku

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrbata, Zdeněk


    Roč. 11, č. 21 (2014), s. 109-118 ISSN 1214-7915 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : French literature * Dumas, Alexander * Cyrano from Bergerac * Rostand, Edmond Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  17. Correlations between muons and low energy pulses at LSD of the Mont Blanc laboratory near the time of SN1987A explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadykin, V.L.; Khalchukov, F.F.; Korchagin, P.V.; Korolkova, E.V.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Mal'gin, A.S.; Ryasny, V.G.; Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Yakushev, V.F.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Aglietta, M.; Badino, G.; Bologna, G.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G.; Vernetto, S.; Turin Univ.


    We have analysed the data of LSD from February 10, 1987, to March 7, 1987, in order to search for autocorrelations between all pulses detected by LSD with energy higher than 5 MeV like those occurred at ∼ 3:00 UT on February 23, 1987, between the pulses detected by 3 neutrino telescopes and 2 gravitational wave antennae. We have found 9 pairs of correlated pulses (muon + low energy pulse) from 5:42 UT to 10:13 UT on February 23, 1987. The time differences of pulses in the pairs are less than 2 s, the first pulse in the pair being either muon or low energy pulse. The frequency of such random poissonian fluctuations is ∼1/(10 years). There are no correlations outside statistics between low energy, low energy pulses and muon, muon pulses detected by LSD during the whole time period

  18. L'émergence de la thérapeutique de précision: de nouveaux défis et de nouvelles possibilités pour les leaders en santé du Canada. (United States)

    Slater, Jim; Shields, Laura; Racette, Ray J; Juzwishin, Donald; Coppes, Max


    À l'ère de la médecine personnalisée et de la médecine de précision, l'approche envers les soins est en rapide mutation. Les cliniciens exigent de plus en plus d'information génétique et moléculaire et les patients s'attendent à la fournir pour la prévention, le dépistage, le diagnostic, le pronostic, la promotion de la santé et le traitement d'un nombre croissant de maladies. Les leaders en santé canadiens doivent comprendre les changements nécessaires liés à ces technologies perturbantes et ouvrir la voie. Le présent article s'attarde sur la thérapeutique de précision, mais contient également de l'information générale sur les concepts et la terminologie liés à la médecine personnalisée et à la médecine de précision. Il explore également le leadership en santé canadien et les problèmes liés au système qui peuvent nuire à leur mise en œuvre. L'article vise à inspirer, informer et mobiliser les leaders en santé canadiens à amorcer un dialogue sur les transformations nécessaires pour préparer le système de santé à profiter des bienfaits de la thérapeutique de précision. © 2015 Collège canadien des leaders en santé

  19. Possibilités actuelles du calcul des constantes élastiques de polymères par des méthodes de simulation atomistique Current Possibilities of the Computation of Elastic Constants of Polymers Using Atomistic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Maso F.


    Full Text Available Les propriétés élastiques des phases amorphe et cristalline pures de polymères semi-cristallins ne sont en général pas mesurables directement avec les moyens physiques habituels. Il est donc nécessaire de recourir à des méthodes de calcul numérique. Cet article décrit certaines de ces méthodes, fondées sur des modélisations atomistiques, ainsi qu'une évaluation des implémentations actuelles. Il est montré que la méthode proposée par Zehnder et al. (1996 fournit les meilleurs résultats, au prix d'un temps long de calcul, dû à la dynamique moléculaire. Néanmoins, aucune de ces méthodes n'est vraiment utilisable simplement au jour le jour, car elles requièrent des moyens importants de calcul. Elastic properties of pure crystalline and amorphous phases of a semicrystalline polymer are usually not directly measurable by usual physical means. It therefore is necessary to resort to numerical computing methods. This paper describes some of these methods, based on atomistic simulations, as well as an assessment of current implementations. It is shown that the method proposed by Zehnder et al. (1996 gives the best results, at the expense of long computing time, due to molecular dynamic simulation. Nevertheless none of these methods are really usable on a daily basis, since there are demanding important computing capabilities.

  20. Les réacteurs à membranes : possibilités d'application dans l'industrie pétrolière et pétrochimique Membrane Reactors: Possibilities of Application in the Petroleum and Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy C.


    Full Text Available Cet article fait le point sur l'état de la recherche dans le domaine des réacteurs chimiques avec séparation par membrane intégrée et de leur applications dans le domaine du raffinage et de la pétrochimie. Trois applications potentiellement intéressantes sont identifiées et, pour chacune, les avantages de l'utilisation d'un réacteur à membrane sont discutés. Ce sont : la déshydrogénation du propane en propylène, la déshydrogénation d'un naphtène cyclohexanique et le vaporéformage du gaz naturel. Pour ces réactions, les membranes à base de palladium apparaissent les plus performantes compte tenu de leur tenue en température, de leur sélectivité et de leur perméabilité à l'hydrogène. Quelques éléments relatifs à leur développement sont présentés en conclusion. Recently, the use of membrane in reaction engineering has been more and more advocated. The selective separation of the products from the reaction mixture allows to achieve higher conversion or better selectivity or to operate under less severe conditions or with smaller units. This paper presents an update on the recent advances in the field of chemical membrane reactors and on their applications in refining and petrochemistry. Previous work. Most of the possible applications of membrane reactors in petroleum and petrochemical industry concern gaseous catalytic reactions. For this reason, gas permeation membranes are the primary component of membrane reactors. Gas permeation membranes present different types of physical structure : dense, microporous or asymmetric which is a combination of the two. Separating properties of dense membranes are function of the solubility and diffusivity of each gaseous component in the membrane material. For microporous membranes, they follow four mechanisms : Knudsen diffusion, surface diffusion, capillary condensation or molecular sieving. Although organic polymers are the common constituent of gas permeation membrane, their use is very limited in membrane reactors as they cannot withstand temperatures higher than 150°C. Metal, ceramic or glass membrane are preferred. Published work on membrane reactors is mainly concerned with dehydrogenation reactions and the in-situ separation of hydrogen. Dense palladium membranes or microporous inorganic membranes are used. A typical membrane reactor is presented in Fig. 1. The catalyst constitutes a fixed bed in the inside tube where dehydrogenation of cyclohexane into benzene takes place. Hydrogen produced by the reaction, permeates through the palladium wall. Carrier argon is used on the permeate side to lower the partial pressure of hydrogen and therefore increase the permeation rate. The main factors enhancing the equilibrium shift and therefore the conversion are presented in Table 1. Potential applications in the petroleum and petrochemical industry. Three potentially interesting applications are identified and the advantages of using a membrane reactor are discussed. They are : propane dehydrogenation into propylene, cyclohexanic naphthene dehydrogenation and natural gas steam reforming. For these chemical reactions, palladium based membranes show the best performance in terms of temperature resistance, hydrogen selectivity and permeability. The conversion of the dehydrogenation reaction of propane is increased by a higher temperature or a lower pressure as presented in Table 2. Selective draw-off of hydrogen from the reactor through a permeable wall increases the conversion from 48. 6% to 75. 5% (Table 3 or decreases the reaction temperature from 600 to 500°C (Table 4. Table 5 presents the effect of the selective draw-off of hydrogen on the conversion or the operating temperature for conditions found in industrial propane dehydrogenation processes. For a specified conversion, the use of a membrane reactor results in a lower operating temperature which reduces considerably catalyst coking. It allows also the use of common materials for the reactor walls which otherwise would facilitate secondary unwanted reactions. The membrane area necessary for a typical propylene production of 100 000 t/year is reasonable (from 50 to 312 m² as presented in Table 6 in the case of a dense palladium membrane but much too high in the case of a carbon molecular sieve. The discussion of the application of membrane reactors to the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane shows that the operating pressure in the reactor is critical. It should not be increased in order to build a high driving force across the membrane because it would then displace the reaction equilibrium towards the reactants, lowering therefore the equilibrium conversion. For this reason, palladium membranes are all the more attractive as the permeation driving force is proportional to the difference of the square roots of the partial pressures. Steam reforming of natural gas to produce hydrogen is a catalytic endothermic reaction of which conversion is increased by high temperature (Table 7. The traditional process includes the reformer itself, a second reactor to finish converting carbon monoxide and a pressure swing adsorption hydrogen separator. Fig. 2 presents the process if a membrane reactor is used. The effect of the in-situ membrane separation is quantified in Table 8 : for characteristic operating conditions, conversion increases from 0. 678 to 0. 916. In conclusion, some aspects of the development of membrane reactors are discussed. The necessity to develop resistant asymmetric composite membranes with a palladium deposit less than 1 µm is stressed out.

  1. NATO Medical Surveillance and Response, Research and Technology Opportunities and Options (La surveillance medicale et les reponses au sein de l'OTAN: les possibilites et les options pour la recherche et la technologie) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...: 1 CD-ROM; 4 3/4 in.; 226 MB. SYSTEMS DETAIL NOTE: ABSTRACT: Medical Surveillance of military personnel will provide valuable information, not only to medical doctors but to commanders and to policy makers as well...

  2. Les possibilités des turbines de détente dans les industries gazière et pétrolière Application of Expansion Turbines in the Gas and Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verneau A.


    Full Text Available Utilisées depuis longtemps dans l'industrie cryogénique, les turbines de détente voient leur intérêt augmenter actuellement en tant que turbines de récupération de l'énergie des laminages. Cette énergie peut servir à l'entraînement de compresseurs, pompes ou générateurs électriques. Il existe surtout des turbines dans la gamme de 200 à 20 000 ch. Deux types principaux sont développés : les turbines axiales et les turbines radiales. Les particularités techniques et les domaines d'emploi de chaque type sont discutés. Ue intérêt particulier est porté au domaine des petites puissances (de 100 kW jusqu'à quelques centaines de watts. L'évolution du rendement en fonction de la puissance est étudiée et quelques types spéciaux bien adaptés à cette gamme, tels que les turbines périphériques, sont présentés. Quelques indications sur la récupération de l'énergie des liquides par turbines sont également données. Ensuite, plusieurs exemples d'applications sont exposés tels que : récupération de fractions condensables du gaz naturel (butane, propane, éthane, récupération de gaz perdu, récupération de l'énergie des laminages lors de la distribution et au niveau des stockages souterrains, turbine hydraulique de lavage de gaz, récupération de l'énergie des fumées de cracking catalytique, entraînement de petits générateurs électriques dans la gamme de quelques kilowatts à quelques centaines de watts. Enfin, nous abordons la technologie et les dispositions constructives particulières en nous attachant plus spécialement aux problèmes de régulation, étanchéité, paliers. Des techniques nouvelles telles que l'emploi de paliers à gaz et leurs avantages sont décrites. Les difficultés dues aux basses températures et à la condensation sont examinées. Nous terminons par quelques considérations d'ordre économique destinées à prévoir la rentabilité d'une installation de récupération d'énergie. Already used for a long lime in the cryogenic industry, expansion turbines are becoming increasingly attractive as turbines for recovering fluidic energy. This energy can be used to drive compressors, pumps or power generators. Such turbines exist mainly in the 200 hp ta 20,000 hp range. The author discusses two types in particular - axial flow turbines and radial flow turbines - and discusses the technical singularities and the areas of application of each type. Special emphosis is placed on low power ratings (from one hundred to a few hundred kilowatts. The pattern of evolution of efficiency versus power is considered, and certain special types particularly well.

  3. Protistas "incerta sedis" de ofídios do Brasil: Toddia França, 1912 e Pirhemocyton Chatton & Blanc, 1914: estudo comparativo "Incerta sedis" Portists from Brazilian snakes: Toddia França, 1912 and Pirhemocyton Chatton & Blanc, 1914: comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa


    Full Text Available Dentre 683 serpentes procedentes de diferentes pontos do Brasil, 16 (2,4% apresentaram em seu sangue (em glóbulos vermelhos maturos e imaturos Toddia ou Pirhemocyton. Denominamos provisoriamente Toddia os parasitos encontrados em Bothrops moojeni, B. pradoi, B. jararaca e Chironius flavolineatus e Pirhemocyton os encontrados em B. alternatus; fornecemos a primeira referência nestes hospedeiros. Estes parasitos foram estudados comparativamente com o objetivo de estabelecermos a extensão de suas afinidades. Com Toddia de B. moojeni realizamos técnica citoquímica para caracterização de ácidos nucleicos e encontramos positividade apenas para DNA. As maiores afinidades entre os parasitos estudados residiam nas características dos corpúsculos cromáticos e alterações celulares que determinam; observarmos quase total identidade nas maneiras como os parasitos da mesma espécie de serpente se apresentaram. Constatamos a coexistência de inclusões globóides, cristalóides e formas intermediárias associada aos parasitos de B. pradoi e B. alternatus; em C. flavolineatus encotnramos além dos cristais, raríssimas formas intermediárias entre estes e globóides. Afinidades entre Toddia e Pirhemocyton abrangendo o tipo de inclusão contrariam as descrições originais, tornando pouco válida esta separação genérica. Discutimos também os fundamentos da criação das espécies e a possível natureza virótica destes parasitos.Among 683 snakes from several localities of Brazil, 16 (2,4% presented in their blood (in mature or immature red cells Toddia or Pirhemocyton. We named provisorily Toddia the parasites found in Bothrops moojeni, B. pradoi, B. jararaca and Chironius flavolineatus and Pirhemocyton those found in B. alternatus; we give the first reference in these hosts. These parasites were comparatively studied in view to establish the range of their relationship. With Toddia from B. moojeni we attempted nucleic acids by cytochemical methods and we found only DNA. The most affinities among the parasite that we have studied remained on the characters of the chromatic corpuscles and the cellular changes determined by them; we observed almost total identity among the parasites of same species of snakes. We observed the coexistence of globoides, crystalloids and intermediate forms between them allied to the parasites of B. pradoi and B. alternatus; in C. flavolineatus we found younder cristals, scarce intermediary forms between these and globoids. Affinities between Toddia and Pirhemocyton including the type of inclusion oppose to the original descriptions, turning doubtfull this generic separation. We also discuss the basis of the establishment of the species and the possible viral nature of these parasites.

  4. Effect of high-pressure homogenization preparation on mean globule size and large-diameter tail of oil-in-water injectable emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Peng


    Full Text Available The effect of different high pressure homogenization energy input parameters on mean diameter droplet size (MDS and droplets with > 5 μm of lipid injectable emulsions were evaluated. All emulsions were prepared at different water bath temperatures or at different rotation speeds and rotor-stator system times, and using different homogenization pressures and numbers of high-pressure system recirculations. The MDS and polydispersity index (PI value of the emulsions were determined using the dynamic light scattering (DLS method, and large-diameter tail assessments were performed using the light-obscuration/single particle optical sensing (LO/SPOS method. Using 1000 bar homogenization pressure and seven recirculations, the energy input parameters related to the rotor-stator system will not have an effect on the final particle size results. When rotor-stator system energy input parameters are fixed, homogenization pressure and recirculation will affect mean particle size and large diameter droplet. Particle size will decrease with increasing homogenization pressure from 400 bar to 1300 bar when homogenization recirculation is fixed; when the homogenization pressure is fixed at 1000 bar, the particle size of both MDS and percent of fat droplets exceeding 5 μm (PFAT5 will decrease with increasing homogenization recirculations, MDS dropped to 173 nm after five cycles and maintained this level, volume-weighted PFAT5 will drop to 0.038% after three cycles, so the “plateau” of MDS will come up later than that of PFAT5, and the optimal particle size is produced when both of them remained at plateau. Excess homogenization recirculation such as nine times under the 1000 bar may lead to PFAT5 increase to 0.060% rather than a decrease; therefore, the high-pressure homogenization procedure is the key factor affecting the particle size distribution of emulsions. Varying storage conditions (4–25°C also influenced particle size, especially the PFAT5.

  5. Effect of high-pressure homogenization preparation on mean globule size and large-diameter tail of oil-in-water injectable emulsions


    Jie Peng; Wu-jun Dong; Ling Li; Jia-ming Xu; Du-jia Jin; Xue-jun Xia; Yu-ling Liu


    The effect of different high pressure homogenization energy input parameters on mean diameter droplet size (MDS) and droplets with > 5 μm of lipid injectable emulsions were evaluated. All emulsions were prepared at different water bath temperatures or at different rotation speeds and rotor-stator system times, and using different homogenization pressures and numbers of high-pressure system recirculations. The MDS and polydispersity index (PI) value of the emulsions were determined using the d...

  6. Effect of high-pressure homogenization preparation on mean globule size and large-diameter tail of oil-in-water injectable emulsions. (United States)

    Peng, Jie; Dong, Wu-Jun; Li, Ling; Xu, Jia-Ming; Jin, Du-Jia; Xia, Xue-Jun; Liu, Yu-Ling


    The effect of different high pressure homogenization energy input parameters on mean diameter droplet size (MDS) and droplets with > 5 μm of lipid injectable emulsions were evaluated. All emulsions were prepared at different water bath temperatures or at different rotation speeds and rotor-stator system times, and using different homogenization pressures and numbers of high-pressure system recirculations. The MDS and polydispersity index (PI) value of the emulsions were determined using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) method, and large-diameter tail assessments were performed using the light-obscuration/single particle optical sensing (LO/SPOS) method. Using 1000 bar homogenization pressure and seven recirculations, the energy input parameters related to the rotor-stator system will not have an effect on the final particle size results. When rotor-stator system energy input parameters are fixed, homogenization pressure and recirculation will affect mean particle size and large diameter droplet. Particle size will decrease with increasing homogenization pressure from 400 bar to 1300 bar when homogenization recirculation is fixed; when the homogenization pressure is fixed at 1000 bar, the particle size of both MDS and percent of fat droplets exceeding 5 μm (PFAT 5 ) will decrease with increasing homogenization recirculations, MDS dropped to 173 nm after five cycles and maintained this level, volume-weighted PFAT 5 will drop to 0.038% after three cycles, so the "plateau" of MDS will come up later than that of PFAT 5 , and the optimal particle size is produced when both of them remained at plateau. Excess homogenization recirculation such as nine times under the 1000 bar may lead to PFAT 5 increase to 0.060% rather than a decrease; therefore, the high-pressure homogenization procedure is the key factor affecting the particle size distribution of emulsions. Varying storage conditions (4-25°C) also influenced particle size, especially the PFAT 5 . Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Accessibility changes within diphtheria toxin T domain when in the functional molten globule state, as determined using hydrogen/deuterium exchange measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Petr; Montagner, C.; Vitrac, H.; Kavan, Daniel; Pichard, S.; Gillet, D.; Forest, E.; Forge, V.


    Roč. 277, č. 3 (2010), s. 653-662 ISSN 1742-464X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : diphtheria toxin * hydrogen/deuterium exchanges * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.129, year: 2010

  8. L’utopie esthétique-sociale des images photographiques qui contestent la représentation classique des milieux défavorisés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Machado


    Full Text Available Depuis la fin des années 70, le célèbre photographe brésilien Sebastião Salgado produit des portraits en noir et blanc des personnes touchées par la souffrance sociale. Notamment des populations des pays du Tiers-Monde. Bien qu’il ne s’agisse pas de photographie d’art, ses images priment par la qualité de leur composition esthétique. Les partisans du réalisme social en photographie lui adressent des critiques virulentes affirmant que « esthétiser » ce type de réalité sociale la « dépolitise ». On verra dans cet article que néanmoins c’est justement l’ « esthétisation » qui permet à son énonciation photographique de transcender le monde réel mettant en évidence la possibilité d’autres mondes possibles. « L’utopie est un exercice de l’imagination pour penser un "autrement qu’être" du social. ». De manière transversale, nous parlerons également du caractère utopique du projet social au Brésil "Olhares do Morro" qui entreprend de donner aux habitants des favelas de Rio la possibilité de produire une iconographie propre pour ainsi s’approprier de la construction de leur « identité sociale ». L’ambition de cette initiative collective est d’utiliser la photographie comme instrument de transformation sociale. Habitués à être « objet » de représentation du regard stigmatisant, les habitants des favelas défient les détenteurs de la culture dominante, qui leur refusent toute forme de reconnaissance sociale, produisant des images de leur citoyenneté. Il ne s’agit pas de nier le caractère déplorable de la misère qui les entoure mais de faire voir que malgré la précarité des moyens de vie c’est un milieu où il se déploie beaucoup d’ingéniosité, de créativité, de sociabilité. « L’utopie, en ce sens, est l’expression de toutes potentialités d’un groupe qui se trouvent refoulées par l’ordre existant.

  9. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Unknown. Unknown. V. vinifera L. 2000s. Chile. Stary goru. Ancient variety of Japan. V. vinifera L. 1980s. Japan. Medoc Noir. Unknown. V. vinifera L. 1980s. France. Vidal Blanc. Ugni blanc × seyval blanc. V. vinifera L. 1940s. France. Table 2. Summary of genetic variation statistics for the 19 simple sequence repeat markers ...

  10. Conceptual design and first results of a combined electrical resistivity and induced polarization monitoring at the Aiguille du Midi rock permafrost summit (Mont Blanc Massif, French/Italian Alps) (United States)

    Krautblatter, M.; Verleysdonk, S.; Flores-Orozco, A.; Kemna, A.; Deline, P.; Ravanel, L.; Pogliotti, P.; Coviello, V.; Malet, E.


    Monitoring of systemic changes in high mountain rock permafrost proves to be of increasing significance. The association with ongoing and future climate change raises the need for monitoring schemes to enable modelling of future scenarios. Due to the high degree of tourist utilisation and the good accessibility via cable car, the Aiguille du Midi represents the ideal premises to establish a long-term monitoring site. At 3842 m a.s.l. the steep granite summit offers access to all aspects in combination with persistent ice in the rock face and different rock mechanical settings. The geophysical monitoring presented here integrates into the framework of the French-Italian PERMAdataROC project and is presently considered for the EU co-funded project PermaNET (Permafrost long-term monitoring network: ERT and IP were conducted along three transects at the Aiguille du Midi in December 2008. Two transects were installed along galleries and in the rock faces that are accessible from the public platform at 3770 m a.s.l.. A further transect was installed by abseiling from the summit to the steep north and south face. The southern limb of the transect goes past the meteorological station installed in a vertical rock section. All transects were measured with a Syscal Pro device with high voltages of 800 V and we applied 48 steel electrodes per transect placed firmly in drilled holes. For optimum coverage we developed a high-resolution ERT protocol with approximately 3000 dipole-dipole measurements per array and 200 cross-borehole type measurements. Time domain IP was measured alongside to check chargeability of clefts with fine-grained fillings. Simultaneously, a survey of all important clefts was made to reference chargeability values. Both ERT and IP measurements were recorded in normal and reciprocal orientation and are used to define the error levels inherent in the measurements. A smoothness-constrained Occam's inversion is then adjusted to the specific error level. A granite sample from the study site was tested in the laboratory to reveal resistivity characteristics when freezing. ERT data can thus be validated by temperature data from temperature loggers and the meteorological station. It is intended to install fix wiring next summer to enable regularly measurements without climbing.

  11. The English and northern (Sweden and Norway) systems regarding the questions posed by the white book; Les systemes anglais et nordiques (Suede et Norvege) au regard des questions posees dans le livre blanc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secretariat d' Etat a l' Industrie [ed.] [Secretariat d' Etat a l' Industrie, Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, Paris (France)


    This report issued at request of Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry - State Secretariat for Industry, presents an analysis of the way the European countries have liberalized their markets, which will be used to answer the questions posed by the white book titled 'Towards the future organization of the French electricity sector'. In the United Kingdom the reform, initiated on 1 April 1990, occurred as a genuine revolution, with the blow-up of CEGB, the equivalent of EDF in France. In Swede and Norway the evolution was progressive; the electric industry was actually not nationalized and the local collectivities, often owners of the production means, have remained the prominent actors. Other characteristic of these countries is the abundance of natural energetic resources, especially for United Kingdom and Norway where the objective of the power policy is of turning profitable the existent potential and not as in France, where the problem is to cope with the consequences of the lack of natural resources. This report contains two parts. The first part presents the main characteristics of the liberalized systems. Indeed while in an integrated system the logic is 'top - down', in a liberalized system the logic is 'bottom - up' i.e., the coordination is based on the market in a decentralized way. The instrument of this coordination is a contract by which the risks are shared among the actors (producers, bankers, distributors, customers). The central actor of the liberalized system is the network authority, so-called 'independent' with rather large autonomy, nominated by the Minister in charge with the energy policy. The network authority has essentially two functions: control and surveillance. In United Kingdom this agency has among his duties the promotion of competition, particularly in production sector, considered as still having monopole capabilities. In Swede and Norway this authority contents itself of only issuing annually a report on market progress. In liberalized systems still two more features are worth to mention, the appearance of actors unknown in centralized systems (as the suppliers, for instance) and the high 'volatility' of the electricity prices that presses both manufacturers and customers to protect themselves against the market's risks. The second part of the report is devoted to the questions raised in the White Book, namely, service's quality, economic efficiency, service continuity, etc. In conclusion, the French conception of Public Service has not an exact analogue but most of its objectives are assigned actually to the Network Authority, the main task of which is promotion of economic efficiency. The networks either privatized, as in United Kingdom, or still public, as in Norway or Swede, are closely controlled by the Network Authority. This is done via price structure establishment and by imposing an upper level on the revenue of the network operators. In UK the action of the Network Authority was highly instrumental in growth of productivity in the monopolistic sectors of electric industry, i.e., transport and distribution. Norway and Swede are in retard from this point of view. The main beneficiaries of the market liberalization were the industries while the profit of domestic customers is still incipient. In the northern countries in spite of early access to competition the profit was so far low. In its second part the document APIS of the Council for Industrial Policy poses questions and presents ways of approach in UK and northern countries relating to: - The directive and its range; - Reinforcing the Public Service; - Revamping the Electric System to support growth; Preserving the networks for overall profit; - Defining of Public Establishment EDF within the new organization; - Developing an efficient network. Ways of approach in UK and northern countries regulation are presented.

  12. White and Dark Stranger Kings: Kupang in the Early Colonial Era Etrangers rois – blancs et bruns : Kupang aux débuts de l’époque coloniale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Hägerdal


    Full Text Available The article explores the common Southeast Asian epistemological theme of a “stranger king” as an ordering principle in a polity, a principle that was also relevant in a colonial context. The case studied here is the Dutch colonial post in Kupang, West Timor, in the VOC period, 1653-1800. The Dutch fort was surrounded by five princedoms, which stood in the relation of subordinate allies to the VOC. Four of the five groups had migrated to Kupang due to pressure from the Portuguese and their clients, which dominated the rest of Timor. Arenas of interaction were developed, whereby the elites of the five princedoms deliberated with the Dutch authorities on a regular basis. Their attachment to the Dutch colonial apparatus was actually never broken until the twentieth century, in spite of several reasons for discontent. The article argues that the peculiar situation on Timor, where the five allies were under siege from the clients of the Portuguese, underpinned a system in which the colonial masters were seen as legitimate “princes”, ultimate referents of authority whose very strange-ness enabled them to hold the system in place.Cet article explore le thème épistémologique, commun en Asie du Sud-Est, de l’« étranger-roi » comme principe d’organisation dans un Etat, un principe également pertinent dans le contexte colonial. Il examine le poste colonial hollandais de Kupang à Timor occidental pendant la période de la VOC (1653-1800. Le fort hollandais était entouré de cinq principautés, subordonnées à la VOC dans leur alliance avec celle-ci. Quatre de ces groupes avaient émigré à Kupang à cause de la pression des Portugais et de leurs alliés, qui contrôlaient le reste de l’île. Des plates-formes d’interaction furent développées, dans lesquelles les élites des cinq principautés discutaient régulièrement avec les autorités hollandaises. Leurs liens avec l’appareil colonial ne furent en fait jamais rompus jusqu’au xxe siècle, malgré diverses raisons de mécontentement. L’article postule que cette situation particulière à Timor, où les cinq principautés étaient assiégées par les alliés des Portugais, renvoyait à un système dans lequel le pouvoir colonial était perçu comme « prince » légitime, une référence ultime de l’autorité, dont le caractère étranger même leur permettait de maintenir le fonctionnement du système.

  13. Radiographie par rayons X à haute résolution de défauts topologiques en volume de structures modulées comparée aux neutrons en faisceau blanc (United States)

    Fernandez Palacio, J.; Hamelin, B.; Marmeggi, J. C.


    Une émission de rayons X par un générateur à haute tension (plage : 50 - 410 kV) a été développée pour être utilisée avec un diffractomètre à rayons X durs et caractériser en volume des monocristaux. Le fort flux issu d'une installation de radiologie à foyer fin avec un grand pouvoir de pénétration en profondeur autorise l'étude d'échantillons très absorbants. Quelques exemples de l'utilisation de ces propriétés pour des échantillons épais et très absorbants sont présentés ; principalement l'analyse de contraintes et la topographie X projetée 2D dans des matériaux en comparaison avec l'information par la diffraction des neutrons. La diffraction à haute énergie apparaît dans la direction transmise, les angles de Bragg sont petits et ainsi les différentes lignes de réflexions sont réparties autour du faisceau principal. La presse uni-axiale utilisée pour les expériences est optimisée effectivement avec l'absence d'un bruit de fond dû à l'usage de fentes. L'optique des rayons X durs et neutrons appliquée aux échantillons épais donne une information complémentaire dans les expériences sur l'analyse de la densité volumétrique par la diffusion des rayons X et neutrons. On l'applique à des problèmes concernant des cristaux aux structures modulées étudiées sous des charges mécaniques et thermiques.

  14. Possibility of observing high energy neutrinos from gamma bursts, with the Antanares telescope, feasibility study; Possibilite d'observation, par le telescope antares, de neutrinos de haute energie associes aux sursauts gamma et validation des techniques de detection a l'aide d'un prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouchner, A


    The European Antares collaboration intends to build a deep-sea neutrino telescope with a detection surface of about 1/10 km{sup 2} in the Mediterranean sea. The universe is transparent to neutrinos, so their study provides a unique means of improving our knowledge of the nature and origin of cosmic rays and their emission from the most powerful astrophysical sources in the cosmos. Neutrinos also offer the possibility of opening a new energy window (E>TeV) for observation of the universe. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to a study of the possibility of using the future telescope to look for correlations between gamma-ray bursts and high-energy neutrinos. It is based, on one hand, on the predictions of neutrino fluxes from gamma-ray bursts in the framework of the theoretical model of 'fireballs', and, on the other hand, on the temporal properties of the gamma-ray bursts in the 4. BATSE catalogue. The second part of the thesis presents the results obtained with a prototype detector line deployed, at the end of 1999, some forty km south-west off Marseilles. The objective was to operate a complete apparatus, similar to the future detector lines, from the shore, and under realistic conditions. Data from 7 photomultiplier tubes disposed along the detector line were transmitted through 37 km of optical fiber to the shore, where they were used to reconstruct tracks due to atmospheric muons, thus validating the detection principles and methods. (author)

  15. Possibility of observation by the Antares telescope of the gamma ray point sources observed by the Egret detector and study of a prototype; Possibilite d'observation par le telescope Antares des sources ponctuelles de rayons gamma observees par le detecteur Egret et etude d'un prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saouter, S


    The ANTARES collaboration aims to install an underwater neutrino telescope at 2 500 m deep and 40 km away from Toulon (France). The neutrinos are detected thanks to their interaction by charged current in the medium surrounding the telescope which can be rock or water. The produced muon emits Tcherenkov light along its path in water. This light is detected by a three-dimensional network of 900 photomultipliers divided into 12 independent lines. To validate the chosen techniques, a prototype made up of a fifth of line was deployed in 2003. A reconstruction algorithm was developed on simulated data whose results are presented. However, a technical failure made the data recorded by the prototype unsuitable. The detection potential of Antares to gamma ray sources observed by Egret is studied. Indeed, under the assumption of a gamma ray production via high-energy hadrons, a comparable flux of neutrinos associated is predicted. By supposing the two fluxes equal and an energy spectrum varying as E{sup -2} eleven sources are potentially detectable in one year. The Antares sensitivity to such a spectrum depends on the declination of the source with an optimum of 3.6 10{sup -4} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} GeV{sup -1} in one year at 90% of confidence level for a declination of - 90 deg C. (author)

  16. Possibilités de prise en compte des phénomènes de transferts internes aux grains lors de la modélisation du séchage en lit fixe du maïs : revue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janas, S.


    Full Text Available Opportunity to take the grain internal transfers into account in the context of the modelization of the fixed bed drying of corn: a review. The fixed-bed drying is a preservation technique widely used in food industries. Its control and optimization require to know the distributions of temperature and water content in the bed depending on the operating conditions used. This information is obtained through modeling of the heat and mass transfers involved. Models of fixed bed drying have two components. The first one is the model at the product level. This model can predict how temperature and water content of the product change at each point of the bed according to local conditions of temperature and humidity. The second component is the model for the entire bed, which describes how heat and water are conveyed by the drying air through the bed. In this literature review, the main models of fixed bed drying are presented, with particular emphasis on the models used for corn drying. In this review, these two components are presented separately. The goal is to idendify the advantages and disadvantages of each approach, and opportunities for future research in this field.

  17. Etude des possibilités de production de Jatropha curcas L. dans un couvert permanent de Stylosanthes guianensis (Aublet Schwartz en association avec le maïs (Zea mays L. et le soja (Glycine max (L. Merr. dans les conditions du Plateau des Batéké à Kinshasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minengu, JD.


    Full Text Available Study of the Production Possibilities of Jatropha curcas L. in Permanent Cover of Stylosanthes guianensis (Aublet Schwartz in Association with Maize (Zea mays L. and Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. under the Conditions of the Batéké Plateau in Kinshasa. An experiment was carried out between July 2009 and December 2012 on the Batéké Plateau near Kinshasa to assess the impact of the intercropping of Jatropha curcas L. with short-cycle food crops (maize Zea mays L. and soybeans Glycine max (L. Merr. in a permanent cover of Stylosanthes guianensis (Aublet Schwartz. The thirteen compared treatments consisted in the rotation corn – corn – soybean in pure stand and twelve combinations involving the cultivation of J. curcas: (1 J. curcas in sole crop or in association with S. guianensis, (2 three J. curcas planting densities (3 333, 2 500, or 1 667 shrubs ha-1 and (3 J. curcas sole cropped or associated with a short-cycle annual crop (rotation corn - corn, soybean. Vegetative development and seed yield of food crops and J. curcas were higher in plots with permanent S. guianensis cover. The highest mean yield of J. curcas in the 3rd year of production (harvests of July and December 2012 was 409.4±13.2 kg ha-1 dry seeds in plots with S. guianensis cover and 289,6±8,1 kg ha-1 in plots without mulch. The gravity of the damage of insect pests on J. curcas was higher in sole cropping (>60% than in intercropping (<45%. The cultivation of J. curcas in a permanent cover of S. guianensis in intercropping with maize and soybean ensures both a good development of J. curcas plants and attractive yields of annual food crops in the early years following the installation of the plantation. During this phase, the optimum planting density is 2 500 shrubs ha-1.

  18. Effect of cobalt-60 {gamma} radiation and of thermal neutrons on high resistance P and N silicon. Possibility of obtaining a nuclear compensation for P type silicon; Effects du rayonnement {gamma} du cobalt 60 et de neutrons thermiques sur du silicium P et N de haute resistivite. Possibilite de realiser une compensation nucleaire d'un silicium du type P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Type P silicon has been compensated by the production of a controlled and uniform amount of donor atoms ({sup 31}P) using thermal neutrons to bring about a nuclear transformation. It is shown that it is possible in this way to reduce by a factor of about one hundred the overall concentration of residual ionised impurities in the purest crystals obtained by floating zone purification (2 x 10{sup 12} atoms/cm{sup 3}). The degree compensation obtained is limited by the initial inhomogeneity of acceptor impurities which have to be compensated. Lattice defects which still remain after prolonged annealings reduce the life-time of the material to about 10 {mu}s approximately. Particle detectors having thicknesses of 2 to 5 mm have been built by this process; they give good results, particularly at low temperatures. A study has also been made of the number and of the nature of lattice defects produced by thermal neutrons in high resistivity P and N type crystals. These defects have been compared to those produced by {gamma} rays from {sup 60}Co. A discussion is given of the validity of the Wertheim model concerning pronounced recombination at low temperatures (77 deg. K - 300 deg. K) of primary defect-interstitial pairs. The nature of the defects introducing energy levels into the lower half of the forbidden band has been studied. (author) [French] On a compense du silicium de type P en produisant, au moyen de neutrons thermiques, par transmutation nucleaire une quantite controlee et uniforme d'atomes donneurs ({sup 31}P). On montre qu'on peut ainsi reduire de cent fois environ la densite nette d'impuretes ionisees residuelles subsistant dans les cristaux les plus purs obtenus par purification par zone flottante (2.10{sup 12} atomes/cm{sup 3}). Le degre de compensation obtenu est limite par i'inhomogeneite initiale des impuretes acceptrices a compenser. Des defauts de reseau qui subsistent meme apres des recuits prolonges reduisent la duree de vie du materiau a 10 {mu}s environ. Des detecteurs de particules de 2 a 5 mm d'epaisseur ont ete realises par ce procede et donnent, particulierement a basse temperature, de bons resultats. Par ailleurs, on a etudie le nombre et la nature des defauts du reseau produits par les neutrons thermiques dans des cristaux de haute resistivite de types N et P. On les a compares a ceux produits par les rayons {gamma} du {sup 60}Co. On a discute la validite du modele de Wertheim relatif a une recombinaison tres importante a basse temperature (77 deg. K - 300 deg. K) des paires lacune-interstitiel primaires. On a etudie la nature des defauts introduisant des niveaux d'energie dans la moitie inferieure de la bande interdite. (auteur)

  19. Les possibilités d'utilisation ciblée des ressources de la Responsabilité Sociale des Entreprises dans le secteur vinier dans le but d'améliorer la durabilité et la spécificité culturelle des régions viticoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdjeva Ivana


    Full Text Available Ces dernières années, la responsabilité corporative sociale (RCS marque une certaine croissance dans l'intérêt des entreprises envers l'intégration dans des causes d'intérêt social dans leurs pratiques commerciales. L'on note un intérêt accru envers les sujets liés à l'éducation, l'écologie, la santé, l'amélioration de la sensibilisation des consommateurs, l'amélioration des conditions de travail et, tout dernièrement, aux sujets et aux initiatives visant la conservation et la protection du patrimoine culturel matériel et immatériel. Diverses entreprises et producteurs, dans leur plupart de petite et moyenne envergure, dirigent leurs ressources vers un travail avec des groupes et des communautés locales, afin d'améliorer le milieu et de créer une motivation pour la conservation durable des emplois et l'augmentation de l'engagement professionnel et des compétences des personnes employées dans la production. Les secteurs publics ayant contact avec la culture, l'art, la préservation de l'identité et des tra-ditions manquent encore de popularité, y compris les productions spécifiques aux régions, la préservation du milieu et la conservation des phénomènes de la nature, la préservation de la culture des communautés locales et leur intégration dans un échange d'ordre global.

  20. Human endometrial milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFGE8) is up regulated by estradiol at the transcriptional level, and its secretion via microvesicles is stimulated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

    KAUST Repository

    Sarhan, Abbaa


    Objective: We have recently showed that MFGE8, a novel epithelial cell protein in the human endometrium, upregulated during the window of implantation. We hypothesized that MFGE8 may act as a key modulator of endometrial remodeling and trophoblast invasion. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the in vitro regulation of human endometrial epithelial cells MFGE8 transcription, translation, and secretion by sex steroids and hCG; and (ii) to examine the possibility of MFGE8 secretion via microvesicles. Design: Experimental in vitro study using Ishikawa cells. Setting: University center. Interventions: Treatment with estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and human chorionic gonatropin (hCG). Main outcome measures: MFGE8 mRNA and protein expression, and identification of secreted microvesicles by mass spectrometry (MS) and immunoblotting. Results: E2, but not P4 or hCG, significantly upregulated MFGE8 mRNA expression. hCG significantly increased MFGE8 secretion. Microvesicels obtained after ultracentrifugation were visualized with atomic force microscopy ranging from ~100 to 200 nm. In addition to the expected 46 kD protein, the microvesicles contained a second form of secreted MFGE8 measuring ~30 kD which was confirmed by MS. Conclusions: We demonstrated (i) dual effects of E2 and hCG on the regulation of MFGE8, and (ii) MFGE8 protein secretion in association with microvesicles. MFGE8 has the potential to modulate endometrial function and implantation via exocrine and/ or paracrine-autocrine effects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of microvesicular secretion of any regulatory protein by endometrial epithelial cells, providing initial evidence suggestive of microvesicular participation in cellular trafficking information in the non-pregnant and pregnant endometrium.

  1. Jeu et fiction dans un jeu de cartes à collectionner : le cas de Magic : l’Assemblée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Cuvelier


    Full Text Available Le genre du jeu de cartes à collectionner apparaît en 1993 avec Magic : l’Assemblée de Richard Garfield. Si la plupart des émules de Magic sont des jeux dérivés d’univers de licence comme Pokémon, Magic se fondait sur un univers de fantasy inédit, enrichi par des extensions successives, et dont les cartes restent le principal vecteur. Je me propose ici de réfléchir sur les rapports qui se nouent entre le jeu et la fiction dans Magic, et d’examiner les contraintes, le fonctionnement et les principaux procédés fictionnels propres à ce support singulier. Magic fait partie des jeux à composante fictionnelle forte, dont les règles comportent un caractère mimétique certain, bien que limité. Les différents éléments d’une même carte et les cartes entre elles fonctionnent comme des fragments qui se combinent pour pointer vers une réalité fictive qui, bien que conçue par l’éditeur sur le modèle des univers de licence à forte cohérence (notamment les récentes fictions transmédiatiques, laisse à rêver aux joueurs par les blancs et les ambiguïtés inhérentes à cette articulation entre jeu et fiction. Les tâtonnements de l’éditeur au fil des extensions sont riches d’enseignements sur les possibilités et les limites d’un tel support, où la fiction narrative linéaire doit laisser place, à petite échelle, à une fiction plus structurelle, prenant la forme d’environnements mis en tension plutôt que de narrations linéaires.

  2. Plan du site | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Carrières · Possibilité de nomination · Possibilités d'emploi · Emplois pour étudiants · Ce que nous avons à offrir · Possibilité d'emploi avec le Conseil des gouverneurs du CRDI · Nouvelles et événements · Communiquez avec nous · Gouvernance · Conseil des gouverneurs · Gestion du Centre · Plan stratégique du CRDI.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    noirs que chez les hommes blancs. WAJM 2007; 26(1): 42 - 47. Mots Clés: Cancer, Prostate, Immunohistochimie Facteurs de croissance, Hommes blancs et noirs EGFR, RFCE, RFCEvIII. Departments of *Urology and *Pathology, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester U.K., Departments of *Surgery and 'Pathology,. QoIIege ...

  4. 27 CFR 4.91 - List of approved prime names. (United States)


    ... blanc Baco noir Barbera Beacon Beclan Bellandais Beta Black Corinth Black Pearl Blanc Du Bois Blue Eye... blanche Clinton Colombard (French Colombard) Colobel Cortese Corvina Concord Conquistador Couderc noir... Fredonia Freisa Fry Furmint Gamay noir Garronet Gewürztraminer Gladwin 113 Glennel Gold Golden Isles Golden...

  5. Raúl Prebisch et les défis du XXIe siècle | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Possibilité de financement pour l'égalité des sexes et le changement climatique. Le CRDI est heureux d'annoncer une nouvelle occasion de financement qui vise à favoriser des mesures de lutte contre les changements climatiques efficaces et à long terme, afin de réduire les... Voir davantagePossibilité de financement ...

  6. Analyse du risque que posent la cryptosporidiose et d'autres ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Possibilité de financement pour l'égalité des sexes et le changement climatique. Le CRDI est heureux d'annoncer une nouvelle occasion de financement qui vise à favoriser des mesures de lutte contre les changements climatiques efficaces et à long terme, afin de réduire les... Voir davantagePossibilité de financement ...

  7. Le jumelage de journalistes scientifiques | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    intention d'examiner la possibilité d'utiliser le service Skype de voix sur IP pour réduire les coûts d'appels téléphoniques et améliorer les communications entre les membres. D'autres possibilités de voyager et de rencontrer leurs ...

  8. Study of neutrino production in the Cannonball model of Gamma ray bursts: possibility of observation of these neutrinos with the Antares neutrinos telescope, and study of the optical background recorded with the prototype sector line; Etude de la production de neutrinos associes aux Sursauts Gamma dans le modele du Boulet de canon: possibilite d'observation de ces neutrinos par le detecteur ANTARES, et etude du bruit de fond optique enregistre par le prototype d'un secteur de ligne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, S


    ANTARES is a future neutrino telescope which will be build at 40 km off the french coast (Toulon), at a 2500 m depth. The interaction of a neutrino with matter produces a muon which emits Cerenkov light while propagating in water. This light is detected with 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 lines. Gamma ray bursts (GRB) are violent cosmological phenomenon observed once per day. In the Cannonball Model, bursts are produced by the interaction of a jet made of cannonballs (CB) with a supernova remnant (SNR). Forward shocks propagate in the SNR, reverse ones in the CB and neutrinos are produced at the shock fronts. An estimation of the neutrino production is given and is studied over a large parameter range. For a typical GRB, 0.002 to 0.3 v{sub {mu}}, cm{sup -2} can be produced. Depending on the viewing angle, ANTARES could detect 1 to 10 v{sub {mu}} per year in correlation with GRBs. The ambient optical background has been recorded by the ANTARES prototype sector line. The analysis is about the background influence on the detector performance and about the organisms activity which produces it. For example, it appears a 17.6 to 20.4 h periodicity which is compatible with the liquid masses movement imposed by the Coriolis force at the ANTARES latitude. (author)

  9. White paper on renewable energies. Choices to found our future. The contribution of renewable energy syndicate to the debate related to the energy policy; Le livre blanc des energies renouvelables. Des choix qui fondent notre avenir. la contribution du syndicat des energies renouvelables au debat relatif a la politique energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, J.L.


    In this document the Renewable Energy Syndicate proposes a road map to boost the French industrial dynamics and meet the challenges of world energy transition. The authors outline the strong growth of the renewable energy market despite the crisis context, and that France can be in the pace. They propose a road map for the 2020-2030 period, and highlight the need to build up a strategy. In a second part, twelve propositions are made to boost the ground-based wind energy, to develop offshore wind and marine energy, to rebuild the photovoltaic sector, to take advantage of hydroelectricity assets, to extent the development of renewable heat (biomass, geothermal, thermal solar energy), to place renewable energies at the heart of the building and struggle against fuel poverty, to create new industrial sectors, to exploit all biomass energy potentials, to facilitate the input of renewable energies on electric grids, to reach energy autonomy in ultramarine areas, to consolidate the renewable energy industry, and to aim at an international development

  10. « Corps noirs et médecins blancs. Entre race, sexe et genre : savoirs et représentations du corps des Africain(e)s dans les sciences médicales françaises (1780-1950) », Thèse, sous la direction d’Anne Carol, Aix-Marseille Uni


    Peiretti-Courtis, Delphine


    A la croisée de l’histoire du corps, de la race, du genre, de la médecine et de l’histoire coloniale, cette thèse analyse la construction des savoirs et des représentations du corps des hommes et des femmes noirs d’Afrique subsaharienne dans la littérature médicale française des années 1780 aux années 1950. Le corps des Africain-e-s suscite un intérêt nouveau dans la littérature médicale européenne à la fin du XVIIIe siècle. Dans un contexte de taxinomie raciale et d'expansion coloniale, l'al...

  11. The Paris-Nairobi climate initiative. Access to clean energy for all in Africa and countries vulnerable to climate change. Access to energy, sustainable development and climate change; Initiative climat Paris-Nairobi. Acces aux energies propres en Afrique et dans les pays vulnerables au changement climatique. Livre-Blanc, Acces a l'energie, developpement durable et changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The first part of this report highlights the importance of a universal access to energy, the role of public policies and renewable energies, the need to implement sustainable economic models for energy services, and indicates the major objectives and essential actions for these purposes. The second part outlines the weakness of electricity production in Africa, the degradation of the energy mix balance, the vulnerability to climate change, and the fact that Africa, like other countries vulnerable to climate change, possess huge and unexploited renewable energy resources (biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, wind). The third part proposes an approach to energy services by developing sustainable cooking, supplying energy to support rural development and to poles of economic growth, by developing sustainable cities (notably in transports and buildings), and by developing national and regional electricity grids. The last part addresses the issue of energy financing in developing countries

  12. Concept and measure of improved equity: attempt of implementation to the 'blue-white-red' tariff option of EDF; Concept et mesure d'equite amelioree: tentative d'application a l'option tarifaire ''bleu-blanc-rouge'' d'EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzina, J. [Montpellier-1 Unirv. Faculte des Sciences Economiques, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Droit de l' Energie - ATER - CREDEN, 34 (France)


    The issue of cross-subsidies and cost allocation practices concerns a large part of debates facing the deregulation of electric public utilities. The first aim of this paper is to deal with the regulation of an electric multi-product monopoly in association with equity and efficiency dimensions. To this end, we develop a concept and measure of improved equity. From a practical point of view, we also try to compute improved equity measurement considering the case of EDF tariff for domestic customers. (author)

  13. White Book on means of extending the general tax on polluting activities to intermediary energy consumptions of enterprises; Livre blanc sur les modalites de l'extension de la taxe generale sur les activites polluantes aux consommations intermediaires d'energie des entreprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The government decided to engage France in a firm action of reducing the pollutant emission damaging the environment or producing the greenhouse effect. To this aim the taxation upon the consumptions of rare resources the use of which results in an important pressure upon environment, as the energy for instance, constitutes an essential complement to other tools, as for instance, regulations, technical norms, ecological labels, assistance for investments, etc. Thus the fiscal policy constitutes a perennial lever of inciting actors, particularly those acting in economy, to optimize and control their energy consumption or to reduce their greenhouse gas emission. Any pollutant emission avoided represents not only a supplementary protection of the environment but also, in time, the avoidance of a reparatory expenditure for the entire society. To this aim the Parliament has approved in 1999 the creation of a general tax on polluting activities (TGAP) intended to prevent first the local and diffuse pollutions which will be enlarged since 2001 to prevent the global pollutions, first of those resulting from greenhouse gas emissions. France engaged itself in the frame of Kyoto conference protocol, adopted in December 1997, to stabilize in 2010 its gas emissions to the level attained in 1990. Actually, taking into account the prospects for economic growth, this engagement needs supplementary efforts. The government's decision, announced last 20 May, of enlarging the TGAP since 2001 to intermediary energy consumptions, is a contribution to this objective. Concerned about the France industry competitiveness, namely to the particular situation of the intensive energy enterprises, exposed to international competition, the government judged advisable to proceed in a large consultation of the concerned economic actors before implementing this enlargement. The White Book makes this engagement concrete. The accuracy of the answers given to the questions, posed in its second part, will allow clarifying the choices of the government in implementing this reform. Tool of inciting and preventing, the enlarged TGAP, allows add to the dividends obtained for environmental protection the resources of a second dividend, the dividend for employment. By substituting for other mandatory taxes pressing on labour, the TGAP will be entirely allotted to lower the social employment quotas. The document presents the government's program, introduces the principles of ecological fiscal policy and the topics of greenhouse effect.

  14. Rapid Precipitation of Amorphous Silica in Experimental Systems with Nontronite (NAu-1) and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furukawa, Yoko; O'Reilly, S. E


    ...) silica globule formation was confirmed in the immediate vicinity of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substances in all experimental systems that contained bacteria, whether the bacteria...

  15. Hudozhnik namerevalsja võkrasit Monblan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Mont Blanci mäetipu roosaks värvida kavatsenud Tšiili päritolu taani avangardikunstnik Marco Evaristti peatati prantsuse politseinike poolt. Kunstniku kommentaarid kunstiprojektile Mont Blanc Project

  16. Rock glaciers, Entremont, Valais, Switzerland, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Entremont area is 300 square km wide and located in the western part of the Swiss Alps between the Mont-Blanc Massif and the Valaisian Alps, slightly north of...

  17. Exemples d’utilisation des techniques d’optimisation en calcul de structures de reacteurs (United States)


    calcul de structures de reacteurs DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Availability: Hard copy only. This paper is part of...en c~uvre n~cessite, dans un bureau d𔄀tudes, le couplage automatique d’un logiciel de CAO param~tr~e, d’un logiciel de maillages , d’un solveur...nombreuses plus-values: ci possibilit6 de balayer un espace de conception plus large ci calculs automatiques ci possibilit~s de r~aliser des plans d’exp

  18. Description de deux espèces nouvelles du genre Poteriophorus, Schh. de la famille des Curculionides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, W.


    D’une forme assez large; blanc en dessus, brun-jaunâtre en dessous. Prosternum avec une protubérance en forme de corne recourbée. — Longueur (sans le rostre) 28 mm.; largeur aux épaules 13 mm. Plus large en proportion de la longueur que P. niveus; les téguments noirs couverts d’un enduit blanc sur

  19. Caractérisation morpho-culturale et sporulation chez une population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 31, 2015 ... Phénotype III. Colonies, blanc cassé, claire, rugueuse, PI courte. Phénotype IV. Bactérien, blanc, claire, rugueuse, PI courte. Phénotype V. Bourrelets, brun, foncé, rugueuse, PI moyen. Phénotype VI. Bactérien, rose, très claire, lisse, PI courte. Phénotype VII. Mycélien, vert olivâtre, foncé, rugueuse, PI longue.

  20. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.


    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  1. Introduzione all'analisi e all'algebra analisi

    CERN Document Server


    La OPEN UNIVERSITY inglese è un'universita autonoma a tutti gli effetti, il cui scopo è di offrire a chiunque la possibilità di conseguire una laurea indipendentemente dalla preparazione posseduta.

  2. Favoriser les innovations en matière de vaccins afin d'améliorer les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2 févr. 2018 ... Possibilité de financement pour l'égalité des sexes et le changement climatique. Le CRDI est heureux d'annoncer une nouvelle occasion de financement qui vise à favoriser des mesures de lutte contre les changements climatiques efficaces et à long terme, afin de réduire les... Voir davantagePossibilité de ...

  3. Appel à notes conceptuelles pour le projet de recherche sur l'égalité ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 août 2017 ... Possibilité de financement pour l'égalité des sexes et le changement climatique. Le CRDI est heureux d'annoncer une nouvelle occasion de financement qui vise à favoriser des mesures de lutte contre les changements climatiques efficaces et à long terme, afin de réduire les... Voir davantagePossibilité de ...

  4. Possibilidades de inserção da pesquisa contábil brasileira no cenário internacional: uma proposta de avaliação dos periódicos científicos de contabilidade e auditoria publicados em língua inglesa e disponibilizados no portal de periódicos da CAPES Possibilites for inserting brazilian accounting research in the international scenario: a proposal for the assessment of scientific accountancy and auditing journals published in english and available in the CAPES journal portal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dal-Ri Murcia


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é propor uma metodologia de avaliação para os periódicos científicos de contabilidade e auditoria publicados em língua inglesa e disponibilizados no Portal de Periódicos da CAPES. A justificativa para a realização deste estudo baseia-se em duas premissas: a necessidade de uma inserção internacional da pesquisa contábil brasileira e a inexistência de uma avaliação pela CAPES dos periódicos estrangeiros. As revistas acadêmicas que continham as palavras accounting ou auditing em seus títulos foram selecionadas. Após a eliminação dos periódicos não-acadêmicos, 40 journals foram analisados. A coleta dos dados foi realizada principalmente nos sites eletrônicos de cada periódico e envolveu a análise dos seguintes aspectos: corpo editorial (editorial board e sua internacionalização, instrução para os autores (guide for authors, enfoque (aim/focus, revisão às cegas (blind review, indexação ao SCOPUS, indexação ao Institute of Scientifc Information, grau de impacto de acordo com o Journal Citation Report e índice de temporalidade. Para se coletarem as informações referentes à taxa de corte (cut rate, foram enviados e-mails aos editores responsáveis (chief editor de cada periódico. Com base nos critérios propostos, 8 revistas foram classificadas com o conceito "A", 20 com "B" e 12 com "C", sendo que o Journal of Accounting Research (JAR, o Journal of Accounting and Economics (JAE, e o The Accounting Review (TAR foram os três periódicos com maior pontuação. Esta pesquisa visa contribuir para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa contábil brasileira à medida que propõe uma metodologia alternativa para avaliação de periódicos científicos.This paper aims to propose a methodology to evaluate accounting and auditing journals published in English and available in the CAPES Journal Portal. The research is justified by two basic premises: Brazilian accounting research needs international penetration and foreign journals have not been evaluated by CAPES yet. This study sample is composed of the journals that had the words accounting and auditing in their title. Non-academic journals were not analyzed and the final sample consisted of 40 journals. Data were collected from the journals websites and involved an analysis of the following aspects: editorial board, instructions for authors, aim/focus, blind review, indexation in SCOPUS and Institute for Scientific Information, Journal of Citation Report impact factor and temporality ratio. To collect information on the journals cut rate, e-mails were sent to the chief editors. Based on the proposed methodology, 8 journals received an "A" concept, 20 "B" and 12 "C". The three best evaluated journals according to this study are: Journal of Accounting and Economics (JAE, Accounting Organization and Society (AOS and The Accounting Review (TAR. This paper aims to contribute to Brazilian literature by proposing an alternative methodology for scientific journal evaluation.

  5. The formation and breakdown of structured clots from whole milk during gastric digestion. (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Cui, Jian; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder


    The behaviour of milk fat globules in the coagula of unheated and heated (90 °C for 20 min) whole milk during gastric digestion was investigated using a human gastric simulator. Structured protein clots were formed by a coagulation process that was driven by the action of the milk-clotting enzyme, pepsin, on the protein fraction of the whole milk. The fat globules in the milk appeared to be embedded in the clots as they formed. After clot formation, the different structures of the clots formed with unheated and heated whole milk led to different rates of protein hydrolysis by pepsin and resulted in the release of fat globules from the clots into the digesta; the release of fat globules was faster in the clots from the heated whole milk. Comparison of the rates of fat globule release from the clots and the rates of the reduction in fat-free matter in the clots showed that the release of fat globules from the clots from both unheated and heated milk was linearly dependent on the breakdown of the protein in the clots. Coalescence of fat globules appeared to occur in the gastric digesta and also within the protein.

  6. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.


    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul......(-1) of total egg volume is derived for most species spawning eggs without visible oil globules. The energy density of eggs with oil globules is predicted by (σ) over cap = 1.34 + 40.61 x (J mul(-1)) where x is the fractional volume of the oil globule. (C) 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British...

  7. Etude de l’hémogramme dans la drépanocytose homozygote: à propos de 87 patients (United States)

    Dahmani, Fatima; Benkirane, Souad; Kouzih, Jaafar; Woumki, Aziz; Mamad, Hassan; Masrar, Azlarab


    thrombocytose. Une leucocytose était observée chez 64.4% des patients et 80.5% ont présenté une neutropénie. Les paramètres de l’hémogramme serviront de base de comparaison lors des crises et permettront d’évaluer l’efficacité de la prise en charge par le clinicien. Les valeurs élevées des globules blancs, plaquettes et CCHM semblent déterminants dans l’expression sévère de la drépanocytose au Maroc. Le profil hématologique du drépanocytaire marocain montre des données semblables à celles rapportées en littérature chez ceux de l’Afrique centrale, avec une leucocytose. Les résultats de notre étude suggèrent que, la drépanocytose est un problème de santé le plus fréquent chez les marocains et que nos résultats sont comparables à ceux décrits dans le syndrome drépanocytaire majeur. PMID:28293356

  8. Comparison of total polyphenols content and antioxidant potential of wines from ‘Welschriesling’ and ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ varieties during ageing on fine lees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Lužar


    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are key components of wine, since they contribute to wine characteristics such as colour, astringency and bitterness. They also act like antioxidants, with mechanisms involving free-radical scavenging that could prevent cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The aim of the present work was to compare the obtained results of total polyphenols content and antioxidant potential (AOP of several white wines (welschriesling and sauvignon blanc during ageing on fine lees. The total polyphenols content decreased in average for 16.1 % in welschriesling wines and for 18.7 % in sauvignon blanc wines in the period of three months of wine ageing on lees. In the same period AOP of wines decreased in average for 16.0 % in welschriesling wines and for 8.0 % in sauvignon blanc wines. Expectedly, the samples with added oak chips in grape must had higher antioxidant potential than others.

  9. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human milk-derived extracellular vesicles unveils a novel functional proteome distinct from other milk components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herwijnen, Martijn J C; Zonneveld, Marijke I; Goerdayal, Soenita; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther N M; Garssen, Johan; Stahl, Bernd; Altelaar, A F Maarten; Redegeld, Frank A; Wauben, Marca H M


    Breast milk contains several macromolecular components with distinctive functions, whereby milk fat globules and casein micelles mainly provide nutrition to the newborn, while whey contains molecules that can stimulate the newborn's developing immune system and gastrointestinal tract. Although

  10. The use of liquid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emulsifying drug delivery systems (LSEDDS) containing griseofulvin. The LSEDDS were evaluated using the following parameters: phase separation, globule size, viscosity, solubility of griseofulvin and partition coefficient. The release profile of ...

  11. AFSC/ABL: Embryonic development of quillback rockfish (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maternal effects on the quality of progeny can have direct impacts on population productivity. Rockfish are viviparous and the oil globule size of larvae at...

  12. Physical Stability of Whippable Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Merete Bøgelund

    Whippable emulsions based on vegetable fat are increasingly used as replacement for dairy whipping creams. One of the quality criteria of whippable emulsions is that it should be low-viscous prior to whipping, but sudden viscosity increase or even solidification during storage and transport...... despite appliance of shear and temperature changes from 5 to 20 °C. Globule aggregation induced by LACTEM was impeded when used in combination with GMS. On the contrary, GMU induced very dense fat globule networks in emulsions which transformed emulsions into very firm solid-like pastes. This effect...... instability in emulsions, and conversely physical instability was not necessarily accompanied by protein displacement. GMS and LACTEM efficiently displaced caseinate from the fat globule interface into the serum phase, while caseinate molecules remained partly attached to the interfacial globule layer...

  13. Quaternary phosphorites from the continental margin off Chennai, southeast India: Analogs of ancient phosphate stromatolites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Rao, K.M.; Raju, D

    is made of thin sheets of tightly packed apatite globules, densely packed intertwined microfilaments, or filament molds. Phosphate with obscured laminae is composed of phosphate tubules. Cell-like structures resembling coccoid cyanobacteria...

  14. A micro-scale investigation of melt production and extraction in the upper mantle based on silicate melt pockets in ultramafic xenoliths from the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (Western Hungary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bali, Eniko; Zanetti, A.; Szabo, C.


    Mantle xenoliths in Neogene alkali basalts of the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (Western Hungary) frequently have melt pockets that contain silicate minerals, glass, and often carbonate globules. Textural, geochemical and thermobarometric data indicate that the melt pockets formed...

  15. Influence of Solid Target Reflectivity and Incident Angle on Depolarization Ratio and Reflected Energy from Polarized Lights: Experimental Results of the May 2008 Field Trial (United States)


    center No On the list English Name Center x (cm) y (cm) 1 Vive Empty 2 Spectralon blanc White spectralon 25.4 6.75 3 Spectralon noir Black spectralon 44.45...Styrofoam� 26 -22 9 Styro-mousse: noir Black Styrofoam� 41.5 -22 10 Réectik� Reectik� 10 -37.5 11 Styro-mousse noir léger Black light Styrofoam� 26 -37.5...Spectralon blanc White spectralon 25.4 6.75 3 Spectralon noir Black spectralon 44.45 6.75 4 Pins Pine 10 -6.5 5 Épinette Spruce 26 -6.5 6 Merisier Cherry

  16. La matière grasse du lait de dromadaire : composition, microstructure et polymorphisme. Une revue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karray Nadia


    Full Text Available In camel milk, fat, that represents about 3.6% of the composition, is dispersed in the form of globules, enveloped in a membrane, derived from the secreting cell and constituted by phospholipidprotein complexes. This review examines the present state of knowledge of the dromedary milk fat. The topics dealt with are : composition (fatty acids and triacylglycerols, microstructure, fat globule size distribution and polymorphism (thermal and structural properties.

  17. 2748-IJBCS-Article-Diaby Vandjiguida

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    hemoglobin), MCHC (Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration)). Les valeurs des globules rouges, de l'hémoglobine, des hématocrites (Tableau I) ont été significativement diminuées (p<0,001) chez les femelles comme chez les mâles. Chez les mâles, la diminution des globules rouges est plus significative à la dose 5 ...

  18. Vibrational spectra of opal-based photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovbeshko, G; Fesenko, O; Boyko, V; Romanyuk, V; Moiseyenko, V; Gorelik, V; Dolgov, L; Kiisk, V; Sildos, I


    Synthetic silica opals were investigated by infrared and Raman spectroscopies. Vibrational modes associated with molecular groups of opal globules and admixtures were detected. Similarities in Raman and infrared spectra of synthetic opal with reference fused and α-quartz indicate the presence of amorphous phase in opal globules. Also some spectral bands designate on modified optical stretching vibrations at 1000-1200 cm −1 and bigger amount of Si-H defects in photonic crystal.

  19. Communication: Polarizable polymer chain under external electric field in a dilute polymer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budkov, Yu. A.; Kolesnikov, A. L.; Kiselev, M. G.


    We study the conformational behavior of polarizable polymer chain under an external homogeneous electric field within the Flory type self-consistent field theory. We consider the influence of electric field on the polymer coil as well as on the polymer globule. We show that when the polymer chain conformation is a coil, application of external electric field leads to its additional swelling. However, when the polymer conformation is a globule, a sufficiently strong field can induce a globule-coil transition. We show that such “field-induced” globule-coil transition at the sufficiently small monomer polarizabilities goes quite smoothly. On the contrary, when the monomer polarizability exceeds a certain threshold value, the globule-coil transition occurs as a dramatic expansion in the regime of first-order phase transition. The developed theoretical model can be applied to predicting polymer globule density change under external electric field in order to provide more efficient processes of polymer functionalization, such as sorption, dyeing, and chemical modification

  20. Calcio-carbonatite melts and metasomatism in the mantle beneath Mt. Vulture (Southern Italy) (United States)

    Rosatelli, Gianluigi; Wall, Frances; Stoppa, Francesco


    At Mt. Vulture volcano (Basilicata, Italy) calcite globules (5-150 μm) are hosted by silicate glass pools or veins cross-cutting amphibole-bearing, or more common spinel-bearing mantle xenoliths and xenocrysts. The carbonate globules are rounded or elongated and are composed of a mosaic of 2-20 μm crystals, with varying optical orientation. These features are consistent with formation from a quenched calciocarbonatite melt. Where in contact with carbonate amphibole has reacted to form fassaitic pyroxene. Some of these globules contain liquid/gaseous CO 2 bubbles and sulphide inclusions, and are pierced by quench microphenocrysts of silicate phases. The carbonate composition varies from calcite to Mg-calcite (3.8-5.0 wt.% MgO) both within the carbonate globules and from globule to globule. Trace element contents of the carbonate, determined by LAICPMS, are similar to those of carbonatites worldwide including ΣREE up to 123 ppm. The Sr-Nd isotope ratios of the xenolith carbonate are similar to the extrusive carbonatite and silicate rocks of Mt. Vulture testifying to derivation from the same mantle source. Formation of immiscibile silicate-carbonatite liquids within mantle xenoliths occurred via disequilibrium immiscibility during their exhumation.

  1. Ultrastructure of the ovary and oogenesis in the flatworm Prosthiostomum siphunculus (Polycladida, Cotylea). (United States)

    Gammoudi, Mehrez; Salvenmoser, Willi; Tekaya, Saïda; Egger, Bernhard


    Based on light and electron microscopy observations, oogenesis in the cotylean polyclad Prosthiostomum siphunculus was investigated for the first time. The numerous ovarian follicles are dispersed essentially in the dorsal parenchyma. In the follicles, a ventral germinative zone with undifferentiated germs cells of different sizes and a dorsal growth zone with larger growing and abortive oocytes are present. The oogenesis could be subdivided into four stages: (1) Oogonia with a dark nucleus and a dark, ribosome-rich cytoplasm. (2) Early oocyte stage, represented by relatively small cells (10 μm in diameter), a cytoplasm showing some mitochondria and some endoplasmic reticula. (3) Previtellogenic stage, with a decrease of the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio due to the remarkable increase in ooplasm volume. Immature eggshell globules are observed. (4) Vitellogenic stage, including early vitellogenic ovarian stage, in which a second type of globule (inclusion globule) is formed, and a late vitellogenic uterine stage, in which the inclusion globules are not present anymore. The mature eggshell globules form a peripheral layer under the cell membrane. Eggshell and inclusion globules were analyzed with electron energy loss spectroscopy, electron spectroscopic imaging, protease treatment, and with periodic acid thiocarbohydracide silver proteinate to detect polysaccharides. Chromatoid bodies are present in all four stages. For the first time in a flatworm, we provide evidence that accessory cells, forming a tunica around the ovarian follicles, are epithelial or epithelium-like and likely contribute nutrients for the growth of the oocytes. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  2. Prise en charge scolaire des enfants handicapes porteurs de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pendant longtemps, les enfants porteurs de handicap ont été sacrifiés au nom de nos traditions et de nos croyances. Lorsqu'ils ne sont pas privés du droit à la vie, c'est plutôt des possibilités d'intégration en milieu ordinaire qui ne leur sont pas offertes. Mais de plus en plus, ces possibilités s'offrent à eux, via leur inscription ...

  3. Environnements de tests d’intrusion pour mobiles et tablettes


    Vianin, Jérémie; Bocchi, Yann


    L’objectif de ce travail est de réaliser une recherche des possibilités actuelles de tests d’intrusion mobiles. Après avoir recherché les technologies existantes, nous les analysons et les comparons afin de proposer un outil complet. Dans ce travail, nous analysons les possibilités de pentesting mobile avec l’aide d’une tablette de la marque Nexus et un smartphone de la gamme One d’HTC. Nous voyons le pentest mobile sous trois grands angles : OS, package et application.

  4. Review. Urban Children in Distress: Global Predicaments and Innovative Strategies. (United States)

    Earls, Felton


    Reviews textbook by Christina Szanton Blanc and others, incorporating viewpoints of students. Analyzes chapters focusing on particular countries, noting that the book sheds light on the old problem of disadvantaged children in postindustrial cities while also shedding new light on the more recent challenge of supporting human development in the…

  5. Effet de l'âge de la mise en défens sur la reconstitution de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    25 avr. 2013 ... paradis. *. Olacaceae. Ximenia americana L. Prune à épine. *. Opiliaceae. Opilia celtidifolia (Guill. § Perr.) Endl.ex Walp. -. *. *. Polygolaceae. Securidaca longepedunculata Fres. Arbre à serpent. *. Rhamnaceae. Ziziphus mucronata Willd. Jujubier de la hyène. *. *. Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Jujubier blanc.

  6. Afrique Science: Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude des propriétés magnéto-optiques des couches minces à base de ferrite de cobalt obtenues par voie sol-gel · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. N Lamaï, F Royer, A Matibeye, G Saka, JP Chatelon, D Jamon, S Neveu, MF Blanc-Mignon, ...

  7. Intensive Behavioral Treatment of Urinary Incontinence of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Archival Analysis of Procedures and Outcomes from an Outpatient Clinic (United States)

    Hanney, Nicole M.; Jostad, Candice M.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Carr, James E.; Castile, Allison J.


    LeBlanc, Crossett, Bennett, Detweiler, and Carr (2005) described an outpatient model for conducting intensive toilet training with young children with autism using a modified Azrin and Foxx, protocol. In this article, we summarize the use of the protocol in an outpatient setting and the outcomes achieved with a large sample of children with autism…

  8. Journal of Applied Biosciences - Vol 103 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Réponse du fonio blanc (Digitaria exilis Stapf) à l'inoculation avec des champignons mycorhiziens à arbuscules en conditions semi-contrôlées · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Fatou Ndoye, Abdala G. Diedhiou, Moustapha Gueye, Dioumacor Fall, ...

  9. Mémoires d'Océans et d'Ailleurs: Traversées interocéaniques

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    groundbreaking work on Kafka, we have confronted two books of contemporary authors who position themselves at the forefront of francophone postcolonial literature: Le Nègre ..... mulâtre, dont le portrait ressemble beaucoup à celui que Franz Fanon donnait, dans Peau noire, masques blancs, de Jean Veneuse, héros de ...

  10. Where protons will play The new supercollider that is poised to shake up physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Holt, Jim


    Near the foot of Mont-Blanc, the greatest of the Alpine peaks, a sizable object is taking shape, also quite beautiful in its way, yet not at all dumb. In fact, its pristine geometries may be instrumental in revealing what have hitherto been some of nature's deepest secrets. (2 pages)

  11. Tanzanie | Page 9 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Salaam, le ronflement des 50 machines à coudre est aussi tenace que le vrombissement d'insectes. Les ouvriers cousent des filets bleus, verts et blancs qui ont été tissés sur les métiers de la manufacture. Ces hommes et ces femmes font partie ...

  12. Pain Relief for Budget Cuts. (United States)

    Fultz, David A.


    The Grand Blanc (Michigan) Community School District sets budget priorities by (1) surveying students, taxpayers, and teachers to learn their preferences for current programs and services; (2) determining the costs of state-mandated programs; (3) listing nonmandated programs and determining their costs; and (4) considering proposed new programs.…

  13. Chemometric investigation of the volatile content of young South African wines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Villiers, de A.; Crouch, A.M.


    The content of major volatiles of 334 wines of six different cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinotage, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) and vintage 2005 was used to investigate the aroma content of young South African wines. Wines were sourced from six different regions and various

  14. Suured lootused / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus


    Ameerika Ühendriikide komöödiaseriaalis "Sõbrad" (1994-2004) mänginud näitleja Matt LeBlanc mängib nimiosa seriaalis "Joey", mis nagu jätkaks eelmise seriaali ühe tegelase elu edasist kujutamist. Sama : Teleleht nr. 11, lk. 38 : ill

  15. Purification and characterization of a milk-clotting protease from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 28, 2011 ... Desmazeaud M, Spinnler E (1997). Laits et produits laitiers. In «. Enzymes en agroalimentaires ». Ed. V. Larreta- Garde. Tech. et. Doc. Lavoisier. Esawy Mona A, Combet-blanc Yannick (2006). Immobilization of. Bacillus licheniformis 5A1 milk-clotting enzyme and characterization of its enzyme properties.

  16. Permian Triassic palynofloral transition in Chintalapudi area ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Outside. India, Palynoassemblage-III bears a close resem- blance with the Late Permian assemblage recorded from Chhidru Formation in Salt Range (Balme. 1970), and upper part of Sakamena Group in. Table 4. Correlation of Late Permian and Early Triassic palynoflora in different areas of Godavari Graben and Damodar.

  17. L'interdisciplinarite en sciences sociales pour l'etude du contact des langues (Interdisciplinarity in Social Sciences of the Study of the Relationships of Languages). Proceedings of a Colloquium of the International Center for Research on Bilingualism and the Institute for Interethnic and Intercultural Studies and Research (2nd, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, October 1-5, 1984). (United States)

    Prujiner, Alain, Ed.

    Papers given at an international conference applying the social sciences to the study of the relationships of languages include the following: "Reseaux sociaux et comportements langagiers en milieu de contact des langues" ("Social Networks and Language Behaviors in a Language Contact Setting") by M. Blanc and J. Hamers, with…

  18. 7-Perez Crozas.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    articulation actuelle ... peine d'être étudiées. Je partirai de l'hypothèse selon laquelle les premiers expatriés Blancs en. Afrique noire ..... étaient considérés comme des enfants des femmes esclaves du roi, un fait qui pouvait être décisif dans leur ...

  19. Un projet gagnant sur tous les tableaux : les moustiquaires ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Salaam, le ronflement des 50 machines à coudre est aussi tenace que le vrombissement d'insectes. Les ouvriers cousent des filets bleus, verts et blancs qui ont été tissés sur les métiers de la manufacture. Ces hommes et ces ...

  20. Etude de la variabilité génétique sur la base de la composition en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 2, 2011 ... which is higher than the value existing in Prunus dulcis and rice. The vitamin C for Kermizi, Meknessy 1,. Mumtez, Lybie rouge, El Guettar, Brise vent, Mateur 3 and Mateur 1 varieties is 1.3 to 9 mg/100g. In Lybie blanc this values are comparable with those published by De. Beer et al. (2003). REFERENCES.

  1. Climb- M.Vaucher

    CERN Multimedia



    L'alpiniste Michel Vaucher qui a fait beaucoup de "premières", parle de sa passion de la montagne en présentant 2 films: "Venez grimper" (Salève) et "Pillier de la solitude"(l'ascension d'une partie du Mont Blanc)

  2. Outdoor Sound Propagation Modelling in Complex Environments: Recent Developments in the Parabolic Equation Method (United States)


    Philippe Blanc-Benon Ecole Centrale de Lyon Centre acoustique LMFA UMR CNRS 5509 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue 69134 ECULLY Cedex France...Ecole Centrale de Lyon Centre acoustique LMFA UMR CNRS 5509 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue 69134 ECULLY Cedex France 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT

  3. Foreign Language Teaching and Cultural Identity. (United States)

    Nasr, Raja T., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of works on the role of cultural identity in second language learning and teaching includes: "Linguas estrangeiras e ideologia" (Roberto Ballalai); "Cultural Identity and Bilinguality" (Josiane F. Hamers, Michel Blanc); "Foreign Language Teaching and Cultural Identity" (Lakshmie K. Cumaranatunge);…

  4. Riho Unt lühifilmide festivali žüriis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Nukufilmide režissöör on 1.-9.veebruarini Prantsusmaal Clermont-Ferrand'i lühifilmide festivali žürii liige. Tema nukufilmid Saamueli seklustest on valitud festivali eriprogrammi. Võistlusprogrammi kuulub Priit Tenderi joonisfilm "Mont Blanc"


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 2016, 38(2): 129 - 137. Suid-Afrikaanse ... both physical and psychological benefits when children participate in PA (Janssen &. LeBlanc, 2010; Ahn .... Parents signed an informed consent form for the children to participate in this research. The.

  6. Barytes -RE-SONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barytes crushed to pass through 2:00 to 0.840 mm sieve mesh is employed in the production of homogenized glass as a flux and to add brilliance and clarity to the product. Bleached ground barytes has been used as a pigment in several ways: as the natural white sulfate and as blanc fixed in lithophone as an indicator in.

  7. Subionospheric VLF signatures and their association with sprites observed during EuroSprite 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mika, A.; Haldoupis, C.; Marshall, R.A.


    national lightning detection network. The VLF observations were made in Crete, Greece with a narrowband receiver, and in Nancay, France with a broadband receiver. The storms were in the vicinity of a VLF transmitter (HWV) at Le Blanc, France, whose signal was received on Crete, arriving over a great circle...

  8. Empirical Investigations of the Intraverbal: 2005-2015 (United States)

    Aguirre, Angelica A.; Valentino, Amber L.; LeBlanc, Linda A.


    Several papers have reviewed the literature based on Skinner's conceptual framework presented in his 1957 book, "Verbal Behavior." These reviews have called for more research on the topic of verbal behavior generally and often for more research on particular verbal operants. For example, Sautter and LeBlanc (2006) urged the…

  9. Brief Report: Application of Proposed Model of Decreasing Reinforcement Intensity (United States)

    Cautilli, Joseph


    LaBlanc, Hagopian, Malieri, and Poling (2002) proposed a model for decreasing reinforcement intensity in clinical practice. This paper applies that model to the fading of a point system for a nine-year-old boy who displayed escape behavior around nightly homework assignments. Using a hanging criterion design, the author was able to track the…

  10. Barytes -RE-SONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An Industrially Useful Mineral Abundantly Available in India. V Raghu. Barytes is a naturally occurring barium sulfate mineral. A significant portion of the total known reserves in the world .... barytes has been used as a pigment in several ways: as the natural white sulfate and as blanc fixed in lithophone as an indicator in.

  11. What Are Robespierre and Telemachus Doing in Saint-Domingue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Jonas Ross


    Charles Pigault-Lebrun's play Le blanc et le noir (1795) is one of only a handful of French revolutionary plays to stage the Saint-Domingue slave rebellion, a rebellion today better known as the Haitian Revolution (1791–1804). I argue that Pigault-Lebrun uses early melodramatic generic traits...

  12. Characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrids selected for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wine yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) vary in their ability to develop the full aroma potential of Sauvignon blanc wine due to an inability to release volatile thiols. Subsequently, the use of 'thiolreleasing' wine yeasts (TRWY) has increased in popularity. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that some commercially ...

  13. Fabrication and thermal stability studies of polyamide 66 containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Bonin Y and LeBlanc J 1991 US Patent 4985485.01151991. Camino G, Costa L and Martinasso G 1989 Polym. Degrad. Stab. 23 359. Costa L and Camino G 1990 Fire and polymers, in ASC sympo- sium series (Washington DC) Vol. 425, pp 211–238. Derout D, Morvan F and Bross J C 1996 J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 62. 1855.

  14. Priit Tenderi film sai Dresdenis auhinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Dresdeni 14. filmifestivali animafilmide kategoorias sai teise preemia Priit Tenderi joonisfilm "Mont Blanc". Peapreemia sai saksa režissööri Jonathan Hodgsoni film "Camouflage". Kolmas oli PÖFFi peaauhinna saanud Stepan Birjukovi "Sossedi". Osales ka Nukufilmis diplomitööna valminud Jelena Girlini "Guff"


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Merzlikin


    Full Text Available The article deals with the search for optimal parameter estimation of the parameters of the process of homogenization of dairy products. Provides a theoretical basis for relationship of the relaxation time of the fat globules and attenuation coefficient of ultrasonic oscillations in dairy products. Suggested from the measured acoustic properties of milk to make the calculations of the mass distribution of fat globules. Studies on the proof of this hypothesis. Morphological analysis procedure carried out for homogenized milk samples at different pressures, as well as homogenized. As a result of research obtained distribution histogram of fat globules in dependence on the homogenization pressure. Also performed acoustic studies to obtain the frequency characteristics of loss modulus as a function of homogenization pressure. For further research the choice of method for approximating dependences is obtained using statistical moments of distributions. The parameters for the approximation of the distribution of fat globules and loss modulus versus pressure homogenization were obtained. Was carried out to test the hypothesis on the relationship parameters of approximation of the distribution of the fat globules and loss modulus as a function of pressure homogenization. Correlation analysis showed a clear dependence of the first and second statistical moment distributions of the pressure homogenization. The obtain ed dependence is consistent with the physical meaning of the first two moments of a statistical distribution. Correlation analysis was carried out according to the statistical moments of the distribution of the fat globules from moments of loss modulus. It is concluded that the possibility of ultrasonic testing the degree of homogenization and mass distribution of the fat globules of milk products.

  16. Platinum-group elements and gold in sulfide melts from modern arc basalt (Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka) (United States)

    Zelenski, M.; Kamenetsky, V. S.; Mavrogenes, J. A.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Matveev, D.; Gurenko, A. A.


    Sulfide melt inclusions entrapped in primitive olivine phenocrysts can be used to understand the compositions of early sulfide melts that may ultimately contribute to magmatic sulfide ore deposits. Sulfide globules hosted in olivine (86-92 mol% Fo) from the Tolbachik basalt (the 1941 eruption) are characterized in terms of their major and trace element abundances using electron microscopy and LA-ICP-MS analysis. Distribution of major elements within individual sulfide globules varies from homogeneous to heterogeneous. Phases include monosulfide solid solution (MSS) and intermediate solid solution (ISS) intergrowths and exsolved low-temperature minerals such as pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite and cubanite. Trace elements (platinum-group elements - PGE, Ag, Te, Au, Pb and Bi) are also present in solid solution in sulfide phases and as micron-sized particles ("nuggets"). Such nuggets of dominantly Au, Pt, Au-Pd and Pd-Te are contained randomly within sulfide matrices or, more commonly, at phase boundaries. Nuggets are also attached to outer surfaces of sulfide globules. Concentrations of PGE in sulfides follow a log normal distribution over four orders of magnitude. The highest measured noble metal concentrations in the analyzed globules (436 ppm Au + PGE) are 13.3 ppm Au, 115 ppm Pt and 299 ppm Pd, whereas 40% of globules have < 15 ppm of noble metals. Gold and PGE concentrations correlate, suggesting these elements were concentrated by the same process(es). We propose that a number of anomalous concentrations of one or several noble metals in the analyzed globules can be best explained by entrapment of Au-PGE-rich particles (solid or liquid) from the silicate melt. Although the individual Tolbachik sulfide globules have variable PGE abundances, their mean composition resembles those of major PGE-sulfide ore deposits (e.g., Norilsk, Sudbury, Platreef and Merensky Reef).

  17. Studies on the antidandruff activity of the essential oil of coleus amboinicus and eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of the essential oil of Coleus amboinicus and Eucalyptus globules as potential antidandruff agent. Methods: Fresh leaves of Coleus amboinicus and Eucalyptus globules were collected from the Horticultural Research Station, Yercaud, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. The collected leaves were washed thoroughly and shade dried for 7-10 days. The essential oils from both the dried plant leaves were obtained by hydro distillation procedure. The chemical compositions of hydro distilled essential oils were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The pure essential oils and the essential oils diluted with coconut oil of the two plants were used to check antidandruff activity against the dandruff causing fungus Malassezia furfur by agar well diffusion assay. Results: The average yield of essential oil from Coleus amboinicus (0.89% and Eucalyptus globules (0.77%. The results of GC-MS revealed that the presence of eight compounds from Coleus amboinicus essential oil and five constituents from Eucalyptus globules representing 90.45% and 96.32% of the total oil respectively. The major component was identified as Thymol (phenolic rich compocnd (41.3% in Coleus amboinicus and in Eucalyptus globules the major constituents was 1-8, Cineol (91.61%. In the antidandruff activity the broad range of inhibitory zone was observed in Eucalyptus globules (37mm oil compare to Coleus amboinicus (31mm. Ketaconazole based shampoo used as a standard. Conclusion: This study would direct to the establishment of a natural compound from Coleus amboinicus and Eucalyptus globules as an antidandruff agent which can be used for the production of potential antifungal drug and novel pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical leads.

  18. Granular encapsulation of light hydrophobic liquids (LHL) in LHL-salt water systems: Particle induced densification with quartz sand. (United States)

    Boglaienko, Daria; Tansel, Berrin; Sukop, Michael C


    Addition of granular materials to floating crude oil slicks can be effective in capturing and densifying the floating hydrophobic phase, which settles by gravity. Interaction of light hydrophobic liquids (LHL) with quartz sand was investigated in LHL-salt water systems. The LHLs studied were decane, tetradecane, hexadecane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, and 2-cholorotoluene. Experiments were conducted with fine quartz sand (passing sieve No. 40 with openings 0.425 mm). Each LHL was dyed with few crystals of Sudan IV dye for ease of visual observation. A volume of 0.5 mL of each LHL was added to 100 mL salt water (34 g/L). Addition of one gram of quartz sand to the floating hydrophobic liquid layer resulted in formation of sand-encapsulated globules, which settled due to increased density. All LHLs (except for a few globules of decane) formed globules covered with fine sand particles that were heavy enough to settle by gravity. The encapsulated globules were stable and retained their shape upon settling. Polarity of hydrophobic liquids as the main factor of aggregation with minerals was found to be insufficient to explain LHL aggregation with sand. Contact angle measurements were made by submerging a large quartz crystal with the LHL drop on its surface into salt water. A positive correlation was observed between the wetting angle of LHL and the LHL volume captured (r = 0.75). The dependence of the globule density on globule radius was analyzed in relation to the coverage (%) of globule surface (LHL-salt water interface) by fine quartz particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A palavra esgarçada de Giorgio Caproni


    Patricia Peterle


    L’esistenza come contraddizione, la perdita, il non-luogo, la storia come verità messa in scacco e la possibilità di lettura dai vestigi trovati negli scavi (della realtà e del linguaggio) sono i temi centrali della poetica di Giorgio Caproni

  20. A palavra esgarçada de Giorgio Caproni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Peterle


    Full Text Available L’esistenza come contraddizione, la perdita, il non-luogo, la storia come verità messa in scacco e la possibilità di lettura dai vestigi trovati negli scavi (della realtà e del linguaggio sono i temi centrali della poetica di Giorgio Caproni

  1. Employment and Growth | Page 14 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Incidence des services de garde d'enfants abordables sur l'autonomisation des femmes en Inde. Language French. Read more about Incidences des programmes d'acquisition de compétences sur les possibilités économiques des femmes au Pakistan. Language French. Read more ...

  2. Recherche sur l'adaptation aux changements climatiques

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    consortiums travaillent dans des zones vulnérables aux changements climatiques en Afrique et en Asie, notamment dans les bassins hydrographiques alimentés .... Le projet de recherche Pathways to Resilience in Semi-Arid Economies (PRISE) vise à réduire les risques et à opti- miser les possibilités de développement ...

  3. Kenya | Page 29 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Transferring the Malaria Epidemic Prediction Model to Users in East Africa. Language English. Read more about East African GEOHealth hub for preventing environmental and occupational health risks. Language English. Read more about Accroître les possibilités économiques pour les jeunes dans les ...

  4. South of Sahara | Page 29 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Femmes et gouvernance locale - exploration de nouvelles possibilités. Language French. Read more about Soutien institutionnel au Consortium pour la recherche économique et sociale (CRES) (Sénégal). Language French. Read more about Institutional Support : Consortium for Economic and Social ...

  5. Far East Asia | Page 114 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Femmes et gouvernance locale - exploration de nouvelles possibilités. Language French. Read more about Integrated Approach to Address Food and Nutrition Security in the Philippines. Language English. Read more about Incidence des prix et des taxes sur la ...

  6. Tirer parti des données massives des réseaux mobiles pour établir ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learning Initiatives on Reforms for Network Economies Asia (LIRNEasia), un think tank sri lankais, examine depuis 2012 la possibilité d'utiliser les données massives pour orienter les politiques publiques. Appuyée par le CRDI, cette recherche est axée sur la planification du transport dans les centres urbains de Colombo ...

  7. Accroissement de l'autonomisation économique des femmes par l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... des sexes sur le marché du travail et d'offrir de meilleures possibilités économiques aux femmes. La direction du projet sera assurée par le Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios sobre el Desarrollo, en Uruguay, en collaboration avec le Centro de Estudios Distributivos Laborales y Sociales de l'Universidad Nacional de La ...

  8. Sud du Sahara | Page 15 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Building Bridges 2017 et au-delà : Promotion de la gouvernance inclusive par le développement du leadership public. Langue French. Read more about Accroître les possibilités économiques pour les femmes et les jeunes en Afrique par la transformation structurelle. Langue French. Read more about ...

  9. Comment les pauvres pourraient profiter du marché du carbone ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    échanges de droits d'émissions, parce que les coûts de transaction pour y participer sont trop élevés. Toutefois, la possibilité d'inscrire des projets communautaires modestes au marché du carbone par le truchement du Mécanisme de développement ...

  10. Die Psalmboek van 2003 as bron van liturgiese verryking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jankowitz


      This article could also serve as a reference document for or- ganists and liturgists when planning a church service. To en- hance user-friendly utilisation as well as creativity, a variety of liturgical possibilites are presented according to the commonly used liturgical order of reformed church services.

  11. Du tabac à la production alimentaire : contraintes et stratégies de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les chercheurs cerneront les obstacles à la transition de la culture du tabac vers d'autres utilisations des sols et les possibilités pour les petites exploitations agricoles de se tourner vers d'autres moyens de subsistance. De plus, ils concevront, mettront à l'essai ... IDRC starts new work in ASEAN. The Honourable Chrystia ...

  12. Far East Asia | Page 72 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Far East Asia. Extrême-Orient. Read more about Institutionnalisation et élargissement de la protection sociale en Asie. Language French. Read more about TIC et microentreprises en milieu urbain : optimisation des possibilités de développement économique. Language French. Read more about ICTs and Urban Micro ...

  13. Sustainable Development at Risk: Ignoring the Past | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The analysis begins with the Atlantic Charter, the creation of the United Nations, its family of agencies, and the international development banks. It reviews recommendations from ... L'importance des services de garde d'enfants pour améliorer les possibilités économiques des femmes. Le 11 août 2017, des chercheurs et ...

  14. Kenya | Page 29 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about East African GEOHealth hub for preventing environmental and occupational health risks. Langue English. Read more about Accroître les possibilités économiques pour les jeunes dans les secteurs du poisson et de la volaille au Kenya (CultivAf). Langue French. Read more about The Alliance to Scale ...

  15. Examples on cold forged aluminium components in automotive industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Kolsgaard, A.


    The present paper describes the possibilites of applying cold forging for manufacturing of light weight components in aluminium. A short description of the basic cold forming processes forms the basis for describing the great variety in design of cold forged components. Examples are mainly taken ...... from automotive industry but in a few cases also from other industrial sectors to show the possibilities....

  16. The use of some physical and chemical methods for the identification of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Irradiation of food causes physical, chemical and biological modifications which, in principle, provide a number of possibilites for differentiating irradiated food and food constituents from non-irradiated samples. This study reports the use of some physical and chemical methods for the identification of radiation treatments of certain food items

  17. Results-based financing for equitable access to maternal and child ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will also look at the impact of results-based financing on health providers' motivation and teamwork, local leadership, community management committees of health facilities, access to and use of health ... L'importance des services de garde d'enfants pour améliorer les possibilités économiques des femmes.

  18. Differences in secondary metabolites from leaf extracts of Mikania glomerata Sprengel obtained by micropropagation and cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia H. Taleb-Contini

    Full Text Available GC analysis of the dichloromethane extracts obtained from cultivated specimens of Mikania glomerata Sprengel possibilited to verify that cuttings technique led to production of kaurenoic acid and coumarin while the same results have not been observed by propagation process using in vitro techniques.

  19. Fondements pour l'innovation | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    appels d'offres concurrentiels. Si vous souhaitez en savoir plus sur nos priorités de financement de recherche, des précisions sur l'admissibilité et l'orientation thématique des possibilités de financement seront affichées sur la page financement ...

  20. : tous les projets | Page 134 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet vise à inspirer des politiques qui aideront des groupes marginalisés en Afrique, tels que les femmes et les pauvres, à tirer avantage des possibilités sociales et économiques qu'offre l'Internet à large bande. Sujet: TELECOMMUNICATIONS. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa.

  1. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations: Knowledge ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 oct. 2009 ... The editor. Mercedes Botto is Senior Researcher at FLACSO, the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Contenus connexes. Politiques d'innovation régionales dans la zone Mercosur - obstacles et possibilités. Cette subvention soutiendra l'exécution d'une étude des ...

  2. Prévention de la violence contre les femmes au Sénégal | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    articles, etc.) à des fins de publication et d'examen par les pairs. Le projet étudiera aussi les possibilités offertes par les technologies de l'information et de la communication, et créera une plateforme Web-SMS pouvant transmettre des alertes.

  3. L'importance des services de garde d'enfants pour améliorer les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    accroissement des possibilités et l'autonomisation économiques des femmes. Organisée par Shelley Clark and Sarah Brauner-Otto, professeures à l'Université McGill, la conférence s'inscrivait dans le cadre du programme ...

  4. Une proposition de nouveau cartogramme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Badel


    Full Text Available Le cartogramme proposé est une technique de recherche-exploration rapide grâce aux possibilités offertes par le micro-ordinateur et sa diffusion. La propriété foncière en vallée d'Aure lui sert de support.

  5. Représentation des flux en C.A.O.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élisabeth RENAULT


    Full Text Available La technologie offerte par l'informatique graphique permet un regard neuf sur un domaine particulier de la cartographie : la représentation des flux. Plusieurs exemples montrent quelques-unes des possibilités envisagées dans la conception d'un logiciel spécialisé.

  6. The Electric Sheep Nightmare. J. G. Ballard and the Perverse Use of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Chiurato


    Unendo i due aspetti si cercherà infine di dimostrare come la costante riflessione sul cambiamento tecnologico abbia portato Ballard non tanto a un semplice aggiornamento dei motivi e delle tematiche tradizionali della science fiction, quanto piuttosto ad una più generale reinterpretazione dei limiti e delle possibilità conoscitive del genere stesso.

  7. Introduction à la relativité

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, James H


    D'une grande qualité pédagogique, ce livre explique clairement et de façon détaillée les notions de base de la relativité. Il contient de nombreux exercices, tous corrigés, donnant ainsi au lecteur la possibilité de tester sa compréhension du sujet.

  8. 1233-IJBCS-Article-Kouassi Ahoussi Ernest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    disposition permet de garantir la protection de la nappe phréatique et les réserves qui alimentent la ville d'Abidjan en eau potable. Cependant, compte tenu des écoulements souterrains et la possibilité de transferts de fluide entre les milieux discontinus (socle cristallin et cristallophyllien) et continus. (bassin sédimentaire) ...

  9. Advanced Non-Intrusive Instrumentation for Propulsion Engines (United States)


    alternances des echos. Une possibilite plus comfortable reside en une modification des conditions de sollicitations electriques du capteur. Q: Hors of the incident beam. But this is only true for ideal dipole scatterers (see figure 12). 48-6 cff(x)=-(<&.-+a») ■ c(x) • I(x)dx (14

  10. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have led to what is now commonly referred to as the Apnea. Hypothesis for SIDS, and the resultant current interven- tion method of home apnea monitoring. ... pas au clinicien l'opportunite d'intervention, on a mis l'accent, dans cette communication, sur la possibilite d'identifier au prealable tout enfant predispose a ce deces ...

  11. Appel à propositions : Innovations pour l'inclusion économique des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    20 mars 2018 ... Les gouvernements et les organismes de coopération internationale ont pris des mesures pour promouvoir les possibilités auprès des jeunes, mais dans la plupart des cas, ils ont du mal à joindre les jeunes marginalisés car ils ne comprennent pas leurs priorités, leurs motivations et leurs aspirations.

  12. Ouverture du cyberespace - la génération numérique, la démocratie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En Amérique latine, les groupes criminels transnationaux et les narcotrafiquants utilisent souvent le cyberespace, faisant ainsi peser des menaces sur l'État. Dans cette région, les deux tiers des internautes ont moins de 25 ans, et 84 % des internautes utilisent Facebook. Les possibilités de fraude et de cybercriminalité se ...

  13. Plans d'action sur l'adaptation aux changements climatiques pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les plans seront mis à la disposition du Natural Resources Defense Council et de l'Indian Institute of Public Health pour permettre d'analyser la possibilité de les appliquer à d'autres villes en Inde. Project ID. 108453. Project status. Active. Duration. 36 months. IDRC Officer. Melanie Robertson. Total funding. CA$ 1,001,800 ...

  14. Résultats de recherche | Page 15 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La croissance exponentielle de la capacité de stockage des données conjuguée à l'essor des médias sociaux et à la multiplication des applications commerciales en ligne offrent aux entreprises et aux gouvernements la possibilité d'interce. Projet ...

  15. HealthBridge : Information and Communication Technologies for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to improve data management from the point where data are first collected, through entry, cleaning and archiving, thereby increasing the efficiency and accuracy of data collection and analysis. The key ... L'importance des services de garde d'enfants pour améliorer les possibilités économiques des femmes.

  16. Ce que nous faisons | Page 115 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    impartition des processus administratifs (IPA), qui représente plus 130 milliards de dollars dans le monde, offre à un pays en développement des possibilités économiques considérables sur le plan de la production de la richesse et de la création ...

  17. Health | Page 28 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Telemedicine offers solutions for emergency medical assistance, long-distance consultation, administration and logistics, supervision and quality assurance, and ... En rapprochant les gens les uns des autres, les technologies des télécommunications donnent la possibilité d'améliorer à la fois la qualité des services et ...

  18. The alternative world of Michel Houellebecq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, Boukje; Vidal, Ricarda; Cornils, Ingo


    "In La possibilité d’une île , Houellebecq describes the fall of humanity and the emergence of a society of neo-humans. These neo-humans are a result of the scientific efforts of the Elohimites, a religious cult. The Elohimites preserve their genetic material for the future in order to gain

  19. South of Sahara | Page 142 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Le savoir offre aux jeunes des milieux urbains d'autres possibilités que la criminalité. Language French. An in-depth look at youth violence points to a variety of solutions to prevent crime, including mental health support, building community trust, keeping kids in school, and creating job opportunities.

  20. Anticariogenic activity and phytochemical studies of crude extract from some Indian plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh K Barad


    Full Text Available To screen the selected Indian plants for their antibacterial efficacy against four cariogenic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus (MTCC- 447, Lactobacillus casei (MTCC-1423, Streptococcus mutans (MTCC-890 and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96.To identify and characterize active principle present in these plants for the treatment of dental caries.he dried plant leaves materials are extracted by cold extraction using hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water. The solvents were evaporated and the dried masses were suspended in DMSO and used for anticariogenic activity by agar well diffusion method. MIC was evaluated by two-fold serial broth dilution method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of effective extract was carried out by TLC and bioautography.Ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Eucalyptus globules was found most effective against Lactobacillus acidophilus with MIC value 31 and micro;g/ml and 62 and micro;g/ml respectively. Ethyl acetate extracts of Acacia nilotica and methanolic extract of Eucalyptus globules also exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei with MIC value of 50 and micro;g/ml. Qualitative analysis of E. globules revealed presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and cardiac glycosides. The active principle responsible for the anticariogenic activity from E. globules were separated by TLC and subjected to bioautography using SMU, LA and LC.Anticariogenic activity and preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed that E. globule have potential to treat dental caries. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 85-90

  1. Anticariogenic activity and phytochemical studies of crude extract from some Indian plant leaves. (United States)

    Barad, Mahesh K; Ishnava, Kalpesh B; Chauhan, Jenabhai B


    The aim was to screen the selected Indian plants for their antibacterial efficacy against four cariogenic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA)(Microbial Type Culture Collection [MTCC]-*447), Lactobacillus casei (LC) (MTCC-1423), Streptococcus mutans (SMU) (MTCC-890) and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96). To identify and characterize active principle present in these plants for the treatment of dental caries. The dried plant leaves materials are extracted by cold extraction using hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and distilled water. The solvents were evaporated, and the dried masses were suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide and used for anticariogenic activity by agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated by two-fold serial broth dilution method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of effective extract was carried out by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and bioautography. Ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Eucalyptus globules was found most effective against L. acidophilus with MIC value 31 μg/ml and 62 μg/ml, respectively. Ethyl acetate extracts of Acacia nilotica and methanolic extract of E. globules also exhibited antibacterial activity against SMU and L. casei with MIC value of 50 μg/ml. Qualitative analysis of E. globules revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and cardiac glycosides. The active principle responsible for the anticariogenic activity from E. globules were separated by TLC and subjected to bioautography using SMU, LA and LC. Anticariogenic activity and preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed that E. globule have potential to treat dental caries.

  2. Collapse transitions in thermosensitive multi-block copolymers: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanou, Anastassia N.; Tzeli, Despoina S.; Anastasiadis, Spiros H.; Bitsanis, Ioannis A.


    Monte Carlo simulations are performed on a simple cubic lattice to investigate the behavior of a single linear multiblock copolymer chain of various lengths N. The chain of type (A n B n ) m consists of alternating A and B blocks, where A are solvophilic and B are solvophobic and N = 2nm. The conformations are classified in five cases of globule formation by the solvophobic blocks of the chain. The dependence of globule characteristics on the molecular weight and on the number of blocks, which participate in their formation, is examined. The focus is on relative high molecular weight blocks (i.e., N in the range of 500–5000 units) and very differing energetic conditions for the two blocks (very good—almost athermal solvent for A and bad solvent for B). A rich phase behavior is observed as a result of the alternating architecture of the multiblock copolymer chain. We trust that thermodynamic equilibrium has been reached for chains of N up to 2000 units; however, for longer chains kinetic entrapments are observed. The comparison among equivalent globules consisting of different number of B-blocks shows that the more the solvophobic blocks constituting the globule the bigger its radius of gyration and the looser its structure. Comparisons between globules formed by the solvophobic blocks of the multiblock copolymer chain and their homopolymer analogs highlight the important role of the solvophilic A-blocks

  3. Performances and potential of a productive urban green infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gallo


    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni si sta diffondendo anche nelle grandi città Europee, un fenomeno complesso che coinvolge la disciplina dell’architettura: l’agricoltura urbana, ovvero la pratica della coltivazione, di prodotti orticoli “nella città, per la città”. La produzione agricola, trasportata in un contesto urbano, diviene ad oggi una strategia concreta per la riqualificazione delle città grazie a: l’innesco di una rete di attività sociali, ricreative e commerciali, la possibilità di rifunzionalizzazione di spazi privati e pubblici (soprattutto quelli inutilizzati, di creazione di verde condiviso, la possibilità di integrazione con l’ambiente costruito, la valorizzazione di stili di vita sostenibili, l’occasione di educazione e collante sociale, il potenziamento e nuove possibilità all’infrastruttura verde (produttiva. Questo fenomeno necessita dunque di essere studiato per comprenderne e definirne le potenzialità, poiché l’architetto è chiamato a concepire spazi per rispondere a nuove esigenze ed a progettare soluzioni innovative alle diverse scale. Sulla base di tale consapevolezza è stata condotta una ricerca sul tema della riqualificazione della città in chiave sostenibile e sulle nuove tecnologie da mettere in atto finalizzata ad analizzare ed individuare le possibilità dell’agricoltura urbana come strategia innovativa per il potenziamento delle reti verdi nella città, definendo lo spettro di possibilità che questa offre al progettista, e di rimando alla pubblica amministrazione, per una nuova interpretazione della funzione sia dello spazio aperto che del patrimonio costruito.

  4. Condensed State of Heavy Vectorlike Neutrinos. (United States)

    Voloshin, M B


    Some extensions of the standard model suggest the existence of vectorlike fermions whose mass M can be larger by up to several orders of magnitude than the electroweak scale v, and with the Higgs mechanism providing only a small part m of this mass that is a fraction of v. It is shown that in a certain range of the parameters m and M, there exist stable globules of degenerate fermionic matter made from the lighter of the neutral vectorlike leptons (superheavy neutrinos) with a number density much larger than m(h)v(2), with m(h) being the Higgs boson mass. The stability is due to the deformation of the Higgs field inside the globule to values greatly exceeding v. The globules are absolutely stable if the lighter of the vectorlike neutrinos is stable and can be (a part of) the dark matter.

  5. Kinetics of Chain Collapse Induced by Adding Non-Solvent (United States)

    Yang, Zhengnan; Dhinojwala, Ali

    Previous studies have shown that decreasing the temperature of dilute polymer solution below theta condition results in a coil-to-globule transition. This kinetics of this transition involves a formation of a sausage-shaped structure which collapses to a globule (two-stage transition). Here, we have studied this coil-to-globule transition by adding a non-solvent (water) into a solution containing high molecular weight poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in THF. By measuring radius of gyration and hydrodynamic radius, we found a three-stage transition finally forming a multi-chain globular aggregate. We will discuss the kinetics of this transition as a function of concentration of non-solvent and molecular weight.

  6. Polymorphism, microstructure and rheology of butter. Effects of cream heat treatment. (United States)

    Rønholt, Stine; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain; Pedersen, Thomas Bæk; Mortensen, Kell; Knudsen, Jes Christian


    The effect of cream heat treatment prior to butter manufacturing, fluctuating temperatures during storage and presence of fat globules vs. no fat globules was examined in laboratory scale produced butter. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry was used to study crystallization behaviour and nuclear magnetic resonance to measure solid fat content and water droplet size distribution. Furthermore, the crystal structure was linked to the rheological properties and microstructure of the butter using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Butter produced from non-matured cream mainly formed α- and β'-crystals with minor traces of β-crystals. Maturing of the cream caused a transition from α- to β'- and β-form. The rheological behaviour of slow cooled butter deviated from the matured ones by having a lower elastic modulus, caused by a weaker crystal network. Presence of fat globules did not affect the rheological properties significantly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Luminescence response of synthetic opal under femtosecond laser pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasnetsov, M.V.; Bazhenov, V.Yu.; Dmitruk, I.N.; Kudryavtseva, A.D.; Tcherniega, N.V.


    Synthetic opal is an artificial photonic metamaterial composed from spherical globules of amorphous silica (SiO 2 ) about 300 nm in diameter. We report, for the first time to our knowledge, the origin of a narrow luminescence spectral peak (4 nm HWHM) and optical second and third harmonic generation in synthetic opal samples under femtosecond laser excitation (800 nm) at liquid-nitrogen temperature. Stimulated-emission effects are discussed related to the possibility of nanocavity lasing at the condition of the first Mie resonance in a dielectric sphere. - Highlights: • Second harmonic generation in a synthetic opal (amorphous material composed from spherical SiO 2 globules) was observed. • Narrow luminescence peak which we assign to a Mie resonance in a globule was detected at liquid-nitrogen temperature

  8. Isotopic Anomalies in Organic Nanoglobules from Comet 81P/Wild 2: Comparison to Murchison Nanoglobules and Isotopic Anomalies Induced in Terrestrial Organics by Electron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gregorio, B.; Stroud, R; Nittler, L; Alexander, C; Kilcoyne, A; Zega, T


    Nanoglobules are a form of organic matter found in interplanetary dust particles and primitive meteorites and are commonly associated with {sup 15}N and D isotopic anomalies that are suggestive of interstellar processes. We report the discovery of two isotopically-anomalous organic globules from the Stardust collection of particles from Comet 81P/Wild 2 and compare them with nanoglobules from the Murchison CM2 meteorite. One globule from Stardust Cometary Track 80 contains highly aromatic organic matter and a large {sup 15}N anomaly ({delta}{sup 15}N = 1120{per_thousand}). Associated, non-globular, organic matter from this track is less enriched in {sup 15}N and contains a mixture of aromatic and oxidized carbon similar to bulk insoluble organic material (IOM) from primitive meteorites. The second globule, from Cometary Track 2, contains non-aromatic organic matter with abundant nitrile ({single_bond}C{triple_bond}N) and carboxyl ({single_bond}COOH) functional groups. It is significantly enriched in D ({delta}D = 1000{per_thousand}) but has a terrestrial {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N ratio. Experiments indicate that similar D enrichments, unaccompanied by {sup 15}N fractionation, can be reproduced in the laboratory by electron irradiation of epoxy or cyanoacrylate. Thus, a terrestrial origin for this globule cannot be ruled out, and, conversely, exposure to high-energy electron irradiation in space may be an important factor in producing D anomalies in organic materials. For comparison, we report two Murchison globules: one with a large {sup 15}N enrichment and highly aromatic chemistry analogous to the Track 80 globule and the other only moderately enriched in {sup 15}N with IOM-like chemistry. The observation of organic globules in Comet 81P/Wild 2 indicates that comets likely sampled the same reservoirs of organic matter as did the chondrite parent bodies. The observed isotopic anomalies in the globules are most likely preserved signatures of low temperature (<10 K

  9. Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography of extended colloidal networks in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Nielsen, Mikkel; Bøgelund Munk, Merete; Diaz, Ana


    of suitable non-destructive 3D imaging techniques with submicron resolution. We present results of quantitative ptychographic X-ray computed tomography applied to a palm kernel oil based oil-in-water emulsion. The measurements were carried out at ambient pressure and temperature. The 3D structure...... of the extended colloidal network of fat globules was obtained with a resolution of around 300 nm. Through image analysis of the network structure, the fat globule size distribution was computed and compared to previous findings. In further support, the reconstructed electron density values were within 4...

  10. Massive photon properties in 3D photonic crystals, filled by dielectrics or metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, V S


    The optical properties of 3D photonic crystals-artificial opals, consisting of monosized silica globules-have been investigated. The volume between globules was filled by various dielectrics or metals. The dispersion law of electromagnetic waves of this type of crystal has been obtained. It was shown that the sign of photonic mass in globular photonic crystals may be positive or negative for different points on dispersion curves. The value of the effective mass of photons depends on the refractive index of the substance infiltrated into the globular photonic crystal.

  11. Study of thermodynamic and structural properties of a flexible homopolymer chain using advanced Monte Carlo methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammou Amine Bouziane


    Full Text Available We study the thermodynamic and structural properties of a flexible homopolymer chain using both multi canonical Monte Carlo method and Wang-Landau method. In this work, we focus on the coil-globule transition. Starting from a completely random chain, we have obtained a globule for different sizes of the chain. The implementation of these advanced Monte Carlo methods allowed us to obtain a flat histogram in energy space and calculate various thermodynamic quantities such as the density of states, the free energy and the specific heat. Structural quantities such as the radius of gyration where also calculated.

  12. Interactions between Parenteral Lipid Emulsions and Container Surfaces. (United States)

    Gonyon, Thomas; Tomaso, Anthony E; Kotha, Priyanka; Owen, Heather; Patel, Dipa; Carter, Phillip W; Cronin, Jim; Green, John-Bruce D


    To evaluate the relationship between changes in emulsion globule size distributions and container uptake of lipid emulsions in total nutrient admixtures. A total nutrient admixture was prepared from a commercial lipid emulsion, 20% ClinOleic®, separated into glass (borosilicate) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) plastic containers, and then stored at ambient conditions for approximately 24 h. The large globule size distribution was monitored continuously for both containers, and the quantity of triglycerides associated with both containers was measured by liquid chromatography. The changes in mass of the EVA containers were also measured gravimetrically. The volume percent of globules greater than 5 microns in diameter (PFAT5) levels for an emulsion admixture in EVA containers showed a 75% reduction compared to a marginal decrease of PFAT5 when in the glass container. Extraction of the containers showed that the quantity of triglycerides associated with the EVA surfaces steadily increased with emulsion exposure time, while the glass showed a significantly lower triglyceride content compared to the EVA. Gravimetric measurements confirmed that the EVA containers gained significant mass during exposure to the emulsion admixture. A time-dependent decrease in PFAT5 values for an emulsion admixture was associated with container triglyceride absorption where EVA containers had a greater uptake than glass containers. The larger globules appear to absorb preferentially, and the admixture globule size distribution fraction represented by PFAT5 accounts for 15-20% of the total triglyceride adsorption to the container. The goal of this work is to evaluate how emulsions in total nutrition admixtures are affected by the containers within which they are stored. Specifically, the study examines how the emulsion globule size distribution in different containers is related to adsorption or absorption of the lipids onto or into the container. The admixtures were prepared from a

  13. Interfon

    CERN Multimedia



    Dès maintenant préparons les Fêtes … N’oubliez pas que notre Coopérative, comme chaque année, vous offre l’occasion de vous approvisionner en volailles de Bresse. Passez vos commandes dès maintenant : Chapons, dindes, poulets, poulardes, pintades, canards et canettes.   Il est impératif de remplir un Bon de commande. Les commandes seront enregistrées jusqu’au 15 décembre et seront livrées les 22 ou 23 décembre (l’information vous sera communiquée individuellement ultérieurement). La cave Interfon vous propose ses champagnes disponibles dès maintenant : Brut – Demi-sec – Rosé – Millésimé - Prestige – Blancs de blanc. N’attendez pas le dernier moment les retardataires pourraient ne pas êtr...

  14. [Comparative study of the behavior of particulate emissions from diesel and gasoline engines in animal lungs: elimination rate and induction of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase and ethoxycoumarin de-ethylase]. (United States)

    Dehnen, W; Tomingas, R; Kouros, M; Mönch, W


    The emitted particulates of five diesel-engined and two gasoline-engined passenger cars were investigated for the elimination rate from hamster lungs after intratracheal instillation. In addition extracts of these particulates were studied for their influence on the mixed function oxidase activity (MFO; Benzo(a)pyrene Hydroxylase, Ethoxycoumarine Deethylase). Differences in the elimination rates of diesel soot and particulates from gasoline engines were not found. Compared with the blanc the extracts of diesel soot from two vehicles proved to give a moderate increase of the MFO activity, but a significant difference to the blanc was observed with the extracts of the gasoline engines. It should be mentioned that the effects were studied without taking into account the quantitative relations of the emissions in the ambient air. However, the amounts of particulates were extremely high in relation to the natural conditions. In the limits of our test model there is no indication of a higher toxicity of diesel-emissions.

  15. Juvenile Criminal Behavior and Peers’ Influences: A Comparative Study in the Brazilian Context / Conducta delictiva en la adolescencia e influencia de sus pares: un estudio comparativo en el contexto brasileño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rezende Bazon


    Full Text Available This study investigates aspects of living with peers in adolescent offenders in the Brazilian context based on the social and personal control behavior theory developed by Marc Le Blanc and his colleagues. Both comparative and quantitative approaches were used to study two groups: Delinquents/adjudicated and control. A questionnaire developed by Le Blanc and adapted to the reality of the study was applied to 75 participants. A significant level of 0.05 was adopted and the data analysis showed that delinquents developed poor relationships suggesting an experience of greater socio-emotional isolation. This refers to the problematic experience in one of the major developmental tasks of this period. Further studies should be developed to analyze the interactions between the coexisting aspects in the family, at school and with peers.

  16. Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine. (United States)

    Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio


    The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic analysis of loose cluster architecture in grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Robert


    Full Text Available Loose cluster architecture is a well known trait supporting Botrytis resilience by permitting a faster drying of bunches. Furthermore, a loose bunch enables a better application of fungicides into the cluster. The analysis of 150 F1 plants of the superior breeding line GF.GA-47-42 (‘Bacchus' x ‘Seyval blanc' crossed with ‘Villard blanc' segregating for compactness of the cluster was used for QTL analysis. Plenty of QTL were identified reproducibly for two years, QTLs stable over three growing seasons were identified for rachis length, peduncle length, and pedicel length. In a second approach ‘Pinot noir' clones showing variation for cluster architecture were analyzed for differential gene expression. Grown in three different German viticultural areas, loose versus compact clustered ‘Pinot noir' clones showed in gene expression experiments a candidate gene expressed fivefold higher in loosely clustered clones between stages BBCH57 and BBCH71.

  18. Jean‑Paul Rocchi, dir., L’objet identité : épistémologie et transversalité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Safir


    Full Text Available Douze articles précédés d’un long prologue composent ce recueil publié par l’Université de Paris VII. Pour en faire rapidement la synthèse nous dirons en premier lieu qu’ils revendiquent la mise en question radicale des modèles dominants, blanc et hétérosexuel, de la société occidentale et s’interrogent sur les stratégies employées dans la culture américaine pour éviter les polarisations et le binarisme stéréotypé entre blanc(hes et noir(es, pauvres et bourgeois(es, hétéro‑ et homosexuel(l...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Deprez


    Full Text Available Cette variation sur Malevitch trouve son origine dans la lithographie de l'artiste russe intitulée "Troïé". Sur cette lithographie, on distingue un personnage surmontant une virgule, tournant le dos au spectateur et s'enfonçant dans le blanc de la page. J'en ai fait le motif du livret "L'enterrement de Kazimir Malevitch".

  20. First experience with particle-in-cell plasma physics code on ARM-based HPC systems (United States)

    Sáez, Xavier; Soba, Alejandro; Sánchez, Edilberto; Mantsinen, Mervi; Mateo, Sergi; Cela, José M.; Castejón, Francisco


    In this work, we will explore the feasibility of porting a Particle-in-cell code (EUTERPE) to an ARM multi-core platform from the Mont-Blanc project. The used prototype is based on a system-on-chip Samsung Exynos 5 with an integrated GPU. It is the first prototype that could be used for High-Performance Computing (HPC), since it supports double precision and parallel programming languages.

  1. Technicien en audiovisuel (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sous la direction du chef, Gestion des installations, le titulaire gère l'équipement audiovisuel interne du CRDI, en assure la maintenance et offre du soutien ... photo et caméras vidéo numériques;; caméras de transmission de documents et numériseurs;; tableaux blancs électroniques;; systèmes d'interprétation simultanée; ...

  2. The EXILL campaign

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 9, 2015 ... G De France1 A Blanc2 F Drouet3 M Jentschel2 U Köster2 P Mutti2 J M Régis4 G Simpson3 T Soldner2 O Stezowski5 S Leoni6 W Urban2 7 A Vancrayenest3. Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5, France ...

  3. Characterization of Heterogeneities Controlling Transport and Fate of Pollutants in Unconsolidated Sand and Gravel Aquifers: Third Year Report (United States)


    in the clogging of pore throats and decreases in hydraulic conductivity. 3 Fogler and Vaidya (1993) suggested that if the hydraulic conductivity of a... Fogler , H. S., and Vaidya, R.N., 1993, Effects of pH on fines migration and permeability reduction: in Manipulation of Groundwater Colloids for...Well Association, pp. 407-418. Morin, R.H., LeBlanc , D.R., and Teasdale, W.E., 1988, A statistical evaluation of formation disturbance produced by well

  4. 142 Perspective Actionelle Visa-a-Vis L'enseignement du Français ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    29 avr. 2010 ... stratégie, les actes de parole, la compétence (linguistique, sociolinguistique et pragmatique) .... Le tableau blanc interactif (TBI), ou tableau numérique interactif (TNI), nommé aussi parfois tableau pédagogique interactif (TPI), est un système de vidéo projection numérique qui vise à remplacer le tableau ...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N Lamaï, F Royer, JP Chatelon, D Jamon, S Neveu, MF Blanc-Mignon, JJ Rousseau. Vol 10, No 3 (2014), Effets de la remontée des eaux de la nappe phréatique sur l'homme et l'environnement : cas de la région d'El-Oued (SE Algérie), Abstract PDF. B Bouselsal, N Kherici. Vol 9, No 2 (2013), Effets de la teneur en poudre ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RÉSUMÉ. L'artériopathie calcifiée urémique (ACU), une vasculopathie de la peau et du tisu sous cutané potentiellement léthale, est rarement associée à une maladie rénale chronique (MRC) avancée particulièrement chez les patients en hémodialyse. Elle est plus fréquemment rapportée chez les blancs que chez les.

  7. Effet des sels de métaux lourds (chlorure de Cobalt et chlorure de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    30 nov. 2014 ... RESUME. Objectifs : Le présent travail vise à étudier l'action du chlorure de cobalt et du chlorure de mercure sur les différentes fractions lipidiques, l'intégrité structurelle et l'activité fonctionnelle des membranes cellulaires des hépatocytes. Méthodologie et Résultats : Des hépatocytes de rats blancs mâles ...

  8. Where protons will play

    CERN Multimedia

    Holt, Jim


    "On seing the Alps for the first time, Dorothy Parket is reputed to have said, "They're beautiful, but they're dumb". Near the foot of Mont Blanc, the greatest of the alpine peaks, another sizable object is taking shape, also quite beautiful in its way, yet not at all dumb. In fact, its pristine geometries may be instrumental in revealing what have hitherto been some of nature's deepest secrets." (2 pages)

  9. marche et commercialisation du riz local au centre-ouest de la côte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Le marché ivoirien de riz est caractérisé par un déficit chronique. Malgré les efforts déployés par les pouvoirs publics, la production nationale de riz, soit 545 000 tonnes de riz blanc en 2002, ne parvient pas à satisfaire la demande. l'Etat est donc contraint d'importer d'importantes quantités de riz, soit 350 000 tonnes en.

  10. Dee Harley: Harley Farms Goat Dairy


    Rabkin, Sarah


    In the village of Pescadero, forty-five minutes’ drive north of Santa Cruz, Dee Harley runs San Mateo County’s only active dairy. Harley and her staff care for a herd of more than 200 American Alpine goats, crafting the animals’ milk into sought-after cheeses (chevre, feta, ricotta, and fromage blanc) that have consistently garnered awards at national and international competitions. An increasingly popular agritourism destination for denizens of the San Francisco and Monterey Bay Areas, Harle...

  11. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G De France A Blanc F Drouet M Jentschel U Köster P Mutti J M Régis G Simpson T Soldner O Stezowski S Leoni W Urban A Vancrayenest · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. A combination of germanium detectors was installed at the PF1B neutron guide of the ILL to perform prompt spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei ...

  12. Effect of mulching cabbage with banana residues on cabbage yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deux traitements additionnels comprenaient l'application des engrais (100kg N, 50 kg P et 100 kg K ha-1) avec sarclage et paillage à la surface avec du polythène blanc (pas d'intrants d'élements nutritifs). L'ordre des rendements des choux par la pratique de gestion étaient consistant dans les deux saisons suivant l'ordre ...

  13. Field-Grown Grapevine Berries Use Carotenoids and the Associated Xanthophyll Cycles to Acclimate to UV Exposure Differentially in High and Low Light (Shade) Conditions


    Joubert, Chandré; Young, Philip R.; Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A.; Vivier, Melané A.


    Light quantity and quality modulate grapevine development and influence berry metabolic processes. Here we studied light as an information signal for developing and ripening grape berries. A Vitis vinifera Sauvignon Blanc field experiment was used to identify the impacts of UVB on core metabolic processes in the berries under both high light (HL) and low light (LL) microclimates. The primary objective was therefore to identify UVB-specific responses on berry processes and metabolites and dist...

  14. Britain, France and Germany: Priorities for the European Union’s Security and Defense Policy (United States)


    Europe” (Humboldt University, Berlin, 16 May 2006), en /newsroom/latest-news/?view=Speech&id=1893537 (accessed 18 April 2009...Howorth, Prospects for the UK Presidency of the European Union (Paris: Institut francais des relations internationales, 2005), 7, 7; emphasis in the...the Livre Blanc prioritizes a strategic arc of crisis from the Atlantic, via the Mediterranean , to the Persian Gulf and the Horn of Africa, and on to

  15. Annales des Sciences Agronomiques: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seules les illustrations au laser seront acceptées dans le cas de celles dessinées à l'ordinateur, autrement, les illustrations seront faites sur du papier calque à l'encre de Chine. Les tableaux et figures originaux seront envoyés avec deux photocopies. Seules les photographies en noir et blanc et de bonne qualité sont ...

  16. Publications | Page 110 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    De jeunes techniciens en sarraus blancs, penchés sur leur table de travail où sont alignés une douzaine d'ordinateurs, procèdent à une batterie de tests. La scène pourrait se situer dans n'importe quelle entreprise de haute technologie... Sécurité alimentaire — Semences porteuses de menaces ou de solutions ?

  17. Kodumaine multifilm õilmitseb / Mart Rummo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rummo, Mart


    Tähistamaks eesti animafilmi 70. aastapäeva näidatakse täna Kinomajas kuut uut multifilmi : 13-osaline lamenukkfilm "Tulelaeva kulid" (režissöör Mait Laas), Ülo Pikkovi kaks joonisfilmi "Superlove" ja "Peata ratsanik", Priit Tenderi joonisfilm "Mont Blanc", Kaspar Jancise joonisfilm "Romanss" ja Janno Põldma - Heiki Ernitsa laste joonisfilmiseriaali "Lepatriinude jõulud" 5-min. trailer

  18. 171-IJBCS-Article-Dr Rene Bikomo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    2 Chef de Département de Biologie et Physiologie Végétales, Faculté de Sciences,. Université de Yaoundé I, BP. 812 Yaoundé, Cameroun. * Auteur correspondant, E-mail:, Tel (237) 77 65 29 69. RESUME. Les tubercules de deux variétés de macabo (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), le rouge et le blanc, ...

  19. Toxicity of Military Unique Compounds in Aquatic Organisms: An Annotated Bibliography (Studies Published Through 1996) (United States)


    Arthropod/Branchiopoda/ Osteichthyes /Environmental/ Pollutants-Poisoning/Occupational Diseases/Ecology/Oceanography/ Fresh Water/Biochemistry/Biophysics...environment. National Technical Information Service (NTIS): AD Al 01 829/0 Exposure(Physiology)/DNT/Toxic Agents/ Osteichthyes /Sublethal Dosage/ 1985 Bentley et al. 1976 Cairns et al. 1984 Etnier 1986 LeBlanc et al. 1983 Osmosis Cairns et al. 1984 Osteichthyes Defoe et al. 1990

  20. The International Symposium on Equatorial Aeronomy (10th) Held in Antalya, Turkey on May 17-23, 2000 (United States)


    Invited) Gravity Wave Instability Dynam- ics and Mean-Flow Interactions in the Middle and Up- E. Blanc, France per Atmosphere, D. FRITTS. J. Chau ...Session 2: Lower and middle atmosphere C. Hanuise, France dynamics at low latitudes R. Heelis, USA Conveners: J. Chau , R. Lieberman, and J. Roettger...based on M. J. Taylor, H. Takahashi, D. Gobbi, and A. Chemical and Dynamical Processes, Tarun Kumar F. de Medeiros. Pant and R. SRIDHARAN. 13. 17:30-17

  1. Fabrication and thermal stability studies of polyamide 66 containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    sohn et al 1987; Bonin and LeBlanc 1991; Van and De. 1997). The major problems .... 2.3c Combustion test: The vertical burning test was conducted on a CZF-3 horizontal and vertical burning tester, on sheets 127 × 12⋅7 × 3⋅2 mm and 127 × 12⋅7 ×. 1⋅6 mm according to the America National UL 94 test,. ASTM D3801.

  2. 27 CFR 4.92 - Alternative names permitted for temporary use. (United States)


    ..., 1997. Alternative Name/Prime Name Baco 1—Baco noir Baco 22A—Baco blanc Bastardo—Trousseau Black Spanish—Lenoir Burdin 7705—Florental Cayuga—Cayuga White Chancellor noir—Chancellor Chasselas—Chasselas doré Chevrier—Sémillon Chelois noir—Chelois Couderc 71-20—Couderc noir Couderc 299-35—Muscat du Moulin Foch...

  3. Determination of Wine Aroma Compounds by Head Space “In Tube Extraction” Technique and Gas Chromatography (HS-ITEX-GC/MS)


    Luminiţa Vârva; Sonia Socaci; Anca Fărcaş; Liana Salanţă; Ana Viorica Pop Cuceu; Elena Mudura; Maria Tofană


    This study investigates the influence of vintage on the aroma compounds of white wine Episcopal from vineyard Ciumbrud, located in central Transylvania, by a non-destructive head space in tube extraction technique in tandem with GC-MS. The samples selected for analysis come from three consecutive years (2009, 2010 and 2011) from Episcopal assortment, a high quality wine obtained by blending three types of wine varieties: Sauvignon Blanc, Traminer and Pinot Gris. The results reflect the compos...

  4. Secondary Traumatic Stress, Culture and Stigma: Barriers to Self-Initiated Care in the Military Mental Health and Spiritual Care Provider Populations (United States)


    Nursing 17 (2010), 726. 9 Ibid., 726-727. 10 Laura Ting, Jodi M. Jacobson, and Sara Sanders, “Available Supports and Coping Behaviors of Mental /story.asp?id=123245047. Regehr, Cheryl, Vicki LeBlanc, R. Blake Jelley, Irene Barath and Joanne Daciuk. "Previous Trauma...Engagement Among OIF Veterans: A Pilot Trial." Military Medicine 176, no. 6 (June 2011): 613-619. Ting, Laura, Jodi M. Jacobson, and Sara Sanders

  5. Aspect physico-chimique et biochimique Assia Amri, Ali Ladjama et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    solution de miel et le titrage de retour avec de l'acide sulfurique (0,05 N) [6]. La mesure de la teneur en HMF. (Hydroxyméthylfurfural) est basée sur la réaction entre la solution de miel et des solutions de la p-toluidine et l'acide barbiturique et l'absorbance résultante est mesurée par rapport à un blanc à. 550 nm[4].

  6. Validated modeling for German white wine varietal authentication based on headspace solid-phase microextraction online coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry fingerprinting. (United States)

    Springer, A E; Riedl, J; Esslinger, S; Roth, T; Glomb, M A; Fauhl-Hassek, C


    An untargeted analytical approach combined with chemometrics using the volatiles of German white wine was investigated regarding the usefulness for verifying botanical origin. A total of 198 wine samples of Riesling, Müller-Thurgau, Silvaner, Pinot Gris, and Pinot Blanc were examined applying headspace solid-phase microextraction online coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The resultant three-dimensional raw data were processed by available metabolomics software. After data treatment, a partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was validated. External samples were correctly classified for 97% Silvaner, 93% Riesling, 91% Pinot Gris/Blanc, and 80% Müller-Thurgau. This model was related to monoterpenoids, C13-norisoprenoids, and esters. Further, 100% prediction for a two-class model of Riesling versus Pinot Gris/Blanc was confirmed by 74 additional samples measured independently. Hence, the strategy applied was, in particular, reliable and relevant for white wine varietal classification. In addition, the superior classification performance of the Riesling class was revealed.

  7. Efeitos de classe na desigualdade racial no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alcides Figueiredo Santos


    Full Text Available Dans cet article, on analyse le conditionnement qu'exerce la sphère de l'inégalité de classe sur l'inégalité raciale de revenu chez les blancs et les non-blancs (métis et noirs au Brésil. On fait appel à la technique de la régression linéaire en cherchant à percevoir le rôle "modérateur" des catégories de classe dans l'atténuation ou l'exacerbation des effets de race sur le revenu personnel. Il existe un décalage racial favorisant les blancs dans presque toutes les catégories de classe, mais son effet est significativement modéré par la condition de classe. Le décalage racial de revenu est plus grand parmi les postes des classes moyennes et surtout chez les directeurs. Les segments entièrement prolétaires présentent les niveaux plus bas de décalage racial.

  8. The evolution of the Mer de Glace glacier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available L'evolution de Mer de Glace. Au moitie du 19eme siecle les glaciers du Mont Blanc massif ont été cartographiés et étudiés pour la premiere fois. Au cours du temps géologiques on peut estimer la localisation, le volume,les retraites et les avances du glacier.Mer de glace est du temps anciennes un repère pour la population du vallée de l'Arve, et aujourd'hui un indicateur précieux pour l'evaluation du fenomen de réchauffement climatique. Les ages de glace passes influencaient la répartition des glaciers et façonné le paysage du Mont Blanc massif et de la vallée de l'Arve. On peut constaté que le taux de fusion est de plus en plus plus accélére dans la seconde moitié du XXe siècle et vraiment accelere apres 1980. En utilissant les différents modèles 3D et les données climatiques recueillies pour la station météo de Chamonix Mont-Blanc, nous savons que le passé, nous pouvons confirmer cela, et faire les prédictions sur l'évolution future du glacier.

  9. Insights Into French Emergency Planning, Response, and Resilience Procedures From a Hospital Managerial Perspective Following the Paris Terrorist Attacks of Friday, November 13, 2015. (United States)

    Ghanchi, Ali


    On Friday, November 13, 2015, Paris was subjected to a multiple terrorist attack that caused widespread carnage. Although French emergency planning, response, and resilience procedures (Plan Blanc) anticipated crisis management of a major incident, these had to be adapted to the local context of Pitié-Salpêtrière University Teaching Hospital. Health care workers had undergone Plan Blanc training and exercises and it was fortunate that such a drill had occurred on the morning of the attack. The procedures were observed to work well because this type of eventuality had been fully anticipated, and staff performance exceeded expectations owing to prior in-depth training and preparations. Staff performance was also facilitated by overwhelming staff solidarity and professionalism, ensuring the smooth running of crisis management and improving victim survival rates. Although lessons learned are ongoing, an initial debriefing of managers found organizational improvements to be made. These included improvements to the activation of Plan Blanc and how staff were alerted, bed management, emergency morgue facilities, and public relations. In conclusion, our preparations for an eventual terrorist attack on this unprecedented scale ensured a successful medical response. Even though anticipating the unthinkable is difficult, contingency plans are being made to face other possible terrorist threats including chemical or biological agents. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  10. Analysis of factors affecting the final body weight in selected rabbit breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Zawiślak


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effect of breed, feed type and sex, on the final body weight in New Zealand white and Blanc de Termonde rabbits. The experiment was conducted on a farm in the Małopolska Province in the south of Poland. Rabbits of both breeds were kept in identical conditions up to the age of 90 days. However, they were fed using two different methods – with commercial balanced (granulated feed (9.75 MJ, 155 g protein and farm-made feed (9.54 MJ, 157 g protein. Among New Zealand White rabbits, commercial balanced feed was given to 38 males and 42 females, whereas farm-made feed to 37 males and 38 females. Among Blanc de Termonde rabbits, commercial balanced feed was given to 65 males and 68 females, and farm-made feed to 54 males and 60 females. Daily gains were determined for both examined breeds divided into sexes. Then, we calculated interactions between breed and feed type, between breed and sex, as well as between feed type and sex. The mean body weights on the 90th day of fattening differed for both sexes and feed types. For both rabbit breeds, the higher mean final body weight was observed in case of feeding with the commercial balanced feed, whereas the highest body weight (2515.13 g was registered for the females of Blanc de Termonde rabbits.

  11. Preto no branco?: mensuração, relevância e concordância classificatória no país da incerteza racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo O. Muniz


    Full Text Available Dans cet article, on cherche à savoir si, au Brésil, il y a similitude entre des modèles de classement racial selon quatre méthodologies de mensuration avec trois catégories (le blanc, le métis ou le noir ou deux catégories (le blanc ou le noir. L'incertitude taxinomique raciale est illustrée à partir d'estimations statistiquement sûres des probabilités d'être blanc ou noir, dont le contrôle se fait selon des traits individuels, la couleur de la peau des parents et divers schèmes de catégories. Selon les résultats, si différentes méthodes de prélèvement de données sont utilisées dans la construction de la variable couleur de la peau, seuls 50% des sujets affirment leur propre couleur de façon tranchée dans toutes les méthodes. Ces données sont tirées de la Recherche Sociale Brésilienne menée par l'Université Fédérale Fluminense (UFF en 2002, à partir d'un échantillon représentatif de la population nationale, le premier à permettre l'étude en question.

  12. R-HPDC of magnesium alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curle, UA


    Full Text Available different magnesium alloys (AM50A, AM60B, AZ91D) in a first attempt. All as-cast microstructures are characterised more by rosette shaped globules of the primary-(Mg) phase together with Mg(sub17)Al(sub12) as evidence of nonequilibrium cooling rates. Surface...

  13. Evaluation of Some Botanicals to Control Potato Tuber Moth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in all treatments and non-significant differences were observed among them. From this study it can be conclude that Lantana camara, Eucalyptus globules and Pyretherum flowers could be used to protect seed potatoes from potato tuber moth damage in diffused light storage. Keywords: Seed Potato; Potato Tuber Moth; ...

  14. A Herschel view of IC 1396 A: Unveiling the different sequences of star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Getman, Konstantin; Henning, Thomas; Merín, Bruno; Eiroa, Carlos; Rivière-Marichalar, Pablo; Currie, Thayne

    Context. The IC 1396 A globule, located to the west of the young cluster Tr 37, is known to host many very young stars and protostars, and is also assumed to be a site of triggered star formation. Aims: Our aim is to test the triggering mechanisms and sequences leading to star formation in Tr 37 and

  15. Transient human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) interference in CA 125 measurements during monitoring of ovarian cancer patients treated with murine monoclonal antibody.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, A.L.M.; Sweep, F.C.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Olthaar, A.J.; Thomas, C.M.G.


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) on serial CA 125 measurements in serum of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer following single intraperitoneal (IP) therapy with Yttrium-90-labeled human milk fat globule 1 murine monoclonal antibody ((90)Y-muHMFG1) as

  16. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    turing a mylar diaphragm with high pressure argon gas. The globule travels at a speed of 300 m sec and is splatted against an inclined copper substrate. Heat extraction by conduction is efficient and provides cooling rates of the order of. 10 KSec. An adaptation of the Duwez design has been extensively used in. Varanasi ...

  17. The utility of periodic acid schiff with diastase and alcian blue stains on fine needle aspirates of breast and salivary gland neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Panicker


    Conclusion : Intracytoplasmic PAS-D-positive globules may be useful in differentiating benign and malignant lesions of breast. The presence of PAS-D positive granules are useful in differentiating various lesions of salivary glands. AB staining of stromal fragments in pleomorphic adenoma is useful in differentiating it from basal cell adenoma.

  18. The susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains to essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential oils are frequently used for flavour and fragrance in the perfume, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. They are also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils obtained by steam distillation of Rosmarinus officinalis L and Eucalyptus globules ...

  19. DNA compaction by azobenzene-containing surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Kopyshev, Alexey; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana; Morozova, Elena; Lysyakova, Ludmila; Kasyanenko, Nina


    We report on the interaction of cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant with DNA investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and atomic force microscopy. The properties of the surfactant can be controlled with light by reversible switching of the azobenzene unit, incorporated into the surfactant tail, between a hydrophobic trans (visible irradiation) and a hydrophilic cis (UV irradiation) configuration. The influence of the trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene on the compaction process of DNA molecules and the role of both isomers in the formation and colloidal stability of DNA-surfactant complexes is discussed. It is shown that the trans isomer plays a major role in the DNA compaction process. The influence of the cis isomer on the DNA coil configuration is rather small. The construction of a phase diagram of the DNA concentration versus surfactant/DNA charge ratio allows distancing between three major phases: colloidally stable and unstable compacted globules, and extended coil conformation. There is a critical concentration of DNA above which the compacted globules can be hindered from aggregation and precipitation by adding an appropriate amount of the surfactant in the trans configuration. This is because of the compensation of hydrophobicity of the globules with an increasing amount of the surfactant. Below the critical DNA concentration, the compacted globules are colloidally stable and can be reversibly transferred with light to an extended coil state.

  20. Haematological values of appararently healthy sheep and goats as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'age et le sexe influencent remarquablement (P<0.005) sur le taux de globules rouges des chevres. L'age influencait les valurs d' Hemoglobine et d'Hematocrite. L'age et Le sexe influencaient grandement (P<0.01) les valeurs du volume corpusculaire moyenne des cellules. La concentration corpusculaire moyenne de ...