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Sample records for globe artichokes lettuce

  1. The New Report of Artichoke latent virus (ArLV) From Globe Artichoke in Turkey

    ERKAN, Semih; GÜMÜŞ, Mustafa; DUMAN, İbrahim; PAYLAN, İsmail Can; ERGÜN, Müge

    2014-01-01

    n recent years, some of artichoke growers in Aegean region of Turkey stated that globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek) plants in their fields have showed virus-like symptoms. So, in order to identify viruses

  2. Stress -induced biosynthesis of dicaffeoylquinic acids in globe artichoke

    Moglia, A.; Lanteri, S.; Comino, C.; Acquadro, A.; Vos, de C.H.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leaf extracts from globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) have been widely used in medicine as hepatoprotectant and choleretic agents. Globe artichoke leaves represent a natural source of phenolic acids with dicaffeoylquinic acids, such as cynarin (1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid), along

  3. New cropping designs for globe artichoke industry

    Rosario Paolo Mauro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment was carried-out in order to evaluate the effects of two plant arrangements (single vs. twin rows and four plant densities (1.0 -1.2 -1.4 and 1.8 plant m–2 on the agronomical behaviour and head characteristics of three globe artichoke genotypes (Violetto di Sicilia, Harmony F1 and Madrigal F1. The change of the cultivation format toward a high density stand significantly increase yield and yield synchronicity. The twin rows plant arrangement, although reduced total yield, increased the yield synchronicity. Moreover, the cultivation of seed-propagated genotypes (Harmony F1 and Madrigal F1 allowed extending significantly the availability of the heads across the year. On the basis of our results, we can assert that the implementation of a specific scheduling cultivation, based on higher density stands, twin rows plant arrangement and the integration of the traditional early genotypes with the new seed-propagated cultivars, is a promising way to match the requirements of a globe artichoke industrial crop, and to predispose a better mechanization of the cultural practices.

  4. Construction of a reference molecular linkage map of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus).

    Portis, E; Mauromicale, G; Mauro, R; Acquadro, A; Scaglione, D; Lanteri, S

    2009-12-01

    The genome organization of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus), unlike other species belonging to Asteraceae (=Compositae) family (i.e. sunflower, lettuce and chicory), remains largely unexplored. The species is highly heterozygous and suffers marked inbreeding depression when forced to self-fertilize. Thus a two-way pseudo-testcross represents the optimal strategy for linkage analysis. Here, we report linkage maps based on the progeny of a cross between globe artichoke (C. cardunculus var. scolymus) and cultivated cardoon (C. cardunculus var. altilis). The population was genotyped using a variety of PCR-based marker platforms, resulting in the identification of 708 testcross markers suitable for map construction. The male map consisted of 177 loci arranged in 17 major linkage groups, spanning 1,015.5 cM, while female map was built with 326 loci arranged into 20 major linkage groups, spanning 1,486.8 cM. The presence of 84 loci shared between these maps and those previously developed from a cross within globe artichoke allowed for map alignment and the definition of 17 homologous linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid number of the species. This will provide a favourable property for QTL scanning; furthermore, as 25 mapped markers (8%) correspond to coding regions, it has an additional value as functional map and might represent an important genetic tool for candidate gene studies in globe artichoke.

  5. Accumulation of cynaropicrin in globe artichoke and localization ofenzymes involved in its biosynthesis

    Eljounaidi, K.; Comino, C.; Moglia, A.; Cankar, K.; Genre, A.; Hehn, A.; Bourgaud, F.; Beekwilder, J.; Lanteri, S.

    2015-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) belongs to the Asteraceae family, in which one ofthe most biologically significant class of secondary metabolites are sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). Inglobe artichoke the principal STL is the cynaropicrin, which contributes to approximately 80% of

  6. Effects of alternative cropping systems on globe artichoke qualitative traits.

    Spanu, Emanuela; Deligios, Paola A; Azara, Emanuela; Delogu, Giovanna; Ledda, Luigi

    2018-02-01

    Traditionally, globe artichoke cultivation in the Mediterranean basin is based on monoculture and on use of high amounts of nitrogen fertiliser. This raises issues regarding its compatibility with sustainable agriculture. We studied the effect of one typical conventional (CONV) and two alternative cropping systems [globe artichoke in sequence with French bean (NCV1), or in biannual rotation (NCV2) with cauliflower and with a leguminous cover crop in inter-row spaces] on yield, polyphenol and mineral content of globe artichoke heads over two consecutive growing seasons. NCV2 showed statistical differences in terms of fresh product yield with respect to the monoculture systems. In addition, the dihydroxycinnamic acids and dicaffeoylquinic acids of non-conventional samples were one-fold significantly higher than the conventional one. All the samples reported good mineral content, although NCV2 achieved a higher Fe content than conventional throughout the two seasons. After two and three dates of sampling, the CONV samples showed the highest levels of K content. In our study, an acceptable commercial yield and quality of 'Spinoso sardo' were achieved by shifting the common conventional agronomic management to more sustainable ones, by means of an accurate choice of cover crop species and rotations introduced in the systems. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Genetic mapping and annotation of genomic microsatellites isolated from globe artichoke

    Acquadro, A.; Lanteri, S.; Scaglione, D.; Arens, P.F.P.; Vosman, B.; Portis, E.

    2009-01-01

    Cynara cardunculus includes three taxa, the globe artichoke (subsp. scolymus L. Hegi), the cultivated cardoon (var. altilis) and their progenitor, the wild cardoon (var. sylvestris). Globe artichoke is an important component of the Mediterranean rural economy, but its improvement through breeding

  8. Micropropagation of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus).

    Iapichino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and the Americas for its edible young flower heads. Although vegetative propagation by offshoots or by "ovoli" (underground dormant axillary buds) has been the primary method of propagation, the potential for the diffusion of diseases and the phenotypic variability can be very high. The propagation of this species by axillary shoot proliferation from in vitro-cultured meristems produces systemic pathogen-free plants and a higher multiplication rate as compared to that obtained by conventional agamic multiplication. Axillary shoot proliferation can be induced from excised shoot apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog agar solidified medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins, depending on genotype. For the production of virus-free plants, meristems, 0.3-0.8 mm long are excised from shoot apices and surface sterilized. The transfer of artichoke microshoots to a medium lacking cytokinins or with low cytokinin concentration is critical for rooting. Adventitious roots develop within 3-5 weeks after transfer to root induction MS medium containing NAA or IAA at various concentrations. However, in vitro rooting frequency rate is dependent on the genotype and the protocol used. Acclimatization of in vitro microshoots having 3-4 roots is successfully accomplished; plantlets develop new roots in ex vitro conditions and continue to grow.

  9. Phenotypic variability in a population of globe artichoke

    Angélica Reolon da Costa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The existence of variability is a prerequisite for genetic improvement in plants. Globe artichoke is a high nutritious vegetable with medical value, representing a profitable alternative for rural producers. This research was conducted with the aim of evaluating the phenotypic variability in a commercial cultivar of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L established from seeds. Field plants were assessed when primary head reached commercial stage. An amount of 21 quantitative and 5 multicategoric characters were assessed. The quantitative data were submitted to multivariate analysis. For quantitative characters the distance between individuals varied from 3.0 to 50.9, revealing high intrapopulation variability. The greater relative contribution characters for genetic divergence were the primary head fresh mass (79.88% and bottom fresh mass (8.43%. This indicates the possibility of plant selection for head quality in this population. The clustering analysis through UPGMA method, based on quantitative characters, allowed the formation of five groups. For multicategoric traits, the similarity among individuals varied from 1.22% to 100%. Within the existing population variability, it was possible to select plants with superior quantitative traits desirable for in natura consumption, as primary head fresh weight and length, bottom fresh mass, bract basis length and width, as well as non-quantitative traits as round head shape, absence of thorn and presence of violet color in the head.

  10. The isolation and mapping of a novel hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in the globe artichoke chlorogenic acid pathway

    Bourgaud Frédéric

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves of globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. have significant pharmaceutical properties, which mainly result from their high content of polyphenolic compounds such as monocaffeoylquinic and dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQ, and a range of flavonoid compounds. Results Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HQT encoding genes have been isolated from both globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon (GenBank accessions DQ915589 and DQ915590, respectively using CODEHOP and PCR-RACE. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that their sequences belong to one of the major acyltransferase groups (anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase. The heterologous expression of globe artichoke HQT in E. coli showed that this enzyme can catalyze the esterification of quinic acid with caffeoyl-CoA or p-coumaroyl-CoA to generate, respectively, chlorogenic acid (CGA and p-coumaroyl quinate. Real time PCR experiments demonstrated an increase in the expression level of HQT in UV-C treated leaves, and established a correlation between the synthesis of phenolic acids and protection against damage due to abiotic stress. The HQT gene, together with a gene encoding hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT previously isolated from globe artichoke, have been incorporated within the developing globe artichoke linkage maps. Conclusion A novel acyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of CGA in globe artichoke has been isolated, characterized and mapped. This is a good basis for our effort to understand the genetic basis of phenylpropanoid (PP biosynthesis in C. cardunculus.

  11. The isolation and mapping of a novel hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in the globe artichoke chlorogenic acid pathway

    Comino, Cinzia; Hehn, Alain; Moglia, Andrea; Menin, Barbara; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Lanteri, Sergio; Portis, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    Background The leaves of globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) have significant pharmaceutical properties, which mainly result from their high content of polyphenolic compounds such as monocaffeoylquinic and dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQ), and a range of flavonoid compounds. Results Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HQT) encoding genes have been isolated from both globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon (GenBank accessions DQ915589 and DQ915590, respectively) using CODEHOP and PCR-RACE. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that their sequences belong to one of the major acyltransferase groups (anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase). The heterologous expression of globe artichoke HQT in E. coli showed that this enzyme can catalyze the esterification of quinic acid with caffeoyl-CoA or p-coumaroyl-CoA to generate, respectively, chlorogenic acid (CGA) and p-coumaroyl quinate. Real time PCR experiments demonstrated an increase in the expression level of HQT in UV-C treated leaves, and established a correlation between the synthesis of phenolic acids and protection against damage due to abiotic stress. The HQT gene, together with a gene encoding hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) previously isolated from globe artichoke, have been incorporated within the developing globe artichoke linkage maps. Conclusion A novel acyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of CGA in globe artichoke has been isolated, characterized and mapped. This is a good basis for our effort to understand the genetic basis of phenylpropanoid (PP) biosynthesis in C. cardunculus. PMID:19292932

  12. Genetic resources collections of leafy vegetables (lettuce, spinach, chicory, artichoke, asparagus, lamb’s lettuce, rhubarb and rocket salad): composition and gaps

    Treuren, van R.; Coquin, P.; Lohwasser, U.

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce, spinach and chicory are generally considered the main leafy vegetables, while a fourth group denoted by ‘minor leafy vegetables’ includes, amongst others, rocket salad, lamb’s lettuce, asparagus, artichoke and rhubarb. Except in the case of lettuce, central crop databases of leafy

  13. Proteomic Analysis of PEG-Fractionated UV-C Stress-Response Proteins in Globe Artichoke

    Falvo, S.; Acquadro, A.; Albo, A.G.; America, A.H.P.; Lanteri, S.

    2012-01-01

    Plants respond to UV stress by producing antioxidant molecules and by altering their metabolism through the regulation of specific gene family members. Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.-Compositae family) is an attractive model species for studying the protein networks involved in

  14. Globe Artichoke Callus as an Alternative System for the Production of Dicaffeoylquinic Acids

    Moglia, A.; Menin, B.; Comino, C.; Lanteri, S.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Globe artichoke leaves are highly rich in phenolic acids, in particular chlorogenic acid and dicaffeoylquinic acids. The latter are of particular interest since they can exert a stronger antioxidant activity, due to the presence of two adjacent hydroxyl groups on each of their phenolic rings. Plant

  15. In Vitro Callogenesis and Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Globe Artichoke

    Menin, B.; Moglia, A.; Comino, C.; Lanteri, S.; Herpen, van T.W.J.M.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Micropropagation techniques have been widely applied in globe artichoke (C. cardunculus L. var. scolymus), however, efficient protocols for the establishment of in vitro callogenesis and organogenesis, a pre-requisite for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation, have not been set up so far. We

  16. Variation of Phenolic Content in Globe Artichoke in Relation to Biological, Technical and Environmental Factors

    Sara Lombardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, globe artichoke production is prevailingly concentrated in the South and islands, where it provides an important contribution to the agricultural economy. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in this crop as a promising source of polyphenols, a heterogeneous class of secondary metabolites characterized by various healthy properties well-documented in literature. The phenolic fraction, present in the different artichoke plant parts, varies widely in relation to biotic and abiotic factors. Therefore, the present study aimed at evaluating the variation of phenolic content in globe artichoke in relation to biological, technical and environmental factors. Two field-experiments were carried out in Sicily (South Italy in two representative cultivation areas, in order to examine the effects of genotype, head fraction, season conditions, planting density and arrangement on the globe artichoke phenolic concentration. Both the total polyphenols and the individual phenolic compounds detected were notably genotype- dependent. Particularly, the high level of caffeoylquinic acids (chlorogenic acid, among others and apigenin 7- O-glucuronide, reported respectively by “Violetto di Sicilia” and “Romanesco clone C3”, could be used to encourage globe artichoke fresh consumption. Total polyphenols content also resulted more abundant in specific accumulation sites within the inflorescence, such as the floral stem and receptacle, and for most of genotypes it decreased during the second year in response to the different meteorological conditions. Additionally, total polyphenols content significantly and linearly increased as plant density increased from 1.0 to 1.8 plant m-2 and it significantly increased by 13% passing from single to twin rows plant arrangement.

  17. Variation of Phenolic Content in Globe Artichoke in Relation to Biological, Technical and Environmental Factors

    Giovanni Mauromicale

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, globe artichoke production is prevailingly concentrated in the South and islands, where it provides an important contribution to the agricultural economy. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in this crop as a promising source of polyphenols, a heterogeneous class of secondary metabolites characterized by various healthy properties well-documented in literature. The phenolic fraction, present in the different artichoke plant parts, varies widely in relation to biotic and abiotic factors. Therefore, the present study aimed at evaluating the variation of phenolic content in globe artichoke in relation to biological, technical and environmental factors. Two field-experiments were carried out in Sicily (South Italy in two representative cultivation areas, in order to examine the effects of genotype, head fraction, season conditions, planting density and arrangement on the globe artichoke phenolic concentration. Both the total polyphenols and the individual phenolic compounds detected were notably genotype- dependent. Particularly, the high level of caffeoylquinic acids (chlorogenic acid, among others and apigenin 7- O-glucuronide, reported respectively by “Violetto di Sicilia” and “Romanesco clone C3”, could be used to encourage globe artichoke fresh consumption. Total polyphenols content also resulted more abundant in specific accumulation sites within the inflorescence, such as the floral stem and receptacle, and for most of genotypes it decreased during the second year in response to the different meteorological conditions. Additionally, total polyphenols content significantly and linearly increased as plant density increased from 1.0 to 1.8 plant m-2 and it significantly increased by 13% passing from single to twin rows plant arrangement.

  18. Accumulation of cynaropicrin in globe artichoke and localization of enzymes involved in its biosynthesis.

    Eljounaidi, K; Comino, C; Moglia, A; Cankar, K; Genre, A; Hehn, A; Bourgaud, F; Beekwilder, J; Lanteri, S

    2015-10-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) belongs to the Asteraceae family, in which one of the most biologically significant class of secondary metabolites are sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). In globe artichoke the principal STL is the cynaropicrin, which contributes to approximately 80% of its characteristic bitter taste. Cynaropicrin content was assessed in globe artichoke tissues and was observed to accumulate in leaves of different developmental stages. In the receptacle, a progressive decrease was observed during inflorescence development, while the STL could not be detected in the inflorescence bracts. Almost undetectable amounts were found in the roots and inflorescence stems at the commercial stage. Cynaropicrin content was found to correlate with expression of genes encoding CcGAS, CcGAO and CcCOS, which are involved in the STL biosynthesis. A more detailed study of leaf material revealed that cynaropicrin predominantly accumulates in the trichomes, and not in the apoplastic cavity fluids. Analysis of the promoter regions of CcGAO and CcCOS revealed the presence of L1-box motifs, which confers trichome-specific expression in Arabidopsis, suggesting that cynaropicrin is not only stored but also synthesized in trichomes. A transient expression of GFP fusion proteins was performed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants: the CcGAS fluorescence signal was located in the cytoplasm while the CcGAO and CcCOS localized to the endoplasmatic reticulum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Complete chloroplast genome of the multifunctional crop globe artichoke and comparison with other Asteraceae.

    Curci, Pasquale L; De Paola, Domenico; Danzi, Donatella; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    With over 20,000 species, Asteraceae is the second largest plant family. High-throughput sequencing of nuclear and chloroplast genomes has allowed for a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships within large plant families. Here, the globe artichoke chloroplast (cp) genome was obtained by a combination of whole-genome and BAC clone high-throughput sequencing. The artichoke cp genome is 152,529 bp in length, consisting of two single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,155 bp, representing the longest IRs found in the Asteraceae family so far. The large (LSC) and the small (SSC) single-copy regions span 83,578 bp and 18,641 bp, respectively. The artichoke cp sequence was compared to the other eight Asteraceae complete cp genomes available, revealing an IR expansion at the SSC/IR boundary. This expansion consists of 17 bp of the ndhF gene generating an overlap between the ndhF and ycf1 genes. A total of 127 cp simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) were identified in the artichoke cp genome, potentially suitable for future population studies in the Cynara genus. Parsimony-informative regions were evaluated and allowed to place a Cynara species within the Asteraceae family tree. The eight most informative coding regions were also considered and tested for "specific barcode" purpose in the Asteraceae family. Our results highlight the usefulness of cp genome sequencing in exploring plant genome diversity and retrieving reliable molecular resources for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies, as well as for specific barcodes in plants.

  20. Minerals profile of two globe artichoke cultivars as affected by NPK fertilizer regimes.

    Lombardo, Sara; Pandino, Gaetano; Mauromicale, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    Globe artichoke is a proven source of various minerals (such as K, Fe and Zn) in the Mediterranean diet, but their content in response to fertilizer regime has not yet been investigated sufficiently. Thus, we monitored the effect of two contrasting nitrogen/phosphorus/potassium (NPK) fertilizer regimes (one balanced and the other excessive) on the minerals accumulation of 'Apollo' and 'Tema 2000' cultivars, grown in three Sicilian locations ('Landolina', 'Iannarello' and 'Zotto') - South Italy. Except for total nitrogen, the balanced fertilizer regime favoured the accumulation of both macro- and micro-minerals, but with a different extent depending especially on trial location. Particularly, plants grown at 'Iannarello' responded more strongly to the fertilizer regime with respect to K, P, Ca, Fe and Zn accumulation, as a result of its different soil characteristics than the other locations. Providing a balanced supply of nitrogen/phosphorus/potassium via fertilization can enhance the nutritive value of globe artichoke, but taking into account especially soil characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic mapping and identification of QTL for earliness in the globe artichoke/cultivated cardoon complex.

    Portis, Ezio; Scaglione, Davide; Acquadro, Alberto; Mauromicale, Giovanni; Mauro, Rosario; Knapp, Steven J; Lanteri, Sergio

    2012-05-23

    The Asteraceae species Cynara cardunculus (2n = 2x = 34) includes the two fully cross-compatible domesticated taxa globe artichoke (var. scolymus L.) and cultivated cardoon (var. altilis DC). As both are out-pollinators and suffer from marked inbreeding depression, linkage analysis has focussed on the use of a two way pseudo-test cross approach. A set of 172 microsatellite (SSR) loci derived from expressed sequence tag DNA sequence were integrated into the reference C. cardunculus genetic maps, based on segregation among the F1 progeny of a cross between a globe artichoke and a cultivated cardoon. The resulting maps each detected 17 major linkage groups, corresponding to the species' haploid chromosome number. A consensus map based on 66 co-dominant shared loci (64 SSRs and two SNPs) assembled 694 loci, with a mean inter-marker spacing of 2.5 cM. When the maps were used to elucidate the pattern of inheritance of head production earliness, a key commercial trait, seven regions were shown to harbour relevant quantitative trait loci (QTL). Together, these QTL accounted for up to 74% of the overall phenotypic variance. The newly developed consensus as well as the parental genetic maps can accelerate the process of tagging and eventually isolating the genes underlying earliness in both the domesticated C. cardunculus forms. The largest single effect mapped to the same linkage group in each parental maps, and explained about one half of the phenotypic variance, thus representing a good candidate for marker assisted selection.

  2. Effect of nitrogen fertilisation on the overall quality of minimally processed globe artichoke heads.

    Lombardo, Sara; Restuccia, Cristina; Muratore, Giuseppe; Barbagallo, Riccardo N; Licciardello, Fabio; Pandino, Gaetano; Scifò, Giovanna O; Mazzaglia, Agata; Ragonese, Francesca; Mauromicale, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Although nitrogen (N) fertilisation is essential for promoting crop yield, it may also affect the produce quality. Here, the influence of three N fertiliser rates (0 kg ha -1 as a control, 200 kg ha -1 and 400 kg ha -1 referred to as N 0 , N 200 and N 400 , respectively) on the overall quality of minimally processed globe artichoke heads was investigated during refrigerated storage for 12 days. Throughout the storage time, N fertilised samples had higher inulin contents than those unfertilised. In addition, the respiratory quotient of N 200 and N 400 samples was 2-fold and 2.5-fold lower than N 0 ones, whose values were close to the normal range for vegetables. All the samples reported good microbiological standards, although N 200 and N 400 achieved lower mesophilic and psychotropic counts than N 0 throughout the storage time. After 8 and 12 days of refrigerated storage, the N 200 samples showed the highest scores of positive sensory descriptors. A fertiliser level of 200 kg N ha -1 is suitable for obtaining minimally processed globe artichoke heads with good nutritional, sensory and microbiological quality, characterised by low endogenous oxidase activities. Proper packaging systems and procedures are, however, crucial for extending the product shelf-life and, thus, promoting its exportation on a wider scale. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Ontology and diversity of transcript-associated microsatellites mined from a globe artichoke EST database

    Scaglione, Davide; Acquadro, Alberto; Portis, Ezio; Taylor, Christopher A; Lanteri, Sergio; Knapp, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Background The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) is a significant crop in the Mediterranean basin. Despite its commercial importance and its both dietary and pharmaceutical value, knowledge of its genetics and genomics remains scant. Microsatellite markers have become a key tool in genetic and genomic analysis, and we have exploited recently acquired EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence data (Composite Genome Project - CGP) to develop an extensive set of microsatellite markers. Results A unigene assembly was created from over 36,000 globe artichoke EST sequences, containing 6,621 contigs and 12,434 singletons. Over 12,000 of these unigenes were functionally assigned on the basis of homology with Arabidopsis thaliana reference proteins. A total of 4,219 perfect repeats, located within 3,308 unigenes was identified and the gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted some GO term's enrichments among different classes of microsatellites with respect to their position. Sufficient flanking sequence was available to enable the design of primers to amplify 2,311 of these microsatellites, and a set of 300 was tested against a DNA panel derived from 28 C. cardunculus genotypes. Consistent amplification and polymorphism was obtained from 236 of these assays. Their polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.04 to 0.90 (mean 0.66). Between 176 and 198 of the assays were informative in at least one of the three available mapping populations. Conclusion EST-based microsatellites have provided a large set of de novo genetic markers, which show significant amounts of polymorphism both between and within the three taxa of C. cardunculus. They are thus well suited as assays for phylogenetic analysis, the construction of genetic maps, marker-assisted breeding, transcript mapping and other genomic applications in the species. PMID:19785740

  4. The miRNAome of globe artichoke: conserved and novel micro RNAs and target analysis

    De Paola Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant microRNAs (miRNAs are involved in post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of several processes, including the response to biotic and abiotic stress, often contributing to the adaptive response of the plant to adverse conditions. In addition to conserved miRNAs, found in a wide range of plant species a number of novel species-specific miRNAs, displaying lower levels of expression can be found. Due to low abundance, non conserved miRNAs are difficult to identify and isolate using conventional approaches. Conversely, deep-sequencing of small RNA (sRNA libraries can detect even poorly expressed miRNAs. No miRNAs from globe artichoke have been described to date. We analyzed the miRNAome from artichoke by deep sequencing four sRNA libraries obtained from NaCl stressed and control leaves and roots. Results Conserved and novel miRNAs were discovered using accepted criteria. The expression level of selected miRNAs was monitored by quantitative real-time PCR. Targets were predicted and validated for their cleavage site. A total of 122 artichoke miRNAs were identified, 98 (25 families of which were conserved with other plant species, and 24 were novel. Some miRNAs were differentially expressed according to tissue or condition, magnitude of variation after salt stress being more pronounced in roots. Target function was predicted by comparison to Arabidopsis proteins; the 43 targets (23 for novel miRNAs identified included transcription factors and other genes, most of which involved in the response to various stresses. An unusual cleaved transcript was detected for miR393 target, transport inhibitor response 1. Conclusions The miRNAome from artichoke, including novel miRNAs, was unveiled, providing useful information on the expression in different organs and conditions. New target genes were identified. We suggest that the generation of secondary short-interfering RNAs from miR393 target can be a general rule in the plant

  5. Purification and characterization of a milk-clotting aspartic proteinase from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.).

    Llorente, Berta E; Brutti, Cristina B; Caffini, Néstor O

    2004-12-29

    The study of proteinase expression in crude extracts from different organs of the globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) disclosed that enzymes with proteolytic and milk-clotting activity are mainly located in mature flowers. Maximum proteolytic activity was recorded at pH 5.0, and inhibition studies showed that only pepstatin, specific for aspartic proteinases, presented a significant inhibitory effect. Such properties, in addition to easy enzyme inactivation by moderate heating, make this crude protease extract potentially useful for cheese production. Adsorption with activated carbon, together with anion exchange and affinity chromatography, led to the isolation of a heterodimeric milk-clotting proteinase consisting of 30- and 15-kDa subunits. MALDI-TOF MS of the 15-kDa chain determined a 15.358-Da mass, and the terminal amino sequence presented 96% homology with the smaller cardosin A subunit. The amino terminal sequence of the 30-kDa chain proved to be identical to the larger cardosin A subunit. Electrophoresis evidenced proteinase self-processing that was confirmed by immunoblots presenting 62-, 30-, and 15-kDa bands.

  6. The genome-wide identification and transcriptional levels of DNA methyltransferases and demethylases in globe artichoke.

    Gianoglio, Silvia; Moglia, Andrea; Acquadro, Alberto; Comino, Cinzia; Portis, Ezio

    2017-01-01

    Changes to the cytosine methylation status of DNA, driven by the activity of C5 methyltransferases (C5-MTases) and demethylases, exert an important influence over development, transposon movement, gene expression and imprinting. Three groups of C5-MTase enzymes have been identified in plants, namely MET (methyltransferase 1), CMT (chromomethyltransferases) and DRM (domains rearranged methyltransferases). Here the repertoire of genes encoding C5-MTase and demethylase by the globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) is described, based on sequence homology, a phylogenetic analysis and a characterization of their functional domains. A total of ten genes encoding C5-MTase (one MET, five CMTs and four DRMs) and five demethylases was identified. An analysis of their predicted product's protein structure suggested an extensive level of conservation has been retained by the C5-MTases. Transcriptional profiling based on quantitative real time PCR revealed a number of differences between the genes encoding maintenance and de novo methyltransferases, sometimes in a tissue- or development-dependent manner, which implied a degree of functional specialization.

  7. The genome-wide identification and transcriptional levels of DNA methyltransferases and demethylases in globe artichoke.

    Silvia Gianoglio

    Full Text Available Changes to the cytosine methylation status of DNA, driven by the activity of C5 methyltransferases (C5-MTases and demethylases, exert an important influence over development, transposon movement, gene expression and imprinting. Three groups of C5-MTase enzymes have been identified in plants, namely MET (methyltransferase 1, CMT (chromomethyltransferases and DRM (domains rearranged methyltransferases. Here the repertoire of genes encoding C5-MTase and demethylase by the globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus is described, based on sequence homology, a phylogenetic analysis and a characterization of their functional domains. A total of ten genes encoding C5-MTase (one MET, five CMTs and four DRMs and five demethylases was identified. An analysis of their predicted product's protein structure suggested an extensive level of conservation has been retained by the C5-MTases. Transcriptional profiling based on quantitative real time PCR revealed a number of differences between the genes encoding maintenance and de novo methyltransferases, sometimes in a tissue- or development-dependent manner, which implied a degree of functional specialization.

  8. Phenotyping, Genotyping, and Selections within Italian Local Landraces of Romanesco Globe Artichoke

    Paola Crinò

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten Italian globe artichoke clones belonging to the Romanesco typology were characterized in the western coastal area of Italy (Cerveteri, Rome, using a combination of morphological (UPOV descriptors, biochemical (HPLC analysis, and molecular (AFLP, ISSR, and SSR markers traits. Significant differences among clones were found for many of the quantitative and qualitative morphological traits. Multivariate analyses (Principal Component Analysis showed that, of the 47 morphological descriptors assessed, four (i.e., plant height, central flower-head weight, earliness, and total flower-head weight presented a clear grouping of the clones. Biochemical analyses showed that the clones significantly differed in the polyphenolic profiles of the flower-head, with the suggestion that some of these, such as S2, S3, S5, and S18, are more suitable for the fresh market. The clones, clustered by a UPGMA dendrogram based on 393 polymorphic AFLP and ISSR loci, showed that the clones were genetically separated from each other. This highlights the importance of characterizing, evaluating, and conserving autochthonous germplasm for future plant breeding activities. Overall, these studies resulted in the identification of two new clones, selected on the basis of flower-head morphology and earliness. These clones, named Michelangelo and Raffaello, are registered on the Italian National Register of Varieties (DM n. 6135, 3/29/2013 G.U. 91, 18 April 2013.

  9. Isolation and mapping of a C3'H gene (CYP98A49) from globe artichoke, and its expression upon UV-C stress

    Moglia, A.; Comino, C.; Portis, E.; Acquadro, A.; Vos, de C.H.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Lanteri, S.

    2009-01-01

    Globe artichoke represents a natural source of phenolic compounds with dicaffeoylquinic acids along with their biosynthetic precursor chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid) as the predominant molecules. We report the isolation and characterization of a full-length cDNA and promoter of a globe

  10. An approach for understanding the heredity of two quality traits (head color and tightness in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.

    Cravero Vanina Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The inheritance of head color and tightness in globe artichoke was studied utilizing crosses between inbreed lines and between clones and self-pollinated clones from different genetic origins. These genetic materials were sowed in a completely randomized design with 20 plants per plot and genotype. Globe artichoke heads were classified into three colors (purple-green, purple and green and three head tightness types (compact, fairly compact and soft and the segregating ratios for these traits tested in each offspring using the chi-square test. Crosses between green and purple inbreed lines produced only purple-green heads but F2 generation segregated at a purple-green:purple:green ratio of 9:3:4. The self-pollinated compact head clones produced a compact head:fairly compact head:soft head ratio of 12:3:1. The remaining crosses between lines and among clones and backcrosses verified these ratios. These results suggest that two loci with a simple recessive epistasis are involved in the inheritance of head color and that two loci with simple dominant epistasis are involved in the expression of the different head tightness types. The inheritance models proposed here could be helpful in predicting the appearance of artichoke heads if breeders need to obtain hybrid seeds for a desirable phenotype.

  11. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. as cash-cover crop in an organic vegetable system

    Anna LENZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In organic vegetable systems green manure crops play an important role as a nitrogen source, but they cover the soil for several months without producing a direct income. Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. provides both heads to be harvested and particularly abundant plant residues to be possibly incorporated into the soil, so it may play a double role of cash and cover crop. This paper describes an on-farm study in which seed-propagated artichoke, cultivated as an annual crop, preceded zucchini squash and lettuce cultivated in sequence within a vegetable organic system. Artichoke produced about 7 t ha-1 of saleable heads and left, after harvest, 50.3 t ha-1 of fresh biomass usable as green manure. Zucchini squash and lettuce following artichoke showed a significant increase in yield when artichoke residues were incorporated into the soil. Furthermore, a residual positive effect of green manure on soil fertility was detected after lettuce harvest. 

  12. A Genome-Wide Survey of the Microsatellite Content of the Globe Artichoke Genome and the Development of a Web-Based Database

    Portis, Ezio; Portis, Flavio; Valente, Luisa; Moglia, Andrea; Barchi, Lorenzo; Lanteri, Sergio; Acquadro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The recently acquired genome sequence of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) has been used to catalog the genome’s content of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. More than 177,000 perfect SSRs were revealed, equivalent to an overall density across the genome of 244.5 SSRs/Mbp, but some 224,000 imperfect SSRs were also identified. About 21% of these SSRs were complex (two stretches of repeats separated by artichoke accessions, as templates. PMID:27648830

  13. In vitro micropropagation and mycorrhizal treatment influences the polyphenols content profile of globe artichoke under field conditions.

    Pandino, Gaetano; Lombardo, Sara; Antonino, Lo Monaco; Ruta, Claudia; Mauromicale, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    The commercial importance of plant tissue culture has grown in recent years, reflecting its application to vegetative propagation, disease elimination, plant improvement and the production of polyphenols. The level of polyphenols present in plant tissue is influenced by crop genotype, the growing environment, the crop management regime and the post-harvest processing practice. Globe artichoke is a significant component of the Mediterranean Basin agricultural economy, and is rich in polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavones). Most commercially grown plants are derived via vegetative propagation, with its attendant risk of pathogen build-up. Here, a comparison was drawn between the polyphenol profiles of conventionally propagated and micropropagated/mycorrhized globe artichoke plants. Micropropagation/mycorrhization appeared to deliver a higher content of caffeoylquinic acids. The accumulation of these compounds, along with luteolin and its derivatives, was not season-dependent. Luteolin aglycone was accumulated preferentially in the conventionally propagated plants. Overall, it appeared that micropropagation/mycorrhization enhanced the accumulation of polyphenols. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. First detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytological study of leafy cardoon and globe artichoke, two multi-use Asteraceae crops

    Debora Giorgi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally globe artichoke and leafy cardoon have been cultivated for use as vegetables but these crops are now finding multiple new roles in applications ranging from paper production to cheese preparation and biofuel use, with interest in their functional food potential. So far, their chromosome complements have been poorly investigated and a well-defined karyotype was not available. In this paper, a detailed karyo-morphological analysis and molecular cytogenetic studies were conducted on globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus Linnaeus, 1753 var. scolymus Fiori, 1904 and leafy cardoon (C. cardunculus Linneaus, 1753 var. altilis De Candolle, 1838. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization In Suspension (FISHIS was applied to nuclei suspensions as a fast method for screening of labelling probes, before metaphase spread hybridization. Classic Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH on slide, using repetitive telomeric and ribosomal sequences and Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs oligonucleotide as probes, identified homologous chromosome relationships and allowed development of molecular karyotypes for both varieties. The close phylogenetic relationship between globe artichoke and cardoon was supported by the very similar karyotypes but clear chromosomal structural variation was detected. In the light of the recent release of the globe artichoke genome sequencing, these results are relevant for future anchoring of the pseudomolecule sequence assemblies to specific chromosomes. In addition, the DNA content of the two crops has been determined by flow cytometry and a fast method for standard FISH on slide and methodological improvements for nuclei isolation are described.

  15. Genome-wide identification of bahd acyltransferases and in vivo characterization of HQT-like enzymes involved in caffeoylquinic acid synthesis in globe artichoke

    Moglia, Andrea; Acquadro, Alberto; Eljounaidi, Kaouthar; Milani, Anna M.; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Genre, Andrea; Cankar, Katarina; Beekwilder, Jules; Comino, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a rich source of compounds promoting human health (phytonutrients), among them caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), mainly represented by chlorogenic acid (CGA), and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs). The enzymes involved in their biosynthesis belong

  16. In vitro callus-induction in globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) as a system for the production of caffeoylquinic acids

    Menin, B.; Moglia, A.; Comino, C.; Hakkert, J.C.; Lanteri, S.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) provides a rich dietary source of bio-active compounds derived from phenylpropanoid metabolism, notably caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) and flavonoids. Micropropagation techniques have been established for this species, but in vitro cultures have not

  17. Genetic mapping and characterization of the globe artichoke (+)-germacrene A synthase gene, encoding the first dedicated enzyme for biosynthesis of the bitter sesquiterpene lactone cynaropicrin

    Menin, B.; Comino, C.; Portis, E.; Moglia, A.; Cankar, K.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Lanteri, S.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L., Asteraceae) is a perennial crop traditionally consumed as a vegetable in the Mediterranean countries and rich in nutraceutically and pharmaceutically active compounds, including phenolic and terpenoid compounds. Its bitter taste is caused by its

  18. Dynamics of flowering of artichoke globe (Cynara scolymus L. plants in depending on cultivation method

    Andrzej Sałata

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the years 2001-2002 in the Felin Research Center in Lublin. The differences in growth dynamics and morphology of flowering shoots were investigated with regards to a method of cultivation of artichoke. In the year 2001 flowering shoots and flowers occurred the earliest in the year 2001 on artichoke plants cultivated from crowns. In the year 2002 plants cultivated from crowns and transplants produced flowering shoots in the same time. Artichoke plants cultivated from transplants produced flowers earlier than those obtained from crowns. Plants grown from seeds sown in the ground did not produce flowering shoots. They remained as leaves through the whole vegetation period. Definitely more anthodiums produced plants those cultivated from crowns in comparison with obtained from transplants and seeds. Anthodiums which developed on shoots of plants cultivated from transplants and cuttings characterized bigger average height and diameter than anthodiums of plants cultivated from crowns. Artichoke plants differed in the number of leaves. More leaves of smaller length produced plants cultivated from transplants than plants obtained from cuttings and crowns.

  19. Genome-Wide Identification of BAHD Acyltransferases and In vivo Characterization of HQT-like Enzymes Involved in Caffeoylquinic Acid Synthesis in Globe Artichoke

    Moglia, Andrea; Acquadro, Alberto; Eljounaidi, Kaouthar; Milani, Anna M.; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Genre, Andrea; Cankar, Katarina; Beekwilder, Jules; Comino, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a rich source of compounds promoting human health (phytonutrients), among them caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), mainly represented by chlorogenic acid (CGA), and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs). The enzymes involved in their biosynthesis belong to the large family of BAHD acyltransferases. Following a survey of the globe artichoke genome, we identified 69 BAHD proteins carrying the catalytic site (HXXXD). Their phylogenetic analysis together with another 43 proteins, from 21 species, representative of the BAHD family, highlighted their grouping in seven major clades. Nine globe artichoke acyltransferases clustered in a sub-group of Clade V, with 3 belonging to hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and 2 to hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) like proteins. We focused our attention on the former, HQT1, HQT2, and HQT3, as they are known to play a key role in CGA biosynthesis. The expression of genes coding for the three HQTs and correlation of expression with the CQA content is reported for different globe artichoke tissues. For the first time in the globe artichoke, we developed and applied the virus-induced gene silencing approach with the goal of assessing in vivo the effect of HQT1 silencing, which resulted in a marked reduction of both CGA and diCQAs. On the other hand, when the role of the three HQTs was assessed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana through their transient overexpression, significant increases in mono- and diCQAs content were observed. Using transient GFP fusion proteins expressed in N. benthamiana leaves we also established the sub-cellular localization of these three enzymes. PMID:27721818

  20. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers synthesize the full spectrum of inulin molecules naturally occurring in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) roots

    Hellwege, Elke M.; Czapla, Sylvia; Jahnke, Anuschka; Willmitzer, Lothar; Heyer, Arnd G.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to synthesize high molecular weight inulin was transferred to potato plants via constitutive expression of the 1-SST (sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase) and the 1-FFT (fructan: fructan 1-fructosyltransferase) genes of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus). The fructan pattern of tubers from transgenic potato plants represents the full spectrum of inulin molecules present in artichoke roots as shown by high-performance anion exchange chromatography, as well as size exclusion chromatography. These results demonstrate in planta that the enzymes sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase are sufficient to synthesize inulin molecules of all chain lengths naturally occurring in a given plant species. Inulin made up 5% of the dry weight of transgenic tubers, and a low level of fructan production also was observed in fully expanded leaves. Although inulin accumulation did not influence the sucrose concentration in leaves or tubers, a reduction in starch content occurred in transgenic tubers, indicating that inulin synthesis did not increase the storage capacity of the tubers. PMID:10890908

  1. The genome sequence of the outbreeding globe artichoke constructed de novo incorporating a phase-aware low-pass sequencing strategy of F1 progeny

    Scaglione, Davide; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Acquadro, Alberto; Froenicke, Lutz; Portis, Ezio; Beitel, Christopher; Tirone, Matteo; Mauro, Rosario; Lo Monaco, Antonino; Mauromicale, Giovanni; Faccioli, Primetta; Cattivelli, Luigi; Rieseberg, Loren; Michelmore, Richard; Lanteri, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) is an out-crossing, perennial, multi-use crop species that is grown worldwide and belongs to the Compositae, one of the most successful Angiosperm families. We describe the first genome sequence of globe artichoke. The assembly, comprising of 13,588 scaffolds covering 725 of the 1,084 Mb genome, was generated using ~133-fold Illumina sequencing data and encodes 26,889 predicted genes. Re-sequencing (30×) of globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon (C. cardunculus var. altilis) parental genotypes and low-coverage (0.5 to 1×) genotyping-by-sequencing of 163 F1 individuals resulted in 73% of the assembled genome being anchored in 2,178 genetic bins ordered along 17 chromosomal pseudomolecules. This was achieved using a novel pipeline, SOILoCo (Scaffold Ordering by Imputation with Low Coverage), to detect heterozygous regions and assign parental haplotypes with low sequencing read depth and of unknown phase. SOILoCo provides a powerful tool for de novo genome analysis of outcrossing species. Our data will enable genome-scale analyses of evolutionary processes among crops, weeds, and wild species within and beyond the Compositae, and will facilitate the identification of economically important genes from related species. PMID:26786968

  2. Chemical and morphological characteristics of new clones and commercial varieties of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus).

    Pandino, Gaetano; Lombardo, Sara; Mauromicale, Giovanni

    2011-09-01

    The globe artichoke is a widely consumed vegetable in the Mediterranean Basin, with Italy being the leading producer. In southern Italy, its cultivation contributes to local economic stability and social development. The producers are increasingly choosing to replace autochthonous varieties, such as 'Violetto di Sicilia', with cultivars bred or selected outside of the region, putting pressure on the maintenance of traditional varieties. Here, we have undertaken a detailed morphological and chemical analysis of a group of clones selected from a population of 'Violetto di Sicilia'. All the traits measured displayed genetic variation, particularly the total content of phenolics and minerals. The capitula of the 'Violetto di Sicilia' clones contained, on average, 6.3 g kg(-1) of fresh weight total phenolics, compared with 4.5 g kg(-1) in the two commercial varieties. The clones also had more inulin than commercial varieties (254 vs. 225 g kg(-1) of dry matter), as well as a good mineral content. The set of clones is of interest in the context of the proposed improvement of the crop through breeding and selection of genotypes with high nutritional quality and a specific end-use (industrial processing or fresh consumption).

  3. Extensive characterisation of bioactive phenolic constituents from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS.

    Abu-Reidah, Ibrahim M; Arráez-Román, David; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to characterise the phenolic compounds in artichoke (hearts) by using HPLC coupled to DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS, which proved useful in characterising 61 phenolic and other polar compounds. Notably, of the 61 compounds characterised, 34 new phenolic compounds with their isomers have been tentatively characterised in artichoke for the first time, namely: 3 hydroxybenzoic acids, 17 hydroxycinnamic acids, 4 lignans, 7 flavones, 2 flavonols, and 1 phenol derivative. Moreover, a total of 28 isomers of previously described phenolics have also been detected. The data compiled from the qualitative polyphenol characterisation indicate that the artichoke extract analysed (Blanca de Tudela variety) could be regarded as a bioactive functional food and also as a promising source of antioxidant phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of self-pollination and capitula characteristics in globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus Hayek L. under different irrigation regimes

    Nouraei, Sina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the drought effects on capitula characteristics and self-pollination of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus Hayek L., the randomized complete block design was carried out with three irrigation regimes (20 %, 50 % and 80 % depletion of soil available water and six replicates. The artichoke is mostly open-pollinated, however, after covering the buds and isolation of flowers to prevent cross pollination, 1.79 % self-pollination was observed and this amount was not affected by different irrigation regimes. In stress conditions (50 % and 80 % water depletion as well as non-stress condition (20 % water depletion, plants with respectively one and two medium capitula and without small capitula had most relative frequencies in the population and drought stress increased these relative frequencies by reducing the number of medium and small capitula in plants. In addition, Capitula size and dry weight were significantly affected by water stress. Water shortage induced severe decrease in length and dry weight of all capitula including large, medium and small, although capitula width was less affected by water deficit and only slight decline in medium (12.5 % and small capitula (23.7 % was observed under severe stress condition.

  5. Increase globe artichoke cropping sustainability using sub-surface drip-irrigation systems in a Mediterranean coastal area for reducing groundwater withdrawal

    Mantino, Alberto; Marchina, Chiara; Bonari, Enrico; Fabbrizzi, Alessandro; Rossetto, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades in coastal areas of the Mediterranean basin, human growth posed severe stresses on freshwater resources due to increasing demand by agricultural, industrial and civil activities, in particular on groundwater. This in turn led to worsening of water quality, loss/reduction of wetlands, up to soil salinization and abandonment of agricultural areas. Within the EU LIFE REWAT project a number of demonstration measures will take place in the lower Cornia valley (Livorno, Italy), both structural (pilot) and non-structural (education, dissemination and capacity building), aiming at achieving sustainable and participated water management. In particular, the five demonstration actions are related to: (1) set up of a managed aquifer recharge facility, (2) restoration of a Cornia river reach, (3) water saving in the civil water supply sector, (4) water saving in agriculture, (5) reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation purposes. Thus, the REWAT project general objective is to develop a new model of governance for sustainable development of the lower Cornia valley based on the water asset at its core. As per water use in agriculture, the lower Cornia valley is well known for the horticultural production. In this regard, globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus L. (Fiori)) crops, a perennial cool-season vegetable, cover a surface of about 600 ha. In order to increase stability and productivity of the crop, about 2000 - 4000 m3 ha-1 yr-1 of irrigation water is required. Recent studies demonstrated that yield of different crops increases using Sub-surface Drip-Irrigation (SDI) system under high frequency irrigation management enhancing water use efficiency. In the SDI systems, the irrigation water is delivered to the plant root zone, below the soil surface by buried plastic tubes containing embedded emitters located at regular spacing. Within the LIFE REWAT, the specific objectives of the pilot on irrigation efficiency is to (i) demonstrate the

  6. A first linkage map of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) based on AFLP, S-SAP, M-AFLP and microsatellite markers.

    Lanteri, S; Acquadro, A; Comino, C; Mauro, R; Mauromicale, G; Portis, E

    2006-05-01

    We present the first genetic maps of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L. 2n=2x=34), constructed with a two-way pseudo-testcross strategy. A F1 mapping population of 94 individuals was generated between a late-maturing, non-spiny type and an early-maturing spiny type. The 30 AFLP, 13 M-AFLP and 9 S-SAP primer combinations chosen identified, respectively, 352, 38 and 41 polymorphic markers. Of 32 microsatellite primer pairs tested, 12 identified heterozygous loci in one or other parent, and 7 were fully informative as they segregated in both parents. The female parent map comprised 204 loci, spread over 18 linkage groups and spanned 1330.5 cM with a mean marker density of 6.5 cM. The equivalent figures for the male parent map were 180 loci, 17 linkage groups, 1239.4 and 6.9 cM. About 3% of the AFLP and AFLP-derived markers displayed segregation distortion with a P value below 0.01, and were not used for map construction. All the SSR loci were included in the linkage analysis, although one locus did show some segregation distortion. The presence of 78 markers in common to both maps allowed the alignment of 16 linkage groups. The maps generated provide a firm basis for the mapping of agriculturally relevant traits, which will then open the way for the application of a marker-assisted selection breeding strategy in this species.

  7. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to establish the bifidogenic effect of a very-long-chain inulin extracted from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) in healthy human subjects.

    Costabile, Adele; Kolida, Sofia; Klinder, Annett; Gietl, Eva; Bäuerlein, Michael; Frohberg, Claus; Landschütze, Volker; Gibson, Glenn R

    2010-10-01

    There is growing interest in the use of inulins as substrates for the selective growth of beneficial gut bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli because recent studies have established that their prebiotic effect is linked to several health benefits. In the present study, the impact of a very-long-chain inulin (VLCI), derived from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus), on the human intestinal microbiota compared with maltodextrin was determined. A double-blind, cross-over study was carried out in thirty-two healthy adults who were randomised into two groups and consumed 10 g/d of either VLCI or maltodextrin, for two 3-week study periods, separated by a 3-week washout period. Numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher upon VLCI ingestion compared with the placebo. Additionally, levels of Atopobium group significantly increased, while Bacteroides-Prevotella numbers were significantly reduced. No significant changes in faecal SCFA concentrations were observed. There were no adverse gastrointestinal symptoms apart from a significant increase in mild and moderate bloating upon VLCI ingestion. These observations were also confirmed by in vitro gas production measurements. In conclusion, daily consumption of VLCI extracted from globe artichoke exerted a pronounced prebiotic effect on the human faecal microbiota composition and was well tolerated by all volunteers.

  8. Analysis of antioxidative phenolic compounds in artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.).

    Wang, Mingfu; Simon, James E; Aviles, Irma Fabiola; He, Kan; Zheng, Qun-Yi; Tadmor, Yaakov

    2003-01-29

    Artichoke leaf is an herbal medicine known for a long time. A systematic antioxidant activity-directed fractionation procedure was used to purify antioxidative components from the aqueous methanol extractions of artichoke heads and leaves in this study. Seven active polyphenolic compounds were purified from artichoke, and structural elucidation of each was achieved using MS and NMR. Two of these compounds, apigenin-7-rutinoside and narirutin, were found to be unique to artichoke heads, this represents the first report of these compounds in the edible portion of this plant. The contents of these antioxidants and total phenols in dried artichoke samples from leaves and immature and mature heads of three varieties, Imperial Star, Green Globe, and Violet, were then analyzed and compared by colorimetric and validated HPLC methods. Significant differences by variety and plant organ were observed.

  9. Growth and Ripening of Globe Artichoke Achens

    Yehuda Basnizki

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Under dry summer eastern Mediterranean conditions, the growth and ripening of seeds (from flowering onward can proceed without supply of water. The leaves and capitule bearing stems dry out while the receptacles stay moist and allow seed ripening. The functioning of the various capitule components was examined.

  10. Population structure of Cynara cardunculus complex and the origin of the conspecific crops artichoke and cardoon

    Gatto, Angela; De Paola, Domenico; Bagnoli, Francesca; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Globe artichoke and leafy cardoon, two crops within the same species Cynara cardunculus, are traditionally cultivated in the Mediterranean region and play a significant role in the agricultural economy of this area. The two cultigens have different reproductive systems: artichoke is generally vegetatively propagated, while leafy cardoon is seed propagated. The domestication events underlying the origin of both artichoke and cultivated cardoon from their wild relative and the area of occurrence are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate population structure in wild cardoon, globe artichoke and leafy cardoon material and infer domestication events. Methods Thirty-five microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) markers, distributed in the C. cardunculus genome, and a large geographical and numerical sampling in southern Europe and North Africa were used to assess population structure and diversity. Key Results The results suggest the presence of two distinct domestication events for artichoke and leafy cardoon, and also suggest a new possible scenario, with western wild cardoon having originated from cultivated cardoon escaped from cultivation. Evidence was found for a demographic bottleneck in the past history of globe artichoke. Conclusions The results shed new light on the relationships between the three taxa of C. cardunculus and highlight relevant aspects on the evolution of domestication of two crops with a different reproductive system within the same species. It is proposed that the probable centre of origin of artichoke is located in southern Italy, probably Sicily. PMID:23877076

  11. Population structure of Cynara cardunculus complex and the origin of the conspecific crops artichoke and cardoon.

    Gatto, Angela; De Paola, Domenico; Bagnoli, Francesca; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2013-09-01

    Globe artichoke and leafy cardoon, two crops within the same species Cynara cardunculus, are traditionally cultivated in the Mediterranean region and play a significant role in the agricultural economy of this area. The two cultigens have different reproductive systems: artichoke is generally vegetatively propagated, while leafy cardoon is seed propagated. The domestication events underlying the origin of both artichoke and cultivated cardoon from their wild relative and the area of occurrence are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate population structure in wild cardoon, globe artichoke and leafy cardoon material and infer domestication events. Thirty-five microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) markers, distributed in the C. cardunculus genome, and a large geographical and numerical sampling in southern Europe and North Africa were used to assess population structure and diversity. The results suggest the presence of two distinct domestication events for artichoke and leafy cardoon, and also suggest a new possible scenario, with western wild cardoon having originated from cultivated cardoon escaped from cultivation. Evidence was found for a demographic bottleneck in the past history of globe artichoke. The results shed new light on the relationships between the three taxa of C. cardunculus and highlight relevant aspects on the evolution of domestication of two crops with a different reproductive system within the same species. It is proposed that the probable centre of origin of artichoke is located in southern Italy, probably Sicily.

  12. Potential Biogas Production from Artichoke Byproducts in Sardinia, Italy

    Fabio De Menna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at evaluating the potential biogas production, both in terms of CH4 and theoretical energy potential, from globe artichoke agricultural byproducts in Sardinia. Field data about the productivity of byproducts were collected on five artichoke varieties cultivated in Sardinia, to assess the biomethane production of their aboveground non-food parts (excluding the head. Moreover, secondary data from previous studies and surveys at regional scale were collected to evaluate the potential biogas production of the different districts. Fresh globe artichoke residues yielded, on average, 292.2 Nm3·tDOM−1, with dissimilarities among cultivars. Fresh samples were analyzed in two series: (a wet basis; and (b wet basis with catalytic enzymes application. Enzymes proved to have some beneficial effects in terms of anticipated biomethane availability. At the regional level, ab. 20 × 106 Nm3 CH4 could be produced, corresponding to the 60% of current installed capacity. However, districts potentials show some differences, depending on the specific biomass partitioning and on the productivity of cultivated varieties. Regional assessments should encompass the sensitiveness of results to agro-economic variables and the economic impacts of globe artichoke residue use in the current regional biogas sector.

  13. Globe Rupture

    Reid Honda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 46-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED with severe left eye pain and decreased vision after tripping and striking the left side of his head on the corner of his wooden nightstand. The patient arrived as an inter-facility transfer for a suspected globe rupture with a protective eye covering in place; thus, further physical examination of the eye was not performed by the emergency physician in order to avoid further leakage of aqueous humor. Significant findings: The patient’s computed tomography (CT head demonstrated a deformed left globe, concerning for ruptured globe. The patient had hyperdense material in the posterior segment (see green arrow, consistent with vitreous hemorrhage. CT findings that are consistent with globe rupture may include a collapsed globe, intraocular air, or foreign bodies. Discussion: A globe rupture is a full-thickness defect in the cornea, sclera, or both.1 It is an ophthalmologic emergency. Globe ruptures are almost always secondary to direct perforation via a penetrating mechanism; however, it can occur due to blunt injury if the force generated creates sufficient intraocular pressure to tear the sclera.2 Globes most commonly rupture at the insertions of the intraocular muscles or at the limbus. They are associated with a high rate of concomitant orbital floor fractures.2,3 Possible physical examination findings include a shallow anterior chamber on slit-lamp exam, hyphema, and an irregular “teardrop” pupil. Additionally, a positive Seidel sign, which is performed by instilling fluorescein in the eye and then examining for a dark stream of aqueous humor, is indicative of a globe rupture.4 CT is often used to assess for globe rupture; finds of a foreign body, intraocular air, abnormal contour or volume of the globe, or disruption of the sclera suggest globe rupture.2 The sensitivity of CT scan for diagnosis of globe rupture is only 75%; thus, high clinical

  14. White mold of Jerusalem artichoke

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a Native American food plant closely related to the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are increasingly available in retail grocery outlets. White mold (Sclerotinia stem rot), caused by the fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotioru...

  15. Lettuce breeding

    In the 2016-2017 period, major efforts targeted resistance to lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia species, Verticillium wilt, Fusarium wilt, bacterial leaf spot, corky root, downy mildew, drought tolerance, lettuce aphid, tipburn, shelf-life of salad-cut lettuce, and multiple disease resistance. Resi...

  16. Genetic map of artichoke × wild cardoon: toward a consensus map for Cynara cardunculus.

    Sonnante, Gabriella; Gatto, Angela; Morgese, Anita; Montemurro, Francesco; Sarli, Giulio; Blanco, Emanuela; Pignone, Domenico

    2011-11-01

    An integrated consensus linkage map is proposed for globe artichoke. Maternal and paternal genetic maps were constructed on the basis of an F(1) progeny derived from crossing an artichoke genotype (Mola) with its progenitor, the wild cardoon (Tolfa), using EST-derived SSRs, genomic SSRs, AFLPs, ten genes, and two morphological traits. For most genes, mainly belonging to the chlorogenic acid pathway, new markers were developed. Five of these were SNP markers analyzed through high-resolution melt technology. From the maternal (Mola) and paternal (Tolfa) maps, an integrated map was obtained, containing 337 molecular and one morphological markers ordered in 17 linkage groups (LGs), linked between Mola and Tolfa. The integrated map covers 1,488.8 cM, with an average distance of 4.4 cM between markers. The map was aligned with already existing maps for artichoke, and 12 LGs were linked via 31 bridge markers. LG numbering has been proposed. A total of 124 EST-SSRs and two genes were mapped here for the first time, providing a framework for the construction of a functional map in artichoke. The establishment of a consensus map represents a necessary condition to plan a complete sequencing of the globe artichoke genome.

  17. Artichoke edible parts are hepatoprotective as commercial leaf preparation

    Abeer M. El Sayed

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chemical profile analyses of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L., Asteraceae edible parts (fleshy receptacle, inner bracts as well as roots are compared with the commercially usable leaf extract using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS via chlorogenicacid as a marker. Overall polyphenolic constituents demonstrated by means of LC/MS profiling. The nutritional values and inulin contents of different assessed parts were investigated. The present study was designed to determine the effect of artichoke: leaves, bracts, receptacles and roots alcoholic extracts against CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity and hyperlipidemia in rats by means of histopathological and biochemical parameters. Serum liver enzymes levels of aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase and lipid peroxidase content (malondialdehyde MDA were estimated. Blood glutathione, total cholesterol, triacylglycerides and high density lipid level were estimated in plasma. The ethanol extract of roots, leaves, bracts and receptacles were standardized to (0.82 ± 0.02, 1.6 ± 0.06, 2.02 ± 0.16 and 2.4 ± 0.27 mg chlorogenic acid/100 mg extract, respectively. The receptacle showed the highest content of polyphenols and exhibits the highest antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis of inulin in the receptacles of globe artichoke revealed high content of inulin (41.47 mg/g dry extract. All artichoke parts contain comparable vitamins and minerals. Artichokes receptacles extract when taken in dose of (500 mg/kg/day reduce the lesion caused by CCl4 alone more than groups receiving silymarin. Bracts and leaves extract exert nearly the same effect.

  18. Water lettuce

    Nutritive values, Mineral and Antioxidant properties of Pistia stratiotes (Water lettuce). 1R .S.U. Wasagu ... The use of plants as medicines predates written human history and some of ... used to maintain health, as well as to prevent, diagnose ...

  19. Graft union formation in artichoke grafting onto wild and cultivated cardoon: an anatomical study.

    Trinchera, Alessandra; Pandozy, Gianmarco; Rinaldi, Simona; Crinò, Paola; Temperini, Olindo; Rea, Elvira

    2013-12-15

    In order to develop a non-chemical method such as grafting effective against well-known artichoke soil borne diseases, an anatomical study of union formation in artichoke grafted onto selected wild and cultivated cardoon rootstocks, both resistant to Verticillium wilt, was performed. The cardoon accessions Belgio (cultivated cardoon) and Sardo (wild cardoon) were selected as rootstocks for grafting combinations with the artichoke cv. Romolo. Grafting experiments were carried out in the autumn and spring. The anatomical investigation of grafting union formation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the grafting portions at the 3rd, 6th, 10th, 12th day after grafting. For the autumn experiment only, SEM analysis was also performed at 30 d after grafting. A high affinity between artichoke scion and cardoon rootstocks was observed, with some genotype differences in healing time between the two bionts. SEM images of scion/rootstock longitudinal sections revealed the appearance of many interconnecting structures between the two grafting components just 3d after grafting, followed by a vascular rearrangement and a callus development during graft union formation. De novo formation of many plasmodesmata between scion and rootstock confirmed their high compatibility, particularly in the globe artichoke/wild cardoon combination. Moreover, the duration of the early-stage grafting process could be influenced not only by the scion/rootstock compatibility, but also by the seasonal conditions, being favored by lower temperatures and a reduced light/dark photoperiod. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. A Protocol for Producing Virus-Free Artichoke Genetic Resources for Conservation, Breeding, and Production

    Roberta Spanò

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential of the globe artichoke biodiversity in the Mediterranean area is enormous but at risk of genetic erosion because only a limited number of varieties are vegetatively propagated and grown. In Apulia (southern Italy, the Regional Government launched specific actions to rescue and preserve biodiversity of woody and vegetable crops in the framework of the Rural Development Program. Many globe artichoke ecotypes have remained neglected and unnoticed for a long time and have been progressively eroded by several causes, which include a poor phytosanitary status. Sanitation of such ecotypes from infections of vascular fungi and viruses may be a solution for their ex situ conservation and multiplication in nursery plants in conformity to the current EU Directives 93/61/CEE and 93/62/CEE that enforce nursery productions of virus-free and true-to-type certified stocks. Five Apulian ecotypes, Bianco di Taranto, Francesina, Locale di Mola, Verde di Putignano and Violetto di Putignano, were sanitized from artichoke Italian latent virus (AILV, artichoke latent virus (ArLV and tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV by meristem-tip culture and in vitro thermotherapy through a limited number of subcultures to reduce the risk of “pastel variants” induction of and loss of earliness. A total of 25 virus-free primary sources were obtained and conserved ex situ in a nursery.

  1. Developmental changes in leaf phenolics composition from three artichoke cvs. (Cynara scolymus) as determined via UHPLC-MS and chemometrics.

    El Senousy, Amira S; Farag, Mohamed A; Al-Mahdy, Dalia A; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2014-12-01

    The metabolomic differences in phenolics from leaves derived from 3 artichoke cultivars (Cynara scolymus): American Green Globe, French Hyrious and Egyptian Baladi, collected at different developmental stages, were assessed using UHPLC-MS coupled to chemometrics. Ontogenic changes were considered as leaves were collected at four different time intervals and positions (top and basal) during artichoke development. Unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (O2PLS-DA) were used for comparing and classification of samples harvested from different cultivars at different time points and positions. A clear separation among the three investigated cultivars was revealed, with the American Green Globe samples found most enriched in caffeic acid conjugates and flavonoids vs. other cultivars. Furthermore, these metabolites also showed a marked effect on the discrimination between leaf samples from cultivars harvested at different positions, regardless of the plant age. Metabolite absolute quantifications further confirmed that discrimination was mostly influenced by phenolic compounds, namely caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids. This study demonstrates an effect of artichoke leaf position, regardless of plant age, on its secondary metabolites composition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for compositional differences among artichoke leaves, based on their positions, via a metabolomic approach and suggesting that top positioned artichoke leaves present a better source of caffeoylquinic acids, compared to basal ones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethanol from Jerusalem artichoke tubers

    Guitet, A.

    1981-06-12

    EtOH is produced from fermented extracts of Jerusalem artichoke and used in motor fuels. The best fuels obtained were composed of 30% gasoline, 45% benzene, and 0.5% EtOH and 85% gasoline, 11% EtOH, and 1% (Et)/sub 4/Pb.

  3. Effectiveness of artichoke extract in preventing alcohol-induced hangovers: a randomized controlled trial

    Pittler, Max H.; White, Adrian R.; Stevinson, Clare; Ernst, Edzard

    2003-01-01

    Background Extract of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is promoted as a possible preventive or cure for alcohol-induced hangover symptoms. However, few rigorous clinical trials have assessed the effects of artichoke extract, and none has examined the effects in relation to hangovers. We undertook this study to test whether artichoke extract is effective in preventing the signs and symptoms of alcohol-induced hangover. Methods We recruited healthy adult volunteers between 18 and 65 years of age to participate in a randomized double-blind crossover trial. Participants received either 3 capsules of commercially available standardized artichoke extract or indistinguishable, inert placebo capsules immediately before and after alcohol exposure. After a 1-week washout period the volunteers received the opposite treatment. Participants predefined the type and amount of alcoholic beverage that would give them a hangover and ate the same meal before commencing alcohol consumption on the 2 study days. The primary outcome measure was the difference in hangover severity scores between the artichoke extract and placebo interventions. Secondary outcome measures were differences between the interventions in scores using a mood profile questionnaire and cognitive performance tests administered 1 hour before and 10 hours after alcohol exposure. Results Fifteen volunteers participated in the study. The mean number (and standard deviation) of alcohol units (each unit being 7.9 g, or 10 mL, of ethanol) consumed during treatment with artichoke extract and placebo was 10.7 (3.1) and 10.5 (2.4) respectively, equivalent to 1.2 (0.3) and 1.2 (0.2) g of alcohol per kilogram body weight. The volume of nonalcoholic drink consumed and the duration of sleep were similar during the artichoke extract and placebo interventions. None of the outcome measures differed significantly between interventions. Adverse events were rare and were mild and transient. Interpretation Our results suggest that

  4. Jerusalem artichoke above ground biomass

    Lemieux, C.; Pageau, D.; Dubuc, J-P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ste. Foy, PQ (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The possibility of using Jerusalem artichoke in an ethanol production scheme was discussed. A study was conducted to determine the yield stability, competitive ability and weed control requirements of this member of the sunflower family under the climatic conditions in eastern Canada. Two cultivars, the sunroot and fusil, were planted at four experimental sites in which three weed control treatments were tested (two arrowings, one arrowing, and no control). During the establishment, there was little difference between one and two arrowings, but the no weed control treatment was harmful to crop growth. It was concluded that Jerusalem artichoke is very competitive, and if it were included in an ethanol production scheme, weed control would only be necessary in the establishment year. After that, a single arrowing three to four weeks after planting would be sufficient to ensure proper establishment of the plant stand. 4 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  5. Succinic acid production from Jerusalem artichoke

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    In this work, A. succinogenes 130Z was used to produce succinic acid from Jerusalem artichoke tuber hydrolysate. Results showed that both fructose and glucose in the tuber hydrolysate were utilized for succinic acid production. The sugar utilization was found to be dependent on process control...... that Jerusalem artichoke tubers could be utilized for production of bio-succinic acid....

  6. Lettuce contact allergy.

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Lettuce contact allergy

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.......Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22...

  8. The Globe laid bare

    Fortunati, Lucien

    2015-01-01

    If you’re at CERN at the moment, you will certainly have noticed the work under way on the Globe. The structure, which has been in pride of place opposite the Laboratory for over ten years, has never been so completely laid bare. But, as we explained in a previous article (see here), it is all for a good cause. The Globe is built entirely from wood and certain parts of it need to be replaced.

  9. The Globe is back!

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    The Globe of Science and Innovation reopened its doors to the public on Tuesday, 19 April 2016, after almost a year of extensive renovations.    Follow the Globe renovations from start to finish, and learn more about this unique structure. (Video: Christoph M. Madsen) It took eleven months of civil-engineering work to restore one of the best-known symbols of CERN, the Globe of Science and Innovation (or the Globe for short). An inauguration ceremony was held on 18 April 2016, attended by representatives of the Swiss Confederation, the local authorities, the media and CERN management. “The Globe has become an essential tool for CERN and a part of the landscape of international Geneva. It is a point of reference for CERN’s neighbours,” said Charlotte Warakaulle, CERN Director for International Relations, in her speech during the ceremony. The ambitious renovation project was needed to replace the arcs that form the outer spherical stru...

  10. The Globe laid bare

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    If you’re at CERN at the moment, you will certainly have noticed the work under way on the Globe. The structure, which has been in pride of place opposite the Laboratory for over ten years, has never been so completely laid bare. But, as we explained in a previous article (see here), it is all for a good cause. The Globe is built entirely from wood and certain parts of it need to be replaced.   The Globe after the removal of all the sun baffles. Image: Lucien Fortunati. Picture the general structure of the Globe. In simple terms, the building consists of two spheres, one inside the other. The inner sphere houses the Universe of Particles exhibition and the conference room and is connected to the outer sphere by two access ramps. “Each of these two spheres is made up of eighteen large supporting arcs,” explains Amaya Martínez García of the GS department, who is supervising the Globe renovation project. “These eighteen arcs are ...

  11. New Polylactic Acid Composites Reinforced with Artichoke Fibers

    Botta, Luigi; Fiore, Vincenzo; Scalici, Tommaso; Valenza, Antonino;  , Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In this work, artichoke fibers were used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based biocomposites. In particular, two PLA/artichoke composites with the same fiber loading (10% w/w) were prepared by the film-stacking method: the first one (UNID) reinforced with unidirectional long artichoke fibers, the second one (RANDOM) reinforced by randomly-oriented long artichoke fibers. Both composites were mechanically characterized in tensile mode by quasi-static and dynamic mechanica...

  12. Metabolomics driven analysis of artichoke leaf and its commercial products via UHPLC-q-TOF-MS and chemometrics.

    Farag, Mohamed A; El-Ahmady, Sherweit H; Elian, Fatma S; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2013-11-01

    The demand to develop efficient and reliable analytical methods for the quality control of herbal medicines and nutraceuticals is on the rise, together with an increase in the legal requirements for safe and consistent levels of active principles. Here, we describe an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole high resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) analysis for the comprehensive measurement of metabolites from three Cynara scolymus (artichoke) cultivars: American Green Globe, French Hyrious, and Egyptian Baladi. Under optimized conditions, 50 metabolites were simultaneously quantified and identified including: eight caffeic acid derivatives, six saponins, 12 flavonoids and 10 fatty acids. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to define both similarities and differences among the three artichoke leaf cultivars. In addition, batches from seven commercially available artichoke market products were analysed and showed variable quality, particularly in caffeic acid derivatives, flavonoid and fatty acid contents. PCA analysis was able to discriminate between various preparations, including differentiation between various batches from the same supplier. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first approach utilizing UHPLC-MS based metabolite fingerprinting to reveal secondary metabolite compositional differences in artichoke leaf extracts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Displaying Annotations for Digitised Globes

    Gede, Mátyás; Farbinger, Anna

    2018-05-01

    Thanks to the efforts of the various globe digitising projects, nowadays there are plenty of old globes that can be examined as 3D models on the computer screen. These globes usually contain a lot of interesting details that an average observer would not entirely discover for the first time. The authors developed a website that can display annotations for such digitised globes. These annotations help observers of the globe to discover all the important, interesting details. Annotations consist of a plain text title, a HTML formatted descriptive text and a corresponding polygon and are stored in KML format. The website is powered by the Cesium virtual globe engine.

  14. Jerusalem artichoke as an agricultural crop

    Kosaric, N.; Cosentino, G.P.; Wieczorek, A.; Duvnjak, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is an agricultural crop which is of great potential for food, production of fuels, and industrial products. This crop gives a high yield in tubers, it grows better in poor soils than most crops, and it is resistant to pests and common plant diseases as well as to cold temperatures. In this article, the agronomic characteristics of this plant are discussed in detail. Special emphasis is given to the effects of various parameters on the production of both tubers and tops from the Jerusalem artichoke. 74 references.

  15. Occupational open globe injuries.

    Vasu, U; Vasnaik, A; Battu, R R; Kurian, M; George, S

    2001-03-01

    Occupational ocular trauma is an important cause of acquired monocular blindness in a rapidly industrialising country like India. Knowledge of the epidemiology of occupational eye injuries is essential to formulate viable industrial safety measures. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with occupational open globe injuries between 1994 and 1998. We documented the circumstances of the injuries, their clinical findings and the use of appropriate protective eyewear at the time of the injury. The visual acuity 6 months after the injury was the final outcome measure. In this study period we examined 43 patients with open globe injuries sustained at the work place. Thirty-four (79.1%) patients were young males. The iron and steel industry accounted for 19 (44.2%) cases while 8 (18.6%) patients each were from the agricultural, mining and other small scale industrial sectors. At the time of the injury, 33 (76.7%) were not wearing the recommended protective eyewear and 6 (13.9%) were under the influence of alcohol. The injuries were mild in 6 (13.9%), moderate in 18 (41.9%) and severe in 19 (44.2%) patients. At the end of 6 months, 2 (4.7%) patients had a visual acuity of 6/12 or better, 4 (9.3%) had a visual acuity of 6/18 to 6/60 and 29 (67.4.%) had a vision of eyewear and alcohol-free environment at the work place is likely to reduce the incidence of severe occupational open globe injuries.

  16. Biofuel production from Jerusalem artichoke tuber inulins

    Jerusalem artichoke has high productivity of tubers that are rich in inulins, a fructan polymer. These inulins can be easily broken down into fructose and glucose for conversion into ethanol by fermentation. This review focuses on tuber and inulin yields, effect of cultivar and environment on tuber ...

  17. Rock the Globe

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Created in 2005, the Swiss rock band "Wind of Change" is now candidate for the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 with a new song " Night & Light " with the music video filmed at CERN.   With over 20 gigs under their belt and two albums already released, the five members of the band (Alex Büchi, vocals; Arthur Spierer, drums; David Gantner, bass; Romain Mage and Yannick Gaudy, guitar) continue to excite audiences. For their latest composition "Night & Light", the group filmed their music video in the Globe of Science and Innovation. Winning the Eurovision contest would be a springboard in their artistic career for these young musicians. The selection results will be available December 11, 2010.      

  18. Lettuce and spinach breeding

    Lettuce and spinach production is beset by numerous biotic an abiotic challenges, thus the leafy-vegetable industry of California requires continued development of improved, adapted cultivars to meet new disease and insect problems, changes in the market, and changes in growing procedures. The lettu...

  19. 2-D DIGE analysis of UV-C radiation-responsive proteins in globe artichoke leaves

    Falvo, S.; Carli, Di M.; Desiderio, A.; Benvenuto, E.; Moglia, A.; America, A.H.P.; Lanteri, S.; Acquadro, A.

    2012-01-01

    Plants respond to ultraviolet stress inducing a self-defence through the regulation of specific gene family members. The UV acclimation is the result of biochemical and physiological processes, such as enhancement of the antioxidant enzymatic system and accumulation of UV-absorbing phenolic

  20. CyMSatDB: The Globe Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) Microsatellite Database

    Portis, Ezio; Portis, Flavio; Valente, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    and for the construction of the first microsatellite marker database CyMSatDB (Cynara cardunculusMicroSatellite DataBase). Both perfect and compound SSRs were in-silico mined using the SciRoKo SSR-search module (http://kofler.or.at/bioinformatics/SciRoKo). On the whole, about 295,000 SSR motifs were identified which also...... Kbp), which represent 725 Mb of genomic sequence. Scaffolds were genetically anchored using a low-coverage genotyping by sequencing (GBS) of a mapping population and 17 pseudomolecules reconstructed. Peudomolecules as well as unmapped scaffolds were used for the bulk mining of SSR markers...... in a MySQL database and provides an effective and responsive interface developed in PHP. To cater the customized needs of wet lab, features with a novelty of an automated primer designing tool is added. The feature of user defined primer designing has great advantage in terms of precise selection from...

  1. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity...

  2. Wet-Bulb-Globe Temperature Data Report

    2015-03-01

    Hour Min Pressure Dry Nat Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Wind Cld amt Cld type Obscuration Quest RH Kestrel RH VPSc RH S1 WBGT Q WBGT...Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Wind Cld amt Cld type Obscuration Quest RH Kestrel RH VPSc RH S1 WBGT Q WBGT K2 WBGT GMT millibars deg F...Dry Nat Wet Globe Dry Nat Wet Globe Wind Cld amt Cld type Obscuration Quest RH Kestrel RH VPSc RH S1 WBGT Q WBGT K2 WBGT GMT millibars deg F deg F deg

  3. World Wind: NASA's Virtual Globe

    Hogan, P.

    2007-12-01

    Virtual globes have set the standard for information exchange. Once you've experienced the visually rich and highly compelling nature of data delivered via virtual globes with their highly engaging context of 3D, it's hard to go back to a flat 2D world. Just as the sawbones of not-too-long-ago have given way to sophisticated surgical operating theater, today's medium for information exchange is just beginning to leap from the staid chalkboards and remote libraries to fingertip navigable 3D worlds. How we harness this technology to serve a world inundated with information will describe the quality of our future. Our instincts for discovery and entertainment urge us on. There's so much we could know if the world's knowledge was presented to us in its natural context. Virtual globes are almost magical in their ability to reveal natural wonders. Anyone flying along a chain of volcanoes, a mid-ocean ridge or deep ocean trench, while simultaneously seeing the different depths to the history of earthquakes in those areas, will be delighted to sense Earth's dynamic nature in a way that would otherwise take several paragraphs of "boring" text. The sophisticated concepts related to global climate change would be far more comprehensible when experienced via a virtual globe. There is a large universe of public and private geospatial data sets that virtual globes can bring to light. The benefit derived from access to this data within virtual globes represents a significant return on investment for government, industry, the general public, and especially in the realm of education. Data access remains a key issue. Just as the highway infrastructure allows unimpeded access from point A to point B, an open standards-based infrastructure for data access allows virtual globes to exchange data in the most efficient manner possible. This data can be either free or proprietary. The Open Geospatial Consortium is providing the leadership necessary for this open standards-based data access

  4. Hydrolase activity in Jerusalem artichoke and chicory

    Klaushofer, H.; Abraham, B.; Leichtfried, G.

    1988-03-01

    Post-harvest storage of chicory and Jerusalem artichoke and overwintering of Jerusalem artichoke in the soil cause a more or less pronounced shortening of the fructan chain, depending on the variety. The proportion of fructose in the total fructan thus shifts towards glucose. This reduction on the fructose/glucose ratio is undesirable if the intention is to obtain a sweetener of high fructose content. In this work an attempt was made, via the quantity of fructose formed after a 4(3)-hour reaction of a tuber (root) extract with inulin, to assign a characteristic value to the depolymerization tendency of the material in question. However, since the plant extract not only contains enzymes (hydrolase A and B) that shorten the fructan chains but the activity of fructosyltransferase (SST, FFT) and enzymes of microbial origin (inulinase II, invertase) must also be considered, the concept of 'hydrolase activity' used by the authors is essentially an expression of 'total activity'. The activity unit (EU) is defined as the ability to split of 1 ..mu..mol of fructose from (chicory) inulin per minute under experimental conditions. Values of 0.25 to 0.77 EU/g dry solids were found in Jerusalem artichoke. Considerable differences may occur between varieties from the same cultivated area and the same harvest period. With one and the same variety, the activity appears to be subject to marked yearly fluctuations, so that at present, because of hydrolase activity, nothing certain can be said about the depolymerization tendency of a variety.

  5. An Interactive System For Fourier Analysis Of Artichoke Flower Shape.

    Impedovo, Sebastiano; Fanelli, Anna M.; Ligouras, Panagiotis

    1984-06-01

    In this paper we present an interactive system which allows the Fourier analysis of the artichoke flower-head profile. The system consistsof a DEC pdp 11/34 computer with both a a track-following device and a Tektronix 4010/1 graphic and alpha numeric display on-line. Some experiments have been carried out taking into account some different parental types of artichoke flower-head samples. It is shown here that a narrow band of only eight harmonics is sufficient to classify different artichoke flower shapes.

  6. Optimization of alcohol production from Jerusalem artichokes

    Guiraud, J.P.; Caillaud, J.M.; Galzy, P.

    1982-01-01

    Fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke extracts by yeasts with inulinase activity is possible, without prior hydrolysis or sterilization, if carried out at pH 3.5. For semi-continuous production, a small amount of the yeast harvested at the end of the previous fermentation can be used as the subsequent inoculant. Up to 75 hl of alcohol per ha can be obtained by this process under favorable energetic conditions. A partial inhibition of the fermentation was detected in extracts obtained from tubers harvested too early; this inhibition seems unrelated to the extent of polymerization of sugars. (Refs. 9).

  7. Optimization of alcohol production from Jerusalem artichokes

    Guiraud, J.P.; Caillaud, J.M.; Galzy, P.

    1982-01-01

    Fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke extracts by yeasts with inulinase activity is possible, without prior hydrolysis or sterilization, if carried out at pH 3.5. For semi-continuous production, a small amount of the yeast harvested at the end of the previous fermentation can be used as the subsequent inoculant. Up to 75 hl of alcohol per ha can be obtained by this process under favorable energetic conditions. A partial inhibition of the fermentation was detected in extracts obtained from tubers harvested too early; this inhibition seems unrelated to the extent of polymerization of sugars.

  8. CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARD ORGANICALLY GROWN LETTUCE

    Wolf, Marianne McGarry; Johnson, Bradey; Cochran, Kerry; Hamilton, Lynn L.

    2002-01-01

    This research shows that approximately 29 percent of lettuce purchases in California expect to purchase an organically grown lettuce product in the future. Organic lettuce purchasers are more likely to be female, have a higher household income and a higher level of education. Consumers are concerned with the freshness, quality, price, and environmental impact of the lettuce they purchase.

  9. Evolving Capabilities for Virtual Globes

    Glennon, A.

    2006-12-01

    Though thin-client spatial visualization software like Google Earth and NASA World Wind enjoy widespread popularity, a common criticism is their general lack of analytical functionality. This concern, however, is rapidly being addressed; standard and advanced geographic information system (GIS) capabilities are being developed for virtual globes--though not centralized into a single implementation or software package. The innovation is mostly originating from the user community. Three such capabilities relevant to the earth science, education, and emergency management communities are modeling dynamic spatial phenomena, real-time data collection and visualization, and multi-input collaborative databases. Modeling dynamic spatial phenomena has been facilitated through joining virtual globe geometry definitions--like KML--to relational databases. Real-time data collection uses short scripts to transform user-contributed data into a format usable by virtual globe software. Similarly, collaborative data collection for virtual globes has become possible by dynamically referencing online, multi-person spreadsheets. Examples of these functions include mapping flows within a karst watershed, real-time disaster assessment and visualization, and a collaborative geyser eruption spatial decision support system. Virtual globe applications will continue to evolve further analytical capabilities, more temporal data handling, and from nano to intergalactic scales. This progression opens education and research avenues in all scientific disciplines.

  10. Urban Utopias at the Globe

    2006-01-01

    Since 19 May, the ground floor of the Globe has been housing a contemporary art exhibition. Meyrin's Contemporary Art Fund Committee has given six artists free rein to think up projects for the area surrounding the Globe, which is still a blank canvas. The exhibition entitled 'Urban Utopias', which explores the question 'How to experience the town?', consists of preparatory sketches and models of the works proposed by the artists. The projects on display include a metal ring symbolising the LHC accelerator, a statue consisting of pieces of broken wooden furniture, metal and bamboo, three metres in height, and even a projection of a computer-generated design for a ziggurat adjoining the Globe. Urban Utopias 19 May to 18 June, open Wednesday to Sunday from 2 p.m. to 6 p.m., Thursday until 9 p.m. Entrance free.

  11. GLOBE Goes GO with Mosquitoes

    Boger, R. A.; Low, R.

    2016-12-01

    The GLOBE Mosquito Larvae protocol and a new citizen science initiative, GLOBE Observers (GO), were both launched in Summer 2016. While the GLOBE Mosquito Larvae Protocol and associated educational materials target K-16 student inquiry and research, the GO protocol version is simplified to enable citizen scientists of all ages from all walks of life to participate. GO allows citizen scientists to collect and submit environmental data through an easy-to-use smart phone app available for both Apple and Android mobile devices. GO mosquito asks for photos of larvae mosquito genus or species, location, and type of water source (e.g., container or pond) where the larvae were found. To initiate the new mosquito GLOBE/GO opportunities, workshops have been held in Barbuda, Thailand, West Indies, US Gulf Coast, New York City, and at the GLOBE Annual Meeting in Colorado. Through these venues, the protocols have been refined and a field campaign has been initiated so that GO and GLOBE citizen scientists (K-16 students and all others) can contribute data. Quality assurance measures are taken through the online training required to participate and the validation of identification by other citizen sciences and mosquito experts. Furthermore, initial research is underway to develop optical recognition software starting with the species that carry the Zika virus (Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus). With this launch, we plan to move forward by providing opportunities throughout the world to engage people in meaningful environmental and public health data collection and to promote citizen scientists to become agents of change in their communities.

  12. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of artichoke waste: the inoculum effect.

    Fabbri, Andrea; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate anaerobic digestibility of artichoke waste resulting from industrial transformation. A series of batch anaerobic digestion tests was performed in order to evaluate the biochemical methane potential of the matrix in respect of the process. A comparison of the different performances of the laboratory-scale reactors operating in mesophilic conditions and utilizing three different values of the inoculum/substrate ratio was carried out. The best performance was achieved with an inoculum/substrate ratio of 2. Artichoke-processing byproducts showed a classical organic waste decomposition behaviour: a fast start-up phase, an acclimation stage, and a final stabilization phase. Following this approach, artichoke waste reached chemical oxygen demand removal of about 90% in 40 days. The high methane yield (average 408.62 mL CH4 gvs (-1) voltatile solids), makes artichoke waste a good product to be utilized in anaerobic digestion plants for biogas production.

  13. Occupational rhinitis and bronchial asthma due to artichoke (Cynara scolymus).

    Miralles, Juan-Carlos; García-Sells, Javier; Bartolomé, Borja; Negro, José-María

    2003-07-01

    The artichoke is a perennial horticultural plant that belongs to the Compositae family. To present case studies of 2 vegetable warehouse workers who developed occupational rhinitis and bronchial asthma by sensitization to artichoke. Skin prick tests with common inhalants and foods were performed. Specific IgE to artichoke, Parietaria judaica pollen, and Olea europaea pollen extracts was measured by a specific IgE enzyme immunosorbent assay kit. Molecular mass of the allergens was studied by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) immunoblotting technique. Patients underwent a nasal challenge test, and one patient provided peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) measurements in her workplace. In both patients, results of skin prick tests to artichoke were positive. Levels of specific IgE for artichoke were 0.68 kU/L in patient 1 and 2.14 kU/L in patient 2. The protein composition of the artichoke extract, studied by SDS-PAGE, showed that most bands ranged from 30 to 14 kDa. The IgE-binding bands with the serum samples of patient 1 showed apparent molecular masses of 56, 48, 38, 31, 27, 25, 16, and 15 kDa; however, the serum samples of patient 2 showed IgE bands of 21 and 19 kDa. Western blotting of artichoke extract showed a complete inhibition of IgE-binding bands when serum samples were preincubated with P. judaica pollen extract. Nasal challenge with artichoke extract triggered a peak nasal inspiratory flow decrease of 81% and 85% in patient 1 and patient 2, respectively. Finally, patient 1 recorded a PEFR decrease of up to 36% after exposure to artichoke in her workplace. SDS-PAGE immunoblotting inhibition performed for the artichoke extract showed a total disappearance of the specific IgE binding bands when serum samples were previously incubated with P. judaica pollen extract, thus establishing the existence of a serologic cross-reactivity between artichoke and P. judaica pollen.

  14. Sensory Evaluation of Meatballs with Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    I. Gedrovica; D. Karklina

    2013-01-01

    Meat and meat products for human consumption are one of main sources of protein, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Popular variety of meat product is meatballs, which can be enriched with valuable product – Jerusalem artichoke powder, made from dried and grinded Jerusalem artichoke tubers, it is raw material with low-calorie, low fat, rich in dietary fibres, minerals, and vitamins. The results of this study indicate that that people could accept the new product - meatballs wit...

  15. Antioxidant effects of supercritical fluid garlic extracts in canned artichokes.

    Bravi, E; Marconi, O; Sileoni, V; Rollo, M R; Perretti, G

    2016-10-01

    The effects of adding supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of garlic (at two different concentrations of allicin) on select chemical indices in extra-virgin olive oil used to canned artichokes were studied. Tests were performed after processing and over a storage period of 1 year. A sensorial test was also conducted on the canned artichokes to establish the impact on flavor (in particular perceptions of rancidity and garlic flavor). Acidity, peroxide levels and p -anisidine values were measured as quality analytical parameters. Radical scavenging activity was also evaluated using the DPPH assay. The samples containing supercritical garlic extracts were compared with several other formulations, including control sample (prepared by mixing artichokes with powdered chili pepper and fresh garlic), artichokes with only garlic or only chili pepper, and artichokes treated with the synthetic antioxidant BHT. The results suggested that the allicin extract may be superior, or at least comparable, with BHT in preserving canned artichokes as demonstrated by its positive effects on oxidative stability and sensory profile.

  16. Globes, Maps, Photographs: Geographic Tools.

    McDermott, Paul D.; And Others

    This compilation of reprinted articles that originally appeared in the Journal of Geography from September 1969 through the May 1970 issues, is intended to help teachers use globes, maps, and photographs with skill and understanding. The articles were designed with several objectives in mind: 1) to provide information regarding the design,…

  17. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity.

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity caused by wild lettuce intake and an accurate history formed the basis of the diagnosis. Conservative treatment, vital sign monitoring, control of patient intake and output, and reducing patient agitation provided the basis for treatment.

  18. Host range of Verticillium isaacii and Verticillium klebahnii from artichoke, spinach, and lettuce

    Verticillium is a genus that includes major vascular wilt pathogens. The recent multilocus phylogenetic analyses of the genus identified 5 new species including V. isaacii and V. klebahnii, both of which occur in agricultural soils in coastal California, and have been isolated from asymptomatic and ...

  19. Detailed characterization of Mirafiori lettuce virus-resistant transgenic lettuce.

    Kawazu, Yoichi; Fujiyama, Ryoi; Noguchi, Yuji; Kubota, Masaharu; Ito, Hidekazu; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-01

    Lettuce big-vein disease is caused by Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV), which is vectored by the soil-borne fungus Olpidium brassicae. A MiLV-resistant transgenic lettuce line was developed through introducing inverted repeats of the MiLV coat protein (CP) gene. Here, a detailed characterization study of this lettuce line was conducted by comparing it with the parental, non-transformed 'Kaiser' cultivar. There were no significant differences between transgenic and non-transgenic lettuce in terms of pollen fertility, pollen dispersal, seed production, seed dispersal, dormancy, germination, growth of seedlings under low or high temperature, chromatographic patterns of leaf extracts, or effects of lettuce on the growth of broccoli or soil microflora. A significant difference in pollen size was noted, but the difference was small. The length of the cotyledons of the transgenic lettuce was shorter than that of 'Kaiser,' but there were no differences in other morphological characteristics. Agrobacterium tumefaciens used for the production of transgenic lettuce was not detected in transgenic seeds. The transgenic T(3), T(4), and T(5) generations showed higher resistance to MiLV and big-vein symptoms expression than the resistant 'Pacific' cultivar, indicating that high resistance to lettuce big-vein disease is stably inherited. PCR analysis showed that segregation of the CP gene was nearly 3:1 in the T(1) and T(2) generations, and that the transgenic T(3) generation was homozygous for the CP gene. Segregation of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (npt II) gene was about 3:1 in the T(1) generation, but the full length npt II gene was not detected in the T(2) or T(3) generation. The segregation pattern of the CP and npt II genes in the T(1) generation showed the expected 9:3:3:1 ratio. These results suggest that the fragment including the CP gene and that including the npt II gene have been integrated into two unlinked loci, and that the T(1) plant selected in our study did

  20. GLOBE Program's Data and Information System

    Memarsadeghi, N.; Overoye, D.; Lewis, C.; Butler, D. M.; Ramapriyan, H.

    2016-12-01

    "The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Program is an international science and education program that provides students and the public worldwide with the opportunity to participate in data collection and the scientific process, and contribute meaningfully to our understanding of the Earth system and global environment" (www.globe.gov ). GLOBE Program has a rich community of students, teachers, scientists, trainers, country coordinators, and alumni across the world, technologically spanning both high- and low-end users. There are 117 GLOBE participating countries from around the world. GLOBE's Science data protocols and educational material span atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, soil (pedosphere), and Earth as a System scientific areas (http://www.globe.gov/do-globe/globe-teachers-guide). GLOBE's Data and Information System (DIS), when first introduced in 1995, was a cutting edge system that was well-received and innovative for its time. However, internet-based technologies have changed dramatically since then. Projects to modernize and evolve the GLOBE DIS started in 2010, resulting in today's GLOBE DIS. The current GLOBE DIS is now built upon the latest information technologies and is engaging and supporting the user community with advanced tools and services to further the goals of the GLOBE Program. GLOBE DIS consists of over 20 years of observation and training data, a rich set of software systems and applications for data entry, visualization, and analysis, as well as tools for training users in various science data protocols and enabling collaborations among members of the international user community. We present the existing GLOBE DIS, application technologies, and lessons learned for their operations, development, sustaining engineering, and data management practices. Examples of GLOBE DIS technologies include Liferay System for integrated user and content management, a Postgress/PostGIS database, Ruby on Rails for Data

  1. Optimization of pectin extraction and antioxidant activities from Jerusalem artichoke

    Liu, Shengyi; Shi, Xuejie; Xu, Lanlan; Yi, Yuetao

    2016-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is an economic crop widely planted in saline-alkaline soil. The use of Jerusalem artichoke is of great significance. In this study, the response surface method was employed to optimize the effects of processing variables (extraction temperature, pH, extraction time, and liquid-to-solid ratio) on the yield of Jerusalem artichoke pectin. Under the optimal extraction conditions: pH 1.52, 63.62 min, 100°C and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 44.4 mL/g, the maximum pectin yield was predicted to be 18.76%. Experiments were conducted under these optimal conditions and a pectin yield of 18.52±0.90% was obtained, which validated the model prediction. The effects of diff erent drying methods (freeze drying, spray drying and vacuum drying) on the properties of Jerusalem artichoke pectin were evaluated and they were compared with apple pectin. FTIR spectral analysis showed no major structural diff erences in Jerusalem artichoke pectin samples produced by various drying treatments. The antioxidant activities of pectin dried by diff erent methods were investigated using in vitro hydroxyl and DPPH radical scavenging systems. The results revealed that the activities of spray dried pectin (SDP) and apple pectin (AP) were stronger than those of vacuum oven dried pectin (ODP) and vacuum freeze dried pectin (FDP). Therefore compared with the other two drying methods, the spray drying method was the best.

  2. Pharmacological Studies of Artichoke Leaf Extract and Their Health Benefits.

    Ben Salem, Maryem; Affes, Hanen; Ksouda, Kamilia; Dhouibi, Raouia; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Hammami, Serria; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir

    2015-12-01

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf extract was one of the few herbal remedies which the clinical and experimental trials have complemented each other. Both experimental and clinical effects have been verified through extensive biomedical herbal remedy research. Specifically, antioxidant, choleretic, hepatoprotective, bile-enhancing and lipid-lowering effects have been demonstrated, which corresponded with its historical use. Ongoing research seems to indicate that artichoke indeed have medicinal qualities. Most significant appears to be its beneficial effect on the liver. In animal studies, liquid extracts of the roots and leaves of artichoke have demonstrated an ability to protect the liver, with possibly even to help liver cells regenerate. Although research is not yet conclusive, scientists were optimistic that its long-standing use in humans for digestive and bowel problems was indeed justified. It may also play a role in lowering cholesterol and thus help to prevent heart disease. Boiled wild artichoke reduced postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses in normal subjects but has no effect on metabolic syndrome patients. This article intended to review the wide ranging pharmacological effects of artichoke leaf extract.

  3. Evaluation of Lettuce Genotypes for Seed Thermotolerance

    Thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination is a common problem associated with lettuce production. Depending on lettuce cultivars, seed germination may be inhibited when temperatures exceed 28oC. The delay or inhibition of seed germination at high temperatures may reduce seedli...

  4. Biodiesel production from yeast Cryptococcus sp. using Jerusalem artichoke.

    Sung, Mina; Seo, Yeong Hwan; Han, Shin; Han, Jong-In

    2014-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke was investigated as a cheap substrate for the heterotrophic production using a lab yeast strain Cryptococcus sp. Using Response Surface Method, 54.0% of fructose yield was achieved at 12% of dried Jerusalem artichoke powder, 0.57% of nitric acid concentration, 117°C of reaction temperature, and 49min of reaction time. At this optimal condition, nitric acid showed the best catalytic activity toward inulin hydrolysis and also the resulting fructose hydrolyte supported the highest microbial growth compared with other acids. In addition, lipid productivity of 1.73g/L/d was achieved, which is higher than a defined medium using pure fructose as a substrate. Lipid quality was also found to be generally satisfactory as a feedstock for fuel, demonstrating Jerusalem artichoke could indeed be a good and cheap option for the purpose of biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Voices from Around the Globe

    Birgit Schreiber

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available JSAA has been seeking to provide an opportunity for Student Affairs professionals and higher education scholars from around the globe to share their research and experiences of student services and student affairs programmes from their respective regional and institutional contexts. This has been given a specific platform with the guest-edited issue “Voices from Around the Globe” which is the result of a collaboration with the International Association of Student Affairs and Services (IASAS, and particularly with the guest editors, Kathleen Callahan and Chinedu Mba.

  6. CARBOHYDRATES CONTENT IN JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE TUBERS DURING VEGETATION

    N. S. Levina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is rich in vitamins, carbohydrates, fiber. Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke consist valuable  substance inulin, which has a complex of health properties. Breeders create new hybrids and varieties of Jerusalem artichoke to increase the content of nutrients, productivity and climate resilience. The authors analysed moisture content, dry residue and fractional  composition of carbohydrates in the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke  varieties Skorospelka and Sireniki and the hybrids PBB and PBK in  various phases of vegetation. In the flowering stage the moisture of  the tubers of the investigated varieties was in the range of 77.2-81.3 percent, the value of dry residue of nutrients was 18.7-22.8 percent. The greatest number of non-reducing and total sugars in  the flowering stage contained in the tuber varieties of Sireniki and was equaled 78.3 and 61.8 percent, respectively. A similar analysis was conducted in the maturation phase. In this phase the solids  content slightly increased and amounted to 22.9-26.2 percent. Non- reducing sugars content, including inulin, increased in all the studied samples of Jerusalem artichoke. However, the greatest values of 72  percent were noted for variety Sireniki and hybrid PBK. The content  of inulin depends on the phase of the growing season and the  varietal characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke and the absence of decisive superiority of the hybrids.

  7. The Globe reopens its doors

    CERN Bulletin

    2016-01-01

    After a year of work, the newly renovated Globe of Science and Innovation will open its doors again at 10 a.m. on Tuesday, 19 April. The “Universe of Particles” exhibition has been updated and will be open to the public, free of charge, from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Monday to Saturday (except during official CERN closures). The Globe’s programme of lectures and events for the general public will restart at the end of April. What’s on at the Globe in April and May: - 28 April at 6.30 p.m.: Theatre – “Curie_Meitner_Lamarr_indivisible”, a play that pays tribute to the lives of three exceptional women in the field of science and technology (in English). Reservations: http://indico.cern.ch/e/cmli - 10 May at 8.30 p.m.: Lecture – “Le modèle du CERN et les grands défis mondiaux” (“The CERN model and the key global challenges”) by Michel Spiro (in French with simultaneous ...

  8. Faba Greens, Globe Artichoke’s Offshoots, Crenate Broomrape and Summer Squash Greens: Unconventional Vegetables of Puglia (Southern Italy With Good Quality Traits

    Massimiliano Renna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. [L.] scolymus Hayek, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. are widely cultivated for their immature inflorescences, fruits and seeds, respectively. Nevertheless, in some areas of Puglia (Southern Italy, other organs of these species are traditionally used as vegetables, instead of being considered as by-products. Offshoots (so-called cardoni or carducci of globe artichoke, produced during the vegetative growing cycle and removed by common cultural procedures, are used like to the cultivated cardoons (C. cardunculus L. var. altilis DC. The stems, petioles, flowers and smaller leaves of summer squash are used as greens (so-called cime di zucchini, like other leafy vegetables such as chicory (Cichorium intybus L. and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.. Also the plant apex of faba bean, about 5–10 cm long, obtained from the green pruning, are used as greens (so-called cime di fava like spinach leaves. Moreover, crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forssk., a root parasite plant that produces devastating effects on many crops (mostly legumes, is used like asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. to prepare several traditional dishes. In this study ethnobotanical surveys and quality assessment of these unconventional vegetables were performed. For their content of fiber, offshoots of globe artichokes can be considered a useful food to bowel. Summer squash greens could be recommended as a vegetable to use especially in the case of hypoglycemic diets considering both content and composition of their carbohydrates. For their low content of nitrate, faba greens could be recommended as a substitute of nitrate-rich leafy vegetables. Crenate broomrape shows a high antioxidant activity and may be considered as a very nutritious agri-food product. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that offshoots of globe artichoke, summer squash greens, faba greens and crenate broomrape have good

  9. The Globe: Exhibitions and Events

    2007-01-01

    Globe of Science and Innovation Route de Meyrin, 1211 Geneva Conference Nano materials: small dimensions, big opportunities Thursday 22 November at 8.00 p.m. Christoph Renner, Professor of Physics and Deputy Director of MaNEP*Information technologies have developed at an incredible pace over the past sixty years. Mobile phones, MP3 players and other modern gizmos are infinitely more powerful than the first computers, which took up whole rooms! The main driving force behind this evolutionary process has been the boom in the miniaturisation of electronic components. The latest technological innovations have led to a new range of tools being developed, allowing matter to be visualised, manipulated and characterised at the smallest possible scales, molecule by molecule and even atom by atom. At these scales, the behaviour of matter is altered as the conventional properties of mass are gradually taken over by quantum effects with which we are quite unfamiliar in our everyday li...

  10. Growth and photosynthesis of lettuce

    Holsteijn, van H.M.C.

    1981-01-01

    Butterhead lettuce is an important glass-house crop in the poor light period in The Netherlands. Fundamental data about the influence of temperature, light and CO 2 on growth and photosynthesis are important e.g. to facilitate selection criteria for new cultivars. In

  11. Selenium accumulation in lettuce germplasm

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans. Increasing Se content in food crops offers an effective approach to reduce the widespread selenium deficiency problem in many parts of the world. In this study, we evaluated thirty diverse accessions of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) f...

  12. Growth and phenology of jerusalem artichoke (helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Paungbut, D.; Vorasoot, N.; Patanothai, A.; Jogloy, S.

    2015-01-01

    A standardized, accurate, and easy system is needed to describe Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) plant development. Therefore, this study was designed to define stages of development descriptions for Jerusalem artichoke. Field experiments were conducted during early rainy season and the post rainy season of 2011 and 2012. Data were collected and uniform growth stage descriptions, based on visually observable events, were developed for the vegetative (V), reproductive (R) and tuberization (T) stages. The V stage was determined by counting the number of developed nodes on the main axis of the Jerusalem artichoke, beginning with emergence of the sprout seedling and ending with the initial visual appearance of the inflorescence. The proposed R stages include R1 (Floral bud formation), R2 (beginning bloom), R3 (flowering), R4 (beginning of anthesis), R5 (seed set) and R6 (seed maturity). The T stage include T1 (stolonization), T2 (tuber initiation), T3 (tuber formation), T4 (tuber bulking), T5 (skin set) and T6 (tuber maturity). The V, R and T stages can be measured separately and concurrently and apply to populations or single plants. The present study revealed that reproductive and tuberization development occurred more rapidly in the post-rainy season than in the early-rainy season. The proposed standard descriptions of Jerusalem artichoke development will help research and extension personnel better communicate results and recommendations related to this crop. (author)

  13. Root response of Jerusalem artichoke genotypes to different water regimes

    The objective of this study was to determine effects of drought on selected root growth parameters and develop relationships between root parameters and tuber yield for selected Jerusalem artichoke (JA) genotypes. Three water regimes (Field capacity, 50% available water (AW) and 25% AW) and five JA...

  14. Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke for ethanol production

    Williams, L.A.; Ziobro, G.

    1982-01-01

    Processing and fermentation trials on Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) tubers, and on pure inulin media were carried out. Acid and thermal treatments, pure and mixed cultures of yeast, and enzyme preparations were investigated. Best EtOH yields on either substrate were obtained with pH 2 thermal treatments, resulting in 131.6lEtOH/ton fresh tuber.

  15. JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE IS A PLANT OF 21ST CENTURY

    M. A. Zhuchkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern concept of healthy food the products of functional destination play a main role to neutralize the influences of unfavorable environments and unbalanced diet. The Jerusalem artichoke is a promising raw material to produce prebiotic and dietary food. Owing to increased content of biologically active substances (polyphenols, vitamins, pectin and mineral compounds the Jerusalem artichoke is recognized as valuable product for human’s diet. Among other root-tuber vegetables the Jerusalem artichoke is distinguished by its high content of inulin that is regarded as an effective remedy to treat diabetes, atherosclerosis, obesity and different intoxications. On October 29, Ministry Council of Union State of Russia and Belarus accepted a program ‘Innovation and Improvement of Production in Potato and Jerusalem Artichoke’ aimed to develop high-yielding varieties and up-to-dated technology for production and post-harvesting processing, regarding to the biological features, namely the high contents of inulin, pectin, oligosaccharides in tubers and foliage. In Kaluga oblast, in the frame of program realization, an Innovative Agro-industrial Complex, ‘KiT’ is now under construction, where Jerusalem artichoke tubers and foliage are processed into inulin, fructose-oligosaccharides, fructose-glucose syrup, dietary and prebiotic puree, juice-contented drinks according to technology standards enable to preserve all valuable biologically active components. It allows manufacturing valuable biologically active products and ingredients, such as ‘live’ puree and juices. 

  16. New Polylactic Acid Composites Reinforced with Artichoke Fibers

    Luigi Botta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, artichoke fibers were used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid (PLA-based biocomposites. In particular, two PLA/artichoke composites with the same fiber loading (10% w/w were prepared by the film-stacking method: the first one (UNID reinforced with unidirectional long artichoke fibers, the second one (RANDOM reinforced by randomly-oriented long artichoke fibers. Both composites were mechanically characterized in tensile mode by quasi-static and dynamic mechanical tests. The morphology of the fracture surfaces was analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Moreover, a theoretical model, i.e., Hill’s method, was used to fit the experimental Young’s modulus of the biocomposites. The quasi-static tensile tests revealed that the modulus of UNID composites is significantly higher than that of the neat PLA (i.e., ~40%. Moreover, the tensile strength is slightly higher than that of the neat matrix. The other way around, the stiffness of RANDOM composites is not significantly improved, and the tensile strength decreases in comparison to the neat PLA.

  17. Virtual Globe Games for Geographic Learning

    Ola Ahlqvist

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Virtual, online maps and globes allow for volunteered geographic information to capitalize on users as sensors and generate unprecedented access to information resources and services. These new "Web 2.0" applications will probably dominate development and use of virtual globes and maps in the near future. We present an experimental platform that integrates an existing virtual globe interface with added functionality as follows; an interactive layer on top of the existing map that support real time creation and manipulation of spatial interaction objects. These objects, together with the existing information delivered through the virtual globe, form a game board that can be used for educational purposes.

  18. The GLOBE Program: Partnerships in Action

    Henderson, S.; Kennedy, T.; Lemone, M.; Blurton, C.

    2004-12-01

    The GLOBE Program is a worldwide science and education partnership endeavor designed to increase scientific understanding of Earth as a system, support improved student achievement in science and math, and enhance environmental awareness through inquiry-based learning activities. GLOBE began on the premise that teachers and their students would partner with scientists to collect and analyze environmental data using specific protocols in five study areas - atmosphere, soils, hydrology, land cover, and phenology. As the GLOBE network grew, additional partnerships flourished making GLOBE an unprecedented collaboration of individuals worldwide - primary, secondary, and tertiary students, teachers and teacher educators, scientists, government officials, and others - to improve K-12 education. Since its inception in 1994, more than one million students in over 14,000 schools around the world have taken part in The GLOBE Program. The GLOBE Web site (http://www.globe.gov) is the repository for over 11 million student-collected data measurements easily accessible to students and scientists worldwide. Utilizing the advantages of the Internet for information sharing and communication, GLOBE has created an international community. GLOBE enriches students by giving them the knowledge and skills that they will need to become informed citizens and responsible decision-makers in an increasingly complex world. Understanding that all members of a community must support change if it is to be sustainable, GLOBE actively encourages the development of GLOBE Learning Communities (GLCs) which are designed to get diverse stakeholder groups involved in a local or regional environmental issue. Central to the GLC is the engagement of local schools. GLCs go beyond individual teachers implementing GLOBE in the isolation of their classrooms. Instead, the GLC brings multiple teachers and grade levels together to examine environmental issues encouraging the participation of a broad range of

  19. Sensory quality and appropriateness of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Bach, Vibe; Kidmose, Ulla; Thybo, Anette

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensory attributes, dry matter and sugar content of five varieties of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and their relation to the appropriateness of the tubers for raw and boiled preparation. RESULTS: Sensory evaluation of raw and boiled...... Jerusalem artichoke tubers was performed by a trained sensory panel and a semi-trained consumer panel of 49 participants, who also evaluated the appropriateness of the tubers for raw and boiled preparation. The appropriateness of raw Jerusalem artichoke tubers was related to Jerusalem artichoke flavour...... attributes can be used as predictors of the appropriateness of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for raw and boiled consumption. Knowledge on the quality of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers can be used to inform consumers on the right choice of rawmaterial and thereby increase the consumption...

  20. Molecular properties and prebiotic effect of inulin obtained from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.).

    López-Molina, Dorotea; Navarro-Martínez, María Dolores; Rojas Melgarejo, Francisco; Hiner, Alexander N P; Chazarra, Soledad; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno

    2005-06-01

    A high molecular weight inulin has been prepared from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) agroindustrial wastes using environmentally benign aqueous extraction procedures. Physico-chemical analysis of the properties of artichoke inulin was carried out. Its average degree of polymerization was 46, which is higher than for Jerusalem artichoke, chicory, and dahlia inulins. GC-MS confirmed that the main constituent monosaccharide in artichoke inulin was fructose and its degradation by inulinase indicated that it contained the expected beta-2,1-fructan bonds. The FT-IR spectrum was identical to that of chicory inulin. These data indicate that artichoke inulin will be suitable for use in a wide range of food applications. The health-promoting prebiotic effects of artichoke inulin were demonstrated in an extensive microbiological study showing a long lasting bifidogenic effect on Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521 cultures and also in mixed cultures of colonic bacteria.

  1. The Domestication of Artichoke and Cardoon: From Roman Times to the Genomic Age

    Sonnante, Gabriella; Pignone, Domenico; Hammer, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Background The history of domestication of artichoke and leafy cardoon is not yet fully understood and when and where it occurred remains unknown. Evidence supports the hypothesis that wild cardoon is the wild progenitor of both these crops. Selection for large, non-spiny heads resulted in artichoke and selection for non-spiny, large stalked tender leaves resulted in leafy cardoon. The two crops differ in their reproductive system: artichoke is mostly vegetatively propagated and perennial, wh...

  2. The effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on ROS generation in HUVEC cells.

    Juzyszyn, Z; Czerny, B; Pawlik, A; Droździk, M

    2008-09-01

    The effect of an artichoke extract on induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in cultured human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) and its reductive properties were evaluated. Preincubation of HUVEC cells with the artichoke extract at concentrations of 25-100 microg/mL for 24 h abolished ROS generation induced by LPS and oxyLDL as evaluated by the fluorescence intensity of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Potent, concentration-dependent reductive properties of the artichoke extract were demonstrated by the reduction kinetics of cytochrome c in reference to ascorbate were also revealed. The results of the present study the warrant application of artichoke extracts as endothelium protecting agents.

  3. Literatur zu Gast im Globe

    2006-01-01

    Der deutsche Schriftsteller Thomas LEHR liest am 23. März 2006 aus seinem Roman '42', einem philosophischen Abenteuerroman über die Suche nach der Zeit, erzählt in einer funkelnden und souveränen Sprache. Eine Welt von vernichtender Schönheit und bizarren Schrecken wartet auf eine Besuchergruppe, die in der Nähe von Genf die unterirdischen Anlagen des Forschungszentrums für Teilchenphysik CERN besichtigt. Als sie um 12:47:42 wieder ans Tageslicht tritt, scheint ganz Europa in einen Dornröschenschlaf gefallen. Allein die 70 Besucher können sich noch bewegen. Monate und Jahre verharrt die Welt wie in einer riesigen dreidimensionalen Fotografie, bis ein wiederum schockierendes Ereignis die 'Chronifizierten' aus ihren physikalischen Spekulationen und seltsamen Lebensformen reisst. Zu dieser literarischen Veranstaltung im 'Globe of Science and Innovation' laden gemeinsam das Generalkonsulat der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Genf und CERN ein. Vor Beginn der Lesung wird eine Führung in deutscher Sprac...

  4. Sustainability debate at the Globe

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    Eco-neighbourhoods, solar panels, recycled heat: these were just some of the innovative ecological projects presented at the panel discussion organised by the Commune of Meyrin at the Globe on Thursday 21 June. CERN is closely involved with several of the projects.   CERN has an important role to play in sustainable development, and in Meyrin it has an excellent local partner. This was perhaps the key message, from CERN’s point of view, to come out of Thursday’s event. It particularly highlighted the proposed plan to use part of the “waste” heat going to the cooling towers at Point 1 to contribute to heating Meyrin’s new ecological housing project, Les Vergers. Some of CERN’s other high-profile contributions to sustainable development, such as the solar panels using CERN vacuum technology on the airport roof, were also presented. The video below presents some of the main ideas and actors in the CERN-Meyrin partnership. Please note that t...

  5. 2008 events in the Globe

    2008-01-01

    Globe of Science and Innovation 1st floor - Route de Meyrin, 1211 Geneva Interactive exhibition Superconductivity—magical attraction From Tuesday, 28 October, to Saturday, 13 December 2008 Tuesdays and Wednesdays from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. Saturdays from 9 a.m. to 5.00 p.m. The phenomenon of superconductivity was discovered a century ago. The first step was taken in 1907 when helium was liquefied for the first time. The capability to cool materials down to temperatures of -269°C (4.2K), made it possible to study the new phenomenon of superconductivity. The properties of this amazing discovery are already being used in a variety of applications in such areas as medical imaging, energy transportation, storage, magnetic levitation and transportation, and electronics. Come and find out how superconductivity has been used for the magnets of CERN’s new accelerator, and test the feeling of levitation for yourself! Free entry - No specialist knowledge required. Fête de ...

  6. 2008 events in the Globe

    2008-01-01

    Globe of Science and Innovation 1st floor - Route de Meyrin, 1211 Geneva Interactive exhibitionSuperconductivity—magical attraction From Tuesday, 28 October, to Saturday, 13 December 2008 Tuesdays and Wednesdays from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. Saturdays from 9 a.m. to 5.00 p.m. The phenomenon of superconductivity was discovered a century ago. The first step was taken in 1907 when helium was liquefied for the first time. The capability to cool materials down to temperatures of -269°C (4.2K), made it possible to study the new phenomenon of superconductivity. The properties of this amazing discovery are already being used in a variety of applications in such areas as medical imaging, energy transportation, storage, magnetic levitation and transportation, and electronics. Come and find out how superconductivity has been used for the magnets of CERN’s new accelerator, and test the feeling of levitation for yourself! Free entry - No specialist knowledge required. In mathema...

  7. The Globe: Exhibitions and Events

    2007-01-01

    The LHC, accelerator of scienceCERN is soon to commission the world’s most powerful accelerator, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider), which will provide us with new insights into the Universe and how it evolved. This series of lectures is all about understanding the scientific and technological challenges of this phenomenal project and assessing its innovations through their everyday applications. Come and take a sneak preview of the LHC! Thursday 29 November, 8:00 p.m. Share: leading-edge technology at the service of society Jean-Marie Le Goff, physicist and head of technology transfer at CERN The technologies used by the LHC are already finding applications in other scientific fields, such as medicine, climatology, metrology and computer science. Through its ground-breaking technologies, particle physics benefits society as a whole.>>>> Lectures are free and require no specialist knowledge. In French.>>> By reservation only: tel. +41 (0)22 767 76 76 http://globe.web.cern.c...

  8. Live broadcast from the Globe

    La tête au carréTuesday, 17 June 2008 between 2.00 and 3.00 p.m.“La tête au carré”, a France Inter radio programme devoted to science, will set up its sound booth at CERN for a special broadcast on the LHC.The journalist Mathieu Vidard will interview the following guests: - Pierre Van Hove, an experimental physicist working on CMS. He is a CNRS research scientist from the Institut Hubert Curien in Strasbourg, France.- Abdelhak Djouadi is a theoretical physicist. He is a research director at the CNRS’s Laboratoire de physique théorique at Orsay, France and holder of the CNRS silver medal.- Magali Gruwe, one of the engineers in charge of LHC operations at CERN.» To take part in this live broadcast, which is open to the public, come to the Globe at 1:30 p.m. The number of places is limited.» No specialist knowledge required.» See the programme's homepage

  9. 2009 events in the Globe

    2009-01-01

    Globe of Science and Innovation 1st floor - Route de Meyrin, 1211 Geneva Mini-Einstein: physics for totsWednesdays from 14:30 to 15:30 January 2009: 14, 21, 28 and February 2009: 11, 18, 25 CERN is offering a series of workshops designed to teach the ABC of physics to the very young. Games and hands-on activities based on notions such as weight and waves will stimulate the children’s curiosity and initiate them into the world of science. Workshop in French for accompanied 4-to-6-year-olds. Free of charge, please book on +41 (0)22 767 76 76 Interactive exhibition Superconductivity... magical attraction Special opening from Tuesday, 13 January, to Saturday, 31 January 2009 Tuesdays and Wednesdays from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. and Saturdays from 9 a.m. to 5.00 p.m. Following the success at the end of last year, the exhibition "Superconductivity... magical attraction" will be extended until the end of January. The phenomenon of sup...

  10. On stage at the Globe

    2005-01-01

    The Globe's first season this year is to be rounded off with two shows that are in perfect keeping with the centenary of the death of Jules Verne and Albert Einstein's theory of relativity. 'Signé Jules Verne' (Signed Jules Verne) The Miméscope company, which has already thrilled audiences at CERN with shows such as the 'Oracle of Delphi' and, more recently, 'Point de Suspension', returns with an interactive show entitled 'Signé Jules Verne'. Imagine a slightly crazy machine, which rolls along on wheels, floats, flies or moves in any other way you like, as long as it works on scientific principles. This is the task that Jules Verne sets his audience. Experiments, models, drawings, blueprints, he's interested in them all. In its typical style, Miméscope has created a world of enchantment that combines theatre, choreography, music and lighting effects in a show that evolves as a function of its audience. Performances at 3.00 p.m. on 4, 7, 10 and 11 December An interactive show for the general public...

  11. Teacher Preparation with GLOBE and NASA Assets

    Czajkowski, K. P.; Templin, M.; Struble, J.; Mierzwiak, S.; Hedley, M. L.; Padgett, D.

    2017-12-01

    The GLOBE Program has been a working with teachers and students for over 20 years. Pre-service education students can be a target audience as well. Mission EARTH is a NASA funded project through the NASA Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) from the Science Mission Directorate. A goal of Mission EARTH is to improve student understanding of Earth System Science and to engage the next generation of scientists and global citizens. This presentation will discuss Weather and Climate courses offered at both the University of Toledo and Tennessee State University for pre-service education students. Students engaged in atmospheric observations through the GLOBE protocols and developed research projects to study El Nino. Undergraduate students helped K-12 students take GLOBE observations as well by partnering with in-service GLOBE teachers affiliated with these GLOBE partnerships.

  12. Potential internalisation of caliciviruses in lettuce.

    Urbanucci, A; Myrmel, M; Berg, I; von Bonsdorff, C-H; Maunula, L

    2009-10-31

    Fresh produce such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa) has often been linked to epidemic viral gastroenteritis. In these cases, it is unknown whether the viral contamination has occurred during the growing or the processing of the implicated product. In this study lettuce was grown in the presence of enteric viruses, and the uptake of viruses via the roots into the edible parts (leaves and stem) of the lettuce plants was investigated, for plants with both intact and damaged roots. The roots of lettuce, growing either in hydroponic culture or in soil, were exposed to canine calicivirus (CaCV) and a human genogroup 2 norovirus (HuNoV) by these being added into the water or soil in which the lettuce was growing. Leaves from lettuce plants and seedlings were examined for viruses by real-time RT-PCR. When the lettuce plants were exposed to very high concentrations of CaCV, the virus was detected in lettuce leaves, indicating contamination via the roots, but the frequency of positive results was low. Internalisation occurred in both seedlings and grown plants, in both hydroponic and soil cultures, and occurred whether the roots were intact or damaged. However, internalisation of HuNoV was not detected in any of the experimental set ups, although the concentrations to which the plants were exposed were relatively high. Based on these results, viral contamination of lettuce plants via roots cannot be excluded, but is apparently not an important transmission route for viruses.

  13. The globe and orbit in Laron syndrome.

    Kornreich, L; Konen, O; Lilos, P; Laron, Z

    2011-09-01

    Patients with LS have an inborn growth hormone resistance, resulting in failure to generate IGF-1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the size of the eye and orbit in LS. We retrospectively reviewed the MR imaging of the brain in 9 patients with LS for the following parameters: axial diameter of the globe, interzygomatic distance, perpendicular distance from the interzygomatic line to margins of the globe, medial-to-lateral diameter of the orbit at the anterior orbital rim, distance from the anterior orbital rim to the anterior globe, maximal distance between the medial walls of the orbits, lateral orbital wall angle, lateral orbital wall length, and mediolateral thickness of the intraorbital fat in the most cranial image of the orbit. All measurements were made bilaterally. Twenty patients referred for MR imaging for unrelated reasons served as control subjects. Compared with the control group, the patients with LS had a significantly smaller maximal globe diameter and shallower but wider orbits due to a shorter lateral wall, a smaller medial distance between the orbits, and a larger angle of the orbit. The ratio between the most anterior orbital diameter and the globe was greater than that in controls. The position of the globe was more anterior in relation to the interzygomatic line. Shallow and wide orbits and small globes relative to orbital size are seen in LS and may be secondary to IGF-1 deficiency.

  14. The Possible Efficacy of Artichoke in Fluconazole Related Hepatotoxicity

    Hüseyin Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although fluconazole related hepatotoxicity (FRH is rare, mortal acute hepatic necrosis and jaundice were reported in immunocompromised states such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and bone marrow transplant (BMT. We present a case of a patient with multiple sclerosis who developed hepatotoxicity with the use of a single 150 mg fluconazole tablet for fungal vaginitis, 10 days after methylprednisolone pulse treatment. Our patient’s alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels were decreased, 1200 U/L and 800 U/L, respectively, and bilirubin levels were consistent at 37 mg/dL. Artichoke which has anticholestatic and antioxidant properties was used by our patient. She consumed a 30 mg artichoke leaf extract tea 3 times a day. The bilirubin levels significantly declined at the end of the first week and all liver function tests were normalized within 2 months.

  15. Jerusalem artichoke: what is its potential. [Energy crops

    Stauffer, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    The agronomic potential of Jerusalem artichokes (J.A.) and the economic possibilities of commercial production of these tubers for use in fuel production is discussed. The nutrient content and the composition of reducing sugars in 6 strains of J.A. are given. Energy requirements in terms of energy resource depletion of fossil fuel to produce 1 hectare of J.A. and the theoretical yields of ethanol from J.A., sugar beet, corn, and wheat are tabulated. (DMC)

  16. Hydrocarbons by fermenting the juice of the Jerusalem artichoke

    Joud, F R

    1976-02-13

    The artichoke juice containing nonfermentable insulins is acidified to pH 3- and heated at 95/sup 0/ for 30 to 40 minutes to hydrolyze the insulins into fermentable sugars which are then fermented to ethanol. The ethanol is dried and reacted with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to form C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ which is treated at 300/sup 0/ under pressure with a powdered Ni catalyst to form alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes.

  17. Genetics of resistance against lettuce downy mildew

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most valuable vegetable crops in the U.S. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Bremia lactucae, is the most important foliar disease of lettuce worldwide, which decreases the quality of the marketable portion of the crop. The use of resistant varieties carrying dominan...

  18. Sustainable lettuce: Adaptability to uncertain production conditions

    Lettuce is a popular and widely consumed leafy vegetable. California and Arizona annually produce more than 250,000 acres of iceberg, romaine, leaf, and specialty types of lettuce, supplying more than 95% of the U.S market as well as exports to Canada and other countries. These states have dominat...

  19. Potential of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) as a biorefinery crop

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Svensson, S.-E.; Johansson, E.

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of Jerusalem artichoke in a biorefinery context was not investigated so far. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of this plant as feedstock for production of bioethanol, protein and inulin. We investigated the biomass productivity and chemical composition...... of Jerusalem artichoke. Although not high (in total

  20. Photoperiod and growing degree days effect on dry matter partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke

    The effect of photoperiod and growing degree days (GDD) on dry matter and dry partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke was investigated during 2008-09 and 2009-10. Three Jerusalem artichoke genotypes (CN-52867, JA-89 and HEL-65) were planted in 15 day-intervals between with thirteen different dates (Sep...

  1. Influence of planting date and temperature on inulin content in Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Lower temperatures during the dry season in tropical regions might affect inulin content and inulin yield of Jerusalem artichoke. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of planting dates during low temperature on inulin yield and content of Jerusalem artichoke. Two pot experiments...

  2. Genotypic variability for tuber yield, biomass, and drought tolerance in Jerusalem artichoke germplasm

    Jerusalem artichoke could be an alternative feedstock for bioenergy during times when there are shortages of other raw materials for the ethanol industry. However, insufficient water under rainfed conditions is a major cause of Jerusalem artichoke losses. Genetic variation for drought tolerance is...

  3. A New Look for the Globe Gardens

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Designs to develop the grounds of the Globe of Science and Innovation have recently been unveiled. The plan is to extend the visitor activities on offer, transforming the area into a public arena for scientific exploration.   Design for the new Globe Gardens. © Jencks Squared and Groupe H. After months of conceptual development, plans to develop the site around the Globe are taking shape. The innovative designs were drawn up for CERN by a unique collaboration consisting of landscape architects Charles and Lily Jencks, and "Groupe H", a group of architects headed by Globe designer Hervé Dessimoz. They comprise new venues, covered walkways, a café and gift shop, a separate VIP entrance and a physics-inspired garden for visitors. The landscape itself becomes a feature – dramatically altered to create a cosmic garden formed by shaped mounds, ponds, and a natural amphitheatre for public events. “The new exhibition in the G...

  4. Friday Programme for CineGlobe 2015

    Marcelloni De Oliveira, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Workshops, apero with filmmakers and short-films inspired by science were the menu of the festival through the day. At night the CineGlobe DOME shown with the 360 degree projections shot-films; among them the avant-premiere of "Phantom of the Universe" - a movie that explains Dark Matter, directed by Joao Pequenao. Meanwhile at the Globe, the audience could enjoy the projections of the sequence of " The Invisible Photograph" .

  5. Detailed Globes Enhance Education and Recreation

    2007-01-01

    Orbis World Globes creates inflatable globes-Earthballs-in many sizes that depict Earth as it is seen from space, complete with atmospheric cloud cover. Orbis designs and produces the most visually authentic replicas of Earth ever created, and NASA took notice of Orbis globes and employed a 16-inch diameter EarthBall for an educational film it made aboard the STS-45 shuttle mission. Orbis later collaborated with NASA to create two 16-foot diameter world globes for display at the 2002 Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City, using more detailed satellite imagery. The satellite image now printed on all Orbis globes displays 1-kilometer resolution and is 21,600 by 43,200 pixels in size, and Orbis globes are otherwise meteorologically accurate, though the cloud cover has been slightly reduced in order for most of the landforms to be visible. Orbis also developed the exclusive NightGlow Cities feature, enabling EarthBalls to display the world's cities as they appear as the Earth revolves from daylight into night. Orbis inflatable globes are available in sizes from 1 to 100 feet in diameter, with the most common being the standard 16-inch and 1-meter diameter EarthBalls. Applications include educational uses from preschools to universities, games, and for a variety of display purposes at conferences, trade shows, festivals, concerts, and parades. A 16-foot diameter Orbis globe was exhibited at the United Nations' World Urban Forum, in Vancouver, Canada; the Space 2006 conference, in San Jose, California; and the X-Prize Cup Personal Spaceflight Exposition in Las Cruces, New Mexico.

  6. Recent advances in bio-based multi-products of agricultural Jerusalem artichoke resources.

    Qiu, Yibin; Lei, Peng; Zhang, Yatao; Sha, Yuanyuan; Zhan, Yijing; Xu, Zongqi; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2018-01-01

    The Jerusalem artichoke is a perennial plant that belongs to the sunflower family. As a non-grain crop, Jerusalem artichoke possesses a number of desirable characteristics that make it a valuable feedstock for biorefinery, such as inulin content, rapid growth, strong adaptability, and high yields. This review provides a comprehensive introduction to renewable Jerusalem artichoke-based biomass resources and recent advances in bio-based product conversion. Furthermore, we discuss the latest in the development of inulinase-producing microorganisms and enhanced inulin hydrolysis capacity of microbes by genetic engineering, which lead to a more cost-effective Jerusalem artichoke biorefinery. The review is aimed at promoting Jerusalem artichoke industry and new prospects for higher value-added production.

  7. Antioxidant Properties of Seeds from Lines of Artichoke, Cultivated Cardoon and Wild Cardoon

    Alessandra Durazzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus L., the cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. altilis DC. and the wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. sylvestris L. are species widely distributed in the Mediterranean area. The aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of seeds from lines of artichoke and cultivated and wild cardoon in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity evaluations. Both artichoke and cardoon seeds are a good source of antioxidants. Among artichoke seeds, hydrolysable polyphenols contribution to antioxidant properties ranged from 41% to 78% for FRAP values and from 17% to 37% for TEAC values. No difference between cultivated and wild cardoon in antioxidant properties are reported. Our results could provide information about the potential industrial use and application of artichoke and/or cardoon seeds.

  8. Antioxidant Properties of Seeds from Lines of Artichoke, Cultivated Cardoon and Wild Cardoon

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Temperini, Andrea; Azzini, Elena; Venneria, Eugenia; Lucarini, Massimo; Finotti, Enrico; Maiani, Gianluca; Crinò, Paola; Saccardo, Francesco; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus L.), the cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. altilis DC.) and the wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. sylvestris L.) are species widely distributed in the Mediterranean area. The aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of seeds from lines of artichoke and cultivated and wild cardoon in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) evaluations. Both artichoke and cardoon seeds are a good source of antioxidants. Among artichoke seeds, hydrolysable polyphenols contribution to antioxidant properties ranged from 41% to 78% for FRAP values and from 17% to 37% for TEAC values. No difference between cultivated and wild cardoon in antioxidant properties are reported. Our results could provide information about the potential industrial use and application of artichoke and/or cardoon seeds. PMID:26787623

  9. Genome skimming reveals the origin of the Jerusalem Artichoke tuber crop species: neither from Jerusalem nor an artichoke.

    Bock, Dan G; Kane, Nolan C; Ebert, Daniel P; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2014-02-01

    The perennial sunflower Helianthus tuberosus, known as Jerusalem Artichoke or Sunchoke, was cultivated in eastern North America before European contact. As such, it represents one of the few taxa that can support an independent origin of domestication in this region. Its tubers were adopted as a source of food and forage when the species was transferred to the Old World in the early 1600s, and are still used today. Despite the cultural and economic importance of this tuber crop species, its origin is debated. Competing hypotheses implicate the occurrence of polyploidization with or without hybridization, and list the annual sunflower H. annuus and five distantly related perennial sunflower species as potential parents. Here, we test these scenarios by skimming the genomes of diverse populations of Jerusalem Artichoke and its putative progenitors. We identify relationships among Helianthus taxa using complete plastomes (151 551 bp), partial mitochondrial genomes (196 853 bp) and 35S (8196 bp) and 5S (514 bp) ribosomal DNA. Our results refute the possibility that Jerusalem Artichoke is of H. annuus ancestry. We provide the first genetic evidence that this species originated recursively from perennial sunflowers of central-eastern North America via hybridization between tetraploid Hairy Sunflower and diploid Sawtooth Sunflower. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Isolation of a polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from artichoke and expression analysis in wounded artichoke heads.

    Quarta, Angela; Mita, Giovanni; Durante, Miriana; Arlorio, Marco; De Paolis, Angelo

    2013-07-01

    The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme, which can catalyze the oxidation of phenolics to quinones, has been reported to be involved in undesirable browning in many plant foods. This phenomenon is particularly severe in artichoke heads wounded during the manufacturing process. A full-length cDNA encoding for a putative polyphenol oxidase (designated as CsPPO) along with a 1432 bp sequence upstream of the starting ATG codon was characterized for the first time from [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori]. The 1764 bp CsPPO sequence encodes a putative protein of 587 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 65,327 Da and an isoelectric point of 5.50. Analysis of the promoter region revealed the presence of cis-acting elements, some of which are putatively involved in the response to light and wounds. Expression analysis of the gene in wounded capitula indicated that CsPPO was significantly induced after 48 h, even though the browning process had started earlier. This suggests that the early browning event observed in artichoke heads was not directly related to de novo mRNA synthesis. Finally, we provide the complete gene sequence encoding for polyphenol oxidase and the upstream regulative region in artichoke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Resistance to lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri) biotype 0 in wild lettuce accessions PI 491093 and PI 274378

    Lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Homoptera : Aphididae), is a major insect pest of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L, in many commercial lettuce productions areas around the world. Resistance to lettuce aphid was first reported in Lactuca virosa L. accession IVT 280 and characterized as complete,...

  12. The Globe gets a new skin

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    The Globe of Science and Innovation will be closed to the public from 4 May until the end of March 2016 for large-scale maintenance work. The renovation project, which is set to last about ten months, aims to overhaul the general building infrastructure and, above all, to replace a number of ageing components.   The Globe, during its assembly at CERN in 2004. Originally designed by Genevan architects Thomas Büchi and Hervé Dessimoz for the Swiss national “Expo 2002” exhibition in Neuchâtel, the Globe of Science and Innovation quickly became a symbol of CERN. In 2004, when it was relocated to its present site, the Globe acted as the venue hosting official delegations at the Laboratory’s 50th anniversary celebrations. Ten years on, thanks especially to the permanent exhibition Universe of Particles, the Globe has become THE venue for meetings and interactions between CERN and the general public, and is destined to continue in that ve...

  13. Short-film Festival at the Globe

    2007-01-01

    Get out your diaries and prepare to be star-struck as the Globe of Science and Innovation meets the silver screen! The CERN "Open Your Eyes Films" film-making club is organising a festival of short films entitled CinéGlobe from Thursday 8 to Saturday 10 November. On the Thursday and Friday, you’ll be able to watch 47 short films free of charge in the Globe of Science and Innovation at various times of the day. The short films to be screened come from 21 different countries and have been selected from among 1400 entrees! All film genres will be represented : comedy, drama, animation, documentaries, experimental films, etc. Members of the public will even be able to vote for their favourite film: the audience’s favourite will be awarded a "Coup de coeur" award. An awards ceremony to honour the films that have received most votes will be held on Friday evening in the Globe of Science and Innovation. The Golden CinéGlobe for bes...

  14. The development of functional cake technology based on processed Jerusalem artichoke products

    G. V. Posnova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and practical researches on the development of technologies of functional pastries with quality indicators satisfying customer and market demands of small enterprises are highly relevant. The purpose of studies was to develop a technology of functional cake based on processed Jerusalem artichoke products - cellulose and syrup.The recipe of the cake “Stolichnyi” was taken as a control sample.Test cake samples were prepared with partial or full replacement of sugar by Jerusalem artichoke syrup (0–100% and raisins by Jerusalem artichoke fiber (0, 50, 100%. It was found that organoleptic quality indicators of products improved by the introduction of Jerusalem artichoke syrup instead of sugar, their specific volume decreased slightly compared to the control – by 1.9–3.0%.Specific volume of cakes increased compared to the control by 5.4–11%improved by the introduction of Jerusalem artichokefiber instead of raisins, but its surface became bumpier, there were deep cracks. Specific volume of products increased by 7.8–8.8%, the surface was convex, slightly bumpy with little nicked when Jerusalem artichoke syrup and fiberwere introduced together.The humidity and the alkalinity of samples practically unchanged. The sample prepared with full replacement of sugar by syrup and raisins by fiber of Jerusalem artichoke had the best quality indicators.During storage for 5 days the smallest changes in the crumb condition and flavor were observed in cake samples with complete replacement of sugar by Jerusalem artichoke syrup, the introduction of Jerusalem artichoke fiber resulted in a slight elasticity decrease and friability crumbimprovement. The use of Jerusalem artichoke syrup and fiber in the cakes manufacture allowsto receivegoods with high nutritional value, enriched with prebiotic inulin, to expand the range of functional pastry products.

  15. Protective Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Artichoke, an Edible Herbal Medicine, against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    Tang, Xuchong; Wei, Ruofan; Deng, Aihua; Lei, Tingping

    2017-09-11

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke ( Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were treated with an ethanolic extract of artichoke (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/kg body weight) by gavage once daily. Up to 40% alcohol (12 mL/kg body weight) was administered orally 1 h after artichoke treatment. All mice were fed for 10 consecutive days. Results showed that artichoke extract significantly prevented elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, the decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione were elevated by artichoke administration. Histopathological examination showed that artichoke attenuated degeneration, inflammatory infiltration and necrosis of hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in liver tissues were significantly suppressed by artichoke treatment. Results obtained demonstrated that artichoke extract exhibited significant preventive protective effect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury. This finding is mainly attributed to its ability to attenuate oxidative stress and suppress the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway. To the best of our knowledge, the underlying mechanisms of artichoke on acute ALD have been rarely reported.

  16. The prospects of Jerusalem artichoke in functional food ingredients and bioenergy production.

    Yang, Linxi; He, Quan Sophia; Corscadden, Kenneth; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2015-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke, a native plant to North America has recently been recognized as a promising biomass for bioeconomy development, with a number of advantages over conventional crops such as low input cultivation, high crop yield, wide adaptation to climatic and soil conditions and strong resistance to pests and plant diseases. A variety of bioproducts can be derived from Jerusalem artichoke, including inulin, fructose, natural fungicides, antioxidant and bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke, derivation of bioproducts and applicable production technologies, with an expectation to draw more attention on this valuable crop for its applications as biofuel, functional food and bioactive ingredient sources.

  17. The prospects of Jerusalem artichoke in functional food ingredients and bioenergy production

    Linxi Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jerusalem artichoke, a native plant to North America has recently been recognized as a promising biomass for bioeconomy development, with a number of advantages over conventional crops such as low input cultivation, high crop yield, wide adaptation to climatic and soil conditions and strong resistance to pests and plant diseases. A variety of bioproducts can be derived from Jerusalem artichoke, including inulin, fructose, natural fungicides, antioxidant and bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke, derivation of bioproducts and applicable production technologies, with an expectation to draw more attention on this valuable crop for its applications as biofuel, functional food and bioactive ingredient sources.

  18. Productivity and fermentability of Jerusalem artichoke according to harvesting date

    Chabbert, N.; Arnoux, M.; Braun, Ph.; Galzy, P.; Guiraud, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The amount of alcohol obtained per hectare of Jerusalem artichoke culture depends on the yield of tubers, the sugar content of the tubers and the fermentability of these sugars. Under Mediterranean climate conditions, the cultivar 'Violet commun' attained its maximum tuber production by 15 November, when the stems and leaves dried up, and then remained constant through the winter. The sugar content of the tubers varied little during this period. However, the sugar composition did vary with time: the polyfructosans were depolymerized. The fermentability of sugars without prior chemical hydrolysis was quite good with Kluyveromyces marxianus which showed high inulinase activity in contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  19. Productivity and fermentability of Jerusalem artichoke according to harvesting date

    Chabbert, N.; Braun, P.; Guiraud, J.P.; Arnoux, M.; Galzy, P.

    1983-01-01

    The amount of alcohol obtained per hectare of Jerusalem artichoke culture depends on the yield of tubers, the sugar content of the tubers and the fermentability of these sugars. Under Mediterranean climate conditions, the cultivar Violet commun attained its maximum tuber production by 15 November, when the stems and leaves dried up, and then remained constant through the winter. The sugar content of the tubers varied little during this period. However, the sugar composition did vary with time: the polyfructosans were depolymerized. The fermentability of sugars without prior chemical hydrolysis was quite good with Kluyveromyces marxianus which showed high inulinase activity in contrast to Saccaromyces cerevisiae. 5 figures, 1 table.

  20. Productivity and fermentability of Jerusalem artichoke according to harvesting date

    Chabbert, M.; Braunt, Ph.; Guiraud, J.P.; Arnoux, M.; Galzy, P.

    1983-01-01

    The amount of alcohol obtained per hectare of Jerusalem artichoke culture depends on the yield of tubers, the sugar content of the tubers and the fermentability of these sugars. Under Mediterranean climate conditions, the cultivar 'Violet commun' attained its maximum tuber production by 15 November, when the stems and leaves dried up, and then remained constant through the winter. The sugar content of the tubers varied little during this period. However, the sugar composition did vary with time: the polyfructosans were depolymerized. The fermentability of sugars without prior chemical hydrolysis was quite good with Kluyveromyces marxianus which showed high inulinase activity in contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (Refs. 13).

  1. Precut prepackaged lettuce: a risk for listeriosis?

    Hanning, Irene B; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C

    2008-12-01

    The most recent outbreaks of listeriosis have been traced back to contaminated ready-to-eat (RTE) poultry and meat products. However, Listeria monocytogenes can be isolated from every food group, including fresh vegetables. This review is focused on one of the most popular RTE vegetable products, precut prepackaged lettuce. The available literature concerning Listeria contamination of vegetables is reviewed, and possible reasons why no recent outbreaks or sporadic cases of listeriosis due to contaminated precut prepackaged lettuce are explored.

  2. The Globe of Innovation takes shape

    2004-01-01

    On 18 May, the central vortex of the CERN Globe of Innovation was put into place more than 22 metres above the ground. The central vortex of the Globe of Innovation is a crown measuring 6.15 metres in diameter and 4.5 meters in height. Having been lifted by a crane to a height of over 22 metres, the vortex is placed on a support structure which will be removed once the 36 arcs providing the building's structure have been secured in place. Resting some 22 metres above the ground, the central vortex of the Globe of Innovation is now ready to support the 36 wooden arcs which will provide the building's structure. Work to reassemble the former Palais de l'Equilibre, which was first erected in Neuchâtel for the EXPO.02 exhibition, began on 18 May. The sphere, measuring 40 metres in diameter, has now been renamed the Globe of Innovation. A detachment from the Swiss army is carrying out the work, which will be completed in time for the Organization's official fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The building will be...

  3. Children's drawings exhibited in the Globe

    Elizabeth Roe

    2010-01-01

    "Draw Me A Physicist" has been a success. Members of the public visiting the exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation have praised the scientific and creative balance the children of neighbouring France and the Canton of Geneva have obtained through their visit to CERN.   The Draw Me a Physicist exhibition in the Globe For a six-month period 9 to 11-year olds from the Pays de Gex, Meyrin, Satigny and Vernier have been able to enjoy a balance between science and art, through drawing and defining their interpretations of a physicist. In May, eight pairs of drawings from each participating class were selected by the schools to be displayed on the second floor of the Globe. Since the images have been put up, the viewers have enjoyed the contrast between the "before" pictures of vibrant Albert Einsteins to the "after" pictures of casual people sitting in an office. The large room in the Globe has been transformed from a hollow shell int...

  4. Science Outreach in Virtual Globes; Best Practices

    Treves, R. W.

    2007-12-01

    The popularity of projects such as 'Crisis in Darfur' and the IPY (International Polar Year) network link show the potential of using the rich functionality of Virtual Globes for science outreach purposes. However, the structure of outreach projects in Virtual Globes varies widely. Consider an analogy: If you pick up a science journal you immediately know where to find the contents page and what the title and cover story are meant to communicate. That is because journals have a well defined set of norms that they follow in terms of layout and design. Currently, science projects presented in virtual globes have, at best, weakly defined norms, there are little common structural elements beyond those imposed by the constraints of the virtual globe system. This is not a criticism of the science community, it is to be expected since norms take time to develop for any new technology. An example of the development of norms are pages on the web: when they first started appearing structure was unguided but over the last few years structural elements such as a left hand side navigation system and a bread crumb trail near the header have become common. In this paper I shall describe the developing norms of structure I have observed in one area of virtual globe development; Google Earth science outreach projects. These norms include text introductions, video introductions, use of folders and overlay presentation. I shall go on to examine how best to use these norms to build a clear and engaging outreach project and describe some cartographic best practices that we should also consider adopting as norms. I also will briefly explain why I think norms in science outreach aid creativity rather than limiting it despite the counter intuitive nature of this concept.

  5. Tissue Fractions of Cadmium in Two Hyperaccumulating Jerusalem Artichoke Genotypes

    Xiaohua Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanisms in two Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. genotypes that hyperaccumulate Cd, a sand-culture experiment was carried out to characterize fractionation of Cd in tissue of Cd-hyperaccumulating genotypes NY2 and NY5. The sequential extractants were: 80% v/v ethanol (FE, deionized water (FW, 1 M NaCl (FNaCl, 2% v/v acetic acid (FAcet, and 0.6 M HCl (FHCl. After 20 days of treatments, NY5 had greater plant biomass and greater Cd accumulation in tissues than NY2. In both genotypes the FNaCl fraction was the highest in roots and stems, whereas the FAcet and FHCl fractions were the highest in leaves. With an increase in Cd concentration in the culture solution, the content of every Cd fraction also increased. The FW and FNaCl ratios in roots were lower in NY5 than in NY2, while the amount of other Cd forms was higher. It implied that, in high accumulator, namely, NY5, the complex of insoluble phosphate tends to be shaped more easily which was much better for Cd accumulation. Besides, translocation from plasma to vacuole after combination with protein may be one of the main mechanisms in Cd-accumulator Jerusalem artichoke genotypes.

  6. Enzymatic browning and after-cooking darkening of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    Bach, Vibe; Jensen, Sidsel; Clausen, Morten R; Bertram, Hanne C; Edelenbos, Merete

    2013-11-15

    Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) undergo enzymatic browning when peeled or cut, and turn grey after boiling, due to after-cooking darkening reactions between iron and phenolic acids. In an attempt to reveal the components responsible for these discolouration reactions, sensory evaluation and instrumental colour measurements were related to contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids, organic acids and iron in three varieties of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers harvested in the autumn and the spring. No differences were found between varieties in sensory evaluated enzymatic browning, but Rema and Draga had higher scores than Mari in after-cooking darkening. Jerusalem artichoke tubers had higher contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids and citric acid in the autumn and low contents in the spring, while it was the opposite for malic acid. None of the chemical parameters investigated could explain the discolouration of the Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic diversity of worldwide Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) germplasm as revealed by RAPD markers.

    Wangsomnuk, P P; Khampa, S; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Mornkham, T; Ruttawat, B; Patanothai, A; Fu, Y B

    2011-12-12

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a wild relative of the cultivated sunflower (H. annuus); it is an old tuber crop that has recently received renewed interest. We used RAPD markers to characterize 147 Jerusalem artichoke accessions from nine countries. Thirty RAPD primers were screened; 13 of them detected 357 reproducible RAPD bands, of which 337 were polymorphic. Various diversity analyses revealed several different patterns of RAPD variation. More than 93% of the RAPD variation was found within accessions of a country. Weak genetic differentiation was observed between wild and cultivated accessions. Six groups were detected in this germplasm set. Four ancestral groups were found for the Canadian germplasm. The most genetically distinct accessions were identified. These findings provide useful diversity information for understanding the Jerusalem artichoke gene pool, for conserving Jerusalem artichoke germplasm, and for choosing germplasm for genetic improvement.

  8. Improved droplet-vitrification and histological studies of cryopreserved shoot tips of cultivated Jerusalem artichoke genotypes

    Germplasm conservation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is crucial to preserve genetic diversity and to secure materials for genetic improvement. Long-term conservation is accomplished through cryopreservation, storing cells or tissues at an ultralow temperature in liquid nitrogen (-...

  9. Influence of sugars on the dry-weight increase of gamma irradiated Jerusalem artichoke tuber's tissue

    Schaeverbeke-Sacre, J.

    1976-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke tuber's explants after a γ irradiation of 6000 rads couldn't proliferate in a growth medium containing glucose and indolyl acetic acid; their dry weight is increased by an accumulation of sugars [fr

  10. Growth, development and productivity of Jerusalem artichoke depending on plant stand in the conditions of the Republic of Karakalpakstan

    Zhangabaeva A.S.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available the article presents the results of studying the influence of various schemes of planting seed tubers of Jerusalem artichoke on the rate of plant growth and development in the soil and climatic conditions of the Republic of Karakalpakstan. Differences in the rate of growth and development of plants are revealed, depending on the varietal features of Jerusalem artichoke and the density of their standing. The most optimal scheme for planting tubers of Jerusalem artichoke is 70x40 cm.

  11. In Vitro and In Vivo Survival and Transit Tolerance of Potentially Probiotic Strains Carried by Artichokes in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Valerio, Francesca; De Bellis, Palmira; Lonigro, Stella Lisa; Morelli, Lorenzo; Visconti, Angelo; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The ability of potentially probiotic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paracasei to survive on artichokes for at least 90 days was shown. The anchorage of bacterial strains to artichokes improved their survival in simulated gastrointestinal digestion. L. paracasei IMPC2.1 was further used in an artichoke human feeding study involving four volunteers, and it was shown that the organism could be recovered from stools.

  12. Preharvest application of oxalic acid improves quality and phytochemical content of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) at harvest and during storage.

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; García-Pastor, María Emma; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Guillén, Fabián; Serrano, María; Valero, Daniel; Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo

    2017-09-01

    In this study the effect of oxalic acid (OA) treatment of artichoke plants (Cynara scolymus L.) on head artichoke development and on artichokes quality parameters (weight loss, firmness, and color), respiration rate, antioxidant activity and phenolics (measured by Folin Ciocalteu and HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS n ) at harvest and during storage for 21days at 2°C was evaluated. OA treatment increased the percentage of the first class artichokes although no significant effect was found in artichoke developmental process. OA-treatment reduced the respiration rate of artichokes and led to higher total hydrosoluble antioxidant activity and total phenolics and hydroxycinnamics and luteolins concentration both at harvest and during cold storage. In addition, luteolin 7-O-glucuronide 3-O-glucoside was identified for the first time in artichoke. Thus, it can be concluded that OA preharvest treatment could be a natural and useful tool to delay the artichoke postharvest senescence and improve the reported health-beneficial properties of artichokes consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Artichoke, Cynarin and Cyanidin Downregulate the Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Human Coronary Smooth Muscle Cells

    Ning Xia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. is one of the world’s oldest medicinal plants with multiple health benefits. We have previously shown that artichoke leaf extracts and artichoke flavonoids upregulate the gene expression of endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in human endothelial cells. Whereas NO produced by the eNOS is a vasoprotective molecule, NO derived from the inducible iNOS plays a pro-inflammatory role in the vasculature. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of artichoke on iNOS expression in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC. Incubation of HCASMC with a cytokine mixture led to an induction of iNOS mRNA expression. This iNOS induction was concentration- and time-dependently inhibited by an artichoke leaf extract (1–100 µg/mL, 6 h or 24 h. Consistently, the artichoke leaf extract also reduced cytokine-induced iNOS promoter activation and iNOS protein expression. In addition, treatment of HCASMC with four well-known artichoke compounds (cynarin > cyanidin > luteolin ≈ cynaroside led to a downregulation iNOS mRNA and protein expression, with cynarin being the most potent one. In conclusion, artichoke contains both eNOS-upregulating and iNOS-downregulating compounds. Such compounds may contribute to the beneficial effects of artichoke and may per se have therapeutic potentials.

  14. Artichoke, cynarin and cyanidin downregulate the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human coronary smooth muscle cells.

    Xia, Ning; Pautz, Andrea; Wollscheid, Ursula; Reifenberg, Gisela; Förstermann, Ulrich; Li, Huige

    2014-03-24

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is one of the world's oldest medicinal plants with multiple health benefits. We have previously shown that artichoke leaf extracts and artichoke flavonoids upregulate the gene expression of endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. Whereas NO produced by the eNOS is a vasoprotective molecule, NO derived from the inducible iNOS plays a pro-inflammatory role in the vasculature. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of artichoke on iNOS expression in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). Incubation of HCASMC with a cytokine mixture led to an induction of iNOS mRNA expression. This iNOS induction was concentration- and time-dependently inhibited by an artichoke leaf extract (1-100 µg/mL, 6 h or 24 h). Consistently, the artichoke leaf extract also reduced cytokine-induced iNOS promoter activation and iNOS protein expression. In addition, treatment of HCASMC with four well-known artichoke compounds (cynarin > cyanidin > luteolin ≈ cynaroside) led to a downregulation iNOS mRNA and protein expression, with cynarin being the most potent one. In conclusion, artichoke contains both eNOS-upregulating and iNOS-downregulating compounds. Such compounds may contribute to the beneficial effects of artichoke and may per se have therapeutic potentials.

  15. Sensory quality and appropriateness of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    Bach, Vibe; Kidmose, Ulla; Thybo, Anette K; Edelenbos, Merete

    2013-03-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensory attributes, dry matter and sugar content of five varieties of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and their relation to the appropriateness of the tubers for raw and boiled preparation. Sensory evaluation of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers was performed by a trained sensory panel and a semi-trained consumer panel of 49 participants, who also evaluated the appropriateness of the tubers for raw and boiled preparation. The appropriateness of raw Jerusalem artichoke tubers was related to Jerusalem artichoke flavour, green nut flavour, sweetness and colour intensity, whereas the appropriateness of boiled tubers was related to celeriac aroma, sweet aroma, sweetness and colour intensity. In both preparations the variety Dwarf stood out from the others by being the least appropriate tuber. A few sensory attributes can be used as predictors of the appropriateness of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for raw and boiled consumption. Knowledge on the quality of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers can be used to inform consumers on the right choice of raw material and thereby increase the consumption of the vegetable. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Sensory evaluation of biscuits enriched with artichoke fiber-rich powders (Cynara scolymus L.).

    San José, Francisco J; Collado-Fernández, Montserrat; López, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    The artichoke by-products from the canning industry are mainly used for silage, being minimally revaluated. The ways of extraction of by-products of artichoke into fiber-rich powders modify their industrial applications in biscuits, as the sensory evaluation may change compared with the reference fiber (Pea fiber, P) used with commercial biscuit. In this sensory study biscuits enriched with fiber-rich powders of artichoke (W, Ca) are compared with biscuits with the same percentage of the reference fiber (P) and control biscuits without fiber (B). For most of the sensory attributes of the biscuits enriched with artichoke fiber-rich powders were perceived similar to the biscuits with the commercial reference fiber (P). The good sensory behavior of the biscuits with artichoke fiber-rich powders during two storage conditions applied may confirm that the artichoke by-products would be a suitable substitute for pea fiber in oven-baked products, like wholemeal biscuits with high-fiber content.

  17. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of an artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) aqueous extract.

    Zan, Meriele A; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Richter, Marc F; Picada, Jaqueline N; de Andrade, Heloisa H R; Lehmann, Mauricio; Dihl, Rafael R; Nunes, Emilene; Semedo, Juliane; Da Silva, Juliana

    2013-02-01

    The Cynara scolymus (artichoke) is widely consumed as tea or food and shows important therapeutic properties. However, few studies have assessed the possible toxic effects of artichoke extracts. This study evaluates genotoxic and mutagenic activities of artichoke leaf aqueous extract in mice using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Leaf extracts were given by gavage (500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. Extract composition was investigated using phytochemical screening and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, antioxidant capacity was analyzed through the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and xanthine oxidase assay. Phytochemical screening detected the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and saponins. HPLC analyses indicated the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, isoquercetrin, and rutin. Extracts showed a dose-dependent free radical scavenging effect of DPPH and an inhibitory effect of xanthine oxidase. The genotoxic results showed that leaf extracts did not increase micronuclei in peripheral blood cells. Compared to the control group, a significant increase in comet assay values was observed only in bone marrow of group treated with 2000 mg/kg, the highest dose tested, indicating that artichoke tea should be consumed with moderation. This is the first report of in vivo mutagenic and genotoxic evaluation with C. scolymus. The present study revealed leaf aqueous extract from artichoke shows lack of mutagenicity in vivo, and low genotoxicity and antioxidant activity; indicating that artichoke tea should be consumed with moderation. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Preharvest Application of Methyl Jasmonate as an Elicitor Improves the Yield and Phenolic Content of Artichoke.

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Valero, Daniel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Castillo, Salvador; Giménez, María José; García-Pastor, Maria Emma; Serrano, María; Zapata, Pedro Javier

    2017-10-25

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) treatment as an elicitor of artichoke plants [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] on the yield and quality attributes of artichokes, especially those related to individual phenolic content and antioxidant activity, at two harvest dates and along storage were analyzed in this research. Plants treated gave a higher yield of artichokes in comparison to control plants, with 0.55 kg more per plant. MeJa treatment also increased artichoke quality and phenolic content in the edible fraction at harvest and during storage at 2 °C for 28 days as a result of the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acids and luteolin derivatives. In addition, antioxidant activity was enhanced by MeJa treatment and correlated with the total phenolic content. Results suggest that MeJa foliar application could be a simple and practical tool to improve the yield and phytochemical content on artichokes, with elicitation being a cheap and environmentally friendly procedure to improve the health-beneficial effects of artichoke consumption.

  19. Chemical constituents and anti-ulcerogenic potential of the scales of Cynara scolymus (artichoke) heads.

    Nassar, Mahmoud I; Mohamed, Tahia K; Elshamy, Abdelsamed I; El-Toumy, Sayed A; Abdel Lateef, Azza M; Farrag, Abdel-Razik H

    2013-08-15

    Cynara scolymus L. (Asteraseae) (artichoke) is commonly eaten as a vegetable; its leaves are frequently used in folk medicine in the treatment of hepatitis, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and dyspeptic disorders. The purpose of this study is to determine the chemical composition of the volatile oil and alcoholic extract of artichoke head scales. In addition, the role of the methanol extract as an anti-ulcer agent against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats was evaluated. Six flavonoids and one phenolic acid were obtained from the methanol extract. Also, 37 compounds were identified in the volatile oil, the majority including mono- and sesquiterpenes. The artichoke extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) significantly (P artichoke induced an increase in gastric mucus production, and a reduction of the depth and severity of mucosal lesions. Artichoke dose-dependently reduced the elevated ethanol gastric malonylaldehyde, and reduced glutathione levels and catalase activity. These results suggest that the head scales of artichoke possess potential anti-ulcer activity. The present paper describes the identification of volatile oil for the first time along with the isolation and identification of the constituents of the methanol extract. Moreover, the high anti-ulcerogenic potential of scales of C. scolymus heads was established here for the first time. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Advancements in utilizing molecular markers in lettuce breeding

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is globally the most popular commercially produced, leafy vegetable, farmed in moderate climates. Cultivated lettuce is a self-fertilizing, diploid (2n = 2x = 18) species from the family Compositae (Asteraceae). New cultivars of lettuce are developed by combining desirabl...

  1. Genetic characterization of resistance to Sclerotinia in lettuce cultivar Eruption

    Lettuce drop caused by the fungal pathogens Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum is a serious disease of lettuce. The use of genetic resistance as part of an integrated lettuce drop management strategy should have a significant economic advantage in mitigating yield loss. Sclerotinia resistance is ...

  2. EYE TRAUMA. OPEN GLOBE INJURY MANAGEMENT

    Mojca Globočnik Petrovič

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ocular trauma is important cause of blindness. Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology allows us to use a standardized eye injury terminology which permits an unambigous interpretation. The Eye Injury Registry enables the analysis of medical, epidemyologic and social data.The most frequent ocular injury ocular contusion has a relatively good prognosis. An adequate primary ocular repair and correct timing of pars plana vitrectomy are very important in open globe injury management. There still exist some controversial issues concerning the role of posterior segment surgery in open globe injuries. These include timing of surgery, prophylactic scleral buckle placement and a proper use of systemic and intravitreal antibiotics.Conclusions. With adequate primary ocular repair, the use of systemic, intravitreal antibiotics, scleral buckling and proper timing for pars plana vitrectomy the prognosis for ocular trauma cases can be better.

  3. Individualism–Collectivism in Hofstede and GLOBE

    Paul Brewer; Sunil Venaik

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Individualism–Collectivism (I-C) dimension of national culture in the Hofstede and GLOBE models. We identify major contradictions between the two culture models, which result in contradictory relationships with external variables such as economic prosperity. We critically evaluate the content validity of the items used to measure this construct in both models. Based on our analysis, we suggest that Hofstede's Individualism–Collectivism index be relabelled as Self-orien...

  4. The Globe opens its doors to the public

    2005-01-01

    The Globe of Science and Innovation has quickly become the most recognisable landmark on the CERN skyline. Since construction was completed last summer, the Globe's distinctive spherical shape has greeted and intrigued visitors and employees on arrival at CERN.

  5. Global Land One-kilometer Base Elevation (GLOBE) v.1

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBE is a project to develop the best available 30-arc-second (nominally 1 kilometer) global digital elevation data set. This version of GLOBE contains data from 11...

  6. Visualization on the Day Night Year Globe

    Božić, Mirjana; Vušković, Leposava; Popović, Svetozar; Popović, Jelena; Marković-Topalović, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    The story about a properly oriented outdoor globe in the hands and minds of Eratosthenes, Jefferson, Milanković and science educators is presented. Having the same orientation in space as the Earth, the Day Night Year Globe (DING) shows in real time the pattern of illumination of the Earth’s surface and its diurnal and seasonal variations. It is an ideal object for the visualization of knowledge and increase in knowledge about: the form of the Earth, Earth’s rotation, Earth’s revolution around the Sun, the length of seasons, solstices, equinoxes, the longitude problem, the distribution of the Sun’s radiation over the Earth, the impact of this radiation on Earth’s climate, and how to use it efficiently. By attaching a movable vane to the poles, or adding pins around the equator to read time, DING becomes a spherical/globe-shaped sundial. So, the DING is simultaneously useful for teaching physics, geophysics, astronomy, use of solar energy and promoting an inquiry-based learning environment for students and the public. (paper)

  7. A new mural for the Globe

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    A 53 metre long and 6 metre high mural has graced the ramp of the Globe since 21 June. Containing life-size photos of the CMS experiment and an event in the ATLAS detector, its visual impact cannot fail to rouse visitors' curiosity.   The new mural installed in the Globe Visitors ascending from the ground-floor to the first floor of the Globe are now greeted by a huge visual record of what's going on below ground at CERN and is no longer accessible on guided tours of the Laboratory. "The mural contains full-scale photos that give you a real feel of how the CMS detector is constructed and of the degree of precision of the particle tracks in the ATLAS event", explains Rolf Landua, Head of the Education Group, who came up with the project in conjunction with Bernard Pellequer. Several people were instrumental in bringing the project to life. The collage of 250 photographs of the CMS detector was retouched and assembled by Maximilien Brice, CERN's photographer, with the assistance o...

  8. A key component of the Globe arrives

    2003-01-01

    The first component of the Palais de l'Equilibre arrived at CERN last week. Renamed the Globe of Innovation, this elegant wooden sphere will be inaugurated in October 2004. The convoy transporting the first component of the Palais de l'Equilibre, the keystone of the famous wooden globe, arrived at CERN on the night of 28th August in the middle of a violent storm and dramatic flashes of lightning. Erected in Neuchâtel last year for the EXPO.02 exhibition, the Palais de l'Equilibre was a gift to the Laboratory from the Swiss Confederation (see Bulletin 25/2003). The gift of the structure and 4 million Swiss francs, together with help from the Swiss army for the reassembly work, received the final approval of the Swiss Federal Council on 20th August 2003. Renamed the Globe of Innovation, the 27-metre-high sphere measuring 40 metres in diameter will house the Laboratory's new exhibition centre in 2005. The keystone, known as the "central vertex", is a crown measuring 6.5 m in diameter and 4.5 m high, located a...

  9. Development of marker-free transgenic lettuce resistant to Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus.

    Kawazu, Yoichi; Fujiyama, Ryoi; Imanishi, Shunsuke; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Satoru

    2016-10-01

    Lettuce big-vein disease caused by Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV) is found in major lettuce production areas worldwide, but highly resistant cultivars have not yet been developed. To produce MLBVV-resistant marker-free transgenic lettuce that would have a transgene with a promoter and terminator of lettuce origin, we constructed a two T-DNA binary vector, in which the first T-DNA contained the selectable marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase II, and the second T-DNA contained the lettuce ubiquitin gene promoter and terminator and inverted repeats of the coat protein (CP) gene of MLBVV. This vector was introduced into lettuce cultivars 'Watson' and 'Fuyuhikari' by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Regenerated plants (T0 generation) that were CP gene-positive by PCR analysis were self-pollinated, and 312 T1 lines were analyzed for resistance to MLBVV. Virus-negative plants were checked for the CP gene and the marker gene, and nine lines were obtained which were marker-free and resistant to MLBVV. Southern blot analysis showed that three of the nine lines had two copies of the CP gene, whereas six lines had a single copy and were used for further analysis. Small interfering RNAs, which are indicative of RNA silencing, were detected in all six lines. MLBVV infection was inhibited in all six lines in resistance tests performed in a growth chamber and a greenhouse, resulting in a high degree of resistance to lettuce big-vein disease. Transgenic lettuce lines produced in this study could be used as resistant cultivars or parental lines for breeding.

  10. Genetic investigation of the nonhost resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to lettuce downy mildew, Bremia lactucae

    Boer, den E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a devastating foliar disease causing high losses in lettuce cultivation. The wild lettuce and nonhost species, Lactuca saligna, is absolute resistant to downy mildew and

  11. GLOBE-koolide õpilased assisteerivad NASA teadlasi / Imbi Henno

    Henno, Imbi

    2004-01-01

    GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit Environment) on õpilastele suunatud uurimuslikku ja praktilist tegevust pakkuv haridus- ja teadusprogramm. Õpilased teevad keskkonnavaatlusi ja mõõtmisi, saadavad oma tulemused interneti kaudu GLOBE'i andmebaasi ja kasutavad andmebaase koolitöös. Suvel toimus USA-s Boulderis GLOBE'i 10. tegevusaastale pühendatud konverents

  12. Sources of Verticillium dahliae affecting lettuce.

    Atallah, Zahi K; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2012-11-01

    ABSTRACT Since 1995, lettuce in coastal California, where more than half of the crop in North America is grown, has consistently suffered from severe outbreaks of Verticillium wilt. The disease is confined to this region, although the pathogen (Verticillium dahliae) and the host are present in other crop production regions in California. Migration of the pathogen with infested spinach seed was previously documented, but the geographic sources of the pathogen, as well as the impact of lettuce seed sparsely infested with V. dahliae produced outside coastal California on the pathogen population in coastal California remain unclear. Population analyses of V. dahliae were completed using 16 microsatellite markers on isolates from lettuce plants in coastal California, infested lettuce seed produced in the neighboring Santa Clara Valley of California, and spinach seed produced in four major spinach seed production regions: Chile, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States (Washington State). California produces 80% of spinach in the United States and all seed planted with the majority infested by V. dahliae comes from the above four sources. Three globally distributed genetic populations were identified, indicating sustained migration among these distinct geographic regions with multiple spinach crops produced each year and repeated every year in coastal California. The population structure of V. dahliae from coastal California lettuce plants was heavily influenced by migration from spinach seed imported from Denmark and Washington. Conversely, the sparsely infested lettuce seed had limited or no contribution to the Verticillium wilt epidemic in coastal California. The global trade in plant and seed material is likely contributing to sustained shifts in the population structure of V. dahliae, affecting the equilibrium of native populations, and likely affecting disease epidemiology.

  13. Stimulation of lettuce seed germination by ethylene.

    Abeles, F B; Lonski, J

    1969-02-01

    Ethylene increased the germination of freshly imbibed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids) seeds. Seeds receiving either red or far-red light or darkness all showed a positive response to the gas. However, ethylene was apparently without effect on dormant seeds, those which failed to germinate after an initial red or far-red treatment. Carbon dioxide, which often acts as a competitive inhibitor of ethylene, failed to clearly reverse ethylene-enhanced seed germination. While light doubled ethylene production from the lettuce seeds, its effect was not mediated by the phytochrome system since both red and far-red light had a similar effect.

  14. Viability of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Escherichia coli in Versus Prebiotic Effects of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus

    Elaheh Mansouri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In this study, in vitro prebiotic effects of Jerusalem artichoke poly-fructans on the survivability and activity of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Escherichia coli were investigated and compared with HP-Inulin (a high molecular-weight fraction of chicory-derived inulin. Objectives The prebiotic potential of poly-fructans extracted from native Jerusalem artichoke tubers on the survivability of B. bifidum and E. coli was evaluated in this study. Methods In this experimental study, 24 treatments divided to 2 groups (Extracted poly-fructose from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and standard inulin randomly. The turbidity and pH variations during 48 hours incubation were determined using final concentrations of each group (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v. The data were analyzed by MINITAB 14 and MSTATC statistical software, one way ANOVA and Duncan’s test. Results This study suggests that Jerusalem artichoke tuber fructooligosaccharides (JA-Fr had the potential to be used as a prebiotic component. The growth of B. bifidum improved significantly in the presence of Jerusalem artichoke fructans compared to the control. There was no significant differences (P < 0.05 in Bifidobacterium population in different concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke poly-fructans, but the population was significantly higher than the count in the presence of HP-inulin. The pH decreased in both media during 48 hours incubation time. Specific rate of growth and doubling time determined for E. coli demonstrated that the efficacy of various carbon sources in stimulating bacterial growth were influenced by the concentration and DP (degree of polymerization of fructan chains in the media. Conclusions Jerusalem artichoke fructooligosaccharides can provide the greater stability of probiotics and acid production, so it can be considered as a potential source of high-yielding oligosaccharide for commercial prebiotic production to develop food industry and improve host health.

  15. Protective effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf extract against lead toxicity in rat.

    Heidarian, Esfandiar; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2013-09-01

    Artichoke, Cynara scolymus L. (Asteraceae), has many natural antioxidants and multiple pharmacological actions. Recent studies have shown that it has antitoxic activity. Lead (Pb) is a dangerous environmental toxicant that induces a broad range of dysfunctions in human. This study evaluated the protective effect of the hydroethanolic extract of artichoke against altered biochemical parameters in rats fed with lead-containing diet. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first (control) group received standard diet. The second, third and fourth groups received 500 mg lead/kg diet, 500 mg lead/kg diet plus 300 mg/kg b.w. artichoke extract daily, and 500 mg lead/kg diet plus 1 mg vitamin C/100 g b.w. daily for 6 weeks, respectively. Serum lead, lipoprotein profile, ALT (alanine transaminase), AST (aspartate transaminase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), malondialdehyde (MDA) and liver histopathology assessments were conducted. Serum lead, triglyceride (TG), VLDL, ALT, AST, ALP and MDA levels decreased significantly (p artichoke-treated group (35.85, 38.26, 38.38, 21.90, 12.81, 26.86 and 46.91%, respectively) compared to lead-intoxicated rats without treatment. No significant change was observed in serum lead, ALP and ALT between artichoke and vitamin C-treated groups (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the liver histopathology in rats treated with artichoke showed a mild degree of lymphocyte infiltration that was relatively comparable to the control and vitamin C-treated groups. These results clearly show that the artichoke extract in lead-poisoned rats has suitable chelating properties for the reduction of blood lead levels.

  16. CT classification and clinical significance of rupture globe

    Diao Jinzhong; Zhang Guixiang

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss CT appearances of the rupture globe, and CT classifications and their clinical significance. Materials and methods: Forty-nine rupture globes were verified; 79% patents were scanned within 24 hours. Axial plane scanning were done with 3 mm slice and 256 x 256 matrix. Bone and soft tissue conditions were adjusted to analyse the bone and globe structures. Results: CT showed that globe circle rupture in one point of 32%, two points of 20%, and multiple points of 28%. Thickening of globe circle was as follows: 5 mm in 10 globes, 6 mm in 24, and 7 mm in 9.20% injured globes were enlarged and 32% were contracted. 14 anterior chambers deepened more than 4 mm. 83% rupture globes also had intraglobe hemorrhage and 48% foreign bodies. 28% injured globes had exophthalmus, and 75% had injured parasinuses or orbits, or brain trauma. Conclusion: The authors classified the rupture globe into three types. Type III showed unrepaired that should ablate the injured globes, whereas type I and II had to repair and to debride

  17. In vitro antioxidant activities of edible artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and effect on biomarkers of antioxidants in rats

    Jimenez-Escrig, A.; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Daneshvar, Bahram

    2003-01-01

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), an edible vegetable from the Mediterranean area, is a good source of natural antioxidants such as vitamin C, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavones. The antioxidant activity of aqueous-organic extracts of artichoke were determined using three methods: (a) free radical 2...

  18. Feeding Jerusalem artichoke reduced skatole level and changed intestinal microbiota in the gut of entire male pigs.

    Vhile, S G; Kjos, N P; Sørum, H; Overland, M

    2012-05-01

    Different levels of dried Jerusalem artichoke were fed to entire male pigs 1 week before slaughter. The objective was to investigate the effect on skatole level in the hindgut and in adipose tissue, as well as the effect on microflora and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the hindgut. Five experimental groups (n = 11) were given different dietary treatments 7 days before slaughtering: negative control (basal diet), positive control (basal diet + 9% chicory-inulin), basal diet + 4.1% Jerusalem artichoke, basal diet + 8.1% Jerusalem artichoke and basal diet + 12.2% Jerusalem artichoke. Samples from colon, rectum, faeces and adipose tissue were collected. Effect of dietary treatment on skatole, indole and androstenone levels in adipose tissue and on skatole, indole, pH, dry matter (DM), microbiota and SCFA in the hindgut was evaluated. Feeding increasing levels of Jerusalem artichoke to entire male pigs reduced skatole in digesta from colon and in faeces (linear, P Jerusalem artichoke decreased DM content in colon and faeces and pH in colon (linear, P Jerusalem artichoke resulted in a reduced level of Clostridium perfringens in both colon and rectum (linear, P Jerusalem artichoke to diets for entire male pigs 1 week before slaughter resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in skatole levels in the hindgut and adipose tissue. The reduced skatole levels might be related to the decrease in C. perfringens and the increase in SCFA with subsequent reduction in pH.

  19. Cultivation and utilization of Jerusalem artichoke for ethanol, single cell protein, and high-fructose syrup production

    Bajpai, P.K.; Bajpai, Pratima (Thapar Corporate Research and Development Center, Patiala (IN). Div. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering)

    1991-04-01

    Jerusalem artichoke has one of the highest carbohydrate yields of the known agricultural crops and has many distinct advantages over traditional crops. This brief review presents data on the yield and composition of Jerusalem artichoke, techniques of carbohydrate extraction and its utilization for the production of ethanol, single cell protein (SCP), and high-fructose syrup, along with economic considerations. (author).

  20. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  1. Sensory analysis of calcium-biofortified lettuce

    Vegetables represent an attractive means of providing increased calcium nutrition to the public. In this study, it was demonstrated that lettuce expressing the deregulated Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) transporter sCAX1 (cation exchanger 1) contained 25-32% more calcium than controls. These biofortified l...

  2. Overexpression of homogentisate phytyltransferase in lettuce results ...

    In this study, HPT gene isolated from Lactuca sativa L. (LsHPT) was transferred into L. sativa (lettuce) via Agrobacterium-mediated method and 15 transgenic plants were obtained. The expression of LsHPT gene and the total content of and -tocopherol in transgenic plants were increased up to 4 and 2.61 folds, respectively, ...

  3. Alternative for improving gut microbiota: use of Jerusalem artichoke and probiotics in diet of weaned piglets.

    Valdovska, A; Jemeljanovs, A; Pilmane, M; Zitare, I; Konosonoka, I H; Lazdins, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Jerusalem artichoke and probiotics on defence activity of intestinal cells of weaning pigs. One hundred eighty piglets (7 weeks old) were fed with basal feed supplemented with Jerusalem artichoke, Lactobacillus reuteri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. After 5 weeks, the piglets were slaughtered and the gastrointestinal contents and intestine samples were taken for analysis. Results demonstrated that in pigs fed basal diet with both probiotics and Jerusalem artichoke (5% of basal diet) (T3 group) had less (PJerusalem artichoke powder (T2 group), but Salmonella enteritidis - only in T1 group. In jejunum of T2 group piglets, large deterioration of crypts, a moderate inflammation process and plasmocytes were seen, but in jejunum of T3 group piglets - branching of apical surface of villi, moderate degeneration and mitosis of enterocytes were observed. A moderate number of apoptotic cells in T2 group was found mainly in colon inflammation cells and plasmocytes, but for T3 group piglets--both in jejunum enterocytes and migrating cells. Our study indicated that beta-defensin 2 and 3 expression in jejunum and colon segments were incresed in T1 and T2 groups. Findings suggest that feeding with probiotics and Jerusalem artichoke significantly improves the microbial contents, defence and regeneration processes in the intestine of pigs.

  4. Ethanol production using whole plant biomass of Jerusalem artichoke by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS1555.

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Kim, Chul Ho

    2013-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is a low-requirement sugar crop containing cellulose and hemicellulose in the stalk and a high content of inulin in the tuber. However, the lignocellulosic component in Jerusalem artichoke stalk reduces the fermentability of the whole plant for efficient bioethanol production. In this study, Jerusalem artichoke stalk was pretreated sequentially with dilute acid and alkali, and then hydrolyzed enzymatically. During enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately 88 % of the glucan and xylan were converted to glucose and xylose, respectively. Batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of both pretreated stalk and tuber by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS1555 were effectively performed, yielding 29.1 and 70.2 g/L ethanol, respectively. In fed-batch fermentation, ethanol productivity was 0.255 g ethanol per gram of dry Jerusalem artichoke biomass, or 0.361 g ethanol per gram of glucose, with a 0.924 g/L/h ethanol productivity. These results show that combining the tuber and the stalk hydrolysate is a useful strategy for whole biomass utilization in effective bioethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke.

  5. Infusions of artichoke and milk thistle represent a good source of phenolic acids and flavonoids.

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-01-01

    Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke) and Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn (milk thistle) are two herbs well-known for their efficiency in the prevention/treatment of liver injuries, among other chronic diseases. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize specific bioactive components, phenolic compounds, in hydromethanolic extracts but also in infusions (the most commonly used preparations) obtained from the whole plant of milk thistle and artichoke. The phenolic profiles were accessed using HPLC-DAD-MS/ESI. Infusions of both species presented higher phenolic contents than the hydromethanolic extracts. Milk thistle presented a similar phenolic composition between the two preparations, revealing only differences in the quantities obtained. Nevertheless, artichoke revealed a slightly different profile considering infusion and hydromethanolic extracts. Apigenin-7-O-glucuronide was the major flavonoid found in milk thistle, while luteolin-7-O-glucuronide was the most abundant in artichoke. Therefore, infusions of both artichoke and milk thistle represent a good source of bioactive compounds, especially phenolic acids and flavonoids.

  6. Kombucha fermentation on raw extracts of different cultivars of Jerusalem artichoke

    Lončar Eva S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a symbiosis between yeasts and acetic bacteria. It usually grows on sweetened black tea, but cultivation is possible on many other substrates. Jerusalem artichoke tubers extract is one of them. Tubers are suitable for the dietetic nutrition because of the low monosaccharide content and presence of some polyfructan ingredients which act as prebiotic. Five different cultivars of Jerusalem artichoke were used for the preparation of substrates for kombucha fermentation. The aim of this paper was the investigation of the influence of different Jerusalem artichoke cultivars on metabolic activity of kombucha. Composition of carbohydrates was followed using thin-layer chromatography and pH, reducing sugars content and yield of biomass were measured. Most of the samples with Jerusalem artichoke tubers extract contained fructose, probably small amount of glucose, fructo-oligosaccharides with different degree of polymerization and, inulin. Considering TLC chromatograms, Jerusalem artichoke cultivar did not affect significantly the composition of oligosaccharides in the fermentative liquid, as only minor differences were observed.

  7. Globe hosts launch of new processor

    2006-01-01

    Launch of the quadecore processor chip at the Globe. On 14 November, in a series of major media events around the world, the chip-maker Intel launched its new 'quadcore' processor. For the regions of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, the day-long launch event took place in CERN's Globe of Science and Innovation, with over 30 journalists in attendance, coming from as far away as Johannesburg and Dubai. CERN was a significant choice for the event: the first tests of this new generation of processor in Europe had been made at CERN over the preceding months, as part of CERN openlab, a research partnership with leading IT companies such as Intel, HP and Oracle. The event also provided the opportunity for the journalists to visit ATLAS and the CERN Computer Centre. The strategy of putting multiple processor cores on the same chip, which has been pursued by Intel and other chip-makers in the last few years, represents an important departure from the more traditional improvements in the sheer speed of such chips. ...

  8. Evaluation of Occupational Closed Globe Eye Injuries

    Berna Akova-Budak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate closed glob injuries related to occupational accidents of patients who had official occupational accident records. Material and Method: The medical records of patients with ocular injuries who referred to Department of Ophthalmology or emergency of Uludag University, School of Medicine between January 2010 and December 2013 with official occupational accident report were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with closed globe injuries following trauma were included. Age, sex, the injured eye, the cause of the trauma, whether the precautions were taken or not by the patient, the damage due to trauma were recorded. Results: According to the official records, 108 patients referred to our clinic with closed globe injury related to occupational accident. One hundred twenty eyes of 108 patients ( 2 females, 106 males were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 33±8.6 years. The most frequent cause of injury was foreign bodies on the ocular surface followed by blunt trauma. The mean age of the patients injured with foreign bodies was found to be significantly lower than the patients injured with blunt objects (p=0.039. Thirteen patients reported that they had used preventive equipment. Discussion: It is of utmost importance that the awareness of the workers should be raised and they should be educated about the use of preventive equipment to prevent the occupational eye injuries. The education of particularly the younger patients about the occupational injuries when they begin to work may decrease the rate of occupational accident related eye injuries.

  9. AND DEVELOPMENT OF LETTUCE ON CHERNOZEM ORDINARY

    N. V. Gromakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is very popular in the Russian consumer market. Special conditions for its cultivation determine the need to select modern, inexpensive elements of agro-technology that promote high yields. At present biochar (bio-coal is considered as a promising organic fertilizer. Its main difference lies in the possibility of using any organic raw material in its production. In Russia, the study on the use of biochar is limited; there is no practice of applying it in the complex of agricultural techniques of various agricultural crops. In the conditions of vegetative experiment, the influence of various doses of biochar in ordinary chernozem on the growth and development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa cultivar was studied in accordance with the developed experiment scheme: control (without biochar, supplemented with 1, 2 and 5 % of biochar. In the experiment, biochar obtained from birch wood was used, by pyrolysis method in fraction of 0.5-5mm. The following observations and determinations were made: the timing of the onset of the phases of plant development, the length of the roots, the number of leaves, the length of the largest leaf, the height of plants, the diameter of the rosette, the mass of 10 plants. The use of biochar contributed to a reduction of beginning period technical ripeness in plants, particularly in variant with the addition of 2%. The increase in root length, the number of leaves of lettuce plants as compared with to control in variants with 2 and 5% of biocar has been observed. The length of the largest leaf, the height of plants and the diameter of the rosette of lettuce are characterized by a significant improvement, even in variant with 1%. Productivity of lettuce was highest in the variant with 2% of biochar applied to the soil.

  10. Partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects parasitoids.

    Lanteigne, Marie-Eve; Brodeur, Jacques; Jenni, Sylvie; Boivin, Guy

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of partial plant resistance on the lettuce aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a major pest of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and one of its parasitoids, Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Aphids were reared on susceptible (L. sativa variety Estival; S) or partially resistant (Lactuca serriola L. PI 491093; PR) lettuce, and next parasitized by A. ervi females. Fitness proxies were measured for both aphids and parasitoids. Developmental time to adult stage took longer for alate and apterous aphids (an average of 3.5 and 1.5 additional days, respectively) on PR than on S lettuce, and fecundity of alate aphids reared on PR lettuce was reduced by 37.8% relative to those reared on S lettuce. Size (tibia length) and weight of aphids reared on PR lettuce were lower than for aphids reared on S lettuce from the third and second instar onward, respectively. Parasitism of aphids reared on PR plants resulted in lower parasitoid offspring emergence (-49.9%), lower adult female (-30.3%) and male (-27.5%) weight, smaller adult female (-17.5%) and male (-11.9%) size, and lower female fecundity (37.8% fewer eggs) than when parasitoids developed from aphids reared on S plants. Our results demonstrate that partial aphid resistance in lettuce negatively affects both the second and third trophic levels. Host plant resistance in cultivated lettuce may therefore create an ecological sink for aphid parasitoids.

  11. Evaluation of sanitary quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. irrigated with reused water in comparison with commercialized lettuce

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate use of water resources reduces their availability and therefore, research focused on their reutilization is required. This work evaluated the sanitary quality of lettuce irrigated with reused water in comparison with samples of lettuce commercialized in Taubaté (SP market. An experiment was developed in a greenhouse with three beds of lettuce irrigated with reused water and three beds of lettuce irrigated with urban water supply. After lettuce biological cycle had been completed, lettuce samples were collected from the beds (irrigated and non-irrigated with reused water and from samples of lettuce commercialized in the city market that were analyzed in the laboratory. The analyses were done using the multiple tubes methodology. The results showed that the samples from lettuce irrigated with urban water supply were not contaminated by either total or thermotolerant coliforms while samples of irrigated lettuce with reused water were contaminated by total coliforms. Samples from commercialized lettuce were contaminated by both kinds of coliforms. Results indicated that the application of reused water for agricultural purposes should occur only after carefully treatment to allow a safe use and to contribute to the water use sustainability.

  12. Enzymatic browning and after-cooking darkening of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Bach, Vibe; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel; Clausen, Morten Rahr

    2013-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) undergo enzymatic browning when peeled or cut, and turn grey after boiling, due to after-cooking darkening reactions between iron and phenolic acids. In an attempt to reveal the components responsible for these discolouration reactions, sensory...... evaluation and instrumental colour measurements were related to contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids, organic acids and iron in three varieties of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers harvested in the autumn and the spring. No differences were found between varieties in sensory evaluated...... enzymatic browning, but Rema and Draga had higher scores than Mari in after-cooking darkening. Jerusalem artichoke tubers had higher contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids and citric acid in the autumn and low contents in the spring, while it was the opposite for malic acid. None of the chemical...

  13. Study on exploitation of Jerusalem artichoke bulbs in relation to chemical composition

    Sorina Ropciuc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. known in USA also as sunchoke, is a perennial plant, well-adapted to humid and cold climats, nonpretencious to soil and with good yield increase. The bulbs are the eatable part that grows in the ground that have certain similitudes with the potato. The value of Jerusalem artichoke as a technical and medical vegetable is based on the chemical composition of the plant. The bulbs of the Jerusalem artichoke harvested in autumn have been sensorially and chemically analyzed along the deposition during the cold season. Measurements were made on the light brown variety with a slightly elongated shape. The low mass loss during depostion, the high content of reducing sugar (4.7- 6.12% and total carbohydrates (94.27-96.18% enable their successful use in the functional food and for the production of alcohol.

  14. Changes in inulin and soluble sugar concentration in artichokes (Cynara scolymus L.) during storage.

    Leroy, Gaëlle; Grongnet, Jean François; Mabeau, Serge; Corre, Daniel Le; Baty-Julien, Céline

    2010-05-01

    The artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) accumulates about 50-70 g kg(-1) of its fresh weight as inulin-type fructan. Inulin fermentation increases gas production and thereby provokes intestinal discomfort in some people. The present research focuses on the changes in carbohydrate composition occurring in artichoke heads during storage under different conditions (18 degrees C, 4 degrees C and 4 degrees C under polypropylene film packing). Carbohydrate content and composition were determined by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Storage time caused a decrease in inulin content and an average degree of polymerization, accompanied by an increase of free fructose and sucrose due to depolymerization of inulin. Higher-temperature storage and storage without packing induce strong carbohydrate changes. Thereby, eating stored artichoke leads to consumption of an inulin quantity that does not provoke unwanted symptoms related to gas production but sufficient to have a prebiotic effect.

  15. Protective properties of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) against oxidative stress induced in cultured endothelial cells and monocytes.

    Zapolska-Downar, Danuta; Zapolski-Downar, Andrzej; Naruszewicz, Marek; Siennicka, Aldona; Krasnodebska, Barbara; Kołdziej, Blanka

    2002-11-01

    It is currently believed that oxidative stress and inflammation play a significant role in atherogenesis. Artichoke extract exhibits hypolipemic properties and contains numerous active substances with antioxidant properties in vitro. We have studied the influence of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from artichoke on intracellular oxidative stress stimulated by inflammatory mediators (TNFalpha and LPS) and ox-LDL in endothelial cells and monocytes. Oxidative stress which reflects the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was followed by measuring the oxidation of 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) to 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Agueous and ethanolic extracts from artichoke were found to inhibit basal and stimulated ROS production in endothelial cells and monocytes in dose dependent manner. In endothelial cells, the ethanolic extract (50 microg/ml) reduced ox-LDL-induced intracellular ROS production by 60% (partichoke extracts have marked protective properties against oxidative stress induced by inflammatory mediators and ox-LDL in cultured endothelial cells and monocytes.

  16. Polyphenol metabolite profile of artichoke is modulated by agronomical practices and cooking method.

    Palermo, Mariantonella; Colla, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2013-08-21

    In this paper artichoke phenolic pattern was characterized using an Orbitrap Exactive Mass Spectrometer at high mass accuracy and conventional HPLC MS/MS. Twenty four phenolic acids and 40 flavonoids were identified, many of them not previously reported in artichoke. Variations in phenolic compounds were investigated in relation to mycorrhization: results showed that inoculation with mycorrhizae greatly influences metabolite profile proving to be a good strategy to enhance the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in this plant. This practice also caused a different distribution of the main phenolic compounds within head parts. Both steaming and microwaving cooking treatments caused an increase in antioxidant activity: the lower the initial concentration the higher the effect. A similar trend was observed looking at the phenolic compounds concentration: it increased because of cooking treatments the lower the initial content, the highest the increase. Steamed artichoke showed higher phenols content than microwaved ones.

  17. Agronomic efficiency of intercropping tomato and lettuce

    Arthur B. Cecílio Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments were carried out at the São Paulo State University, Brazil, with the aim of determining the agronomic viability of intercropping tomato and lettuce, under greenhouse conditions. The studied intercropping systems were established by transplanting lettuce at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT tomato and by transplanting tomato at 0, 10, 20 and 30 DAT lettuce. Intercropped tomato and lettuce were evaluated during two seasons and compared to their sole cropping. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with nine treatments. The productivity and the classification of the tomato fruits were not influenced by having lettuce intercropped with it, but lettuce production was lowered when tomato was intercropped with it. The longer the delay in lettuce transplanting, the greater the reduction in its productivity. There was an effect of cropping season on the extent of the agronomic advantage of intercropping over sole cropping. In the first cropping season, intercropping established by transplanting lettuce during the interval between 30 days before up to 20 DAT tomato yielded land use efficiency (LUE indices of 1.63 to 2.22. In the second period, intercropping established with the transplanting of lettuce up to 30 days before tomato yielded LUE indices of 1.57 to 2.05.Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos na Unesp, Brasil, com o objetivo de determinar a viabilidade agronômica de cultivos consorciados de alface e tomate em ambiente protegido. Consórcios estabelecidos por transplantes da alface aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias após o transplante (DAT do tomate e de tomate aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 DAT da alface, foram avaliados em duas épocas e comparados às suas monoculturas. Cada experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com nove tratamentos. Verificou-se que a produtividade do tomate e a classificação dos frutos não foram influenciadas pela alface, mas a produção da alface foi menor em cons

  18. Comparative Infection Progress Analysis of Lettuce big-vein virus and Mirafiori lettuce virus in Lettuce Crops by Developed Molecular Diagnosis Techniques.

    Navarro, Jose A; Botella, Francisco; Maruhenda, Antonio; Sastre, Pedro; Sánchez-Pina, M Amelia; Pallas, Vicente

    2004-05-01

    ABSTRACT Nonisotopic molecular dot blot hybridization technique and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for the specific detection of Lettuce big-vein virus (LBVV) and Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV) in lettuce tissue were developed. Both procedures were suitable for the specific detection of both viruses in a range of naturally infected lettuce plants from various Spanish production areas and seven different cultivars. The study of the distribution of both viruses in the plant revealed that the highest concentration of LBVV and MiLV occurred in roots and old leaves, respectively. LBVV infection progress in a lettuce production area was faster than that observed for MiLV. In spite of different rates of virus infection progress, most lettuce plants became infected with both viruses about 100 days posttransplant. The appearance of both viruses in lettuce crops was preceded by a peak in the concentration of resting spores and zoosporangia of the fungus vector Olpidium brassicae in lettuce roots.

  19. Physikshow is a hit in the Globe

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Students from the University of Bonn put on three highly successful performances of their "Physikshow", a theatrical journey into the world of particles.   All you need is a bit of imagination and stage management for even the most abstract of physics to become entertaining and intelligible, a principle demonstrated by 20 students from the University of Bonn and their teachers who gave three performances of their "Physikshow" in the Globe of Science and Innovation. The students quickly won over their audience using an array of amazing experiments and wacky sketches to illustrate the world of particles, the principle of forces and the evolution of the cosmos. More than 370 pupils from local secondary schools in France and the Cantons of Geneva and Vaud travelled to CERN for the two performances specially reserved for schools. The audience for the public performance numbered no fewer than 250. Physikshow was first performed in 2002 and has evolved over the years th...

  20. Effect of dim light irradiation on preservation of fresh lettuce

    Harada, F.; Uchino, T.; Akimoto, K.; Hu, W.

    2001-01-01

    In order to preserve fresh lettuce, the dim light irradiation storage was investigated. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) stored for about 120 hours at 5 or 20 deg C under continuous illumination at 0 (darkness), 1.6, 3.4, 6.5, 13 or 19.7 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 photosynthetic photon flux. The light compensation point was about 3.4 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 at 5 deg C, about 19.7 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 at 20 deg C. Fresh weight of lettuce decreased by promotion of transpiration caused by the dim light. Accordingly the root of lettuce should not be removed, so as to up-take water. The optimum dim light irradiation preserved the chlorophyll content in lettuce leaf or increased it. Therefore it appeared that the dim light irradiation was effective for the fresh lettuce preservation

  1. VRPI Temporal Progression of Closed Globe Injury from Blast Exposure

    2015-09-01

    significant increases in VEGF have been reported in many ocular disorders including diabetic retinopathy , diffuse macular edema, retinal vein...Open globe injury is often readily identifiable and typically undergoes urgent surgical repair. However, closed globe injury may not be detected ...including shrapnel or debris to the eye, is easily identified and rapidly treated. Closed globe trauma may not be detected right away, and little is

  2. Spontaneous globe luxation associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    M Ashok Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous globe luxation is a rarely reported condition which can lead to complications like optic neuropathy. Common causes are thyroid eye disease, shallow orbit and floppy eyelid syndrome. We report a case of spontaneous globe luxation with the onset and severity associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. To our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous globe luxation associated with COPD.

  3. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper...... focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals...

  4. A Shortcut to the Production of High Ethanol Concentration from Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers

    Wei-Guo Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger SL-09, a newly isolated exoinulinase-hyperproducing strain, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Z-06, with high ethanol tolerance, were used in a fed-batch process for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber mash and flour. S. cerevisiae Z-06 utilized 98 % of the total sugar and produced 19.6 % of ethanol in 48 h. In this process the conversion efficiency of the fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke and the production of ethanol were 90 % of the theoretical ethanol yield and the cost of the production of flour was cut nearly into half.

  5. Weedborne reservoirs and seed transmission of Verticillium dahliae in lettuce

    Vallad, G E; Bhat, R G; Koike, S T; Ryder, E J; Subbarao, K V

    2005-01-01

    The seed transmission of Verticillium dahliae was evaluated in lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed collected from lettuce plants infected with V. dahliae were plated with or without surface sterilization on Sorenson's modified NP10 medium. Of the seed plated with or without surface sterilization, 90 and 66 %, respectively, yielded colonies of V. dahliae. The incidence of Verticillium wilt ranged from 55 to 80 % among lettuce plants grown from seed harvested from infected plants. All evaluated isol...

  6. Unravelling the resistance mechanism of lettuce against Nasonovia ribisnigri

    Broeke, ten, C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aphids are serious pests of crop plant species, and host plant resistance is often the most effective and environmentally friendly control strategy to control these pests. One of these aphid pests is the black currant - lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosely), an economically important pest of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. Host plant resistance has been used since 1982 to control this aphid species and is mediated by the Nr-gene, originating from wild lettuce Lactuca virosa L. H...

  7. Characterization of lettuce big-vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus infecting lettuce in Saudi Arabia.

    Umar, M; Amer, M A; Al-Saleh, M A; Al-Shahwan, I M; Shakeel, M T; Zakri, A M; Katis, N I

    2017-07-01

    During 2014 and 2015, 97 lettuce plants that showed big-vein-disease-like symptoms and seven weed plants were collected from the Riyadh region. DAS-ELISA revealed that 25% and 9% of the lettuce plants were singly infected with LBVaV and MiLBVV, respectively, whereas 63% had a mixed infection with both viruses. The results were confirmed by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for LBVaV and MiLBVV. LBVaV and MiLBVV were also detected in Sonchus oleraceus and Eruca sativa, respectively. The nucleotide sequence of LBVaV and MiLBVV Saudi isolates ranged from 94.3-100%, and their similarities to isolates with sequences in the GenBank database ranged from 93.9 to 99.6% and 93.8 to 99.3%, respectively. Olpidium sp. was present in the roots of lettuce plants with big-vein disease and it was shown to facilitate transmission of both viruses.

  8. Ethanol fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus from Jerusalem artichoke grown in salina and irrigated with a mixture of seawater and freshwater.

    Yuan, W J; Zhao, X Q; Ge, X M; Bai, F W

    2008-12-01

    To study fuel ethanol fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC8554 from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) grown in salina and irrigated with a mixture of seawater and freshwater. The growth and ethanol fermentation of K. marxianus ATCC8554 were studied using inulin as substrate. The activity of inulinase, which attributes to the hydrolysis of inulin, the main carbohydrate in Jerusalem artichoke, was monitored. The optimum temperatures were 38 degrees C for growth and inulinase production, and 35 degrees C for ethanol fermentation. Aeration was not necessary for ethanol fermentation with the K. marxianus from inulin. Then, the fresh Jerusalem artichoke tubers grown in salina and irrigated with 25% and 50% seawater were further examined for ethanol fermentation with the K. marxianus, and a higher ethanol yield was achieved for the Jerusalem artichoke tuber irrigated with 25% seawater. Furthermore, the dry meal of the Jerusalem artichoke tubers irrigated with 25% seawater was examined for ethanol fermentation at three solid concentrations of 200, 225 and 250 g l(-1), and the highest ethanol yield of 0.467, or 91.5% of the theoretical value of 0.511, was achieved for the slurry with a solid concentration of 200 g l(-1). Halophilic Jerusalem artichoke can be used for fuel ethanol production. Halophilic Jerusalem artichoke, not competing with grain crops for arable land, is a sustainable feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

  9. Growing patterns to produce 'nitrate-free' lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Muntean, Daniela-Lucia; Fülöp, Ibolya; Modroiu, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables can contain significant amounts of nitrate and, therefore, may pose health hazards to consumers by exceeding the accepted daily intake for nitrate. Different hydroponic growing patterns were examined in this work in order to obtain 'nitrate-free lettuces'. Growing lettuces on low nitrate content nutrient solution resulted in a significant decrease in lettuces' nitrate concentrations (1741 versus 39 mg kg(-1)), however the beneficial effect was cancelled out by an increase in the ambient temperature. Nitrate replacement with ammonium was associated with an important decrease of the lettuces' nitrate concentration (from 1896 to 14 mg kg(-1)) and survival rate. An economically feasible method to reduce nitrate concentrations was the removal of all inorganic nitrogen from the nutrient solution before the exponential growth phase. This method led to lettuces almost devoid of nitrate (10 mg kg(-1)). The dried mass and calcinated mass of lettuces, used as markers of lettuces' quality, were not influenced by this treatment, but a small reduction (18%, p < 0.05) in the fresh mass was recorded. The concentrations of nitrite in the lettuces and their modifications are also discussed in the paper. It is possible to obtain 'nitrate-free' lettuces in an economically feasible way.

  10. Virus diseases in lettuce in the Mediterranean basin.

    Moreno, Aranzazu; Fereres, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce is frequently attacked by several viruses causing disease epidemics and considerable yield losses along the Mediterranean basin. Aphids are key pests and the major vectors of plant viruses in lettuce fields. Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) is probably the most important because it is seed-transmitted in addition to be transmissible by many aphid species that alight on the crop. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is another virus that causes severe damage since the introduction of its major vector, the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. In regions with heavy and humid soils, Lettuce Mirafiori big-vein virus (LMBVV) can also produce major yield losses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Varietal response to lead by lettuce

    John, M.K.

    1977-06-01

    Nine lettuce varieties were hydroponically grown at six substrate Pb concentrations to 50 ppM in substrate. Top and root tissue Pb concentration, amounts assimilated, and translocation to edible tissue were dependent on the variety as well as substrate lead and exposure duration. Even though Pb in substrate was in a precipitated form, lettuce plants could assimilate and translocate Pb. Differential response of varieties with similar morphology indicated genetical regulated physiological mechanisms of Pb assimilation and translocation. This evidence suggests varietal selection could minimize human and animal dietary intake of Pb via food plants. While early growth of some varieties was stimulated by low concentrations of Pb, and high solution concentrations suppressed growth of several varieties, genetic variation also included non-significant response of growth.

  12. Lettuce seeds production in hydroponic system

    Menezes, Nilson Lemos de; Santos, Osmar Souza dos; Schmidt, Denise

    2001-01-01

    Sementes de alface das cultivares Deyse e Regina foram produzidas em estufa, no sistema hidropônico, com elevados rendimentos por planta e boa qualidade de sementes, quando comparados a resultados de sistema convencional, de canteiros em campo. Esses dados sugerem estudos de produção de sementes de alface em cultivo protegido.Lettuce seeds of Deyse and Regina cultivars were produced in greenhouse, in hydroponic system, with excelents rendiments per plant and seed quality, when compared to con...

  13. Protective Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Artichoke, an Edible Herbal Medicine, against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    Tang, Xuchong; Wei, Ruofan; Deng, Aihua; Lei, Tingping

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were treated with an ethanolic extract of artichoke (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/kg body weight)...

  14. Artichoke, Cynarin and Cyanidin Downregulate the Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Human Coronary Smooth Muscle Cells

    Ning Xia; Andrea Pautz; Ursula Wollscheid; Gisela Reifenberg; Ulrich Förstermann; Huige Li

    2014-01-01

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is one of the world’s oldest medicinal plants with multiple health benefits. We have previously shown that artichoke leaf extracts and artichoke flavonoids upregulate the gene expression of endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. Whereas NO produced by the eNOS is a vasoprotective molecule, NO derived from the inducible iNOS plays a pro-inflammatory role in the vasculature. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects ...

  15. Exhibition at CERN's Globe of Science and Innovation

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    Here we see pictures of displays at one of the exhibitions held at the Globe of Science and Innovation taken in September 2006. Located opposite the main CERN site, the Globe houses many public exhibitions throughout the year covering many topics from astronomy to particle physics.

  16. Using the GLOBE Program To Enhance Classroom Teaching.

    Ramey, Linda K.; Tomlin, James

    The Wright State University Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Franchise has developed a project to fill the need for direct, strong connections linking science, mathematics and technology to classroom curriculum and students' learning of integrated, relevant content. GLOBE is an international project that involves…

  17. Public outreach: les spectacles du Globe

    2006-01-01

    Shows at the Globe of Science and Innovation in connection with the exhibition «A des années-lumière» Wednesday 8 November 2006, 2.30 p.m. (in French): 'Cooking with the stars' Professor BEUZ and his assistant Mr POZZONI, a clown double-act, will introduce children to the cosmos, the formation of the universe and the creation of stars and the solar system. On the menu: eggs, biscuits, a 'comet' sausage, giant onions, noodles, 'primordial' soup, instant pudding, fruit and vegetables. A spicy and scholarly recipe that will satisfy little gourmets and budding astronomers alike. This event is a version of the comedy 'How to make the Universe' specially adapted for children. For young children (7 years and upwards) Free admittance, by reservation only: + 41(0)22 767 76 76 Thursday 9 and Friday 10 November 2006, 8.00 p.m. (in French): 'How to make the Universe' At the end of a meal, Professor BEUZ and his assistant Mr POZZONI tell us the story of how the universe was formed, from the Big Bang to the arriv...

  18. Around the Globe with Buzz Aldrin

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Buzz Aldrin! The news caused a sensation: his arrival was imminent. The man who, 40 years ago, first step foot on the moon, was to do the same at CERN.   Buzz Aldrin dumps the pilot beams from the LHC. Visiting the Globe on 1 March to endorse General Motors’ (GM) new ecological programme, Buzz Aldrin took advantage of the occasion to take a whistle-stop tour of the Organisation. “CERN is dealing with things going very fast underground; I’m dealing with things going fast – not that fast though! – up in orbit,” he said. Accompanied by his wife Lois and singer Katie Melua - also invited by GM to perform at the private event - Buzz began his visit with a short introduction to CERN at the Universe of Particles exhibit. He then met with Andrzej Siemko, group leader of the LHC machine protection, at the SM-18 super conducting magnet test facility. The astronaut’s last stop was at the CCC, where the LHC team had somethi...

  19. Virtual Globes: Serving Science and Society

    Salman Qureshi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Globes reached the mass market in 2005. They created multi-million dollar businesses in a very short time by providing novel ways to explore data geographically. We use the term “Virtual Globes” as the common denominator for technologies offering capabilities to annotate, edit and publish geographic information to a world-wide audience and to visualize information provided by the public and private sectors, as well as by citizens who volunteer new data. Unfortunately, but not surprising for a new trend or paradigm, overlapping terms such as “Virtual Globes”, “Digital Earth”, “Geospatial Web”, “Geoportal” or software specific terms are used heterogeneously. We analyze the terminologies and trends in scientific publications and ask whether these developments serve science and society. While usage can be answered quantitatively, the authors reason from the literature studied that these developments serve to educate the masses and may help to democratize geographic information by extending the producer base. We believe that we can contribute to a better distinction between software centered terms and the generic concept as such. The power of the visual, coupled with the potential of spatial analysis and modeling for public and private purposes raises new issues of reliability, standards, privacy and best practice. This is increasingly addressed in scientific literature but the required body of knowledge is still in its infancy.

  20. Globe : Fête de la science 2007

    2007-01-01

    FROM 8 TO 13 OCTOBER 2007 Globe of Science and Innovation - Route de Meyrin, 1211 Geneva >>> "Expo NANO. Technology takes on a new dimension". Open on the Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. and on the Wednesday and Saturday from 10.00 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. >>> Conference/Debate on the LHC "The LHC: an accelerator of science". Thursday 11 October from 8.00 p.m. to 10 p.m. CERN will soon commission the world’s most powerful accelerator, the LHC. This machine, the latest and greatest in a long line of CERN accelerators, is designed to provide answers to the remaining unsolved mysteries surrounding the building blocks of matter. Speakers : Jean-Philippe Tock, Jean-Pierre Revol, Daniel Denegri, Richard Jacobsson and Laurent Chevalier Free entrance. Please book by calling + 41 (0)22 767 76 76 >>> "Poussière d’étoiles" workshop: Saturday 13 October from 10 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. The "Poussière d’étoiles...

  1. Tuber and Inulin production of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, L.) under Salinity Stress

    The major problem with biofuel crops is that they compete with prime agricultural land, water, and are food staples. Jerusalem artichoke is a crop originated in the US that produces inulin-rich tubers, is adaptable to marginal lands and can tolerate saline water. Inulin is a complex sugar (a fructan...

  2. Genetic diversity of water use efficiency in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) germplasm

    Genetic diversity in crop germplasm is an important resource for crop improvement, but information on genetic diversity is rare for Jerusalem artichoke, especially for traits related to water use efficiency. The objectives of this study were to investigate genetic variations for water use and water...

  3. Responses of inulin content and inulin yield of Jerusalem artichoke genotypes to seasonal environments

    Seasonal variation (e.g. temperature and photoperiod) between growing seasons might affect inulin content and inulin yield of Jerusalem artichoke. However, there is limited information on genotypic response to seasons for inulin content and inulin yield. The objective of this study was to investig...

  4. Effective protein extraction protocol for proteomics studies of Jerusalem artichoke leaves.

    Zhang, Meide; Shen, Shihua

    2013-07-01

    Protein extraction is a crucial step for proteomics studies. To establish an effective protein extraction protocol suitable for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) analysis in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), three different protein extraction methods-trichloroacetic acid/acetone, Mg/NP-40, and phenol/ammonium acetate-were evaluated using Jerusalem artichoke leaves as source materials. Of the three methods, trichloroacetic acid/acetone yielded the best protein separation pattern and highest number of protein spots in 2DE analysis. Proteins highly abundant in leaves, such as Rubisco, are typically problematic during leaf 2DE analysis, however, and this disadvantage was evident using trichloroacetic acid/acetone. To reduce the influence of abundant proteins on the detection of low-abundance proteins, we optimized the trichloroacetic acid/acetone method by incorporating a PEG fractionation approach. After optimization, 363 additional (36.2%) protein spots were detected on the 2DE gel. Our results suggest that trichloroacetic acid/acetone method is a better protein extraction technique than Mg/NP-40 and phenol/ammonium acetate in Jerusalem artichoke leaf 2DE analysis, and that trichloroacetic acid/acetone method combined with PEG fractionation procedure is the most effective approach for leaf 2DE analysis of Jerusalem artichoke. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Salt stress encourages proline accumulation by regulating proline biosynthesis and degradation in Jerusalem artichoke plantlets.

    Huang, Zengrong; Zhao, Long; Chen, Dandan; Liang, Mingxiang; Liu, Zhaopu; Shao, Hongbo; Long, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Proline accumulation is an important mechanism for osmotic regulation under salt stress. In this study, we evaluated proline accumulation profiles in roots, stems and leaves of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) plantlets under NaCl stress. We also examined HtP5CS, HtOAT and HtPDH enzyme activities and gene expression patterns of putative HtP5CS1, HtP5CS2, HtOAT, HtPDH1, and HtPDH2 genes. The objective of our study was to characterize the proline regulation mechanisms of Jerusalem artichoke, a moderately salt tolerant species, under NaCl stress. Jerusalem artichoke plantlets were observed to accumulate proline in roots, stems and leaves during salt stress. HtP5CS enzyme activities were increased under NaCl stress, while HtOAT and HtPDH activities generally repressed. Transcript levels of HtP5CS2 increased while transcript levels of HtOAT, HtPDH1 and HtPDH2 generally decreased in response to NaCl stress. Our results supports that for Jerusalem artichoke, proline synthesis under salt stress is mainly through the Glu pathway, and HtP5CS2 is predominant in this process while HtOAT plays a less important role. Both HtPDH genes may function in proline degradation.

  6. Growth and yield performance of Jerusalem artichoke clones in a semiarid region of China

    Liu, Z.X.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Sha, J.; Xue, S.; Xie, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated biomass yield and growth characteristics of 26 Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) clones and assessed it as a bioenergy crop for a semiarid region of the Loess Plateau in China. Genotype, year, and genotype ´ year interaction contributed to differences in crop

  7. Isolation of a Kluyveromyces fragilis derepressed mutant hyperproducer of inulinase for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke

    Bourgi, J.; Guirand, J.P.; Galzy, P.

    1986-01-01

    A paritally derepressed mutant of Kluyveromyces fragilis showing hyperproduction of inulinase was isolated by means of ethylmethanesulfonate mutation followed by a 2-deoxyglucose selection. This mutant is suitable for the fermentation of inulin and Jerusalem artichoke extracts containing large amounts of inulin high polyfructosans type (early extracts).

  8. Salt stress encourages proline accumulation by regulating proline biosynthesis and degradation in Jerusalem artichoke plantlets.

    Zengrong Huang

    Full Text Available Proline accumulation is an important mechanism for osmotic regulation under salt stress. In this study, we evaluated proline accumulation profiles in roots, stems and leaves of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. plantlets under NaCl stress. We also examined HtP5CS, HtOAT and HtPDH enzyme activities and gene expression patterns of putative HtP5CS1, HtP5CS2, HtOAT, HtPDH1, and HtPDH2 genes. The objective of our study was to characterize the proline regulation mechanisms of Jerusalem artichoke, a moderately salt tolerant species, under NaCl stress. Jerusalem artichoke plantlets were observed to accumulate proline in roots, stems and leaves during salt stress. HtP5CS enzyme activities were increased under NaCl stress, while HtOAT and HtPDH activities generally repressed. Transcript levels of HtP5CS2 increased while transcript levels of HtOAT, HtPDH1 and HtPDH2 generally decreased in response to NaCl stress. Our results supports that for Jerusalem artichoke, proline synthesis under salt stress is mainly through the Glu pathway, and HtP5CS2 is predominant in this process while HtOAT plays a less important role. Both HtPDH genes may function in proline degradation.

  9. Ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke by strains of Saccharomyces cheresiensis and Saccharomyces beticus

    Pourrat, H.; Barthomeuf, C.; Regerat, F.; Carnat, A.P.; Carnat, A.

    1983-03-01

    Ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke which is the most interesting autochtonous material has been studied. Two selected and acclimatised strains of Saccharomyces: Saccharomyces cheresiensis and Saccharomyces beticus were retained. The fermentation conditions, exactly definited, makes it possible to obtain in 4 days a theoric yield.

  10. Sugar yield and composition of tubers from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) irrigated with saline waters

    Currently, major biofuel crops are also food crops that demand fertile soils and good-quality water. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, Asteraceae) produces high tonnage of tubers that are rich in sugars, mainly in the form of inulin. In this study, plants of the cultivar “White Fuseau” grow...

  11. Design and Simulation of Two Robotic Systems for Automatic Artichoke Harvesting

    Domenico Longo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The target of this research project was a feasibility study for the development of a robot for automatic or semi-automatic artichoke harvesting. During this project, different solutions for the mechanical parts of the machine, its control system and the harvesting tools were investigated. Moreover, in cooperation with the department DISPA of University of Catania, different field structures with different kinds of artichoke cultivars were studied and tested. The results of this research could improve artichoke production for preserves industries. As a first step, an investigation on existing machines has been done. From this research, it has been shown that very few machines exist for this purpose. Based also on previous experiences, some proposals for different robotic systems have been done, while the mobile platform itself was developed within another research project. At the current stage, several different configurations of machines and harvesting end-effectors have been designed and simulated using a 3D CAD environment interfaced with Matlab®. Moreover, as support for one of the proposed machines, an artificial vision algorithm has been developed in order to locate the artichokes on the plant, with respect to the robot, using images taken with a standard webcam.

  12. Root distribution pattern and their contribution in photosynthesis and biomass in Jerusalem artichoke under drought

    Puangbut, D.; Vorasoot, N.

    2018-01-01

    Root length density and rooting depth have been established as drought resistant traits and these could be used as selection criteria for drought resistant genotype in many plant species. However, information on deep rooting and the root distribution pattern of Jerusalem artichoke under drought conditions is not well documented in the literature. The objective of this study was to investigate the root distribution pattern in Jerusalem artichoke genotypes under irrigated and drought conditions. This experiment was conducted within a greenhouse using rhizoboxes. Three Jerusalem artichoke genotypes were tested under two water regimes (irrigated and drought). A 2 × 3 factorial experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications over two years. Data were recorded for root traits, photosynthesis and biomass at 30 days after imposing drought. The drought decreased root length, root surface area and root dry weight, while increased the root: shoot ratio, root distribution in the deeper soil and the percentage of root length at deeper in the soil, when compared to the irrigated conditions JA-5 and JA-60 showed high root length in the lower soil profile under drought conditions, indicating these genotypes could be identified as drought resistant genotype. The highest positive correlation was found between root length at deeper soil layer with relative water content (RWC), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and biomass. It is expected that selection of Jerusalem artichoke with high root length coupled with maintaining high RWC and their promotion to Pn could improve the biomass and tuber yield under drought conditions. (author)

  13. USE OF PELLETED LETTUCE SEEDS IN BIOAVAILABILITY STUDIES

    Lettuce (Latuca sativa L., cv. Buttercrunch) is one of the most common and sensitive test organisms, among plants, used in toxicology and bioavailability studies. Much of the available lettuce seeds in commercial channels are pelleted to allow for precision machine planting. Th...

  14. USE OF PELLETED LETTUCE SEEDS IN BIOABAILABILITY STUDIES

    Lettuce (Latuca sativa L., cv. Buttercrunch) is one of the most common and sensitive test organisms, among plants, used in toxicology and bioavailability studies. Much of the available lettuce seeds in commercial channels are pelleted to allow for precision machine planting. Th...

  15. Marker-assisted selection for disease resistance in lettuce

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the most popular leafy vegetable that is cultivated mainly in moderate climate. Consumers demand lettuce with good visual appearance and free of disease. Improved disease resistance of new cultivars is achieved by combining desirable genes (or alleles) from existing cu...

  16. Synbiotic functional drink from Jerusalem artichoke juice fermented by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26.

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Velickova, Elena; Dimitrovska, Maja; Langerholc, Tomaz; Winkelhausen, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    A probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26 was used to ferment Jerusalem artichoke juice. Growth kinetics of the bacterial strain was followed during juice fermentation both in flask and in laboratory fermentor. Jerusalem artichoke showed to be an excellent source of nutrients for L. plantarum PCS26 growth. The culture grew very well reaching more than 10(10) cfu/ml in just 12 h. The pH changed from the initial 6.5 to 4.6 at the end of fermentation. The culture hydrolyzed fructooligosaccharides present in the Jerusalem artichoke juice, yielding fructose which was presumably consumed along with the malic acid as energy and carbon source. Lactic acid was the main metabolite produced in concentration of 4.6 g/L. Acetic and succinic acid were also identified. Sensory evaluation of the fermented Jerusalem artichoke juice and its mixtures with blueberry juice showed that the 50/50 % v/v mixture would be very well accepted by the consumers. Above 80 % of the panelists would buy this drink, and over 60 % were willing to pay more for it. Culture survivability in the fermented juices during storage at 4-7 °C was assayed by the Weibullian model. The product shelf-life was extended from 19.70 ± 0.50 days of pure Jerusalem artichoke juice to 35.7 ± 6.4 days of the mixture containing 30 % blueberry juice.

  17. Genetic relatedness of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) hybrids using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting.

    Sharaf-Eldin, M A; Al-Tamimi, A; Alam, P; Elkholy, S F; Jordan, J R

    2015-12-28

    The artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is an important food and medicinal crop that is cultivated in Mediterranean countries. Morphological characteristics, such as head shape and diameter, leaf shape, and bract shape, are mainly affected by environmental conditions. A molecular marker approach was used to analyze the degree of polymorphism between artichoke hybrid lines. The degree of genetic difference among three artichoke hybrids was evaluated using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR). In this study, the DNA fingerprints of three artichoke lines (A13-010, A11-018, and A12-179) were generated, and a total of 10 decamer primers were applied for RAPD-PCR analyses. Polymorphism  (16.66 to 62.50%) was identified using eight arbitrary decamers and total genomic DNA extracted from the hybrids. Of the 59 loci detected, there were 25 polymorphic and 34 monomorphic loci. Jaccard's similarity index (JSI) ranged between 1.0 and 0.84. Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) similarity matrix and dendrogram, the results indicated that two hybrids (A13-010 and A11-018) were closely related to each other, and the A12-179 line showed more divergence. When identifying correct accessions, consideration of the genetic variation and genetic relationships among the genotypes are required. The RAPD-PCR fingerprinting of artichoke lines clearly showed that it is possible to analyze the RAPD patterns for correlation between genetic means and differences or resemblance between close accessions (A13-010 and A11- 018) at the genomic level.

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-24 - Lettuce and peppers from Israel.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lettuce and peppers from Israel. 319.56-24 Section 319... Lettuce and peppers from Israel. (a) Lettuce may be imported into the United States from Israel without... protected with sticky traps and prophylactic sprays approved for the crop by Israel; (v) The lettuce must be...

  19. Nutritional value, bioactive compounds, and health benefits of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Lettuce is one of the most popularly consumed vegetables worldwide but its nutritional value has been underestimated. Lettuce is low in calories and fat but high in fiber. Moreover, lettuce is high in potassium but low in sodium. Lettuce is also a good source of health-beneficial bioactive compounds...

  20. The effect of culinary preparation on carbohydrate composition, texture and sensory quality of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Bach, Vibe; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel; Kidmose, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber is a root vegetable with excellent gastronomic qualities, however the culinary properties are underexploited. Carbohydrate content, instrumental texture analysis and sensory profiling were used to study the effects of culinary preparation...... in three different varieties of Jerusalem artichoke tubers at two different harvest times. Texture attributes and sweetness were the best sensory attributes to discriminate between varieties, although differences in texture and taste were somewhat evened out during boiling and baking. Instrumentally...

  1. In vitro antioxidant activities of edible artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and effect on biomarkers of antioxidants in rats.

    Jiménez-Escrig, Antonio; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Daneshvar, Bahram; Pulido, Raquel; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2003-08-27

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), an edible vegetable from the Mediterranean area, is a good source of natural antioxidants such as vitamin C, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavones. The antioxidant activity of aqueous-organic extracts of artichoke were determined using three methods: (a) free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) scavenging, (b) ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and (c) inhibition of copper(II)-catalyzed in vitro human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. In addition, the present study was performed to investigate the ability of the edible portion of artichoke to alter in vivo antioxidative defense in male rats using selected biomarkers of antioxidant status. One gram (dry matter) had a DPPH(*) activity and a FRAP value in vitro equivalent to those of 29.2 and 62.6 mg of vitamin C and to those of 77.9 and 159 mg of vitamin E, respectively. Artichoke extracts showed good efficiency in the inhibition in vitro of LDL oxidation. Neither ferric-reducing ability nor 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging activity was modified in the plasma of the artichoke group with respect to the control group. Among different antioxidant enzymes measured (superoxide dismutase, gluthatione peroxidase, gluthatione reductase, and catalase) in erythrocytes, only gluthatione peroxidase activity was elevated in the artichoke group compared to the control group. 2-Aminoadipic semialdehyde, a protein oxidation biomarker, was decreased in plasma proteins and hemoglobin in the artichoke-fed group versus the control group. In conclusion, the in vitro protective activity of artichoke was confirmed in a rat model.

  2. Chemical and functional properties of the different by-products of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) from industrial canning processing.

    Ruiz-Cano, Domingo; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca; Frutos, María José; Arnao, Marino B; Espinosa, Cristóbal; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; Castillo, Julián; Zamora, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the basic chemical composition and functional properties of six by-product fractions collected from different steps of artichoke industrial processing were evaluated. Fractions differed in thermal treatment, the bract position in the artichoke head and the cutting size. Contents of moisture, ash, protein, fat, dietary fibre, inulin, total phenolics, total flavonoids, caffeoyl derivatives and flavones were analysed. Antioxidant activity values were also determined. All assessed artichoke by-product fractions contained high-dietary fibre (53.6-67.0%) and low fat (2.5-3.7%). Artichoke by-product fractions contained high levels of inulin, especially in the boiled inner bracts (30%). Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity (153-729 μmol gallic acid equivalents, 6.9-19.2 μmol quercetin equivalents and 85-234 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents per gram of dry matter, respectively) varied widely with the bract positions in the artichoke head and the thermal treatments. The more interesting fractions for use as functional ingredients were those situated closer to the artichoke heart and thermally treated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Agronomic aspects of strip intercropping lettuce with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    Brennan, Eric B.

    2013-01-01

    Organic lettuce growers in California typically use insectary strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv.) to attract hoverflies (Syrphidae) that provide biological control of aphids. A two year study with transplanted organic romaine lettuce in Salinas, California investigated agronomic aspects of lettuce monoculture and lettuce-alyssum strip intercropping on beds in replacement intercropping treatments where alyssum transplants replaced 2 to 8% of the lettuce transplants, and in additi...

  4. GIS Function Coupling for Virtual Globes, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Virtual Globe (VG) systems such as Google Earth, NASA World Winds and Microsoft Virtual Earth provide captivating animated 3D visualizations and support user queries...

  5. Uurimuslik õpe GLOBE programmi näitel / Imbi Henno

    Henno, Imbi

    2005-01-01

    Artiklis tutvustatakse põhi- ja keskkooliõpilastele mõeldud uurimuslikku õpet ja praktilisi tegevusi pakkuvat keskkonnasuunitlusega ülemaailmset haridus- ja teadusprogrammi GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit Environment)

  6. The Globe of Science and Innovation at dawn

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    CERN's exhibition centre 'the Globe of Science and Innovation' is seen just after sunrise. This wooden building was given to CERN in 2004 as a gift from the Swiss Confederation to mark 50 years since the Organisation's foundation.

  7. Winter scene of the Globe of Science and Innovation

    patrice loiez

    2005-01-01

    CERN's Globe exhibition centre is shown on a Swiss winter day. This wooden building was given to CERN in 2004 as a gift from the Swiss Confederation to mark 50 years since the Organization's foundation.

  8. The Globe of Science and Innovation at night

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The Globe of Science and Innovation, CERN's exhibition centre is seen lit up at night. This wooden building was given to CERN in 2004 as a gift from the Swiss Confederation to mark 50 years since the Organization's foundation.

  9. Microbiological quality and safety assessment of lettuce production in Brazil.

    Ceuppens, Siele; Hessel, Claudia Titze; de Quadros Rodrigues, Rochele; Bartz, Sabrina; Tondo, Eduardo César; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-07-02

    The microbiological quality and safety of lettuce during primary production in Brazil were determined by enumeration of hygiene indicators Escherichia coli, coliforms and enterococci and detection of enteric pathogens Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in organic fertilizers, soil, irrigation water, lettuce crops, harvest boxes and worker's hands taken from six different lettuce farms throughout the crop growth cycle. Generic E. coli was a suitable indicator for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7, while coliforms and enterococci were not. Few pathogens were detected: 5 salmonellae and 2 E. coli O157:H7 from 260 samples, of which only one was lettuce and the others were manure, soil and water. Most (5/7) pathogens were isolated from the same farm and all were from organic production. Statistical analysis revealed the following environmental and agro-technical risk factors for increased microbial load and pathogen prevalence in lettuce production: high temperature, flooding of lettuce fields, application of contaminated organic fertilizer, irrigation with water of inferior quality and large distances between the field and toilets. Control of the composting process of organic fertilizers and the irrigation water quality appear most crucial to improve and/or maintain the microbiological quality and safety during the primary production of lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of water regime and salinity on artichoke yield

    Francesca Boari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the effects of different salinity and water inputs on the yield of artichoke Violetto di Provenza. Two years of experimental works had been carried out in a site in Southern Italy characterized by semi-arid climate and deep loam soil. Three salinity levels of irrigation water (S0, S1 and S2 with electrical conductivity (ECw of 0.5, 5 and 10 dS m-1, respectively, were combined with three water regimes (W1, W2 and W3 corresponding in that order to 20 40 and 60% of available water depletion. The overall results of the salinity tolerance are in agreement with those from the literature. However, an higher tolerance to salinity was demonstrated when crop was watered more frequently (at 20% of available water depletion and a lower one when crop watering was performed less frequently (at 60% of available water depletion. The increase of salinity level reduced marketable yield (from 12.9 to 8.8 Mg ha-1, total heads (from 125,100 to 94,700 n ha-1 and heads mean weight (from 99.9 to 94.6 g, while increased heads dry matter (from 161.8 to 193.6 g kg-1 f.w. and reduced edible parte percentage of heads (from 35.2 to 33.2 %. Watering regimes, as average of the salinity levels, affected total heads marketable yield (115,350 n ha-1 and 11.4 Mg ha-1 for W1 and W2, 105,900 n ha-1 and 10 Mg ha-1 for W3. In addition, different watering regimes affected the secondary heads yield for which it was reduced by 3% of mean weight. The effect of different watering regimes changed with various salinity levels. In condition of moderate salinity (S1, maximum water depletion fraction to preserve heads number and weight yield was 40 and 20% of total soil available water, respectively. However, with high salinity (S2, maximum water depletion fraction to keep unchanged heads number and weight yield was 20% for both. The level of soil salinity at beginning of the crop cycle favoured the incidence of head atrophy in the main heads produced in the second year.

  11. Globalisation or Journay into the Second Discovery of the Globe

    Rodin, Davor

    2003-01-01

    The author claims that the globe was discovered by courageous adventurers and visionaries who had trust in geographical utopia that the Earth was round so they plunged into the unknown in their wretched sailboats. This stage ended in foundation of huge colonial empires but, eventually, this kind of violent colonization failed. What has been left from the first discovery of the globe? The most important reminder is discovery of identities of the former colonized peoples as well as the identity...

  12. Eratosthenes' teachings with a globe in a school yard

    Božić, Mirjana; Ducloy, Martial

    2008-01-01

    A globe, in a school or university yard, which simulates the Earth's orientation in space, could be a very useful and helpful device for teaching physics, geometry, astronomy and the history of science. It would be very useful for science education to utilize the forthcoming International Year of the Planet Earth 2008 and the International Year of Astronomy 2009 by installing globes in many school and university courtyards

  13. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

    Levent Tok

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods: A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results: Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion: Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia.

  14. Green light for a permanent exhibition in the Globe

    2008-01-01

    A donation to the Foundation for the Globe of Science and Innovation by ROLEX S.A. marks the first step towards the planned expansion of the Globe’s infrastructure. The Globe: a CERN emblem.Visible from miles away by day and by night, the Globe, the wooden sphere offered to CERN by the Swiss Confederation in 2004, has become one of the symbols of the Organization. Since being opened to the public in September 2005, the Globe has served as a venue for lectures, exhibitions, press and VIP events and workshops for schoolchildren and as a stage for theatre performances on scientific themes. With a view to turning the Globe into a flagship venue for events for the general public, and for interactions between CERN and its public and private partners, two projects are planned for the near future. CERN is receiving support for these ventures from the Foundation for the Globe. Established at the end of 2007, the Foundation’s mission is to ...

  15. Bilateral Traumatic Globe Luxation with Optic Nerve Transection

    Tok, Levent; Tok, Ozlem Yalcin; Argun, Tugba Cakmak; Yilmaz, Omer; Gunes, Alime; Unlu, Elif Nisa; Sezer, Sezgin; Ibisoglu, Seda; Argun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to document clinical findings and management of a patient with bilateral globe luxation and optic nerve transection. Materials and Methods A 25-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with bilateral traumatic globe luxation following a motor vehicle accident. Results Visual acuity testing showed no light perception. The right pupil was dilated and bilaterally did not react to light. The globes were bilaterally intact. A computed tomography scan revealed Le Fort type II fractures, bilateral optic nerve transection and disruption of all extraocular muscles. The globes of the patient were bilaterally reduced into the orbit. However, the patient developed phthisis bulbi in the right eye at month 3. Conclusion Globe luxation presents a dramatic clinical picture, and may lead to the development of severe complications due to the concomitance of complete optic nerve dissection and multiple traumas. Even if the luxated globe is repositioned into the orbit, there is still an increased risk of the development of phthisis due to ischemia. PMID:25606034

  16. Evidence for Lettuce big-vein associated virus as the causal agent of a syndrome of necrotic rings and spots in lettuce

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Bekkum, van P.J.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV, genus Varicosavirus) was shown to be responsible for characteristic necrotic symptoms observed in combination with big-vein symptoms in lettuce breeding lines when tested for their susceptibility to lettuce big-vein disease (BVD) using viruliferous Olpidium

  17. Production of alcohol from Jerusalem artichoke for gasoline additive. Proucavanje mogucnosti proizvodnje alkohola iz topinambura kao dodatka u benzin

    Pekic, B.; Kisgeci, J.

    1984-01-01

    Trials conducted in 1980 and 1981 on three soil types, chernozem (a rich soil), anthropogenized black sand (a medium-rich soil), and anthropogenized brown sand (a poor soil), showed that the Jerusalem artichoke was superior to conventional field crops (corn, sugarbeet, potato, and sorghum) regarding the yield of carbohydrates per unit area, especially when grown on the poor soil. The analyses of the technological properties of Jerusalem artichokes grown for two years in the experimental plots showed that the plant species is a quality raw material for the production of alcohol. From the aspect of alcohol production, the quality of the tested varieties of Jerusalem artichoke depended neither on soil quality nor on the delay in harvesting the crop after it reached technological maturity. The results of the study indicate that the alcohol production from Jerusalem artichokes would be more economic, i.e., more profitable, than the production from conventional raw materials. The study of the carbohydrate composition of Jerusalem artichoke tubers made it clear that besides alcohol production, Jerusalem artichokes are a good raw material for the production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose. Since the interest in these products kept increasing in recent years, because of their exceptional characters, it is necessary to establish research programs to cover these field too. In the course of the study the authors came across some interesting literature data on the use of Jerusalem artichokes as a raw material for the production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose. Some of the publication, i.e., those that might be useful in further research work, are appended to this study.

  18. Effect of Different Levels of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. Leaf Powder on the Performance and Meat Quality of Japanese Quail

    Abbasi F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 240 Japanese quail chicks (1 d old were used in a 42-d trial to study the effects of Artichoke leaf powder and vitamin E on growth performance and meat quality. This experiment was performed as a completely randomized design with 4 replicates of 15 quails in each, using a 4×2 factorial arrangement with diet and gender as the main effects. Four dietary treatments were formulated by addition of 2 levels (1.5 and 3 percent of Artichoke leaf powder and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E to the basal diet. Results showed that supplementing the basal diet with Artichoke leaf powder and vitamin E significantly affected growth performance at 21 d of age (P. Dietary treatments significantly affected 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS and water holding capacity (WHC values of breast meat (P. The value of TBARS in breast meat was not affected by dietary levels of Artichoke leaf powder, whereas the value decreased significantly by vitamin E treatment (P. Quails receiving 1.5 percent Artichoke leaf powder and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E had significantly lower breast meat WHC than those  receiving the basal diet (P. Breast meat crude fat and WHC were affected by gender (P. Dietary 3 percent Artichoke leaf powder increased the b* values of thigh meat compared with the control. The lightness of thigh and breast meat and also redness of thigh meat were affected by gender (P. In general, the results indicated that supplementation of diet by Artichoke leaf powder did not improve growth performance of quails, but may have a potential to improve the oxidative stability and meat quality.

  19. Extraction, degree of polymerization determination and prebiotic effect evaluation of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke.

    Li, Wancong; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chunwei; Li, Qing; Dong, Fang; Wang, Gang; Gu, Guodong; Guo, Zhanyong

    2015-05-05

    The tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are rich of inulin, which makes the plant one of primary inulin resources in China. The aim of this study was to extract inulin from tubers and test the degree of polymerization (DP) 10 days before flowering to 80 days after flowering. The DP of inulin reaches a maximum of 19 at 50 days after flowering. The variation tendencies of inulin content and DP were almost the same, which increase rapidly at the beginning and then decrease gradually at a lower speed. Meanwhile, the effects of inulin on probiotics in yogurt have been evaluated. It indicated that inulin with low DP has higher activities. Experimental data improve the understanding of status change of inulin in whole growth of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in Northeastern China and are instructive to get inulin with different properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Torrefaction of Yacon and Jerusalem Artichoke Stems as a Contribution to the Alternative Production of Inulin

    Veselý, V.; Sobek, J.; Hanika, J.; Punčochář, M.

    Recommendable torrefaction conditions were specified on the grounds of GT and DTA curves for the specimen of crushed stems of Yacon and Jerusalem artichoke. The impact of the size of crushed stems particle on the torrefaction process was monitored. The stem crushing process was optimized based on the results. We tested the effect of torrefaction performed on pellets made of raw material and wood chips, of which the pellets were made afterwards. It has been unambiguously proven that it was sensible to pelletize torrefied chips, otherwise the pellets were losing their coherence and crumbled. We calculated the fuel calorific value and its dependence on the residence time in the reactor. The economic benefit of torrefaction is that the power necessary for evaporation and leaching artichoke cuttings in water is obtained by combusting torrefied crushed stems.

  1. Characterization and purification of polyphenol oxidase from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.).

    Dogan, Serap; Turan, Yusuf; Ertürk, Hatibe; Arslan, Oktay

    2005-02-09

    In this study, the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) was first purified by a combination of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, dialysis, and a Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine-p-aminobenzoic acid affinity column. At the end of purification, 43-fold purification was achieved. The purified enzyme migrated as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that PPO had a 57 kDa molecular mass. Second, the contents of total phenolic and protein of artichoke head extracts were determined. The total phenolic content of artichoke head was determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and was found to be 425 mg 100 g(-1) on a fresh weight basis. Protein content was determined according to Bradford method. Third, the effects of substrate specificity, pH, temperature, and heat inactivation were investigated on the activity of PPO purified from artichoke. The enzyme showed activity to 4-methylcatechol, pyrogallol, catechol, and L-dopa. No activity was detected toward L-tyrosine, resorsinol, and p-cresol. According to V(max)/K(m) values, 4-methylcatechol (1393 EU min(-1) mM(-1)) was the best substrate, followed by pyrogallol (1220 EU min(-1) mM(-1)), catechol (697 EU min(-1) mM(-1)), and L-dopa (102 EU min(-1) mM(-1)). The optimum pH values for PPO were 5.0, 8.0, and 7.0 using 4-methylcatechol, pyrogallol, and catechol as substrate, respectively. It was found that optimum temperatures were dependent on the substrates studied. The enzyme activity decreased due to heat denaturation of the enzyme with increasing temperature and inactivation time for 4-methylcatechol and pyrogallol substrates. However, all inactivation experiments for catechol showed that the activity of artichoke PPO increased with mild heating, reached a maximum, and then decreased with time. Finally, inhibition of artichoke PPO was investigated with inhibitors such as L-cysteine, EDTA, ascorbic

  2. Industrial optimization of acetone-butanol fermentation: A study of the utilization of Jerusalem artichokes

    Marchal, R.; Blanchet, D.; Vandecasteele, J.P.

    1985-12-01

    Acetone-butanol fermentation of the Jerusalem artichoke has been studied as a case for systematic investigation of the industrial optimization of both strain selection and fermentation operation. Hydrolysis of the inulinic oligofructans of the substrate was found necessary for optimal performance but could be achieved with a selected strain using a moderate amount of inulinase added at the beginning of the fermentation. Apart from ammonia, no nutritrional supplementation of the medium was found necessary. The marked influence of pH in the fermentation performance prompted a detailed search for a method of controlling pH during fermentation. With an optimized procedure, solvent production of 23-24 g/l were obtained in 36 h. Detailed fermentation balances are presented. An industrial process for ABE production from Jerusalem artichoke or sugar beet has been defined and tested in the pilot plant. (orig.).

  3. Effect of population density of lettuce intercropped with rocket on productivity and land-use efficiency

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the spacing of lettuce rows on the production of a lettuce-rocket intercropping system over two growing seasons (11 August to 25 September 2011 and 12 January to 24 February 2012) in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 11 treatments in each season: lettuce-rocket intercrops with five row spacings for the lettuce (0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35 and 0.40 m) and the rocket planted midway between the lettuce rows, sole crops of lettuce at the same five row spacings and a sole crop of rocket. Fresh and dry masses of the lettuce and rocket and number of lettuce leaves per plant were highest with a lettuce row spacing of 0.40 m, but the productivities of the lettuce and rocket were higher with a lettuce row spacing of 0.20 m. The productivities and fresh and dry weights of the lettuce and rocket and the number of lettuce leaves per plant were highest in the sole crops, but the fresh and dry weights of the rocket were higher with intercropping. The land equivalent ratios were >1.0 in both seasons in all intercrops and were highest for the densest crop (1.41). Intercropping was therefore 41% more efficient than sole cropping for the production of lettuce and rocket. PMID:29698401

  4. Vulnerability of photosynthesis and photosystem I in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) exposed to waterlogging.

    Yan, Kun; Zhao, Shijie; Cui, Mingxing; Han, Guangxuan; Wen, Pei

    2018-04-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an important energy crop for utilizing coastal marginal land. This study was to investigate waterlogging tolerance of Jerusalem artichoke through photosynthetic diagnose with emphasis on photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) performance. Potted plants were subjected to severe (liquid level 5 cm above vermiculite surface) and moderate (liquid level 5 cm below vermiculite surface) waterlogging for 9 days. Large decreased photosynthetic rate suggested photosynthesis vulnerability upon waterlogging. After 7 days of severe waterlogging, PSII and PSI photoinhibition arose, indicated by significant decrease in the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and PSI (△MR/MR 0 ), and PSI seemed more vulnerable because of greater decrease in △MR/MR 0 than Fv/Fm. In line with decreased △MR/MR 0 and unchanged Fv/Fm after 9 days of moderate waterlogging, the amount of PSI reaction center protein rather than PSII reaction center protein was lowered, confirming greater PSI vulnerability. According to positive correlation between △MR/MR 0 and efficiency that an electron moves beyond primary quinone and negative correlation between △MR/MR 0 and PSII excitation pressure, PSI inactivation elevated PSII excitation pressure by depressing electron transport at PSII acceptor side. Thus, PSI vulnerability induced PSII photoinhibition and endangered the stability of whole photosynthetic apparatus under waterlogging. In agreement with photosystems photoinhibition, elevated H 2 O 2 concentration and lipid peroxidation in the leaves corroborated waterlogging-induced oxidative stress. In conclusion, Jerusalem artichoke is a waterlogging sensitive species in terms of photosynthesis and PSI vulnerability. Consistently, tuber yield was tremendously reduced by waterlogging, confirming waterlogging sensitivity of Jerusalem artichoke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. RNA-seq analysis and de novo transcriptome assembly of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne).

    Jung, Won Yong; Lee, Sang Sook; Kim, Chul Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Min, Sung Ran; Moon, Jae Sun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Cho, Hye Sun

    2014-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin) for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development). Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke.

  6. Advantageous use of an early Jerusalem artichoke cultivar for the production of ethanol

    Chabbert, N.; Guiraud, J.P.; Arnoux, M.; Galzy, P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of an early maturing Jerusalem artichoke D19 cultivar combined with that of the late maturing Violet de Rennes cultivar would singificantly prolong the harvest season for the production of ethanol from their tuber extracts using yeast strains with inulinase activity. The D19 cultivar shows a low content of highly polymerized inulin (in early October) and is thus very satisfactory as a fermentation substrate. 9 references.

  7. Evaluation of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) Cultivars in Three Growing Seasons

    Lovre Bučan; Slavko Perica; Smiljana Goreta

    2000-01-01

    Vegetatively propagated artichoke cultivars originally from Italy (Romanesco and Catanese), France (Violetto di Provenza) and a native cultivar (Domaca viška) were researched in Dalmatian region from 1992 to 1995. Planting was done on August 25, 1992 with the spacing of 1.0 m x 1.2 m. Growth stages, resistance to low temperature, early yield and yield components were surveyed, during three years of researching. Growth stages started in different time regarding to climatic conditions in some y...

  8. Irrigation and nitrogen level affect lettuce yield in greenhouse ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... and it achieves very high irrigation efficiency and uses. *Corresponding ... serious harmful effect on lettuce growing (Table 1). During the ... Seeds were sown in a seed bed under greenhouse conditions on. October 20th in ...

  9. Persistence of 14C maneb in lettuce plants an soil

    Bennaceur, M.; Sennaoui, Z.; Meguenni, H.

    1992-10-01

    Maneb residue is studied on lettuce plant and soil after spraying on greenhouse with 14C maneb. The residues declined with time. After 37 days from the application, 14C maneb residues in water extracts declined to 1,5. 10-2ug/g from 5,8. 10-1ug/g of the zero day sample in lettuce plants and 4,6. 10-3ug/g from 1,73. 10-1ug/g in soil. The 14C internals residues in lettuce and soil increase respectively till 16 days and 24 days, then decrease to 88% and 4,05% after 37 days. ETU was present in lettuce plant after 8 days then decreases with time. Two metabolites were identified by TLC (EU,ETU)

  10. The Inlfuence of Biochar on Growth of Lettuce and Potato

    Kalika P. Upadhyay; Doug George; Roger S. Swift; Victor Galea

    2014-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted in a glasshouse to determine the growth pattern of lettuce, true potato seedlings (TPS) and single node cuttings of TPS in response to biochar. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 5 treatments (0, 10, 30, 50 and 100 t ha-1) of biochar from greenwaste with 5 replications in lettuce, 10 in TPS and 5 in single node cuttings of TPS. The observations recorded on growth parameters showed that biochar had signiifcant effect on growth of lettuce but no consistent effect on growth of TPS and single node cuttings. Among the biochar rates, 30 t ha-1 had the greatest inlfuence on overall growth of lettuce. The pH and electrical conductivity increased as the biochar rates increased in all experiments. These results provide an avenue for soil management system by using biochar as an amendment in horticultural crops. However, their veriifcation in the ifeld is important for speciifc recommendations.

  11. Lettuce achene invigoration through osmopriming at supraoptimal temperature

    Jahangir, M.M.; Amjad, M.; Iqbal, Q.; Nawaz, A.; Afzal, I.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of osmopriming on lettuce achene invigoration at supra optimal temperature (35degreeC) was investigated in the present study. Osmopriming of lettuce achene with KNO/sub 3/ (0.25%, 0.5% and 1%), CaCl/sub 2/ (15 mM, 25 mM, 50 mM) and PEG 8000 (0.1 g/ml H/sub 2/O, 0.2 g/ml H/sub 2/O, 0.3g/ml H/sub 2/O) alleviated thermodormancy and improved lettuce achene's vigor. Moreover, priming significantly improved final germination % age, energy of germination, germination index, shoot length, root length, vigor index and reduced mean germination time and time taken to 50% germination, as compared to control, when seeds were subjected to supra-optimal germination environments. It can be concluded that osmopriming can act as effective tool to invigorate lettuce seeds at supra optimal temperature. (author)

  12. Purification of cynarases from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.): enzymatic properties of cynarase A.

    Sidrach, Lara; García-Cánovas, Francisco; Tudela, José; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno

    2005-01-01

    Aspartic proteinases from flowers of Cynara cardunculus have been extensively studied and long used as coagulants in the manufacture of several traditional Spanish and Portuguese cheeses. These endopeptidases are called cardosins or cynarases, depending on the authors. However, the proteinases of another plant of the genus Cynara, the artichoke (Cynara scolymus), are less known, probably because the flower of this plant is usually consumed as a vegetable. In the study described here, three proteinases (cynarases A, B and C) with milk-clotting properties were purified from the stigma of artichoke. All three proteinases are glycoproteins and composed of a one large and one small subunit. The enzymatic properties of cynarase A, a glycoprotein containing N-linked high mannose type glycans, which express maximum activity at pH 5.0 and 70 degrees C, were studied in detail. Catalytic and inhibition studies indicated that this cynarase is of the aspartic acid type. The results indicate artichoke extract could also be used in the milk industry in the same way as the extract obtained from the flower of C. cardunculus.

  13. Sorption characteristics of pectin isolated from Jerusalem Artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.

    N. Toshkov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the present study is the isolation of pectin from Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. and the analysis of its sorption characteristics Materials and methods. Research was carried out on the pectin content of the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke plants cultivated in Bulgaria. The polyuronide content (PUC was determined via the МсCready method. The static gravimetric method was used for analysis of the sorption characteristics of pectins. Results and discussion. The polysaccharide was extracted. The isolated pectins were analyzed in physical terms: the equilibrium sorption isotherms, belonging to type II in Brunauer’s classification, were obtained experimentally. The entire isotherm length demonstrated statistically significant hysteresis. The Henderson and Chung-Pfost models provided adequate isotherm description. The pectin content of the three Jerusalem artichoke samples is 14.8, 9.2 and 11.9 % a.d.m., respectively. The monomolecular moisture content of pectin was within the 7.42 – 7.92% dry basis range, its corresponding water activity value –within the 0.14 –0.16 range. Conclusion. The resultsof research are advisablefor use indevelop of functional food ingredient which is used pectin as a gelling agent and a stabilizer.

  14. The influence of supplementation with artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on selected redox parameters in rowers.

    Skarpanska-Stejnborn, Anna; Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, Lucia; Basta, Piotr; Deskur-Smielcka, Ewa; Horoszkiewicz-Hassan, Magorzata

    2008-06-01

    High-intensity physical exercise decreases intracellular antioxidant potential. An enhanced antioxidant defense system is desirable in people subjected to exhaustive exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of supplementation with artichoke-leaf extract on parameters describing balance between oxidants and antioxidants in competitive rowers. This double-blinded study was carried out in 22 members of the Polish rowing team who were randomly assigned to a supplemented group (n = 12), receiving 1 gelatin capsule containing 400 mg of artichoke-leaf extract 3 times a day for 5 wk, or a placebo group (n = 10). At the beginning and end of the study participants performed a 2,000-m maximal test on a rowing ergometer. Before each exercise test, 1 min after the test completion, and after a 24-hr restitution period blood samples were taken from antecubital vein. The following redox parameters were assessed in red blood cells: superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase activity, reduced glutathione levels, and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances concentrations. Creatine kinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in plasma samples, lactate levels were determined in capillary blood samples, and serum lipid profiles were assessed. During restitution, plasma TAC was significantly higher (p artichoke-leaf extract, a natural vegetable preparation of high antioxidant potential, resulted in higher plasma TAC than placebo but did not limit oxidative damage to erythrocytes in competitive rowers subjected to strenuous training.

  15. Reducing effect of artichoke extract on heterocyclic aromatic amine formation in beef and chicken breast meat.

    Tengilimoglu-Metin, Mercan Merve; Kizil, Mevlude

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of different levels of artichoke extract (0, 0.5, and 1.0%) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in beef and chicken breast meat cooked by either pan-frying or oven-roasting. All meat samples were cooked at three different temperatures (150, 200, and 250°C) and the levels of 12 HAAs (IQ, IQx, MeIQ, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, 7,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, harman, norharman, AαC, MeAαC, and Trp-P-2) were assessed. The total HAA content in beef and chicken breast ranged from not detectable to 49.26ng/g, and not detectable to 83.06ng/g, respectively. The inhibitory effects of 0.5 and 1.0% artichoke extracts on total HAAs levels were found to be 6-46% and 25-98% in beef, and 5-97% and 14-95% in chicken breast, respectively. The present study showed that artichoke extracts could mitigate HAA formation especially in oven-roasted beef and chicken breast meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A model for multiseasonal spread of verticillium wilt of lettuce.

    Wu, B M; Subbarao, K V

    2014-09-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae, is a destructive disease in lettuce, and the pathogen is seedborne. Even though maximum seed infestation rates of lettuce seed lots, it is necessary to establish acceptable contamination thresholds to prevent introduction and establishment of the pathogen in lettuce production fields. However, introduction of inoculum into lettuce fields for experimental purposes to determine its long term effects is undesirable. Therefore, we constructed a simulation model to study the spread of Verticillium wilt following pathogen introduction from seed. The model consists of four components: the first for simulating infection of host plants, the second for simulating reproduction of microsclerotia on diseased plants, the third for simulating the survival of microsclerotia, and the fourth for simulating the dispersal of microsclerotia. The simulation results demonstrated that the inoculum density-disease incidence curve parameters and the dispersal gradients affect disease spread in the field. Although a steep dispersal gradient facilitated the establishment of the disease in a new field with a low inoculum density, a long-tail gradient allowed microsclerotia to be dispersed over greater distances, promoting the disease spread in fields with high inoculum density. The simulation results also revealed the importance of avoiding successive lettuce crops in the same field, reducing survival rate of microsclerotia between crops, and the need for breeding resistance against V. dahliae in lettuce cultivars to lower the number of microsclerotia formed on each diseased plant. The simulation results, however, suggested that, even with a low seed infestation rate, the pathogen would eventually become established if susceptible lettuce cultivars were grown consecutively in the same field for many years. A threshold for seed infestation can be established only when two of the three drivers of the disease-(i) low microsclerotia production per

  17. The relationship of the globe to the orbital rim.

    Eckstein, Lauren A; Shadpour, Joseph M; Menghani, Ravi; Goldberg, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    To present a novel method for accurately characterizing the position of the globe relative to the orbital rim. The appearance and function of the eyelids are dependent on the underlying orbital bony architecture and globe position; however, no comprehensive language to describe these complex 3-dimensional relationships exists. Three-dimensional orbital reconstructions were generated from computed tomographic scans of 15 Occidental and 12 Oriental orbits without orbital pathologic disease. Globe and orbital rim anatomy were identified and outlined. Reference points were measured along 2 independent axes: (1) the distance between a plane defined by the corneal apex and the sagittal projection of the orbital rim and (2) the distance between the circumference of the globe and the coronal projection of the orbital rim. For Occidental orbits, the mean (SD) elevation of the sagittal projection of the orbital rim relative to the anterior projection of the globe was 4.6 (4.2) mm superiorly, 5.9 (3.0) mm nasally, 12.6 (3.7) mm inferiorly, and 20.6 (2.6) mm laterally. The mean (SD) radial distance between the coronal projection of the orbital rim and the circumference of the globe was 3.7 (2.1) mm superiorly, 7.6 (1.8) mm nasally, 6.6 (2.2) mm inferiorly, and 4.6 (2.3) mm laterally. For Oriental orbits, the mean (SD) elevation of the sagittal projection of the orbital rim relative to the anterior projection of the globe was 5.0 (4.5) mm superiorly, 6.8 (4.1) mm nasally, 11.1 (4.3) mm inferiorly, and 17.5 (3.3) mm laterally. The mean (SD) radial distance between the coronal projection of the orbital rim and the circumference of the globe was 2.1 (1.2) mm superiorly, 8.2 (2.0) mm nasally, 6.5 (1.9) mm inferiorly, and 4.5 (1.7) mm laterally. Comparison of Occidental and Oriental orbital rim and globe configurations revealed quantitative and qualitative differences. In addition to differences in soft-tissue anatomy, bony architectural variations may contribute substantially to

  18. GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study 2016

    Pippin, Margaret; Marentette, Christina; Bujosa, Robert; Taylor, Jessica; Lewis, Preston

    2016-01-01

    During the spring of 2016, from April 4 - May 27, sixteen GLOBE schools participated in the GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study. Thirteen teachers from these schools had previously participated in the NASA LEARN program (Long-term Experience in Authentic Research with NASA) where they were GLOBE trained in Atmosphere protocols, and engaged in 1-3 years of research under the mentorship of NASA scientists. Each school was loaned two aerosol instruments for the Campaign duration, either 2 GLOBE sun photometers, 2 Calitoo sun photometers, or 1 of each. This allowed for students to make measurements side-by-side and in the case of the Calitoos, to compare AOT results immediately with each other for better consistency in data collection. Additionally, as part of the Field Campaign evaluation, multiple instruments allow for an assessment of the ease of use of each instrument for grade level of students, whether in middle school or high school. Before the Campaign, all GLOBE and Calitoo instruments were 'checked out' against an AERONET, then checked again upon return after the Campaign. By examining all data, before, during and after the Campaign, this gives an indication of instrument performance and proficiency obtained by the students. Support was provided to each teacher and their students at the level requested, via email, phone or video conferencing.

  19. Thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains representing potentials for bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke by consolidated bioprocessing.

    Hu, Nan; Yuan, Bo; Sun, Juan; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li

    2012-09-01

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains are desirable for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). To obtain such strains, 21 naturally occurring yeast strains isolated by using an enrichment method and 65 previously isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated in inulin utilization, extracellular inulinase activity, and ethanol fermentation from inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour at 40 °C. The strains Kluyveromyces marxianus PT-1 (CGMCC AS2.4515) and S. cerevisiae JZ1C (CGMCC AS2.3878) presented the highest extracellular inulinase activity and ethanol yield in this study. The highest ethanol concentration in Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour fermentation (200 g L(-1)) at 40 °C achieved by K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C was 73.6 and 65.2 g L(-1), which corresponded to the theoretical ethanol yield of 90.0 and 79.7 %, respectively. In the range of 30 to 40 °C, temperature did not have a significant effect on ethanol production for both strains. This study displayed the distinctive superiority of K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C in the thermotolerance and utilization of inulin-type oligosaccharides reserved in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. It is proposed that both K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae have considerable potential in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by a high temperature CBP.

  20. Protective Effect of γ-Irradiated Dried Powder of Artichoke Leaves against CCl4 Oxidative Stress Induced in Rat Liver

    Hamza, R.G.; El shahat, A.N.; Mekawey, H.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Liver injuries are one of the most degenerative worldwide diseases and can lead to different complications. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is full of natural antioxidants and has hepato protective effect against liver toxicity. Gamma irradiation has been widely used as a first choice sterilization method of raw medicinal plants to be used in the phytotherapic industry worldwide .This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with γ- irradiated artichoke against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of artichoke leaves indicated that the value of some of the main phenolic constituents was elevated under the effect of γ-irradiation (10 KGy). CCl 4 administration resulted in significant increase in the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase and transaminase in addition to an increase in the level of total bilirubine, malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose and the concentration of some lipid contents. Furthermore, CCl 4 administration reduced glutathione content, superoxides dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity as well as a remarkable decrease in the level of insulin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was observed. In CCl 4 -treated rats dietary supplemented with either raw or γ-irradiated artichoke, a significant amelioration was observed on the adverse effects of the above mentioned parameters induced by CCl 4 administration. The present findings concluded that artichoke may be useful, as dietary supplement and possess phenolic compounds, for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced hepatotoxicity

  1. Thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains representing potentials for bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke by consolidated bioprocessing

    Hu, Nan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Sun, Juan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology

    2012-09-15

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains are desirable for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). To obtain such strains, 21 naturally occurring yeast strains isolated by using an enrichment method and 65 previously isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated in inulin utilization, extracellular inulinase activity, and ethanol fermentation from inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour at 40 C. The strains Kluyveromyces marxianus PT-1 (CGMCC AS2.4515) and S. cerevisiae JZ1C (CGMCC AS2.3878) presented the highest extracellular inulinase activity and ethanol yield in this study. The highest ethanol concentration in Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour fermentation (200 g L{sup -1}) at 40 C achieved by K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C was 73.6 and 65.2 g L{sup -1}, which corresponded to the theoretical ethanol yield of 90.0 and 79.7 %, respectively. In the range of 30 to 40 C, temperature did not have a significant effect on ethanol production for both strains. This study displayed the distinctive superiority of K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C in the thermotolerance and utilization of inulin-type oligosaccharides reserved in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. It is proposed that both K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae have considerable potential in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by a high temperature CBP. (orig.)

  2. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China.

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in guream(-2)): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419gCkg(-1). Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0-10cm than 10-20cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Silencing the lettuce homologs of small rubber particle protein does not influence natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Chakrabarty, Romit; Qu, Yang; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-05-01

    Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is an important raw material in chemical industries, but its biosynthetic mechanism remains elusive. Natural rubber is known to be synthesized in rubber particles suspended in laticifer cells in the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In the rubber tree, rubber elongation factor (REF) and its homolog, small rubber particle protein (SRPP), were found to be the most abundant proteins in rubber particles, and they have been implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis. As lettuce (Lactuca sativa) can synthesize natural rubber, we utilized this annual, transformable plant to examine in planta roles of the lettuce REF/SRPP homologs by RNA interference. Among eight lettuce REF/SRPP homologs identified, transcripts of two genes (LsSRPP4 and LsSRPP8) accounted for more than 90% of total transcripts of REF/SRPP homologs in lettuce latex. LsSRPP4 displays a typical primary protein sequence as other REF/SRPP, while LsSRPP8 is twice as long as LsSRPP4. These two major LsSRPP transcripts were individually and simultaneously silenced by RNA interference, and relative abundance, polymer molecular weight, and polydispersity of natural rubber were analyzed from the LsSRPP4- and LsSRPP8-silenced transgenic lettuce. Despite previous data suggesting the implications of REF/SRPP in natural rubber biosynthesis, qualitative and quantitative alterations of natural rubber could not be observed in transgenic lettuce lines. It is concluded that lettuce REF/SRPP homologs are not critically important proteins in natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Virtual Globes, where we were, are and will be

    Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.; Worden, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Ten years ago, Google Earth was new, and the first "Virtual Globes" session was held at AGU. Only a few of us realized the potential of this technology at the time, but the idea quickly caught on. At that time a virtual globe came in two flavors, first a complex GIS system that was utterly impenetrable for the public, or a more accessible version with limited functionality and layers that was available on a desktop computer with a good internet connection. Google Earth's use of the Keyhole Markup Language opened the door for scientists and the public to share data and visualizations across disciplines and revolutionized how everyone uses geographic data. In the following 10 years, KML became more advanced, virtual globes moved to mobile and handheld platforms, and the Google Earth engine allowed for more complex data sharing among scientists. Virtual globe images went from a rare commodity to being everywhere in our lives, from weather forecasts, in our cars, on our smart-phones and shape how we receive and process data. This is a fantastic tool for education and with newer technologies can reach the the remote corners of the world and developing countries. New and emerging technologies allow for augmented reality to be merged with the globes, and for real-time data integration with sensors built into mobile devices or add-ons. This presentation will follow the history of virtual globes in the geosciences, show how robust technologies can be used in the field and classroom today, and make some suggestions for the future.

  5. Improving predictive capabilities of environmental change with GLOBE data

    Robin, Jessica Hill

    This dissertation addresses two applications of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) essential for predicting environmental changes. The first study focuses on whether NDVI can improve model simulations of evapotranspiration for temperate Northern (>35°) regions. The second study focuses on whether NDVI can detect phenological changes in start of season (SOS) for high Northern (>60°) environments. The overall objectives of this research were to (1) develop a methodology for utilizing GLOBE data in NDVI research; and (2) provide a critical analysis of NDVI as a long-term monitoring tool for environmental change. GLOBE is an international partnership network of K-12 students, teachers, and scientists working together to study and understand the global environment. The first study utilized data collected by one GLOBE school in Greenville, Pennsylvania and the second utilized phenology observations made by GLOBE students in Alaska. Results from the first study showed NDVI could predict transpiration periods for environments like Greenville, Pennsylvania. In phenological terms, these environments have three distinct periods (QI, QII, and QIII). QI reflects onset of the growing season (mid March--mid May) when vegetation is greening up (NDVI 0.60). Results from the second study showed that a climate threshold of 153 +/- 22 growing degree days was a better predictor of SOS for Fairbanks than a NDVI threshold applied to temporal AVHRR and MODIS datasets. Accumulated growing degree days captured the interannual variability of SOS better than the NDVI threshold and most closely resembled actual SOS observations made by GLOBE students. Overall, biweekly composites and effects of clouds, snow, and conifers limit the ability of NDVI to monitor phenological changes in Alaska. Both studies did show that GLOBE data provides an important source of input and validation information for NDVI research.

  6. Seeing Stars: A GLOBE at Night Campaign Update

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.; Newhouse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The emphasis in the international citizen-science, star-hunting campaign, GLOBE at Night, is in bringing awareness to the public on issues of light pollution. Light pollution threatens not only observatory sites and our "right to starlight", but can affect energy consumption, wildlife and health. GLOBE at Night has successfully reached a few 100,000 citizen-scientists. What has done in the last year to contribute to its success? • To promote the campaign via popular social media, GLOBE at Night created Facebook and Twitter pages. • Videos have been created for 4 out of 8 Dark Skies Rangers activities. • Sky brightness measurements can be submitted in real time with smart phones or tablets using the new Web application at www.globeatnight.org/webapp/. The location, date and time register automatically. • As a proto-type, an adopt-a-street program had people in Tucson take measurements every mile for the length of the street. Grid measurements canvassed the town, allowing for comparisons of light levels over time. • The increase to 2 campaigns in 2011 re-enforces these studies. In 2012, the campaign will be offered 4 times for 10 days a month: January 14-23, February 12-21, March 13-22 and April 11-20. • A new Web application (www.globeatnight.org/mapapp/) allows for mapping GLOBE at Night data points within a specified distance around a city or area of choice. The resulting maps are bookmarkable and shareable. • NOAO and Arizona Game and Fish Department started a project with GLOBE at Night data and bat telemetry to examine a dark skies corridor in Tucson where endangered bats fly. While providing these updates to the GLOBE at Night program, the presentation will highlight the education and outreach value of the program's resources and outcomes, lessons learned, successes and pitfalls in communicating awareness with the public and attracting young people to study science.

  7. Tool or Toy? Virtual Globes in Landscape Planning

    Stephen R. J. Sheppard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Virtual globes, i.e., geobrowsers that integrate multi-scale and temporal data from various sources and are based on a globe metaphor, have developed into serious tools that practitioners and various stakeholders in landscape and community planning have started using. Although these tools originate from Geographic Information Systems (GIS, they have become a different, potentially interactive and public tool set, with their own specific limitations and new opportunities. Expectations regarding their utility as planning and community engagement tools are high, but are tempered by both technical limitations and ethical issues [1,2]. Two grassroots campaigns and a collaborative visioning process, the Kimberley Climate Adaptation Project case study (British Columbia, illustrate and broaden our understanding of the potential benefits and limitations associated with the use of virtual globes in participatory planning initiatives. Based on observations, questionnaires and in-depth interviews with stakeholders and community members using an interactive 3D model of regional climate change vulnerabilities, potential impacts, and possible adaptation and mitigation scenarios in Kimberley, the benefits and limitations of virtual globes as a tool for participatory landscape planning are discussed. The findings suggest that virtual globes can facilitate access to geospatial information, raise awareness, and provide a more representative virtual landscape than static visualizations. However, landscape is not equally representative at all scales, and not all types of users seem to benefit equally from the tool. The risks of misinterpretation can be managed by integrating the application and interpretation of virtual globes into face-to-face planning processes.

  8. Locally Motivated GLOBE Investigations - A Key to Success

    Washburne, J. C.; Geery, W.

    2003-12-01

    The GLOBE program was set up to help students make a core set of environmental observations at or near their schools, report their data through the internet to share with other students and scientists, analyze their data both locally and globally, and use this knowledge to form a better understanding of their environment. While the GLOBE program has been successful promoting more meaningful data collection, many of the tools and much of the infrastructure available to schools to synthesize their observations are underused. Schools that integrate GLOBE protocols with locally motivated investigations are more likely to implement the higher-order analysis and synthesis components of the program. Indicators of a successful observational program are things like measurement persistence, high data quality, and regular data. Participation in community forums and student-based research projects are evidence of a successful integrated program. A locally motivated issue allows a school to mold their GLOBE investigations around a multi-faceted question that they have first-hand knowledge of, that is both relevant and engaging to their students, and that can be supported by local expertise. In contrast, many GLOBE investigations are designed around abstract, non-site specific, narrowly focused and externally analyzed questions that limit local involvement and motivation. The main focus of this presentation is a few case histories of successful local investigations that incorporated GLOBE soil and air temperature data-logger measurements. The main example is drawn from Mr. Geery's fifth grade class investigation of why temperature differences exist between a local river bottom area and the school, which is located several kilometers away and 100 meters higher.

  9. The use of dry Jerusalem artichoke as a functional nutrient in developing extruded food with low glycaemic index.

    Radovanovic, Ana; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew; Jankovic, Slobodan; Milovanovic, Dragan; Cupara, Snezana

    2015-06-15

    This study considers the use of dry Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as a functional nutrient in developing food products with enhanced nutritional characteristics and low glycaemic index (GI). Three different formulations based on buckwheat and JA were developed and processed using extrusion technology. Nutritional properties including the levels of total dietary fibre (TDF), protein, inulin, total carbohydrates and lipids were analysed. A clinical study was performed on ten healthy volunteers (aged between 21 and 56) to determine the level of GI and glycaemic load (GL). The results revealed that JA significantly (PJerusalem artichoke were considered as a low GI food whilst samples containing 30% and 60% of Jerusalem artichoke as a medium GI food. A similar trend was seen in terms of GL. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Prevention of taurolithocholate-induced hepatic bile canalicular distortions by HPLC-characterized extracts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaves.

    Gebhardt, R

    2002-09-01

    The effects of water-soluble extracts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaves on taurolithocholate-induced cholestatic bile canalicular membrane distortions were studied in primary cultured rat hepatocytes using electron microscopy. Artichoke extracts at concentrations between 0.08 and 0.5 mg/ml were able to prevent the formation of bizarre canalicular membrane transformations in a dose-dependent manner when added simultaneously with the bile acid. However, prevention also occurred when the hepatocytes were preincubated with the extracts, indicating that absorption of the bile acid to components of the extracts was not involved. These results demonstrate that artichoke leaf extracts exert a potent anticholestatic action at least in the case of taurolithocholate. This effect may contribute to the overall hepatoprotective influence of this herbal formulation.

  11. Glucose-free fructose production from Jerusalem artichoke using a recombinant inulinase-secreting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain.

    Yu, Jing; Jiang, Jiaxi; Ji, Wangming; Li, Yuyang; Liu, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Using inulin (polyfructose) obtained from Jerusalen artichokes, we have produced fructose free of residual glucose using a recombinant inulinase-secreting strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a one-step fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tubers. For producing fructose from inulin, a recombinant inulinase-producing Saccharomyce cerevisiae strain was constructed with a deficiency in fructose uptake by disruption of two hexokinase genes hxk1 and hxk2. The inulinase gene introduced into S. cerevisiae was cloned from Kluyveromyces cicerisporus. Extracellular inulinase activity of the recombinant hxk-mutated S. cerevisiae strain reached 31 U ml(-1) after 96 h growth. When grown in a medium containing Jerusalem artichoke tubers as the sole component without any additives, the recombinant yeast accumulated fructose up to 9.2% (w/v) in the fermentation broth with only 0.1% (w/v) glucose left after 24 h.

  12. Milk Technological Properties as Affected by Including Artichoke By-Products Silages in the Diet of Dairy Goats

    Raquel Muelas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices include the use of local agricultural by-products in the diet of ruminants. Artichoke harvesting and transformation yield high amounts of by-products that, if properly used, may reduce farming costs and the environmental impact of farming. The present study tests the inclusion of silages from artichoke by-products (plant and outer bracts in the diet of dairy goats (0%, 12.5% and 25% inclusion on the technological and sensory properties of milk during a five-month study. Milk composition, color, stability, coagulation and fermentation properties remained unaffected by diet changes. Panelists were not able to differentiate among yogurts obtained from those milks by discriminant triangular sensory tests. Silages of artichoke by-products can be included in isoproteic and isoenergetic diets for dairy goats, up to a 25% (feed dry matter, without negatively affecting milk technological and sensory properties whereas reducing feeding costs.

  13. Irradiation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L.): microbiological and sensory aspects

    Tsuhako, Vanessa Provenzano

    2005-01-01

    The increasing demand for fresh foods have stimulated the marketing of minimally processed vegetables. However, these products maintain most of their natural microbiota even after being sanitized, including pathogenic microorganisms. Refrigerated storage allows the growth of psychotropic microorganisms and among them the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes may represent a risk to pregnant women and their fetuses and to immunocompromised people. Non-thermal alternative processes for food preservation, such as irradiation, can reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganism populations without impairing substantial changes in sensory, physical or chemical attributes. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated on minimally processed lettuce, to evaluate its effect on lettuce leaves through acceptance sensory test and to determine the irradiated vegetable shelf life through sensory and microbiological tests. A mixture of 4 types of lettuce (Iceberg, Boston, Loose-leaf and Red loose-leaf) were artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes (7 log UFC/g lettuce) and then exposed to 0.3; 0.6; 0.9 and 1.2 kGy, under refrigeration. The DlO values for L. monocytogenes varied fram 0.18 to 0.21 kGy. Sensory and microbiological tests indicated that the shelf life of Iceberg lettuce stored at 7 deg C was 5 and 7 days for the irradiated and non-irradiated samples, respectively, and for the irradiated and non-irradiated Loose-leaf lettuce samples were 10 days. For the non-irradiated Boston sample, the shelf life was 3 days and for the Irradiated 7 days. Red loose-leaf showed 5 and 4 days of shelf lives for the irradiated and non-irradiated, respectively. Irradiated samples presented better microbiological quality than non-irradiated ones. The irradiation is feasible process to improve quality and safety of lettuce leaves. (author)

  14. Prebiotic effect of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus fructans on the growth performance of Bifiobacterium bifium and Escherichia coli

    Mansouri elaheh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate and compare in vitro prebiotic effects of Jerusalem artichoke polyfructans on the survivability and activity of Bifiobacterium bifium and Escherichia coli with high performance-inulin (a high molecular weight fraction of chicory-derived inulin. Methods: Extracted polyfructose from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and standard inulin were added to the appropriated culture to achieve final concentrations [0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% (w/v] to determine the turbidity and pH variations during 48 h incubation. Results: This study suggested that Jerusalem artichoke tuber fructooligosaccharides had the potential to be used as a prebiotic component. The growth of Bifidobacterium bifidum improved significantly in the presence of Jerusalem artichoke fructans compared to the control. There was no significant differences (P < 0.05 in Bifidobacterium population in different concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke poly-fructans, but the population was significantly higher than the count in the presence of high performance-inulin. The pH decreased in both media during 48 h incubation time. The specific rate of growth and doubling time determined for Escherichia coli demonstrated that the efficacy of various carbon sources in stimulating bacterial growth was influenced by the concentration and degree of polymerization of fructan chains in the media. Conclusions: Jerusalem artichoke fructooligosaccharides can provide the greater stability of probiotics and acid production, so it can be considered as a potential source of high yielding oligosaccharide for commercial prebiotic production to develop food industry and improve host health.

  15. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in g urea m"− "2): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg"− "1. Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0–10 cm than 10–20 cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. - Highlights: • Dry matter accumulation increased under nitrogen fertilization application. • Carbon density in Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg"− "1. • Soil carbon storage increased under nitrogen fertilizer application. • Nitrogen application is effective in increasing carbon sequestration.

  16. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xiaohua, Long, E-mail: longxiaohua@njau.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hongbo, Shao, E-mail: shaohongbochu@126.com [Institute of Agro-biotechnology, Jiangsu Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Zhaopu, Liu [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biology, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Zed, Rengel [Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in g urea m{sup −} {sup 2}): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg{sup −} {sup 1}. Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0–10 cm than 10–20 cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. - Highlights: • Dry matter accumulation increased under nitrogen fertilization application. • Carbon density in Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419 g C kg{sup −} {sup 1}. • Soil carbon storage increased under nitrogen fertilizer application. • Nitrogen application is effective in increasing carbon sequestration.

  17. Ethics and Corporal Punishment within the Schools across the Globe

    Rajdev, Usha

    2012-01-01

    This paper contains cultural anthropological research on various discipline measures used within the classrooms in India, United Kingdom, China, Africa, and the United States. My recent visit to schools in India on study abroad programs prompted my desire to research across the globe different methods of classroom management discipline conducted…

  18. MSIs across the Globe: Laying the Foundation for Future Research

    Hallmark, Tyler; Gasman, Marybeth

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the role that Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) play in democratizing education in the USA and around the world, examining both the institutions and their larger context. We also put forth recommendations for reaching and empowering students attending MSIs and "students at the margins" across the globe.

  19. ATRF Earns Three Green Globes, Exceeds NIH Building Standards | Poster

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer From project management and energy and water efficiency to emissions and the indoor environment, the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) was built with sustainability in mind, exceeding the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH’s) building standards and earning three Green Globes from the Green Building Initiative (GBI).

  20. Presenting CineGlobe Estival! | 6 - 10 July

    2016-01-01

    Join CineGlobe under a projected starry sky for a film festival and games with a neuroscience twist.   The 6th edition of the CineGlobe International Film Festival at CERN will take place during the first week of July 2016 (on the Globe grounds at CERN, from Wednesday 6 to Friday 8 July) and then during the Nuit de la Science (at the Museum of the History of Science, on July 9 and 10). The festival will include an open-air cinema, film projections in the Globe of Science and Innovation at CERN, the interactive Emotional Circus (carnival-inspired games played with just the participant’s brainwaves) and a special sci-fi edition of the 48 Hour Film Project. The full program will target people of all ages with fun and informative activities such as children’s films in the Minima Cinema, and a workshop on the creation of a pinhole camera with an empty Tetra-Pak milk carton. Practical information: Entry is free. All films in English and French. Onsite food trucks at the G...

  1. The Globe. Neighbourhood Agenda 21: Going Local in Reading.

    Welsh, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the philosophy underlying a project to promote local community involvement in neighborhood plans as a basis for a citywide Local Agenda 21 and the first stages of Go Local on a Better Environment (GLOBE) introduced to give the project a popular identify and communicate the environmental message. (LZ)

  2. Science and Math in the Library Media Center Using GLOBE.

    Aquino, Teresa L.; Levine, Elissa R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) program which helps school library media specialists and science and math teachers bring earth science, math, information literacy, information technology, and student inquiry into the classroom. Discusses use of the Internet to create a global network to study the…

  3. Comparison of classical dermatoscopy and acrylic globe magnifier dermatoscopy

    Lorentzen, Henrik F; Eefsen, Rikke Løvendahl; Weismann, Kaare

    2008-01-01

    Dermatoscopic asymmetry of melanocytic skin lesion is pivotal in most algorithms assessing the probability of melanoma. Larger lesions cannot be assessed by dermatoscopy and the Dermaphot in a single field of vision, but this can be performed using the acrylic globe magnifier. We examined the dia...

  4. Google Earth: A Virtual Globe for Elementary Geography

    Britt, Judy; LaFontaine, Gus

    2009-01-01

    Originally called Earth Viewer in 2004, Google Earth was the first virtual globe easily available to the ordinary user of the Internet. Google Earth, at earth.google.com, is a free, 3-dimensional computer model of Earth, but that means more than just a large collection of pretty pictures. It allows the viewer to "fly" anywhere on Earth "to view…

  5. "Big Science: the LHC in Pictures" in the Globe

    2008-01-01

    An exhibition of spectacular photographs of the LHC and its experiments is about to open in the Globe. The LHC and its four experiments are not only huge in size but also uniquely beautiful, as the exhibition "Big Science: the LHC in Pictures" in the Globe of Science and Innovation will show. The exhibition features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. These giant pictures reflecting the immense scale of the LHC and the mysteries of the Universe it is designed to uncover fill the Globe with shape and colour. The exhibition, which will open on 4 March, is divided into six different themes: CERN, the LHC and the four experiments ATLAS, LHCb, CMS and ALICE. Facts about all these subjects will be available at information points and in an explanatory booklet accompanying the exhibition (which visitors will be able to buy if they wish to take it home with them). Globe of Science and Innovatio...

  6. Teaching seismic methods using interactive 3D Earth globe

    Weeraratne, D. S.; Rogers, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    Instructional techniques for study of seismology are greatly enhanced by three dimensional (3D) visualization. Seismic rays that pass through the Earth's interior are typically viewed in 2D slices of the Earth's interior. Here we present the use of a 3D Earth globe manufactured by Real World Globes. This globe displays a dry-erase high resolution glossy topography and bathymetry from the Smith and Sandwell data archives at its surface for interactive measurements and hands-on marking of many seismic observations such as earthquake locations, source-receiver distances, surface wave propagation, great circle paths, ocean circulation patterns, airplane trajectories, etc.. A new interactive feature (designed collaboratively with geoscientists) allows cut away and disassembly of sections of the exterior shell revealing a full cross section depicting the Earth's interior layers displayed to scale with a dry-erase work board. The interior panel spins to any azimuth and provides a depth measurement scale to allow exact measurements and marking of earthquake depths, true seismic ray path propagation, ray path bottoming depths, shadow zones, and diffraction patterns. A demo of this globe and example activities will be presented.

  7. Clinical characteristics and therapeutic effect of open globe injury

    Mei-Lin Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze clinical characteristics and postoperative outcomes after open globe injury. METHODS: Demographic characteristics(age, gender, eye trauma, profession, cause of injury and injured part, as well as complications and prognosis were analyzed in 152 cases(152 eyesof open globe injury. RESULTS: Patients with open globe injury had an average age of 40.45±38.32 years old with a 5.9:1 male-to-female gender ratio. The left-to-right eye ratio was 1.27:1. Most patients were workers, farmers, or retired. The most common etiologies were scratches, boxing, and falls. Zone Ⅲ was the most commonly injured part. Iridoptosis or iris incarceration, retinal detachment, vitreal prolapse, hyphema or hypopyon, and vitreous hemorrhage were the most common complications. Visual acuity improved in 86 cases postoperatively but ophthalmectomy was still required in 25 eyes. CONCLUSION: Vision can be improved after surgery in open globe injury. However, patients are usually seriously injured and improvement is minimal, thereby resulting in a great loss to patients and society.

  8. The morpho-anatomical structure of the leaves of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. grown in the Republic of Moldova

    Cristina C. Ciobanu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Artichoke ( Cynara scolymus L. was introduced in the collection of medicinal plants of the Centre for the cultivation of medicinal plants of The State Medical and Pharmaceutical University «Nicolae Testemiţanu» in 2002 ( Bodrug 2005 . We carried out morphological and anatomical study of leaves of the artichoke with a view to determining the adaptive anatomical structures of the leaf to the climatic conditions of the Republic of Moldova, as well as to elucidate specific anatomical structures to identify the medicinal drug and medicinal plant.

  9. Place-based Learning About Climate with Elementary GLOBE

    Hatheway, B.; Gardiner, L. S.; Harte, T.; Stanitski, D.; Taylor, J.

    2017-12-01

    Place-based education - helping students make connections between themselves, their community, and their local environment - is an important tool to help young learners understand their regional climate and start to learn about climate and environmental change. Elementary GLOBE storybooks and learning activities allow opportunities for place-based education instructional strategies about climate. In particular, two modules in the Elementary GLOBE unit - Seasons and Climate - provide opportunities for students to explore their local climate and environment. The storybooks and activities also make connections to other parts of elementary curriculum, such as arts, geography, and math. Over the long term, place-based education can also encourage students to be stewards of their local environment. A strong sense of place may help students to see themselves as stakeholders in their community and its resilience. In places that are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate and environmental change and the economic, social, and environmental tradeoffs of community decisions, helping young students developing a sense of place and to see the connection between Earth science, local community, and their lives can have a lasting impact on how a community evolves for decades to come. Elementary GLOBE was designed to help elementary teachers (i.e., grades K-4) integrate Earth system science topics into their curriculum as they teach literacy skills to students. This suite of instructional materials includes seven modules. Each module contains a science-based storybook and learning activities that support the science content addressed in the storybooks. Elementary GLOBE modules feature air quality, climate, clouds, Earth system, seasons, soil, and water. New eBooks allow students to read stories on computers or tablets, with the option of listening to each story with an audio recording. A new Elementary GLOBE Teacher Implementation Guide, published in 2017, provides

  10. Determining Light Pollution of the Global Sky: GLOBE at Night

    Henderson, S.; Meymaris, K.; Ward, D.; Walker, C.; Russell, R.; Pompea, S.; Salisbury, D.

    2006-05-01

    GLOBE at Night is an international science event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the conventional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. This hands-on learning activity extended the traditional classroom and school day last March with a week of nighttime sky observations involving teachers, students and their families. The quality of the night sky for stellar observations is impacted by several factors including human activities. By observing cloud cover and locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution, exploring the relationship between science, technology and their society. Students learned that light pollution impacts more than just the visibility of stars at night. Lights at night impact both the biology and ecology of many species in our environment. Students were able to participate in this global scientific campaign by submitting their observations through an online database, allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis by participating scientists. Students and their families learned how latitude and longitude coordinates provide a location system to map and analyze the observation data submitted from around the globe. The collected data is available online for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share how students and scientists across the globe can explore and analyze the results of this exciting campaign. GLOBE at Night is a collaborative effort sponsored by The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS), Windows to the Universe, and ESRI. The GLOBE Program is

  11. Light Pollution Awareness through Globe at Night & IYL2015

    Walker, Constance E.

    2015-01-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) will be coordinating extensive activities to raise awareness of light pollution through running the Cosmic Light theme of the International Year of Light (IYL2015) and by partnering in particular with the popular Globe at Night program.Globe at Night (www.globeatnight.org) is an international campaign to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by having people measure night-sky brightness and submit observations in real-time with smart phone or later with a computer. In 2015, Globe at Night will run for 10-nights each month, an hour after sunset til before the Moon rises. Students can use the data to monitor levels of light pollution around the world, as well as understand light pollution's effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife, human health and our ability to enjoy a starry night sky.Since its inception in 2006, more than 115,000 measurements from 115 countries have been reported. The last 9 years of data can be explored with Globe at Night's interactive world map or with the 'map app' to view a particular area. A spreadsheet of the data is downloadable from any year. One can compare Globe at Night data with a variety of other databases to see, for example, how light pollution affects the foraging habits of bats.To encourage public participation in Globe at Night during IYL2015, each month will target an area of the world that habitually contributes during that time. Special concerns for how light pollution affects that area and solutions will be featured on the Globe at Night website (www.globeatnight.org), through its Facebook page, in its newsletter or in the 365DaysofAstronomy.org podcasts.Twice during IYL there will be a global Flash Mob event, one on Super Pi Day (March 14, 2015) and a second in mid-September, where the public will be invited to take night-sky brightness measurements en masse. In April, the International Dark-Sky Week hosted by the International Dark-Sky Association will be

  12. Influence of production time on quality and height of yield of crisp lettuce

    Odziemkowski, S.; Gajc-Wolska, J.; Skapski, H.

    1998-01-01

    The cultivar of crisp lettuce Saladin, was grown in the field in 10 production terms starting from spring to autumn in 1993-95. The highest average weight of head of crisp lettuce was obtained in earlier terms of production. The head weight at the time of harvest depended on the amount of solar radiation during the time of lettuce head formation

  13. Genome-wide association study for lettuce cultivars with improved salad processing efficiency

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is widely used as the main ingredient of packaged leafy vegetable salads. Salad lettuce can have short shelf life, decaying as early as eight days after harvest and reducing the nutritional quality. Decayed lettuce is not marketable, produces extra waste, and results in t...

  14. Traumatic eye ball luxation: A stepwise approach to globe salvage

    Himika Gupta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial trauma is often associated with orbital and ocular injuries. We report a case of a 21-year-old male with motor vehicular accident, orbital roof blow-in fracture, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leak, and left sided globe luxation with corneal abrasion and complete conjunctival denuding. The patient was managed by a multispeciality team and the eyeball was protected by amniotic membrane graft (AMG biological dressing with novel use of inverted sterile metallic bowl as mechanical protection till the patient stabilized. During surgery, eyeball was reposited and ocular surface was reconstructed using amniotic membrane and symblepharon ring. Surgical correction and plating of the facial fractures and dural repair with autologus tensor fascia lata was done. Post surgery ocular surface was intact, ocular motility was well preserved and the globe was prephthisical. Traumatic eyeball luxation is a rare, but dramatic presentation which may occur in a blow in fracture when the intra orbital volume reduces and expels the eye ball out of the socket. This may be associated with extra ocular muscle rupture or optic nerve avulsion. The visual prognosis is nil in majority cases. However, the management is targeted towards globe preservation in view of psychological benefit and ease of cosmetic or prosthetic rehabilitation. Knowing the mechanism of luxation helps to plan the management. A stepwise approach for globe salvage is recommended. Team efforts to take care of various morbidities with special steps to safeguard the eye help to optimize outcomes. Keywords: Traumatic eyeball luxation, Blow in orbital fractures, Amniotic membrane graft for ocular surface, Globe reposition

  15. Detection of Lettuce Discoloration Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging.

    Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Moon S; Cho, Hyunjeong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2015-11-20

    Rapid visible/near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging methods, employing both a single waveband algorithm and multi-spectral algorithms, were developed in order to discrimination between sound and discolored lettuce. Reflectance spectra for sound and discolored lettuce surfaces were extracted from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained in the 400-1000 nm wavelength range. The optimal wavebands for discriminating between discolored and sound lettuce surfaces were determined using one-way analysis of variance. Multi-spectral imaging algorithms developed using ratio and subtraction functions resulted in enhanced classification accuracy of above 99.9% for discolored and sound areas on both adaxial and abaxial lettuce surfaces. Ratio imaging (RI) and subtraction imaging (SI) algorithms at wavelengths of 552/701 nm and 557-701 nm, respectively, exhibited better classification performances compared to results obtained for all possible two-waveband combinations. These results suggest that hyperspectral reflectance imaging techniques can potentially be used to discriminate between discolored and sound fresh-cut lettuce.

  16. Selectivity of thiobencarb between two lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) cultivars

    Reiners, S.

    1987-01-01

    Thiobencarb [S-(4-chlorobenzyl)N,N-diethylthiocarbamate] was examined for weed control on muck grown lettuce. Weed control results were erratic though differential lettuce tolerance was observed in the field. This led to the testing of five lettuce cultivars for tolerance to the herbicide. Of the five lettuce cultivars evaluated, two were selected with the widest tolerance differences: Great Lakes 366 (GLA) (tolerant) and Dark Green Boston (BOS) (susceptible). Studies examining the mechanism of thiobencarb tolerance were conducted with these two cultivars. Within four days after the addition of thiobencarb to the nutrient solution, BOS had significant reductions in the foliar dry weight. In addition, growth abnormalities including fused leaves were observed, indicating inhibition early in leaf development. Greater amounts of 14 C-thiobencarb were absorbed from nutrient solution by BOS, likely due to a significantly greater root system at the time of treatment. The greater uptake and accumulation of 14 C-label in the leaves, as well as significantly greater amounts of unmetabolized 14 C-thiobencarb in the foliage of BOS may account for the selectivity observed. A thiobencarb sulfoxide was not identified in these studies. This indicates that the metabolism of thiobencarb in lettuce differs from other members of the thiocarbamate family of herbicides

  17. Globes and Teaching Aids Manufactured by Jan Felkl Company for the Polish Market

    Malgorzata Taborska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jan Felkl company from Roztoky (Roztok near Prague manufactured globes in seventeen language versions, since 1861 also in Polish language. The company was active until 1952, but it ceased to manufacture Polish-language globes as early as in 1914. In the aftermath of the First World War, and with the development of printing business, the demand for Czech globes shrank. It is difficult to estimate the overall output of Polish- language globes manufactured by Felkl’s company throughout the 53 years it operated. From catalogues and the surviving globes we know that terrestrial globes in six sizes, folding globes in two sizes, celestial globes (probably in four sizes, as well as telluria, lunaria and planetaria were manufactured for the Polish market. It is difficult to decide how many editions of individual types of globes were issued. Polish names were compiled by Franciszek Waligórski (one globe and Mirosław Suchecki. Only 28 globes have survived to this day, including one celestial globe. Most of them are globes of an 8-inch diameter, approved by the Austrian ministries as teaching aids for schools. Nearly half of the surviving globes date from the years 1894–1914. Only ten items are in museums.

  18. [Effects of hot-NaOH pretreatment on Jerusalem artichoke stalk composition and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis].

    Wang, Qing; Qiu, Jingwen; Li, Yang; Shen, Fei

    2015-10-01

    In order to explore the possibility of Jerusalem artichoke stalk for bioenergy conversion, we analyzed the main composition of whole stalk, pitch, and core of the stalk. Meanwhile, these parts were pretreated with different NaOH concentrations at 121 degrees C. Afterwards, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. Jerusalem artichoke stalk was characterized by relatively high lignin content (32.0%) compared with traditional crop stalks. The total carbohydrate content was close to that of crop stalks, but with higher cellulose content (40.5%) and lower hemicellulose (19.6%) than those of traditional crop stalks. After pretreatment, the lignin content in the whole stalk, pitch, and core decreased by 13.1%-13.4%, 8.3%-13.5%, and 19.9%-27.2%, respectively, compared with the unpretreated substrates. The hemicellulose content in the whole stalk, pitch, and core decreased 87.8%-96.9%, 87.6%-95.0%, and 74.0%-90.2%, respectively. Correspondingly, the cellulose content in the pretreated whole stalk, pitch, and core increased by 56.5%-60.2%, 52.2%-55.4%, and 62.7%-73.2%, respectively. Moreover, increase of NaOH concentration for pretreatment could improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of the whole stalk and pitch by 2.3-2.6 folds and 10.3-18.5 folds, respectively. The hydrolysis of pretreated stalk core decreased significantly as 2.0 mol/L NaOH was employed, although the increased NaOH concentration can also improve its hydrolysis performance. Based on these results, hot-NaOH can be regarded as an option for Jerusalem artichoke stalk pretreatment. Increasing NaOH concentration was beneficial to hemicellulose and lignin removal, and consequently improved sugar conversion. However, the potential decrease of sugar conversion of the pretreated core by higher NaOH concentration suggested further optimization on the pretreatment conditions should be performed.

  19. Biochemical Properties of Soluble and Bound Peroxidases from Artichoke Heads and Leaves

    Angela Cardinali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble (SP, ionically bound (IBP and covalently bound (CBP peroxidases (POD from artichoke leaves and heads have been characterized for the main biochemical parameters. The three PODs, in both leaves and heads, showed the major apparent catalytic efficiency (vmax,app/Km,app towards ferulic acid, even though, in some cases, they showed higher affinity (Km,app for other substrates. In leaves, SP and IBP showed higher Km,app for ferulic and chlorogenic acids, and CBP for ferulic and caffeic acids. In heads, SP showed higher Km,app for chlorogenic acid, IBP for caffeic and ferulic acids, and CBP for ferulic acid. It was shown that pH optimum for PODs ranged between 5.0 and 6.0 in leaves. In heads, pH optimum for SP and IBP was 5.5, while CBP presented a very low activity in a wide pH range. All PODs showed high thermal stability but different ability to regenerate: the bound forms were more able to regenerate than the soluble one. The results obtained show that (i CBP from heads is able to work under very different cellular conditions, (ii all PODs, in both tissues, have a high apparent catalytic efficiency for ferulic acid, which could explain the effective involvement of POD in lignin biosynthesis, (iii in heads, high Km,app of SP for chlorogenic acid, particularly abundant in artichoke, could justify the possible involvement of PODs in browning mechanism, and (iv in heat-processed artichoke, the ability of PODs to regenerate could contribute to oxidation and loss of product quality.

  20. Optimization studies for the bioconversion of Jerusalem artichoke tubers to ethanol and microbial biomass

    Margaritis, A.; Bajpai, P.; Cannell, E.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 8 yeast and other microbial cultures were grown in the extract derived from the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) and screened according to the following optimization criteria: rates and yields of ethanol production, rates and yields of biomass production, and percent of original sugars utilized during fermentation. Batch growth kinetic parameters were also determined for the cultures studied. Kluyveromyces marxianus UCD (FST) 55-82 had the highest specific growth rate, 0.41/h, with a high ethanol yield, 88% of theoretical.

  1. Lettuce flavonoids screening and phenotyping by chlorophyll fluorescence excitation ratio.

    Zivcak, Marek; Brückova, Klaudia; Sytar, Oksana; Brestic, Marian; Olsovska, Katarina; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2017-06-01

    Environmentally induced variation and the genotypic differences in flavonoid and phenolic content in lettuce can be reliably detected using the appropriate parameters derived from the records of rapid non-invasive fluorescence technique. The chlorophyll fluorescence excitation ratio method was designed as a rapid and non-invasive tool to estimate the content of UV-absorbing phenolic compounds in plants. Using this technique, we have assessed the dynamics of accumulation of flavonoids related to developmental changes and environmental effects. Moreover, we have tested appropriateness of the method to identify the genotypic differences and fluctuations in total phenolics and flavonoid content in lettuce. Six green and two red genotypes of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in pots were exposed to two different environments for 50 days: direct sunlight (UV-exposed) and greenhouse conditions (low UV). The indices based on the measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence after red, green and UV excitation indicated increase of the content of UV-absorbing compounds and anthocyanins in the epidermis of lettuce leaves. In similar, the biochemical analyses performed at the end of the experiment confirmed significantly higher total phenolic and flavonoid content in lettuce plants exposed to direct sun compared to greenhouse conditions and in red compared to green genotypes. As the correlation between the standard fluorescence indices and the biochemical records was negatively influenced by the presence of red genotypes, we proposed the use of a new parameter named Modified Flavonoid Index (MFI) taking into an account both absorbance changes due to flavonol and anthocyanin content, for which the correlation with flavonoid and phenolic content was relatively good. Thus, our results confirmed that the fluorescence excitation ratio method is useful for identifying the major differences in phenolic and flavonoid content in lettuce plants and it can be used for high-throughput pre

  2. Growth experiment in lettuce [Lactuca sativa] using laser light

    Mori, Y.; Takatsuji, M.

    2001-01-01

    Photosynthetic rate, relative growth rate and vitamin C contents were measured in lettuce cultivated under red and blue lasers and the results were compared with those cultivated under light emitting diodes (LED). It was found that lettuce grew fairly healthily under red laser diode (650 nm) and blue laser (442 nm) with R/B ratio 10. However, both photosynthetic rate and growth rate rather diminished compared with LED cases. As for vitamin C contents, the result was about the same as LED cases

  3. Phosphorus rates on yield and quality of lettuce seeds

    Kano,Cristiaini; Cardoso,Antonio Ismael Inácio; Bôas,Roberto L Villas

    2012-01-01

    Because of lack of information about phosphorus fertilization in lettuce from the standpoint of seed production, this study was undertaken. The work was carried out in Botucatu, São Paulo state, Brazil, from September 25, 2003 to February 19, 2004, in order to study the influence of crescents phosphorus rates on yield and quality of lettuce seeds, cultivar Verônica. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments (0; 200; 400; 600 and 800 kg ha-1 of P2O5) and five replicati...

  4. Direct lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract using Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis.

    Choi, Hwa-Young; Ryu, Hee-Kyoung; Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, Hongweon; Kim, Seon-Won; Choi, Eui-Sung

    2012-06-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber was performed with strains of Lactobacillus paracasei without acidic or enzymatic inulin hydrolysis prior to fermentation. Some strains of L. paracasei, notably KCTC13090 and KCTC13169, could ferment hot-water extract of Jerusalem artichoke tuber more efficiently compared with other Lactobacillus spp. such as L. casei type strain KCTC3109. The L. paracasei strains could utilize almost completely the fructo-oligosaccharides present in Jerusalem artichoke. Inulin-fermenting L. paracasei strains produced c.a. six times more lactic acid compared with L. casei KCTC3109. Direct lactic fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract at 111.6g/L of sugar content with a supplement of 5 g/L of yeast extract by L. paracasei KCTC13169 in a 5L jar fermentor produced 92.5 ce:hsp sp="0.25"/>g/L of lactic acid with 16.8 g/L fructose equivalent remained unutilized in 72 h. The conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to lactic acid was 98% of the theoretical yield. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of water stress on total biomass, tuber yield, harvest index and water use efficiency in Jerusalem artichoke

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of drought on tuber yield, total biomass, harvest index, water use efficiency of tuber yield (WUEt) and water use efficiency of biomass (WUEb), and to evaluate the differential responses of Jerusalem artichoke (JA) varieties under drought str...

  6. Establishment of fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Bionectria ochroleuca (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) as endophytes on artichoke Cynara scolymus.

    Guesmi-Jouini, J; Garrido-Jurado, I; López-Díaz, C; Ben Halima-Kamel, M; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2014-06-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are commonly found in diverse habitats and are known to cause mycoses in many different taxa of arthropods. Various unexpected roles have been recently reported for fungal entomopathogens, including their presence as fungal endophytes, plant disease antagonists, rhizosphere colonizers and plant growth promoting fungi. In Tunisia, a wide range of indigenous EPF isolates from different species, such as Beauveria bassiana and Bionectria ochroleuca, were found to occur in the soil, and to be pathogenic against the artichoke aphid Capitophorus elaeagni (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Since endophytic fungi are recently regarded as plant-defending mutualists and their presence in internal plant tissue has been discussed as an adaptive protection against insects, we were interested on elucidating the possible endophytic behavior of B. bassiana and B. ochroleuca on artichoke, Cynara scolymus, after foliar spraying tehcnique. The leaf spray inoculation method was effective in introducing the inoculated fungi into the plant tissues and showed, then, an endophytic activity on artichoke even 10 days later. According S-N-K test, there was significant differences between the two fungal treatments, B. ochroleuca (84% a) and B. bassiana (78% a), and controls (0% b). Likewise, the inoculated entomopathogenic fungi were also isolated from new leaves even though with significant differences respectively between controls (0% c), B. bassiana (56% b) and B. ochroleuca (78% a). These results reveals significant new data on the interaction of inoculated fungi with artichoke plant as ecological roles that can be exploited for the protection of plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiorestoring activity of few nucleotides on normal tissues of Jerusalem Artichoke after an irradiation with γ rays of 60Co

    Jonard, Robert; Bayonove, Jacqueline; Riedel, Michel.

    1978-01-01

    The nucleotides tested: adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (3',5'-cAMP), guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (3',5'-cGMP), are able to restore proliferation to irradiated (γ irradiation, 3,000 rad) Jesusalem Artichoke tissue. The 3',5'-cGMP shows the greater radiorestoring activity [fr

  8. Activity of aphids associated with lettuce and broccoli in Spain and their efficiency as vectors of Lettuce mosaic virus.

    Nebreda, M; Moreno, A; Pérez, N; Palacios, I; Seco-Fernández, V; Fereres, A

    2004-03-01

    This research sought to identify the aphid virus vector species associated with lettuce and broccoli crops in Spain, and to determine their population dynamics and ability to transmit Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). Green tile traps and Moericke yellow water-pan traps were used to monitor aphid flights during the spring and autumn growing seasons of 2001. Aphid species feeding on lettuce were counted weekly. The transmission efficiencies of LMV were determined for the aphid species caught most frequently. The Moericke traps generally caught more aphid species than the tile trap, but the latter was the most suitable to estimate flight activity of species involved in virus spread. Spring aphid catches indicated that the main aphid species landing on lettuce in the regions of Madrid and Murcia was Hyperomyzus lactucae, but Brachycaudus helichrysi was also abundant in both regions. In broccoli in the Navarra region, the most abundant species in spring were Aphis fabae, B. helichrysi and H. lactucae. In autumn-sown crops, the main species landing on lettuce in the Madrid region were Hyadaphis coriandri and Aphis spiraecola. In Murcia, A. spiraecola and Myzus persicae were the most abundant, while in Navarra, Therioaphis trifolii, and various Aphis spp. were the most numerous landing on broccoli. The main aphid species colonising lettuce was Nasonovia ribisnigri, but other less abundant colonising species were Aulacorthum solani and Macrosiphum euphorbiae. The most efficient vectors of LMV were M. persicae, Aphis gossypii and M. euphorbiae, while A. fabae and H. lactucae transmitted with low efficiency, and Rhopalosiphum padi and N. ribisnigri did not transmit. Occurrence of LMV epidemics in central Spain in relation to aphid flights and the role of weeds as virus reservoirs is discussed.

  9. Estimating Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Using Standard Meteorological Measurements

    Hunter, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    The heat stress management program at the Department of Energy''s Savannah River Site (SRS) requires implementation of protective controls on outdoor work based on observed values of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). To ensure continued compliance with heat stress program requirements, a computer algorithm was developed which calculates an estimate of WBGT using standard meteorological measurements. In addition, scripts were developed to generate a calculation every 15 minutes and post the results to an Intranet web site

  10. The Globe of Science and Innovation's central vortex

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    The central vortex of the Globe of Science and Innovation is a crown measuring 6.15 m in diameter and 4.5 m in height. Having been lifted by a crane to a height of over 22 m, the vortex is placed on a support structure which will be removed once the 36 arcs providing the building's structure have been secured in place.

  11. Inauguration of the Globe of Science and Innovation

    Patrice Loiez; Michel Blanc

    2004-01-01

    The building formerly known as 'Palais de l'Equilibre' has been given to CERN by the Swiss Confederation to mark the Laboratory's 50th Anniversary. The impressive 28 m high, 40 m diameter sphere was built by a consortium of 11 Swiss companies who specialise in timber construction. The Globe is a symbol for sustainable development: it is constructed entirely from wood and its circular form represents planet Earth.

  12. Pediatric open globe injury: A review of the literature

    Xintong Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Open globe injury (OGI is a severe form of eye trauma estimated at 2-3.8/100,000 in the United States. Most pediatric cases occur at home and are the result of sharp object penetration. The aim of this article is to review the epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of this condition by conducting a systematic literature search with inclusion of all case series on pediatric OGI published between 1996 and 2015. Diagnosis of OGI is based on patient history and clinical examination supplemented with imaging, especially computed tomography when indicated. Few prospective studies exist for the management of OGI in pediatric patients, but adult recommendations are often followed with success. The main goals of surgical management are to repair the open globe and remove intraocular foreign bodies. Systemic antibiotics are recommended as medical prophylaxis against globe infection, or endophthalmitis. Other complications are similar to those seen in adults, with the added focus of amblyopia therapy in children. Severe vision decline is most likely due to traumatic cataracts. The ocular trauma score, a system devised to predict final visual acuity (VA in adults, has proven to be of prognostic value in pediatric OGI as well. Factors indicating poor visual prognosis are young age, poor initial VA, posterior eye involvement, long wound length, globe rupture, lens involvement, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, and endophthalmitis. A thorough understanding of OGI and the key differences in epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and prognosis between adults and children is critical to timely prevention of posttraumatic vision loss early in life.

  13. Microbial cultures in open globe injuries in southern India.

    Gupta, Arvind; Srinivasan, Renuka; Kaliaperumal, Subashini; Setia, Sajita

    2007-07-01

    To determine the risk factors leading to positive intraocular culture in patients with open globe injury. A prospective interventional study involving 110 eyes of 110 patients of more than 15 years of age, presenting with open globe injury, was undertaken. Emergency repair of the injured globe was done. Prolapsed intraocular tissue or aqueous humour was sent for microbial work up before repair. In endophthalmitis cases intravitreal antibiotics were given according to the antimicrobial sensitivity. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the risk factors. Fifty-six patients showed microbial contamination. Bacteria were cultured in 42 patients and fungi in 14 patients. Nineteen patients developed endophthalmitis, of which 18 patients showed microbial growth initially. In univariate analysis, initial visual acuity (8 mm, P 72 h, P 8 mm, P = 0.013) were associated with increased risk of positive microbial culture. Six patients had intraocular foreign body but were culture negative. Age, gender, site of injury and presence of cataract did not significantly affect the culture positivity. Microbial contamination is a risk factor for the development for endophthalmitis. Despite the high frequency of microbial contamination, it develops only in few cases. Systemic antibiotics, virulence of the organism and host factors play a role in the manifestation of endophthalmitis. Prophylaxis with intraocular antibiotics should be strongly considered in cases with poor vision at presentation, larger corneoscleral laceration, delayed surgical intervention and uveal tissue or vitreous prolapse.

  14. Reincarnation platn of globe. Chikyu saisei keikaku ni tsuite

    Matsuyama, T. (Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-11-30

    The period of 200 years since the Industrial Revolution has taken for the occurence of global warming up problem, and it may require to face the problem comprehensively and for long period of 100 years unit to resolve it. This reincarnation plan of globe aims to reincarnate the changed global environment hereafter by using time of about 100 years, and proposes to make the comprehensive and long term actions to suppress and reduce exhaust gases resulting the greenhouse effect by the cooperation of all nations in the world. In the former 50 years, feasible countermeasures such as deepenung of scientific knowkedges, promotion of worldwide energy saving, introduction of clean energy, development of revolutional environmental technology, expansion of CO {sub 2} absorbing sources, and technological development of energy for the next generation will be executed continuously. In the latter 50 years, the gas exhausting amount resulting the green house effect will be reduced and suppressed from these results. Owing to these measures, the reduction of gas resulting the greenhouse effect which exceeds the expectation, can clean the globe after 100 years because the cleaning results will be incorporated into the natural circulation and the green globe will be reincarnated. 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Prevalence of Lettuce mosaic virus - common strain on three lettuce producing areas from São Paulo State

    Firmino,Ana Carolina; Krause-Sakate,Renate; Pavan,Marcelo Agenor; Silva,Norberto da; Hanai,Sérgio Minoru; Anbo,Roberto Hiroto; Nietzsche,Thomas; Le Gall,Olivier

    2008-01-01

    LMV is one of the most important pathogens of lettuce worldwide. Based on their ability to overcome the resistance genes mo1¹ and mo1² in lettuce, isolates can be divided in two types: LMV-Most, which can infect and are seed-borne in cultivars containing the mo1 gene and LMV-Common, which do not cause symptoms on these cultivars and are seed transmitted only in susceptible cultivars. To evaluate the occurrence of these two types of LMV isolates, a survey was carried out during 2002-2005 in th...

  16. Fermentative hydrogen production from Jerusalem artichoke by Clostridium tyrobutyricum expressing exo-inulinase gene.

    Jiang, Ling; Wu, Qian; Xu, Qing; Zhu, Liying; Huang, He

    2017-08-11

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC25755 has been reported as being able to produce significant quantities of hydrogen. In this study, the exo-inulinase encoding gene cloned from Paenibacillus polymyxa SC-2 was into the expression plasmid pSY6 and expressed in the cells of C. tyrobutyricum. The engineered C. tyrobutyricum strain efficiently fermented the inulin-type carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichoke, without any pretreatment being necessary for the production of hydrogen. A comparatively high hydrogen yield (3.7 mol/mol inulin-type sugar) was achieved after 96 h in a batch process with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), with an overall volumetric productivity rate of 620 ± 60 mL/h/L when the initial total sugar concentration of the inulin extract was increased to 100 g/L. Synthesis of inulinase in the batch SSF culture was closely associated with strain growth until the end of the exponential phase, reaching a maximum activity of 28.4 ± 0.26 U/mL. The overall results show that the highly productive and abundant biomass crop Jerusalem artichoke can be a good substrate for hydrogen production, and that the application of batch SSF for its conversion has the potential to become a cost-effective process in the near future.

  17. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R.; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Persson Hovmalm, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals. PMID:25913379

  18. Screening of Jerusalem artichoke varieties for bio-ethanol production in Portugal

    Passarinho, P.C.; Oliveira, A.C.; Rosa, M.F. [INETI, Departamento de Energias Renovaveis, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, Ed. G, 1649-038, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the potential of 9 Jerusalem artichoke varieties for the sustainable production of bio-ethanol in Portugal. The tubers, which are the part of the plant with higher sugar content, were harvested at different stages of development (29 to 55 weeks), and crashed for juice extraction. The two phases obtained were characterized in terms of total sugars, protein, ash and dry matter. The ethanol productivity of the different J. artichoke varieties was then evaluated fermenting juice or mixtures of juice and pulp aqueous extract with a strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, a yeast able to hydrolyze and ferment inulin polymers. The chamical characteristic more dependable on the harvest period was the amount of total sugars in the tubers. Juices, obtained until 48 weeks development, contained 173 - 235 g/L of total sugars while juices from the last harvest presented markedly lower sugar contents, indicating crop degradation or sugar migration to the soil. Regarding the fermentative process, ethanol yields ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 g/g. The main conclusion of this work indicates C13 variety as the best. Although bearing a lower sugar concentration in tubers, the substantially higher agricultural productivities (kg/m2) after 8 months growing allowed to estimate productions higher than 10 000 L/ha.

  19. Effect of Lactobacillus paracasei Culture Filtrates and Artichoke Polyphenols on Cytokine Production by Dendritic Cells

    Angelo Sisto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The most recent trend in research on probiotic bacteria aims at the exploitation of bioactive bacterial compounds that are responsible for health-promoting effects and suitable for medical applications. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to ascertain if the immunomodulatory effects of L. paracasei strains on dendritic cells (DCs were caused by bacterial metabolites released in the culture medium. For that reason, bacterial strains were grown in two media generally used for the culture of DCs, and the effects of culture filtrates on the maturation of DCs and cytokine production were evaluated. Moreover, to reveal potential synergistic effects on the immunomodulation of DCs, an artichoke phenolic extract (APE was added to the media before bacterial growth. The experiments pointed out an interesting anti-inflammatory activity of a culture filtrate obtained after growing a probiotic L. paracasei strain in one of the media supplemented with APE. Therefore, this culture filtrate—which combines the anti-inflammatory activity and the other well-known health-promoting properties of artichoke phenolic compounds—could represent the basis for future particular exploitations.

  20. Phenolic compounds from the leaf extract of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and their antimicrobial activities.

    Zhu, Xianfeng; Zhang, Hongxun; Lo, Raymond

    2004-12-01

    A preliminary antimicrobial disk assay of chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol extracts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaf extracts showed that the n-butanol fraction exhibited the most significant antimicrobial activities against seven bacteria species, four yeasts, and four molds. Eight phenolic compounds were isolated from the n-butanol soluble fraction of artichoke leaf extracts. On the basis of high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, the structures of the isolated compounds were determined as the four caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, chlorogenic acid (1), cynarin (2), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3), and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), and the four flavonoids, luteolin-7-rutinoside (5), cynaroside (6), apigenin-7-rutinoside (7), and apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), respectively. The isolated compounds were examined for their antimicrobial activities on the above microorganisms, indicating that all eight phenolic compounds showed activity against most of the tested organisms. Among them, chlorogenic acid, cynarin, luteolin-7-rutinoside, and cynaroside exhibited a relatively higher activity than other compounds; in addition, they were more effective against fungi than bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of these compounds were between 50 and 200 microg/mL.

  1. Hydrolysis of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke by inulinase immobilized on aminoethylcellulose

    Kim, W.Y.; Byun, S.M.; Uhm, T.B.

    1982-01-01

    Purified inulinase (I, EC 3.2.1.7) of Kluyveromyces fragilis was immobilized on 2-aminoethylcellulose by treatment with 2% glutaraldehyde in 0.05M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, for 2 hours at room temperature. The immobilized enzyme preparation had 39.3 units I activity/dried matrix, with 53.4% recovery yield of activity, and showed good operational stability in the presence of substrate, inulin or the tuber extract of Jerusalem artichoke. Optimum pH and temperature were 5.5 and 45 degrees, respectively. In a batch reactor, the conversion was 90% (D-fructose/D-glucose = 76/24) and 34 mg D-fructose/mL was produced from the artichoke tuber extract by the immobilized I in 20 hours. In column reactor packed with 28 mL immobilized I, the following conditions were optimal: height/diameter ratio of column 10.3 space time 3.8 hours temperature 40 degrees. Operation under these conditions gave 90% conversion of a 7% inulin solution and the productivity was 102 mmol/L/h.

  2. Production of sorbitol and ethanol from Jerusalem artichokes by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36859

    Duvnjak, Z.; Duan, Z.D. (Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Turcotte, G. (Acadia Univ., Wolfville, NS (Canada). Dept. of Food Science)

    1991-09-01

    This study shows the possible use of Jerusalem artichokes for the production of sorbitol and ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36859. Ethanol was produced from the beginning of the process, while sorbitol production started after glucose had been entirely consumed from Jerusalem artichoke (J.a.) juice. The importance of yeast extract and inoculum concentrations on the production of sorbitol from the above raw material was demonstrated. With a low initial biomass concentration sorbitol was not produced in pure J.a. juice. When the juice was supplemented with 3% yeast extract, the concentration of sorbitol was 4.6%. The sorbitol, ethanol and biomass yields (gram of product produced per gram of sugars consumed) were 0.259, 0.160 and 0.071 at the end of the process respectively. Adding glucose to increase its concentration to about 9% in the J.a. juice with 3% yeast extract had a positive effect on the production of ethanol, while commencement of the production of sorbitol was delayed and its final concentration was less than 50% of its concentration in the medium without added glucose. The effect of glucose was much stronger when it was added during the process than when added at the beginning of the process. (orig.).

  3. Consolidated bioprocessing strategy for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by Kluyveromyces marxianus under high gravity conditions.

    Yuan, W J; Chang, B L; Ren, J G; Liu, J P; Bai, F W; Li, Y Y

    2012-01-01

    Developing an innovative process for ethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke tubers under very high gravity (VHG) conditions. A consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) strategy that integrated inulinase production, saccharification of inulin contained in Jerusalem artichoke tubers and ethanol production from sugars released from inulin by the enzyme was developed with the inulinase-producing yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus Y179 and fed-batch operation. The impact of inoculum age, aeration, the supplementation of pectinase and nutrients on the ethanol fermentation performance of the CBP system was studied. Although inulinase activities increased with the extension of the seed incubation time, its contribution to ethanol production was negligible because vigorously growing yeast cells harvested earlier carried out ethanol fermentation more efficiently. Thus, the overnight incubation that has been practised in ethanol production from starch-based feedstocks is recommended. Aeration facilitated the fermentation process, but compromised ethanol yield because of the negative Crabtree effect of the species, and increases the risk of contamination under industrial conditions. Therefore, nonaeration conditions are preferred for the CBP system. Pectinase supplementation reduced viscosity of the fermentation broth and improved ethanol production performance, particularly under high gravity conditions, but the enzyme cost should be carefully balanced. Medium optimization was performed, and ethanol concentration as high as 94·2 g l(-1) was achieved when 0·15 g l(-1) K(2) HPO(4) was supplemented, which presents a significant progress in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers. A CBP system using K. marxianus is suitable for efficient ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers under VHG conditions. Jerusalem artichoke tubers are an alternative to grain-based feedstocks for ethanol production. The high ethanol concentration achieved using K. marxianus with the

  4. Jerusalem artichoke decreased salt content and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil in the coastal saline zone

    Shao, Tianyun; Li, Niu; Cheng, Yongwen; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Zed, Rengel

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinity is one of the main environmental constraints that restrict plant growth and agricultural productivity; however, utilization of salt-affected land can bring substantial benefits. This study used an in-situ remediation method by planting Jerusalem artichoke in naturally occurring saline alkali soils with different salinity (high salinity (H, >4.0 g•salt kg-1 soil), moderate salinity (M, 2.0-4.0 g•salt kg-1 soil) and low salinity (L, 1.0-2.0 g•salt kg-1 soil) in the coastal saline zone in southeast China in comparison with the respective controls without Jerusalem artichoke planting (undisturbed soil). Soil pH and salinity increased sequentially from the rhizosphere to the bulk soil and the unplanted controls. The activity of neutral phosphatase and invertase decreased in the order L > M > H, whereas that of catalase was reverse. The minimum content of calcite, muscovite and quartz, and maximum content of chlorite and albite, were found in the control soils. Planting of Jerusalem artichoke enhanced bacterial microflora in saline alkali soil. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. The number of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) in the rhizosphere soil was, respectively, 1.27, 1.02 and 1.25 times higher compared with the bulk soil, suggesting that Jerusalem artichoke played a significant role in increasing abundance and diversity of soil microbial populations. The study showed that Jerusalem artichoke could be used to improve saline alkali soil by enriching bacterial communities, enhancing the activity of phosphatase and invertase, and decreasing soil salinity.

  5. Evaluation the Growth Potential of Artichoke (Synara scolymus L. and Milk thistle (Sylibum marianum L. in Petroleum-contaminated Soil

    Sahar Zamani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbons are one of the most common pollutants groups in the environment and threaten the human, animals and plants health. Phytoremediation is a method for cleaning the contaminated areas. Medicinal plants because of their defense mechanisms able to resist and thwart destructive effect of stressors. Some plants have better resistance, including Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. and Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L.; from Asteraceae family that has polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant properties and hepatoprotectors. To evaluation the growth potential of Artichoke and Milk Thistle in petroleum-contaminated soil, an experiment in a completely randomized design was done with 6 levels of gas oil and 3 replications in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. The results showed that, gas oil hydrocarbon had a significant effect at %1 on germination percent of seed and indexes involved in seedling growth including plant height, length, and width, fresh and dry weight of artichoke leaf. In Milk Thistle, gas oil had no significant effect on germination percent. Opposite to that, significant effect at %1 on growth indexes was observed. The maximum germination percent in Artichoke and Milk Thistle seeds was observed in 20 and 10 g/kg gas oil, respectively and the minimum of germination percent was observed in seeds samples that treated with 80 g gas oil per kg soil. Artichoke seedlings were more tolerance than Milk Thistle to the contaminated soil as better growth was observed in this condition. Generally, it seems that these two valuable medicinal plants had relatively resistance to the gas oli pollution and are suggestible to use in oil contaminated soil for cleaning purpose

  6. Polyphenols from artichoke heads (Cynara cardunculus (L.) subsp. scolymus Hayek): in vitro bio-accessibility, intestinal uptake and bioavailability.

    D'Antuono, Isabella; Garbetta, Antonella; Linsalata, Vito; Minervini, Fiorenza; Cardinali, Angela

    2015-04-01

    Artichoke is a rich source of health promoting compounds such as polyphenols, important for their pharmaceutical and nutritional properties. In this study, the potential for bioavailability of the artichoke polyphenols was estimated by using both in vitro digestion and Caco-2 human intestinal cell models. In vitro digestive recoveries (bio-accessibility) were found to be 55.8% for total artichoke phenolics and in particular, 70.0% for chlorogenic acid, 41.3% for 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 50.3% for 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, highlighting potential sensitivity of these compounds to gastric and small intestinal digestive conditions. Uptake of artichoke polyphenols was rapid with peak accumulation occurring after 30 min with an efficiency of 0.16%, according to the poor uptake of dietary polyphenols. Some compounds, such as coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid derivatives, were also detected in the basolateral side assuming extra and intracellular esterase activities on chlorogenic acid. Only apigenin-7-O-glucoside was transported through the Caco-2 monolayer demonstrating its bioavailability to the extent of 1.15% at 60 min. In addition, permeability coefficient (Papp = 2.29 × 10(-5) cm s(-1)), involving apical to basolateral transport of apigenin 7-O-glucoside, was calculated to facilitate estimation of transport through the Caco-2 monolayer. Finally, the mono and dicaffeoylquinic acids present in artichoke heads exert an antioxidant activity on the human low density lipoprotein system correlated to their chemical structure. In conclusion, the utilized in vitro models, although not fully responding to the morphological and physiological features of human in vivo conditions, could be a useful tool for investigating mechanistic effects of polyphenols released from the food matrix.

  7. Using Digital Globes to Explore the Deep Sea and Advance Public Literacy in Earth System Science

    Beaulieu, Stace E.; Emery, Emery; Brickley, Annette; Spargo, Abbey; Patterson, Kathleen; Joyce, Katherine; Silva, Tim; Madin, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Digital globes are new technologies increasingly used in informal and formal education to display global datasets and show connections among Earth systems. But how effective are digital globes in advancing public literacy in Earth system science? We addressed this question by developing new content for digital globes with the intent to educate and…

  8. A web-system of virtual morphometric globes

    Florinsky, Igor; Garov, Andrei; Karachevtseva, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Virtual globes — programs implementing interactive three-dimensional (3D) models of planets — are increasingly used in geo- and planetary sciences. We develop a web-system of virtual morphometric globes. As the initial data, we used the following global digital elevation models (DEMs): (1) a DEM of the Earth extracted from SRTM30_PLUS database; (2) a DEM of Mars extracted from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) gridded data record archive; and (3) A DEM of the Moon extracted from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) gridded data record archive. From these DEMs, we derived global digital models of the following 16 local, nonlocal, and combined morphometric variables: horizontal curvature, vertical curvature, mean curvature, Gaussian curvature, minimal curvature, maximal curvature, unsphericity curvature, difference curvature, vertical excess curvature, horizontal excess curvature, ring curvature, accumulation curvature, catchment area, dispersive area, topographic index, and stream power index (definitions, formulae, and interpretations can be found elsewhere [1]). To calculate local morphometric variables, we applied a finite-difference method intended for spheroidal equal angular grids [1]. Digital models of a nonlocal and combined morphometric variables were derived by a method of Martz and de Jong adapted to spheroidal equal angular grids [1]. DEM processing was performed in the software LandLord [1]. The calculated morphometric models were integrated into the testing version of the system. The following main functions are implemented in the system: (1) selection of a celestial body; (2) selection of a morphometric variable; (3) 2D visualization of a calculated global morphometric model (a map in equirectangular projection); (4) 3D visualization of a calculated global morphometric model on the sphere surface (a globe by itself); (5) change of a globe scale (zooming); and (6) globe rotation by an arbitrary angle. The testing version of the system

  9. Uptake kinetics of arsenic by lettuce cultivars under hydroponics ...

    Arsenic (As) uptake ability based on kinetic parameters by two lettuce cultivars; Sijibaiye (SJBY) and Texuanyanlingsun (TXYLS) was investigated in nutrient solution containing eight levels of arsenic (As). Depletion of As from solution was monitored over a period of 24 h at regular time to estimate As uptake kinetics of the ...

  10. Modelling concept of lettuce breeding for nutrient efficiency

    Kerbiriou, P.J.; Stomph, T.J.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Modern lettuce cultivars are bred for use under high levels of input of water and nutrients, and therefore less adapted to low-input or organic conditions in which nitrate availability varies over time and within the soil profile. To create robust cultivars it is necessary to assess which traits

  11. Survival of pathogenic Escherichia coli on basil, lettuce, and spinach

    The contamination of lettuce, spinach and basil with pathogenic E. coli has caused numerous illnesses over the past decade. E. coli O157:H7, E. coli O104:H4 and avian pathogenic E. coli (APECstx- and APECstx+) were inoculated on basil plants and in promix soiless substrate using drip and overhead ir...

  12. Genetic transformation of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ): A review | Dan ...

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a globally important leafy vegetable that can be grown worldwide. Due to the rapid growth of population and the human desire to progress, there have been a lot of studies made by researchers, especially in genetic engineering. Improvements in regeneration system and transformation ...

  13. The nicolet lettuce model : a theme with variations

    Seginer, I.; Linker, F.; Buwalda, F.; Straten, van G.

    2004-01-01

    The NICOLET model has been developed to predict the growth and nitrate content of greenhouse lettuce. Four single-organ versions have been developed: [1] abundant supply of nitrogen (1998), [2] mild N-stress (1999), [3] severe N-stress (2003), and [4] ontogenetic changes of organic-N and water

  14. Irrigation and nitrogen level affect lettuce yield in greenhouse ...

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different irrigation and nitrogen levels on lettuce yield characteristics in greenhouse condition from December 2006 to March 2007. Irrigation levels of 100% of total class A pan (S1), 80% of total class A pan (S2), 60% of total class A pan (S3) and nitrogen levels of 0 kg ...

  15. Post-harvest decay in fresh-cut lettuce

    Shelf-life of fresh-cut lettuce was assessed in two mapping population (Salinas 88 x La Brillante, and Pavane x Parade. The most significant QTL was detected in both populations on linkage group 4. This QTL was detected in seven experiments grown in different environments. Molecular markers are bein...

  16. Characterization of Verticillium dahliae disease reactions in lettuce differential cultivars

    Soilborne diseases significantly affect high value crops in coastal California, including lettuce and strawberry. Breeding crops for pathogen resistance is a strategy for the sustainable management of crop disease. Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne fungus that causes wilt and economic losses in a ...

  17. Listeria monocytogenes internalizes in Romaine Lettuce grown in greenhouse conditions

    Listeria monocytogenes has been implicated in a number of outbreaks involving fresh produce, including an outbreak in 2016 resulting from contaminated packaged salads. The persistence and internalization potential of L. monocytogenes in romaine lettuce was evaluated, and the persistence of two L. mo...

  18. Unravelling the resistance mechanism of lettuce against Nasonovia ribisnigri

    Broeke, ten C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aphids are serious pests of crop plant species, and host plant resistance is often the most effective and environmentally friendly control strategy to control these pests. One of these aphid pests is the black currant - lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosely), an economically

  19. University Opinion Poll 9: Child Care, MPIRG, Lettuce. Preliminary Report.

    Matross, Ronald; And Others

    The University Opinion Poll conducted a survey of student opinion on issues related to University-sponsored day care, the role of the Minnesota Public Interest Research Group (MPIRG) and the University's policy on buying lettuce for its food services. Four hundred fifty-two respondents, 76% of a random sample of University of Minnesota students,…

  20. Physiological analysis of methods to relieve dormancy of lettuce seeds

    Weges, R.

    1987-01-01

    Low maximum temperature of germination restricts the cultivation of a number of lettuce cultivars to temperate conditions. Pretreatments have been studied that increase the maximum germination temperature, which is characterized by the temperature for 50% germination (T

  1. Developing lettuce with improved quality for processed salads.

    Lettuce is increasingly consumed as minimally processed salads. Cultivars grown for this market may require breeding for improved shelf-life and resistance to physiological defects such as tipburn (TB). Tipburn is a calcium deficiency related defect causing necrosis on the leaf margins, typically on...

  2. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to lettuce, Denmark, January 2010

    Ethelberg, S.; Lisby, M.; Bottiger, B.

    2010-01-01

    At least 11 linked outbreaks of gastroenteritis with a total of 260 cases have occurred in Denmark in mid January 2010. Investigations showed that the outbreaks were caused by norovirus of several genotypes and by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Lettuce of the lollo bionda type grown in France...

  3. Characterization and performance of 16 new inbred lines of lettuce

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of sixteen breeding lines of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Five (SM13-I1, SM13-I2, SM13-I3, SM13-I4, and SM13-I5) of the six iceberg breeding lines can be used for whole head or salad blend production; the sixth i...

  4. Seed Production of Cutting Lettuce Varieties: Economical Facets

    Н. В. Лещук

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights current problems of cutting lettuce seed production for all its variants. Research background is provided to the composition of material expenditures for growing of every variant in particular. Economical efficiency of seed production in line with varietal certification requirements has been reproved.

  5. "Lettuce" Learn Math: Teaching Mathematics with Seeds and Centimeters

    Rickard, Laura N.; Wilson, Colette

    2006-01-01

    "Lettuce Learn Math" is an interdisciplinary program that has effectively linked a small-scale agricultural production system to a sixth-grade mathematics and science curriculum. The mathematical concepts and skills, including measurement and geometry, taught in this project met and often exceeded the standards set by New York state for…

  6. Stable plastid transformation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Lelivelt, Cilia L C; McCabe, Matthew S; Newell, Christine A; Desnoo, C Bastiaan; van Dun, Kees M P; Birch-Machin, Ian; Gray, John C; Mills, Kingston H G; Nugent, Jacqueline M

    2005-08-01

    Although plastid transformation in higher plants was first demonstrated in the early 1990s it is only recently that the technology is being extended to a broader range of species. To date, the production of fertile transplastomic plants has been reported for tobacco, tomato, petunia, soybean, cotton and Lesquerella fendleri (Brassicaceae). In this study we demonstrate a polyethylene glycol-mediated plastid transformation system for lettuce that generates fertile, homoplasmic, plastid-transformed lines. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the trnA/trnI intergenic region of the lettuce plastid genome employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin. Spectinomycin resistance and heterologous gene transcription were shown in T(1) plants derived from self-pollinated primary regenerants demonstrating transmission of the plastid-encoded transgene to the first seed generation. Crossing with male sterile wild-type lettuce showed that spectinomycin resistance was not transmitted via pollen. Constructs containing the gfp gene showed plastid-based expression of green fluorescent protein. The lettuce plastid could have potential both as a production and a delivery system for edible human therapeutic proteins.

  7. The resistance of lettuce to the aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri

    Helden, van M.

    1995-01-01

    The resistance of lettuce to the aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri is based on a single, dominant gene, the Nr-gene. On the resistant plant aphids died within a few days, without any honeydew production. Transfer-experiments with a short stay on a resistant plant followed by a

  8. Concomitant uptake of antimicrobials and Salmonella in soil and into lettuce following wastewater irrigation

    Sallach, J. Brett; Zhang, Yuping; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel; Li, Xu; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The use of wastewater for irrigation may introduce antimicrobials and human pathogens into the food supply through vegetative uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the uptake of three antimicrobials and Salmonella in two lettuce cultivars. After repeated subirrigation with synthetic wastewater, lettuce leaves and soil were collected at three sequential harvests. The internalization frequency of Salmonella in lettuce was low. A soil horizon-influenced Salmonella concentration gradient was determined with concentrations in bottom soil 2 log CFU/g higher than in top soil. Lincomycin and sulfamethoxazole were recovered from lettuce leaves at concentrations as high as 822 ng/g and 125 ng/g fresh weight, respectively. Antimicrobial concentrations in lettuce decreased from the first to the third harvest suggesting that the plant growth rate may exceed antimicrobial uptake rates. Accumulation of antimicrobials was significantly different between cultivars demonstrating a subspecies level variation in uptake of antibiotics in lettuce. - Highlights: • Antimicrobial uptake in lettuce is cultivar dependent. • Antimicrobial concentrations in lettuce decrease despite repeated exposure. • Lincomycin is better conserved in the soil-plant system than oxytetracycline or sulfamethoxazole. • Subirrigation resulted in more Salmonella in bottom soil than in top soil. • Internalization frequency of Salmonella in lettuce is low despite repeated exposure. - Cultivar-specific differences in lincomycin and sulfamethazine uptake were observed in lettuce, while uptake of Salmonella was low despite repeated exposure from wastewater

  9. The inheritance of resistance to bacterial leaf spot of lettuce caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians in three lettuce cultivars

    Lettuce yields can be reduced by the disease bacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv) and host resistance is the most feasible method to reduce disease losses. The cultivars La Brillante, Pavane, and Little Gem express an incompatible host-pathogen in...

  10. The influence of the microbial quality of wastewater, lettuce cultivars and enumeration technique when estimating the microbial contamination of wastewater-irrigated lettuce.

    Makkaew, P; Miller, M; Cromar, N J; Fallowfield, H J

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the volume of wastewater retained on the surface of three different varieties of lettuce, Iceberg, Cos, and Oak leaf, following submersion in wastewater of different microbial qualities (10, 10 2 , 10 3 , and 10 4 E. coli MPN/100 mL) as a surrogate method for estimation of contamination of spray-irrigated lettuce. Uniquely, Escherichia coli was enumerated, after submersion, on both the outer and inner leaves and in a composite sample of lettuce. E. coli were enumerated using two techniques. Firstly, from samples of leaves - the direct method. Secondly, using an indirect method, where the E. coli concentrations were estimated from the volume of wastewater retained by the lettuce and the E. coli concentration of the wastewater. The results showed that different varieties of lettuce retained significantly different volumes of wastewater (p 0.01) were detected between E. coli counts obtained from different parts of lettuce, nor between the direct and indirect enumeration methods. Statistically significant linear relationships were derived relating the E. coli concentration of the wastewater in which the lettuces were submerged to the subsequent E. coli count on each variety the lettuce.

  11. Epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of open globe injury in Shanghai

    Yong-Rong Ji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of open globe injury in Shanghai. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted for 148 unilateral open globe injury cases presenting to a tertiary referral hospital of Shanghai. Electronic medical records were reviewed and phone surveys were conducted to collect and analyze 1 background of patient; 2 setting of injury and clinical signs at presentation; 3 treatment procedure and outcome; 4 quality of life after injury. RESULTS: There were more male patients (77.03% than females (22.97%, more temporary habitants (79.05% than residents (20.95%. The subjects in this study presented a significantly lower constitutional status of education than that of the whole Shanghai population (P<0.001. Occupational injury was the first cause of injuries (39.86%, followed by home accident (20.27%, road accident (16.89%, violent behavior (16.89% and outdoor injury (6.08%. The 143 subjects (96.62% were not wearing spectacles at the time of injury. Of all patients, 77 subjects (52.03% had the outcome of no vision (including enucleation. The classification and regression tree (CART prognosis presents 59.58% sensitivity to predict visual survival correctly and 80.19% specificity to predict no vision correctly. The patients whose injured eye had no vision reported more reduction of life quality. CONCLUSION: We found that male subject, temporary habitants, low educational status and no eyewear are risk factors of open globe injury in Shanghai. Occupational injury is the leading cause. CART analysis presents a certain agreement to the actual visual outcome. The injury imposes negative impact on quality of life especially in no vision cases. The education of eye protection may help to avoid the injury.

  12. Astronomy Meets the Environmental Sciences: Using GLOBE at Night Data

    Barringer, D.; Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.; Sparks, R. T.

    2011-09-01

    The GLOBE at Night database now contains over 52,000 observations from the five annual two-week campaigns. It can be used as a resource to explore various issues related to light pollution and our environment. Students can compare data over time to look for changes and trends. For example, they can compare the data to population density or with nighttime photography and spectroscopy of lights. The data can be used in a lighting survey, to search for dark sky oases or to monitor ordinance compliance. Students can study effects of light pollution on animals, plants, human health, safety, security, energy consumption, and cost. As an example, we used data from the GLOBE at Night project and telemetry tracking data of lesser long-nosed bats obtained by the Arizona Game and Fish Department to study the effects of light pollution on the flight paths of the bats between their day roosts and night foraging areas around the city of Tucson, AZ. With the visual limiting magnitude data from GLOBE at Night, we ran a compositional analysis with respect to the bats' flight paths to determine whether the bats were selecting for or against flight through regions of particular night sky brightness levels. We found that the bats selected for the regions in which the limiting sky magnitudes fell between the ranges of 2.8-3.0 to 3.6-3.8 and 4.4-4.6 to 5.0-5.2, suggesting that the lesser long-nosed bat can tolerate a fair degree of urbanization. We also compared this result to contour maps created with digital Sky Quality Meter (http://www.unihedron.com) data.

  13. Concomitant uptake of antimicrobials and Salmonella in soil and into lettuce following wastewater irrigation.

    Sallach, J Brett; Zhang, Yuping; Hodges, Laurie; Snow, Daniel; Li, Xu; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon

    2015-02-01

    The use of wastewater for irrigation may introduce antimicrobials and human pathogens into the food supply through vegetative uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the uptake of three antimicrobials and Salmonella in two lettuce cultivars. After repeated subirrigation with synthetic wastewater, lettuce leaves and soil were collected at three sequential harvests. The internalization frequency of Salmonella in lettuce was low. A soil horizon-influenced Salmonella concentration gradient was determined with concentrations in bottom soil 2 log CFU/g higher than in top soil. Lincomycin and sulfamethoxazole were recovered from lettuce leaves at concentrations as high as 822 ng/g and 125 ng/g fresh weight, respectively. Antimicrobial concentrations in lettuce decreased from the first to the third harvest suggesting that the plant growth rate may exceed antimicrobial uptake rates. Accumulation of antimicrobials was significantly different between cultivars demonstrating a subspecies level variation in uptake of antibiotics in lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. “Universe of Particles” opens in the Globe

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    CERN’s brand new permanent exhibition provides a high-tech experience with virtual interactive stations and pieces of actual detectors to intrigue the general public about some of the world’s most sophisticated physics tools and experiments.   Universe of Particles exhibition will open on 1 July in the Globe of Science and Technology. Upon entering the dark interior of the Globe, one has a sense of emerging into a portal to the outer universe. Large projections that fill the walls and a 6 m large diameter circle screen in the middle of the ground where space swirls with stars and planets, as well as particle collisions from the LHC experiments. Questions such as where do we come from? What are the laws of Nature? Why did antimatter and matter not destroy each other just after the Big Bang? Will we find particles that make up the mysterious dark matter or the Higgs particle? are linked to the research being done at the LHC. Visitors are invited to explore the unique spherica...

  15. Enhancing Science Teacher Training Using Water Resources and GLOBE

    Falco, James W.

    2002-01-01

    Heritage College, located on the Yakama Indian Reservation in south central Washington state, serves a multicultural, underserved, rural population and trains teachers to staff the disadvantaged school districts on and surrounding the reservation. In-service teachers and pre-service teachers in the area show strength in biology but have weak backgrounds in chemistry and mathematics. We are addressing this problem by providing a 2-year core of courses for 3 groups of 25 students (15 pre-service and 10 in-service teachers) using GLOBE to teach integrated physical science and mathematics. At the conclusion of the program, the students will qualify for science certification by Washington State. Water resources are the focal point of the curriculum because it is central to life in our desert area. The lack or excess of water, its uses, quality and distribution is being studied by using GIS, remote sensing and historical records. Students are learning the methodology to incorporate scientific protocols and data into all aspects of their future teaching curriculum. In addition, in each of the three years of the project, pre-service teachers attended a seminar series during the fall semester with presentations by collaborators from industry, agriculture, education and government agencies. Students used NASA educational materials in the presentations that they gave at the conclusion of the seminar series. All pre- and in-service teachers continue to have support via a local web site for Heritage College GLOBE participants.

  16. CinéGlobe presents: "One Day on Earth"

    2012-01-01

    The CinéGlobe International Film Festival is proud to announce that it will be hosting the Swiss edition of the Global Screening of “One Day on Earth”, the first film to be shot and then screened in every country in the world.   Founded in 2008, “One Day on Earth's” first media creation event occurred on 10.10.10. The collaboration was the first ever simultaneous filming event occuring in every country of the world. It created a unique geo-tagged video archive as well as a unique feature film. “One Day on Earth” showcases the amazing diversity, conflict, tragedy, and triumph that occurs in one day on our planet.  This Earth Day, April 22nd, CinéGlobe and CERN invite the public to a free global screening event of the first One Day on Earth Motion Picture. This unique film, created from over 3000 hours of footage, was shot by the One Day on Earth community in every country of the world on October...

  17. On filament structure and propagation within a commercial plasma globe

    Burin, M. J.; Simmons, G. G.; Ceja, H. G.; Zweben, S. J.; Nagy, A.; Brunkhorst, C.

    2015-01-01

    The filamentary discharge seen within commercial plasma globes is commonly enjoyed yet not well understood. Here, we investigate the discharge properties of a plasma globe using a variable high voltage amplifier. We find that increasing voltage magnitude increases the number of filaments while leaving their individual structure basically unchanged, a result typical of dielectric barrier discharges. The frequency of the voltage also affects filament population but more significantly changes filament structure, with more diffuse filaments seen at lower frequencies. Voltage polarity is observed to be important, especially at lower frequencies, where for negative-gradient voltages the discharge is more diffuse, not filamentary. At late stages of the discharge circular structures appear and expand on the glass boundaries. We find no trend of discharge speed with respect to voltage variables, though this may be due to manufacturer sample-to-sample variation. Each voltage cycle the discharge expands outward at ∼10–15 km/s, a speed significantly higher than the estimated electron drift yet considerably lower than that observed for most streamers. We discuss the physics of these observations and their relation to similar discharges that can be found within nature and industry

  18. Nutritional and taste characteristics of low-potassium lettuce developed for patients with chronic kidney diseases

    Yoshida, Takuya; Sakuma, Kozue; Kumagai, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary potassium restriction is recommended for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hyperkalemia. Boiling or soaking vegetables in water is known to decrease their potassium content. However, these methods can also reduce the quantity of other nutrients. Recently, low-potassium (LK) lettuce has been developed for CKD patients with hyperkalemia. This study compared the potassium content, other nutritional values, and taste characteristics of LK lettuce with those of normal lettuce. The...

  19. Genetic dissection of nonhost resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to downy mildew

    Zhang, N.

    2008-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew is the most destructive disease in lettuce (Lactuca spp.) cultivation and is caused by Bremia lactucae. The successful cross between its host L. sativa and the nonhost, L. saligna, and offers a rare chance to study the genetics of the nonhost resistance. From a set of 29 Backcross Inbred Lines (BILs) representing in total 96% of the L. saligna genome, 15 introgressions were identified to contribute to this resistance at one to four tested lettuce developmental stages and ...

  20. Plastid transformation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by biolistic DNA delivery.

    Ruhlman, Tracey A

    2014-01-01

    The interest in producing pharmaceutical proteins in a nontoxic plant host has led to the development of an approach to express such proteins in transplastomic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). A number of therapeutic proteins and vaccine antigen candidates have been stably integrated into the lettuce plastid genome using biolistic DNA delivery. High levels of accumulation and retention of biological activity suggest that lettuce may provide an ideal platform for the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  1. Whole-globe biomechanics using high-field MRI.

    Voorhees, Andrew P; Ho, Leon C; Jan, Ning-Jiun; Tran, Huong; van der Merwe, Yolandi; Chan, Kevin; Sigal, Ian A

    2017-07-01

    The eye is a complex structure composed of several interconnected tissues acting together, across the whole globe, to resist deformation due to intraocular pressure (IOP). However, most work in the ocular biomechanics field only examines the response to IOP over smaller regions of the eye. We used high-field MRI to measure IOP induced ocular displacements and deformations over the whole globe. Seven sheep eyes were obtained from a local abattoir and imaged within 48 h using MRI at multiple levels of IOP. IOP was controlled with a gravity perfusion system and a cannula inserted into the anterior chamber. T2-weighted imaging was performed to the eyes serially at 0 mmHg, 10 mmHg, 20 mmHg and 40 mmHg of IOP using a 9.4 T MRI scanner. Manual morphometry was conducted using 3D visualization software to quantify IOP-induced effects at the globe scale (e.g. axial length and equatorial diameters) or optic nerve head scale (e.g. canal diameter, peripapillary sclera bowing). Measurement sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine measurement precision. High-field MRI revealed an outward bowing of the posterior sclera and anterior bulging of the cornea due to IOP elevation. Increments in IOP from 10 to 40 mmHg caused measurable increases in axial length in 6 of 7 eyes of 7.9 ± 5.7% (mean ± SD). Changes in equatorial diameter were minimal, 0.4 ± 1.2% between 10 and 40 mmHg, and in all cases less than the measurement sensitivity. The effects were nonlinear, with larger deformations at normal IOPs (10-20 mmHg) than at elevated IOPs (20-40 mmHg). IOP also caused measurable increases in the nasal-temporal scleral canal diameter of 13.4 ± 9.7% between 0 and 20 mmHg, but not in the superior-inferior diameter. This study demonstrates that high-field MRI can be used to visualize and measure simultaneously the effects of IOP over the whole globe, including the effects on axial length and equatorial diameter, posterior sclera displacement and bowing, and even

  2. Direct conversion from Jerusalem artichoke to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) using the Fenton reaction.

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Han, Jong-In

    2014-05-15

    A simple method for hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) production from non-crop biomass of the Jerusalem artichoke was developed using the Fenton reaction, in a mixture of 2-butanol and water. Four parameters (temperature, reaction time, Fe(2+) concentration, and H2O2 concentration) were identified as experimental factors, and HMF yield was selected as the response parameter. The experimental factors were optimised by employing Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The maximum HMF yield, of 46%, was obtained with a reaction time of 90 min, Fe(2+) concentration of 1.3 mM, and 0.47 M of H2O2 at 180 °C. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Kinetics of ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke juice with some Kluyveromyces species

    Kuvnjak, Z.; Kosaric, N.; Hayes, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 12708 and ATCC 10606, K. cicerisporus ATCC 22295 and K. fragilis 105 were studied using raw juice of the Jerusalem artichoke in which the carbohydrates were not hydrolyzed prior to fermentation. This juice contains enough nutrients and can serve as a complete medium without additional nutrients both for growth of the yeasts and for ethanol production. Both specific ethanol productivity and specific glucose uptake rates were the highest with K. marxianus ATCC 12708 (1.68 gg-1 h-1 and 3.78 gg-1h-1, respectively). This microorganism produced an ethanol yield of 87.5% of the theoretical value in 25 hours.

  4. Kinetics of ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke juice with some Klugveromyces species

    Duvnjak, Z.; Kosaric, N.; Hayes, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of ethanol produce by Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 12708 and ATCC 10606, K. cicerisporus ATCC 22295, and K. fragilis 105 have been studied using raw juice of the Jerusalem artichoke in which the carbohydrates were not hydrolyzed prior to fermentation. The experiments revealed that this juice contains enough nutrients and can serve as a complete medium without additional nutrients both for growth of the yeasts and for ethanol production. It was found that both specific ethanol productivity and specific uptake rates were the highest with K. marxianus ATCC 12708 (1.68 g/g/hour and 3.78 g/g/hour respectively). This microorganism produced an ethanol yield of 87.5% of the theoretical value in 25 hours. (Refs. 15).

  5. UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Otozai, Kiyotaka; Taniguchi, Hajime; Nakamura, Michinori

    1973-01-01

    UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase of Jerusalem artichoke tubers was purified 90-fold over the crude extract. The purified enzyme preparation absolutely required magnesium ions for activity. Cobalt ions were 60% as effective as magnesium ions; other divalent cations including manganese showed little or no effect. This enzyme had a pH optimum of 8.5 and a temperature optimum of 40 deg C. ATP and UDP inhibited the activity of this enzyme in both forward and backward directions. Km values for UDP-glucose, inorganic pyrophosphate, glucose-1-phosphate - 14 C and UTP were determined to be 4.45 x 10 -4 , 2.33 x 10 -4 , 9.38 x 10 -4 and 2.98 x 10 -4 M, respectively. These results are discussed in comparison with those of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases isolated from other plants. (author)

  6. Repeated batch production of ethanol from Jerusalem artichoke tubers using recycled immobilized cells of Kluyveromyces fragilis

    Margaritis, A.; Bajpai, P.

    1981-01-01

    Recycled immobilized cells of K. fragilis ATCC 28244 were used for repeated batch production of EtOH from the inulin sugars derived from Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Using 10% initial sugar concentration, a maximum EtOH concentration of 48 g/l was achieved in 7 h when the immobilized cell concentration in the Ca alginate beads was 72 g dry weight immobilized cell/l bioreactor vol.-h. The same Ca alginate beads containing the cells were used repeatedly for 11 batch runs starting with fresh medium at the beginning of each run. The EtOH yield was almost constant at 96% of the theoretical for all 11 batch runs, while the maximum EtOH production rate during the last batch run was 70% of the original EtOH rate obtained in the 1st batch run.

  7. Soft Robotic Manipulation of Onions and Artichokes in the Food Industry

    R. Morales

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a robotic solution for a problem of fast manipulation and handling of onions or artichokes in the food industry. The complete solution consists of a parallel robotic manipulatior, a specially designed end-effector based on a customized vacuum suction cup, and a computer vision software developed for pick and place operations. First, the selection and design process of the proposed robotic solution to fit with the initial requeriments is presented, including the customized vacuum suction cup. Then, the kinematic analysis of the parallel manipulator needed to develop the robot control system is reviewed. Moreover, computer vision application is presented inthe paper. Hardware details of the implementation of the building prototype are also shown. Finally, conclusions and future work show the current status of the project.

  8. Artichoke and milk thistle pills and syrups as sources of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity.

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; José Alves, Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-07-13

    Dietary supplements based on hepatoprotective plants have been increasingly used in the prevention of liver injuries. In the present work, the aim was to study the phenolic profile and possibly relate it to the in vitro antimicrobial activity of two different formulations (pills and syrups) of artichoke and milk thistle, the antioxidant and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activities of which were previously reported by our research group. The phenolic profiles were obtained by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and the antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed with the clinical isolates of multiresistant bacteria (Escherichia coli, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Artichoke syrup revealed the presence of vanillic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside while the pills possessed higher concentrations of 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids, this latest being able to inhibit the growth of MRSA. Regarding milk thistle formulations, the syrup presented isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-dihexoside, isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-hexoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside as the major phenolic constituents whereas the pills were richer in taxifolin, silymarin derivatives and hydroxylated silibinin; the syrup revealed antimicrobial activity against all the studied bacteria with the exception of Proteus mirabilis whereas the pills revealed activity against ESBL producing Escherichia coli. Overall, all of the studied formulations revealed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, among which milk thistle syrup presented the highest variety and concentration of flavonoids, which is possibly related to its strongest antimicrobial activity.

  9. Syneresis, rheological characteristic and sensory consistency of the artichoke sauce (Cynara scolymus L.

    Francisco Mora Barandiarán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the concentration of three hydrocolloids: CMC, guar gum and xanthan gum on the syneresis, rheological features and sensory consistency of the artichoke sauce (Cynara scolymus L. Imperial Star variety was studied. The syneresis was determined by the water loss by centrifugation, the rheological features of the artichoke sauce was determined using a Brookfield RVDV – III model rheometer and finally, the sensory consistency was determined by measuring the degree of satisfaction with hedonic scale of nine points. A simplex lattice design blends with centroid expanded under the response surface methodology was applied to establish the effect of the concentration of hydrocolloid on syneresis, rheological features and sensory consistency. In all treatments, the apparent viscosity decreased with shear rate demonstrating a “non Newtonian” behavior of “general plastic” type with an “n” value less than 1 and an initial shear stress. The flow behavior index “n” was in the range of 0.0856 and 0.3131 (n < 1 and the consistency index “k” in the range of 84.55 y 167.80 Pa.sn , the initial shear stress was in the range of 9,10 y 13,51 Pa and consistency sensory presented score of “like” to “like slightly”. Finally, the hydrocolloid mixture was optimized over the area of feasible formulation. With the optimal mixture, corresponding to 0.28% CMC, 0.13% guar gum and 0.59% xanthan gum is expected to obtain a 0.089% of syneresis and a rating of 6 in terms of sensory consistency.

  10. Jerusalem artichoke as a platform for inulin, ethanol and feed production in Canada

    Anyia, A.O.; Mostafa, H.; Melnichuk, R.; Slaski, J.J. [Alberta Research Council, Vegreville, AB (Canada). Bioresource Technologies Unit

    2009-07-01

    The Alberta Research Council (ARC) is developing an extraction and fermentation process for making ethanol from Jerusalem artichoke (JA). In particular, ARC has collaborated with Olds College in developing an extraction process and an engineering process for the commercial production of inulin, ethanol, polymers and animal feed from JA tubers. Fresh JA tubers contain about 20 per cent of water soluble carbohydrates, which occur primarily in the form of inulin. Several health promoting benefits are associated with intake of inulin. High volumes of dry residual aerial biomass following tuber harvest contain 40 to 50 per cent water soluble carbohydrates that are fermentable to ethanol. Some studies have shown that under optimal climatic conditions, JA can yield more ethanol per ha than sugarcane. ARC has the exclusive North American rights to several high yielding JA cultivars. Jerusalem artichoke is not a designated food crop and has a high biomass yield for soluble sugars. This perennial crop forms tubers, has a deep root system that can be adapted to marginal lands. ARC's research involves a seed to final product technology development approach that includes new variety development, agronomy and processing. ARC applied a hot water extraction technique along with a low liquid to JA stalk ratio to achieve more than 40 per cent total water soluble carbohydrates per gram of biomass that are fermentable to ethanol without the need for weak acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. A 400 hectare plantation of JA in Alberta could produce about 1,500 tonnes of inulin and 1.5 million liters of ethanol per year in a pilot scale bio-refining plant. An economic and market analysis showed that capital investments in an inulin production plant in Alberta will be a profitable venture. ARC has estimated a 5 year Internal Rate of Return (IRR) to range from 10 to 30 per cent and payback period of 4 to 5 years depending on plant location and value of by-products. tabs., figs.

  11. THE FARMING AND MARKETING OF ORGANIC LETTUCE: STUDY AT BOBOSAN VILLAGE, KEDUNGBANTENG SUB-DISTRICT, BANYUMAS

    Irene Kartika Eka Wijayanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Banyumas has great potential as a producer of organic lettuce in term of condition of natural, human resources and availability of market. The centre producer of organic lettuce is located in district of Kedungbanteng, and managed by farmers group "abdi tani". The aim of this study is to analyze: 1. The cost and income farming of organic lettuce; 2. Financial feasibility of organic lettuce farm; 3. The channel and structure of organic lettuce market. Processing and data analysis performed qualitatively and quantitatively. The data used is to the production and marketing of organic lettuce in period of June-July 2016. Quantitative analysis performed using analysis of cost, farm income, and R/C. Qualitative analysis was conducted to determine the channel and structure of organic lettuce market. The results showed that organic lettuce farm income generating positive value and the value of R/C is greater than one (R/C >1, the farming is profitable and feasible. Organic lettuce marketing channels through the use of one channel, such farmers, traders, retailers (supermarket. Farmers faced monopsony market structure, while traders and retailers deal with oligopoly one

  12. Cellulosic bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) using hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment.

    Song, Younho; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Ho Myeong; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-08-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is recognized as a suitable candidate biomass crop for bioethanol production because it has a rapid growth rate and high biomass productivity. In this study, hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment was used to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and to effectively remove the lignin of JA. With optimized enzyme doses, synergy was observed from the combination of three different enzymes (RUT-C30, pectinase, and xylanase) which provided a conversion rate was approximately 30% higher than the rate with from treatment with RUT-C30 alone. Fermentation of the JA hydrolyzates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced a fermentation yield of approximately 84%. Therefore, Jerusalem artichoke has potential as a bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf and bloom head extracts on chemically induced DNA lesions in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Jacociunas, Laura Vicedo; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Lehmann, Mauricio; de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Alexandre; Richter, Marc François; da Silva, Juliana; de Andrade, Heloísa Helena Rodrigues

    2014-03-01

    The genotoxicity of bloom head (BHE) and leaf (LE) extracts from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), and their ability to modulate the mutagenicity and recombinogenicity of two alkylating agents (ethyl methanesulfonate - EMS and mitomycin C - MMC) and the intercalating agent bleomycin (BLM), were examined using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. Neither the mutagenicity nor the recombinogenicity of BLM or MMC was modified by co- or post-treatment with BHE or LE. In contrast, co-treatment with BHE significantly enhanced the EMS-induced genotoxicity involving mutagenic and/or recombinant events. Co-treatment with LE did not alter the genotoxicity of EMS whereas post-treatment with the highest dose of LE significantly increased this genotoxicity. This enhancement included a synergistic increase restricted to somatic recombination. These results show that artichoke extracts promote homologous recombination in proliferative cells of D. melanogaster.

  14. Characterization and quantification of anthocyanins in selected artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) cultivars by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn.

    Schütz, Katrin; Persike, Markus; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas

    2006-04-01

    The anthocyanin pattern of artichoke heads (Cynara scolymus L.) has been investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. For this purpose a suitable extraction and liquid chromatographic method was developed. Besides the main anthocyanins-cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-malonyldiglucoside, cyanidin 3-(3''-malonyl)glucoside, and cyanidin 3-(6''-malonyl)glucoside-several minor compounds were identified. Among these, two peonidin derivatives and one delphinidin derivative were characterized on the basis of their fragmentation patterns. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on anthocyanins in artichoke heads consisting of aglycones other than those of cyanidin. Quantification of individual compounds was performed by external calibration. Cyanidin 3-(6''-malonyl)glucoside was found to be the major anthocyanin in all the samples analyzed. Total anthocyanin content ranged from 8.4 to 1,705.4 mg kg(-1) dry mass.

  15. A novel amperometric biosensor based on artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) tissue homogenate immobilized in gelatin for hydrogen peroxide detection.

    Oztürk, G; Ertaş, F N; Akyilmaz, E; Dinçkaya, E; Tural, H

    2004-01-01

    A biosensor for specific determination of hydrogen peroxide was developed by using homogenized artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) tissue in combination with a dissolved oxygen probe and applied in determination of hydrogen peroxide in milk samples. Artichoke tissue, which has catalase activity, was immobilized with gelatine by means of glutaraldehyde and fixed on a pretreated teflon membrane. The electrode response was maximum when 0.05 M phosphate buffer was used at pH 7.0 and at 30 degrees C. Upon addition of hydrogen peroxide, the electrode gives a linear response in a concentration range of 5.0-50 x 10(-5) M with a response time of 3 min. The method was also applied to the determination of hydrogen peroxide in milk samples.

  16. The effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on respiratory chain system activity in rat liver mitochondria.

    Juzyszyn, Z; Czerny, B; Myśliwiec, Z; Pawlik, A; Droździk, M

    2010-06-01

    The effect of artichoke extract on mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activity in isolated rat liver mitochondria (including reaction kinetics) was studied. The effect of the extract on the activity of isolated cytochrome oxidase was also studied. Extract in the range of 0.68-2.72 microg/ml demonstrated potent and concentration-dependent inhibitory activity. Concentrations > or =5.4 microg/ml entirely inhibited MRC activity. The succinate oxidase system (MRC complexes II-IV) was the most potently inhibited, its activity at an extract concentration of 1.36 microg/ml being reduced by 63.3% compared with the control (p artichoke extracts may rely in part on the effects of their active compounds on the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain system.

  17. Agricultural recycling of biodigested vinasse for lettuce production

    Camila Roberta Javorski Ueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural use of waste products represents an interesting alternative for nutrient cycling. Biodigested vinasse, the final waste product of vinasse biodigestion and biogas production, can be reused for agricultural purposes. The present work sought to quantify the shoot dry mass production of lettuce plants, as well as foliar nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content following the application of biodigested vinasse on soil. Biodigested vinasse was produced from anaerobic vinasse digestion, using anaerobic sludge as a source of microorganisms. The treatments, with four replications in entirely randomized design, consisted of anaerobic sludge from a gelatin factory, vinasse in natura, biodigested vinasse and a control treatment. The experiment was conducted over 45 days using 5 L vases and applying a dose equivalent to 150 m3 ha-1 . Lettuce treated with biodigested vinasse showed higher shoot dry mass production and higher accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in its leaves than that treated with vinasse in natura.

  18. Fate of [14C]-zineb on lettuce plants

    Vonk, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    [1,2- 14 C]-zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (zineb) was prepared and applied in droplets to leaves of lettuce plants. In aqueous suspension zineb decomposes mainly into ethylenethiourea (ETU) and 5,6-dihydro-3H-imidazo[2,1-C]-1,2,4-dithiazole-3-thione (DIDT). Lettuce plants were harvested 0,1,3,7,14 and 21 days after treatment and analysed. A high proportion of radioactivity remained on the surface of the plant and could be washed off. The following identified products were present: unchanged zineb, ETU, DIDT, 2-imidazoline and ethyleneurea. The ETU residue disappeared within 7 days, while 2-imidazoline and ethyleneurea were formed gradually. Radioactivity inside the plant consisted mostly of ethyleneurea: no ETU was present. (author)

  19. Pochonia chlamydosporia promotes the growth of tomato and lettuce plants

    Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia is one of the most studied biological agents used to control plant-parasitic nematodes. This study found that the isolates Pc-3, Pc-10 and Pc-19 of this fungus promote the growth of tomato and lettuce seedlings. The isolate Pc-19 colonized the rhizoplane of tomato seedlings in only 15 days and produced a large quantity of chlamydospores. This isolate was able to use cellulose as a carbon source, in addition to glucose and sucrose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed that hyphae of the P. chlamydosporia isolate Pc-10 penetrated the epidermal cells of the tomato roots. These three P. chlamydosporia isolates promote the growth of tomato and lettuce.

  20. Effect of pressure on the vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce

    Ozturk, Hande Mutlu [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Denizli (Turkey); Ozturk, Harun Kemal [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, 20070 Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    Vacuum cooling is known as a rapid evaporative cooling technique for any porous product which has free water. The aim of this paper is to apply vacuum cooling technique to the cooling of the iceberg lettuce and show the pressure effect on the cooling time and temperature decrease. The results of vacuum cooling are also compared with conventional cooling (cooling in refrigerator) for different temperatures. Vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce at 0.7 kPa is about 13 times faster than conventional cooling of iceberg lettuce at 6 C. It has been also found that it is not possible to decrease the iceberg lettuce temperature below 10 C if vacuum cooling method is used and vacuum pressure is set to 1.5 kPa. (author) [French] Le refroidissement sous vide est connu comme une technique evaporative rapide refroidissant pour n'importe quel produit poreux qui a de l'eau libre. Le but de ce papier est d'appliquer le refroidissement sous vide pour le refroidissement de la laitue et examiner l'effet de la pression sur le temps de refroidissement et la diminution de temperature. Les resultats de refroidissement sous vide sont aussi compares avec le refroidissement conventionnel (refroidissement dans le refrigerateur) pour les differentes temperatures. Le refroidissement a vide de laitue a 0.7 kPa est environ 13 fois plus vite que le refroidissement conventionnel de laitue croquante a 6 C. Il a ete aussi constate qu'il n'est pas possible de diminuer la temperature de laitue ci-dessous 10 C si le refroidissement sous vide est utilise comme methode et la pression a vide est montree a 1.5 kPa. (orig.)

  1. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces

    Maria eBonaldi; Xiaoyulong eChen; Andrea eKunova; Cristina ePizzatti; Marco eSaracchi; Paolo eCortesi

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plas...

  2. EFFECTS OF ARTICHOKE (CYNARA SCOLYMUS L.) EXTRACT ADDITION ON MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PROBIOTIC YOGURT

    Jalal Ehsani; Amir Mohammad Mortazavian; Morteza Khomeiri; Azim Ghasem Nejad

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of addition of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaf extract into yogurt (0 or 0.5%) on biochemical parameters (pH, titrable acidity) and the viability of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12) during fermentation and over 28 days of refrigerated storage (4°C) were investigated. Moreover, the amounts of syneresis, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and sensory attributes of yogurts at the end of fermentation were ...

  3. The content of protein and of amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) of red variety Rote Zonenkugel.

    Cieślik, Ewa; Gębusia, Agnieszka; Florkiewicz, Adam; Mickowska, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is grown primarily for its edible tubers, which were first cultivated by native Americans before the arrival of the Europeans. Unlike most tubers, but in common with other members of the Asteraceae, the tubers store fructans instead of starch. Fructans are non-digestible carbohydrates considered functional food ingredients because they affect body processes in ways that result in better health and in many diseases prevention. However, the Jerusalem artichoke deserves attention not only because of the content of fructans, recent studies also indicate a high protein content, including essential amino acids. The aim of the work was to establish the content of protein and amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) of red variety--Rote Zonenkugel. The content of protein was estimated by Dumas method. The amino acids composition was analysed with ion-change chromatography with postcolumn derivatisation and detection of ninhydryn reaction with automatic amino acids analyser. The assessed liophylisate was characterised by high protein content (6.36%) in comparison to chicory (which is the main industrial source of fructans) and to commonly consumed potatoes. There was shown a few times higher content of essential amino acids (also of methionine) in comparison to chicory and potato. The examined essential amino acids were present in very advantagenous proportions. In Jerusalem artichoke tubers of Rote Zonenkugel variety of the high content of protein was established in comparison to other plant sources. The high content was found of amino acids with special stress on essential amino acids (esp. sulphur ones).

  4. Linking the GLOBE Program With NASA and NSF Large-Scale Experiments

    Filmer, P. E.

    2005-12-01

    NASA and the NSF, the sponsoring Federal agencies for the GLOBE Program, are seeking the participation of science teams who are working at the cutting edge of Earth systems science in large integrated Earth systems science programs. Connecting the GLOBE concept and structure with NASA and NSF's leading Earth systems science programs will give GLOBE schools and students access to top scientists, and expose them to programs that have been designated as scientific priorities. Students, teachers, parents, and their communities will be able to see how scientists of many disciplines work together to learn about the Earth system. The GLOBE solicitation released by the NSF targets partnerships between GLOBE and NSF/NASA-funded integrated Earth systems science programs. This presentation will focus on the goals and requirements of the NSF solicitation. Proponents will be expected to provide ways for the GLOBE community to interact with a group of scientists from their science programs as part of a wider joint Earth systems science educational strategy (the sponsoring agencies', GLOBE's, and the proposing programs'). Teams proposing to this solicitation must demonstrate: - A focus on direct connections with major NSF Geosciences and/or Polar Programs and/or NASA Earth-Sun research programs that are related to Earth systems science; - A demonstrable benefit to GLOBE and to NSF Geosciences and/or Polar Programs or NASA Earth-Sun education goals (providing access to program researchers and data, working with GLOBE in setting up campaigns where possible, using tested GLOBE or non-GLOBE protocols to the greatest extent possible, actively participating in the wider GLOBE community including schools, among other goals); - An international component; - How the existing educational efforts of the large science program will coordinate with GLOBE; - An Earth systems science education focus, rather than a GLOBE protocol-support focus; - A rigorous evaluation and assessment component

  5. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces

    Maria eBonaldi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plasmid harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein marker and resistance to apramycin. The fitness of transformants was compared to the wild-type strains and all of them grew and sporulated at similar rates and retained the production of enzymes and selected secondary metabolites as well as in vitro inhibition of S. sclerotiorum. The tagged ZEA17I strain was selected to study the dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere colonization in non-sterile growth substrate. The transformed strain was able to colonize soil, developing roots and rhizosphere. When the strain was inoculated directly on the growth substrate, significantly more t-ZEA17I was re-isolated both from the rhizosphere and the roots when compared to the amount obtained after seed coating. The re-isolation from the rhizosphere and the inner tissues of surface-sterilized lettuce roots demonstrated that t-ZEA17I is both rhizospheric and endophytic.

  6. Physiological and health quality of commercial lettuce and cabbage seed

    Cleyton Teles Contreiras Paiva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and sanitary seed quality is essential for rapid and uniform crop establishment at field, a factor which contributes to vegetable crop production success. The aim was to evaluate physiological and sanitary quality of lettuce and cabbage seeds coming three lots acquired in trade. Physiological quality was determined by means of germination test and index of speed germination. Health status was assessed through sanity test in Petri dishes containing BDA medium. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications and the averages of each lot compared among themselves by Tukey test (5%. No statistical analyzes were performed to health test and samples were evaluated for presence of microorganisms on the plates. Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with lettuce seeds, and Aspergillus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with cabbage seeds, but this association can not interfere with germination performance at laboratory. Information about germination contained in the package do not always coincide with those examined in situ. Lettuce and cabbage seeds are being marketed carrying pathogens.

  7. Research on lettuce growth technology onboard Chinese Tiangong II Spacelab

    Shen, Yunze; Guo, Shuangsheng; Zhao, Pisheng; Wang, Longji; Wang, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Bian, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    Lettuce was grown in a space vegetable cultivation facility onboard the Tiangong Ⅱ Spacelab during October 18 to November 15, 2016, in order to testify the key cultivating technology in CELSS under spaceflight microgravity condition. Potable water was used for irrigation of rooting substrate and the SRF (slowly released fertilizer) offered mineral nutrition for plant growth. Water content and electric conductivity in rooting substrate were measured based on FDR(frequency domain reflectometry) principle applied first in spaceflight. Lettuce germinated with comparative growth vigor as the ground control, showing that the plants appeared to be not stressed by the spaceflight environment. Under microgravity, lettuce grew taller and showed deeper green color than the ground control. In addition, the phototropism of the on-orbit plants was more remarkable. The nearly 30-d spaceflight test verified the seed fixation technology and water& nutrition management technology, which manifests the feasibility of FDR being used for measuring moisture content and electric conductivity in rooting zone under microgravity. Furthermore, the edibility of the space-grown vegetable was proved, providing theoretical support for astronaut to consume the space vegetable in future manned spaceflight.

  8. Purification, characterization and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from stem lettuce.

    Nie, Chenzhipeng; Zhu, Peilei; Ma, Shuping; Wang, Mingchun; Hu, Youdong

    2018-05-15

    Stem lettuce has a long history of cultivation in China and possesses high nutritional and medicinal value. In our previous studies, extraction optimization, characterization, and bioactivities of stem lettuce polysaccharides (SLP) were investigated. In this study, SLP were further separated into two purified polysaccharides, SLP-1 and SLP-2, by anion exchange chromatography followed by size exclusion chromatography. SLP-1, with a molecular weight of 90 KDa, was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 17.6:41.7:33.9. SLP-2, with a molecular weight of 44 KDa, was mainly composed of mannose, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 11.5:69.5:9.3:8.2. In addition, both purified polysaccharides contain sulphate radicals, have triple helical structures and can promote macrophage proliferation without cytotoxicity. SLP-2 was better able to stimulate phagocytic and nitric oxide production than SLP-1. The results suggest that polysaccharides from stem lettuce could be explored as immunomodulatory agents in the field of pharmaceuticals and functional foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Jatropha press cake as organic fertilizer in lettuce cultivation

    José R. Mantovani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In biodiesel production, vegetable press cake is obtained as waste, and a suitable destination for jatropha press cake would be the use in agriculture as organic fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of jatropha press cake on soil fertility attributes and on lettuce production and accumulation of nutrients in the shoots. The experiment was conducted in pots in a greenhouse, in a randomized block design with eight treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of doses of jatropha press cake equivalent to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0 and 32.0 t ha-1. Portions of 5.5 dm3 of soil received limestone, phosphate fertilizer and the doses of jatropha press cake, and remained incubated for 30 days. After incubation, soil samples were collected, each pot received one lettuce seedling and the experiment was carried out for 45 days. The organic fertilization with jatropha press cake increased the contents of nutrients in the soil, especially K+, but caused increment in soil acidity and electrical conductivity. The use of jatropha press cake as organic fertilizer decreased lettuce production and accumulation of nutrients in the shoots.

  10. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce.

    Carducci, Annalaura; Caponi, Elisa; Ciurli, Adriana; Verani, Marco

    2015-07-17

    Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L) a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated.

  11. Colonization of lettuce rhizosphere and roots by tagged Streptomyces.

    Bonaldi, Maria; Chen, Xiaoyulong; Kunova, Andrea; Pizzatti, Cristina; Saracchi, Marco; Cortesi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strains, strongly inhibiting in vitro the major soil-borne pathogen of horticultural crops, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were transformed with pIJ8641 plasmid harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein marker and resistance to apramycin. The fitness of transformants was compared to the wild-type strains and all of them grew and sporulated at similar rates and retained the production of enzymes and selected secondary metabolites as well as in vitro inhibition of S. sclerotiorum. The tagged ZEA17I strain was selected to study the dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere colonization in non-sterile growth substrate. The transformed strain was able to colonize soil, developing roots, and rhizosphere. When the strain was inoculated directly on the growth substrate, significantly more t-ZEA17I was re-isolated both from the rhizosphere and the roots when compared to the amount obtained after seed coating. The re-isolation from the rhizosphere and the inner tissues of surface-sterilized lettuce roots demonstrated that t-ZEA17I is both rhizospheric and endophytic.

  12. Bioethanol production from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Wang, Yi-Zhou; Zou, Shan-Mei; He, Mei-Lin; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2015-04-01

    It has been found that recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6525 can produce high concentration of ethanol in one-step fermentation from the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers or inulin. However, the utilization rate of raw materials was low and the fermentation process was costly and complicated. Therefore, in this study, after the optimum processing conditions for ethanol production in fed-batch fermentation were determined in flask, the recombinant S. cerevisiae 6525 was first used to produce ethanol from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in 5-L agitating fermentor. After 72 h of fermentation, around 84.3 g/L ethanol was produced in the fermentation liquids, and the conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to ethanol was 0.453, or 88.6 % of the theoretical value of 0.511. This study showed high feasibility of bioethanol industrial production from the Jerusalem artichoke tubers and provided a basis for it in the future.

  13. Analysis of Essential Oil in Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Leaves and Tubers by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Helmi, Zead; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Tsymbalista, Yuliya; Ghazleh, Refat Abo; Shaibah, Hassan; Aboul-Enein, Hassan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate, for the first time, the chemical composition of essential oil of the tubers and leaves of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), a species of sunflower native to eastern North America, growing in Ukraine. A hydrodistillation apparatus was used for the extraction of volatile components and then it was analysed by gas chromatography equipped with a split-splitless injector (split ratio, 1:50) and flame ionization detector (FID). The oil was analyzed under linear temperature programming applied at 4°C/min from 50°C - 340°C. Temperatures of the injector and FID detector were maintained at 280°C and 300°C, respectively. The chemical analysis of the oil was carried out using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), to determine the chemical composition of the volatile fraction. The essential oils content ranged from 0.00019 to 0.03486 and 0.00011 to 0.00205 (g/100g), in leaves and tubers, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative analysis led to the identification of 17 components in both species samples. The major component found in leaves and tubers was (-)-β-bisabolene with 70.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Essential oil profile of Jerusalem artichoke species showed significant differences between leaves and tubers species. Additionally, the leaves of Jerusalem artichoke are a promising source of natural β-bisabolene.

  14. Microbial production of mannitol by Lactobacillus brevis 3-A5 from concentrated extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers.

    Cao, Hailong; Yue, Min; Liu, Gang; Du, Yuguang; Yin, Heng

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, the conversion of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for mannitol production by Lactobacillus brevis 3-A5 was investigated. When the bacterium utilized enzymatic hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke extract as the main substrates in batch fermentation, the significant decrease in mannitol productivity was observed when the initial concentration of reducing sugar increased. Then, a strategy of continuous fed-batch fermentation was adopted for improving mannitol production with enzymatic hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke extract as main substrates. Although the concentration of mannitol could reach 199.86 g/L at the end of the fermentation, the productivity for the overall process of the fermentation was only 1.67 g/L/H. To improve the mannitol productivity with both higher yield and concentration, the simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was studied. In SSF, the mannitol production reached 176.50 g/L in 28 H with a productivity of 6.30 g/L/H and a yield of 0.68 g/g total sugar. Our study provides a cost-effective and eco-friendly method for mannitol production from a cheap biomass. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Enzymatic extraction of pectin from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) by-products using Celluclast®1.5L.

    Sabater, Carlos; Corzo, Nieves; Olano, Agustín; Montilla, Antonia

    2018-06-15

    The aim of this study was to optimise pectin extraction from artichoke by-products with Celluclast ® 1.5L using an experimental design analysed by response-surface methodology (RSM). The variables optimised were artichoke by-product powder concentration (2-7%, X 1 ), enzyme dose (2.2-13.3 U g -1 , X 2 ) and extraction time (6-24 h, X 3 ). The variables studied were galacturonic acid (GalA) (R 2 93.9) and pectic neutral sugars (R 2 92.8) content and pectin yield (R 2 88.6). In the optimum extraction conditions (X 1  = 6.5%; X 2  = 10.1 U g -1 ; X 3  = 27.2 h), pectin yield was 176 mgg -1 dry matter (DM). Considering 27.2 h of treatment as the +α value given by the design, the extraction time was increased up to 48 h obtaining a yield of 221 mg g -1 DM. The enzymatic method optimised allows obtaining artichoke pectin with good yield, high GalA (720 mg g -1 DM) and arabinose (127.6mgg -1 DM) contents and degree of methylation of 19.5%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Signal transduction in artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek] callus and cell suspension cultures under nutritional stress.

    Lattanzio, Vincenzo; Caretto, Sofia; Linsalata, Vito; Colella, Giovanni; Mita, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    Stimulated production of secondary phenolic metabolites and proline was studied by using cell cultures of artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek] submitted to nutritional stress. Artichoke cell cultures accumulated phenolic secondary metabolites in a pattern similar to that seen in artichoke leaves and heads (capitula). This paper shows that both callus and cell suspension cultures under nutritional stress accumulated phenolic compounds and proline, at the same time their biomass production was negatively affected by nutrient deficiency. The results obtained strongly suggest that plant tissues respond to nutrient deprivation by a defensive costly mechanism, which determines the establishment of a mechanism of trade-off between growth and adaptive response. Furthermore, the results of this research suggest that perception of abiotic stress and increased phenolic metabolites are linked by a sequence of biochemical processes that also involves the intracellular free proline and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. The main conclusion of this paper is that, once calli and cell suspension cultures respond to nutrient deficiency, in acclimated cells the establishment of a negative correlation between primary metabolism (growth) and secondary metabolism (defence compounds) is observed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Providing services to trafficking survivors: Understanding practices across the globe.

    Steiner, Jordan J; Kynn, Jamie; Stylianou, Amanda M; Postmus, Judy L

    2018-01-01

    Human trafficking is a global issue, with survivors representing all genders, ages, races, ethnicities, religions, and countries. However, little research exists that identifies effective practices in supporting survivors of human trafficking. The research that does exist is Western-centric. To fill this gap in the literature, the goal of this research was to understand practices used throughout the globe with adult human trafficking survivors. A qualitative approach was utilized. Providers from 26 countries, across six different continents, were interviewed to allow for a comprehensive and multi-faceted understanding of practices in working with survivors. Participants identified utilizing an empowerment-based, survivor, and human life-centered approach to working with survivors, emphasized the importance of engaging in community level interventions, and highlighted the importance of government recognition of human trafficking. Findings provide information from the perspective of advocates on best practices in the field that can be used by agencies to enhance human trafficking programming.

  18. Events at the Globe of Science and Innovation

    2006-01-01

    CERN is organising a series of lectures based on the exhibition À des années lumière... Thursday 7 December, 8.00 p.m. (in French) 'A look at Einstein and physics from the different perspectives of a physicist and an illustrator' John Ellis, CERN physicist, and Fiami, author of the comic book 'The Lives of Einstein' Come and explore physics with a comic book author who will present six vital episodes in the history of knowledge in the company of his hero, Albert Einstein. After this literary voyage of discovery, a CERN physicist will explain the issues facing physics today, more than a century after Einstein's miracle year. There will be a book signing session with Fiami at the end of the talk www.fiami.ch Lecture for the general public By reservation only: + 41 (0)22 767 76 76 Information on future meetings : www.cern.ch/globe

  19. An Optimization Method for Virtual Globe Ocean Surface Dynamic Visualization

    HUANG Wumeng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing visualization method in the virtual globe mainly uses the projection grid to organize the ocean grid. This special grid organization has the defects in reflecting the difference characteristics of different ocean areas. The method of global ocean visualization based on global discrete grid can make up the defect of the projection grid method by matching with the discrete space of the virtual globe, so it is more suitable for the virtual ocean surface simulation application.But the available global discrete grids method has many problems which limiting its application such as the low efficiency of rendering and loading, the need of repairing grid crevices. To this point, we propose an optimization for the global discrete grids method. At first, a GPU-oriented multi-scale grid model of ocean surface which develops on the foundation of global discrete grids was designed to organize and manage the ocean surface grids. Then, in order to achieve the wind-drive wave dynamic rendering, this paper proposes a dynamic wave rendering method based on the multi-scale ocean surface grid model to support real-time wind field updating. At the same time, considering the effect of repairing grid crevices on the system efficiency, this paper presents an efficient method for repairing ocean surface grid crevices based on the characteristics of ocean grid and GPU technology. At last, the feasibility and validity of the method are verified by the comparison experiment. The experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient, stable and fast, and can compensate for the lack of function of the existing methods, so the application range is more extensive.

  20. Internalization of Sapovirus, a Surrogate for Norovirus, in Romaine Lettuce and the Effect of Lettuce Latex on Virus Infectivity

    Esseili, Malak A.; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2012-01-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of food-borne outbreaks, including those that involve lettuce. The culturable porcine sapovirus (SaV) was used as a norovirus surrogate to study the persistence and the potential transfer of the virus from roots to leaves and from outer to inner leaves of lettuce plants. Treatment of lettuce with SaV was done through the roots of young plants, the soil, or the outer leaves of mature plants. Sampling of roots, xylem sap, and inner and outer leaves followed by RNA extraction and SaV-specific real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was performed at 2 h and on postinoculation days (PID) 2, 5, 7, 14, and/or 28. When SaV was inoculated through the roots, viral RNA persisted on the roots and in the leaves until PID 28. When the virus was inoculated through the soil, viral RNA was detected on the roots and in the xylem sap until PID 14; viral RNA was detected in the leaves only until PID 2. No infectious virus was detected inside the leaves for either treatment. When SaV was inoculated through the outer leaves, viral RNA persisted on the leaves until PID 14; however, the virus did not transfer to inner leaves. Infectious viral particles on leaves were detected only at 2 h postinoculation. The milky sap (latex) of leaves, but not the roots' xylem sap, significantly decreased virus infectivity when tested in vitro. Collectively, our results showed the transfer of SaV from roots to leaves through the xylem system and the capacity of the sap of lettuce leaves to decrease virus infectivity in leaves. PMID:22752176

  1. Unfolding Leonardo DA Vinci's Globe (ad 1504) to Reveal its Historical World Map

    Verhoeven, G. J.; Missinne, S. J.

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports in detail on the image-based modelling and unwrapping approach used to create a two-dimensional projected map of an astonishing ostrich egg globe from AD 1504. This miniature egg globe is not only the oldest extant engraved globe, but it is also the oldest post-Columbian globe of the world and the first ever to depict Newfoundland and many other territories. The intention of digitally recording the surface geometry and colour of this unique artefact was to portray the original layout of the world map used by the Florentine Renaissance artist to make this globe. In addition, it was expected to substantiate iconographical details, which are hard to study at its scale of 1:80,000,000. The ostrich egg globe is the prototype of the Lenox Globe kept at the New York Public Library. The latter is very beneficial to examine how the egg globe looked like before being glued together at its equator. On the other hand, unfolding the map engraved in the ostrich egg halves enables a more detailed study of the remarkable details visible on both globes, since the engravings on the quasi-white egg surface are much easier to discern than those of the highly reflective red copper Lenox Globe. Finally, a detailed study of the unwrapped 3D surface is essential to learn more about the world vision of its creator and the incredible efforts that went into making this globe. Thanks to some particular pictographic details as well as the way in which the engravings are applied (by a left-handed person), the globe artist can be identified as Leonardo da Vinci.

  2. UNFOLDING LEONARDO DA VINCI’S GLOBE (AD 1504 TO REVEAL ITS HISTORICAL WORLD MAP

    G. J. Verhoeven

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports in detail on the image-based modelling and unwrapping approach used to create a two-dimensional projected map of an astonishing ostrich egg globe from AD 1504. This miniature egg globe is not only the oldest extant engraved globe, but it is also the oldest post-Columbian globe of the world and the first ever to depict Newfoundland and many other territories. The intention of digitally recording the surface geometry and colour of this unique artefact was to portray the original layout of the world map used by the Florentine Renaissance artist to make this globe. In addition, it was expected to substantiate iconographical details, which are hard to study at its scale of 1:80,000,000. The ostrich egg globe is the prototype of the Lenox Globe kept at the New York Public Library. The latter is very beneficial to examine how the egg globe looked like before being glued together at its equator. On the other hand, unfolding the map engraved in the ostrich egg halves enables a more detailed study of the remarkable details visible on both globes, since the engravings on the quasi-white egg surface are much easier to discern than those of the highly reflective red copper Lenox Globe. Finally, a detailed study of the unwrapped 3D surface is essential to learn more about the world vision of its creator and the incredible efforts that went into making this globe. Thanks to some particular pictographic details as well as the way in which the engravings are applied (by a left-handed person, the globe artist can be identified as Leonardo da Vinci.

  3. Zooming in on the lettuce genome: species relationships in Lactuca s.l., inferred from chromosomal and molecular characters

    Koopman, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Lactuca sativa (cultivated lettuce) is the world's most important leafy salad vegetable. Apart from L. sativa , the genus Lactuca contains ca. 75 wild species, potentially useful to improve, for example, taste, texture, and disease resistance of cultivated lettuce. The wild species L. serriola (Prickly Lettuce), L. saligna (Least Lettuce), and L. virosa (Great...

  4. Extractions of High Quality RNA from the Seeds of Jerusalem Artichoke and Other Plant Species with High Levels of Starch and Lipid.

    Mornkham, Tanupat; Wangsomnuk, Preeya Puangsomlee; Fu, Yong-Bi; Wangsomnuk, Pinich; Jogloy, Sanun; Patanothai, Aran

    2013-04-29

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an important tuber crop. However, Jerusalem artichoke seeds contain high levels of starch and lipid, making the extraction of high-quality RNA extremely difficult and the gene expression analysis challenging. This study was aimed to improve existing methods for extracting total RNA from Jerusalem artichoke dry seeds and to assess the applicability of the improved method in other plant species. Five RNA extraction methods were evaluated on Jerusalem artichoke seeds and two were modified. One modified method with the significant improvement was applied to assay seeds of diverse Jerusalem artichoke accessions, sunflower, rice, maize, peanut and marigold. The effectiveness of the improved method to extract total RNA from seeds was assessed using qPCR analysis of four selected genes. The improved method of Ma and Yang (2011) yielded a maximum RNA solubility and removed most interfering substances. The improved protocol generated 29 to 41 µg RNA/30 mg fresh weight. An A260/A280 ratio of 1.79 to 2.22 showed their RNA purity. Extracted RNA was effective for downstream applications such as first-stranded cDNA synthesis, cDNA cloning and qPCR. The improved method was also effective to extract total RNA from seeds of sunflower, rice, maize and peanut that are rich in polyphenols, lipids and polysaccharides.

  5. Extractions of High Quality RNA from the Seeds of Jerusalem Artichoke and Other Plant Species with High Levels of Starch and Lipid

    Tanupat Mornkham

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is an important tuber crop. However, Jerusalem artichoke seeds contain high levels of starch and lipid, making the extraction of high-quality RNA extremely difficult and the gene expression analysis challenging. This study was aimed to improve existing methods for extracting total RNA from Jerusalem artichoke dry seeds and to assess the applicability of the improved method in other plant species. Five RNA extraction methods were evaluated on Jerusalem artichoke seeds and two were modified. One modified method with the significant improvement was applied to assay seeds of diverse Jerusalem artichoke accessions, sunflower, rice, maize, peanut and marigold. The effectiveness of the improved method to extract total RNA from seeds was assessed using qPCR analysis of four selected genes. The improved method of Ma and Yang (2011 yielded a maximum RNA solubility and removed most interfering substances. The improved protocol generated 29 to 41 µg RNA/30 mg fresh weight. An A260/A280 ratio of 1.79 to 2.22 showed their RNA purity. Extracted RNA was effective for downstream applications such as first-stranded cDNA synthesis, cDNA cloning and qPCR. The improved method was also effective to extract total RNA from seeds of sunflower, rice, maize and peanut that are rich in polyphenols, lipids and polysaccharides.

  6. 76 FR 81468 - Notice of Decision to Authorize the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the...

    2011-12-28

    ...] Notice of Decision to Authorize the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the Continental... fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made... introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh shredded lettuce from...

  7. 76 FR 50992 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt

    2011-08-17

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt AGENCY... into the continental United States of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. Based on this analysis, we... fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for...

  8. Optimal control of nitrate in lettuce by a hybrid approach: differential evolution and adjustable control weight gradient algorithms

    Lopez Cruz, I.L.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Straten, van G.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Since high concentration levels of nitrate in lettuce and other leafy vegetables are undesirable, cultivation of lettuce according to specified governmental regulations is currently an important issue. Therefore, methods are sought in order to produce a lettuce crop that allow maximization

  9. Production system and harvesting stage influence on nitrate content and quality of butterhead lettuce

    Siti Fairuz Yosoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables such as lettuce grown under different production systems may accumulate different concentrations of nitrate which may reach to the levels potentially toxic to humans. Moreover, nitrate accumulation varies in various plant parts and physiological age of the plant. Therefore, to determine the effect of production system and harvesting stage on nitrate accumulation and quality of butterhead lettuce, a study was conducted considering two lettuce production systems namely hydroponic and organic, and four different harvesting stages such as 35, 38, 41 and 44 days after transplanting (DAT. The experimental design was complete randomized design (CRD with four replications. Hydroponic and organic systems performed similar in terms of yield, quality and nitrate content of butterhead lettuce. Delaying harvesting can not only increase yield but also can minimize nitrate accumulation and health hazard risk as well. Delay in harvesting stage may result in quality deterioration of lettuce and increased production cost. Thus, a compromise is necessary to consider 41 DAT as the optimum stage to harvest butterhead lettuce with significantly higher reduction of nitrate content in both outer adult leaf blades and young leaves of hydroponic lettuce. Fresh weight, firmness and color of butterhead lettuce at this stage were still acceptable.

  10. Exploring the Limits of Crop Productivity: High Light Studies with Lettuce

    USU Crop Physiology Lab

    2015-01-01

    There are many different leaf lettuce cultivars and they range in color from light green and yellow to deep green as a result of higher concentrations of chlorophyll in the leaves. We tested four cultivars in high light to explore the limits of lettuce productivity.

  11. Nondestructive phenotyping of lettuce plants in early stages of development with optical sensors

    Rapid development of plants is important for the production of ‘baby-leaf’ lettuce that is harvested when plants reach the four- to eight-leaf stage of growth. However, environmental factors, such as high or low temperature, or elevated concentrations of salt, inhibit lettuce growth. Therefore, nond...

  12. A detailed linkage map of lettuce based on SSAP, AFLP and NBS markers

    Syed, H.; Sorensen, A.P.; Antonise, R.; van de Wiel, C.; van der Linden, C.G.; van 't Westende, W.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; den Nijs, J.C.M.; Flavell, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Molecular markers based upon a novel lettuce LTR retrotransposon and the nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) family of disease resistance-associated genes have been combined with AFLP markers to generate a 458 locus genetic linkage map for lettuce. A total of 187

  13. Fluorescence hyperspectral imaging technique for the foreign substance detection on fresh-cut lettuce

    Nondestructive methods based on fluorescence hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques were developed in order to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. The optimal wavebands for detecting worms on fresh-cut lettuce were investigated using the one-way ANOVA analysis and correlation analysis. The worm detec...

  14. Accuracy, reliability, and timing of visual evaluations of decay in fresh-cut lettuce

    Visual assessments are used for evaluating the quality of food products, such as fresh-cut lettuce packaged in bags with modified atmosphere. We have compared the accuracy and the reliability of visual evaluations of decay on fresh-cut lettuce performed with experienced and inexperienced raters. In ...

  15. Dissipation and Residues of Pyrethrins in Leaf Lettuce under Greenhouse and Open Field Conditions.

    Pan, Lixiang; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Hongyan

    2017-07-21

    Pyrethrins are nowadays widely used for prevention and control of insects in leaf lettuce. However, there is a concern about the pesticide residue in leaf lettuce. A reliable analytical method for determination of pyrethrins (pyrethrin-and П, cinerin І and П, and jasmolin І and П) in leaf lettuce was developed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of pyrethrins in leaf lettuce at three spiking levels were 99.4-104.0% with relative standard deviations of 0.9-3.1% ( n = 5). Evaluation of dissipation and final residues of pyrethrins in leaf lettuce were determined at six different locations, including the open field, as well as under greenhouse conditions. The initial concentration of pyrethrins in greenhouse (0.57 mg/kg) was higher than in open field (0.25 mg/kg) and the half-life for pyrethrins disappearance in field lettuce (0.7 days) was less than that greenhouse lettuce (1.1 days). Factors such as rainfall, solar radiation, wind speed, and crop growth rate are likely to have caused these results. The final residue in leaf lettuce was far below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) (1 mg/kg established by the European Union (EU), Australia, Korea, Japan).

  16. Genetics of the partial resistance against race 2 of Verticillium dahliae in lettuce

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production on the Coastal California is threatened by Verticillium wilt, a soil borne fungal disease caused by Verticillium dahliae that diminishes yield and quality. Two races of V. dahliae were identified on lettuce, race 1 and race 2. Complete resistance to race 1 is c...

  17. On-line fresh-cut lettuce quality measurement system using hyperspectral imaging

    Lettuce, which is a main type of fresh-cut vegetable, has been used in various fresh-cut products. In this study, an online quality measurement system for detecting foreign substances on the fresh-cut lettuce was developed using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The online detection system with a s...

  18. Screening of lettuce germplasm for agronomic traits under low water conditions

    After a preliminary screening of over 3,500 varieties, we selected 200 cultivars of butterhead, cos, crisphead, leaf, and stem lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) to test under high water (150% ET) and low water (50% ET) conditions in the field, and tracked com...

  19. Genetic dissection of nonhost resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to downy mildew

    Zhang, N.

    2008-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew is the most destructive disease in lettuce (Lactuca spp.) cultivation and is caused by Bremia lactucae. The successful cross between its host L. sativa and the nonhost, L. saligna, and offers a rare chance to study the genetics of the nonhost resistance. From a set of 29

  20. Incorporation of temperature and solar radiation thresholds to modify a lettuce downy mildew warning system

    Wu, B.M.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Subbarao, K.V.; Scherm, H.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of temperature on infection of lettuce by Bremia lactucae was investigated in controlled environment studies and in the field. In controlled conditions, lettuce seedlings inoculated with B. lactucae were incubated at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C during a 4-h wet period immediately after

  1. Antioxidant capacity and contents of phenols, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene in lettuce

    Zdravković Jasmina M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of three lettuce varieties (Lactuca sativa L. Emerald, Vera and Neva, cultivated in two kinds of protected spaces, a glasshouse and a plastic greenhouse, under controlled conditions, was determined. The content of antioxidant compounds: total phenols, flavonoids, L-ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and lycopene, were determined in ethanolic extracts of the lettuce with spectrophotometric methods. The largest content of total phenols (78.98 ± 0.67 mg GAE/g of dry extract was found in ethanolic extract of the lettuce variety Neva cultivated in a plastic greenhouse, whereas the largest content of flavonoids (35.45 ± 0.95 mg RU/g of dry extract was displayed in the lettuce Emerald cultivated in a glasshouse. It was observed that the lettuce cultivated in the glasshouse contained a somewhat higher content of L-ascorbic acid than the lettuce same variety from plastic greenhouse. The content of lycopene in the examined lettuce is negligible, and the content of ß-carotene is low. On the other hand, the high content of phenolic components causes favourable antioxidant properties found in all varieties of examined lettuce. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31059: A new concept in breeding vegetable cultivars and hybrids designed for sustainable growing systems using biotechnological methods

  2. Reducing microbial contamination on wastewater-irrigated lettuce by cessation of irrigation before harvesting

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, Pay

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of cessation of irrigation before harvesting in reducing microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with wastewater in urban vegetable farming in Ghana. METHODS: Assessment was done under actual field conditions with urban vegetable farmers in Ghana. Trials...... were arranged in completely randomized block design and done both in the dry and wet seasons. Seven hundred and twenty-six lettuce samples and 36 water samples were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: On average, 0.65 log units for indicator thermotolerant coliforms and 0.......4 helminth eggs per 100 g of lettuce were removed on each non-irrigated day from lettuce in the dry season. This corresponded to a daily loss of 1.4 tonnes/ha of fresh weight of lettuce. As an input for exposure analysis to make risk estimates, the decay coefficient, k, for thermotolerant coliforms was 0...

  3. Transfer and expression of the rabbit defensin NP-1 gene in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Song, D; Xiong, X; Tu, W F; Yao, W; Liang, H W; Chen, F J; He, Z Q

    2017-01-23

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae, with high food and medicinal value. However, the crop is susceptible to several viruses that are transmitted by aphids and is highly vulnerable to post-harvest diseases, as well as insect and mammal pests and fungal and bacterial diseases. Here, the rabbit defensin gene NP-1 was transferred into lettuce by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to obtain a broad-spectrum disease-resistant lettuce. Transgenic lettuce plants were selected and regenerated on selective media. The presence of the NP-1 gene in these plants was confirmed by western blot analyses. Resistance tests revealed native defensin NP-1 expression conferred partial resistance to Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which suggests new possibilities for lettuce disease resistance.

  4. HPLC ANALYSIS FOR DETERMINATION OF CHARACTERISTICS OF FRUCTO-OLIGOSACCHARIDE SYRUPS EXTRACTED FROM JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE

    Sibel (YİĞİTARSLAN YILDIZ

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study was aimed to assess the feasibility of extracting fructo-oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization of 3-6 from jerusalem artichoke tubers by solvent extraction. Together with harvest date, storage time, and peeling of the raw material it was also investigated the influence of some process parameters on final dry matter, degree of polymerization and product profile of the extracts: time (10-60 min, temperature (40-80 °C, amount of solvent (30-50 ml and citric acid concentration (0-39 mmol/L. HPLC analysis showed that the most functional extracts (2.33 were obtained with mid-February harvested, 20 day-stored whole jerusalem artichoke tubers extracted with 40 ml of water containing 26 mmol/L citric acid at 60 °C for 40 min. Under those conditions, syrups with 17g of dry matter and degree of polymerization of 6 were produced. The density, viscosity, darkness and color of the syrups were found as 0.98 g/ml, 1.1 mPa-s, 0.38, and 13.3, respectively. Keywords: Fructo-oligosaccharides, HPLC, inulin, extraction, jerusalem artichoke YER ELMASINDAN ÖZÜTLENEN FRÜKTO-OLİGOSAKKARİT ŞURUPLARININ KARAKTERİSTİK ÖZELLİKLERİNİN HPLC ANALİZİ İLE BELİRLENMESİ Özet: Bu çalışmada, yer elmasından, çözücü özütleme yöntemiyle frükto-oligosakkaritlerin (polimerizasyon derecesi 3-6 özütlenebilirliğinin fizibilitesinin tayini amaçlanmıştır. Hasat zamanı, depolama süresi ve ham maddenin soyulmasının etkilerinin yanı sıra diğer bazı proses parametrelerinin (zaman (10-60 dak, sıcaklık (40-80°C, çözücü miktarı (30-50 ml ve sitrik asit derişimi (0-39 mmol/L de sonuçtaki kuru madde, polimerizasyon derecesi ve özütteki ürün profili üzerindeki etkileri incelenmiştir. HPLC analizleri, en fonksiyonel özütün (2,33 Şubat ayı ortalarında hasat edilmiş, 20 gün depolanmış, soyulmamış yer elması yumrularının, 26 mmol/L sitrik asit içeren 40 ml suyla, 60 °C'de 40 dakika süreyle

  5. Germinação in vitro de sementes de alcachofra In vitro artichoke seed germination

    Cassieli F de Moraes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A baixa taxa de multiplicação e alta de contaminação dos explantes são algumas das dificuldades na micropropagação da alcachofra. A germinação de sementes in vitro pode ser uma alternativa de obtenção de explantes sadios para estabelecimento de futuros cultivos in vitro. O trabalho desenvolvido no Laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da UPF-FAMV teve por objetivo avaliar a germinação in vitro de sementes de alcachofra cv. Nobre, em três experimentos, testando concentrações de cloro ativo na assepsia das sementes; tratamentos do tegumento (mantido intacto, com cortes laterais ou eliminação; condições de luminosidade (claro ou escuro; e dois meios de cultura [meio MS, com concentração de sais reduzida à metade (M1 e meio MS completo(M2]. Em ambos foram adicionados 30 g L-1 de sacarose e 7 g L-1 de ágar, sendo o pH ajustado para 5,6 ± 0,1 com NaOH. Os cultivos foram realizados em câmara de crescimento. A obtenção de plântulas sadias de alcachofra em curto espaço de tempo (sete dias, para utilização como fonte de explantes é viável a partir da germinação in vitro de sementes sem o tegumento (77,5% de germinação, utilizando os meios de cultura M1 ou M2 e câmara de crescimento desprovida de luz. Nestas condições, a assepsia das sementes pode ser realizada com álcool 70% por 30 min e posterior imersão em solução contendo 2% de cloro ativo por dez minutos, antes da remoção do tegumento.Low multiplication rates and high contamination in the explants are some of the difficulties in artichoke micropropagation. In vitro seed germination may be an alternative to obtain healthy explants for use in future in vitro cultivation. This project developed at the laboratory of Universidade de Passo Fundo was established to evaluate cv. 'Nobre' artichoke seeds in vitro germination. In three experiments, active chloride concentrations on seed aseptic technique; tegument treatment (kept intact, with side cuts and

  6. Association analysis of bacterial leaf spot resistance and SNP markers derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Bacterial leaf spot of lettuce, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians, is a devastating disease of lettuce worldwide. Since there are no chemicals available for effective control of the disease, host-plant resistance is highly desirable to protect lettuce production. A total of 179 lettuce ge...

  7. Polyphenol oxidase activity from three sicilian artichoke [ Cynara cardunculus L. Var. scolymus L. (Fiori)] cultivars: studies and technological application on minimally processed production.

    Todaro, Aldo; Peluso, Orazio; Catalano, Anna Eghle; Mauromicale, Giovanni; Spagna, Giovanni

    2010-02-10

    Several papers helped with the development of more methods to control browning, or study thermal polyphenol oxidase (PPO) inactivation, but did not provide any solutions to technological process problems and food process improvement. Artichokes [ Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus L. (Fiori)] are susceptible to browning; this alteration could affect and reduce the suitability for its use, fresh or processed. Within this study, the catecholase and cresolase activities of PPO from three different Sicilian artichokes cultivar were characterized with regard to substrate specificity and enzyme kinetics, optimum pH and temperature, temperature and pH stability, and inhibitor test; all of the results were used for technological purposes, particularly to optimize minimally processed productions (ready-to-eat and cook-chilled artichokes).

  8. Identification and quantification of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) heads, juice, and pomace by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n).

    Schütz, Katrin; Kammerer, Dietmar; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas

    2004-06-30

    A method for the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) heads, juice, and pomace by HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detection was developed. Among the 22 major compounds, 11 caffeoylquinic acids and 8 flavonoids were detected. Quantification of individual compounds was carried out by external calibration. Apigenin 7-O-glucuronide was found to be the major flavonoid in all samples investigated. 1,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic acid represented the major hydroxycinnamic acid, with 3890 mg/kg in artichoke heads and 3269 mg/kg in the pomace, whereas in the juice 1,3-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (cynarin) was predominant, due to the isomerization during processing. Total phenolic contents of approximately 12 g/kg on a dry matter basis revealed that artichoke pomace is a promising source of phenolic compounds that might be recovered and used as natural antioxidants or functional food ingredients.

  9. A 3D Planetary Neocartographic Tool in Education: A Game on Virtual Moon and Mars Globes

    Hargitai, H.; Simonné-Dombóvári, E.; Gede, M.

    2012-03-01

    The paper describes the educational use of online virtual globes of Mars and the Moon. The game uses topographic globes of Mars (MOLA) and the Moon (LRO DTM) that includes IAU nomenclature + informal names. Students have to position the points described.

  10. GLOBE-al Impact through Diversity Bootcamps and Student Research Symposia

    Bourgeault, J.; Murphy, T.; Johnson, J.; Sparrow, E. B.; Czajkowski, K. P.; Herron, S.; Falcon, P.

    2016-12-01

    Inclusion, diversity, underrepresented groups, underserved populations...the key words and phrases that represent the students, we, as science education professionals, want to reach and encourage to enter the geoscience pipeline. Wanting to do this is one thing and having the skills to succeed is very different. It is also one that the GLOBE Program, an international science and education program, is working on as a community. GLOBE encourages students from around the world to participate in authentic scientific research of the Earth system. Students use scientific protocols to explore their local environments, compare their findings with other GLOBE schools both in the U.S. and in other participating countries, and then share their findings via the GLOBE.gov website. In the last year, two initiatives, six face-to-face Student Research Symposia and two diversity-focused GLOBE Partner Bootcamps, set the GLOBE community of Partners, teachers and students on the path to being able to address this challenge. This presentation will include the framework for the student research symposia, the barriers the leadership team faced when recruiting and getting students there and the lessons learned. Agendas for the GLOBE Partner Bootcamps will be shared to demonstrate how facilitators supplemented a standard GLOBE Partner workshop to model a more inclusive environment, along with future improvements to the format.

  11. A Review of Global Learning & Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)

    2010-04-01

    review (Yoder et al., 2008) of the GPO performance, NASA continued the cooperative agreement with UCAR. Another external review ( Bybee et al., 2008) of...Submitted by the Program Office External Review Committee. Bybee , Rodger W. (Chair), 2008. NASA External Review of a GLOBE Proposal, The Globe

  12. Microbial Profile of Soil-Free versus In-Soil Grown Lettuce and Intervention Methodologies to Combat Pathogen Surrogates and Spoilage Microorganisms on Lettuce

    Sujata A. Sirsat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics is an effective method to practice sustainable agriculture and is gaining popularity in the US; however, the microbial safety of aquaponically grown produce needs to be ascertained. Aquaponics is a unique marriage of fish production and soil-free produce (e.g., leafy greens production. Fish are raised in fresh water tanks that are connected to water filled beds where fruits and vegetables are grown. The fish bi-products create nutrient-rich water that provides the key elements for the growth of plants and vegetables. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the microbial safety and quality of aquaponic lettuce and soil grown lettuce (conventional, bagged, certified organic, and field lettuce. Following this, an intervention study was performed to combat foodborne pathogen surrogates (Salmonella and E. coli, spoilage, and fecal microorganisms using 2.5% acetic acid. The results of the comparative analysis study showed that aquaponically grown lettuce had significantly lower concentration of spoilage and fecal microorganisms compared to in-soil grown lettuce. The intervention study showed that diluted vinegar (2.5% acetic acid significantly reduced Salmonella, E. coli, coliforms, and spoilage microorganisms on fresh lettuce by 2 to 3 log CFU/g. Irrespective of growing methods (in-soil or soilless, it is crucial to incorporate good agricultural practices to reduce microbial contamination on fresh produce. The intervention employed in this study can be proposed to small farmers and consumers to improve quality and safety of leafy greens.

  13. Microbial Profile of Soil-Free versus In-Soil Grown Lettuce and Intervention Methodologies to Combat Pathogen Surrogates and Spoilage Microorganisms on Lettuce.

    Sirsat, Sujata A; Neal, Jack A

    2013-11-11

    Aquaponics is an effective method to practice sustainable agriculture and is gaining popularity in the US; however, the microbial safety of aquaponically grown produce needs to be ascertained. Aquaponics is a unique marriage of fish production and soil-free produce (e.g., leafy greens) production. Fish are raised in fresh water tanks that are connected to water filled beds where fruits and vegetables are grown. The fish bi-products create nutrient-rich water that provides the key elements for the growth of plants and vegetables. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the microbial safety and quality of aquaponic lettuce and soil grown lettuce (conventional, bagged, certified organic, and field lettuce). Following this, an intervention study was performed to combat foodborne pathogen surrogates ( Salmonella and E. coli ), spoilage, and fecal microorganisms using 2.5% acetic acid. The results of the comparative analysis study showed that aquaponically grown lettuce had significantly lower concentration of spoilage and fecal microorganisms compared to in-soil grown lettuce. The intervention study showed that diluted vinegar (2.5% acetic acid) significantly reduced Salmonella , E. coli , coliforms, and spoilage microorganisms on fresh lettuce by 2 to 3 log CFU/g. Irrespective of growing methods (in-soil or soilless), it is crucial to incorporate good agricultural practices to reduce microbial contamination on fresh produce. The intervention employed in this study can be proposed to small farmers and consumers to improve quality and safety of leafy greens.

  14. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce

    Annalaura Carducci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated.

  15. Gender-Role Portrayals in Television Advertising Across the Globe.

    Matthes, Jörg; Prieler, Michael; Adam, Karoline

    Although there are numerous studies on gender-role portrayals in television advertising, comparative designs are clearly lacking. With content analytical data from a total of 13 Asian, American, and European countries, we study the stereotypical depiction of men and women in television advertisements. Our sample consists of 1755 ads collected in May 2014. Analyzing the gender of the primary character and voiceover, as well as the age, associated product categories, home- or work setting, and the working role of the primary character, we concluded that gender stereotypes in TV advertising can be found around the world. A multilevel model further showed that gender stereotypes were independent of a country's gender indices, including Hofstede's Masculinity Index, GLOBE's Gender Egalitarianism Index, the Gender-related Development Index, the Gender Inequality Index, and the Global Gender Gap Index. These findings suggest that gender stereotyping in television advertising does not depend on the gender equality prevalent in a country. The role of a specific culture in shaping gender stereotypes in television advertising is thus smaller than commonly thought.

  16. Do Interactive Globes and Games Help Students Learn Planetary Science?

    Coba, Filis; Burgin, Stephen; De Paor, Declan; Georgen, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The popularity of animations and interactive visualizations in undergraduate science education might lead one to assume that these teaching aids enhance student learning. We tested this assumption for the case of the Google Earth virtual globe with a comparison of control and treatment student groups in a general education class of over 370 students at a large public university. Earth and Planetary Science course content was developed in two formats: using Keyhole Markup Language (KML) to create interactive tours in Google Earth (the treatment group) and Portable Document Format (PDF) for on-screen reading (the control group). The PDF documents contained identical text and images to the placemark balloons or "tour stops" in the Google Earth version. Some significant differences were noted between the two groups based on the immediate post-questionnaire with the KML students out-performing the PDF students, but not on the delayed measure. In a separate but related project, we undertake preliminary investigations into methods of teaching basic concepts in planetary mantle convection using numerical simulations. The goal of this project is to develop an interface with a two-dimensional finite element model that will allow students to vary parameters such as the temperatures assigned to the boundaries of the model domain, to help them actively explore important variables that control convection.

  17. Globe Event | Lecture by Cédric Villani | 21 May

    Globe Info

    2013-01-01

    La naissance des idées - réflexions sur la nature et l’histoire de la mathématique et de la physique, by Cédric Villani.   Globe de la science et de l'innovation Route de Meyrin, 1211 Genève Tuesday 21 May 2013 at 6:00 p.m. The lecture will be in French - Interpreting available in English   Cédric Villani. In this lecture, Cédric Villani will explain what he considers to be the necessary “ingredients” for the birth of new ideas. Clearly a good brain is an essential factor, but that alone is not enough. The researcher must also have access to a wealth of literature, which is now greatly facilitated by the Internet. Motivation is another key component, although we do not really understand what incites it. Intellectual environment and constraints also drive creativity, as do perseverance and chance. An interesting idea has little chance of making a breakthrough w...

  18. NASA WEBWORLDWIND: MULTIDIMENSIONAL VIRTUAL GLOBE FOR GEO BIG DATA VISUALIZATION

    M. A. Brovelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we presented a web application created using the NASA WebWorldWind framework. The application is capable of visualizing n-dimensional data using a Voxel model. In this case study, we handled social media data and Call Detailed Records (CDR of telecommunication networks. These were retrieved from the "BigData Challenge 2015" of Telecom Italia. We focused on the visualization process for a suitable way to show this geo-data in a 3D environment, incorporating more than three dimensions. This engenders an interactive way to browse the data in their real context and understand them quickly. Users will be able to handle several varieties of data, import their dataset using a particular data structure, and then mash them up in the WebWorldWind virtual globe. A broad range of public use this tool for diverse purposes is possible, without much experience in the field, thanks to the intuitive user-interface of this web app.

  19. NASA Webworldwind: Multidimensional Virtual Globe for Geo Big Data Visualization

    Brovelli, M. A.; Hogan, P.; Prestifilippo, G.; Zamboni, G.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we presented a web application created using the NASA WebWorldWind framework. The application is capable of visualizing n-dimensional data using a Voxel model. In this case study, we handled social media data and Call Detailed Records (CDR) of telecommunication networks. These were retrieved from the "BigData Challenge 2015" of Telecom Italia. We focused on the visualization process for a suitable way to show this geo-data in a 3D environment, incorporating more than three dimensions. This engenders an interactive way to browse the data in their real context and understand them quickly. Users will be able to handle several varieties of data, import their dataset using a particular data structure, and then mash them up in the WebWorldWind virtual globe. A broad range of public use this tool for diverse purposes is possible, without much experience in the field, thanks to the intuitive user-interface of this web app.

  20. Collaterals 2016: Translating the collaterome around the globe.

    Liebeskind, David S; Woolf, Graham W; Shuaib, Ashfaq

    2017-06-01

    Collaterals 2016 (third International Symposium on Collaterals to the Brain) was a multidisciplinary scientific conference focused on collateral circulation in acute ischemic stroke. Decisive challenges include generalizability of optimal triage and selection paradigms based on collateral status for definitive treatment of acute ischemic stroke, rapid dissemination of expert methods, and the urgent need to leverage networking opportunities for stroke science related to the hemodynamics of collaterals. The collaterome, or individual capacity to offset ischemia in the brain, and determination of a favorable collateral profile have become pivotal factors in consideration of the precision medicine of stroke decision-making. The conference convened over 50 invited faculty from around the world to connect on-site participants at a state-of-the-art facility with remote audiences in more than 22 countries and regions. The 2½-day program was structured into 40-min sessions devoted to key issues in translating the collaterome in acute stroke therapy across the globe. This unique forum of expertise emphasized the timely impact of collaterals on a monumental scale, encouraging maximal participation, rapid diffusion and added value of a diverse networking resource. The meeting format established a model geographical framework and innovative videoconferencing platform for future scientific conferences.

  1. Ash from huge Australian bushfires in 2009 circled the globe

    Kumar, Mohi

    2011-06-01

    On 7 February 2009, record high temperatures, low rainfall and humidity, and fast blowing winds caused sparks in the bush near the Australian city of Melbourne to ignite much of the southeastern region of the state of Victoria. In just a few days, more than 4500 square kilometers had burned and 173 people had died in what has been called the worst natural disaster in Australian history. The fires released so much smoke that daytime on 7 February was plunged into darkness in Melbourne. Indeed, soot particles and other aerosols are known to scatter and absorb solar radiation. However, airborne particles released by fires are typically thought to remain in the atmosphere close to their sources. In fact, climate models pay little attention to the scattering and absorbing effects of fire-borne aerosols because they are not believed to reach altitudes above 10 kilometers, in the stratosphere, where circulation patterns would distribute a plume of pollution around the globe, possibly leading to global cooling effects. Ash from volcanic plumes has long been considered the sole method by which aerosols and gases could be injected into the stratosphere from the Earth's surface. However, Australia's bushfires of 2009 showed otherwise. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2010JD015162, 2011)

  2. Thursday Programme of CineGlobe Festival 2015

    Cugini, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The CineGlobe Programme on Thursday 26th March 2015 counted with two short-films inspired by science sessions, two workshops on the 360 degree dome, and a special evening show in collaboration with the Mapping Festival, to celebrate the UNESCO Year of Light. The evening open with Diego Blas, CERN theorist, talking about Light, Einstein and the LHC to celebrate the UNESCO International Year of Light. Followed by a performance by the artist YRO_EILE_18. The artist Yro presents Eile, a live installation performance where light, sound, and cinema converge to tell a timeless story. EILE is a live cinema performance, in which yro makes live sound and images with a camera, some microphones and small objects like stones, balls, bits of paper and string.These materials allow him to create videos and sound, which aesthetics are close to abstract cinema and object theater assembled, sampled and grinded . The process is part of the staging itself as well as the film that results. Indescribable Eile is lived as an experie...

  3. GLOBE Observer Mosquito Habitat Mapper: Geoscience and Public Health Connections

    Low, R.; Boger, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The global health crisis posed by vector-borne diseases is so great in scope that it is clearly insurmountable without the active help of tens-or hundreds- of thousands of individuals, working to identify and eradicate risk in communities around the world. Mobile devices equipped with data collection capabilities and visualization opportunities are lowering the barrier for participation in data collection efforts. The GLOBE Observer Mosquito Habitat Mapper (MHM) provides citizen scientists with an easy to use mobile platform to identify and locate mosquito breeding sites in their community. The app also supports the identification of vector taxa in the larvae development phase via a built-in key, which provides important information for scientists and public health officials tracking the rate of range expansion of invasive vector species and associated health threats. GO Mosquito is actively working with other citizen scientist programs across the world to ensure interoperability of data through standardization of metadata fields specific to vector monitoring, and through the development of APIs that allow for data exchange and shared data display through a UN-sponsored proof of concept project, Global Mosquito Alert. Avenues of application for mosquito vector data-both directly, by public health entities, and by modelers who employ remotely sensed environmental data to project mosquito population dynamics and epidemic disease will be featured.

  4. Luminosity declines in the Globe as it increases at the LHC

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    A few weeks ago, the skylight at the top of the Globe was fitted with "smart glass". The new glazing will allow the intensity of the light in the auditorium to be adjusted, thus solving the problem of sunlight reflecting on the giant screen during the day.   The Globe skylight while "off": the smart glass remains opaque. Inaugurated in 2004, the Globe of Science and Innovation has become one of the Organization's key landmarks. Housing the permanent exhibition "The Universe of Particles" (which recently received a silver design award, as reported in the last issue of the Bulletin) and a multimedia auditorium, the Globe hosts many events every year. "The Globe has rapidly become an important communication tool for CERN," enthuses Bernard Pellequer, who is in charge of event planning for the venue. "This is particularly true for the first floor, which is equipped with a giant screen. Unfortunately, we soon...

  5. Eye globe abnormalities on MR and CT in adults: An anatomical approach

    Hallinan, James Thomas Patrick Decourcy; Pillay, Premilla; Koh, Lilian Hui; Goh, Kong Yong; Yu, Wai Yung

    2016-01-01

    Eye globe abnormalities can be readily detected on dedicated and non-dedicated CT and MR studies. A primary understanding of the globe anatomy is key to characterising both traumatic and non-traumatic globe abnormalities. The globe consists of three primary layers: the sclera (outer), uvea (middle), and retina (inner layer). The various pathological processes involving these layers are highlighted using case examples with fundoscopic correlation where appropriate. In the emergent setting, trauma can result in hemorrhage, retinal/choroidal detachment and globe rupture. Neoplasms and inflammatory/infective processes predominantly occur in the vascular middle layer. The radiologist has an important role in primary diagnosis contributing to appropriate ophthalmology referral, thereby preventing devastating consequences such as vision loss

  6. Eye globe abnormalities on MR and CT in adults: An anatomical approach

    Hallinan, James Thomas Patrick Decourcy; Pillay, Premilla [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Health System, Singapore (Singapore); Koh, Lilian Hui [National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Level 1, TTSH Medical Centre, Singapore (Singapore); Goh, Kong Yong [Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Yu, Wai Yung [Dept. of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-09-15

    Eye globe abnormalities can be readily detected on dedicated and non-dedicated CT and MR studies. A primary understanding of the globe anatomy is key to characterising both traumatic and non-traumatic globe abnormalities. The globe consists of three primary layers: the sclera (outer), uvea (middle), and retina (inner layer). The various pathological processes involving these layers are highlighted using case examples with fundoscopic correlation where appropriate. In the emergent setting, trauma can result in hemorrhage, retinal/choroidal detachment and globe rupture. Neoplasms and inflammatory/infective processes predominantly occur in the vascular middle layer. The radiologist has an important role in primary diagnosis contributing to appropriate ophthalmology referral, thereby preventing devastating consequences such as vision loss.

  7. Eye Globe Abnormalities on MR and CT in Adults: An Anatomical Approach

    Hallinan, James Thomas Patrick Decourcy; Pillay, Premilla [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Health System, Singapore 119074 (Singapore); Koh, Lilian Hui Li [National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Level 1, TTSH Medical Centre, Singapore 308433 (Singapore); Goh, Kong Yong [Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Dr. Goh Eye Neuro-Ophthalmic and Low Vision Specialist, Mount Elizabeth Novena Specialist Centre, Singapore 329563 (Singapore); Yu, Wai-Yung [Department of Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore 308433 (Singapore)

    2016-11-01

    Eye globe abnormalities can be readily detected on dedicated and non-dedicated CT and MR studies. A primary understanding of the globe anatomy is key to characterising both traumatic and non-traumatic globe abnormalities. The globe consists of three primary layers: the sclera (outer), uvea (middle), and retina (inner layer). The various pathological processes involving these layers are highlighted using case examples with fundoscopic correlation where appropriate. In the emergent setting, trauma can result in hemorrhage, retinal/choroidal detachment and globe rupture. Neoplasms and inflammatory/infective processes predominantly occur in the vascular middle layer. The radiologist has an important role in primary diagnosis contributing to appropriate ophthalmology referral, thereby preventing devastating consequences such as vision loss.

  8. Nutrient absorption and response of lettuce to phosphorus fertilization

    Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso; Cristiaini Kano; Roberto Lyra Villas Boas

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of lettuce (cultivar Verônica) to different levels of phosphorus fertilization. The experiment was conducted from 25/09/2003 (sowing) to 03/12/2003 (harvesting) at the Fazenda Experimental São Manuel, UNESP/FCA, Botucatu/SP, under protective structures. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with five treatments (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800kg.ha-1 of P2O5, in the form of triple superphosphate) and five replications. Pla...

  9. Stimulating productivity of hydroponic lettuce in controlled environments with triacontanol

    Knight, S. L.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1987-01-01

    Triacontanol (1-triacontanol) applied as a foliar spray at 10(-7) M to 4-day-old, hydroponically grown leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings in a controlled environment increased leaf fresh and dry weight 13% to 20% and root fresh and dry weight 13% to 24% 6 days after application, relative to plants sprayed with water. When applied at 8 as well as 4 days after seeding, triacontanol increased plant fresh and dry weight, leaf area, and mean relative growth rate 12% to 37%. There was no benefit of repeating application of triacontanol in terms of leaf dry weight gain.

  10. Jerusalem artichoke and chicory inulin in bakery products affect faecal microbiota of healthy volunteers.

    Kleessen, Brigitta; Schwarz, Sandra; Boehm, Anke; Fuhrmann, H; Richter, A; Henle, T; Krueger, Monika

    2007-09-01

    A study was conducted to test the effects of Jerusalem artichoke inulin (JA) or chicory inulin (CH) in snack bars on composition of faecal microbiota, concentration of faecal SCFA, bowel habit and gastrointestinal symptoms. Forty-five volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. At the end of a 7 d run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to three groups of fifteen subjects each, consuming either snack bars with CH or JA, or snack bars without fructans (placebo); for 7 d (adaptation period), they ingested one snack bar per day (7.7 g fructan/d) and continued for 14 d with two snack bars per day. The composition of the microbiota was monitored weekly. The consumption of CH or JA increased counts of bifidobacteria (+1.2 log10 in 21 d) and reduced Bacteroides/Prevotella in number and the Clostridium histolyticum/C. lituseburense group in frequency at the end of intervention (P bakery products stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria and may contribute to the suppression of potential pathogenic bacteria.

  11. Optimization of pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation for more efficient ethanol production by Jerusalem artichoke stalk.

    Li, Kai; Qin, Jin-Cheng; Liu, Chen-Guang; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2016-12-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is a potential energy crop for biorefinery due to its unique agronomic traits such as resistance to environmental stresses and high biomass yield in marginal lands. Although JA tubers have been explored for inulin extraction and biofuels production, there is little concern on its stalk (JAS). In this article, the pretreatment of JAS by alkaline hydrogen peroxide was optimized using the response surface methodology to improve sugars yield and reduce chemicals usage. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to characterize the structures of the pretreated JAS to evaluate the effectiveness of the pretreatment. Furthermore, the feeding of the pretreated JAS and cellulase was performed for high solid uploading (up to 30%) to increase ethanol titer, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with 55.6g/L ethanol produced, 36.5% more than that produced through separate hydrolysis and fermentation, was validated to be more efficient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory ingredients identified from Jerusalem artichoke flowers.

    Wang, Yan-Ming; Zhao, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Jun-Li; Idong, Pema Tsering; Mei, Li-Juan; Tao, Yan-Duo; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2017-11-09

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA, Helianthus tuberosus L.) has been researched extensively due to its wide range of uses, but there are limited studies on its flowers. In this study, we report the first detailed phytochemical study on JA flowers, which yielded 21 compounds. Compound 4 was identified as a major water-soluble yellow pigment of JA flowers. In addition, the methanol extract of JA flowers and the isolates were evaluated for their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Among the tested compounds, compound 13 showed the strongest ABTS + free radical scavenging activity with SC 50 value of 2.30 ± 0.13 μg/mL, and compound 6 showed most potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with inhibition rate of 60.0% ± 10.3% at a concentration of 250 μg/mL. Results showed that methanol extract of JA flowers exhibited antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities which could be attributed to its phenolic ingredients including chlorogenic acid derivatives, flavonoids and phenols.

  13. Nutrients and natural toxic substances in commonly consumed Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber.

    Judprasong, Kunchit; Archeepsudcharit, Nidthida; Chantapiriyapoon, Kedsiri; Tanaviyutpakdee, Pharrunrat; Temviriyanukul, Piya

    2018-01-01

    This study determined nutrients, chemical contaminants, (insecticide residues and heavy metals), and natural toxic substances (nitrate, nitrite, cyanide, oxalate, phytate, and trypsin inhibitor) in tubers of Jerusalem artichokes-Kaentawan in the Thai language-grown in four major provinces in Thailand. They were purchased, prepared, homogenized, and freeze-dried for further analysis using standard methods. All Kaentawan samples contained considerable amounts of fructans and dietary fiber (15.4±0.2gand3.2±0.8g/100gfresh weight [FW], respectively), as well as potassium and iron (339±61and0.32±0.05mg/100gFW, respectively). All samples had very low amounts of insecticide residues (37 compounds), cyanide, and trypsin inhibitor, as well as Pb, Cd, nitrate, and nitrite (0.82±0.09, 0.10±0.02, 1.9-17.5, and 0.01-0.24mgkg -1 FW, respectively), in addition to oxalate and phytate (14±9and0.17±0.02mg/100gFW, respectively). This study's data can be used for food composition databases and for safety consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous ethanol production from Jerusalem artichokes stalks using immobilized cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Bajpai, P.; Margaritis, A.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous production of ethanol from the extract of Jerusalem artichoke stalks was investigated in a packed bed bioreactor using Kluyveromyces marxianus cells immobilized in calcium alginate gel beds. Maximum conversion of the sugars to ethanol was achieved with a yield of about 98% of the theoretical. Volumetric ethanol productivities of 102 grams of ethanol per litre per hour and 92 grams ethanol per liter per hour were obtained at 87% and 90% conversion respectively for an inlet substrate concentration of 100 gram sugars per liter. The maximum specific ethanol production rate and maximum specific total sugar uptake rate of the immobilized cells were found to be 0.96 gram ethanol per gram immobilized cells per hour and 2.06 gram sugars per gram immobilized cells per hour respectively. The immobilized cell bioreactor was run continuously at a dilution rate of 2.12 per hour for 30 days which resulted in a loss of 30% of the original activity. The half life of the bioreactor was estimated to be about 56 days.

  15. Artichoke as a non-conventional precursor for activated carbon: Role of the activation process

    Gamal M.S. ElShafei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Artichoke peels were used to produce activated carbon using chemical activation methods. Two activation protocols were compared: a two-step method A and a one-step method B. As newly used activating agents, KCl, CrCl3 and TiCl4 were compared. The results show that method B is superior to A. KOH with method B had an area of 2321 m2/g and a total pore volume 1.0071 cm3/g, of which 0.9794 cm3/g was confined to micropores. The corresponding values for KCl are 1731, 0.6925 and 0.6718. TiCl4 had lower but comparable values with those of KCl. CrCl3 appeared to be the least successful among the three newly used activating agents. The post-activation washing step strongly affects the characteristics of the final product. The differences among the effects of Zn, Cr and Ti are discussed in terms of the differences in polarizing power.

  16. Conversion from long-term cultivated wheat field to Jerusalem artichoke plantation changed soil fungal communities

    Zhou, Xingang; Zhang, Jianhui; Gao, Danmei; Gao, Huan; Guo, Meiyu; Li, Li; Zhao, Mengliang; Wu, Fengzhi

    2017-01-01

    Understanding soil microbial communities in agroecosystems has the potential to contribute to the improvement of agricultural productivity and sustainability. Effects of conversion from long-term wheat plantation to Jerusalem artichoke (JA) plantation on soil fungal communities were determined by amplicon sequencing of total fungal ITS regions. Quantitative PCR and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were also used to analyze total fungal and Trichoderma spp. ITS regions and Fusarium spp. Ef1α genes. Results showed that soil organic carbon was higher in the first cropping of JA and Olsen P was lower in the third cropping of JA. Plantation conversion changed soil total fungal and Fusarium but not Trichoderma spp. community structures and compositions. The third cropping of JA had the lowest total fungal community diversity and Fusarium spp. community abundance, but had the highest total fungal and Trichoderma spp. community abundances. The relative abundances of potential fungal pathogens of wheat were higher in the wheat field. Fungal taxa with plant growth promoting, plant pathogen or insect antagonistic potentials were enriched in the first and second cropping of JA. Overall, short-term conversion from wheat to JA plantation changed soil fungal communities, which is related to changes in soil organic carbon and Olsen P contents.

  17. Jerusalem artichokes stimulate growth of broiler chickens and protect them against endotoxins and potential cecal pathogens.

    Kleessen, Brigitta; Elsayed, N A A E; Loehren, U; Schroedl, W; Krueger, Monika

    2003-11-01

    Control of intestinal pathogens during the earliest phases of broiler production may be the best strategy for the reduction of human pathogens on processed broiler carcasses. The recent ban on antibiotics in poultry feed has served to focus much attention on alternative methods of controlling the gastrointestinal microflora. A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of the fructan-rich Jerusalem artichoke, or topinambur (administered as 0.5% topinambur syrup in drinking water), on cultural numbers of selected cecal bacteria (total aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, Bdellovibrio spp., and Clostridium perfringens) and levels of bacterial endotoxins as well as on body weights and relative weights of organs (the pancreas and the bursa of Fabricius) of chickens in the first 35 days of life (with weekly investigations being conducted). One-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to experimental (with topinambur) and control (without topinambur) groups. They were allowed free access to a standard broiler diet without growth-promoting antibiotics. Topinambur treatment resulted in a significant increase (P broilers than for control birds at the ages of 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. These results indicate that a small amount of topinambur in broilers' drinking water has a beneficial effect on growth performance, reduces bacterial endotoxin levels, and suppresses potential pathogens in broilers' ceca.

  18. Next generation sequencing and molecular analysis of artichoke Italian latent virus.

    Elbeaino, Toufic; Belghacem, Imen; Mascia, Tiziana; Gallitelli, Donato; Digiaro, Michele

    2017-06-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allowed the assembly of the complete RNA-1 and RNA-2 sequences of a grapevine isolate of artichoke Italian latent virus (AILV). RNA-1 and RNA-2 are 7,338 and 4,630 nucleotides in length excluding the 3' terminal poly(A) tail, and encode two putative polyproteins of 255.8 kDa (p1) and 149.6 kDa (p2), respectively. All conserved motifs and predicted cleavage sites, typical for nepovirus polyproteins, were found in p1 and p2. AILV p1 and p2 share high amino acid identity with their homologues in beet ringspot virus (p1, 81% and p2, 71%), tomato black ring virus (p1, 79% and p2, 63%), grapevine Anatolian ringspot virus (p1, 65% and p2, 63%), and grapevine chrome mosaic virus (p1, 60% and p2, 54%), and to a lesser extent with other grapevine nepoviruses of subgroup A and C. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses, all confirmed the strict relationship of AILV with members classified in subgroup B of genus Nepovirus.

  19. Nephroprotective potential of artichoke leaves extract against gentamicin in rats: Antioxidant mechanisms.

    Khattab, Hala Ah; Wazzan, Maha Am; Al-Ahdab, Maha A

    2016-09-01

    Nephrotoxicity represents a major health problem. This study aims to determine nephroprotective of artichoke leaves extract (ALE) against gentamicin (GM) injection in male rats. Rats (n=30) were divided into; negative control, nephrotoxic (GM) injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with GM (100 mg/kg b.wt/d for 10 days), and groups administered orally with ALE (200, 400 or 600 mg/kg b.wt/d) and injected with GM. The results revealed that, GM injection induced marked nephrotoxicity as evidenced by significant increase in kidney functions, albumin and potassium (K+), with significant decrease in serum levels of total protein and sodium (Na + ) as compared with negative control group. There was significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level in GM group compared with negative control group. Renal examined tissues showed severe changes manifested by atrophy of glomerular tuft, necrosis of epithelial lining renal tubules with apoptosis of tubular epithelium and renal hemorrhage. Simultaneous administration of ALE during GM therapy protected kidney tissues as evidenced by normalization of kidney biochemical parameters and minimized the histopathological changes. Therefore, ALE has nephroprotective and antioxidant effects, thus could be beneficial for kidney patients.

  20. BIOSORPTION OF MN (II IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE (HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS L. STALKS

    Tsvetko PROKOPOV

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to tested Jerusalem artichoke stalks as a cheap biosorbent for its ability to remove Mn (II ions from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of pH, biosorbent particle size, dosage, initial metal concentration and contact time. The maximum removal efficiency of about 97.0 % was reached at pH 8.0 by using of biosorbent particle size 530-850  m, adsorbent dosage 30 g/L, initial metal concentration 10 mg/L, temperature 20 oC, agitation speed 120 rpm and contact time 90 min. Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models were applied to describe the obtained kinetic data. The pseudo-second order model provided the best fit for experimental data with coefficient of determination R2 > 0.99. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were used to describe metal adsorption. Equilibrium data agreed well with Langmuir isotherm with R2 = 0.993.