WorldWideScience

Sample records for global surveyor tes

  1. Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor Outreach Compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    This videotape is a compilation of the best NASA JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) videos of the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor missions. The mission is described using animation and narration as well as some actual footage of the entire sequence of mission events. Included within these animations are the spacecraft orbit insertion; descent to the Mars surface; deployment of the airbags and instruments; and exploration by Sojourner, the Mars rover. JPL activities at spacecraft control during significant mission events are also included at the end. The spacecraft cameras pan the surrounding Mars terrain and film Sojourner traversing the surface and inspecting rocks. A single, brief, processed image of the Cydonia region (Mars face) at an oblique angle from the Mars Global Surveyor is presented. A description of the Mars Pathfinder mission, instruments, landing and deployment process, Mars approach, spacecraft orbit insertion, rover operation are all described using computer animation. Actual color footage of Sojourner as well as a 360 deg pan of the Mars terrain surrounding the spacecraft is provided. Lower quality black and white photography depicting Sojourner traversing the Mars surface and inspecting Martian rocks also is included.

  2. THERESA FRANCO INSPECTS THE SOLAR PANELS OF THE MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Theresa Franco of SPECTROLAB Inc. carefully inspects the solar panels of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, undergoing preflight assembly and checkout in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility in KSC's Industrial Area. The four solar array panels will play a crucial role in the Mars Global Surveyor mission by providing the electrical power required to operate the spacecraft and its complement of scientific instruments. The Surveyor is slated for launch November 6 aboard a Delta II expendable launch vehicle. After arriving at the Red Planet in September 1997, the Surveyor will carry out an extensive study of Mars, gathering data about the planet's topography, magnetism, mineral composition and atmosphere.

  3. MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR RAW DATA SET - CRUISE V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Radio Science (RS) Raw Data Archive (RDA) is a time-ordered collection of raw and partially processed data collected during the MGS...

  4. Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Frequency Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4 GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-in diameter parabolic high gain antenna (HGA) on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) R&D 34-meter antenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. The projected 5-dB link advantage of Ka-band relative to X-band was confirmed in previous reports using measurements of MGS signal strength data acquired during the first two years of the link experiment from December 1996 to December 1998. Analysis of X-band and Ka-band frequency data and difference frequency (fx-fka)/3.8 data will be presented here. On board the spacecraft, a low-power sample of the X-band downlink from the transponder is upconverted to 32 GHz, the Ka-band frequency, amplified to I-W using a Solid State Power Amplifier, and radiated from the dual X/Ka HGA. The X-band signal is amplified by one of two 25 W TWTAs. An upconverter first downconverts the 8.42 GHz X-band signal to 8 GHz and then multiplies using a X4 multiplier producing the 32 GHz Ka-band frequency. The frequency source selection is performed by an RF switch which can be commanded to select a VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) or USO (Ultra-Stable Oscillator) reference. The Ka-band frequency can be either coherent with the X-band downlink reference or a hybrid combination of the USO and VCO derived frequencies. The data in this study were chosen such that the Ka-band signal is purely coherent with the X-band signal, that is the downconverter is driven by the same frequency source as the X-band downlink). The ground station used to acquire the data is DSS-13, a 34-meter BWG antenna which incorporates a series of mirrors inside beam waveguide tubes which guide the energy to a subterranean pedestal room, providing a stable environment

  5. Quality assurance systems – the difficulties in providing a global unified system for Surveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Goodhead, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This paper will analyse the difficulties in providing a global quality assurance system for Surveyors. Using case studies from the United Kingdom and elsewhere opportunities for harmonising Quality Assurance systems will be explored. The difficulties in moving towards common quality assurance systems will be analysed. Possible alternatives in the form of the development a knowledge bank of mutual agreements and top up qualifications will be investigated. The paper also looks at the role of FI...

  6. Solar wind modulation of the Martian ionosphere observed by Mars Global Surveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-S. Wang

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Electron density profiles in the Martian ionosphere observed by the radio occultation experiment on board Mars Global Surveyor have been analyzed to determine if the densities are influenced by the solar wind. Evidence is presented that the altitude of the maximum ionospheric electron density shows a positive correlation to the energetic proton flux in the solar wind. The solar wind modulation of the Martian ionosphere can be attributed to heating of the neutral atmosphere by the solar wind energetic proton precipitation. The modulation is observed to be most prominent at high solar zenith angles. It is argued that this is consistent with the proposed modulation mechanism.

  7. TES ammonia retrieval strategy and global observations of the spatial and seasonal variability of ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Shephard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Presently only limited sets of tropospheric ammonia (NH3 measurements in the Earth's atmosphere have been reported from satellite and surface station measurements, despite the well-documented negative impact of NH3 on the environment and human health. Presented here is a detailed description of the satellite retrieval strategy and analysis for the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES using simulations and measurements. These results show that: (i the level of detectability for a representative boundary layer TES NH3 mixing ratio value is ~0.4 ppbv, which typically corresponds to a profile that contains a maximum level value of ~1 ppbv; (ii TES NH3 retrievals generally provide at most one degree of freedom for signal (DOFS, with peak sensitivity between 700 and 900 mbar; (iii TES NH3 retrievals show significant spatial and seasonal variability of NH3 globally; (iv initial comparisons of TES observations with GEOS-CHEM estimates show TES values being higher overall. Important differences and similarities between modeled and observed seasonal and spatial trends are noted, with discrepancies indicating areas where the timing and magnitude of modeled NH3 emissions from agricultural sources, and to lesser extent biomass burning sources, need further study.

  8. Energetic particles detected by the Electron Reflectometer instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor, 1999-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delory, Gregory T.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Brain, David

    2012-01-01

    events at Mars associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections, which includes the identification of interplanetary shocks. MGS observations of energetic particles at varying geometries between the Earth and Mars that include shocks produced by halo, limb, and backsided events provide a unique......We report the observation of galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles by the Electron Reflectometer instrument aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft from May of 1999 to the mission conclusion in November 2006. Originally designed to detect low-energy electrons, the Electron...... recorded high energy galactic cosmic rays with similar to 45% efficiency. Comparisons of this data to galactic cosmic ray proton fluxes obtained from the Advanced Composition Explorer yield agreement to within 10% and reveal the expected solar cycle modulation as well as shorter timescale variations. Solar...

  9. Mars Global Surveyor Radio Science Electron Density Profiles: Interannual Variability and Implications for the Neutral Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougher, S. W.; Engel, S.; Hinson, D. P.; Murphy, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Radio Science (RS) experiment employs an ultrastable oscillator aboard the spacecraft. The signal from the oscillator to Earth is refracted by the Martian ionosphere, allowing retrieval of electron density profiles versus radius and geopotential. The present analysis is carried out on five sets of occultation measurements: (1) four obtained near northern summer solstice (Ls = 74-116, near aphelion) at high northern latitudes (64.7-77.6N), and (2) one set of profiles approaching equinox conditions (Ls = 135- 146) at high southern latitudes (64.7-69.1S). Electron density profiles (95 to 200 km) are examined over a narrow range of solar zenith angles (76.5-86.9 degrees) for local true solar times of (1) 3-4 hours and (2) 12.1 hours. Variations spanning 1-Martian year are specifically examined in the Northern hemisphere.

  10. Methanol from TES global observations: retrieval algorithm and seasonal and spatial variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Cady-Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed description of the TES methanol (CH3OH retrieval algorithm, along with initial global results showing the seasonal and spatial distribution of methanol in the lower troposphere. The full development of the TES methanol retrieval is described, including microwindow selection, error analysis, and the utilization of a priori and initial guess information provided by the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. Retrieval simulations and a sensitivity analysis using the developed retrieval strategy show that TES: (i generally provides less than 1.0 piece of information, (ii is sensitive in the lower troposphere with peak sensitivity typically occurring between ~900–700 hPa (~1–3 km at a vertical resolution of ~5 km, (iii has a limit of detectability between 0.5 and 1.0 ppbv Representative Volume Mixing Ratio (RVMR depending on the atmospheric conditions, corresponding roughly to a profile with a maximum concentration of at least 1 to 2 ppbv, and (iv in a simulation environment has a mean bias of 0.16 ppbv with a standard deviation of 0.34 ppbv. Applying the newly derived TES retrieval globally and comparing the results with corresponding GEOS-Chem output, we find generally consistent large-scale patterns between the two. However, TES often reveals higher methanol concentrations than simulated in the Northern Hemisphere spring, summer and fall. In the Southern Hemisphere, the TES methanol observations indicate a model overestimate over the bulk of South America from December through July, and a model underestimate during the biomass burning season.

  11. Mars Global Surveyor Data Analysis Program. Origins of Small Volcanic Cones: Eruption Mechanisms and Implications for Water on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagents, Sarah A.; Greeley, Ronald; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the proposed work was to determine the origins of small volcanic cones observed in Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data, and their implications for regolith ice stores and magma volatile contents. For this 1-year study, our approach involved a combination of: Quantitative morphologic analysis and interpretation of Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data; Numerical modeling of eruption processes responsible for producing the observed features; Fieldwork on terrestrial analogs in Iceland. Following this approach, this study succeeded in furthering our understanding of (i) the spatial and temporal distribution of near-surface water ice, as defined by the distribution and sizes of rootless volcanic cones ("pseudocraters"), and (ii) the properties, eruption conditions, and volatile contents of magmas producing primary vent cones.

  12. Surveyor Manual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyt, Henrik; Hessellund, Regner Bæk

    The project proposes a new training system aiming at the creation of a new profession, the building surveyor, working for the preservation of the existing built stock and extension of its lifetime, by means of regular, expert observation, operation and maintenance. The results of this activity...... in the field, at local and national level. The training system will operate at two different levels, a) for higher-education graduates, mainly architects and engineers, at postgraduate level, providing a new qualification as ‘building surveyor’ and b) for graduates of secondary schools, post-secondary training...... providing the qualification of ‘building maintenance technician’. Being addressed to people seeking jobs, but also to professionals already working in domains connected to the administration and maintenance of building stock, such as local administration, public and private companies owning buildings, SMEs...

  13. Global estimates of CO sources with high resolution by adjoint inversion of multiple satellite datasets (MOPITT, AIRS, SCIAMACHY, TES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kopacz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We combine CO column measurements from the MOPITT, AIRS, SCIAMACHY, and TES satellite instruments in a full-year (May 2004–April 2005 global inversion of CO sources at 4°×5° spatial resolution and monthly temporal resolution. The inversion uses the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM and its adjoint applied to MOPITT, AIRS, and SCIAMACHY. Observations from TES, surface sites (NOAA/GMD, and aircraft (MOZAIC are used for evaluation of the a posteriori solution. Using GEOS-Chem as a common intercomparison platform shows global consistency between the different satellite datasets and with the in situ data. Differences can be largely explained by different averaging kernels and a priori information. The global CO emission from combustion as constrained in the inversion is 1350 Tg a−1. This is much higher than current bottom-up emission inventories. A large fraction of the correction results from a seasonal underestimate of CO sources at northern mid-latitudes in winter and suggests a larger-than-expected CO source from vehicle cold starts and residential heating. Implementing this seasonal variation of emissions solves the long-standing problem of models underestimating CO in the northern extratropics in winter-spring. A posteriori emissions also indicate a general underestimation of biomass burning in the GFED2 inventory. However, the tropical biomass burning constraints are not quantitatively consistent across the different datasets.

  14. Remote Sensing of Mars: Detection of Impact Craters on the Mars Global Surveyor DTM by Integrating Edge- and Region-Based Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassas, C. D.; Vaiopoulos, A.; Kolokoussis, P.; Argialas, D.

    2018-03-01

    This study integrates two different computer vision approaches, namely the circular Hough transform (CHT) and the determinant of Hessian (DoH), to detect automatically the largest number possible of craters of any size on the digital terrain model (DTM) generated by the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Specifically, application of the standard version of CHT to the DTM captured a great number of craters with diameter smaller than 50 km only, failing to capture larger craters. On the other hand, DoH was successful in detecting craters that were undetected by CHT, but its performance was deterred by the irregularity of the topographic surface encompassed: strongly undulated and inclined (trended) topographies hindered crater detection. When run on a de-trended DTM (and keeping the topology unaltered) DoH scored higher. Current results, although not optimal, encourage combined use of CHT and DoH for routine crater detection undertakings.

  15. Discovery Mondays: Surveyors' Tools

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Surveyors of all ages, have your rulers and compasses at the ready! This sixth edition of Discovery Monday is your chance to learn about the surveyor's tools - the state of the art in measuring instruments - and see for yourself how they work. With their usual daunting precision, the members of CERN's Surveying Group have prepared some demonstrations and exercises for you to try. Find out the techniques for ensuring accelerator alignment and learn about high-tech metrology systems such as deviation indicators, tracking lasers and total stations. The surveyors will show you how they precisely measure magnet positioning, with accuracy of a few thousandths of a millimetre. You can try your hand at precision measurement using different types of sensor and a modern-day version of the Romans' bubble level, accurate to within a thousandth of a millimetre. You will learn that photogrammetry techniques can transform even a simple digital camera into a remarkable measuring instrument. Finally, you will have a chance t...

  16. Global O3-CO correlations in a chemistry and transport model during July-August: evaluation with TES satellite observations and sensitivity to input meteorological data and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Deok; Liu, Hongyu; Crawford, James H.; Considine, David B.; Allen, Dale J.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Strahan, Susan E.; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Xiong; Damon, Megan R.; Steenrod, Stephen D.

    2017-07-01

    We examine the capability of the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model to reproduce global mid-tropospheric (618 hPa) ozone-carbon monoxide (O3-CO) correlations determined by the measurements from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard NASA's Aura satellite during boreal summer (July-August). The model is driven by three meteorological data sets (finite-volume General Circulation Model (fvGCM) with sea surface temperature for 1995, Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System Version 4 (GEOS-4 DAS) for 2005, and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for 2005), allowing us to examine the sensitivity of model O3-CO correlations to input meteorological data. Model simulations of radionuclide tracers (222Rn, 210Pb, and 7Be) are used to illustrate the differences in transport-related processes among the meteorological data sets. Simulated O3 values are evaluated with climatological profiles from ozonesonde measurements and satellite tropospheric O3 columns. Despite the fact that the three simulations show significantly different global and regional distributions of O3 and CO concentrations, they show similar patterns of O3-CO correlations on a global scale. All model simulations sampled along the TES orbit track capture the observed positive O3-CO correlations in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude continental outflow and the Southern Hemisphere subtropics. While all simulations show strong negative correlations over the Tibetan Plateau, northern Africa, the subtropical eastern North Pacific, and the Caribbean, TES O3 and CO concentrations at 618 hPa only show weak negative correlations over much narrower areas (i.e., the Tibetan Plateau and northern Africa). Discrepancies in regional O3-CO correlation patterns in the three simulations may be attributed to differences in convective transport, stratospheric influence, and subsidence, among other processes. To understand how various

  17. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  18. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  19. Challenges to Building Surveyors From The Perspectives Of Non Surveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnin Zarina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on the importance of Building Surveyors in Malaysia is still low as the role and skills of this profession are not fully understood. Although studies indicated that Building Surveyors are still in demand, even without the Building Surveyor Act, many graduates are experiencing inadequate employment opportunities in the current economic situation. Little is known on the views from other stakeholders about BS. This research aims to examine the awareness and opinions on BS in Malaysia amongst construction stakeholders. Questionnaire surveys were collected from 120 respondents from construction, maintenance and insurance companies and interviews were conducted to selected built environment respondents. It was found that awareness and knowledge on BS are still low as they lack information on the profession and professional recognitions. Some views indicated on a major identity crisis for having fragmented and disparate range of modules. The cause may have resulted in problems on public recognition, poor understanding of the surveyor’s skills, and fewer job opportunities. Several suggested the profession to have a clear, coherent and relevant identity, with strong professional structures in order for the profession to survive and gain recognition from the government. Graduates are also recommended to acquire other skills and training in order for them to be significant to the construction industry.

  20. INTENSITAS COPYING ANSWER PADA TES KEMAMPUAN MATEMATIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursalam Nursalam

    2012-07-01

    Abstrak: Seorang peserta tes akan menjawab tes dengan tiga asumsi yaitu peserta tes akan menjawab suatu butir pertanyaan karena mengetahui, peserta menjawab tes dengan menebak, dan peserta menjawab tes karena menyalin jawaban dari peserta lain (menyontek. Akan tetapi jika peserta tes tidak memiliki akses untuk menyontek maka peserta hanya akan memberikan jawaban dengan asumsi pertama dan kedua. Artikel ini membahas intensitas menyontek sebelum pelaksanaan tes, pada saat pelaksanan tes, dan ketika tes dilaksanakan secara tiba-tiba.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa intensitas menyontek paling tinggi dilakukan oleh peserta tes pada saat ujian berlansung kemudian ketika ujian dilakukan secara tiba-tiba atau mendadak dan terakhir adalah sebelum pelaksanaan tes.

  1. PENGEMBANGAN TES BAKAT TERPADU ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Candiasa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pengembangan tes bakat online didasari ide untuk memperluas otomasi layanan pendidikan, melengkapi e-learning yang sudah berkembang dengan baik untuk otomasi pembelajaran. Kelebihan tes bakat online yang dikembangkan adalah dapat digunakan setiap saat, dan tidak terlalu terikat tempat, serta tidak memerlukan petugas yang memahami evaluasi. Selain itu, tes bakat online dapat menyajikan variasi tes yang berbeda setiap kali diakses, serta dapat memberikan informasi hasil tes secara otomatis langsung setelah peserta tes memvalidasi jawabannya. Kata kunci: tes bakat online, otomasi layanan pendidikan Abstract Development of online aptitude test based on idea of widening automation on educational service, completing existing various e-learning model for instructional automation. There are some advantages of online aptitude test. It can be used anytime and anywhere by everyone. Furthermore, it can present various package of test every time it is accessed and automatically gives score and feedback immediately after tester finish answer the test. Keywords: online aptitude test, automation of educational service

  2. Workplace stress experienced by quantity surveyors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paul (P.A.) Bowen, Department of Construction Economics and Management,. University of Cape Town, Private ..... Explore workplace stress levels among quantity surveyors in the developing nation of ...... London: Free. Association Books.

  3. Global O3–CO correlations in a chemistry and transport model during July–August: evaluation with TES satellite observations and sensitivity to input meteorological data and emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-D. Choi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the capability of the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI chemistry and transport model to reproduce global mid-tropospheric (618 hPa ozone–carbon monoxide (O3–CO correlations determined by the measurements from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES aboard NASA's Aura satellite during boreal summer (July–August. The model is driven by three meteorological data sets (finite-volume General Circulation Model (fvGCM with sea surface temperature for 1995, Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System Version 4 (GEOS-4 DAS for 2005, and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA for 2005, allowing us to examine the sensitivity of model O3–CO correlations to input meteorological data. Model simulations of radionuclide tracers (222Rn, 210Pb, and 7Be are used to illustrate the differences in transport-related processes among the meteorological data sets. Simulated O3 values are evaluated with climatological profiles from ozonesonde measurements and satellite tropospheric O3 columns. Despite the fact that the three simulations show significantly different global and regional distributions of O3 and CO concentrations, they show similar patterns of O3–CO correlations on a global scale. All model simulations sampled along the TES orbit track capture the observed positive O3–CO correlations in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude continental outflow and the Southern Hemisphere subtropics. While all simulations show strong negative correlations over the Tibetan Plateau, northern Africa, the subtropical eastern North Pacific, and the Caribbean, TES O3 and CO concentrations at 618 hPa only show weak negative correlations over much narrower areas (i.e., the Tibetan Plateau and northern Africa. Discrepancies in regional O3–CO correlation patterns in the three simulations may be attributed to differences in convective transport, stratospheric influence, and subsidence, among other processes. To

  4. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TES focuses on the troposphere, the layer of atmosphere that stretches from the ground to the altitude at which airplanes fly. With very high spectral resolution,...

  5. Searching for an Improved Spectral Match to TES and IRIS Sinus Meridiani Spectra: Coatings and Cemented Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, L. E.; Herr, K. C.; Adams, P. M.

    2001-05-01

    A region on Mars within Sinus Meridiani has been interpreted as a surface partially covered by coarse-grained (gray) hematite, using spectra measured by the 1996 Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) [Lane et al., 1999; Christensen et al., 2000]. The band strengths recorded by TES of this region are consistent with either coarse-grained hematite, or cemented poorly crystalline or cemented fine-grained hematite. The band strengths are inconsistent with unconsolidated, poorly crystalline or fine-grained hematite, including nanophase hematite dust [Christensen et al., 2000]. Currently the gray hematite interpretation is based on bands centered near 22 and 33 microns. TES also records a band centered near 18 microns that was used in early hematite interpretations [Lane et al., 1999]. However, it was noted [Kirkland et al., 1999a] that the 18 micron band is too narrow in both TES and the 1971 Mariner Mars IRIS spectra to be a good match to typical spectra of well-crystalline hematite [e.g. Salisbury et al., 1991]. The 18 micron band is near the very strong 15 micron atmospheric CO2 band, but if anything the nearby CO2 band should cause the 18 micron band to appear wider, not narrower. In addition, the higher spectral resolution of IRIS allows improved separation of the bands [Kirkland et al., 1999b]. More recent publications no longer show the TES 18 micron band [e.g. Lane et al., 2000; Christensen et al., 2000], which temporarily resolved the issue. However, we feel it is important to understand why TES and IRIS spectra exhibit an 18 micron band that is too narrow to match typical spectra of coarse-grained hematite. Smooth-surfaced cemented (e.g. ferricrete) or coated materials (e.g. desert varnish) have spectral contrast that is consistent with the observed IRIS and TES band contrast. On Mars, one possible source for cemented material or coatings would be the nanophase hematite dust. Cemented materials may occur in bulk (e.g. duricrust or ferricrete), or

  6. Processing TES Level-2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poosti, Sassaneh; Akopyan, Sirvard; Sakurai, Regina; Yun, Hyejung; Saha, Pranjit; Strickland, Irina; Croft, Kevin; Smith, Weldon; Hoffman, Rodney; Koffend, John; hide

    2006-01-01

    TES Level 2 Subsystem is a set of computer programs that performs functions complementary to those of the program summarized in the immediately preceding article. TES Level-2 data pertain to retrieved species (or temperature) profiles, and errors thereof. Geolocation, quality, and other data (e.g., surface characteristics for nadir observations) are also included. The subsystem processes gridded meteorological information and extracts parameters that can be interpolated to the appropriate latitude, longitude, and pressure level based on the date and time. Radiances are simulated using the aforementioned meteorological information for initial guesses, and spectroscopic-parameter tables are generated. At each step of the retrieval, a nonlinear-least-squares- solving routine is run over multiple iterations, retrieving a subset of atmospheric constituents, and error analysis is performed. Scientific TES Level-2 data products are written in a format known as Hierarchical Data Format Earth Observing System 5 (HDF-EOS 5) for public distribution.

  7. 46 CFR 42.05-65 - Surveyor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surveyor. 42.05-65 Section 42.05-65 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of... American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society recognized by the Commandant as the person who...

  8. Constraints on the Within Season and Between Year Variability of the North Residual Cap from MGS-TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; Titus, T. N.; Mahoney, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    There is a long history of telescopic and spacecraft observations of the polar regions of Mars. The finely laminated ice deposits and surrounding layered terrains are commonly thought to contain a record of past climate conditions and change. Understanding the basic nature of the deposits and their mineral and ice constituents is a continued focus of current and future orbited missions. Unresolved issues in Martian polar science include a) the unusual nature of the CO2 ice deposits ("Swiss Cheese", "slab ice" etc.) b) the relationship of the ice deposits to underlying layered units (which differs from the north to the south), c) understanding the seasonal variations and their connections to the finely laminated units observed in high-resolution images and d) the relationship of dark materials in the wind-swept lanes and reentrant valleys to the surrounding dark dune and surface materials. Our work focuses on understanding these issues in relationship to the north residual ice cap. Recent work using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets have described evolution of the seasonal CO2 frost deposits. In addition, the north polar residual ice cap exhibits albedo variations between Mars years and within the summer season. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data set can augment these observations providing additional constraints such as temperature evolution and spectral properties associated with ice and rocky materials. Exploration of these properties is the subject of our current study.

  9. Surveyor mobile surveillance system for hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, E.B.; Simmons, R.K.; Kniazewycz, B.G.; Darvish, A.R.; Irving, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    A successful program was recently conducted to test and evaluate a commercial-ready, wireless, remotely operated surveillance system for use in nuclear power plants. This evaluation of the Surveyor mobile surveillance system took place at Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation's Nine Mile Point Nuclear Power Station. The remotely operated vehicle measures radiation, temperature and relative humidity and provides optical inspection capability. The vehicle is readily maneuvered in 36-inch wide passageways and labyrinth entries and can climb stairs, negotiating 180-degree turns on stair landings. The system consists of a supervisory control station and a rugged, remotely-operated, battery-powered vehicle. The surveyor system is specifically designed to decrease personnel radiation exposure by supplementing the functions of an auxiliary operator or wealth physics technician to perform periodic component inspections inside particular areas within a nuclear power plant

  10. Development of Ir/Au-TES microcalorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohno, Masashi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ataka, Manabu; Ohkubo, Masataka; Hirayama, Fuminori

    2004-01-01

    We are developing X-ray microcalorimeters using transition edge sensors (TES) for high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. Microcalorimeters are thermal detectors which measure the energy of an incident x-ray photon using a TES thermometer operated at a sharp transition edge between normal and superconducting states. TES microcalorimeters can achieve faster response than conventional microcalorimeters by keeping the operating point of TES in the transition region through the use of strong negative electrothermal feedback (ETF). We developed a bilayer TES where a normal metal Au was deposited on a superconductor Ir in order to improve the thermal conductivity of the Ir-TES. We investigated resistance-temperature characteristics. As a result, it showed a very sharp transition within 1 mK at the temperature of 110 mK. The energy resolution of 9.4 eV (FWHM) was achieved for a 5899 eV Mn K al line. (author)

  11. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 40 GHz Optical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph R.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Marriage, Tobias; Wollack, Edward J.; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2012-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) instrument will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background at 40, 90, and 150 GHz from Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of northern Chile. In this paper, we describe the optical design of the 40 GHz telescope system. The telescope is a diffraction limited catadioptric design consisting of a front-end Variable-delay Polarization Modulator (VPM), two ambient temperature mirrors, two cryogenic dielectric lenses, thermal blocking filters, and an array of 36 smooth-wall scalar feedhorn antennas. The feed horns guide the signal to antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers. Polarization diplexing and bandpass definition are handled on the same microchip as the TES. The feed horn beams are truncated with 10 dB edge taper by a 4 K Lyot-stop to limit detector loading from stray light and control the edge illumination of the front-end VPM. The field-of-view is 19 deg x 14 deg with a resolution for each beam on the sky of 1.5 deg. FWHM.

  12. The cosmology large angular scale surveyor (CLASS): 40 GHz optical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Joseph R.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Marriage, Tobias; Wollack, Edward J.; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2012-09-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) instrument will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background at 40, 90, and 150 GHz from Cerro Toco in the Atacama desert of northern Chile. In this paper, we describe the optical design of the 40 GHz telescope system. The telescope is a diffraction limited catadioptric design consisting of a front-end Variable-delay Polarization Modulator (VPM), two ambient temperature mirrors, two cryogenic dielectric lenses, thermal blocking filters, and an array of 36 smooth-wall scalar feedhorn antennas. The feed horns guide the signal to antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers. Polarization diplexing and bandpass definition are handled on the same microchip as the TES. The feed horn beams are truncated with 10 dB edge taper by a 4 K Lyot-stop to limit detector loading from stray light and control the edge illumination of the front-end VPM. The field-of-view is 19° x 14° with a resolution for each beam on the sky of 1.5° FWHM.

  13. Results on a Questionnaire to Soil Surveyors Around the World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy respondents from 40 countries replied to a questionnaire on methodologies used in soil surveys. Observations and conclusions worth noting are given. Some terminologies in soil surveys are not conceived and used consistently by soil surveyors. The nature of soil surveys is determined by soil surveyors ...

  14. Long-term stability of TES satellite radiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Connor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES Level 2 (L2 retrieval products for the purpose of assessing long term changes in atmospheric trace gas composition requires knowledge of the overall radiometric stability of the Level 1B (L1B radiances. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the stability of the radiometric calibration of the TES instrument by analyzing the difference between measured and calculated brightness temperatures in selected window regions of the spectrum. The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO profiles for temperature and water vapor and the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature (RTGSST are used as input to the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS radiative transfer model to calculate the simulated spectra. The TES reference measurements selected cover a 4-year period of time from mid 2005 through mid 2009 with the selection criteria being; observation latitudes greater than −30° and less than 30°, over ocean, Global Survey mode (nadir view and retrieved cloud optical depth of less than or equal to 0.01. The TES cloud optical depth retrievals are used only for screening purposes and no effects of clouds on the radiances are included in the forward model. This initial screening results in over 55 000 potential reference spectra spanning the four year period. Presented is a trend analysis of the time series of the residuals (observation minus calculations in the TES 2B1, 1B2, 2A1, and 1A1 bands, with the standard deviation of the residuals being approximately equal to 0.6 K for bands 2B1, 1B2, 2A1, and 0.9 K for band 1A1. The analysis demonstrates that the trend in the residuals is not significantly different from zero over the 4-year period. This is one method used to demonstrate that the relative radiometric calibration is stable over time, which is very important for any longer term analysis of TES retrieved products (L2, particularly well-mixed species such as carbon dioxide and methane.

  15. The surveyors' quest for perfect alignment

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Photogrammetry of a CMS endcap and part of the hadronic calorimeter.The structure was covered with targets photographed by digital cameras. Perfect alignment.... Although CERN's surveyors do not claim to achieve it, they are constantly striving for it and deploy all necessary means to come as close as they can. In their highly specialised field of large-scale metrology, the solution lies in geodesy and photogrammetry, both of which are based on increasingly sophisticated instruments and systems. In civil engineering, these techniques are used for non-destructive inspection of bridges, dams and other structures, while industrial applications include dimensional verification and deformation measurement in large mechanical assemblies. The same techniques also come into play for the metrology of research tools such as large telescopes and of course, particle accelerators. Particle physics laboratories are especially demanding customers, and CERN has often asked for the impossible. As a result, the alignment metro...

  16. CERN’s surveyors send sparks flying

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    A few weeks ago, we published an article on the three-dimensional laser scanner technique used at CERN to produce 3D images of the LHC tunnels and experiments (see the article here). Photogrammetry is another technique in the CERN surveyors’ arsenal.   The ATLAS wheel during a photogrammetry measurement campaign. The white spots (see red arrows) dotted across the wheel are the retro-reflective "dot" targets. Used in a number of fields including topography, architecture, geology and archaeology, photogrammetry is a stereoscopy technique whereby 2D images taken from different angles can be used to reconstruct a 3D image of an object. Surveyors at CERN have been using this technique for over 15 years as a way of gaining precise information on the shape, size, deformation and position of the LHC detectors and their composite elements. The photogrammetry used at CERN is relatively “light” in terms of the equipment required, w...

  17. Constraining the 0-20 km Vertical Profile of Water Vapor in the Martian Atmosphere with MGS-TES Limb Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.; McDonald, G. D.

    2016-12-01

    The vertical profile of water vapor in the lower atmosphere of Mars is a crucial but poorly-measured detail of the water cycle. Most of our existing water vapor data sets (e.g. Smith, 2002, JGR 107; Smith et al., 2009, JGR 114; Maltagliati et al., 2011, Icarus 213) rely on the traditional assumption of uniform mass mixing from the surface up to a saturation level, but GCM models (Richardson et al., 2002, JGR 107; Navarro et al., 2014, JGR 119) imply that this is not the case in at least some important seasons and locations. For example at the equator during northern summer the water vapor mixing ratio in aforementioned GCMs increases upwards by a factor of two to three in the bottom scale height. This might influence the accuracy of existing precipitable water column (PWC) data sets. Even if not, the correct vertical distribution is critical for determining the extent to which high-altitude cold trapping interferes with inter-hemispheric transport, and its details in the lowest scale heights will be a critical test of the accuracy of modeled water vapor transport. Meanwhile attempts to understand apparent interactions of water vapor with surface soils (e.g. Ojha et al. 2015, Nature Geoscience 8; Savijärvi et al., 2016, Icarus 265) need an estimate for the amount of water vapor in the boundary layer, and existing PWC data sets can't provide this unless the lower atmospheric vertical distribution is known or constrained. Maltagliati et al. (2013, Icarus 223) have obtained vertical profiles of water vapor at higher altitudes with SPICAM on Mars Express, but these are commonly limited to altitudes greater 20 km and they never extend below 10 km. We have previously used Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) limb-sounding to measure the vertical profile of water vapor (e.g. McConnochie and Smith, 2009, Fall AGU #P54B-06), but these preliminary results were clearly not quantitatively accurate in the lower atmosphere. We will present improved TES

  18. Reflectance and Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy of Mars: Relationship Between ISM and TES for Compositional Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Joseph (Technical Monitor); Mustard, John

    2004-01-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy has demonstrated that high albedo surfaces on Mars contain heavily altered materials with some component of hematite, poorly crystalline ferric oxides, and an undefined silicate matrix. The spectral properties of many low albedo regions indicate crystalline basalts containing both low and high calcium pyroxene, a mineralogy consistent with the basaltic SNC meteorites. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) experiment on the Mars Geochemical Surveyor has acquired critical new data relevant to surface composition and mineralogy, but in a wavelength region that is complementary to reflectance spectroscopy. The essence of the completed research was to analyze TES data in the context of reflectance data obtained by the French ISM imaging spectrometer experiment in 1989. This approach increased our understanding of the complementary nature of these wavelength regions for mineralogic determinations using actual observations of the martian surface. The research effort focused on three regions of scientific importance: Syrtis Major-Isidis Basin, Oxia Palus-Arabia, and Valles Marineris. In each region distinct spatial variations related to reflectance, and in derived mineralogic information and interpreted compositional units were analyzed. In addition, specific science questions related to the composition of volcanics and crustal evolution, soil compositions and pedogenic processes, and the relationship between pristine lithologies and weathering provided an overall science-driven framework for the work. The detailed work plan involved colocation of TES and ISM data, extraction of reflectance and emissivity spectra from areas of known reflectance variability, and quantitative analysis using factor analysis and statistical techniques to determine the degree of correspondence between these different wavelength regions. Identified coherent variations in TES spectroscopy were assessed against known atmospheric effects to validate that the variations

  19. Training Exit Survey (TES) Individual Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The TES Individual dataset contains information at the individual-level about the persons who attend a GLS funded training event. This dataset includes variables...

  20. Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  1. The surveyors get the measure of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first to start work in the LHC tunnel, the surveyors are precisely marking out the positions of the future accelerator's magnets. A total of 7000 reference points will have to be marked out over two years.

  2. Design considerations for TES and QET sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, B.

    2000-01-01

    We summarize some of the effects that must be taken into account in the design of superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES) and Quasiparticle-trap-assisted Electrothermal-feedback Transition-edge-sensors (QET). For the TES these include determining time constants, maintaining voltage bias, avoid electrothermal oscillations, critical current limitations, and saturation. For QET phonon sensors, voltage bias was conceived to allow the simultaneous biasing of parallel TESs with different transition temperatures, and preventing normal-superconducting phase separation

  3. Processing TES Level-1B Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBaca, Richard C.; Sarkissian, Edwin; Madatyan, Mariyetta; Shepard, Douglas; Gluck, Scott; Apolinski, Mark; McDuffie, James; Tremblay, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    TES L1B Subsystem is a computer program that performs several functions for the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). The term "L1B" (an abbreviation of "level 1B"), refers to data, specific to the TES, on radiometric calibrated spectral radiances and their corresponding noise equivalent spectral radiances (NESRs), plus ancillary geolocation, quality, and engineering data. The functions performed by TES L1B Subsystem include shear analysis, monitoring of signal levels, detection of ice build-up, and phase correction and radiometric and spectral calibration of TES target data. Also, the program computes NESRs for target spectra, writes scientific TES level-1B data to hierarchical- data-format (HDF) files for public distribution, computes brightness temperatures, and quantifies interpixel signal variability for the purpose of first-order cloud and heterogeneous land screening by the level-2 software summarized in the immediately following article. This program uses an in-house-developed algorithm, called "NUSRT," to correct instrument line-shape factors.

  4. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  5. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriage, Tobias; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John; Bennett, Charles; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from inflation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  6. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravitational wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low-length. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of r = 0:01 and make a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to the surface of last scattering, tau. (c) (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  7. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of four telescopes designed to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. CLASS aims to detect the B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves predicted by cosmic inflation theory, as well as the imprint left by reionization upon the CMB E-mode polarization. This will be achieved through a combination of observing strategy and state-of-the-art instrumentation. CLASS is observing 70% of the sky to characterize the CMB at large angular scales, which will measure the entire CMB power spectrum from the reionization peak to the recombination peak. The four telescopes operate at frequencies of 38, 93, 145, and 217 GHz, in order to estimate Galactic synchrotron and dust foregrounds while avoiding atmospheric absorption. CLASS employs rapid polarization modulation to overcome atmospheric and instrumental noise. Polarization sensitive cryogenic detectors with low noise levels provide CLASS the sensitivity required to constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to levels of r ~ 0.01 while also measuring the optical depth the reionization to sample-variance levels. These improved constraints on the optical depth to reionization are required to pin down the mass of neutrinos from complementary cosmological data. CLASS has completed a year of observations at 38 GHz and is in the process of deploying the rest of the telescope array. This poster provides an overview and update on the CLASS science, hardware and survey operations.

  8. Experience with the Surveyor mobile robot in radioactive work environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Darvish, A.R.; Irving, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development and implementation history of the Surveyor mobile robotic device from November 1985 through August 1986. This two-tracked remotely controlled tetherless device is used to conduct surveillance and inspection and light maintenance missions in nuclear power plants. Surveyor's relatively light weight (<400 lb) can easily be transported manually from location to location. The total maximum payload of the device, which is able to climb 40-deg stairs, is up to 300 lb when transported on a level floor. Surveyor can traverse through 14 in. of water and over 9-in.-high obstacles. Standard accessories include radiation detector, humidity monitor, temperature measurement, sound detection and position/ranging, and a standard video or CCD camera having a wide angle and telephoto lens. These devices are mounted on a 3 degree-of-freedom articulated arm with halogen lights

  9. VALIDITAS TES CLOZE, TES-C, DAN PENILAIAN DIRI SEBAGAI ALAT UKUR KEMAMPUAN MEMBACA TEKS BAHASA INGGRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharso Suharso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui validitas tes cloze (CL dan tes-C (C sebagai alat ukur kemampuan membaca teks bahasa Inggris dengan tes Reading Comprehension (RC dari TOEFL sebagai tolok ukur dan mengetahui validitas penilaian diri (PD dengan mengacu pada ketiga tes tersebut. Populasi penelitian meliputi mahasiswa yang mengambil mata kuliah Reading I, III, dan V pada semester gasal tahun akademik 2006/2007 di Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Bahasa dan Seni, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta. Sampel penelitian terdiri atas 121 mahasiswa yang dipilih dengan menggunakan teknik sampel acak gugus. Data kemampuan membaca dikumpulkan dengan tes RC, CL dan C. Data PD dikumpulkan dengan tiga kuesioner PD yang menggunakan model Likert. Data penelitian dianalisis dengan menggunakan teknik korelasi Pearson product moment. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa ada korelasi yang positif antara skor tes RC dan skor tes CL, antara skor tes RC dan tes C, dan antara skor PD dan ketiga skor tes membaca tersebut. Kata kunci:      tes reading comprehension, tes cloze, tes-c, penilaian diri, validitas

  10. an examination of estate surveyors and valuers' perception of flood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... Key words: Estate Surveyors, Perception, Flood risk, Residential .... islands separated by creeks on a vast lagoon on ... the coastal low land of south western Nigeria – ... tropical continental with rainfall almost ... vegetation is salt water mangrove swamp forest .... have afforded them the opportunity of being.

  11. Whither the Nigerian Quantity Surveyors in the Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paucity of information on the computing status of the quantity surveyors in Nigeria have been scanty and without empirical substantiation. The basic platform for entry to the information technology gateway is the acquisition, adoption and utilization of the computer. Baseline information is therefore indispensable for the ...

  12. The Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) for AKARI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawada, Mitsunobu; Baba, Hajime; Barthel, Peter D.; Clements, David; Cohen, Martin; Doi, Yasuo; Figueredo, Elysandra; Fujiwara, Mikio; Goto, Tomotsugu; Hasegawa, Sunao; Hibi, Yasunori; Hirao, Takanori; Hiromoto, Norihisa; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Kawai, Toshihide; Kawamura, Akiko; Kester, Do; Kii, Tsuneo; Kobayashi, Hisato; Kwon, Suk Minn; Lee, Hyung Mok; Makiuti, Sin'itirou; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Shuji; Mueller, Thomas G.; Murakami, Noriko; Nagata, Hirohisa; Nakagawa, Takao; Narita, Masanao; Noda, Manabu; Oh, Sang Hoon; Okada, Yoko; Okuda, Haruyuki; Oliver, Sebastian; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Pak, Soojong; Park, Yong-Sun; Pearson, Chris P.; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Saito, Toshinobu; Salama, Alberto; Sato, Shinji; Savage, Richard S.; Serjeant, Stephen; Shibai, Hiroshi; Shirahata, Mai; Sohn, Jungjoo; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Takagi, Toshinobu; Takahashi, Hidenori; Thomson, Matthew; Usui, Fumihiko; Verdugo, Eva; Watabe, Toyoki; White, Glenn J.; Wang, Lingyu; Yamamura, Issei; Yamauchi, Chisato; Yasuda, Akiko

    2007-01-01

    The Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) is one of two focal-plane instruments on the AKARI satellite. FIS has four photometric bands at 65, 90, 140, and 160 mu m, and uses two kinds of array detectors. The FIS arrays and optics are designed to sweep the sky with high spatial resolution and redundancy. The

  13. Experience of the Surveyor Mobile robot at Nine Mile Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Irving, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    A successful test and evaluation program was recently conducted on a commercial-ready, wireless, remotely operated surveillance system for use in nuclear power plants. This evaluation of the Surveyor Mobile Surveillance System took place at Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation's (NMPC) Nine Mile Point (NMP) Nuclear Power Station. The remotely operated vehicles measures radiation, temperature and relative humidity and provides optical inspection capability. The vehicle is readily maneuvered through 36 inch wide passageways and labyrinth entries and can climb stairs, negotiating 180 degree turns on stair landings. The Surveyor systems consists of a Supervisory Control Station and a rugged, remotely operated, battery-powered vehicle. The Surveyor system is specifically designed to decrease personnel radiation exposure by supplementing the functions of an auxiliary operator or Health Physics Technician to perform periodic component inspections inside particular areas within a nuclear power plant. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the recent efforts, achievements and experiences of the personnel at NMP Unit 1. In particular, this will address the test and evaluation program for the Surveyor Mobile Surveillance Robot

  14. 5 CFR 532.275 - Special wage schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in Puerto Rico. 532.275 Section 532.275 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... schedules for ship surveyors in Puerto Rico. (a) The Department of Defense shall establish special wage schedules for nonsupervisory ship surveyors and supervisory ship surveyors in Puerto Rico. (b) Rates shall...

  15. Methane from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Vivienne; Worden, John; Kulawik, Susan; Frankenberg, Christian; Bowman, Kevin; Wecht, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    TES V5 CH4 captures latitudinal gradients, regional variability and interannual variation in the free troposphere. V5 joint retrievals offer improved sensitivity to lower troposphere. Time series extends from 2004 to present. V5 reprocessing in progress. Upper tropospheric bias. Mitigated by N2O correction. Appears largely spatially uniform, so can be corrected. How to relate free-tropospheric values to surface emissions.

  16. Characterization of Ir/Au pixel TES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Zen, N.; Damayanthi, R.M.T.; Mori, F.; Fujita, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Fukuda, D.; Ohkubo, M.

    2006-01-01

    Signal shapes and noise characteristics of an asymmetrical ten-pixel Ir/Au-TES have been studied. The asymmetric design may be effective to realize an imaging spectrometer. Distinct two exponential decays observed for X-ray events are consistent with a two-step R-T curve. A theoretical thermal model for noise in multi-pixel devices reasonably explains the experimental data

  17. Determinan Perilaku Tes HIV pada Ibu Hamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Setiyawati

    2015-04-01

    pengetahuan tentang HIV dan AIDS, persepsi kerentanan diri dan sikap ibu. Ada hubungan antara PITC, ketersediaan sumber informasi tentang HIV dan AIDS dari keluarga dan kader kesehatan dengan perilaku tes HIV pada ibu hamil. PITC merupakan variabel yang paling berpengaruh terhadap perilaku tes HIV pada ibu hamil. Determinant of HIV Testing Behavior among Pregnant Women Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is one of highlighted issues in accomplishing Millenium Development Goals (MDGs target. Pregnant women with HIV will transmit the virus to their babies. HIV testing is such an opening gate of HIV status that is very important to be conducted on pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the determinant of HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women including education level, knowledge level, perception of selfvulnerability to be HIV-infected, attitudes, Provider-Initiated Testing and Counseling (PITC and availability of information (family and health workers. This study was cross sectional using a survey method. This study was conducted in Mantrijeron and Sleman Primary Health Care that had HIV testing facilities and executed prevention of mother to child transmission program. The subjects of this study were pregnant women visiting such primary health care on August up to October 2014, as much as 54 people. Data collecting used questionnaire. Analysed used were univariate, biviariate, and multivariate. The results showed no relation between educational level, knowledge level about HIV and AIDS, perception of self-vulnerability and attitudes of women.There was a relation between PITC, information source availability about HIV and AIDS from the family and health workers with HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women. PITC is the most influencing variable toward HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women.

  18. CERN's surveyors are pushing back the frontiers of precision

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at a target on the other side of the Alps, 730 kilometres from CERN, or controlling the positions of thousands of devices to a precision of one tenth of a millimetre, these are just some of the painstaking tasks undertaken by the surveyors in the Positioning Metrology and Surveying Group. These masters of measurement are pushing precision to its very limit.Go down into the LEP tunnel, walk about half a mile and then try to imagine how you could possibly take precise aim at something hundreds of kilometres away without any reference to the surface. Absurd, you might think? Not entirely, for that, in a nutshell, is the geodetic challenge of the Gran Sasso project. Indeed it is just one of the challenges faced by the surveyors in CERN's Positioning Metrology and Surveying Group, whose task it will be to aim a neutrino beam at a detector located in an underground cavern 732 kilometres away at INFN's Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. The tools for solving such problems are provided by geodetics, the branch of...

  19. Chemical Analysis of the Moon at the Surveyor VI Landing Site: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkevich, A L; Patterson, J H; Franzgrote, E J

    1968-06-07

    The alpha-scattering experiment aboard soft-landing Surveyor VI has provided a chemical analysis of the surface of the moon in Sinus Medii. The preliminary results indicate that, within experimental errors, the composition is the same as that found by Surveyor V in Mare Tranquillitatis. This finding suggests that large portions of the lunar maria resemble basalt in composition.

  20. Are Quantity Surveyors Competent to Value for Civil Engineering Works? Evaluating QSs' Competencies and Militating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawumi, Timothy Oluwatosin; Ayegun, Olaleke Amos

    2016-01-01

    The role of the quantity surveyor is one that is often unclear amongst the general public. This study discussed the competencies of the quantity surveyor in measuring and managing civil engineering works and also carrying out the financial management for civil engineering construction projects; also outlined the various competencies and skills…

  1. Demonstration of EnergyNest thermal energy storage (TES) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoivik, Nils; Greiner, Christopher; Tirado, Eva Bellido; Barragan, Juan; Bergan, Pâl; Skeie, Geir; Blanco, Pablo; Calvet, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the experimental results from the EnergyNest 2 × 500 kWhth thermal energy storage (TES) pilot system installed at Masdar Institute of Science & Technology Solar Platform. Measured data are shown and compared to simulations using a specially developed computer program to verify the stability and performance of the TES. The TES is based on a solid-state concrete storage medium (HEATCRETE®) with integrated steel tube heat exchangers cast into the concrete. The unique concrete recipe used in the TES has been developed in collaboration with Heidelberg Cement; this material has significantly higher thermal conductivity compared to regular concrete implying very effective heat transfer, at the same time being chemically stable up to 450 °C. The demonstrated and measured performance of the TES matches the predictions based on simulations, and proves the operational feasibility of the EnergyNest concrete-based TES. A further case study is analyzed where a large-scale TES system presented in this article is compared to two-tank indirect molten salt technology.

  2. Surveyor Management of Hospital Accreditation Program: A Thematic Analysis Conducted in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Ramezani, Mozhdeh; Arab, Mohammad; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2016-05-01

    The surveyors in hospital accreditation program are considered as the core of accreditation programs. So, the reliability and validity of the accreditation program heavily depend on their performance. This study aimed to identify the dimensions and factors affecting surveyor management of hospital accreditation programs in Iran. This qualitative study used a thematic analysis method, and was performed in Iran in 2014. The study participants included experts in the field of hospital accreditation, and were derived from three groups: 1. Policy-makers, administrators, and surveyors of the accreditation bureau, the ministry of health and medical education, Iranian universities of medical science; 2. Healthcare service providers, and 3. University professors and faculty members. The data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews. Following text transcription and control of compliance with the original text, MAXQDA10 software was used to code, classify, and organize the interviews in six stages. The findings from the analysis of 21 interviews were first classified in the form of 1347 semantic units, 11 themes, 17 sub-themes, and 248 codes. These were further discussed by an expert panel, which then resulted in the emergence of seven main themes - selection and recruitment of the surveyor team, organization of the surveyor team, planning to perform surveys, surveyor motivation and retention, surveyor training, surveyor assessment, and recommendations - as well as 27 sub-themes, and 112 codes. The dimensions and variables affecting the surveyors' management were identified and classified on the basis of existing scientific methods in the form of a conceptual framework. Using the results of this study, it would certainly be possible to take a great step toward enhancing the reliability of surveys and the quality and safety of services, while effectively managing accreditation program surveyors.

  3. Training Exit Survey (TES) Individual State and Tribe

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The TES Individual dataset contains information at the individual-level about the persons who attend a GLS funded training event. This dataset includes variables...

  4. Bridging the Gap Between Surveyors and the Geo-Spatial Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H.

    2016-06-01

    For many years FIG, the International Association of Surveyors, has been trying to bridge the gap between surveyors and the geospatial society as a whole, with the geospatial industries in particular. Traditionally the surveying profession contributed to the good of society by creating and maintaining highly precise and accurate geospatial data bases, based on an in-depth knowledge of spatial reference frameworks. Furthermore in many countries surveyors may be entitled to make decisions about land divisions and boundaries. By managing information spatially surveyors today develop into the role of geo-data managers, the longer the more. Job assignments in this context include data entry management, data and process quality management, design of formal and informal systems, information management, consultancy, land management, all that in close cooperation with many different stakeholders. Future tasks will include the integration of geospatial information into e-government and e-commerce systems. The list of professional tasks underpins the capabilities of surveyors to contribute to a high quality geospatial data and information management. In that way modern surveyors support the needs of a geo-spatial society. The paper discusses several approaches to define the role of the surveyor within the modern geospatial society.

  5. Lightning NOx emissions over the USA constrained by TES ozone observations and the GEOS-Chem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, L.; Kulawik, S. S.; Worden, H. M.; Pickering, K. E.; Worden, J.; Thompson, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Improved estimates of NOx from lightning sources are required to understand tropospheric NOx and ozone distributions, the oxidising capacity of the troposphere and corresponding feedbacks between chemistry and climate change. In this paper, we report new satellite ozone observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument that can be used to test and constrain the parameterization of the lightning source of NOx in global models. Using the National Lightning Detection (NLDN) and the Long Range Lightning Detection Network (LRLDN) data as well as the HYPSLIT transport and dispersion model, we show that TES provides direct observations of ozone enhanced layers downwind of convective events over the USA in July 2006. We find that the GEOS-Chem global chemistry-transport model with a parameterization based on cloud top height, scaled regionally and monthly to OTD/LIS (Optical Transient Detector/Lightning Imaging Sensor) climatology, captures the ozone enhancements seen by TES. We show that the model's ability to reproduce the location of the enhancements is due to the fact that this model reproduces the pattern of the convective events occurrence on a daily basis during the summer of 2006 over the USA, even though it does not well represent the relative distribution of lightning intensities. However, this model with a value of 6 Tg N/yr for the lightning source (i.e.: with a mean production of 260 moles NO/Flash over the USA in summer) underestimates the intensities of the ozone enhancements seen by TES. By imposing a production of 520 moles NO/Flash for lightning occurring in midlatitudes, which better agrees with the values proposed by the most recent studies, we decrease the bias between TES and GEOS-Chem ozone over the USA in July 2006 by 40%. However, our conclusion on the strength of the lightning source of NOx is limited by the fact that the contribution from the stratosphere is underestimated in the GEOS-Chem simulations.

  6. Microwave Readout to Enable the Imaging Spectrometer for the X-ray Surveyor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The X-ray Surveyor mission concept is one of NASA’s four large missions to be studied in the upcoming 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Review. It aims to be a true...

  7. Pengembangan tes kemampuan literasi sains pada materi momentum dan impuls dengan Analisis Item Response Theory (IRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Apriyani Kusuma Putri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Kemampuan literasi sains adalah suatu kemampuan yang memungkinkan seseorang untuk membuat suatu keputusan dengan pengetahuan konsep dan proses sains yang dimilikinya. Berbagai macam permasalahan yang terjadi di era globalisasi ini menuntut siswa untuk tidak hanya cakap dalam aspek kognitif tapi juga mampu memberi keputusan untuk memecahkan permasalahan, sehingga dapat dikatakan bahwa kemampuan literasi sains adalah kemampuan yang penting dan harus dimiliki siswa. Oleh karena itu, dibutuhkan instrumen untuk mengukur kemampuan literasi sains. hal inilah yang mendasari peneliti mengembangkan instrumen kemampuan literasi sains. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengembangkan dan mengetahui karakteristik tes kemampuan literasi sains fisika siswa SMA pada materi momentum dan impuls berdasarkan aspek literasi sains yang dikemukakan oleh Gormally. Metode penelitian yang diterapkan adalah penelitian dan pengembangan (Research and Development yaitu metode penelitian yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan produk tertentu, dan menguji keefektifan produk tersebut. Sebelum diuji coba tes telah divalidasi oleh tiga orang validator dan menghasilkan kesimpulan bahwa tes cukup baik dan dapat diuji coba. Hasil analisis menggunakan Item Response Theory menunjukkan bahwa model 3PL adalah model yang sesuai dengan karakteristik tes. Sedangkan karakteristik tes yang meliputi daya pembeda, tingkat kesukaran, dan faktor tebakan termasuk dalam kategori baik. Science literacy skills is an ability that allows one to make a decision with the knowledge of the concepts and processes of science has. A wide variety of problems that occur in a globalized world requires students to not only proficient in cognitive but also able to make a decision to solve the problem, so it can be said that the ability of science literacy is an important capability and must be owned by the students. Therefore, the instrument is required to measure the ability of science literacy. This problem is

  8. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dunner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe approx.70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at approx.10Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

  9. 'Surveyor': An Underwater System for Threat Material Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Nad, Karlo; Obhodas, Jasmina; Matika, Dario; Kollar, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The bottoms of the coastal seas, and oceans as well, are contaminated by many man-made objects including a variety of ammunition. This contamination is world wide spread with some areas being highly polluted presenting a serious threat to local population and to visitors as well. All littoral nations are investing lots of effort into the remediation of their coastal areas. Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water is confirmed (by visual identification and by using one or several sensors, namely magnetometer, sonar and optical cameras) it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive/chemical warfare charge. In our work we propose this to be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel - 'Surveyor'. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system inspects the object for the presence of the threat material by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator. (author)

  10. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Lorenzo; O'Brien, Paul T.; Götz, Diego

    2016-07-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS) is a mission concept under development by a large international collaboration aimed at exploiting gamma-ray bursts for investigating the early Universe. The main scientific objectives of THESEUS include: investigating the star formation rate and metallicity evolution of the ISM and IGM up to redshift 9-10, detecting the first generation (pop III) of stars, studying the sources and physics of re-ionization, detecting the faint end of galaxies luminosity function. These goals will be achieved through a unique combination of instruments allowing GRB detection and arcmin localization over a broad FOV (more than 1sr) and an energy band extending from several MeVs down to 0.3 keV with unprecedented sensitivity, as well as on-board prompt (few minutes) follow-up with a 0.6m class IR telescope with both imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. Such instrumentation will also allow THESEUS to unveil and study the population of soft and sub-energetic GRBs, and, more in general, to perform monitoring and survey of the X-ray sky with unprecedented sensitivity.

  11. Pengembangan The Two-Tier Diagnostic Tes pada Bidang Biologi secara Terkomputersisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwarto Suwarto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian bertujuan mengembangkan tes diagnostik dua tingkat (the two-tier diagnostic test pada bidang biologi dan mengembangkan program komputer untuk mendiagnosis kesulitan belajar siswa. Tes disusun melalui tiga fase, yaitu (1 defining the content boundaries; (2 identifying students’ misconceptions; dan (3 developing instrument. Pengembangan program komputer terkait dengan soal, siswa, tabel kerja, SQL (Structured Query Language, ketuntasan, dan grade. Tes diagnostik yang dikembangkan ada 3, yaitu tes A, tes B, dan tes C. Responden untuk tes A dan tes B ada 130 siswa dan untuk tes C ada 128 siswa. Analisis statistik dilakukan dengan program iteman versi 3,00. Program komputer yang dikembangkan diujicobakan di SMAN 1 Tawangsari dan SMA Veteran 1 Sukoharjo. Hasil penelitian adalah Tes A terdiri atas 73 butir, dengan rentang kesulitan butir 0,031-0,962, rentang daya beda butir 0,013-1,000 dan reliabilitas 0,871; Tes B terdiri atas 39 butir, dengan rentang kesulitan butir 0,038-0,762, rentang daya beda butir 0,009-0,918 dan reliabilitas 0,768; dan Tes C terdiri atas 79 butir, dengan rentang kesulitan butir 0,102-0,938, daya beda butir 0,029-1,000 dan reliabilitas 0,894. Program komputer untuk mendiagnosis kesulitan belajar telah berfungsi dengan baik. Kata kunci: tes terkomputerisasi

  12. Simulation of Transient Response of Ir-TES for Position-Sensitive TES with Waveform Domain Multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Y.; Sato, H.; Mori, F.; Damayanthi, R. M. T.; Takahashi, H.; Ohno, M.

    2008-04-01

    We are developing a new x-ray microcalorimeter based on a superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) as an imaging sensor. Our measurement shows unique waveforms which we consider as an expression of thermal nonuniformity of TES films. This arises from the different thermal responses, so that response signal shapes would vary according to the position of the incident x-ray. This position dependency deteriorate the measured energy resolution, but with appropriate waveform analysis, this would be useful for imaging device. For more inspection, we have developed a simulation code which enables a dynamic simulation to obtain a transient response of the TES by finite differential method. Temperature and electric current distributions are calculated. As a result, we successfully obtained waveform signals. The calculated signal waveforms have similar characteristics to the measured signals. This simulation visualized the transition state of the device and will help to design better detector.

  13. Lojalitātes programmas mazumtirdzniecībā.

    OpenAIRE

    Magone, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt klientu lojalitātes būtību un veidošanos, izmantojot mārketinga literatūrā piedāvātās koncepcijas, izpētīt mazumtirdzniecību lojalitātes programmas, salīdzināt uzņēmumu Prisma, Rimi un Maxima lojalitātes programmas un izstrādāt priekšlikumus kā uzlabot to darbību. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no trijām daļām. Pirmajā nodaļā ir raksturota un analizēta lojalitāte mārketinga teorijā. Otrajā nodaļā ir analizētas lojalitātes programmas kā mārketinga instruments. Tre...

  14. Frequency-domain multiplexing of TES microcalorimeter array with CABBAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyomoto, N.; Ichitsubo, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N.Y.; Fujimoto, R.; Oshima, T.; Futamoto, K.; Takei, Y.; Fujimori, T.; Yoshida, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Morita, U.; Koga, T.; Shinozaki, K.; Sato, K.; Takai, N.; Ohashi, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Nakayama, S.; Tanaka, K.; Morooka, T.; Chinone, K.

    2004-01-01

    Properties of Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) microcalorimeters operated with AC bias are studied utilizing the calorimeter Wheatstone bridge circuit called Calorimeter Bridge Biased by an AC Generator (CABBAGE). The CABBAGE eliminates the AC carrier significantly, thus enables us to study the AC responses of the TES with high sensitivity. We tested two kinds of TES devices operating at 110 and 440 mK, respectively. With the 110 mK device biased with 25 kHz, an energy resolution of 28 eV is obtained for Mn Kα line. On the other hand, we multiplexed the signals from two 440 mK device biased with 50 and 20 kHz, respectively, and obtained 167 and 271 eV energy resolutions. Even at the balance point of the bridge, AC signal did not disappear and odd-order harmonics were observed. They are considered to arise from the current dependence of the TES resistance, which is characterized by β≡d log R/d log I. Numerical solution for the CABBAGE response can reproduce the experimental results well if β=0.24±0.02. Since the harmonics may cause severe problem in the SQUID operation even after attenuated by a band-pass filter, especially at high bias frequency operation such as several hundred kHz, it is important to make β small

  15. The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P. T.

    2016-04-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor is a mission which will be proposed for the ESA M5 call. THESEUS will address multiple components in the Early Universe ESA Cosmic Vision theme:4.1 Early Universe,4.2 The Universe taking shape, and4.3 The evolving violent Universe.THESEUS aims at vastly increasing the discovery space of the high energy transient phenomena over the entire cosmic history. This is achieved via a unique payload providing an unprecedented combination of: (i) wide and deep sky monitoring in a broad energy band(0.3 keV-20 MeV; (ii) focusing capabilities in the soft X-ray band granting large grasp and high angular resolution; and (iii) on board near-IR capabilities for immediate transient identification and first redshift estimate.The THESEUS payload consists of: (i) the Soft X--ray Imager (SXI), a set of Lobster Eye (0.3--6 keV) telescopes with CCD detectors covering a total FOV of 1 sr; (ii) the X--Gamma-rays spectrometer (XGS), a non-imaging spectrometer (XGS) based on SDD+CsI, covering the same FOV than the Lobster telescope extending the THESEUS energy band up to 20 MeV; and (iii) a 70cm class InfraRed Telescope (IRT) observing up to 2 microns with imaging and moderate spectral capabilities.The main scientific goals of THESEUS are to:(a) Explore the Early Universe (cosmic dawn and reionization era) by unveiling the Gamma--Ray Burst (GRBs) population in the first billion years}, determining when did the first stars form, and investigating the re-ionization epoch, the interstellar medium (ISM) and the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshifts.(b) Perform an unprecedented deep survey of the soft X-ray transient Universe in order to fill the present gap in the discovery space of new classes of transient; provide a fundamental step forward in the comprehension of the physics of various classes of Galactic and extra--Galactic transients, and provide real time trigger and accurate locations of transients for follow-up with next

  16. PENGEMBANGAN TES BERPIKIR KRITIS DENGAN PENDEKATAN ITEM RESPONSE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrianthi Fajrianthi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan sebuah alat ukur (tes berpikir kritis yang valid dan reliabel untuk digunakan, baik dalam lingkup pendidikan maupun kerja di Indonesia. Tahapan penelitian dilakukan berdasarkan tahap pengembangan tes menurut Hambleton dan Jones (1993. Kisi-kisi dan pembuatan butir didasarkan pada konsep dalam tes Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA. Pada WGCTA, berpikir kritis terdiri dari lima dimensi yaitu Inference, Recognition Assumption, Deduction, Interpretation dan Evaluation of arguments. Uji coba tes dilakukan pada 1.453 peserta tes seleksi karyawan di Surabaya, Gresik, Tuban, Bojonegoro, Rembang. Data dikotomi dianalisis dengan menggunakan model IRT dengan dua parameter yaitu daya beda dan tingkat kesulitan butir. Analisis dilakukan dengan menggunakan program statistik Mplus versi 6.11 Sebelum melakukan analisis dengan IRT, dilakukan pengujian asumsi yaitu uji unidimensionalitas, independensi lokal dan Item Characteristic Curve (ICC. Hasil analisis terhadap 68 butir menghasilkan 15 butir dengan daya beda yang cukup baik dan tingkat kesulitan butir yang berkisar antara –4 sampai dengan 2.448. Sedikitnya jumlah butir yang berkualitas baik disebabkan oleh kelemahan dalam menentukan subject matter experts di bidang berpikir kritis dan pemilihan metode skoring. Kata kunci: Pengembangan tes, berpikir kritis, item response theory   DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING TEST UTILISING ITEM RESPONSE THEORY Abstract The present study was aimed to develop a valid and reliable instrument in assesing critical thinking which can be implemented both in educational and work settings in Indonesia. Following the Hambleton and Jones’s (1993 procedures on test development, the study developed the instrument by employing the concept of critical thinking from Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA. The study included five dimensions of critical thinking as adopted from the WGCTA: Inference, Recognition

  17. Surveyor assay to diagnose persistent Müllerian duct syndrome in Miniature Schnauzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young June; Kwon, Hyuk Jin; Byun, Hyuk Soo; Yeom, Donguk; Choi, Jea-Hong; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Shim, Hosup

    2017-12-31

    Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a pseudohermaphroditism in males characterized by the presence of Müllerian duct derivatives. As PMDS dogs often lack clinical symptoms, a molecular diagnosis is essential to identify the syndrome in these animals. In this study, a new molecular method using DNA mismatch-specific Surveyor nuclease was developed. The Surveyor nuclease assay identified the AMHR2 mutation that produced PMDS in a Miniature Schnauzer as accurately as that obtained by using the conventional method based on restriction digestion. As an alternative to the current molecular diagnostic method, the new method may result in increased accuracy when detecting PMDS.

  18. Computational Analysis on Performance of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M. A. H. M.; Adnan, F.; Ismail, A. R.; Kardigama, K.; Salaam, H. A.; Ahmad, Z.; Johari, N. H.; Anuar, Z.; Azmi, N. S. N.

    2012-09-01

    Application of thermal energy storage (TES) system reduces cost and energy consumption. The performance of the overall operation is affected by diffuser design. In this study, computational analysis is used to determine the thermocline thickness. Three dimensional simulations with different tank height-to-diameter ratio (HD), diffuser opening and the effect of difference number of diffuser holes are investigated. Medium HD tanks simulations with double ring octagonal diffuser show good thermocline behavior and clear distinction between warm and cold water. The result show, the best performance of thermocline thickness during 50% time charging occur in medium tank with height-to-diameter ratio of 4.0 and double ring octagonal diffuser with 48 holes (9mm opening ~ 60%) acceptable compared to diffuser with 6mm ~ 40% and 12mm ~ 80% opening. The conclusion is computational analysis method are very useful in the study on performance of thermal energy storage (TES).

  19. Computational Analysis on Performance of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M A H M; Ismail, A R; Kardigama, K; Salaam, H A; Ahmad, Z; Johari, N H; Anuar, Z; Azmi, N S N; Adnan, F

    2012-01-01

    Application of thermal energy storage (TES) system reduces cost and energy consumption. The performance of the overall operation is affected by diffuser design. In this study, computational analysis is used to determine the thermocline thickness. Three dimensional simulations with different tank height-to-diameter ratio (HD), diffuser opening and the effect of difference number of diffuser holes are investigated. Medium HD tanks simulations with double ring octagonal diffuser show good thermocline behavior and clear distinction between warm and cold water. The result show, the best performance of thermocline thickness during 50% time charging occur in medium tank with height-to-diameter ratio of 4.0 and double ring octagonal diffuser with 48 holes (9mm opening ∼ 60%) acceptable compared to diffuser with 6mm ∼ 40% and 12mm ∼ 80% opening. The conclusion is computational analysis method are very useful in the study on performance of thermal energy storage (TES).

  20. Komparasi Metode Penyetaraan Tes Menurut teori Respons Butir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Miyatun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menemukan metode penyetaraan tes dengan teori respons butir yang paling akurat. Sebelum dilakukan pengujian keakuratan metode penyetaraan tes, terlebih dahulu dilakukan: 1 Pemeriksaan setara atau tidaknya perangkat tes, 2 Penemuan persamaan konversi antarpaket soal yang tidak setara dan 3 Estimasi parameter butir. Penentuan metode penyetaraan tes yang akurat didasarkan pada besarnya kesalahan standar penyetaraan (SEE; yang paling akurat adalah metode penyetaraan tes yang mempunyai SEE paling kecil. Dalam penelitian ini, terdapat dua macam objek penelitian yaitu paket soal dan jawaban peserta EBTANAS. Soal EBTANAS terdiri dari 3 paket soal utama, 1 paket soal susulan, dan 1 paket soal cadangan. Peserta EBTANAS SLTP di Jawa Tengah Tahun Ajaran 1998/1999 terdiri dari 370.187 siswa. Teknik Purposive Sampling digunakan untuk menentukan sampel paket soal, yaitu ketiga paket soal utama terpilih sebagai sampel penelitian. Teknik Cluster Stratified Systematic Random Sampling digunakan untuk menentukan sampel jawaban peserta EBTANAS. Jawaban peserta sebanyak 8.251, terpilih sebagai sampel penelitian. Paket soal EBTANAS SLTP bidang studi Matematika dan data jawaban peserta tes, diperoleh melalui pengambilan data dokumentasi. Keparalelan tes diuji dengan analisis varians, uji Scheffe, dan uji Levene. Penyetaraan tes dilakukan dengan metode: Rerata dan Sigma, Rerata dan Sigma Tegar, dan Kurva Karakteristik. Estimasi parameter butir dilakukan dengan analisis program Bilog. Hasil analisis menunjukkan, pasangan paket soal utama-1 dan 2 serta pasangan paket soal utama-1 dan 3 tidak paralel, sehingga diperlukan proses penyetaraan. Pasangan paket soal utama-2 dan paket soal utama-3 bersifat paralel. Oleh karena itu tidak diperlukan proses penyetaraan. Penyetaraan paket soal utama-1 ke paket soal utama-2, dengan metode Rerata dan Sigma didapatkan persamaan konversi X2 - 1,19495 X] + 0,25766; dengan metode Rerata dan Sigma Tegar, X2 = 0

  1. PENILAIAN PEMAHAMAN REPRESENTASI GRAFIK MATERI OPTIKA GEOMETRI MENGGUNAKAN TES DIAGNOSTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Bunawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian adalah mengembangkan dan menerapkan tes diagnostik pilihan ganda tiga tingkat untuk mengukur pemahaman representasi grafik mahasiswa terkait esensi inkuiri sains dan materi optika geometri. Penelitian menggunakan metode campuran melibatkan 83 mahasiswa calon guru fisika di satu LPTK Sumatera Utara. Instrumen tes diagnostik terlebih dahulu didesain kemudian disempurnakan selama proses, direvisi, dan digunakan untuk mendeteksi dan menilai pemahaman representasi grafik mahasiswa calon guru fisika. Instrumen tes telah dikembangkan untuk dapat mendiagnosis dan memperbaiki kesalahan-kesalahan yang dilakukan calon guru fisika terkait dengan keterampilan mengonstruk grafik, menemukan kesulitan-kesulitan dalam membaca dan menginterpretasi grafik. Analisis data dilakukan secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Hasil studi menunjukkan pembacaan grafik dan keterampilan menginterpretasi grafik calon guru fisika masih belum memadai dan juga kemahiran dalam menganalisis grafik bergantung pada jenis grafik dan level atau tipe pertanyaan yang dikembangkan. Kata Kunci: representasi grafik, optik geometri, diagnostik tes ASSESSING OF UNDERSTANDING GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION CONTENT GEOMETRICAL OPTIC USING DIAGNOSTIC TEST Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop and apply three tier multiple choice diagnostic test to measure student’s understanding of graphical representation about essential features of inquiry and content geometrical optic. The study was conducted using mixed methods and carried out with 83 prephysics teachers at a University of Teachers Education in North Sumatera. The diagnostic instrument was designed and then progressively refined, revised, and implemented to detect and assess student’s understanding of graphical representation. Test instrument was developed to diagnose and correct the mistakes made by pre-service physics teachers about construction graphic skills, difficulties in the reading and interpretation

  2. Antenna-coupled TES bolometers for the SPIDER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, C.L. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)]|[California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]. E-mail: clkuo@astro.caltech.edu; Ade, P. [University of Wales, Cardiff, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3YB, Wales (United Kingdom); Bock, J.J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)]|[California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Day, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)]|[California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Goldin, A.; Golwala, S.; Hristov, V.; Jones, W.C.; Lange, A.E.; Rossinot, P.; Vayonakis, A.; Wang, G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Halpern, M. [University of British Columbia, 2329 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hilton, G.; Irwin, K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO (United States); Holmes, W.; Kenyon, M.; LeDuc, H.G. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); MacTavish, C. [University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Montroy, T.; Ruhl, J. [Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Netterfield, C.B. [University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Yun, M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)]|[University of Pittsburgh, 348 Benedum Engineering Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Zmuidzinas, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)]|[California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    SPIDER is a proposed balloon-borne experiment designed to search for the imprints of gravity waves on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The required wide frequency coverage, large number of sensitive detectors, and the stringent power constraints on a balloon are made possible by antenna-coupled TES bolometers. Several prototype devices have been fabricated and optically characterized. Their spectral and angular responses agree well with the theoretical expectations.

  3. Parametric Characterization of TES Detectors Under DC Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Meng P.; Smith, Stephen James; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Adams, Joseph S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele L.; Chervenak, James A.; Datesman, Aaron M.; Eckart, Megan E.; Ewin, Audrey J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray integrated field unit (X-IFU) in European Space Agency's (ESA's) Athena mission will be the first high-resolution X-ray spectrometer in space using a large-format transition-edge sensor microcalorimeter array. Motivated by optimization of detector performance for X-IFU, we have conducted an extensive campaign of parametric characterization on transition-edge sensor (TES) detectors with nominal geometries and physical properties in order to establish sensitivity trends relative to magnetic field, dc bias on detectors, operating temperature, and to improve our understanding of detector behavior relative to its fundamental properties such as thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and transition temperature. These results were used for validation of a simple linear detector model in which a small perturbation can be introduced to one or multiple parameters to estimate the error budget for X-IFU. We will show here results of our parametric characterization of TES detectors and briefly discuss the comparison with the TES model.

  4. Chemical Analysis of the Moon at the Surveyor VII Landing Site: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkevich, A L; Franzgrote, E J; Patterson, J H

    1968-10-04

    The alpha-scattering experiment aboard Surveyor VII has provided a chemical analysis of the moon in the area of the crater Tycho. The preliminary results indicate a chemical composition similar to that already found at two mare sites, but with a lower concentration of elements of the iron group (titanium through copper).

  5. Adjusting forest density estimates for surveyor bias in historical tree surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice B. Hanberry; Jian Yang; John M. Kabrick; Hong S. He

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. General Land Office surveys, conducted between the late 1700s to early 1900s, provide records of trees prior to widespread European and American colonial settlement. However, potential and documented surveyor bias raises questions about the reliability of historical tree density estimates and other metrics based on density estimated from these records. In this...

  6. Identifying and Describing Tutor Archetypes: The Pragmatist, the Architect, and the Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harootunian, Jeff A.; Quinn, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors identify and anecdotally describe three tutor archetypes: the pragmatist, the architect, and the surveyor. These descriptions, based on observations of remedial mathematics tutors at a land-grant university, shed light on a variety of philosophical beliefs regarding and pedagogical approaches to tutoring. An analysis…

  7. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  8. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  9. DELFIC-TES, Gamma Doses from Nuclear Explosion Radioactive Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: DELFIC-TES computes the transit gamma exposure from the airborne cloud resulting from a nuclear burst for fixed targets located on or above the earth's surface. 2 - Method of solution - The system is based on a method of producing 'snapshots' of the moving cloud of airborne particles during the transport process of DELFIC. Each particle in each snapshot is then assigned an activity and these data are used to calculate transit exposure by employing an energy-dependent buildup factor technique

  10. Perbandingan Keefektifan Bentuk Tes Uraian dan Teslet dengan Penerapan Graded Response Model (GRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwo susongko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan: (1 perbandingan nilai fungsi informasi item pada bentuk tes uraian dan testlet secara empirik dan simulasi, (2 pengaruh banyaknya item dan ukuran sampel terhadap perbandingan nilai fungsi informasi item pada bentuk tes uraian dan testlet secara simulasi, dan (3 keakuratan pemodelan GRM pada bentuk uraian dan testlet. Data empirik diambil dari respons siswa terhadap tes bentuk uraian dan bentuk testlet dari 772 siswa SMA kelas XI yang tersebar di lima SMA di Kabupaten Tegal. Bentuk tes uraian dan testlet bersama-sama diberikan pada siswa pada akhir semester I dan di awal semester II dengan waktu tenggang minimal 1 bulan. Data pada penelitian simulasi dibangkitkan dari parameter item hasil estimasi pada penelitian empirik dengan program WinGen 2. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 secara empirik dan simulasi, tes yang disajikan dalam bentuk uraian cenderung memiliki nilai fungsi informasi item yang lebih tinggi dibanding dengan tes yang disajikan dalam bentuk testlet, (2 secara simulasi, ada pengaruh banyaknya item dan ukuran sampel terhadap perbandingan nilai fungsi informasi item pada bentuk tes uraian dan bentuk testlet, dan (3 pemodelan GRM pada bentuk tes uraian dan testlet paling akurat pada kondisi banyaknya item 20 dan ukuran sampel 2000. Kata kunci: keefektifan, bentuk tes, graded response model

  11. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  12. The ties that bind: Soil surveyor William Edgar Tharp and oceanographic cartographer Marie Tharp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Edward R.

    The link between soil science and geology is personified in the American father and daughter: soil surveyor William Edgar Tharp (1870-1959) and oceanographic cartographer Marie Tharp (1920-2006). From 1904 to 1935, W.E. Tharp mapped soils in 14 states for the US Department of Agriculture, and campaigned during the late 1920s-early 1930s to raise awareness of the high rates of soil erosion from croplands. The lifestyle of the federal soil surveyor in the United States during the early 20th century involved frequent household moves, and it played a formative role in Marie Tharp’s childhood. Her path to a career in geology was molded by this family experience, by mentors encountered in the classroom, and by social barriers that faced women scientists of that era.

  13. Further Analysis on the Mystery of the Surveyor III Dust Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip; Hintze, Paul; Trigwell, Steven; Lane, John

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo 12 lunar module (LM) landing near the Surveyor III spacecraft at the end of 1969 has remained the primary experimental verification of the predicted physics of plume ejecta effects from a rocket engine interacting with the surface of the moon. This was made possible by the return of the Surveyor III camera housing by the Apollo 12 astronauts, allowing detailed analysis of the composition of dust deposited by the LM plume. It was soon realized after the initial analysis of the camera housing that the LM plume tended to remove more dust than it had deposited. In the present study, coupons from the camera housing have been reexamined. In addition, plume effects recorded in landing videos from each Apollo mission have been studied for possible clues.

  14. Professional Risk Assessment on the Workplace of Surface Surveyor Employed in Measuring-Geological Department of Coalmine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewska, Ewa; Orwat, Justyna

    2016-06-01

    In this article were shown the identification of threats and the assessment of occupational risk for the surface surveyor by using the Five Steps method and taking into account the health state of workers.

  15. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 38 GHz Detector Array of Bolometric Polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  16. The cosmology large angular scale surveyor (CLASS): 38-GHz detector array of bolometric polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennet, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Huang, Caroline; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Glenn; Karakula, John; Kogut, Alan J.; Larson, David; Limon, Michele; Lowry, Lindsay; Marriage, Tobias; Mehrle, Nicholas; Miller, Amber D.; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H.; Novak, Giles; Reintsema, Carl; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wagner, Emily; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2014-07-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  17. Correlates of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndubuisi Onukwube

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Job satisfaction is the sense of well- being, good feeling and positive mental state that emerge in an incumbent worker when his obtained reward consequent upon his performance is congruent with his equitable reward.The aim of this study is to ascertain the levels of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria. Biographical and job descriptive index questionnaires (JDI were administered to gather the data. The JDI measures job satisfaction on five facets, namely, pay, promotions, supervision, co-workers and the work itself. A total of 100 questionnaires were collected and used for the study. The survey covered quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos and the respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, t-test and one way anova. Findings of the study revealed that the respondents were satisfied with the relationship with co-workers, nature of work and the supervision they receive. Major sources of dissatisfaction are promotion and salaries of the respondents. This finding is a bold step and necessary benchmark for resolving major sources of dissatisfaction among quantity surveyors in consulting firms. The roles of other contextual factors on job satisfaction need to be contemplated for future research.

  18. Correlates of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndubuisi Onukwube

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is the sense of well- being, good feeling and positive mental state that emerge in an incumbent worker when his obtained reward consequent upon his performance is congruent with his equitable reward.The aim of this study is to ascertain the levels of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria. Biographical and job descriptive index questionnaires (JDI were administered to gather the data. The JDI measures job satisfaction on five facets, namely, pay, promotions, supervision, co-workers and the work itself. A total of 100 questionnaires were collected and used for the study. The survey covered quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos and the respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, t-test and one way anova. Findings of the study revealed that the respondents were satisfied with the relationship with co-workers, nature of work and the supervision they receive. Major sources of dissatisfaction are promotion and salaries of the respondents. This finding is a bold step and necessary benchmark for resolving major sources of dissatisfaction among quantity surveyors in consulting firms. The roles of other contextual factors on job satisfaction need to be contemplated for future research.

  19. Contribution à la connaissance des micromycètes du Maroc. Cas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution à la connaissance des micromycètes du Maroc. Cas des ... et qualitative des micromycètes d'origine terrestre de la région de Rabat (Maroc). ... elles ont été entraînées dans le milieu aquatique par différents moyens de transport.

  20. Bismuth X-ray absorber studies for TES microcalorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadleir, J.E.; Bandler, S.R.; Brekosky, R.P.; Chervenak, J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Finkbeiner, F.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R.L.; Kilbourne, C.A.; King, J.M.; Porter, F.S.; Robinson, I.K.; Saab, T.; Talley, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Bismuth's large atomic number and low carrier density makes it an attractive X-ray absorber material for microcalorimeters. Bismuth's long Fermi wavelength and long mean free paths have motivated much interest in the fabrication of high quality bismuth films to study quantum size effects. Despite such incentives, fabrication of high quality bismuth films has proven difficult, and measured properties of such films are highly variable in the literature. Implementing a bismuth deposition process for TES (superconducting Transition Edge Sensor) device fabrication presents additional challenges particularly at interfaces due to the inherent granularity and surface roughness of its films, its low melting point, and its tendency to diffuse and form undesired intermetallic phases. We report observations of Bi-Cu and Bi-Au diffusion in our devices correlating with large shifts in T c (superconducting transition temperature). Using SEM and in situ R vs T annealing experiments we have been able to study these diffusion processes and identify their activation temperatures

  1. Veikala lojalitātes programmas iOS lietotne

    OpenAIRE

    Freibergs, Kristaps

    2013-01-01

    Pasaulē izmantoto tehnoloģiju klāstam augot, ir pieaudzis arī mobilo ierīču piedāvājums un to iespējas. Salīdzinoši lielu daļu tirgus ir iekarojusi Apple Inc. ar savu produkciju, tai skaitā iPhone viedtālruņiem. Šajā kvalifikācijas darbā tiek aprakstīta un izstrādāta iPhone ierīces lietotne veikala lojalitātes programmas realizācijai. Lietotnes mērķis ir popularizēt konkrēto veikalu, piedāvājot dažādas lietotājam saistošas funkcijas, tai skaitā, apskatīt tuvākos veikalus, izveidot iepirkumu g...

  2. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  3. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  4. Optimization of X-ray Absorbers for TES Microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyomoto, Naoko; Sadleir, John E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Saab, Tarek; Bandler, Simon; Kilbourne, Caroline; Chervenak, James; Talley, Dorothy; Finkbeiner, Fred; Brekosky, Regis

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the thermal, electrical, and structural properties of Bi and BiCu films that are being developed as X-ray absorbers for transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays for imaging X-ray spectroscopy. Bi could be an ideal material for an X-ray absorber due to its high X-ray stopping power and low heat capacity, but it has a low thermal conductivity, which can result in position dependence of the pulses in the absorber. In order to improve the thermal conductivity, we added Cu layers in between the Bi layers. We measured electrical and thermal conductivities of the films around 0.1 K(sub 1) the operating temperature of the TES calorimeter, to examine the films and to determine the optimal thickness of the Cu layer. From the electrical conductivity measurements, we found that the Cu is more resistive on the Bi than on a Si substrate. Together with an SEM picture of the Bi surface, we concluded that the rough surface of the Bi film makes the Cu layer resistive when the Cu layer is not thick enough t o fill in the roughness. From the thermal conductivity measurements, we determined the thermal diffusion constant to be 2 x l0(exp 3) micrometers squared per microsecond in a film that consists of 2.25 micrometers of Bi and 0.1 micrometers of Cu. We measured the position dependence in the film and found that its thermal diffusion constant is too low to get good energy resolution, because of the resistive Cu layer and/or possibly a very high heat capacity of our Bi films. We show plans to improve the thermal diffusion constant in our BiCu absorbers.

  5. A work procedure of utilising PCMs as thermal storage systems based on air-TES systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, M.; Liu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A procedure to design effective thermal energy storage (TES) system. • A guidance for the selection of the working material (PCM) and the heat exchanger development. • Suggestions for heat transfer enhancement techniques for the air-TES system. • Mathematical, computational and experimental methods optimising the air-TES system. - Abstract: The paper seeks to offer a procedure to design an effective short term thermal energy storage (TES) system using phase change materials. The methodology focus on two main aspects: the selection of the working material and the heat exchanger development. The selection of the appropriate PCMs is one of the main keys for any TES therefore their classifications, properties, advantages and disadvantages need to be investigated. Due to the intensive researches using this kind of materials in the recent years, there are a range of commercial PCMs available and supplied by different companies. However, all types of PCM present their specific problems and therefore requirements are defined in order to select the most suitable PCMs. The other main key when designing TES is related to the heat exchanger formed by the PCM and the cold/hot heat sources. For this step, the choice of the appropriate container to encapsulate the PCM and the heat transfer enhancement techniques are analysed. Distinct methodologies such as experimental and numerical study methods and modelling software tools are presented to analyse the thermal energy performance of the system and achieve the optimal design of the TES system

  6. Development of X-ray microcalorimeter using Ir/Au-TES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Ohno, Masashi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka; Hirayama, Huminori; Ataka, Manabu

    2004-01-01

    We are developing x-ray mirocalorimeters using transition edge sensors of iridium/gold (Ir/Au-TES) for high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. TES microcalorimeters can achieve faster response than conventional microcalorimeters by keeping the operating point of TES in the transition region through the use of strong negative electrothermal feedback (ETF). At present, the energy resolution of 9.4 eV (FWHM) was achieved for a 5899 eV Mn K al line. At a synchrotron X-ray radiation facility, we demonstrated microscopic signal response profile of the device and high-resolution X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using a small amount of sample. (author)

  7. Software Surveyor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wells, Davide

    2003-01-01

    .... The non-intrusive gauges illustrate the interaction patters, how far the effects of changes can propagate and whether an anticipated action is likely to be safe and identify subtle differences...

  8. Sulfates on Mars: TES Observations and Thermal Inertia Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. D.; Mustard, J. F.

    2001-05-01

    The high resolution thermal emission spectra returned by the TES spectrometer on the MGS spacecraft have allowed the mapping of a variety of minerals and rock types by different sets of researchers. Recently, we have used a linear deconvolution approach to compare sulfate-palagonite soil mixtures created in the laboratory with Martian surface spectra. This approach showed that a number of areas on Mars have spectral properties that match those of sulfate-cemented soils (but neither loose powder mixtures of sulfates and soils nor sand-sized grains of disaggregated crusted soils). These features do not appear to be caused by atmospheric or instrumental effects and are thus believed to be related to surface composition and texture. The distribution and physical state of sulfate are important pieces of information for interpreting surface processes on Mars. A number of different mechanisms could have deposited sulfate in surface layers. Some of these include evaporation of standing bodies of water, aerosol deposition of volcanic gases, hydrothermal alteration from groundwater, and in situ interaction between the atmosphere and soil. The areas on Mars with cemented sulfate signatures are spread across a wide range of elevations and are generally large in spatial scale. Some of the areas are associated with volcanic regions, but many are in dark red plains that have previously been interpreted as duricrust deposits. Our current work compares the distribution of sulfate-cemented soils as mapped by the spectral deconvolution approach with thermal inertia maps produced from both Viking and MGS-TES. Duricrust regions, interpreted from intermediate thermal inertia values, are large regions thought to be sulfate-cemented soils similar to coherent, sulfate-rich materials seen at the Viking lander sites. Our observations of apparent regions of cemented sulfate are also large in spatial extent. This scale information is important for evaluating formation mechanisms for the

  9. Are BiTEs the "missing link" in cancer therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadevara, Carter M; Gedeon, Patrick C; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Verla, Terence; Alvarez-Breckenridge, Christopher; Choi, Bryan D; Fecci, Peter E; Sampson, John H

    2015-06-01

    Conventional treatment for cancer routinely includes surgical resection and some combination of chemotherapy and radiation. These approaches are frequently accompanied by unintended and highly toxic collateral damage to healthy tissues, which are offset by only marginal prognostic improvements in patients with advanced cancers. This unfortunate balance has driven the development of novel therapies that aim to target tumors both safely and efficiently. Over the past decade, mounting evidence has supported the therapeutic utility of T-cell-centered cancer immunotherapy, which, in its various iterations, has been shown capable of eliciting highly precise and robust antitumor responses both in animal models and human trials. The identification of tumor-specific targets has further fueled a growing interest in T-cell therapies given their potential to circumvent the non-specific nature of traditional treatments. Of the several strategies geared toward achieving T-cell recognition of tumor, bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) represent a novel class of biologics that have garnered enthusiasm in recent years due to their versatility, specificity, safety, cost, and ease of production. Bispecific T-cell Engagers (BiTEs) are a subclass of bsAbs that are specific for CD3 on one arm and a tumor antigen on the second. As such, BiTEs function by recruiting and activating polyclonal populations of T-cells at tumor sites, and do so without the need for co-stimulation or conventional MHC recognition. Blinatumomab, a well-characterized BiTE, has emerged as a promising recombinant bscCD19×CD3 construct that has demonstrated remarkable antitumor activity in patients with B-cell malignancies. This clinical success has resulted in the rapid extension of BiTE technology against a greater repertoire of tumor antigens and the recent US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) accelerated approval of blinatumomab for the treatment of a rare form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this review

  10. The X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study: Forging the Path to NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Ozel, Feryal; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept is unique among those being studied for prioritization in the NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey. The X-Ray Surveyor mission will explore the high-energy Universe; providing essential and complimentary observations to the Astronomy Community. The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (Enduring Quests, Daring Visions) describes the need for an X-Ray Observatory that is capable of addressing topics such as the origin and growth of the first supermassive black holes, galaxy evolution and growth of the cosmic structure, and the origin and evolution of the stars that make up our Universe. To address these scientifically compelling topics and more, an Observatory that exhibits leaps in capability over that of previous X-Ray Observatories in needed. This paper describes the current status of the X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study and the path forward, which includes scientific investigations, technology development, and community participation.

  11. The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept study: forging the path to NASA astrophysics 2020 decadal survey prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Özel, Feryal; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    The X-Ray Surveyor mission concept is unique among those being studied for prioritization in the NASA Astrophysics 2020 Decadal Survey. The X-Ray Surveyor mission will explore the high-energy Universe; providing essential and complimentary observations to the Astronomy Community. The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap (Enduring Quests, Daring Visions) describes the need for an X-Ray Observatory that is capable of addressing topics such as the origin and growth of the first supermassive black holes, galaxy evolution and growth of the cosmic structure, and the origin and evolution of the stars that make up our Universe. To address these scientifically compelling topics and more, an Observatory that exhibits leaps in capability over that of previous X-Ray Observatories in needed. This paper describes the current status of the X-Ray Surveyor Mission Concept Study and the path forward, which includes scientific investigations, technology development, and community participation.

  12. TES/Aura L3 H2O Monthly Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 H2O data consist of daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  13. The 160 TES bolometer read-out using FDM for SAFARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijmering, R. A.; den Hartog, R. H.; van der Linden, A. J.; Ridder, M.; Bruijn, M. P.; van der Kuur, J.; van Leeuwen, B. J.; van Winden, P.; Jackson, B.

    2014-07-01

    For the read out of the Transition Edge Sensors (TES) bolometer arrays of the SAFARI instrument on the Japanese background-limited far-IR SPICA mission SRON is developing a Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) read-out system. The next step after the successful demonstration of the read out of 38 TES bolometers using FDM was to demonstrate the FDM readout of the required 160 TES bolometers. Of the 160 LC filter and TES bolometer chains 151 have been connected and after cooldown 148 of the resonances could be identified. Although initial operation and locking of the pixels went smoothly the experiment revealed several complications. In this paper we describe the 160 pixel FDM set-up, show the results and discuss the issues faced during operation of the 160 pixel FDM experiment.

  14. User's Manual for the Biodiversity and Threatened and Endangered Species Experts (BioTES) Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sebesta, Georgia

    1996-01-01

    The Biodiversity and Threatened and Endangered Species Experts (BioTES), version 1.0 helps installation and government personnel locate points of contact for experts in the areas of biodiversity and threatened and endangered species...

  15. TES/Aura L2 Instantaneous Radiative Kernel Nadir V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using TES radiances, Jacobians and ozone profiles with hemispherical integration, it is possible to compute the TOA (top-of-atmosphere) flux from the infrared ozone...

  16. TES/Aura L2 Instantaneous Radiative Kernel Nadir Special Observation V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using TES radiances, Jacobians and ozone profiles with hemispherical integration, it is possible to compute the TOA (top-of-atmosphere) flux from the infrared ozone...

  17. An Optimisation Study on Integrating and Incentivising Thermal Energy Storage (TES in a Dwelling Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbemi Oluleye

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the benefits from thermal energy storage (TES integration in dwellings, the penetration rate in Europe is 5%. Effective fiscal policies are necessary to accelerate deployment. However, there is currently no direct support for TES in buildings compared to support for electricity storage. This could be due to lack of evidence to support incentivisation. In this study, a novel systematic framework is developed to provide a case in support of TES incentivisation. The model determines the costs, CO2 emissions, dispatch strategy and sizes of technologies, and TES for a domestic user under policy neutral and policy intensive scenarios. The model is applied to different building types in the UK. The model is applied to a case study for a detached dwelling in the UK (floor area of 122 m2, where heat demand is satisfied by a boiler and electricity imported from the grid. Results show that under a policy neutral scenario, integrating a micro-Combined Heat and Power (CHP reduces the primary energy demand by 11%, CO2 emissions by 21%, but with a 16 year payback. Additional benefits from TES integration can pay for the investment within the first 9 years, reducing to 3.5–6 years when the CO2 levy is accounted for. Under a policy intensive scenario (for example considering the Feed in Tariff (FIT, primary energy demand and CO2 emissions reduce by 17 and 33% respectively with a 5 year payback. In this case, the additional benefits for TES integration can pay for the investment in TES within the first 2 years. The framework developed is a useful tool is determining the role TES in decarbonising domestic energy systems.

  18. Collection and dissemination of TES system information for the paper and pulp industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, M. W.; Edde, H.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of U.S. and international paper and pulp mills using thermal energy storage (TES) systems as a part of their production processes was conducted to obtain sufficient operating data to conduct a benefits analysis encompassing: (1) an energy conservation assessment, (2) an economic benefits analysis, and (3) an environmental impact assessment. An information dissemination plan was then proposed to effectively present the benefits of TES to the U.S. paper and pulp industry.

  19. TES Level 1 Algorithms: Interferogram Processing, Geolocation, Radiometric, and Spectral Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Helen; Beer, Reinhard; Bowman, Kevin W.; Fisher, Brendan; Luo, Mingzhao; Rider, David; Sarkissian, Edwin; Tremblay, Denis; Zong, Jia

    2006-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite measures the infrared radiance emitted by the Earth's surface and atmosphere using Fourier transform spectrometry. The measured interferograms are converted into geolocated, calibrated radiance spectra by the L1 (Level 1) processing, and are the inputs to L2 (Level 2) retrievals of atmospheric parameters, such as vertical profiles of trace gas abundance. We describe the algorithmic components of TES Level 1 processing, giving examples of the intermediate results and diagnostics that are necessary for creating TES L1 products. An assessment of noise-equivalent spectral radiance levels and current systematic errors is provided. As an initial validation of our spectral radiances, TES data are compared to the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) (on EOS Aqua), after accounting for spectral resolution differences by applying the AIRS spectral response function to the TES spectra. For the TES L1 nadir data products currently available, the agreement with AIRS is 1 K or better.

  20. APLIKASI TES KEPRIBADIAN UNTUK PENEMPATAN KARYAWAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE MBTI (MYERS-BRIGGS TYPEINDICATORBERBASISWEB (STUDI KASUS: PT. WINATA PUTRA MANDIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiftin Noviyanto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Penempatan karyawan merupakan salah satu fungsi terpenting dalam Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia. Penempatan karyawan yang tepat sesuai dengan harapan, bakat dan kepribadian karyawan, akan mampu meningkatkan motivasi, produltifitas dan kepuasan kerja. Salah satu tes penunjang penempatan karyawan adalah tes kepribadian. Tes kepribadian yang dilakukan menggunakan metode Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI. Pelaksanaan tes yang dilakukan manual dan terpisah antara kantor pusat dan kantor cabang membuat PT. Winata Putra Mandiri memerlukan waktu yang lama untuk melihat keseluruhan hasil tes seluruh karyawan. Tujuan penelitian ini membuat aplikasi tes kepribadian yang dapat diakses melalui internet adalah agar karyawan dapat melihat hasil tes kepribadian secara langsung dan cepat serta dapat mengintegrasikan hasil tes dari kantor pusat dan kantor cabang. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan berbagai metode antara lain : Studi kepustakaan, metode interview dan browsing. Model proses yang digunakan adalah waterfall yang terdiri dari analisa kebutuhan sistem, perancangan, implementasi dan pengujian. Pada perancangan sistem dimulai dari perancangan proses, perancangan tabel, perancangan menu dan perancangan interface. Pada tahap implementasi menggunakan PHPMyAdmin untuk membangun basisdata dan PHP untuk teknologi Serverside. Tahap terakhir adalah pengujian sistem yang dilakukan dengan Black Box Test dan Alpha Test. Hasil penelitian ini berupa aplikasi tes kepribadian menggunakan metode Myers- Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI berbasis web yang dapat membantu PT. Winata Putra Mandiri dalam mengintegrasikan hasil tes seluruh karyawan baik dari kantor pusat maupun kantor cabang

  1. Low Thermal Conductance Transition Edge Sensor (TES) for SPICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosropanah, P.; Dirks, B.; Kuur, J. van der; Ridder, M.; Bruijn, M.; Popescu, M.; Hoevers, H.; Gao, J. R.; Morozov, D.; Mauskopf, P.

    2009-01-01

    We fabricated and characterized low thermal conductance transition edge sensors (TES) for SAFARI instrument on SPICA. The device is based on a superconducting Ti/Au bilayer deposited on suspended SiN membrane. The critical temperature of the device is 113 mK. The low thermal conductance is realized by using long and narrow SiN supporting legs. All measurements were performed having the device in a light-tight box, which to a great extent eliminates the loading of the background radiation. We measured the current-voltage (IV) characteristics of the device in different bath temperatures and determine the thermal conductance (G) to be equal to 320 fW/K. This value corresponds to a noise equivalent power (NEP) of 3x10 -19 W/√(Hz). The current noise and complex impedance is also measured at different bias points at 55 mK bath temperature. The measured electrical (dark) NEP is 1x10 -18 W/√(Hz), which is about a factor of 3 higher than what we expect from the thermal conductance that comes out of the IV curves. Despite using a light-tight box, the photon noise might still be the source of this excess noise. We also measured the complex impedance of the same device at several bias points. Fitting a simple first order thermal-electrical model to the measured data, we find an effective time constant of about 2.7 ms and a thermal capacity of 13 fJ/K in the middle of the transition.

  2. MODEL TES FISIK PENCARIAN BAKAT OLAHRAGA BULUTANGKIS USIA DI BAWAH 11 TAHUN DI DIY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utvi Hinda Zhannisa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan model tes fisik pencarian bakat cabang olahraga bulutangkis usia di bawah 11 tahun. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian R and D (Research and Development. Dalam penelitian pengembangan ini, langkah-langkah yang harus ditempuh meliputi: (1 studi pendahuluan (studi pustaka dan studi lapangan, (2 perencanaan (melakukan analisis, (3 desain draft awal, (4 validasi draft (5 ujcoba produk kelompok kecil dan revisi, (6 uji coba kelompok besar dan revisi, (7 hasil akhir. Validitas menggunakan validitas isi, reliabilitas menggunakan test retest Conbrach’s Alpha dan Z skor untuk menyamakan satuan. Uji reliabilitas diperoleh hasil (a tes kelentukan (sit and reach 0,743; (b tes kecepatan (lari 30 m 0,844; (c tes power otot tungkai (vertical jump 0,663; (d tes kelincahan (lari 4 sudut 0,848; (e tes power otot lengan (lempar bola 0,943; (f tes reaksi (step test 0,987; (g tes daya tahan (lari 600 m 0,861. Produk yang dihasilkan berupa sebuah model tes dan norma tes untuk pencarian bakat.   A MODEL OF PHYSICAL TEST FOR TALENT SCOUTING IN BADMINTON SKILL UNDER 11 YEARS OLD IN DIY   Abstract The purpose of the research it to develop a model of physical test in looking for a sport talent in badminton skill under 11 years old. The type of this research is R and D (Research and Development in this development research, the steps are (1 introduction study (bibiliography study, and field study, (2 planning (doing analysis, (3introduction draft design, (4 validation draft, (5 trying out product in small group and revision, (6 trying out product in big group and revision, (7 final result. Validation used content validation, reliability used test retest and Z score to the same the unit.  The model of the test that has been arranged is suitable to be to look for talent in badminton skill. Reability test shows that: (a sit and reach 0.743; (b sprint 30 m 0.844; (c vertical jump 0.663; (d run 4 corner 0.848; (e throw ball

  3. Using TES retrievals to investigate PAN in North American biomass burning plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Emily V.; Zhu, Liye; Payne, Vivienne H.; Worden, John R.; Jiang, Zhe; Kulawik, Susan S.; Brey, Steven; Hecobian, Arsineh; Gombos, Daniel; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Flocke, Frank

    2018-04-01

    Peroxyacyl nitrate (PAN) is a critical atmospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals, and plays a lead role in their redistribution in the troposphere. We analyze new Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) PAN observations over North America from July 2006 to July 2009. Using aircraft observations from the Colorado Front Range, we demonstrate that TES can be sensitive to elevated PAN in the boundary layer (˜ 750 hPa) even in the presence of clouds. In situ observations have shown that wildfire emissions can rapidly produce PAN, and PAN decomposition is an important component of ozone production in smoke plumes. We identify smoke-impacted TES PAN retrievals by co-location with NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke plumes. Depending on the year, 15-32 % of cases where elevated PAN is identified in TES observations (retrievals with degrees of freedom (DOF) > 0.6) overlap smoke plumes during July. Of all the retrievals attempted in the July 2006 to July 2009 study period, 18 % is associated with smoke . A case study of smoke transport in July 2007 illustrates that PAN enhancements associated with HMS smoke plumes can be connected to fire complexes, providing evidence that TES is sufficiently sensitive to measure elevated PAN several days downwind of major fires. Using a subset of retrievals with TES 510 hPa carbon monoxide (CO) > 150 ppbv, and multiple estimates of background PAN, we calculate enhancement ratios for tropospheric average PAN relative to CO in smoke-impacted retrievals. Most of the TES-based enhancement ratios fall within the range calculated from in situ measurements.

  4. Using TES retrievals to investigate PAN in North American biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Fischer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Peroxyacyl nitrate (PAN is a critical atmospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals, and plays a lead role in their redistribution in the troposphere. We analyze new Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES PAN observations over North America from July 2006 to July 2009. Using aircraft observations from the Colorado Front Range, we demonstrate that TES can be sensitive to elevated PAN in the boundary layer (∼ 750 hPa even in the presence of clouds. In situ observations have shown that wildfire emissions can rapidly produce PAN, and PAN decomposition is an important component of ozone production in smoke plumes. We identify smoke-impacted TES PAN retrievals by co-location with NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS smoke plumes. Depending on the year, 15–32 % of cases where elevated PAN is identified in TES observations (retrievals with degrees of freedom (DOF > 0.6 overlap smoke plumes during July. Of all the retrievals attempted in the July 2006 to July 2009 study period, 18 % is associated with smoke . A case study of smoke transport in July 2007 illustrates that PAN enhancements associated with HMS smoke plumes can be connected to fire complexes, providing evidence that TES is sufficiently sensitive to measure elevated PAN several days downwind of major fires. Using a subset of retrievals with TES 510 hPa carbon monoxide (CO > 150 ppbv, and multiple estimates of background PAN, we calculate enhancement ratios for tropospheric average PAN relative to CO in smoke-impacted retrievals. Most of the TES-based enhancement ratios fall within the range calculated from in situ measurements.

  5. Seasonal and spatial changes in trace gases over megacities from Aura TES observations: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Cady-Pereira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES is collecting closely spaced observations over 19 megacities. The objective is to obtain measurements that will lead to better understanding of the processes affecting air quality in and around these cities, and to better estimates of the seasonal and interannual variability. We explore the TES measurements of ozone, ammonia, methanol and formic acid collected around the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA and in the vicinity of Lagos (Nigeria. The TES data exhibit seasonal signals that are correlated with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS CO and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD, with in situ measurements in the MCMA and with Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-Chem model output in the Lagos area. TES was able to detect an extreme pollution event in the MCMA on 9 April 2013, which is also evident in the in situ data. TES data also show that biomass burning has a greater impact south of the city than in the caldera where Mexico City is located. TES measured enhanced values of the four species over the Gulf of Guinea south of Lagos. Since it observes many cities from the same platform with the same instrument and applies the same retrieval algorithms, TES data provide a very useful tool for easily comparing air quality measures of two or more cities. We compare the data from the MCMA and Lagos, and show that, while the MCMA has occasional extreme pollution events, Lagos consistently has higher levels of these trace gases.

  6. Karakteristik Pengembangan Tes Keterampilan Berpiki Kritis Bumi dan Antariksa Untuk Calon Guru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ramlan Ramalis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of the f critical thinking skills test and measurement errors according to classical test theory and item response theory. The test is based on the basic concepts and essential principles of the Earth Space, with reference to the core critical thinking skills. The research method used a mixed methods design with embedded experimental models. The analysis in this study is based on 41 responses of students teacher prospective who have taken IPBA courses at the Physics education department of FPMIPA UPI. Based on classical test theory indicates that of 18 test items were analyzed 15 items were good quality, reliability index of 0.89. From information function and standard error measurement of item response theory, the overall conclusion of this evaluation is that the model 2PL is better to use when evaluating the test. Keywords: critical thinking skills, earth and space, classical test theory, item response theory Abstrak Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis karakteristik tes keterampilan berpikir kritis serta kesalahan pengukuran menurut teori tes klasik dan teori respons item. Tes disusun berdasarkan konsep dasar dan prinsip esensial sains Bumi dan Antariksa, dengan mengacu pada inti keterampilan berpikir kritis. Metode penelitiannya menggunakan mixed methods dengan desain embedded experimental model. Analisis dalam penelitian ini didasarkan pada respons 41 mahasiswa calon guru yang telah mengambil matakuliah IPBA di departemen pendidikan Fisika FPMIPA UPI. Berdasarkan teori tes klasik menunjukkan bahwa dari 18 item tes yang dianalisis 15 item yang berkualitas baik, indeks reliabilitas 0,89. Dari fungsi informasi dan pengukuran kesalahan baku pada teori respons item, kesimpulan keseluruhan dari evaluasi ini adalah bahwa model 2PL adalah lebih baik untuk digunakan ketika mengevaluasi tes. Kata-kata kunci: keterampilan berpikir kritis, bumi dan antariksa, teori tes klasik

  7. "Long life" DC brush motor for use on the Mars surveyor program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, David; Noon, Don

    1998-01-01

    DC brush motors have several qualities which make them very attractive for space flight applications. Their mechanical commutation is simple and lightweight, requiring no external sensing and control in order to function properly. They are extremely efficient in converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. Efficiencies over 80% are not uncommon, resulting in high power throughput to weight ratios. However, the inherent unreliability and short life of sliding electrical contacts, especially in vacuum, have driven previous programs to utilize complex brushless DC or the less efficient stepper motors. The Mars Surveyor Program (MSP'98) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) have developed a reliable "long life" brush type DC motor for operation in low temperature, low pressure CO2 and N2, utilizing silver-graphite brushes. The original intent was to utilize this same motor for SRTM's space operation, but the results thus far have been unsatisfactory in vacuum. This paper describes the design, test, and results of this development.

  8. Assessment of Viability Appraisal Practice by Estate Surveyors and Valuers in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyetunji Abiodun Kolawale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A capital investment appraisal is a means of ensuring value for money. It is not meant to provide an indication of profit or loss, but rather a comparison of costs in relation to those areas where there is an opportunity or an inclination for change. The decision to invest in a project is based on the expectation of future returns since a rational investor does not expect to incur loss on his capital outlay. This decision making is usually hinged on advice obtained during pre-investment appraisal. This study is aimed at evaluating the mode of practicing investment viability appraisal by Estate Surveyors and Valuers in Lagos metropolis. The data for the study was obtained by randomly administering structured questionnaires on eighty-seven (87 practicing Estate Surveyors and Valuers in the study area and the findings were analyzed through descriptive statistical tools such as the Likert scale to present the result. Findings revealed that the payback period is the most adopted appraisal technique in practice as evidenced with a mean score of 3.57. The objective (s of the investor is also the most significant factor being considered while selecting appraisal technique with a mean score of 3.83 while the problems of actual return varying from the expected return and also difficulty in the repayment of loans always result when a wrong viability technique is employed. The success of any viability study goes beyond knowing the objective (s of the investor; therefore, it was recommended that appraisers should ensure that they are equipped with adequate knowledge required for the execution of feasibility and on viability studies because knowing the right viability criteria for a particular objective will help in advising an investor on a course of action that will best achieve the developer’s objective.

  9. High-Resolution and Lightweight X-ray Optics for the X-Ray Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William

    Envisioned in "Enduring Quest, Daring Visions" and under study by NASA as a potential major mission for the 2020s, the X-ray Surveyor mission will likely impose three requirements on its optics: (1) high angular resolution: 0.5 PSF, (2) large effective area: e10,000 cm2 or more, and (3) affordable production cost: $500M. We propose a technology that can meet these requirements by 2020. It will help the X-ray Surveyor secure the endorsement of the coming decadal survey and enable its implementation following WFIRST. The technology comprises four elements: (1) fabrication of lightweight single crystal silicon mirrors, (2) coating these mirrors with iridium to maximize effective area without figure degradation, (3) alignment and bonding of these mirrors to form meta-shells that will be integrated to make a mirror assembly, and (4) systems engineering to ensure that the mirror assembly meet all science performance and spaceflight environmental requirements. This approach grows out of our existing approach based on glass slumping. Using glass slumping technology, we have been able to routinely build and test mirror modules of 10half-power diameter (HPD). While comparable in HPD to XMM-Newtons electroformed nickel mirrors, these mirror modules are 10 times lighter. Likewise, while comparable in weight to Suzakus epoxy-replicated aluminum foil mirrors, these modules have 10 times better HPD. These modules represent the current state of the art of lightweight X-ray optics. Although both successful and mature, the glass slumping technology has reached its limit and cannot achieve sub-arc second HPD. Therefore, we are pursuing the new approach based on polishing single crystal silicon. The new approach will enable the building and testing of mirror modules, called meta-shells, capable of 3HPD by 2018 and 1HPD by 2020, and has the potential to reach diffraction limits ( 0.1) in the 2020s.

  10. Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Hendra Yudha Saputra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak---Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk : (1 menghasilkan rancang bangun dan implementasi Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform, (2 Mengetahui respon dari Pengguna terhadap Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform. Dalam perancangannya, aplikasi ini akan menggunakan arsitektur client-server untuk melakukan proses pertukaran data. Perancangan dilakukan dengan menggunakan model fungsional berupa UML. Model fungsional berupa UML tersebut diimplementasikan dalam sebuah framework yaitu Phonegap dengan bahasa pemrograman HTML5. Untuk mengetahui respon terhadap Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform ini diperoleh dengan menggunakan metode angket. Hasil akhirnya yaitu berupa Aplikasi Simatik berbasis Multi Platform yang dapat diinstall pada perangkat mobile untuk digunakan dalam latihan soal-soal yang terkait dengan Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA. Berdasarkan hasil uji usability, aplikasi Simatik berbasis Multi Platform ini mendapatkan persentase hasil sebesar 95,6 % dengan kategori sangat baik yang berarti dalam pengoperasiannya aplikasi ini mudah untuk digunakan dan dapat berfungsi sesuai dengan fungsi seharusnya. Kata Kunci : Phonegap, Multi Platform, Client Server, Mobile, Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA, Simatik   Abstract--- This research is purpose to : (1 produce generate design and implementation Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform (2 To knowing the response of users to Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform. In its design, this application will use the client-server architecture to make the exchange process of data. The design were done by using a functional model UML form. The functional model UML form is implemented within a framework that is phonegap with HTML 5 programming languages. To determine the

  11. Digital Signal Processing Based on a Clustering Algorithm for Ir/Au TES Microcalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, N.; Kunieda, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Hiramoto, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Fukuda, D.; Ukibe, M.; Ohkubo, M.

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, cryogenic microcalorimeters using their superconducting transition edge have been under development for possible application to the research for astronomical X-ray observations. To improve the energy resolution of superconducting transition edge sensors (TES), several correction methods have been developed. Among them, a clustering method based on digital signal processing has recently been proposed. In this paper, we applied the clustering method to Ir/Au bilayer TES. This method resulted in almost a 10% improvement in the energy resolution. Conversely, from the point of view of imaging X-ray spectroscopy, we applied the clustering method to pixellated Ir/Au-TES devices. We will thus show how a clustering method which sorts signals by their shapes is also useful for position identification

  12. Fabrication of Low-Noise TES Arrays for the SAFARI Instrument on SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, M. L.; Khosropanah, P.; Hijmering, R. A.; Suzuki, T.; Bruijn, M. P.; Hoevers, H. F. C.; Gao, J. R.; Zuiddam, M. R.

    2016-07-01

    Ultra-low-noise transition edge sensors (TES) with noise equivalent power lower than 2 × 10^{-19} W/Hz^{1/2 } have been fabricated by SRON, which meet the sensitivity requirements for the far-infrared SAFARI instrument on space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics. Our TES detector is based on a titanium/gold (Ti/Au) thermistor on a silicon nitride (SiN) island. The island is thermally linked with SiN legs to a silicon support structure at the bath temperature. The SiN legs are very thin (250 nm), narrow (500 nm), and long (above 300 {\\upmu } m); these dimensions are needed in leg-isolated bolometers to achieve the required level of sensitivity. In this paper, we describe the latest fabrication process for our TES bolometers with improved sensitivity.

  13. Thanks to CERN's team of surveyors, the Organization's stand at the Night of Science attracted a large number of visitors : the technology and tools used by the surveyors, such as the Terrameter shown here, attracted many visitors to the CERN stand

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Thanks to CERN's team of surveyors, the Organization's stand at the Night of Science attracted a large number of visitors : the technology and tools used by the surveyors, such as the Terrameter shown here, attracted many visitors to the CERN stand

  14. Recent Patents on Nano-Enhanced Materials for Use in Thermal Energy Storage (TES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Gerard; Barreneche, Camila; Solé, Aran; Juliá, José Enrique; Cabeza, Luisa F

    2017-07-10

    Thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase change materials (PCM) have been lately studied and are presented as one of the key solutions for the implementation of renewable energies. These systems take advantage of the latent heat of phase change of PCM during their melting/ solidification processes to store or release heat depending on the needs and availability. Low thermal conductivity and latent heat are the main disadvantages of organic PCM, while corrosion, subcooling and thermal stability are the prime problems that inorganic PCM present. Nanotechnology can be used to overcome these drawbacks. Nano-enhanced PCM are obtained by the dispersion of nanoparticles in the base material and thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat capacity, within others, can be enhanced. This paper presents a review of the patents regarding the obtaining of nano-enhanced materials for thermal energy storage (TES) in order to realize the development nanotechnologies have gained in the TES field. Patents regarding the synthesis methods to obtain nano-enhanced phase materials (NEPCM) and TES systems using NEPCM have been found and are presented in the paper. The few existing number of patents found is a clear indicator of the recent and thus low development nanotechnology has in the TES field so far. Nevertheless, the results obtained with the reviewed inventions already show the big potential that nanotechnology has in TES and denote a more than probable expansion of its use in the next years. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from SURVEYOR in the Chukchi Sea from 1990-10-02 to 1990-10-20 (NODC Accession 9200012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in Chukchi Sea. Data was collected during 155 Casts from Ship SURVEYOR. The data was...

  16. Drivers militating against the pricing of sustainable construction materials: The Ghanaian quantity surveyors perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kissi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability has in recent times attained much acceptance as a result of its positive impact on the environment, social and economic issues. Nevertheless, in developing countries, the price of sustainable construction materials are too high. The aim of the study was to examine drivers militating against the pricing of sustainable construction materials. Through an in-depth review of literature as well as an interview survey, questionnaire was designed and administered to practicing quantity surveyors. Data generated from the survey was analysed using Principal Component Analysis which resulted four main drivers. These included: awareness challenge (AC, sustainability measurement tools challenge (SMTC, economic challenge (EC, and information challenge (IC. The study offers useful lessons on sustainable practices that pricing experts in the construction industry can draw on when pricing.The need for this study cannot be doubted since the consciousness of such challenges will help in resolving issues associated with pricing of sustainable construction materials. Keywords: Drivers, Militating, Pricing, Sustainable construction materials, Ghanaian

  17. The Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR): Decadal Mission concept technology development overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.

    2017-09-01

    The Large Ultraviolet / Optical / Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor is one of four large mission concept studies being developed by NASA for consideration in the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. LUVOIR will support a broad range of science objectives, including the direct imaging and spectral characterization of habitable exoplanets around sun-like stars, the study of galaxy formation and evolution, the epoch of reionization, star and planet formation, and the remote sensing of Solar System bodies. The LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) has tasked a Technology Working Group (TWG), with more than 60 members from NASA centers, academia, industry, and international partners, with identifying technologies that enable or enhance the LUVOIR science mission. The TWG has identified such technologies in the areas of Coronagraphy, Ultra-Stable Opto-mechanical Systems, Detectors, Coatings, Starshades, and Instrument Components, and has completed a detailed assessment of the state-of-the-art. We present here a summary of this technology assessment effort, as well as the current progress in defining a technology development plan to mature these technologies to the required technology readiness level (TRL).

  18. The Transient High-Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, L.; O'Brien, P.; Goetz, D.; Tenzer, C.; Bozzo, E.

    2017-10-01

    The Transient High Energy Sky and Early Universe Surveyor (THESEUS) is a mission concept developed by a large international collaboration aimed at exploiting Gamma-Ray Bursts for investigating the early Universe. The main scientic objectives of THESEUS, currently under evaluation by ESA within the selection process for next M5 mission, include: investigating the star formation rate and metallicity evolution of the ISM and IGM up to redshift 10, detecting the first generation (pop III) of stars, studying the sources and physics of re-ionization, detecting the faint end of galaxies luminosity function. These goals will be achieved through a unique combination of instruments allowing GRB detection and arcmin localization over a broad FOV (more than 1sr) and an energy band extending from several MeVs down to 0.3 keV with unprecedented sensitivity, as well as on-board prompt (few minutes) follow-up with a 0.7m class IR telescope with both imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. Such instrumentation will also allow THESEUS to perform a monitoring of the X-ray sky with unprecedented sensitivity, which will provide a perfect service and sinergy to next generation multi-wavalength (e.g., E-ELT, SKA, CTA, ATHENA) and multi-messenger (aLIGO, aVIRGO, eLISA, ET, neutrino detectors, ...) facilities.

  19. Crystallization of the acyl-CoA thioesterase TesB from Yersinia pestis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarbrick, Crystall M. D.; Patterson, Edward I.; Forwood, Jade K.

    2013-01-01

    The expression, purification, crystallization and diffraction of the acyl-CoA thioesterase TesB from Y. pestis are reported. X-ray crystallographic diffraction data to 2.0 Å resolution were collected at the Australian Synchrotron. Yersinia pestis is a highly virulent human pathogen and is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Spread through the bite of infected fleas, plague epidemics have marked important events in history, including the Justinian plague (6th century), the Black Death (14th century) which decimated nearly one quarter of the European population, and more recently the Orientalis plague (1894). To date, deaths are still being reported and, without treatment, the disease kills most people within 4 days. One of the thioesterases from Y. pestis, TesB, is a broad-range acyl-CoA thioesterase and is highly conserved within prokaryotes and throughout evolution, sharing sequence similarity with the HIV Nef binding protein ACOT8. Here the expression, purification, crystallization and diffraction of TesB are reported. TesB has been recombinantly expressed and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion hanging-drop technique at pH 7.0 and 290 K. After optimization, crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution at the Australian Synchrotron and belong to the space group P12 1 1 (a = 73.55, b = 170.82, c = 101.98 Å), with eight molecules likely to be present in the asymmetric unit

  20. Pengembangan Sistem E-Learning yang Adaptif untuk Pelatihan dan Tes TOEFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofian Arifianto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language memiliki 3 bagian jenis soal, Listening Comprehension, Structure & Write Expression dan Reading Comprehension. Untuk saat ini, kebanyakan TOEFL dilakukan dengan manual, yaitu dengan pengerjaan dengan kertas dan membutuhkan waktu beberapa hari agar bisa mengetahui hasil tes tersebut. Dalam artikel ini, LMS Dokeos dikembangkan dengan beberapa perubahan, sehingga didapatkan suatu sistem yang adaptif yang mampu menganalisis kelemahan user dan memberikan soal yang menjadi kelemahan. Dokeos sendiri dibangun dengan bahasa pemrograman PHP&MySQL. Pada sistem ini ada 2 macam tes, Pretest dan posttest. Pretest merupakan suatu latihan TOEFL. Sedangkan Posttest merupakan TOEFL yang sesungguhnya. Posttest bisa dilakukan setelah user lulus dari pretest. Nilai untuk kelulusan dalam  pretest dan posttest ini adalah 477. Pada pretest, sistem bisa menganalisis kelemahan seorang user berdasarkan nilai tes yang telah didapat dari tiap section. Pengguna juga bisa memonitor nilai yang didapatkan pada saat pretest. Sedangkan pada posttest, terdapat pin yang digunakan sebagai hak akses untuk melakukan tes. Dengan begitu, diharapkan aplikasi ini bisa lebih aman dan efisien dalam menghemat waktu dan biaya

  1. High-temperature thermocline TES combining sensible and latent heat - CFD modeling and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavattoni, Simone A.; Geissbühler, Lukas; Barbato, Maurizio C.; Zanganeh, Giw; Haselbacher, Andreas; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2017-06-01

    The concept of combined sensible/latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) has been exploited to mitigate an intrinsic thermocline TES systems drawback of heat transfer fluid outflow temperature reduction during discharging. In this study, the combined sensible/latent TES prototype under investigation is constituted by a packed bed of rocks and a small amount of encapsulated phase change material (AlSi12) as sensible heat and latent heat sections respectively. The thermo-fluid dynamics behavior of the combined TES prototype was analyzed by means of a computational fluid dynamics approach. Due to the small value of the characteristic vessel-to-particles diameter ratio, the effect of radial void-fraction variation, also known as channeling, was accounted for. Both the sensible and the latent heat sections of the storage were modeled as porous media under the assumption of local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE). The commercial code ANSYS Fluent 15.0 was used to solve the model's constitutive conservation and transport equations obtaining a fairly good agreement with reference experimental measurements.

  2. Common Bias Readout for TES Array on Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, R.; Sakai, K.; Maehisa, K.; Nagayoshi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Muramatsu, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Maehata, K.; Hara, T.

    2016-07-01

    A transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array as an X-ray sensor for a scanning transmission electron microscope system is being developed. The technical challenge of this system is a high count rate of ˜ 5000 counts/second/array. We adopted a 64 pixel array with a parallel readout. Common SQUID bias, and common TES bias are planned to reduce the number of wires and the resources of a room temperature circuit. The reduction rate of wires is 44 % when a 64 pixel array is read out by a common bias of 8 channels. The possible degradation of the energy resolution has been investigated by simulations and experiments. The bias fluctuation effects of a series connection are less than those of a parallel connection. Simple calculations expect that the fluctuations of the common SQUID bias and common TES bias in a series connection are 10^{-7} and 10^{-3}, respectively. We constructed 8 SQUIDs which are connected to 8 TES outputs and a room temperature circuit for common bias readout and evaluated experimentally. Our simulation of crosstalk indicates that at an X-ray event rate of 500 cps/pixel, crosstalk will broaden a monochromatic line by about 0.01 %, or about 1.5 eV at 15 keV. Thus, our design goal of 10 eV energy resolution across the 0.5-15 keV band should be achievable.

  3. A joint data record of tropospheric ozone from Aura-TES and MetOp-IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Oetjen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES on Aura and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI on MetOp-A together provide a time series of 10 years of free-tropospheric ozone with an overlap of 3 years. We characterise the differences between TES and IASI ozone measurements and find that IASI's coarser vertical sensitivity leads to a small (< 5 ppb low bias relative to TES for the free troposphere. The TES-IASI differences are not dependent on season or any other factor and hence the measurements from the two instruments can be merged, after correcting for the offset, in order to study decadal-scale changes in tropospheric ozone. We calculate time series of regional monthly mean ozone in the free troposphere over eastern Asia, the western United States (US, and Europe, carefully accounting for differences in spatial sampling between the instruments. We show that free-tropospheric ozone over Europe and the western US has remained relatively constant over the past decade but that, contrary to expectations, ozone over Asia in recent years does not continue the rapid rate of increase observed from 2004 to 2010.

  4. Pengembangan Instrumen Tes Keterampilan Pemecahan Masalah pada Materi Getaran, Gelombang, dan Bunyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarif Rokhmat Hidayat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Problem-solving is one of the fundamental skills in the 21st century. Students’ problem-solving skill is defined as students’ abilities to use their knowledge to solve the daily life problems. This study main goal is to develop a test instrument of junior high school students’ problem-solving skills on oscillation, wave, and sound concepts. The test items are arranged based on problem-solving skills indicator that proposed by Doctor and Heler (2009, there are problems visualization/description, physics approach, mathematic procedure, and logically conclusion. This study used 4D (define, design, develop, and disseminate model of research and development method. Fifteen test sets are designed based on five problem-solving skill indicators that grouped to each oscillation, wave, and sound sub concept. The result of instrument development shows all test items are valid through Pearson moment correlation coefficient test. Alpha Cronbach test the instrument shows the instrument reliability is 0.88 with the criteria of reliability is high. Based on expert judgment and data collections, the test instruments were well developed and could be used to measure students’ problem-solving skills on oscillation, wave, and sound wave concepts. Keywords: problem solving skills; problem solving skills instrument; oscillation, wave, and sound concept. Abstrak Pemecahan masalah adalah salah satu keterampilan yang penting di abad ke-21. Keterampilan pemecahan masalah siswa adalah kemampuan siswa menggunakan pengetahuan-pengetahuan yang dimilikinya untuk memecahkan masalah dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan instrumen tes untuk mengukur keterampilan pemecahan masalah pada siswa SMP terkait materi getaran, gelombang, dan bunyi. Instrumen tes disusun berdasarkan indikator keterampilan pemecahan masalah yang dikembangkan oleh Doctor dan Heler (2009 yaitu visualisasi/deskripsi masalah, pendekatan fisika, prosedur matematika

  5. STUDI SIMULASI MENGGUNAKAN FUZZY C-MEANS DALAM MENGKLASIFIKASI KONSTRUK TES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukli Rukli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini memperkenalkan metode fuzzy c-means dalam mengklasifikasi konstruk tes. Untuk memverifikasi sifat unidimensional suatu tes biasanya menggunakan analisis faktor sebagai bagian dari statistik parametrik dengan beberapa persyaratan yang ketat sedangkan metode fuzzy c-means termasuk metode heuristik yang tidak memerlukan persyaratan yang ketat. Studi simulasi penelitian ini menggunakan dua metode yakni analisis faktor menggunakan program SPSS dan fuzzy c-means menggunakan program Matlab. Data simulasi menggunakan tipe data dikotomi dan politomi yang dibangkitkan lewat prog-ram Microsoft Office Excel dengan desain 2 kategori, yakni: tiga butir soal dengan banyak peserta tes 10, dan 30 butir soal dengan banyak peserta tes 100. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa metode fuzzy c-means lebih memberikan gambaran pengelompokan secara deskriptif dan dinamis pada semua desain yang telah dibuat dalam memverifikasi unidimensional pada suatu tes. Kata kunci: fuzzy c-means, analisis faktor, unidimensional _____________________________________________________________ SIMULATION STUDY USING FUZZY C-MEANS FOR CLASIFYING TEST CONSTRUCTION Abstract This paper introduces the fuzzy c-means method for classifying the test constructs. To verify the unidimensional a test typically uses factor analysis as part of parametric statistics with some strict requirements, while fuzzy c-means methods including method heuristic that do not require strict require-ments. Simulation comparison between the method of factor analysis using SPSS program and fuzzy c-means methods using Matlab. Simulation data using data type dichotomy and politomus generated through Microsoft Office Excel programs each with a number of 3 items using the number of participants 10 tests, while the number of 30 test items using the number as many as 100 participants. The simulation results show that the fuzzy c-means method provides a more descriptive and dyna-mic grouping of all the designs that

  6. Mars Thermal Inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the global thermal inertia of the Martian surface as measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor. The data were acquired during the first 5000 orbits of the MGS mapping mission. The pattern of inertia variations observed by TES agrees well with the thermal inertia maps made by the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper experiment, but the TES data shown here are at significantly higher spatial resolution (15 km versus 60 km).The TES instrument was built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing and is operated by Philip R. Christensen, of Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

  7. The Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA OligoC-TesT and Trypanosoma cruzi kinetoplast DNA OligoC-TesT for diagnosis of Chagas disease: a multi-cohort comparative evaluation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen De Winne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA (satDNA OligoC-TesT is a standardised PCR format for diagnosis of Chagas disease. The sensitivity of the test is lower for discrete typing unit (DTU TcI than for TcII-VI and the test has not been evaluated in chronic Chagas disease patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new prototype of the OligoC-TesT based on kinetoplast DNA (kDNA detection. We evaluated the satDNA and kDNA OligoC-TesTs in a multi-cohort study with 187 chronic Chagas patients and 88 healthy endemic controls recruited in Argentina, Chile and Spain and 26 diseased non-endemic controls from D.R. Congo and Sudan. All specimens were tested in duplicate. The overall specificity in the controls was 99.1% (95% CI 95.2%-99.8% for the satDNA OligoC-TesT and 97.4% (95% CI 92.6%-99.1% for the kDNA OligoC-TesT. The overall sensitivity in the patients was 67.9% (95% CI 60.9%-74.2% for the satDNA OligoC-TesT and 79.1% (95% CI 72.8%-84.4% for the kDNA OligoC-Test. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Specificities of the two T. cruzi OligoC-TesT prototypes are high on non-endemic and endemic controls. Sensitivities are moderate but significantly (p = 0.0004 higher for the kDNA OligoC-TesT compared to the satDNA OligoC-TesT.

  8. The Trypanosoma cruzi Satellite DNA OligoC-TesT and Trypanosoma cruzi Kinetoplast DNA OligoC-TesT for Diagnosis of Chagas Disease: A Multi-cohort Comparative Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winne, Koen; Büscher, Philippe; Luquetti, Alejandro O.; Tavares, Suelene B. N.; Oliveira, Rodrigo A.; Solari, Aldo; Zulantay, Ines; Apt, Werner; Diosque, Patricio; Monje Rumi, Mercedes; Gironès, Nuria; Fresno, Manuel; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; Perez-Molina, José A.; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Garcia, Lineth; Deborggraeve, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Background The Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA (satDNA) OligoC-TesT is a standardised PCR format for diagnosis of Chagas disease. The sensitivity of the test is lower for discrete typing unit (DTU) TcI than for TcII-VI and the test has not been evaluated in chronic Chagas disease patients. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a new prototype of the OligoC-TesT based on kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) detection. We evaluated the satDNA and kDNA OligoC-TesTs in a multi-cohort study with 187 chronic Chagas patients and 88 healthy endemic controls recruited in Argentina, Chile and Spain and 26 diseased non-endemic controls from D.R. Congo and Sudan. All specimens were tested in duplicate. The overall specificity in the controls was 99.1% (95% CI 95.2%–99.8%) for the satDNA OligoC-TesT and 97.4% (95% CI 92.6%–99.1%) for the kDNA OligoC-TesT. The overall sensitivity in the patients was 67.9% (95% CI 60.9%–74.2%) for the satDNA OligoC-TesT and 79.1% (95% CI 72.8%–84.4%) for the kDNA OligoC-Test. Conclusions/Significance Specificities of the two T. cruzi OligoC-TesT prototypes are high on non-endemic and endemic controls. Sensitivities are moderate but significantly (p = 0.0004) higher for the kDNA OligoC-TesT compared to the satDNA OligoC-TesT. PMID:24392177

  9. Fabrication of close-packed TES microcalorimeter arrays using superconducting molybdenum/gold transition-edge sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, F. M.; Brekosky, R. P.; Chervenak, J. A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Li, M. J.; Lindeman, M. A.; Stahle, C. K.; Stahle, C. M.; Tralshawala, N.

    2002-02-01

    We present an overview of our efforts in fabricating Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays for use in astronomical x-ray spectroscopy. Two distinct types of array schemes are currently pursued: 5×5 single pixel TES array where each pixel is a TES microcalorimeter, and Position-Sensing TES (PoST) array. In the latter, a row of 7 or 15 thermally-linked absorber pixels is read out by two TES at its ends. Both schemes employ superconducting Mo/Au bilayers as the TES. The TES are placed on silicon nitride membranes for thermal isolation from the structural frame. The silicon nitride membranes are prepared by a Deep Reactive Ion Etch (DRIE) process into a silicon wafer. In order to achieve the concept of closely packed arrays without decreasing its structural and functional integrity, we have already developed the technology to fabricate arrays of cantilevered pixel-sized absorbers and slit membranes in silicon nitride films. Furthermore, we have started to investigate ultra-low resistance through-wafer micro-vias to bring the electrical contact out to the back of a wafer. .

  10. Virtual Surveyor based Object Extraction from Airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Md. Ahsan

    Topographic feature detection of land cover from LiDAR data is important in various fields - city planning, disaster response and prevention, soil conservation, infrastructure or forestry. In recent years, feature classification, compliant with Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) methodology has been gaining traction in remote sensing and geographic information science (GIS). In OBIA, the LiDAR image is first divided into meaningful segments called object candidates. This results, in addition to spectral values, in a plethora of new information such as aggregated spectral pixel values, morphology, texture, context as well as topology. Traditional nonparametric segmentation methods rely on segmentations at different scales to produce a hierarchy of semantically significant objects. Properly tuned scale parameters are, therefore, imperative in these methods for successful subsequent classification. Recently, some progress has been made in the development of methods for tuning the parameters for automatic segmentation. However, researchers found that it is very difficult to automatically refine the tuning with respect to each object class present in the scene. Moreover, due to the relative complexity of real-world objects, the intra-class heterogeneity is very high, which leads to over-segmentation. Therefore, the method fails to deliver correctly many of the new segment features. In this dissertation, a new hierarchical 3D object segmentation algorithm called Automatic Virtual Surveyor based Object Extracted (AVSOE) is presented. AVSOE segments objects based on their distinct geometric concavity/convexity. This is achieved by strategically mapping the sloping surface, which connects the object to its background. Further analysis produces hierarchical decomposition of objects to its sub-objects at a single scale level. Extensive qualitative and qualitative results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of this hierarchical segmentation approach.

  11. The Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR): Decadal Mission concept design update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Aloezos, Steve; Bly, Vincent T.; Collins, Christine; Crooke, Julie; Dressing, Courtney D.; Fantano, Lou; Feinberg, Lee D.; France, Kevin; Gochar, Gene; Gong, Qian; Hylan, Jason E.; Jones, Andrew; Linares, Irving; Postman, Marc; Pueyo, Laurent; Roberge, Aki; Sacks, Lia; Tompkins, Steven; West, Garrett

    2017-09-01

    In preparation for the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey, NASA has commissioned the study of four large mission concepts, including the Large Ultraviolet / Optical / Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor. The LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) has identified a broad range of science objectives including the direct imaging and spectral characterization of habitable exoplanets around sun-like stars, the study of galaxy formation and evolution, the epoch of reionization, star and planet formation, and the remote sensing of Solar System bodies. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is providing the design and engineering support to develop executable and feasible mission concepts that are capable of the identified science objectives. We present an update on the first of two architectures being studied: a 15- meter-diameter segmented-aperture telescope with a suite of serviceable instruments operating over a range of wavelengths between 100 nm to 2.5 μm. Four instruments are being developed for this architecture: an optical / near-infrared coronagraph capable of 10-10 contrast at inner working angles as small as 2 λ/D the LUVOIR UV Multi-object Spectrograph (LUMOS), which will provide low- and medium-resolution UV (100 - 400 nm) multi-object imaging spectroscopy in addition to far-UV imaging; the High Definition Imager (HDI), a high-resolution wide-field-of-view NUV-Optical-IR imager; and a UV spectro-polarimeter being contributed by Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). A fifth instrument, a multi-resolution optical-NIR spectrograph, is planned as part of a second architecture to be studied in late 2017.

  12. tes depresijas simptomu un dusmu saistība ar mātes audzināšanas stiliem un bērna uzvedību

    OpenAIRE

    Krūmiņa, Evija

    2015-01-01

    Šī bakalaura darba mērķis bija noskaidrot saistības starp mātes depresijas simptomu un dusmu rādītājiem ar mātes audzināšanas stiliem un bērna uzvedības izpausmēm respondentu grupā, kuru bērni ir vecumā no 4-6 gadiem. Pētījuma izlasi veidoja 63 mātes vecumā no 21 līdz 42 gadiem (vidējais vecums bija 29 gadi). Pētījumā mātes dusmu un depresijas rādītāju noteikšanai tika izmantota Traumu simptomu aptauja (Trauma Symptom Inventory, Briere, 1995), Vecāku audzināšanas stila aptauja (Parental Autho...

  13. Seasonal Water Transport in the Atmosphere of Mars: Applications of a Mars General Circulation Model Using Mars Global Surveyor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. We present below a summary of progress made during the duration of this JRI. The focus of this JRI has been to investigate seasonal water vapor transport in the atmosphere of Mars and its effects on the planet's present climate. To this end, the primary task has been to adapt a new dynamical processor for the adiabatic tendencies of the atmospheric circulation into the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Using identical boundary and initial conditions, several comparative tests between the new and old MGCMs have been performed and the nature of the simulated circulations have been diagnosed. With confidence that the updated version of the Ames MGCM produces quite similar mean and eddy circulation statistics, the new climate model is well poised as a tool to pursue fundamental questions related to the spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric water vapor on Mars, and to explore exchanges of water with non-atmospheric reservoirs and transport within its atmosphere. In particular, the role of surface sources and sinks can be explored, the range of water-vapor saturation altitudes can be investigated, and plausible precipitation mechanisms can be studied, for a range of atmospheric dust loadings. Such future investigations can contribute to a comprehensive study of surface inventories, exchange mechanisms, and the relative importance of atmospheric transport Mars' water cycle. A listing of presentations made and manuscripts submitted during the course of this project is provided.

  14. Evidence of Convective Redistribution of Carbon Monoxide in Aura Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyin, Michael; Douglass, Anne; Schoeberl, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Vertical convective transport is a key element of the tropospheric circulation. Convection lofts air from the boundary layer into the free troposphere, allowing surface emissions to travel much further, and altering the rate of chemical processes such as ozone production. This study uses satellite observations to focus on the convective transport of CO from the boundary layer to the mid and upper troposphere. Our hypothesis is that strong convection associated with high rain rate regions leads to a correlation between mid level and upper level CO amounts. We first test this hypothesis using the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model. We find the correlation is robust and increases as the precipitation rate (the strength of convection) increases. We next examine three years of CO profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments aboard EOS Aura. Rain rates are taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B-42 multi-satellite product. Again we find a correlation between mid-level and upper tropospheric CO, which increases with rain rate. Our result shows the critical importance of tropical convection in coupling vertical levels of the troposphere in the transport of trace gases. The effect is seen most clearly in strong convective regions such as the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone.

  15. Development of TES microcalorimeters with Sn absorber for hard x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Shuichi; Ohno, Masashi; Damayanthi, R.M. Thushara; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Superconducting transition edge sensors (TES) are used for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. In this study, we have designed a new TES detector using a superconducting tin (Sn) absorber to detect high energy photons over 100 keV. The Sn absorber is coupled to an Ir/Au super-conducting film which is deposited on an ultra-thin SiN membrane (500 nm thick) with a small amount of epoxy post (Stycast 2850FT) by handling with a flip-chip bonding machine. The 241 Am photoelectron peak, the Sn K α and K β X-ray escape peaks are clearly observed. The measured energy resolution is 320 eV FWHM at 59.5 keV and is better than that of HPGe detector. (author)

  16. Gestion des côtes marocaines : renforcement des capacités d ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les répercussions de la hausse du niveau de la mer, de l'inondation des côtes et des ondes de tempête constituent un enjeu de plus en plus important en matière de politiques pour les planificateurs, les autorités locales et les intervenants de secteurs comme la côte nord-est du Maroc. Ce projet financera le renforcement ...

  17. Mini-TES Observations of the Gusev and Meridiani Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Philip; Arvidson, Raymond; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Blaney, Diana; Budney, Charles; Calvin, Wendy; Ciccolella, Sandra; Fallacro, Alicia; Fergason, Robin; Glotch, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) has provided remote measurements of the mineralogy and thermophysical properties of the scene surrounding the Mars Exploration Rovers. The specific scientific objectives of this investigation are to: (1) determine the mineralogy of rocks and soils; (2) determine the thermophysical properties of surface materials; and (3) determine the temperature profile, dust and water-ice opacity, and water vapor abundance in the lower atmospheric boundary layer.

  18. Domestic demand-side management (DSM): Role of heat pumps and thermal energy storage (TES) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteconi, A.; Hewitt, N.J.; Polonara, F.

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps are seen as a promising technology for load management in the built environment, in combination with the smart grid concept. They can be coupled with thermal energy storage (TES) systems to shift electrical loads from high-peak to off-peak hours, thus serving as a powerful tool in demand-side management (DSM). This paper analyzes heat pumps with radiators or underfloor heating distribution systems coupled with TES with a view to showing how a heat pump system behaves and how it influences the building occupants' thermal comfort under a DSM strategy designed to flatten the shape of the electricity load curve by switching off the heat pump during peak hours (16:00–19:00). The reference scenario for the analysis was Northern Ireland (UK). The results showed that the heat pump is a good tool for the purposes of DSM, also thanks to the use of TES systems, in particular with heating distribution systems that have a low thermal inertia, e.g. radiators. It proved possible to achieve a good control of the indoor temperature, even if the heat pump was turned off for 3 h, and to reduce the electricity bill if a “time of use” tariff structure was adopted. -- Highlights: ► Heat pump heating systems with thermal energy storage are considered. ► System behavior is investigated during a DSM strategy for reducing peak energy demand. ► Heat pump heating systems demonstrate to be able to have an active role in DSM programs. ► A TES system must be coupled with the heat pump in presence of low thermal inertia heating distribution systems. ► Central role played by incentives schemes to promote this technology

  19. Assembly, characterization, and operation of large-scale TES detector arrays for ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christine Goodwin

    2016-01-01

    The Polarization-sensitive Receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACTPol) is designed to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies on small angular scales. Measurements of the CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies have produced arguably the most important cosmological data to date, establishing the LambdaCDM model and providing the best constraints on most of its parameters. To detect the very small fluctuations in the CMB signal across the sky, ACTPol uses feedhorn-coupled Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) detectors. A TES is a superconducting thin film operated in the transition region between the superconducting and normal states, where it functions as a highly sensitive resistive thermometer. In this thesis, aspects of the assembly, characterization, and in-field operation of the ACTPol TES detector arrays are discussed. First, a novel microfabrication process for producing high-density superconducting aluminum/polyimide flexible circuitry (flex) designed to connect large-scale detector arrays to the first stage of readout is presented. The flex is used in parts of the third ACTPol array and is currently being produced for use in the AdvACT detector arrays, which will begin to replace the ACTPol arrays in 2016. Next, we describe methods and results for the in-lab and on-telescope characterization of the detectors in the third ACTPol array. Finally, we describe the ACTPol TES R(T,I) transition shapes and how they affect the detector calibration and operation. Methods for measuring the exact detector calibration and re-biasing functions, taking into account the R(T,I) transition shape, are presented.

  20. UJI VALIDASI TES FROSTIG UNTUK MENGUKUR KEMAMPUAN PERSEPSI VISUAL ANAK PRASEKOLAH DI YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Widyana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui validitas dan reliabilitas Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Tes Frostig untuk mengukur kemampuan persepsi visual anak-anak prasekolah. Subjek penelitian 102 anak-anak prasekolah yang mengikuti pendidikan Taman Kanak-Kanak di TKIT Salman Al Farisi 2 Sleman Yogyakarta, TKIT Insan Utama, Bantul, TKIT Ibnu Abbas 3 Minggir Sleman, TKIT Insan Mulia Sentolo Kulon Progo, TK ABA Margakaton 3 Seyegan Sleman Yogyakarta, dengan rentang usia antara 4 tahun 1 bulan sampai 6 tahun 3 bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar aitem Tes Persepsi Visual yang disusun oleh Frostig, berkolaborasi dengan Lefever dan Whittlesey pada tahun 1963 masih teruji validitas dan reliabilitasnya hingga saat ini. Meskipun demikian, penggunaannya perlu dikuatkan dengan tes lainnya mengingat koefisien reliabilitas khususnya subtes 3 dan 5 yang relatif rendah. Untuk subtes pertama (eye motor coordination yang terdiri dari 16 butir ditemukan 11 aitem valid dengan angka korelasi antara 0,213 sampai dengan 0,564. Untuk subtes kedua figure ground terdiri dari 8 aitem, semua aitem valid dengan angka korelasi 0,330 sampai dengan 0,673. Subtes ketiga (constancy of shape bagian pertama dan kedua, terdiri dari 32 aitem, terdapat 18 aitem valid dengan angka korelasi antara 0,223 sampai dengan 0,692. Subtes keempat (position of shape yang terdiri dari 8 aitem, 6 aitem valid dengan angka korelasi 0,244 sampai 0,353. Subtes kelima (spatial relationship yang terdiri dari 7 aitem (untuk usia prasekolah aitem 8 tidak diberikan, 6 aitem valid dengan angka korelasi antara 0,16 sampai dengan 0,512. Reliabilitas subtes bergerak dari 0,476 – 0,820. Terdapatnya korelasi yang signifikan antara skor skala subtes dengan skor total dengan rentang korelasi 0,406 – 0,754 menunjukkan bahwa semua subtes yang terdapat dalam tes Frostig menunjukkan relevansi untuk menggambarkan skor total kemampuan persepsi visual.

  1. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Satellite Validations of Ammonia, Methanol, Formic Acid, and Carbon Monoxide over the Canadian Oil Sands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The URLs link to the data archive of the Troposphere Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. These include the transects included in the Canadian Tar Sands study. A...

  2. PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM TES DIAGNOSTIK KESULITAN BELAJAR BERBASIS WEB MAHASISWA JURUSAN TEKNIK MESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soffan Nurhaji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (a Merancang sistem tes diagnostik kesulitan belajar mahasiswa jurusan pendidikan teknik mesin, dan, dan (b mengembangkan sistem tes diagnostik kesulitan belajar Mahasiswa. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan Research and Development dengan perangkat lunak. Model pengembangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah model modifikasi linear sequential yang disebut juga sebagai classic life cycle atau model waterfall yang memiliki 4 langkah. Analisis kebutuhan sistem dan perancangan sistem telah dilakukan pada tahun kedua. Implementasi dan validasi program dilakukan pada tahun keempat. Validasi sistem dilakukan dengan angket yang diberikan kepada 6 dosen yang mengampu di jurusan teknik pendidikan mesin untuk melihat aspek kinerja, rancangan, dan aksesbilitas sistem. Analisis data validasi dilakukan dengan statistik deskriptif. Langkah terakhir, evaluasi pemanfaatan sistem, akan dilaksanakan pada tahun kelima. Sistem tes diagnostik kesulitan belajar akan dikembangkan dengan arsitektur web client-server. Sistem ini memiliki tiga kelompok pengguna, yaitu admin, dosen, dan mahasiswa. Hasil analisis aspek kinerja, rancangan, dan adaptabilitas sistem secara keseluruhan akan dianalisis dari angket yang mempunyai rata-rata penilaian yang diperoleh dari skala 1–4, sehingga termasuk kategori sangat baik. Karena itu sistem yang telah dikembangkan dapat digunakan pada penelitian lebih lanjut pada tahun keenam, yaitu evaluasi pemanfaatan sistem. 

  3. Performance of an X-ray single pixel TES microcalorimeter under DC and AC biasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottardi, L.; Kuur, J. van der; Korte, P. A. J. de; Den Hartog, R.; Dirks, B.; Popescu, M.; Hoevers, H. F. C.; Bruijn, M.; Borderias, M. Parra; Takei, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) for the read-out of TES imaging microcalorimeter arrays for future X-ray missions like IXO. In the FDM configuration the TES is AC voltage biased at a well defined frequencies (between 0.3 to 10 MHz) and acts as an AM modulating element. In this paper we will present a full comparison of the performance of a TES microcalorimeter under DC bias and AC bias at a frequency of 370 kHz. In both cases we measured the current-to-voltage characteristics, the complex impedance, the noise, the X-ray responsivity, and energy resolution. The behaviour is very similar in both cases, but deviations in performances are observed for detector working points low in the superconducting transition (R/R N <0.5). The measured energy resolution at 5.89 keV is 2.7 eV for DC bias and 3.7 eV for AC bias, while the baseline resolution is 2.8 eV and 3.3 eV, respectively.

  4. Experimental investigation of thermal de-stratification in rock bed TES systems for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okello, Denis; Nydal, Ole J.; Banda, Eldad J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High thermal stratifications exists rock bed TES when charge with high temperature heat. • Faster thermal degradation occurs in highly stratified bed irrespective of the bed length. • Average rate of heat loss as a function of storage time increases with increasing average bed temperature. - Abstract: Solar energy fluctuates so much that it cannot promote continuous use. Integration of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) with solar energy collection devices has the potential of making solar energy available on demand. Thermal energy can be stored in a bed of rocks at temperatures suitable for applications like cooking, boiling space heating, etc. During charging, temperature stratification is observed in the bed. In a stratified system, if the heat is used immediately, then it is possible to extract heat at reasonably high temperature from the top. For cases where the system is to be used after sometime (later at night or the following morning), the high temperature heat at the top is observed to degrade as the system tries to establish thermal equilibrium irrespective of the bed height. The average rate of heat loss from the TES unit to the ambient is found to increase with increasing average bed temperatures

  5. Advances in the valorization of waste and by-product materials as thermal energy storage (TES) materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche Güerisoli, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández Renna, Ana Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Today, one of the biggest challenges our society must face is the satisfactory supply, dispatchability and management of the energy. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) has been identified as a breakthrough concept in industrial heat recovery applications and development of renewable technologies such as concentrated solar power (CSP) plants or compressed air energy storage (CAES). A wide variety of potential heat storage materials has been identified depending on the implemented TES method: sensibl...

  6. Production and evaluation of the recombinant antigen TES-30 of Toxocara canis for the immunodiagnosis of toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olave, Ana M; Mesa, Jairo A; Botero, Jorge H; Patiño, Edwin B; García, Gisela M; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-03-03

    Toxocara canis is a pathogenic nematode of canines which can be accidentally transmitted to humans. Although serology is the most important diagnostic tool for this zoonosis, diagnostic kits use crude excretion/secretion antigens, most of them being glycoproteins which are not species-specific and may cross-react with antibodies generated against other parasites.  To produce the rTES-30 recombinant antigen of Toxocara canis and evaluate it in the immunodiagnosis of toxocariasis.  The gene that codes for TES-30 was cloned in the expression vector pET28a (+) using single-stranded oligonucleotides united by PCR. The protein rTES-30 was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromotography. Seroreactivity of rTES-30 was evaluated by immunoblot. Given that there is no gold standard test, the behaviour of the antigen was compared with the method that is routinely used to immunodiagnose toxocariasis, i.e., the conventional ELISA technique using excretion/secretion antigens.  The rTES-30 was produced from an Escherichia coli LB culture which yielded 2.25 mg/L of the antigen with a purity of 95%. The results obtained showed 73% (46/63) concordance of reactivity between the rTES-30 immunoblot and the conventional ELISA, and 100% concordance with the nonreactive sera (21). Nineteen of the 21 sera positive for other parasitoses reacted with ELISA, while only seven of these were positive with the rTES-30 immunoblot. Concordance between the ELISA and the immunoblot was moderate (kappa coefficient: 0.575; 95% CI: 0.41- 0.74).  The data presented show the potential of the rTES-30 inmunoblot for confirmation of possible ELISA positives, not only in epidemiological studies, but also as a candidate for the development of diagnostic tests for ocular toxocariasis in Colombia.

  7. Production of Toxocara cati TES-120 Recombinant Antigen and Comparison with its T. canis Homolog for Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahabiun, Farzaneh; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Rahumatullah, Anizah; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hosein Falaki; Saidin, Syazwan; Noordin, Rahmah

    2015-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease caused by the infective larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Diagnosis in humans is usually based on clinical symptoms and serology. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits using T. canis excretory–secretory (TES) larval antigens are commonly used for serodiagnosis. Differences in the antigens of the two Toxocara species may influence the diagnostic sensitivity of the test. In this study, T. cati recombinant TES-120 (rTES-120) was cloned, expressed, and compared with its T. canis homolog in an IgG4-western blot. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of T. cati rTES-120 were 70% (33/47) and 100% (39/39), respectively. T. canis rTES-120 showed 57.4% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity. When the results of assays using rTES-120 of both species were considered, the diagnostic sensitivity was 76%. This study shows that using antigens from both Toxocara species may improve the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis. PMID:26033026

  8. Improvement of job satisfaction and organisational commitment through work group identification: an examination of the quantity surveyors in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yee Betty Chiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Though extant literatures in other sectors indicatethat job satisfaction and organizational commitment are important fordetermining individual and organisational outcomes, limited related researchhas been conducted amongst quantity surveyors in Hong Kong. Given cooperativeworking arrangement in the quantity surveying profession, work groupidentification is regarded as an important antecedent for determining jobsatisfaction and organisational commitment. The aim of this study is to examinewhether work group identification improves job satisfaction and organisationalcommitment. A questionnaire survey is conducted to collect data from quantitysurveyors working in private sector. A total of 71 valid responses are obtainedfrom 509 contacted quantity surveyors in Hong Kong. Bivariate correlation andmultiple regression analyses are performed to find the significance ofrelationships among the variables. Data analysis results support mosthypotheses. Work group identification is found to have significant positiveeffect on job satisfaction, affective and normative commitment. The finding isa bold step for quantity surveying companies to improve their quantity surveyors’job satisfaction and commitment level. The role of other contextual and organisationalfactors on job satisfaction and organisational commitment needs to becomplemented for future research.

  9. TES arrays for the short wavelength band of the SAFARI instrument on SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropanah, P.; Hijmering, R.; Ridder, M.; Gao, J. R.; Morozov, D.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Trappe, N.; O'Sullivan, C.; Murphy, A.; Griffin, D.; Goldie, D.; Glowacka, D.; Withington, S.; Jackson, B. D.; Audley, M. D.; de Lange, G.

    2012-09-01

    SPICA is an infra-red (IR) telescope with a cryogenically cooled mirror (~5K) with three instruments on board, one of which is SAFARI that is an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) with three bands covering the wavelength of 34-210 μm. We develop transition edge sensors (TES) array for short wavelength band (34-60 μm) of SAFARI. These are based on superconducting Ti/Au bilayer as TES bolometers with a Tc of about 105 mK and thin Ta film as IR absorbers on suspended silicon nitride (SiN) membranes. These membranes are supported by long and narrow SiN legs that act as weak thermal links between the TES and the bath. Previously an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) of 4×10-19 W/√Hz was achieved for a single pixel of such detectors. As an intermediate step toward a full-size SAFARI array (43×43), we fabricated several 8×9 detector arrays. Here we describe the design and the outcome of the dark and optical tests of several of these devices. We achieved high yield (<93%) and high uniformity in terms of critical temperature (<5%) and normal resistance (7%) across the arrays. The measured dark NEPs are as low as 5×10-19 W/√Hz with a response time of about 1.4 ms at preferred operating bias point. The optical coupling is implemented using pyramidal horns array on the top and hemispherical cavity behind the chip that gives a measured total optical coupling efficiency of 30±7%.

  10. Optical modeling of waveguide coupled TES detectors towards the SAFARI instrument for SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, N.; Bracken, C.; Doherty, S.; Gao, J. R.; Glowacka, D.; Goldie, D.; Griffin, D.; Hijmering, R.; Jackson, B.; Khosropanah, P.; Mauskopf, P.; Morozov, D.; Murphy, A.; O'Sullivan, C.; Ridder, M.; Withington, S.

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of space missions targeting far-infrared wavelengths will require large-format arrays of extremely sensitive detectors. The development of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) array technology is being developed for future Far-Infrared (FIR) space applications such as the SAFARI instrument for SPICA where low-noise and high sensitivity is required to achieve ambitious science goals. In this paper we describe a modal analysis of multi-moded horn antennas feeding integrating cavities housing TES detectors with superconducting film absorbers. In high sensitivity TES detector technology the ability to control the electromagnetic and thermo-mechanical environment of the detector is critical. Simulating and understanding optical behaviour of such detectors at far IR wavelengths is difficult and requires development of existing analysis tools. The proposed modal approach offers a computationally efficient technique to describe the partial coherent response of the full pixel in terms of optical efficiency and power leakage between pixels. Initial wok carried out as part of an ESA technical research project on optical analysis is described and a prototype SAFARI pixel design is analyzed where the optical coupling between the incoming field and the pixel containing horn, cavity with an air gap, and thin absorber layer are all included in the model to allow a comprehensive optical characterization. The modal approach described is based on the mode matching technique where the horn and cavity are described in the traditional way while a technique to include the absorber was developed. Radiation leakage between pixels is also included making this a powerful analysis tool.

  11. Core-Log-Seismic investigations of the Surveyor Fan and Channel system during the Pleistocene; IODP Exp. 341

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somchat, K.; Reece, R.; Gulick, S. P. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Chugach-St. Elias mountain range is the product of the ongoing subduction and collision of the Yakutat microplate with the North America Plate. The presence of this high topography close to the shoreline creates a unique source-to-sink system in which glacial eroded sediment is transported directly to the sea and preserved offshore in a deep sea fan without intervening storage. Surveyor Fan and Channel system is the product of this system. In this study we will focus on the four tributary channels that form at the head of the Surveyor Channel complex and merge into the main channel trunk 200 km from the shelf edge. We integrated drill core and 2D seismic reflection data to study the evolution of these tributaries in order to decipher glacial history along the southern Alaskan margin since the mid-Pleistocene (1.2 Ma). An age model from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 Site U1418 provides a higher resolution chronology of sediment delivery to the Surveyor Fan than previous studies. We regionally mapped the seismic subunits previously identified by Exp. 341 scientists starting from Site U1418 and analyzed regional patterns of sediment deposition. Channel migrations are observable between 1.2-0.5 Ma which could be the result of increasing glacial ice volume onshore due to onset of the MPT. Two-way travel time (isopach) maps of the three subunits show that sediment depocenter began to move eastward since 1.2 Ma with a trend of overall sediment flux increase in all tributary channels. Changes in sediment flux in each system represent the changes in volume of glacial ice over successive glacial intervals. Additionally, seismic analysis of channel geomorphology shows that each system contains distinct geomorphological evolutions that respond to the glacially eroded sediment flux at different times. Since glacial erosional processes is the driver of this source-to-sink system, a history of glacial ice onshore since the Pleistocene can be inferred from

  12. Impact of revisions to the F-Tag 309 surveyors' interpretive guidelines on pain management among nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapane, Kate L; Quilliam, Brian J; Chow, Wing; Kim, Myoung S

    2012-05-01

    On 31 March 2009, the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) provided revised guidance for meeting compliance in the evaluation and management of pain in nursing home residents, known as F-Tag 309. The aim of the study was to estimate the extent to which implementation of revisions to the surveyors' interpretive guidelines for F-Tag 309 improved recognition and management of pain among nursing home residents. The impact of the revisions to guidance on F-Tag 309 on pain in nursing home residents was investigated. The study was quasi-experimental in design and included 174 for-profit nursing homes in 19 US states. Nursing home residents with ≥2 Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessments between 1 January 2007 and 30 March 2009 (before the revisions to the guidelines; n = 8449) and between 31 March 2009 and 31 December 2009 (after the revisions; n = 1400) were included. The MDS assessments provided information on pain, analgesic use and cognitive, functional and emotional status. Separate logistic regression models that adjusted for clustering effects of residents residing in nursing homes provided estimates of the relationship between the implementation of the revisions to F-Tag 309 and the prevalence of pain and its management. Pain was more likely to be documented in the period after the revisions were implemented. The odds of pain being documented on at least one of two consecutive MDS assessments increased after the revisions to the guidelines were implemented (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01, 1.31). Increases in scheduled analgesic prescription were observed in the post-revision era (adjusted OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.21,1.57). The implementation of revisions to the surveyors' interpretive guidelines for F-Tag 309 improved recognition and management of pain as well as analgesic use in nursing home residents with documented non-cancer pain. Use of directed language as part of the surveyors' interpretive guidelines may be a

  13. tes2).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The d€teloprnent of efficient rations lbt fat lamb prcduction was invesligated using a variety of succulent feeds. Forty Dohne Me no werc divided annually for thrc€ yea$ irnmediately after parturition into four groups of ten. Group I received maize silage. Group 2 Japanese radish, Group 3 grecn wheat pasture and Group 4 ...

  14. Optical performance of prototype horn-coupled TES bolometer arrays for SAFARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, Michael D.; de Lange, Gert; Gao, Jian-Rong; Khosropanah, Pourya; Hijmering, Richard; Ridder, Marcel L.

    2016-07-01

    The SAFARI Detector Test Facility is an ultra-low background optical testbed for characterizing ultra-sensitive prototype horn-coupled TES bolmeters for SAFARI, the grating spectrometer on board the proposed SPICA satellite. The testbed contains internal cold and hot black-body illuminators and a light-pipe for illumination with an external source. We have added reimaging optics to facilitate array optical measurements. The system is now being used for optical testing of prototype detector arrays read out with frequency-domain multiplexing. We present our latest optical measurements of prototype arrays and discuss these in terms of the instrument performance.

  15. Le méga-fichier TES dans une nouvelle architecture de surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Vitalis, André

    2017-01-01

    La récente création du méga-fichier biométrique TES de tous les Français, répond, même s’il n’est pas mis en avant, à un souci sécuritaire. Si l’on veut véritablement comprendre les raisons et la portée de cette création, il faut la replacer dans la nouvelle architecture de surveillance en cours de construction depuis plus d’une décennie.

  16. CK2(beta)tes gene encodes a testis-specific isoform of the regulatory subunit of casein kinase 2 in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalmykova, Alla I; Shevelyov, Yuri Y; Polesskaya, Oksana O

    2002-01-01

    An earlier described CK2(beta)tes gene of Drosophila melanogaster is shown to encode a male germline specific isoform of regulatory beta subunit of casein kinase 2. Western-analysis using anti-CK2(beta)tes Ig revealed CK2(beta)tes protein in Drosophila testes extract. Expression of a CK2(beta...... and coimmunoprecipitation analysis of protein extract from Drosophila testes, we demonstrated an association between CK2(beta)tes and CK2alpha. Northern-analysis has shown that another regulatory (beta') subunit found recently in D. melanogaster genome is also testis-specific. Thus, we describe the first example of two...

  17. Array-scale performance of TES X-ray Calorimeters Suitable for Constellation-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, C. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Brown, A. D.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.; Smith, S. J.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Having developed a transition-edge-sensor (TES) calorimeter design that enables high spectral resolution in high fill-factor arrays, we now present array-scale results from 32-pixel arrays of identical closely packed TES pixels. Each pixel in such an array contains a Mo/Au bilayer with a transition temperature of 0.1 K and an electroplated Au or Au/Bi xray absorber. The pixels in an array have highly uniform physical characteristics and performance. The arrays are easy to operate due to the range of bias voltages and heatsink temperatures over which solution better than 3 eV at 6 keV can be obtained. Resolution better than 3 eV has also been obtained with 2x8 time-division SQUID multiplexing. We will present the detector characteristics and show spectra acquired through the read-out chain from the multiplexer electronics through the demultiplexer software to real-time signal processing. We are working towards demonstrating this performance over the range of count rates expected in the observing program of the Constellation-X observatory. We mill discuss the impact of increased counting rate on spectral resolution, including the effects of crosstalk and optimal-filtering dead time.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Research Activity on a Packed Bed TES System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cascetta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research activities on a packed bed sensible thermal energy storage (TES system. The TES consists of a cylindrical steel tank filled with small alumina beads and crossed by air used as the heat transfer fluid. Experimental tests were carried out while varying some operating parameters such as the mass flow rate, the inlet–outlet temperature thresholds and the aspect ratio (length over diameter. Numerical simulations were carried out using a one-dimensional model, specifically developed in the Matlab-Simulink environment and a 2D axisymmetric model based on the ANSYS-Fluent platform. Both models are based on a two-equation transient approach to calculate fluid and solid phase temperatures. Thermodynamic properties were considered to be temperature-dependent and, in the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model, variable porosity of the bed in the radial direction, thermal losses and the effective conductivity of the alumina beads were also considered. The simulation results of both models were compared to the experimental ones, showing good agreement. The one-dimensional model has the advantage of predicting the axial temperature distribution with a very low computational cost, but it does not allow calculation of the correct energy stored when the temperature distribution is strongly influenced by the wall. To overcome this problem a 2D CFD model was used in this work.

  19. Study of the Dependency on Magnetic Field and Bias Voltage of an AC-Biased TES Microcalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, L.; Bruijn, M.; denHartog, R.; Hoevers, H.; deKorte, P.; vanderKuur, J.; Linderman, M.; Adams, J.; Bailey, C.; Bandler, S.; hide

    2012-01-01

    At SRON we are studying the performance of a Goddard Space Flight Center single pixel TES microcalorimeter operated in an AC bias configuration. For x-ray photons at 6 keV the pixel shows an x-ray energy resolution Delta E(sub FWHM) = 3.7 eV, which is about a factor 2 worse than the energy resolution observed in an identical DC-biased pixel. In order to better understand the reasons for this discrepancy we characterized the detector as a function of temperature, bias working point and applied perpendicular magnetic field. A strong periodic dependency of the detector noise on the TES AC bias voltage is measured. We discuss the results in the framework of the recently observed weak-link behaviour of a TES microcalorimeter.

  20. Kamppailu yleistelevisiosta. TES-TV:n, Mainos-TV:n ja Tesvision merkitykset suomalaisessa televisiokulttuurissa 1956-1964

    OpenAIRE

    Keinonen, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Suomalaista televisiohistoriaa tarkastellaan usein Yleisradion historiana. Säännöllinen televisiotoiminta käynnistyi kuitenkin kaupallisesti rahoitetun televisioaseman lähetyksillä, ja vuoteen 1964 mennessä Suomessa ehti toimia kolme kaupallista televisioyhtiötä. TES-TV jatkoi pääkaupunkiseudulla vuonna 1956 säännölliset lähetykset aloittaneen Televisiokerhon toimintaa, Mainos-TV aloitti omat lähetyksensä Yleisradion televisiokanavalla seuraavana vuonna ja vuodesta 1960 lähtien TES-kanavan oh...

  1. Incidência e etiologia de uveítes em Curitiba Incidence and etiology of uveitis in Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luis Gehlen

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar a incidência e a etiologia dos casos de uveítes em Curitiba-PR. Métodos: Foram estudados 68 casos de uveítes em Curitiba, PR, atendidos no ambulatório de oftalmologia no período de janeiro a abril de 1998 procurando estabelecer o diagnóstico a partir de ampla investigação clínica e laboratorial. Resultados: Em nosso estudo, constatamos que a uveíte posterior foi a mais encontrada (49%, seguindo-se a panuveíte (29% e, com menor freqüência, a uveíte anterior (22%. A etiologia mais freqüente para as uveítes posteriores foi a toxoplasmose, responsável por 88% dos casos. Entre as panuveítes, novamente a toxoplasmose prevaleceu, com 85% e, dentro das uveítes anteriores, a principal causa foi a espondilite anquilosante com 20%. Conclusão: Em Curitiba, há um predomínio de uveítes posteriores e panuveítes, sendo a causa mais comum a toxoplasmose. No entanto, enfatiza-se que existem outras causas importantes de uveítes que devem ser lembradas pelo oftalmologista na investigação clínica.Purpose: To study the incidence and etiology of uveitis in Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Methods: Sixty-eight cases of uveitis were studied in Curitiba, PR between January and April, 1998. Clinical and laboratorial research was performed in order to establish the diagnosis. Results: In this study, we found that posterior uveitis was the most frequent (49%, followed by panuveitis (29%, and, less frequently, anterior uveitis (22%. The major etiology of posterior uveitis was toxoplasmosis, responsible for 88% of the cases; among panuveitis, toxoplasmosis also predomi-nated, representing 85% and, the main cause of anterior uveitis was ankylosing spondilytis with 20%. Conclusions: In Curitiba, posterior uveitis and panuveitis predominate, and the most frequent etiology is toxoplas-mosis. However, its important to emphasize that there are other important causes of uveitis which should be remem-bered by the ophthalmologist during the

  2. Identitātes stila, pašefektivitātes un audzināšanas stilu saistība jauniešu vecumā.

    OpenAIRE

    Stepiņa, Agita

    2011-01-01

    Pētījuma „Identitātes stila, pašefektivitātes un audzināšanas stilu saistība jauniešu vecumā” mērķis bija noskaidrot kā atšķirīgi identitātes stili saistīti ar pašefektivitāti un mātes audzināšanas stilu. Pētījumā arī tika iekļauti demogrāfiskie un papildus jautājumi, lai noskaidrotu noteiktu informāciju par jauniešiem. Pētījuma izlasi veidoja 60 jaunieši ( 34 sievietes un 26 vīrieši), kuri bija 18-19 gadus veci. Vidējais vecums (M = 18,35) Pētījumā, tika izmantotas trīs metodes: Identi...

  3. Quasiparticle propagation in aluminum fins and tungsten TES dynamics in the CDMS ZIP detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyle, M. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)]. E-mail: mpyle1@stanford.edu; Brink, P.L. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cabrera, B. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Castle, J.P. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Colling, P. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Chang, C.L. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cooley, J. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lipus, T. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ogburn, R.W. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Young, B.A. [Department of Physics, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA 95053 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    With the aim of improving the rejection of surface beta contamination on the CDMS ZIP detector, we have studied the effectiveness of our phonon pulse-shape discrimination by matching a Monte Carlo calculation to data from a 350{mu}m long Al fin with W TESs (Transition-Edge Sensors) at both ends. From this fit, we determined the Al film diffusivity to be D{sub Al}=0.010+/-0.001m{sup 2}/s, the quasiparticle trapping length in the Al fin to be l{sub trap}=180+/-10{mu}m, and the Al to W TES transmission to be f{sub Al/W}=0.002+/-0.001.

  4. Initial results from the Mini-TES experiment in Gusev Crater from the Spirit Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P. R.; Ruff, S. W.; Fergason, R. L.; Knudson, A. T.; Anwar, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bandfield, J. L.; Blaney, D. L.; Budney, C.; Calvin, W. M.; hide

    2004-01-01

    The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) on Spirit has studied the mineralogy and thermophysical properties at Gusev crater. Undisturbed soil spectra show evidence for minor carbonates and bound water. Rocks are olivinerich basalts with varying degrees of dust and other coatings. Dark-toned soils observed on disturbed surfaces may be derived from rocks and have derived mineralogy (+/-5 to 10%) of 45% pyroxene (20% Ca-rich pyroxene and 25% pigeonite), 40% sodic to intermediate plagioclase, and 15% olivine (forsterite 45% +/-5 to 10). Two spectrally distinct coatings are observed on rocks, a possible indicator of the interaction of water, rock, and airfall dust. Diurnal temperature data indicate particle sizes from 40 to 80 microm in hollows to approximately 0.5 to 3 mm in soils.

  5. Energy Reconstruction for Events Detected in TES X-ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, M. T.; Cardiel, N.; Cobo, B.

    2015-09-01

    The processing of the X-ray events detected by a TES (Transition Edge Sensor) device (such as the one that will be proposed in the ESA AO call for instruments for the Athena mission (Nandra et al. 2013) as a high spectral resolution instrument, X-IFU (Barret et al. 2013)), is a several step procedure that starts with the detection of the current pulses in a noisy signal and ends up with their energy reconstruction. For this last stage, an energy calibration process is required to convert the pseudo energies measured in the detector to the real energies of the incoming photons, accounting for possible nonlinearity effects in the detector. We present the details of the energy calibration algorithm we implemented as the last part of the Event Processing software that we are developing for the X-IFU instrument, that permits the calculation of the calibration constants in an analytical way.

  6. Diffusion Behaviour in Superconducting Ti/Au bilayers for SAFARI TES Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, N. J.; Khosropanah, P.; van der Kuur, J.; Ridder, M. L.

    2014-08-01

    Controlling the critical temperature () of Ti/Au bilayers is vital in the development of practical TES detectors. Previously empirical studies have been done on aging effects in Ti/Au and other superconducting bilayers but no link with theory has been made. Here we attempt to explain the change in with a diffusion mechanism. The change in has been measured for a set of Ti/Au bilayer samples that have been given a variety of bake-out treatments, where we found a trend that can be partly explained by an inter-diffusion mechanism. With an empirical model based on diffusion a safe zone can be defined as a region of bake-out treatments, where the is not affected beyond the requirements. This will shine light on the bake-out and the storage condition boundaries of these detectors.

  7. Development and characterization of a TES optical imaging array for astrophysics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burney, J.; Bay, T.J.; Brink, P.L.; Cabrera, B.; Castle, J.P.; Romani, R.W.; Tomada, A.; Nam, S.W.; Miller, A.J.; Martinis, J.; Wang, E.; Kenny, T.; Young, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Our research group has successfully developed photon detectors capable of both time-stamping and energy-resolving individual photons at very high rates in a wide band from the near-IR through optical and into the near-UV. We have fabricated 32-pixel arrays of these Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) devices and have mounted them in an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator equipped with windows for direct imaging. We have characterized single pixel behavior; we have also begun operating multiple pixels simultaneously, starting the scaling process towards use of the full array. We emphasize the development of a metalized mask for our array that blocks photons from hitting the inter-pixel areas and reflects them onto the TESs. We also present calibration data on detector resolution, electronics noise, and optical alignment

  8. Characterization, 1064 nm photon signals and background events of a tungsten TES detector for the ALPS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, J.; Doebrich, B.; Januschek, F.; Lindner, A.; Bastidon, N.; Horns, D.

    2015-02-01

    The high efficiency, low-background, and single-photon detection with transition-edge sensors (TES) is making this type of detector attractive in widely different types of application. In this paper, we present first characterizations of a TES to be used in the Any Light Particle Search (ALPS) experiment searching for new fundamental ultra-light particles. Firstly, we describe the setup and the main components of the ALPS TES detector (TES, millikelvin-cryostat and SQUID read-out) and their performances. Secondly, we explain a dedicated analysis method for single-photon spectroscopy and rejection of non-photon background. Finally, we report on results from extensive background measurements. Considering an event-selection, optimized for a wavelength of 1064 nm, we achieved a background suppression of ∝10 -3 with a ∝ 50 % efficiency for photons passing the selection. The resulting overall efficiency was 23 % with a dark count rate of 8.6.10 -3 s -1 . We observed that pile-up events of thermal photons are the main background component.

  9. Propriétés physico-chimiques des pâtes de fruits enrichies aux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIRINA

    fois plus de calcium que le lait de vache, 4 fois plus de vitamine A que la carotte, 3 fois ... Pour pallier le risque de développement des micro-organismes lors de la ..... Figure 2A: Analyses à composantes principales (ACP) des pâtes de tamarin ...

  10. High count-rate study of two TES x-ray microcalorimeters with different transition temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Jun; Adams, Joseph S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele L.; Chervenak, James A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, John E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Wassell, Edward J.

    2017-10-01

    We have developed transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays with high count-rate capability and high energy resolution to carry out x-ray imaging spectroscopy observations of various astronomical sources and the Sun. We have studied the dependence of the energy resolution and throughput (fraction of processed pulses) on the count rate for such microcalorimeters with two different transition temperatures (T c). Devices with both transition temperatures were fabricated within a single microcalorimeter array directly on top of a solid substrate where the thermal conductance of the microcalorimeter is dependent upon the thermal boundary resistance between the TES sensor and the dielectric substrate beneath. Because the thermal boundary resistance is highly temperature dependent, the two types of device with different T cs had very different thermal decay times, approximately one order of magnitude different. In our earlier report, we achieved energy resolutions of 1.6 and 2.3 eV at 6 keV from lower and higher T c devices, respectively, using a standard analysis method based on optimal filtering in the low flux limit. We have now measured the same devices at elevated x-ray fluxes ranging from 50 Hz to 1000 Hz per pixel. In the high flux limit, however, the standard optimal filtering scheme nearly breaks down because of x-ray pile-up. To achieve the highest possible energy resolution for a fixed throughput, we have developed an analysis scheme based on the so-called event grade method. Using the new analysis scheme, we achieved 5.0 eV FWHM with 96% throughput for 6 keV x-rays of 1025 Hz per pixel with the higher T c (faster) device, and 5.8 eV FWHM with 97% throughput with the lower T c (slower) device at 722 Hz.

  11. SiGe Integrated Circuit Developments for SQUID/TES Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prêle, D.; Voisin, F.; Beillimaz, C.; Chen, S.; Piat, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Laurent, P.

    2018-03-01

    SiGe integrated circuits dedicated to the readout of superconducting bolometer arrays for astrophysics have been developed since more than 10 years at APC. Whether for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations with the QUBIC ground-based experiment (Aumont et al. in astro-ph.IM, 2016. arXiv:1609.04372) or for the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme with the X-IFU instrument on-board of the ATHENA space mission (Barret et al. in SPIE 9905, space telescopes & instrumentation 2016: UV to γ Ray, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2232432), several kinds of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) (Irwin and Hilton, in ENSS (ed) Cryogenic particle detection, Springer, Berlin, 2005) arrays have been investigated. To readout such superconducting detector arrays, we use time or frequency domain multiplexers (TDM, FDM) (Prêle in JINST 10:C08015, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/10/08/C08015) with Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUID). In addition to the SQUID devices, low-noise biasing and amplification are needed. These last functions can be obtained by using BiCMOS SiGe technology in an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). ASIC technology allows integration of highly optimised circuits specifically designed for a unique application. Moreover, we could reach very low-noise and wide band amplification using SiGe bipolar transistor either at room or cryogenic temperatures (Cressler in J Phys IV 04(C6):C6-101, 1994. https://doi.org/10.1051/jp4:1994616). This paper discusses the use of SiGe integrated circuits for SQUID/TES readout and gives an update of the last developments dedicated to the QUBIC telescope and to the X-IFU instrument. Both ASIC called SQmux128 and AwaXe are described showing the interest of such SiGe technology for SQUID multiplexer controls.

  12. A novel, highly efficient cavity backshort design for far-infrared TES detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, C.; de Lange, G.; Audley, M. D.; Trappe, N.; Murphy, J. A.; Gradziel, M.; Vreeling, W.-J.; Watson, D.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we present a new cavity backshort design for TES (transition edge sensor) detectors which will provide increased coupling of the incoming astronomical signal to the detectors. The increased coupling results from the improved geometry of the cavities, where the geometry is a consequence of the proposed chemical etching manufacturing technique. Using a number of modelling techniques, predicted results of the performance of the cavities for frequencies of 4.3-10 THz are presented and compared to more standard cavity designs. Excellent optical efficiency is demonstrated, with improved response flatness across the band. In order to verify the simulated results, a scaled model cavity was built for testing at the lower W-band frequencies (75-100 GHz) with a VNA system. Further testing of the scale model at THz frequencies was carried out using a globar and bolometer via an FTS measurement set-up. The experimental results are presented, and compared to the simulations. Although there is relatively poor comparison between simulation and measurement at some frequencies, the discrepancies are explained by means of higher-mode excitation in the measured cavity which are not accounted for in the single-mode simulations. To verify this assumption, a better behaved cylindrical cavity is simulated and measured, where excellent agreement is demonstrated in those results. It can be concluded that both the simulations and the supporting measurements give confidence that this novel cavity design will indeed provide much-improved optical coupling for TES detectors in the far-infrared/THz band.

  13. Design and Performance of the Multiplexed SQUID/TES Array at Ninety Gigahertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchfield, Sara; Ade, Peter; Aguirre, James; Brevik, Justus A.; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Datta, Rahul; Devlin, Mark; Dicker, Simon R.; Dober, Bradley; Duff, Shannon M.; Egan, Dennis; Ford, Pam; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent; Knowles, Kenda; Marganian, Paul; Mason, Brian Scott; Mates, John A. B.; McMahon, Jeff; Mello, Melinda; Mroczkowski, Tony; Romero, Charles; Sievers, Jonathon; Tucker, Carole; Vale, Leila R.; Vissers, Michael; White, Steven; Whitehead, Mark; Ullom, Joel; Young, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We present the array performance and astronomical images from early science results from MUSTANG-2, a 90 GHz feedhorn-coupled, microwave SQUID-multiplexed TES bolometer array operating on the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). MUSTANG-2 was installed on the GBT on December 2, 2016 and immediately began commissioning efforts, followed by science observations, which are expected to conclude June 2017. The feedhorn and waveguide-probe-coupled detector technology is a mature technology, which has been used on instrument including the South Pole Telescope, the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, and the Atacama B-mode Search telescope. The microwave SQUID readout system developed for MUSTANG-2 currently reads out 66 detectors with a single coaxial cable and will eventually allow thousands of detectors to be multiplexed. This microwave SQUID multiplexer combines the proven abilities of millimeterwave TES detectors with the multiplexing capabilities of KIDs with no degradation in noise performance of the detectors. Each multiplexing device is read out using warm electronics consisting of a commercially available ROACH board, a DAC/ADC card, and an Intermediate Frequency mixer circuit. The hardware was originally developed by the UC Berkeley Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronic Research (CASPER) group, whose primary goal is to develop scalable FPGA-based hardware with the flexibility to be used in a wide range of radio signal processing applications. MUSTANG-2 is the first on-sky instrument to use microwave SQUID multiplexing and is available as a shared-risk/PI instrument on the GBT. In MUSTANG-2's first season 7 separate proposals were awarded a total of 230 hours of telescope time.

  14. Development of ROACH firmware for microwave multiplexed X-ray TES microcalorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, T. J.; Cecil, T. W.; Gades, L. M.; Quaranta, O.; Yan, D.; Miceli, A.; Gard, J. D.

    2016-09-04

    We are developing room temperature electronics based upon the ROACH platform for reading out microwave multiplexed X-ray TES. ROACH is an open-source hardware and software platform featuring a large Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Power PC processor, several 10GB Ethernet SFP+ interfaces, and a collection of daughter boards for analog signal generation and acquisition. The combination of a ROACH board, ADC/DAC conversion daughter boards, and hardware for RF mixing allows for the generation and capture of multiple RF tones for reading out microwave multiplexed x-ray TES microcalorimeters. The FPGA is used to generate multiple tones in base band, from 10MHz to 250MHz, which are subsequently mixed to RF in the multiple GHz range and sent through the microwave multiplexer. The tones are generated in the FPGA by storing a large lookup table in Quad Data Rate (QDR) SRAM modules and playing out the waveform to a DAC board. Once the signal has been modulated to RF, passed through the microwave multiplexer, and has been modulated back to base band, the signal is digitized by an ADC board. The tones are modulated to 0Hz by using a FPGA circuit consisting of a polyphase filter bank, several Xilinx FFT blocks, Xilinx CORDIC blocks (for converting to magnitude and phase), and special phase accumulator circuit for mixing to exactly 0Hz. Upwards of 256 channels can be simultaneously captured and written into a bank of 256 First-In-First-Out (FIFO) memories, with each FIFO corresponding to a channel. Individual channel data can be further processed in the FPGA before being streamed through a 10GB Ethernet fiber-optic interface to a Linux system. The Linux system runs software written in Python and QT C++ for controlling the ROACH system, capturing data, and processing data.

  15. Temperature, salinity and other measurements found in dataset CTD taken from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR (VLHJ) in the Coastal S Pacific, Equatorial Pacific and other locations from 2003 to 2006 (NODC Accession 0043461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, chemical, and other data were collected using CTD casts from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Iceland Sea and North / South Pacific Ocean. Data...

  16. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea and NE Pacific from 1995-09-10 to 1995-09-19 (NODC Accession 9600139)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrophysical, hydrochemical, and other data were collected from the SURVEYOR from September 10, 1995 to September 19, 1995. Data were submitted by Mr. David Kachel...

  17. CTD data from CTD casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER and NOAA Ship SURVEYOR from 1985-06-03 to 1988-09-21 (NODC Accession 8900194)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD data were collected from CTD casts from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER and NOAA Ship SURVEYOR in the Northeast Pacific Ocean from 03 June 1985 to 21 September 1988. Data...

  18. Observing the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization with Variable-delay Polarization Modulators for the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; CLASS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The search for inflationary primordial gravitational waves and the optical depth to reionization, both through their imprint on the large angular scale correlations in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), has created the need for high sensitivity measurements of polarization across large fractions of the sky at millimeter wavelengths. These measurements are subjected to instrumental and atmospheric 1/f noise, which has motivated the development of polarization modulators to facilitate the rejection of these large systematic effects.Variable-delay polarization modulators (VPMs) are used in the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) telescopes as the first element in the optical chain to rapidly modulate the incoming polarization. VPMs consist of a linearly polarizing wire grid in front of a moveable flat mirror; varying the distance between the grid and the mirror produces a changing phase shift between polarization states parallel and perpendicular to the grid which modulates Stokes U (linear polarization at 45°) and Stokes V (circular polarization). The reflective and scalable nature of the VPM enables its placement as the first optical element in a reflecting telescope. This simultaneously allows a lock-in style polarization measurement and the separation of sky polarization from any instrumental polarization farther along in the optical chain.The Q-Band CLASS VPM was the first VPM to begin observing the CMB full time in 2016. I will be presenting its design and characterization as well as demonstrating how modulating polarization significantly rejects atmospheric and instrumental long time scale noise.

  19. Emission Ratios for Ammonia and Formic Acid and Observations of Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate (PAN and Ethylene in Biomass Burning Smoke as Seen by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne H. Payne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We use the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES aboard the NASA Aura satellite to determine the concentrations of the trace gases ammonia (NH3 and formic acid (HCOOH within boreal biomass burning plumes, and present the first detection of peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN and ethylene (C2H4 by TES. We focus on two fresh Canadian plumes observed by TES in the summer of 2008 as part of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS-B campaign. We use TES retrievals of NH3 and HCOOH within the smoke plumes to calculate their emission ratios (1.0% ± 0.5% and 0.31% ± 0.21%, respectively relative to CO for these Canadian fires. The TES derived emission ratios for these gases agree well with previous aircraft and satellite estimates, and can complement ground-based studies that have greater surface sensitivity. We find that TES observes PAN mixing ratios of ~2 ppb within these mid-tropospheric boreal biomass burning plumes when the average cloud optical depth is low ( < 0.1 and that TES can detect C2H4 mixing ratios of ~2 ppb in fresh biomass burning smoke plumes.

  20. [Jānis Keruss, Ineta Lipša, Inese Runce, Kaspars Zellis. Latvijas Universitātes Vēstures un filozofijas fakultātes vēsture padomju laikā: personības, struktūras, idejas (1944-1991)] / Kristine Wohlfart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wohlfart, Kristine, 1968-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Keruss, Jānis, Lipša, Ineta, Runce, Inese, Zellis, Kaspars. Latvijas Universitātes Vēstures un filozofijas fakultātes vēsture padomju laikā: personības, struktūras, idejas (1944-1991). (Riga. LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, 2010)

  1. Latvijas uzņēmumu mārketinga aktivitātes interneta vidē.

    OpenAIRE

    Zujevs, Armands

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Latvijas uzņēmumu mārketinga aktivitātes interneta vidē.” Darba mērķis ir, pamatojoties uz teorijā sniegtajām atziņām par interneta mārketingu, kā arī uz interneta lietotāju aptaujas rezultātiem un ekspertu viedokli, novērtēt Latvijas uzņēmumu mārketinga aktivitātes interneta vidē un izstrādāt priekšlikumus to pilnveidošanai. Darba izstrādē ir veikta literatūras analīze, patērētāju anketēšana un nozares ekspertu intervijas. Lai izprastu interneta mārketinga darbība...

  2. Characterization of overwintering sites of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in natural landscapes using human surveyors and detector canines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo-Hyung Lee

    Full Text Available Halyomorpha halys is an invasive species from Asia causing major economic losses in agricultural production in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Unlike other crop pests, H. halys is also well-known for nuisance problems in urban, suburban, and rural areas, as massive numbers of adults often invade human-made structures to overwinter inside protected environments. Research efforts have focused on populations in human-made structures while overwintering ecology of H. halys in natural landscapes is virtually unknown. We explored forested landscapes in the mid-Atlantic region to locate and characterize natural overwintering structures used by H. halys. We also evaluated the use of detector canines to locate overwintering H. halys to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of surveys. From these studies, we indentified shared characteristics of overwintering sites used by H. halys in natural landscapes. Overwintering H. halys were recovered from dry crevices in dead, standing trees with thick bark, particularly oak (Quercus spp. and locust (Robinia spp.; these characteristics were shared by 11.8% of all dead trees in surveyed landscapes. For trees with favorable characteristics, we sampled ∼20% of the total above-ground tree area and recovered 5.9 adults per tree from the trees with H. halys present. Two detector canines were successfully trained to recognize and detect the odor of adult H. halys yielding >84% accuracy in laboratory and semi-field trials. Detector canines also found overwintering H. halys under field conditions. In particular, overwintering H. halys were recovered only from dead trees that yielded positive indications from the canines and shared key tree characteristics established by human surveyors. The identified characteristics of natural overwintering sites of H. halys will serve as baseline information to establish crop economic risk levels posed by overwintering populations, and accordingly develop sustainable

  3. Mechanical Design and Development of TES Bolometer Detector Arrays for the Advanced ACTPol Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jonathan T.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Devlin, Mark J.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio M.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; hide

    2016-01-01

    The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling 5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150 mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline pro le leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at the detector array stack assemblies. This experiment will also make use of extensive hardware and software previously developed for ACT, which will be modi ed to incorporate the new AdvACT instruments. Therefore, we discuss the integration of all AdvACT arrays with pre-existing ACTPol infrastructure.

  4. Ion Beam Analysis of Iridium-Based TES for Microcalorimeter Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, M. Ribeiro; Galeazzi, M.; Bogorin, D.; Barradas, N. Pessoa; Alves, E.; Franco, N.

    2009-01-01

    The physical properties of thin multilayer structures are deeply related to the crystalline quality and stoichiometry of the films. The interface roughness/mixing require a detailed study to determine its influence on the growth processes and surface topography. This is an important aspect when we have lattice mismatch between the superconducting thin-films and the substrates, and a high reliability/reproducibility is required as for large array microcalorimeter applications, as in the case of the MARE experiment, designed to measure the mass of the neutrino with sub-eV sensitivity by measuring the beta decay of 187 Re with cryogenic microcalorimeters. Ion beam analysis techniques are ideal to determine the thickness and concentration profiles of the chemical species in ultra-thin films. Here we present the results on the Ir-based superconducting films deposited on Si-substrates based on systematic investigations of the concentration depth profiles of the multilayer structure using 2.0 MeV 4 He + ions for high resolution Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry combined with X-Ray Reflectrometry to evaluate the interface/roughness mixing and the crystalline quality in the TES prototypes.

  5. Economic assessment and optimal operation of CSP systems with TES in California electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Alexander W.; Dyreson, Ana; Miller, Franklin; Zavala, Victor M.

    2017-06-01

    The economics and performance of concentrated power (CSP) systems with thermal energy storage (TES) inherently depend on operating policies and the surrounding weather conditions and electricity markets. We present an integrated economic assessment framework to quantify the maximum possible revenues from simultaneous energy and ancillary services sales by CSP systems. The framework includes both discrete start-up/shutdown restrictions and detailed physical models. Analysis of coinci-dental historical market and meteorological data reveals provision of ancillary services increases market revenue 18% to 37% relative to energy-only participation. Surprisingly, only 53% to 62% of these revenues are available through sole participation in the day-ahead market, indicating significant opportunities at faster timescales. Motivated by water-usage concerns and permitting requirements, we also describe a new nighttime radiative-enhanced dry-cooling system with cold-side storage that consumes no water and offers higher effciencies than traditional air-cooled designs. Operation of this new system is complicated by the cold-side storage and inherent coupling between the cooling system and power plant, further motivating integrated economic analysis.

  6. Progress Towards Improved Analysis of TES X-ray Data Using Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, S. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Lee, S.-J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The traditional method of applying a digital optimal filter to measure X-ray pulses from transition-edge sensor (TES) devices does not achieve the best energy resolution when the signals have a highly non-linear response to energy, or the noise is non-stationary during the pulse. We present an implementation of a method to analyze X-ray data from TESs, which is based upon principal component analysis (PCA). Our method separates the X-ray signal pulse into orthogonal components that have the largest variance. We typically recover pulse height, arrival time, differences in pulse shape, and the variation of pulse height with detector temperature. These components can then be combined to form a representation of pulse energy. An added value of this method is that by reporting information on more descriptive parameters (as opposed to a single number representing energy), we generate a much more complete picture of the pulse received. Here we report on progress in developing this technique for future implementation on X-ray telescopes. We used an 55Fe source to characterize Mo/Au TESs. On the same dataset, the PCA method recovers a spectral resolution that is better by a factor of two than achievable with digital optimal filters.

  7. Measurements of the Optical Performance of Prototype TES Bolometers for SAFARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, M. D.; de Lange, G.; Ranjan, M.; Gao, J.-R.; Khosropanah, P.; Ridder, M. L.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Morozov, D.; Doherty, S.; Trappe, N.; Withington, S.

    2014-09-01

    We have measured the optical response of prototype detectors for SAFARI, the far-infrared imaging spectrometer for the SPICA satellite. SAFARI's three bolometer arrays, coupled with a Fourier transform spectrometer, will provide images of a 2'×2' field of view with spectral information over the wavelength range 34-210 μm. Each horn-coupled bolometer consists of a transition edge sensor (TES), with a transition temperature close to 100 mK, and a thin-film Ta absorber on a thermally-isolated silicon nitride membrane. SAFARI requires extremely sensitive detectors ( NEP˜2×10-19 W/), with correspondingly low saturation powers (˜5 fW), to take advantage of SPICA's cooled optics. To meet the challenge of testing such sensitive detectors we have constructed an ultra-low background test facility based on a cryogen-free high-capacity dilution refrigerator, paying careful attention to stray-light exclusion, shielding, and vibration isolation. For optical measurements the system contains internal cold (3-30 K) and hot (˜300 K) black-body calibration sources, as well as a light pipe for external illumination. We discuss our measurements of high optical efficiency in prototype SAFARI detectors and describe recent improvements to the test facility that will enable us to test the full SAFARI focal-plane arrays.

  8. Readout of a 176 pixel FDM system for SAFARI TES arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijmering, R. A.; den Hartog, R.; Ridder, M.; van der Linden, A. J.; van der Kuur, J.; Gao, J. R.; Jackson, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present the results of our 176-pixel prototype of the FDM readout system for SAFARI, a TES-based focal-plane instrument for the far-IR SPICA mission. We have implemented the knowledge obtained from the detailed study on electrical crosstalk reported previously. The effect of carrier leakage is reduced by a factor two, mutual impedance is reduced to below 1 nH and mutual inductance is removed. The pixels are connected in stages, one quarter of the array half of the array and the full array, to resolve intermediate technical issues. A semi-automated procedure was incorporated to find all optimal settings for all pixels. And as a final step the complete array has been connected and 132 pixels have been read out simultaneously within the frequency range of 1-3.8MHz with an average frequency separation of 16kHz. The noise was found to be detector limited and was not affected by reading out all pixels in a FDM mode. With this result the concept of using FDM for multiplexed bolometer read out for the SAFARI instrument has been demonstrated.

  9. Performance of compact TES arrays with integrated high-fill-fraction X-ray absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeman, Mark A.; Bandler, Simon; Brekosky, Regis P.; Chervenak, James A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Saab, Tarek; Stahle, Caroline K.; Talley, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    We have recently produced and tested two-dimensional arrays of Mo/Au transition-edge-sensor (TES) calorimeters with Bi/Cu absorbers. The arrays represent a significant step towards meeting the specifications of NASA's Constellation-X mission. The calorimeters are compactly spaced within 5x5 arrays of 250 μm square pixels necessary for an angular resolution of 5 arcsec. Lithographically produced absorbers hang over the substrate and wiring between the TESs for high filling fraction and high quantum efficiency. We designed the calorimeters with heat capacities and thermal couplings such that X-rays produce pulses with fall times of approximately 300 μs to allow relatively high count rates with low dead time. We read out up to four of the pixels simultaneously. The arrays demonstrated very good energy resolution (5 eV at 1.5 keV and 7 eV at 6 keV) and little crosstalk between neighboring pixels

  10. Performance-based service acquisition (PBSA) of TRIDENT strategic weapons systems (SWS) technical engineering support (TES) services

    OpenAIRE

    Arcidiacono, William J.

    2003-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited The objective of this thesis is to determine whether the Strategic Systems Programs (SSP) should apply the concepts of Performance-Based Service Acquisition (PBSA) to Strategic Weapons Systems (SWS) Technical Engineering Support (TES) Services. This thesis provides a Department of Defense (DoD), Department of the Navy (DON), and SSP SWS program acquisition and PBSA history background, ...

  11. rTES-30USM: cloning via assembly PCR, expression, and evaluation of usefulness in the detection of toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhaida, A; Suharni, M; Liza Sharmini, A T; Tuda, J; Rahmah, N

    2008-03-01

    Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or T. cati, mainly relies on serological tests. Unfortunately, however, the specificities of most of the commercial tests that are available for the serodiagnosis of this disease are not very high and this may cause problems, especially in tropical countries where co-infections with other helminths are common. In an effort to develop a serological assay with improved specificity for the detection of Toxocara infection, an IgG(4)-ELISA based on a recombinant version (rTES-30USM) of the 30-kDa Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen (TES-30) has recently been developed. To produce the antigen, the TES-30 gene was cloned via assembly PCR, subcloned into a His-tagged prokaryotic expression vector, and purified by affinity chromatography using Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic-acid (Ni-NTA) resin. The performance of the ELISA based on the recombinant antigen was then compared with that of commercial kit, based on an IgG-ELISA, for the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis (Toxocara IgG-ELISA; Cypress Diagnostics, Langdorp, Belgium). Both assays were used to test 338 serum samples, including 26 samples from probable cases of toxocariasis. Assuming that all the probable cases were true cases, the assay based on rTES-30USM demonstrated a sensitivity of 92.3% (24/26) and a specificity of 89.6% (103/115) whereas the commercial kit exhibited a sensitivity of 100% (26/26) but a specificity of only 55.7% (64/115). The high sensitivity and specificity exhibited by the new IgG(4)-ELISA should make the assay a good choice for use in tropical countries and any other area where potentially cross-reactive helminthic infections are common.

  12. Benchmarking CCMI models' top-of-atmosphere flux in the 9.6-µm ozone band using AURA TES Instantaneous Radiative Kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, L.; Bowman, K. W.; Worden, H. M.; Paulot, F.; Paynter, D.; Oman, L.; Strode, S. A.; Rozanov, E.; Stenke, A.; Revell, L. E.; Plummer, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The estimated ozone radiative forcing (RF) from chemical-climate models range widely from +0.2 to +0.6 Wm-2. The reason has never been well understood. Since the ozone absorption in the 9.6 μm band contributes 97% of the O3 longwave RF, the variation of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) due to ozone is dominant by this band. The observed TOA flux over 9.6 µm ozone band by Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) shows the global distribution has unique spatial patterns. In addition, the simulated TOA fluxes over 9.6 µm ozone band by different models have never been evaluated against observations. The bias of TOA flux from model could be primarily contributed by the bias of temperature, water vapor and ozone. Furthermore, the sensitivity of TOA flux to tropospheric ozone (instantaneous radiative kernel, IRK) may also affected by these biases (Kuai et al., 2017). The bias in TOA flux would eventually propagate into model calculations of ozone RF and cause divergence of the predictions of future climate by models. In this study, we applied the observation-based IRK product by AURA TES to attribute the CCMI model bias in TOA flux over 9.6 µm ozone band to ozone, water vapor, air temperature, and surface temperature. The comparisons of the three CCMI models (AM3, SOCOL3 and GEOCCM) to TES observations suggest that 1) all models underestimate the TOA flux at tropics and subtropics. 2) The TOA flux bias is comparable similar by AM3 and GEOSCC (-0.2 to -0.3 W/m2) however is larger for the relative young model, SOCOL3 (-0.4 to -0.6 W/m2). 3) The contributions by surface temperature are similarly moderate (-0.2 W/m2). 4) The contribution of ozone is largest by SOCOL3 (-0.3 W/m2), smallest by GEOSCCM (less than 0.1 W/m2) and moderate by AM3 (-0.2 W/m2). 5) Overall, the contributions by atmospheric temperature are all small (less than 0.1 W/m2). 6) The contribution of water vapor is negative and small by both SOCOL3 and GEOSCCM (0.1 W/m2) however large and positive by AM3 (0

  13. Phenolic compounds as antioxidants and chemopreventive drugs from Streptomyces cellulosae strain TES17 isolated from rhizosphere of Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Riveka; Arora, Saroj; Kaur, Jeevanjot; Manhas, Rajesh Kumari

    2018-03-09

    Oxidative stress in an intracellular environment created by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species results in oxidative damage to biomolecules which ultimately become a hallmark for severe diseases like cancer, aging, diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Various in vitro assays were employed to assess the antioxidant potential of strain, DNA protective activity was demonstrated using DNA nicking assay and cytotoxicity of the extract was evaluated using MTT assay. Further identification of the compounds was done using UPLC analysis. The extract of Streptomyces cellulosae strain TES17 demonstrated significant antioxidant activity with percentage inhibition of 78.47 ± 0.23, 91.08 ± 0.98 and 82.08 ± 0.93 for DPPH, ABTS and superoxide radical assays at 5 mg/mL, respectively. Total antioxidant and reducing power were found to be 76.93 ± 0.76 and 231.96 ± 0.51 mg AAE/100 mg of dry extract, respectively. Moreover, the extract was shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation upto 67.18 ± 1.9% at 5 mg/mL. TPC and TFC measured in the extract was 55 mg GAE/100 mg and 11.17 ± 4.05 mg rutin/100 mg, respectively. The protective nature of the TES17 extract to oxidative stress induced damaged DNA was shown by percentage of supercoiled DNA i.e. Form I was increased from 26.38 to 38.20% at concentrations ranging from 2 μg to 10 μg. TES17 extract also showed the cytotoxic activity against lung cancer cell line with 74.7 ± 1.33% inhibition whereas, limited toxicity was observed against normal cell line with percentage viability of 87.71 ± 6.66 at same concentration (30 μg/mL) tested. The antioxidant capacity of extract was well correlated with its TPC and TFC and this in turn was in keeping with the UPLC analysis which also revealed the presence of phenolic compounds that were responsible for the antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of S. cellulosae strain TES17. The present study describes that S. cellulosae

  14. The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Surveyor (ARES): New Mars Science to Reduce Human Risk and Prepare for the Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.; Croom, Mark A.; Wright, Henry S.; Killough, B. D.; Edwards, W. C.

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining critical measurements for eventual human Mars missions while expanding upon recent Mars scientific discoveries and deriving new scientific knowledge from a unique near surface vantage point is the focus of the Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Surveyor (ARES) exploration mission. The key element of ARES is an instrumented,rocket-powered, well-tested robotic airplane platform, that will fly between one to two kilometers above the surface while traversing hundreds of kilometers to collect and transmit previously unobtainable high spatial measurements relevant to the NASA Mars Exploration Program and the exploration of Mars by humans.

  15. Glacial and tectonic influence on terrestrial organic carbon delivery to high latitude deep marine systems: IODP Site U1417, Surveyor Fan, Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, L. B.; Ridgway, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Glacial and tectonic processes on active margins are intrinsically coupled to the transport of sediment and associated organic carbon (OC). Glaciation/deglaciation and the formation of ice sheets can alter the quantity and composition of OC delivered to the marine environment. Over geologic time scales (>1 Ma), exhumation and mass wasting of sedimentary rock from uplifted accretionary wedges inject recycled OC (e.g. kerogen), along with modern OC into the marine environment. The sedimentary record of glacial and tectonic processes along the southern Alaska margin is particularly well preserved at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1417. Lithofacies of Site U1417 can be divided into 3 sedimentary packages that we interpret as linked to the onset of tidewater glaciation along, and tectonic convergence of the Yakutat Terrane with, the continental margin of northwestern Canada and southern Alaska. Based on previous studies linking the development of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and the movement of the Yakutat Terrane to the development of the Surveyor Fan System, we hypothesize biogeochemical variations in the deposited sediments as a result of changing provenance. Preservation of terrestrial OC that has been documented in sediments of the Alaskan continental shelf margin and sediment routing through the deep-sea Surveyor Channel from the Pleistocene to modern time implies a long-term conduit for this OC to reach the distal portion of the Surveyor Fan system. To correlate marine deposits with terrestrial formations, bulk geochemical and detailed biomarker analyses are used to delineate source material. Preliminary bulk OC content and stable carbon isotope analyses of the Yakataga, Poul Creek, and Kultheith Fms. reveal notable differences. Detailed biomarker analysis by pyrolysis-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry has revealed further differences between the three primary formations. Using the biogeochemical fingerprints of the Yakataga, Poul Creek, and coal

  16. Correlations Between Olivine Abundance and Thermal Inertia: Implications for Global Weathering and/or Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, V. E.; McDowell, M. L.; Koeppen, W. C.

    2010-03-01

    TES data show no global trend between thermal inertia and olivine abundance. But it is premature to conclude that all dark surfaces were once more mafic OR that olivine is not preferentially removed from olivine-enriched outcrops as they erode.

  17. Evaluating climate model performance in the tropics with retrievals of water isotopic composition from Aura TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Robert; Kim, Daehyun; Kelley, Max; LeGrande, Allegra; Worden, John; Schmidt, Gavin

    2014-05-01

    Observational and theoretical arguments suggest that satellite retrievals of the stable isotope composition of water vapor could be useful for climate model evaluation. The isotopic composition of water vapor is controlled by the same processes that control water vapor amount, but the observed distribution of isotopic composition is distinct from amount itself . This is due to the fractionation that occurs between the abundant H216O isotopes (isotopologues) and the rare and heavy H218O and HDO isotopes during evaporation and condensation. The fractionation physics are much simpler than the underlying moist physics; discrepancies between observed and modeled isotopic fields are more likely due to problems in the latter. Isotopic measurements therefore have the potential for identifying problems that might not be apparent from more conventional measurements. Isotopic tracers have existed in climate models since the 1980s but it is only since the mid 2000s that there have been enough data for meaningful model evaluation in this sense, in the troposphere at least. We have evaluated the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model over the tropics against water isotope (HDO/H2O) retrievals from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), alongside more conventional measurements. A small ensemble of experiments was performed with physics perturbations to the cumulus and planetary boundary layer schemes, done in the context of the normal model development process. We examined the degree to which model-data agreement could be used to constrain a select group of internal processes in the model, namely condensate evaporation, entrainment strength, and moist convective air mass flux. All are difficult to parameterize, but exert strong influence over model performance. We found that the water isotope composition was significantly more sensitive to physics changes than precipitation, temperature or relative humidity through the depth of the tropical troposphere. Among the

  18. Compositions of Bedrock Containing Craters on Mars as Viewed by TES, THEMIS, and CRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C. S.; Rogers, D.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2009-12-01

    An investigation of Martian high thermal inertia crater surfaces has been made using derived THEMIS thermal inertia data. High thermal inertia surfaces or interpreted bedrock are defined as any pixel in a THEMIS image with a thermal inertia over 1200 J K-1m-2s-1/2 and may refer to in situ rock exposures or rock-dominated surfaces. While three different surface morphologies (valley and crater walls, crater floors, and plains surface) were originally identified [Edwards et al., in press], the focus of this study is to better characterize the compositional, thermophysical, and geological characteristics of the crater floors surface. These surfaces may be related to impact-associated volcanism that often occurs in conjunction with large energetic impacts. These craters are commonly modified, lack a central peak, have shallow sloped walls, and little to no visible ejecta, indicating the relatively old ages of these impacts. They are generally large, ranging in size from 18.5 to 179km in diameter, with an average of ~52km [Edwards et al., in press]. Boulders are also observed in high-resolution imagery (e.g. HiRISE) along with fine scale randomly oriented cracks and fractures. TES spectra for ~60 of the 92 originally identified sites have been examined in detail and can be broken down into two distinctive spectral groups, olivine bearing (~80%, with >10% olivine and often >20%) and non-olivine bearing craters (~20%, with inertia crater floors. In this case, magma is likely derived from decompression melting of the mantle due to the removal of overlying material. This magma reaches the surface through fractures and cracks in the basement rock likely caused by the impact event. This is consistent with the observed compositions, as material derived directly from the Martian mantle is expected to be significantly more mafic than the surrounding country rock. These sites are likely locations where the some of the most primitive material on Mars is observed and can be used to

  19. Large arrays of dual-polarized multichroic TES detectors for CMB measurements with the SPT-3G receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Chrystian M.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Anderson, Adam J.; Avva, Jessica; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Arnold, Kam S.; Austermann, Jason; Bender, Amy N.; Benson, Bradford A.; Bleem, Lindsey; Byrum, Karen; Carlstrom, John E.; Carter, Faustin W.; Chang, Clarence; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Cukierman, Ari; Czaplewski, David A.; Ding, Junjia; Divan, Ralu N. S.; de Haan, Tijmen; Dobbs, Matt; Dutcher, Daniel; Everett, Wenderline; Gannon, Renae N.; Guyser, Robert J.; Halverson, Nils W.; Harrington, Nicholas L.; Hattori, Kaori; Henning, Jason W.; Hilton, Gene C.; Holzapfel, William L.; Huang, Nicholas; Irwin, Kent D.; Jeong, Oliver; Khaire, Trupti; Korman, Milo; Kubik, Donna L.; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Lee, Adrian T.; Leitch, Erik M.; Lendinez Escudero, Sergi; Meyer, Stephan S.; Miller, Christina S.; Montgomery, Joshua; Nadolski, Andrew; Natoli, Tyler J.; Nguyen, Hogan; Novosad, Valentyn; Padin, Stephen; Pan, Zhaodi; Pearson, John E.; Rahlin, Alexandra; Reichardt, Christian L.; Ruhl, John E.; Saliwanchik, Benjamin; Shirley, Ian; Sayre, James T.; Shariff, Jamil A.; Shirokoff, Erik D.; Stan, Liliana; Stark, Antony A.; Sobrin, Joshua; Story, Kyle; Suzuki, Aritoki; Tang, Qing Yang; Thakur, Ritoban B.; Thompson, Keith L.; Tucker, Carole E.; Vanderlinde, Keith; Vieira, Joaquin D.; Wang, Gensheng; Whitehorn, Nathan; Yefremenko, Volodymyr; Yoon, Ki Won

    2016-07-01

    Detectors for cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments are now essentially background limited, so a straightforward alternative to improve sensitivity is to increase the number of detectors. Large arrays of multichroic pixels constitute an economical approach to increasing the number of detectors within a given focal plane area. Here, we present the fabrication of large arrays of dual-polarized multichroic transition-edge-sensor (TES) bolometers for the South Pole Telescope third-generation CMB receiver (SPT-3G). The complete SPT-3G receiver will have 2690 pixels, each with six detectors, allowing for individual measurement of three spectral bands (centered at 95 GHz, 150 GHz and 220 GHz) in two orthogonal polarizations. In total, the SPT-3G focal plane will have 16140 detectors. Each pixel is comprised of a broad-band sinuous antenna coupled to a niobium microstrip transmission line. In-line filters are used to define the different band-passes before the millimeter-wavelength signal is fed to the respective Ti/Au TES sensors. Detectors are read out using a 64x frequency domain multiplexing (fMux) scheme. The microfabrication of the SPT-3G detector arrays involves a total of 18 processes, including 13 lithography steps. Together with the fabrication process, the effect of processing on the Ti/Au TES's Tc is discussed. In addition, detectors fabricated with Ti/Au TES films with Tc between 400 mK 560 mK are presented and their thermal characteristics are evaluated. Optical characterization of the arrays is presented as well, indicating that the response of the detectors is in good agreement with the design values for all three spectral bands (95 GHz, 150 GHz, and 220 GHz). The measured optical efficiency of the detectors is between 0.3 and 0.8. Results discussed here are extracted from a batch of research of development wafers used to develop the baseline process for the fabrication of the arrays of detectors to be deployed with the SPT-3G receiver. Results from

  20. Winter- and summertime continental influences on tropospheric O3 and CO observed by TES over the western North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talbot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of tropospheric ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO, and the synoptic factors regulating these distributions over the western North Atlantic Ocean during winter and summer were investigated using profile retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES for 2004–2006. Seasonal composites of TES retrievals, reprocessed to remove the influence of the a priori on geographical and seasonal structure, exhibited strong seasonal differences. At the 681 hPa level during winter months of December, January and February (DJF the composite O3 mixing ratios were uniformly low (~45 ppbv, but continental export was evident in a channel of enhanced CO (100–110 ppbv flowing eastward from the US coast. In summer months June, July, and August (JJA O3 mixing ratios were variable (45–65 ppbv and generally higher due to increased photochemical production. The summer distribution also featured a channel of enhanced CO (95–105 ppbv flowing northeastward around an anticyclone and exiting the continent over the Canadian Maritimes around 50° N. Offshore O3-CO slopes were generally 0.15–0.20 mol mol−1 in JJA, indicative of photochemical O3 production. Composites for 4 predominant synoptic patterns or map types in DJF suggested that export to the lower free troposphere (681 hPa level was enhanced by the warm conveyor belt airstream of mid-latitude cyclones while stratospheric intrusions increased TES O3 levels at 316 hPa. A major finding in the DJF data was that offshore 681 hPa CO mixing ratios behind cold fronts could be enhanced up to >150 ppbv likely by lofting from the surface via shallow convection resulting from rapid destabilization of cold air flowing over much warmer ocean waters. In JJA composites for 3 map types showed that the general export pattern of the seasonal composites was associated with a synoptic pattern featuring the Bermuda High. However, weak cyclones and frontal troughs could enhance offshore 681 hPa CO

  1. Threshold electrical stimulation (TES) in ambulant children with CP: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dali, Christine í; Hansen, Flemming Juul; Pedersen, Søren Anker

    2002-01-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out to determine whether a group of stable children with cerebral palsy (36 males, 21 females; mean age 10 years 11 months, range 5 to 18 years) would improve their motor skills after 12 months of threshold electrical...... stimulation (TES). Two thirds received active and one third received inactive stimulators. For the primary outcome we constructed a set of plausible motor function tests and studied the change in summary indices of the performance measurements. Tests were videotaped and assessed blindly to record qualitative...

  2. Når to mennesker møtes: Hvordan kan sykepleier møte pasienter med selvskadende atferd

    OpenAIRE

    Eikrem, Mats Ulstein

    2017-01-01

    Høgskulen på Vestlandet Institutt for sykepleie Avdeling for helsefag Tittel: Når to mennesker møtes Bakgrunn for val av tema: Bakgrunnen for tema er mine egne erfaringer innenfor legevakts arbeid, og de observasjonene jeg har tilnærmet meg der. Noe som har ført til at jeg opplever at sykepleiere ikke skaper nok rom for pasienter med selvskadende atferd. Jeg ønsker derfor å lære mer om hvordan man bør møte denne pasientgruppen på en god måte. Problemstilling: Hvordan kan syk...

  3. Transition edge sensor-energy-dispersive spectrometer (TES-EDS) using a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator for material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Odawara, Akikazu; Nagata, Atsushi; Ikeda, Masanori; Baba, Yukari; Nakayama, Satoshi; Chinone, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    A cryogen-free energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) using a transition edge sensor (TES) was developed for material analysis. This system can maintain a temperature at 130 mK within 30 μK, and has good energy resolution (19 eV for Mn-Kα) for long-time measurement with a drift in the DC level of less than 0.02 eV/min. This system utilizes a dilution refrigerator (φ 272 mmxheight 572 mm) and has a snout (370 mm long and φ25 mm) similar to that in a conventional EDS system. The dilution refrigerator is pre-cooled by a GM refrigerator. A flexible tube between the dilution refrigerator and GM refrigerator damps the mechanical vibration of the GM refrigerator. Two shields (4 and 80 K) thermally protect the Cu rod (φ8 mm) cooled to be 100 mK. Windows composed of polyimide+Al film allow X-ray detection above the C-Kα line. A TES (6 mmx6 mm) and array SQUID amplifier (1.5 mmx3 mm) are mounted on top of the Cu rod. For Mn-Kα, the pulse height is 5.5 μA and decay time (τ eff ) is 90 μs. The maximum count rate (1/20 τ eff ) is estimated at about 500 cps

  4. Optimal Extraction of Tropospheric Ozone Column by Simultaneous Use of OMI and TES Data and the Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasheri, M. R.; Shirazi, H.

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to increase the accuracy of Ozone data from tropospheric column (TOC) of the OMI and TES satellite instruments. To validate the estimated amount of satellite data, Ozonesonde data is used. The vertical resolution in both instruments in the tropospheric atmosphere decreases so that the degree of freedom signals (DOFS) on the average for TES is reduced to 2 and for OMI is reduced to1. But this decline in accuracy in estimation of tropospheric ozone is more obvious in urban areas so that estimated ozone in both instruments alone in non-urban areas show a high correlation with Ozonesonde. But in urban areas this correlation is significantly reduced, due to the ozone pre-structures and consequently an increase on surface-level ozone in urban areas. In order to improve the accuracy of satellite data, the average tropospheric ozone data from the two instruments were used. The aim is to increase the vertical resolution of ozone profile and the results clearly indicate an increase in correlations, but nevertheless the satellite data have a positive bias towards the earth data. To reduce the bias, with the solar flux and nitrogen dioxide values and surface temperatures are calculated as factors of ozone production on the earth's surface and formation of mathematical equations based on coefficients for each of the mentioned values and multiplication of these coefficients by satellite data and repeated comparison with the values of Ozonesonde, the results showed that bias in urban areas is greatly reduced.

  5. A feedforward IMC structure for controlling the charging temperature of a TES system of a solar cooker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawire, A.; McPherson, M.

    2008-01-01

    A feedforward internal model control (IMC) structure for controlling and maintaining the outlet charging temperature of a thermal energy storage (TES) system of a solar cooker is presented. The TES system consists of a packed pebble bed in thermal contact with a heat transfer oil contained in a storage tank. An electrical hot plate simulates the collector/concentrator which heats up the oil circulating in a hollow copper spiral coil thus charging the storage. A model for the collector/concentrator system is developed to enable simulation of the feedforward IMC structure. Using a Simulink block model, the simulation results reveal that a feedforward IMC structure performs better than a feedforward structure. The feedforward IMC structure is tested experimentally and the performance of the control structure is acceptable within a few degrees of the set temperatures. Experimental results are also compared with the simulation results. The simulated responses are found to relate closely to the experimental ones and any discrepancies between the two are discussed. Furthermore, the feedforward IMC structure is also compared experimentally with a combined feedforward and PID feedback structure. Results of the comparison indicate that the feedforward IMC structure performs better than the combined feedforward and PID feedback structure. The thermal profile of the storage during the charging experiment with the feedforward IMC structure is also presented and the results obtained from the storage profile indicate that the storage tank is thermally stratified

  6. A Wearable EEG-HEG-HRV Multimodal System With Simultaneous Monitoring of tES for Mental Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Unsoo; Lee, Yongsu; Kim, Hyunki; Roh, Taehwan; Bae, Joonsung; Kim, Changhyeon; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2015-12-01

    A multimodal mental management system in the shape of the wearable headband and earplugs is proposed to monitor electroencephalography (EEG), hemoencephalography (HEG) and heart rate variability (HRV) for accurate mental health monitoring. It enables simultaneous transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) together with real-time monitoring. The total weight of the proposed system is less than 200 g. The multi-loop low-noise amplifier (MLLNA) achieves over 130 dB CMRR for EEG sensing and the capacitive correlated-double sampling transimpedance amplifier (CCTIA) has low-noise characteristics for HEG and HRV sensing. Measured three-physiology domains such as neural, vascular and autonomic domain signals are combined with canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and temporal kernel canonical correlation analysis (tkCCA) algorithm to find the neural-vascular-autonomic coupling. It supports highly accurate classification with the 19% maximum improvement with multimodal monitoring. For the multi-channel stimulation functionality, after-effects maximization monitoring and sympathetic nerve disorder monitoring, the stimulator is designed as reconfigurable. The 3.37 × 2.25 mm(2) chip has 2-channel EEG sensor front-end, 2-channel NIRS sensor front-end, NIRS current driver to drive dual-wavelength VCSEL and 6-b DAC current source for tES mode. It dissipates 24 mW with 2 mA stimulation current and 5 mA NIRS driver current.

  7. Iedzīvotāju mobilitātes izpausmes Kārsavas pilsētā

    OpenAIRE

    Bleive, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „Iedzīvotāju mobilitātes izpausmes Kārsavas pilsētā” mērķis ir izanalizēt migrācijas procesu Kārsavas pilsētā. Iedzīvotāju mobilitāte ir jēdziens, ar ko tiek apzīmēta personu kustība vai pārvietošanās. Bakalaura darbā tiek aplūkota galvenokārt iedzīvotāju mobilitāte un tai raksturīgākās iezīmes Kārsavas pilsētā. Darbs tiek strukturēts divās daļās – teorētiskās studijas un Kārsavas pilsētas iedzīvotāju mobilitātes analīze. Pētījumā tiek apskatīti un raksturoti iedzīvotāju s...

  8. Development of a Luminex Bead Based Assay for Diagnosis of Toxocariasis Using Recombinant Antigens Tc-CTL-1 and Tc-TES-26.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Anderson

    Full Text Available The clinical spectrum of human disease caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati ranges from visceral and ocular larva migrans to covert toxocariasis. The parasite is not typically recovered in affected tissues, so detection of parasite-specific antibodies is usually necessary for establishing a diagnosis. The most reliable immunodiagnostic methods use the Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens (TES-Ag in ELISA formats to detect Toxocara-specific antibodies. To eliminate the need for native parasite materials, we identified and purified immunodiagnostic antigens using 2D gel electrophoresis followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Three predominant immunoreactive proteins were found in the TES; all three had been previously described in the literature: Tc-CTL-1, Tc-TES-26, and Tc-MUC-3. We generated Escherichia coli expressed recombinant proteins for evaluation in Luminex based immunoassays. We were unable to produce a functional assay with the Tc-MUC-3 recombinant protein. Tc-CTL-1 and Tc-TES-26 were successfully coupled and tested using defined serum batteries. The use of both proteins together generated better results than if the proteins were used individually. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay for detecting visceral larval migrans using Tc-CTL-1 plus Tc-TES-26 was 99% and 94%, respectively; the sensitivity for detecting ocular larval migrans was 64%. The combined performance of the new assay was superior to the currently available EIA and could potentially be employed to replace current assays that rely on native TES-Ag.

  9. Normal Levels of Sox9 Expression in the Developing Mouse Testis Depend on the TES/TESCO Enhancer, but This Does Not Act Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Nitzan; Quinn, Alexander; O'Neill, Helen C; Koopman, Peter; Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2017-01-01

    During mouse sex determination, transient expression of the Y-linked gene Sry up-regulates its direct target gene Sox9, via a 3.2 kb testis specific enhancer of Sox9 (TES), which includes a core 1.4 kb element, TESCO. SOX9 activity leads to differentiation of Sertoli cells, rather than granulosa cells from the bipotential supporting cell precursor lineage. Here, we present functional analysis of TES/TESCO, using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in mice. Deletion of TESCO or TES reduced Sox9 expression levels in XY fetal gonads to 60 or 45% respectively relative to wild type gonads, and reduced expression of the SOX9 target Amh. Although human patients heterozygous for null mutations in SOX9, which are assumed to have 50% of normal expression, often show XY female sex reversal, mice deleted for one copy of Sox9 do not. Consistent with this, we did not observe sex reversal in either TESCO-/- or TES-/- XY embryos or adult mice. However, embryos carrying both a conditional Sox9 null allele and the TES deletion developed ovotestes. Quantitative analysis of these revealed levels of 23% expression of Sox9 compared to wild type, and a significant increase in the expression of the granulosa cell marker Foxl2. This indicates that the threshold in mice where sex reversal begins to be seen is about half that of the ~50% levels predicted in humans. Our results demonstrate that TES/TESCO is a crucial enhancer regulating Sox9 expression in the gonad, but point to the existence of additional enhancers that act redundantly.

  10. Normal Levels of Sox9 Expression in the Developing Mouse Testis Depend on the TES/TESCO Enhancer, but This Does Not Act Alone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzan Gonen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During mouse sex determination, transient expression of the Y-linked gene Sry up-regulates its direct target gene Sox9, via a 3.2 kb testis specific enhancer of Sox9 (TES, which includes a core 1.4 kb element, TESCO. SOX9 activity leads to differentiation of Sertoli cells, rather than granulosa cells from the bipotential supporting cell precursor lineage. Here, we present functional analysis of TES/TESCO, using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in mice. Deletion of TESCO or TES reduced Sox9 expression levels in XY fetal gonads to 60 or 45% respectively relative to wild type gonads, and reduced expression of the SOX9 target Amh. Although human patients heterozygous for null mutations in SOX9, which are assumed to have 50% of normal expression, often show XY female sex reversal, mice deleted for one copy of Sox9 do not. Consistent with this, we did not observe sex reversal in either TESCO-/- or TES-/- XY embryos or adult mice. However, embryos carrying both a conditional Sox9 null allele and the TES deletion developed ovotestes. Quantitative analysis of these revealed levels of 23% expression of Sox9 compared to wild type, and a significant increase in the expression of the granulosa cell marker Foxl2. This indicates that the threshold in mice where sex reversal begins to be seen is about half that of the ~50% levels predicted in humans. Our results demonstrate that TES/TESCO is a crucial enhancer regulating Sox9 expression in the gonad, but point to the existence of additional enhancers that act redundantly.

  11. The New York Head-A precise standardized volume conductor model for EEG source localization and tES targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Parra, Lucas C; Haufe, Stefan

    2016-10-15

    In source localization of electroencephalograpic (EEG) signals, as well as in targeted transcranial electric current stimulation (tES), a volume conductor model is required to describe the flow of electric currents in the head. Boundary element models (BEM) can be readily computed to represent major tissue compartments, but cannot encode detailed anatomical information within compartments. Finite element models (FEM) can capture more tissue types and intricate anatomical structures, but with the higher precision also comes the need for semi-automated segmentation, and a higher computational cost. In either case, adjusting to the individual human anatomy requires costly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and thus head modeling is often based on the anatomy of an 'arbitrary' individual (e.g. Colin27). Additionally, existing reference models for the human head often do not include the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), and their field of view excludes portions of the head and neck-two factors that demonstrably affect current-flow patterns. Here we present a highly detailed FEM, which we call ICBM-NY, or "New York Head". It is based on the ICBM152 anatomical template (a non-linear average of the MRI of 152 adult human brains) defined in MNI coordinates, for which we extended the field of view to the neck and performed a detailed segmentation of six tissue types (scalp, skull, CSF, gray matter, white matter, air cavities) at 0.5mm(3) resolution. The model was solved for 231 electrode locations. To evaluate its performance, additional FEMs and BEMs were constructed for four individual subjects. Each of the four individual FEMs (regarded as the 'ground truth') is compared to its BEM counterpart, the ICBM-NY, a BEM of the ICBM anatomy, an 'individualized' BEM of the ICBM anatomy warped to the individual head surface, and FEMs of the other individuals. Performance is measured in terms of EEG source localization and tES targeting errors. Results show that the ICBM-NY outperforms

  12. Alus kosmētikas produktu vizuālās identitātes izstrāde

    OpenAIRE

    Bonfelde, Lelde

    2016-01-01

    Diplomdarba tēma ir “Alus kosmētikas produktu vizuālās identitātes izstrāde”. Darba teorētiskajā daļā tiek apskatīts iepakojuma dizaina jēdziens, iepakojuma dizaina nozīme, dizaina veidošanas principi, populārākie iepakojuma materiāli. Pētījuma mērķis ir izpētīt, vai mūsdienu alus kosmētikas iepakojuma dizainā ir nepieciešamība izmantot alus iepakojuma dizaina raksturīgākos principus. Hipotēze: Alus kosmētikas iepakojuma dizainā nepieciešams izmantot alus etiķešu dizaina grafiskos elementus...

  13. Sensitivity and specificity of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT and NASBA-oligochromatography for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basiye, Frank L.; Mbuchi, Margaret; Magiri, Charles; Kirigi, George; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Schoone, Gerard J.; Saad, Alfarazdeg A.; El-Safi, Sayda; Matovu, Enock; Wasunna, Monique K.

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the OligoC-TesT and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification coupled to oligochromatography (NASBA-OC) for molecular detection of Leishmania in blood from patients with confirmed visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and healthy endemic controls from Kenya.

  14. Producción y evaluación del antígeno recombinante TES-30 de Toxocara canis para el inmunodiagnóstico de toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Olave

    2016-03-01

    Conclusiones. Los datos presentados respaldan la utilidad del immunoblot rTES-30 para la confirmación de los posibles positivos por ELISA, no solo en los estudios epidemiológicos, sino también, como candidato para el desarrollo de pruebas diagnósticas de la toxocariasis ocular en Colombia.

  15. CAREGIVING IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Poulsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios a nivel mundial en los mercados económicos han llevado a un aume nto sin precedentes de la migración global estimado en 214 millones (Organización de las Naciones Unidas-Internacional para las Migraciones, 2008. Esta migración global ha aumentado el número de familias transnacionales en todo el mundo (Dade, 2004 que ahora se enfrentan a desafíos físicos y psicológicos únicos para la facilitación de servicios a los adultos de mayor edad. Independientemente del evento precipitante, la migración global ha desafiado las definiciones de la familia, la responsabilidad famili ar y los roles generacionales (Baldassar, 2008. Como el cambio demográfico de la población mundial hacia una era gris, terapeutas familiares necesitan entender el impacto que una economía y la economía de los padres y madres en una mundo en transición tie nen sobre la vida de los miembros de la s familia s migran tes y los familiares que han quedado detrás. El objetivo de este trabajo es aumentar la base de conocimientos relativos a las familias transnacionales y hacer visibles las necesidades de las familias que brindan cuidado a través de fronteras transnacionales.

  16. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT OF THE BOÖTES I ULTRAFAINT GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Gerard; Norris, John E.; Yong, David; Monaco, Lorenzo; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Geisler, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a double-blind analysis of high-dispersion spectra of seven red giant members of the Boötes I ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxy, complemented with re-analysis of a similar spectrum of an eighth-member star. The stars cover [Fe/H] from –3.7 to –1.9 and include a CEMP-no star with [Fe/H] = –3.33. We conclude from our chemical abundance data that Boötes I has evolved as a self-enriching star-forming system, from essentially primordial initial abundances. This allows us uniquely to investigate the place of CEMP-no stars in a chemically evolving system, in addition to limiting the timescale of star formation. The elemental abundances are formally consistent with a halo-like distribution, with enhanced mean [α/Fe] and small scatter about the mean. This is in accord with the high-mass stellar initial mass function in this low-stellar-density, low-metallicity system being indistinguishable from the present-day solar neighborhood value. There is a non-significant hint of a decline in [α/Fe] with [Fe/H]; together with the low scatter, this requires low star formation rates, allowing time for supernova ejecta to be mixed over the large spatial scales of interest. One star has very high [Ti/Fe], but we do not confirm a previously published high value of [Mg/Fe] for another star. We discuss the existence of CEMP-no stars, and the absence of any stars with lower CEMP-no enhancements at higher [Fe/H], a situation that is consistent with knowledge of CEMP-no stars in the Galactic field. We show that this observation requires there be two enrichment paths at very low metallicities: CEMP-no and 'carbon-normal'.

  17. Advances in Small Pixel TES-Based X-Ray Microcalorimeter Arrays for Solar Physics and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, S. R.; Adams, J. S.; Bailey, C. N.; Busch, S. E.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kelly, D. P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We are developing small-pixel transition-edge-sensor (TES) for solar physics and astrophysics applications. These large format close-packed arrays are fabricated on solid silicon substrates and are designed to accommodate count-rates of up to a few hundred counts/pixel/second at a FWHM energy resolution approximately 2 eV at 6 keV. We have fabricated versions that utilize narrow-line planar and stripline wiring. We present measurements of the performance and uniformity of kilo-pixel arrays, incorporating TESs with single 65-micron absorbers on a 7s-micron pitch, as well as versions with more than one absorber attached to the TES, 4-absorber and 9-absorber "Hydras". We have also fabricated a version of this detector optimized for lower energies and lower count-rate applications. These devices have a lower superconducting transition temperature and are operated just above the 40mK heat sink temperature. This results in a lower heat capacity and low thermal conductance to the heat sink. With individual single pixels of this type we have achieved a FWHM energy resolution of 0.9 eV with 1.5 keV Al K x-rays, to our knowledge the first x-ray microcalorimeter with sub-eV energy resolution. The 4-absorber and 9-absorber versions of this type achieved FWHM energy resolutions of 1.4 eV and 2.1 eV at 1.5 keV respectively. We will discuss the application of these devices for new astrophysics mission concepts.

  18. Contributing to the Global Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2008-01-01

    Stig Enemark, President of the International Federation of Surveyors, explains the organisation's role in the areas of geospatial information and land management. Link to full text: http://www.euinfrastructure.com/currentissue/article.asp?art=273895&issue=259......Stig Enemark, President of the International Federation of Surveyors, explains the organisation's role in the areas of geospatial information and land management. Link to full text: http://www.euinfrastructure.com/currentissue/article.asp?art=273895&issue=259...

  19. Leishmania OligoC-TesT as a simple, rapid, and standardized tool for molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Diego; Boggild, Andrea K; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Laurent, Thierry; Valencia, Cristian; Pacheco, Rosa; Miranda-Verástegui, César; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Leclipteux, Thierry; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Büscher, Philippe; Arévalo, Jorge

    2009-08-01

    Molecular methods such as PCR have become attractive tools for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), both for their high sensitivity and for their specificity. However, their practical use in routine diagnosis is limited due to the infrastructural requirements and the lack of any standardization. Recently, a simplified and standardized PCR format for molecular detection of Leishmania was developed. The Leishmania OligoC-TesT is based on simple and rapid detection using a dipstick with PCR-amplified Leishmania DNA. In this study, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for 61 specimens from 44 CL-suspected patients presenting at the leishmaniasis clinic of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru. On the basis of parasitological detection and the leishmanin skin test (LST), patients were classified as (i) confirmed CL cases, (ii) LST-positive cases, and (iii) LST-negative cases. The sensitivities of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI), 60.5% to 84.1%) for lesion aspirates and 92% (95% CI, 81.2% to 96.9%) for scrapings. A significantly higher sensitivity was observed with a conventional PCR targeting the kinetoplast DNA on the aspirates (94%) (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference in sensitivity for the lesion scrapings (88%) (P = 0.317). In addition, the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was evaluated for 13 CL-suspected patients in two different peripheral health centers in the central jungle of Peru. Our findings clearly indicate the high accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for lesion scrapings for simple and rapid molecular diagnosis of CL in Peru.

  20. Leishmania OligoC-TesT as a Simple, Rapid, and Standardized Tool for Molecular Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peru▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Diego; Boggild, Andrea K.; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Laurent, Thierry; Valencia, Cristian; Pacheco, Rosa; Miranda-Verástegui, César; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Leclipteux, Thierry; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Büscher, Philippe; Arévalo, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Molecular methods such as PCR have become attractive tools for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), both for their high sensitivity and for their specificity. However, their practical use in routine diagnosis is limited due to the infrastructural requirements and the lack of any standardization. Recently, a simplified and standardized PCR format for molecular detection of Leishmania was developed. The Leishmania OligoC-TesT is based on simple and rapid detection using a dipstick with PCR-amplified Leishmania DNA. In this study, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for 61 specimens from 44 CL-suspected patients presenting at the leishmaniasis clinic of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru. On the basis of parasitological detection and the leishmanin skin test (LST), patients were classified as (i) confirmed CL cases, (ii) LST-positive cases, and (iii) LST-negative cases. The sensitivities of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI), 60.5% to 84.1%) for lesion aspirates and 92% (95% CI, 81.2% to 96.9%) for scrapings. A significantly higher sensitivity was observed with a conventional PCR targeting the kinetoplast DNA on the aspirates (94%) (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference in sensitivity for the lesion scrapings (88%) (P = 0.317). In addition, the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was evaluated for 13 CL-suspected patients in two different peripheral health centers in the central jungle of Peru. Our findings clearly indicate the high accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for lesion scrapings for simple and rapid molecular diagnosis of CL in Peru. PMID:19553579

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2009-02-03 to 2009-03-24 (NODC Accession 0108082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108082 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Coral Sea, Indian Ocean and others from 2012-04-11 to 2012-07-25 (NODC Accession 0115295)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115295 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Coral Sea, Indian Ocean, South...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2008011 to 2010-10-31 (NODC Accession 0115181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115181 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Great...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Coral Sea, Great Australian Bight and others from 2011-04-06 to 2011-11-26 (NODC Accession 0115708)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115708 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the Coral Sea, Great Australian...

  5. Elemental Abundances and their Implications for the Chemical Enrichment of the Boötes I Ultrafaint Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Gerard; Norris, John E.; Monaco, Lorenzo; Yong, David; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Geisler, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a double-blind analysis of high-dispersion spectra of seven red giant members of the Boötes I ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxy, complemented with re-analysis of a similar spectrum of an eighth-member star. The stars cover [Fe/H] from -3.7 to -1.9 and include a CEMP-no star with [Fe/H] = -3.33. We conclude from our chemical abundance data that Boötes I has evolved as a self-enriching star-forming system, from essentially primordial initial abundances. This allows us uniquely to investigate the place of CEMP-no stars in a chemically evolving system, in addition to limiting the timescale of star formation. The elemental abundances are formally consistent with a halo-like distribution, with enhanced mean [α/Fe] and small scatter about the mean. This is in accord with the high-mass stellar initial mass function in this low-stellar-density, low-metallicity system being indistinguishable from the present-day solar neighborhood value. There is a non-significant hint of a decline in [α/Fe] with [Fe/H]; together with the low scatter, this requires low star formation rates, allowing time for supernova ejecta to be mixed over the large spatial scales of interest. One star has very high [Ti/Fe], but we do not confirm a previously published high value of [Mg/Fe] for another star. We discuss the existence of CEMP-no stars, and the absence of any stars with lower CEMP-no enhancements at higher [Fe/H], a situation that is consistent with knowledge of CEMP-no stars in the Galactic field. We show that this observation requires there be two enrichment paths at very low metallicities: CEMP-no and "carbon-normal." Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (Proposal P82.182.B-0372, PI: G. Gilmore).

  6. In Situ Atmospheric Pressure Measurements in the Martian Southern Polar Region: Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor Meteorology Package on the Mars Polar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Siili, T.; Crisp, D.

    1998-01-01

    Pressure observations are crucial for the success of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Meteorology (MET) package onboard the Mars Polar Lander (MPL), due for launch early next year. The spacecraft is expected to land in December 1999 (L(sub s) = 256 degrees) at a high southern latitude (74 degrees - 78 degrees S). The nominal period of operation is 90 sols but may last up to 210 sols. The MVACS/MET experiment will provide the first in situ observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity in the southern hemisphere of Mars and in the polar regions. The martian atmosphere goes through a large-scale atmospheric pressure cycle due to the annual condensation/sublimation of the atmospheric CO2. Pressure also exhibits short period variations associated with dust storms, tides, and other atmospheric events. A series of pressure measurements can hence provide us with information on the large-scale state and dynamics of the atmosphere, including the CO2 and dust cycles as well as local weather phenomena. The measurements can also shed light on the shorter time scale phenomena (e.g., passage of dust devils) and hence be important in contributing to our understanding of mixing and transport of heat, dust, and water vapor.

  7. Design and performance of large-pixel-size high-fill-fraction TES arrays for future X-ray astrophysics missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Bandler, S.R.; Chervenak, J.; Finkbeiner, F.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R.L.; Kilbourne, C.A.; Porter, F.S.; Saab, T.; Sadleir, J.; White, J.

    2006-01-01

    We have designed, modeled, fabricated and tested a 600μm high-fill-fraction microcalorimeter array that will be a good match to the requirements of future X-ray missions. Our devices use transition-edge sensors coupled to overhanging bismuth/copper absorbers to produce arrays with 97% or higher fill fraction. An extensive modeling effort was undertaken in order to accommodate large pixel sizes (500-1000μm) and maintain the best energy resolution possible. The finite thermalization time of the large absorber and the associated position dependence of the pulse shape on absorption position constrain the time constants of the system given a desired energy-resolution performance. We show the results of our analysis and our new pixel design, consisting of a novel TES-on-the-side architecture which creates a controllable TES-absorber conductance

  8. Utilisation des mousses et des pâtes syntactiques pour combler les lacunes des poteries archéologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Bechoux

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Filling potteries missing parts with plaster raises now complex problems during the de-restoration treatments. Ceramics restorers have recurrently questions on the use of plaster in the field of archaeological ceramics restoration. Some researches point to the choice of other filling materials. At the present time other methods can be devised by proposing plaster replacement by a lightened composite material: syntactic foams and pastes.Le comblement des lacunes des poteries à partir du plâtre pose actuellement des problèmes complexes lors des traitements de dérestauration. Les restaurateurs de céramiques s'interrogent de manière récurrente sur l'utilisation du plâtre dans le domaine de la restauration des céramiques archéologiques. Des recherches s'orientent vers le choix d'autres matériaux d'obturation. Actuellement, d'autres méthodes peuvent être mises en place en proposant le remplacement du plâtre par un matériau composite allégé, les mousses et les pâtes syntactiques.

  9. Characterization of TES bolometers used in 2-dimensional Backshort-Under-Grid (BUG) arrays for far-infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staguhn, J.G.; Allen, C.A.; Benford, D.J.; Chervenak, J.A.; Chuss, D.T.; Miller, T.M.; Moseley, S.H.; Wollack, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    We have produced a laboratory demonstration of our new Backshort-Under-Grid (BUG) bolometer array architecture in a monolithic, 2-dimensional, 8x8 format. The detector array is designed as a square grid of suspended, 1μm thick silicon bolometers with superconducting molybdium/gold bilayer TESs. These detectors use an additional layer of gold bars deposited on top of the bilayer, oriented transverse to the direction of the current flow, for the suppression of excess noise. This detector design has earlier been shown to provide near fundamental noise limited device performance. We present results from performance measurements of witness devices. In particular we demonstrate that the inband excess noise level of the TES detectors is less than 20% above the thermodynamic phonon noise limit and not significantly higher out of band at frequencies that cannot be attenuated by the Nyquist filter. Our 8x8 BUG arrays will be used in the near future for astronomical observations in several (sub-)millimeter instruments

  10. Characterization of Low Noise TES Detectors Fabricated by D-RIE Process for SAFARI Short-Wavelength Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropanah, P.; Suzuki, T.; Hijmering, R. A.; Ridder, M. L.; Lindeman, M. A.; Gao, J.-R.; Hoevers, H.

    2014-08-01

    SRON is developing TES detectors based on a superconducting Ti/Au bilayer on a suspended SiN membrane for the short-wavelength band of the SAFARI instrument on SPICA mission. We have recently replaced the wet KOH etching of the Si substrate by deep reactive ion etching. The new process enables us to fabricate the detectors on the substrate and release the membrane at the very last step. Therefore the production of SAFARI large arrays (4343) on thin SiN membrane (250 nm) is feasible. It also makes it possible to realize narrow supporting SiN legs of 1 m, which are needed to meet SAFARI NEP requirements. Here we report the current-voltage characteristics, noise performance and impedance measurement of these devices. The measured results are then compared with the distributed leg model that takes into account the thermal fluctuation noise due to the SiN legs. We measured a dark NEP of 0.7 aW/, which is 1.6 times higher than the theoretically expected phonon noise.

  11. Impact of nonlinearity on changing the a priori of trace gas profile estimates from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kulawik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear maximum a posteriori (MAP estimates of atmospheric profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES contains a priori information that may vary geographically, which is a confounding factor in the analysis and physical interpretation of an ensemble of profiles. One mitigation strategy is to transform profile estimates to a common prior using a linear operation thereby facilitating the interpretation of profile variability. However, this operation is dependent on the assumption of not worse than moderate non-linearity near the solution of the non-linear estimate. The robustness of this assumption is tested by comparing atmospheric retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer processed with a uniform prior with those processed with a variable prior and converted to a uniform prior following the non-linear retrieval. Linearly converting the prior following a non-linear retrieval is shown to have a minor effect on the results as compared to a non-linear retrieval using a uniform prior when compared to the expected total error, with less than 10% of the change in the prior ending up as unbiased fluctuations in the profile estimate results.

  12. Using Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Energy Storage for Baseload Concentrating Solar Power (EPCM-TES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, Anoop [Terrafore Technologies LLC, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Terrafore successfully demonstrated and optimized the manufacturing of capsules containing phase-changing inorganic salts. The phase change was used to store thermal energy collected from a concentrating solar-power plant as latent heat. This latent heat, in addition to sensible heat increased the energy density (energy stored per unit weight of salt) by over 50%, thus requiring 40% less salt and over 60% less capsule container. Therefore, the cost to store high-temperature thermal energy collected in a concentrating solar power plant will be reduced by almost 40% or more, as compared to conventional two-tank, sensible-only storage systems. The cost for thermal energy storage (TES) system is expected to achieve the Sun Shot goal of $15 per kWh(t). Costs associated with poor heat-transfer in phase change materials (PCM) were also eliminated. Although thermal energy storage that relies on the latent heat of fusion of PCM improves energy density by as much as 50%, upon energy discharge the salt freezes and builds on the heat transfer surfaces. Since these salts have low thermal conductivity, large heat-transfer areas, or larger conventional heat-exchangers are needed, which increases costs. By encapsulating PCM in small capsules we have increased the heat transfer area per unit volume of salt and brought the heat transfer fluid in direct contact with the capsules. These two improvements have increased the heat transfer coefficient and boosted heat transfer. The program was successful in overcoming the phenomenon of melt expansion in the capsules, which requires the creation of open volume in the capsules or shell to allow for expansion of the molten salt on melting and is heated above its melting point to 550°C. Under contract with the Department of Energy, Terrafore Inc. and Southwest Research Institute, developed innovative method(s) to economically create the open volume or void in the capsule. One method consists of using a sacrificial polymer coating as the

  13. Uzņēmumu "Circle K", "Neste" un "Virši-A" lojalitātes programmas un to novērtējums

    OpenAIRE

    Stabrovska, Viktorija

    2017-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Uzņēmumu "Circle K", "Neste" un "Virši-A" lojalitātes programmas un to novērtējums”. Darba mēr is ir veikt uzņēmuma «Circle K», “Neste” un «Virši-A» komunikācijas analīzi par lojalitātes programmām un klientu vērtējumu par uzņēmumu veiktajām klientu lojalitātes veicināšanas aktivitātēm. Darbs sastāv no trīs da ām: teorētiskās, metodolo iskās un empīriskās da as. Darba teorētiskājā da ā izmantota literatūra par zīmolu, mārketingu, mārketinga kompleksu, mārketinga komun...

  14. Efeitos do trimetilaminoetano (TES e ringer lactato em sêmen de macacos-aranha mantidos em cativeiro ( Ateles paniscus e A. marginatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S.M. Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The performances of the diluents TES and CEBRAN II were compared as cryopreservatives of semen from non human primates of the genus Ateles. The experiment was carried out using one Ateles marginatus and two Ateles paniscus specimens, males and adults, maintained in the same captivity conditions at the National Center of Primates (CENP-SVS/MS. The animals were subjected to clinical and andrological examinations - testicular biometry - before the semen collection by eletroejaculation. Evaluations of motility and forward movement in the fresh semen were made. Semen were made dilution was made with the diluents TES and CEBRAN II. The ejaculates were diluted with the diluents (2:1proportion, packed in 0.25mL plastic straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. After thawing, the packed ejaculates were appraised in thermo resistance test (TTR. The averages of volume and concentration were, respectively, 1.94mL (0.83 and 3,020,000 sptz/mL (275.97. The pH 8 and seminal coagulation were observed in all samples. The results suggest that the TES diluent presents better efficiency in the preservation of Ateles semen than CEBRAN II.

  15. Augsnes un zemes kvalitātes novērtējuma karšu digitizēšana

    OpenAIRE

    Stalīdzāns, Didzis

    2014-01-01

    Maģistra darba mērķis ir nodrošināt augšņu agroķīmiskās izpētes izstrādes procesa kartogrāfiskā materiāla lietošanas efektivitātes pieaugumu. Maģistra darbā tiek aprakstīts līdzšinējais augšņu agroķīmiskās izstrādes process Valsts augu aizsardzības dienestā un digitālo augšņu karšu izmantošanas iespējas. Pamatojoties uz darbā veiktās izpētes rezultātiem ir definēta problēma: augšņu agroķīmiskās kartes nav pieejamas telpisko datu formātā. Problēmas risinājumam tiek piedāvātas projekta alternat...

  16. Global warning, global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  17. Cross-validation of IASI/MetOp derived tropospheric δD with TES and ground-based FTIR observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, J.-L.; Clarisse, L.; Worden, J.; Schneider, M.; Barthlott, S.; Hase, F.; Risi, C.; Clerbaux, C.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2015-03-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) flying onboard MetOpA and MetOpB is able to capture fine isotopic variations of the HDO to H2O ratio (δD) in the troposphere. Such observations at the high spatio-temporal resolution of the sounder are of great interest to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling humidity in the troposphere. In this study we aim to empirically assess the validity of our error estimation previously evaluated theoretically. To achieve this, we compare IASI δD retrieved profiles with other available profiles of δD, from the TES infrared sounder onboard AURA and from three ground-based FTIR stations produced within the MUSICA project: the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) sites Kiruna and Izaña, and the TCCON site Karlsruhe, which in addition to near-infrared TCCON spectra also records mid-infrared spectra. We describe the achievable level of agreement between the different retrievals and show that these theoretical errors are in good agreement with empirical differences. The comparisons are made at different locations from tropical to Arctic latitudes, above sea and above land. Generally IASI and TES are similarly sensitive to δD in the free troposphere which allows one to compare their measurements directly. At tropical latitudes where IASI's sensitivity is lower than that of TES, we show that the agreement improves when taking into account the sensitivity of IASI in the TES retrieval. For the comparison IASI-FTIR only direct comparisons are performed because the sensitivity profiles of the two observing systems do not allow to take into account their differences of sensitivity. We identify a quasi negligible bias in the free troposphere (-3‰) between IASI retrieved δD with the TES, which are bias corrected, but important with the ground-based FTIR reaching -47‰. We also suggest that model-satellite observation comparisons could be optimized with IASI thanks to its high

  18. Mars Surveyor Program '01 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment wet chemistry lab: a sensor array for chemical analysis of the Martian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.; Lukow, Stefan R.; Comeau, Brian P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Grannan-Feldman, Sabrina M.; Manatt, Ken; West, Steven J.; Wen, Xiaowen; Frant, Martin; Gillette, Tim

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) instrument was designed, built, and flight qualified for the now canceled MSP (Mars Surveyor Program) '01 Lander. The MECA package consisted of a microscope, electrometer, material patch plates, and a wet chemistry laboratory (WCL). The primary goal of MECA was to analyze the Martian soil (regolith) for possible hazards to future astronauts and to provide a better understanding of Martian regolith geochemistry. The purpose of the WCL was to analyze for a range of soluble ionic chemical species and electrochemical parameters. The heart of the WCL was a sensor array of electrochemically based ion-selective electrodes (ISE). After 20 months storage at -23 degrees C and subsequent extended freeze/thawing cycles, WCL sensors were evaluated to determine both their physical durability and analytical responses. A fractional factorial calibration of the sensors was used to obtain slope, intercept, and all necessary selectivity coefficients simultaneously for selected ISEs. This calibration was used to model five cation and three anion sensors. These data were subsequently used to determine concentrations of several ions in two soil leachate simulants (based on terrestrial seawater and hypothesized Mars brine) and four actual soil samples. The WCL results were compared to simulant and soil samples using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The results showed that flight qualification and prolonged low-temperature storage conditions had minimal effects on the sensors. In addition, the analytical optimization method provided quantitative and qualitative data that could be used to accurately identify the chemical composition of the simulants and soils. The WCL has the ability to provide data that can be used to "read" the chemical, geological, and climatic history of Mars, as well as the potential habitability of its regolith.

  19. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  20. Thermo-physical stability of fatty acid eutectic mixtures subjected to accelerated aging for thermal energy storage (TES) application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzi, Hadi; Metselaar, Hendrik S.C.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Silakhori, Mahyar

    2014-01-01

    The thermo-physical stability of fatty acids eutectic mixtures subjected to accelerated number of melting/solidification processes has been identified using thermal cycling test in this study. Myristic acid/palmitic acid (MA/PA) (70/30, wt.%) and myristic acid/palmitic acid/sodium stearate (MA/PA/SS) (70/30/5, wt.%) were selected as eutectic phase change materials (PCMs) to evaluate their stability of phase transition temperature, latent heat of fusion, chemical structure, and volume changes after 200, 500, 1000, and 1500 thermal cycles. The thermal properties of each eutectic PCMs measured by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) indicated the phase transition temperature and latent heat of fusion values of MA/PA/SS has a smallest changes after 1500 thermal cycles than MA/PA eutectic mixture. MA/PA/SS also has a better chemical structure stability and smaller volume change which is 1.2%, compared to MA/PA with a volume change of 1.6% after 1500 cycles. Therefore, it is concluded that the MA/PA/SS eutectic mixture is suitable for use as a phase change material in thermal energy storage (TES) such as solar water heating and solar space heating applications. - Highlights: •The prepared MA/PA and MA/PA/SS were used as eutectic phase change materials (PCM). •Thermo-physical reliability of eutectic PCMs evaluated using a thermal cycling test. •MA/PA/SS has a great thermo-physical stability than MA/PA after 1500 thermal cycles

  1. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  2. Global Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    at the mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  3. Investigation of solar parabolic trough power plants with and without integrated TES (thermal energy storage) and FBS (fuel backup system) using thermic oil and solar salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukelia, T.E.; Mecibah, M.S.; Kumar, B.N.; Reddy, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic, economic and environmental analyses of concentrating solar power plants assist in identifying an effective and viable configuration. In this paper, a 4E (energy-exergy-environmental-economic) comparative study of 8 different configurations of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants with two different working fluids (Therminol VP-1 -oil and molten solar salt), with and without integrated thermal energy storage or/and backup fuel system is presented. The results of the comparative study indicate relevant differences among the 8 configurations. The molten solar salt configuration with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system exhibits the highest overall energy efficiency (18.48%) compared to other configurations. Whereas, the highest overall exergy efficiency (21.77%), capacity factor (38.20%) and annual energy generation (114 GWh) are found for the oil based configuration with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system. The results indicate that the configurations based on molten salt are better in terms of environmental and economical parameters. The configurations with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system are found to be techno-economical, but on the other hand are less environment friendly. A detailed comparison of these plants after optimization must be performed before drawing a final conclusion about the best configuration to be adopted in parabolic trough solar thermal power plant. - Highlights: • 4E comparative study of 8 configurations of PTSTPP with two different fluids. • Comparison of the configurations with and without integrated TES (thermal energy storage) and FBS (fuel backup system). • The overall energy efficiency of the salt plant with TES and FBS is the highest. • The overall exergy efficiency of the oil plant with TES and FBS is the highest. • The salt plants are the best configurations in terms of environ–eco parameters

  4. Evidence of enrichment by individual SN from elemental abundance ratios in the very metal-poor dSph galaxy Boötes I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltzing, S.; Eriksson, K.; Kleyna, J.; Wilkinson, M. I.

    2009-12-01

    Aims. We establish the mean metallicity from high-resolution spectroscopy for the recently found dwarf spheroidal galaxy Boötes I and test whether it is a common feature for ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies to show signs of inhomogeneous chemical evolution (e.g. as found in the Hercules dwarf spheroidal galaxy). Methods: We analyse high-resolution, moderate signal-to-noise spectra for seven red giant stars in the Boötes I dSph galaxy using standard abundance analysis techniques. In particular, we assume local thermodynamic equilibrium and employ spherical model atmospheres and codes that take the sphericity of the star into account when calculating the elemental abundances. Results: We confirm previous determinations of the mean metallicity of the Boötes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy to be -2.3 dex. Whilst five stars are clustered around this metallicity, one is significantly more metal-poor, at -2.9 dex, and one is more metal-rich at, -1.9 dex. Additionally, we find that one of the stars, Boo-127, shows an atypically high [Mg/Ca] ratio, indicative of stochastic enrichment processes within the dSph galaxy. Similar results have previously only been found in the Hercules and Draco dSph galaxies and appear, so far, to be unique to this type of galaxy. The data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  5. Cruise report; RV Coastal Surveyor Cruise C1-99; multibeam mapping of the Long Beach, California continental shelf; April 12 through May 19, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Mayer, Larry A.

    1999-01-01

    The greater Los Angeles area of California is home to more than 10 million people. This large population puts increased pressure on the adjacent offshore continental shelf and margin with activities such as ocean disposal for dredged spoils, explosive disposal, waste-water outfall, and commercial fishing. The increased utilization of the shelf and margin in this area has generated accelerated multi-disciplinary research efforts in all aspects of the environment of the coastal zone. Prior to 1996 there were no highly accurate base maps of the continental shelf and slope upon which the research activities could be located and monitored. In 1996, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project began to address this problem by mapping the Santa Monica shelf and margin (Fig. 1) using a state-of-the-art, high-resolution multibeam sonar system (Gardner, et al., 1996; 1999). Additional seafloor mapping in 1998 provided coverage of the continental margin from south of Newport to the proximal San Pedro Basin northwest of Palos Verdes Peninsula (Gardner, et al., 1998) (Fig. 1). The mapping of the seafloor in the greater Los Angeles continental shelf and margin was completed with a 30-day mapping of the Long Beach shelf in April and May 1999, the subject of this report. The objective of Cruise C-1-99-SC was to completely map the broad continental shelf from the eastern end of the Palos Verdes Peninsula to the narrow shelf south of Newport Beach, from the break in slope at about 120-m isobath to the inner shelf at about the 10-m isobath. Mapping the Long Beach shelf was jointly funded by the U.S. Geological Survey and the County of Orange (CA) Sanitation District and was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the Ocean Mapping Group from the University of New Brunswick (OMG/UNB). The OMG/UNB contracted with C&C Technologies, Inc. of Lafayette, LA for use of the RV Coastal Surveyor and the latest evolution of high-resolution multibeam sonars, a

  6. Oligochètes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cognetti de Martiis, L.

    1913-01-01

    La collection qui forme le sujet de ce travail se compose de huit espèces, dont quatre sont nouvelles. A mr. le Docteur L. F. de Beaufort, qui a bien voulu me la communiquer, j’exprime ici mes sentiments de gratitude.

  7. Global usability

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  8. Electron-Beam Deposition of Superconducting Molybdenum Thin Films for the Development of Mo/Au TES X-Ray Microcalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Fred Michael; Adams, Joseph S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Betancour-Martinez, Gabriele L.; Brown, Ari David; Chang, Meng-Ping; Chervenak, James A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Datesman, Aaron; Eckart, Megan E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We are exploring the properties of electron-beam evaporated molybdenum thin films on silicon nitride coated silicon wafers at substrate temperatures between room temperature and 650 C. The temperature dependence of film stress, transition temperature, and electrical properties are presented. X-ray diffraction measurements are performed to gain information on molybdenum crystallite size and growth. Results show the dominant influence of the crystallite size on the intrinsic properties of our films. Wafer-scale uniformity, wafer yield, and optimal thermal bias regime for TES fabrication are discussed.

  9. Profiles of CH4, HDO, H2O, and N2O with improved lower tropospheric vertical resolution from Aura TES radiances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Noone

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared (IR radiances measured near 8 microns contain information about the vertical distribution of water vapor (H2O, the water isotopologue HDO, and methane (CH4, key gases in the water and carbon cycles. Previous versions (Version 4 or less of the TES profile retrieval algorithm used a "spectral-window" approach to minimize uncertainty from interfering species at the expense of reduced vertical resolution and sensitivity. In this manuscript we document changes to the vertical resolution and uncertainties of the TES version 5 retrieval algorithm. In this version (Version 5, joint estimates of H2O, HDO, CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O are made using radiances from almost the entire spectral region between 1100 cm−1 and 1330 cm−1. The TES retrieval constraints are also modified in order to better use this information. The new H2O estimates show improved vertical resolution in the lower troposphere and boundary layer, while the new HDO/H2O estimates can now profile the HDO/H2O ratio between 925 hPa and 450 hPa in the tropics and during summertime at high latitudes. The new retrievals are now sensitive to methane in the free troposphere between 800 and 150 mb with peak sensitivity near 500 hPa; whereas in previous versions the sensitivity peaked at 200 hPa. However, the upper troposphere methane concentrations are biased high relative to the lower troposphere by approximately 4% on average. This bias is likely related to temperature, calibration, and/or methane spectroscopy errors. This bias can be mitigated by normalizing the CH4 estimate by the ratio of the N2O estimate relative to the N2O prior, under the assumption that the same systematic error affects both the N2O and CH4 estimates. We demonstrate that applying this ratio theoretically reduces the CH4 estimate for non-retrieved parameters that jointly affect both the N2O and CH4 estimates. The relative upper troposphere to lower troposphere bias is approximately 2.8% after this bias

  10. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Integration of OMI and TES Aerosol Products into the EPA Regional Planning Organizations' FASTNET Aerosol Tracking and Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.

    2006-01-01

    (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) air quality data for the RPOs by comparing OMI and TES data with ground-based data that are acquired during identified episodes of air pollution. The air quality data from OMI and TES are of different spectral ranges than data from satellites currently included in FASTNET, giving them potential advantages over the existing satellites. If the OMI and TES data are shown to be useful to the RPOs, they would then be integrated into the FASTNET DST for use on an operational basis.

  11. Université de Genève - Planètes extra-solaires: des propriétés inattendues des planètes géantes à la chasse à une nouvelle Terre - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Université de Genève Ecole de physique 24 quai Ernest Ansermet1211 Genève 4Tél : +41 22 379 6383 (secrétariat)Tél : +41 22 379 6256 (réception) Fax: +41 22 379 6922 Lundi 30 octobre 2006 COLLOQUE 17h00 - Auditoire Stueckelberg Planètes extra-solaires: des propriétés inattendues des planètes géantes à la chasse à une nouvelle Terre Dr S. Udry / Observatoire de Genève, Sauverny Depuis la détection de la première 'exoplanète' en orbite autour d'une étoile semblable à notre soleil, il y a un peu plus de 10 ans, près de 200 candidats planétaires ont été mis à jour, la plupart par spectroscopie Doppler. Les propriétés variées et inattendues de ces systèmes seront discutées ainsi que les contraintes qu'elles fournissent pour les modèles de formation planétaire. Si les planètes découvertes sont pour la plupart des géantes gazeuses ressemblant à Jupiter, un nouveau pas a été récemment franchi avec la détection de planètes plus légères (10-20 masses terrestres) et probabl...

  12. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Ru...

  13. Global Mindset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Global Mindset (GM) – the way to think about the global reality – is on the agenda of multinational companies concomitant with the increase in global complexity, uncertainty and diversity. In spite of a number of studies, the concept is still fluid and far from a managerial.......e. the capability to sense (quickly), reflect (constructively) and act purposefully (for mutual benefit). A case on an MNC is used at the end to show the organizational manifestations of a GM....

  14. Mineral Composition and Abundance of the Rocks and Soils at Gusev and Meridiani from the Mars Exploration Rover Mini-TES Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P. R.; Wyatt, M. B.; Glotch, T. D.; Rogers, A. D.; Anwar, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bandfield, J. L.; Blaney, D. L.; Budney, C.; Calvin, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) has provided remote measurements of mineralogy, thermophysical properties, and atmospheric temperature profile and composition of the outcrops, rocks, spherules, and soils surrounding the Spirit and Opportunity Rovers. The mineralogy of volcanic rocks provides insights into the composition of the source regions and the nature of martian igneous processes. Carbonates, sulfates, evaporites, and oxides provide information on the role of water in the surface evolution. Oxides, such as crystalline hematite, provide insight into aqueous weathering processes, as would the occurrence of clay minerals and other weathering products. Diurnal temperature measurements can be used to determine particle size and search for the effects of sub-surface layering, which in turn provide clues to the origin of surficial materials through rock disintegration, aeolian transport, atmospheric fallout, or induration. In addition to studying the surface properties, Mini-TES spectra have also been used to determine the temperature profile in the lower boundary layer, providing evidence for convective activity, and have determined the seasonal trends in atmospheric temperature and dust and cloud opacity.

  15. Biznesa efektivitātes uzlabošanas iespējas uzņēmumā SIA "3K MANAGEMENT"

    OpenAIRE

    Penēze, Aija

    2015-01-01

    Aizvien lielāka nozīmē mūsdienās tiek pievērsta atšķirībai starp uzņēmumu vadīšanu un efektīvu uzņēmumu vadīšanu. Uzņēmēji organizācijas vadīšanā savu uzmanību koncentrē uz to, kā uzņēmums preces un pakalpojumus piedāvā, kāds ir tā tēls, kā tiek organizēta uzņēmuma darbība un kultūra. Uzņēmumi arvien vairāk vērš uzmanību uz uzņēmumu vadīšanu ar pievienoto vērtību, tas ir, efektivitātes uzlabošanu. Aijas Penēzes maģistra darba tēma ir „Biznesa efektivitātes uzlabošanas iespējas uzņēmumā SI...

  16. Gendering Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The current global financial situation bluntly and brutally brings home the fact that the global and local are closely connected in times of opportunity as well as crises. The articles in this issue of Asia Insights are about ontra-action between Asia, particularly China, and the Nordic countries...

  17. Developing Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2017-01-01

    This chapter is the first qualitative micro case study of one aspect of globalization: personal networks as a concrete outcome of development assistance spending. The empirical findings related in this paper present circumstantial evidence that Japanese foreign aid has contributed to globalization...

  18. Global Uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    Antologien handler om "demokratiproblemer i den globale sammenhæng" (del I) og "demokratiproblemer i uddannelse og for de offentligt ansatte" (del II), bundet sammen af et mellemstykke, der rækker ud mod begge poler både det globale og det lokale ved at knytte det til forholdet mellem marked...

  19. Global Mindsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives seeks to tackle a topic that is relatively new in research and practice, and is considered by many to be critical for firms seeking to conduct global business. It argues that multiple mindsets exist (across and within organizations), that they operate...... in a global context, and that they are dynamic and undergo change and action. Part of the mindset(s) may depend upon place, situation and context where individuals and organizations operate. The book will examine the notion of "mindset" is situational and dynamic, especially in a global setting, why...... it is important for future scholars and managers and how it could be conceptualized. Global Mindsets: Exploration and Perspectives is split into two major sections; the first examines where the literature currently is with respect to the knowledge in the field and what conceptual frameworks guide the thinking...

  20. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

  1. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  2. Shadow Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Russian and foreign, tend to interpret globalization processes exclusively from the position of conformism, and for some of the researchers globalization became the "sacred cow", which one may only worship. Critical analysis of the processes associated with globalization is given a hostile reception. In response to criticism of globalization, one can hear the very same argument: "globalization in inevitable!" Such a state of affairs, the very least, causes perplexity. Some of the world development trends been observed over the past years raise serious concerns about the security and welfare of the peoples of the world. One of such trends has been the globalization of shadow economic activities. Methods of fight against the criminal economy been applied in international practice can be grouped into: 1 punitive enforcement (or criminal-legal methods and 2 socio-economic methods. As the results of various research works evidence punitive enforcement methods not supported by socio-economic measures not effective enough. Toughening the control over criminal economic activities in the absence of preventive and corrective actions aiming to neutralize institutional, social and other stimuli facilitating criminalization of economic activities can result in large losses of financial assets in the form of mass capital flight

  3. Global Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Is 21st-century Rome a global city? Is it part of Europe's core or periphery? This volume examines the “real city” beyond Rome's historical center, exploring the diversity and challenges of life in neighborhoods affected by immigration, neoliberalism, formal urban planning, and grassroots social...... movements. The contributors engage with themes of contemporary urban studies–the global city, the self-made city, alternative modernities, capital cities and nations, urban change from below, and sustainability. Global Rome serves as a provocative introduction to the Eternal City and makes an original...

  4. Global Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakat, Livia L.; Lorenz, Melanie P.; Ramsey, Jase R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of cultural intelligence (CQ) on the job performance of global managers. Design/methodology/approach: – In total, 332 global managers were surveyed from multinational companies operating in Brazil. The mediating effect of job...... satisfaction was tested on the CQ-job performance relationship. Findings: – The findings suggest that job satisfaction transmits the effect of CQ to job performance, such that global managers high in CQ exhibit more job satisfaction in an international setting, and therefore perform better at their jobs....... Practical implications: – Results imply that global managers should increase their CQ in order to improve their job satisfaction and ultimately perform better in an international context. Originality/value: – The authors make three primary contributions to the international business literature. First...

  5. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...... of innovation" understanding of learning. Narula and Smith reconcile an important paradox. On the one hand, locations and firms are increasingly interdependent through supranational organisations, regional integration, strategic alliances, and the flow of investments, technologies, ideas and people...

  6. Another globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of ...

  7. Gendered globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  8. Global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  9. De la motte au château d’artillerie, la fouille du château de Guingamp (Côtes-d’Armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Beuchet

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available L’opération d’archéologie préventive du château de Guingamp (Côtes-d’Armor a été réalisée dans le cadre d'un projet de création d'une salle culturelle sur le site du château. La fouille a été menée sur une superficie de 2000 m², sur une durée effective de cinq mois entre octobre 2004 et mars 2005, avec un effectif moyen de sept personnes.À l’issue de la fouille, trois phases principales d’occupation peuvent être identifiées :la motte des Comtes de Guingamp (XIe-XIIe s. ;une enceinte polygon...

  10. A hybrid concept (segmented plus monolithic fused silica shells) for a high-throughput and high-angular resolution x-ray mission (Lynx/X-Ray Surveyor like)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Stefano; Civitani, Marta; Pareschi, Giovanni; Parodi, Giancarlo

    2017-09-01

    Lynx is a large area and high angular resolution X-ray mission being studied by NASA to be presented to the next Decadal Survey for the implementation in the next decade. It aims to realize an X-ray telescope with the effective area similar to Athena (2 m2 at 1 keV) but with the same angular resolution of Chandra and a much larger Field Of View (up 20 arcmin x 20 arcmin). The science of X-ray Surveyor requires a large-throughput mirror assembly with sub-arcsec angular resolution. These future X-ray mirrors have a set of requirements which, collectively, represents very substantial advances over any currently in operation or planned for missions other than X-ray Surveyor. Of particular importance is achieving low mass per unit collecting area, while maintaining Chandra like angular resolution. Among the possible solutions under study, the direct polishing of both thin monolithic pseudo-cylindrical shells and segments made of fused silica are being considered as viable solutions for the implementation of the mirrors. Fused silica has very good thermomechanical parameters (including a very low CTE), making the material particularly well suited for for the production of the Lynx mirrors. It should be noted that the use of close shells is also very attractive, since the operations for the integration of the shells will be greatly simplified and the area lost due to the vignetting from the interfacing structures minimized even if the management of such big (diameter of 3 m) and thin shells have to be demonstrated. In this paper we will discuss a possible basic layout for a full shell mirror and a hybrid concept (segmented plus monolithic shells made of fused silica) as a second solution, for the Lynx/XRS telescope, discussing preliminary results in terms of optical and mechanical performance.

  11. Plato’s Republic to Rivers’Five Spot: Poets Among Painters De la République de Platon au « Five Spot » à Manhattan : des poètes chez les peintres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn Wall

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, Eamonn Wall considère les œuvres de divers artistes et penseurs de l’âge classique à l’époque actuelle, et tente de décrire les diverses méthodologies choisies par les écrivains et leurs commentateurs pour écrire des poèmes et les interpréter. Il sera principalement question ici des poètes de l’École de New York qui, apparue dans les années 1950, comprenait parmi ses membres des poètes tels que John Ashbery, Frank O’ Hara, James Schuyler, Kenneth Koch, et bien d’autres encore. Ce mouvement poétique empruntait son nom au groupe de peintres qui occupa la scène new yorkaise après la Deuxième Guerre mondiale. Eamonn Wall s’arrête sur différents points de convergence et de dissonance entre les poètes et les peintres de ces Écoles, avant de considérer les liens entre poésie et arts visuels dans l’Irlande et la Grande-Bretagne tant contemporaines qu’anciennes afin de montrer les échecs et les réussites des poètes qui essayèrent de faire de la poésie à partir des arts visuels. Il conclut que pour un poète, un tableau est toujours un sujet irrésistible et se montre certain que tant qu’il y aura des œuvres aux murs des musées, il y aura des poètes pour les mettre en poésie.

  12. Global Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  13. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...... and unabated. Like these ‘absolute’ measures, our ‘centrist’ inequality indicators, the Krtscha measure and an intermediate Gini, also register a pronounced increase in global inequality, albeit, in the case of the latter, with a decline during 2005 to 2010. A critical question posed by our findings is whether...

  14. Global Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries....... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...

  15. Global Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Russo, P.

    2009-05-01

    IYA2009 is a global collaboration between almost 140 nations and more than 50 international organisations sharing the same vision. Besides the common brand, mission, vision and goals, IAU established eleven cornerstones programmes to support the different IYA2009 stakeholder to organize events, activities under a common umbrella. These are global activities centred on specific themes and are aligned with IYA2009's main goals. Whether it is the support and promotion of women in astronomy, the preservation of dark-sky sites around the world or educating and explaining the workings of the Universe to millions, the eleven Cornerstones are key elements in the success of IYA2009. However, the process of implementing global projects across cultural boundaries is challenging and needs central coordination to preserve the pre-established goals. During this talk we will examine the ups and downs of coordinating such a project and present an overview of the principal achievements for the Cornerstones so far.

  16. Global rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosquist, K.

    1980-01-01

    Global rotation in cosmological models is defined on an observational basis. A theorem is proved saying that, for rigid motion, the global rotation is equal to the ordinary local vorticity. The global rotation is calculated in the space-time homogeneous class III models, with Godel's model as a special case. It is shown that, with the exception of Godel's model, the rotation in these models becomes infinite for finite affine parameter values. In some directions the rotation changes sign and becomes infinite in a direction opposite to the local vorticity. The points of infinite rotation are identified as conjugate points along the null geodesics. The physical interpretation of the infinite rotation is discussed, and a comparison with the behaviour of the area distance at conjugate points is given. (author)

  17. Another globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Ion Bucur

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Finding the anachronisms and the failures of the present globalization, as well as the vitiated system of world-wide government, has stimulated the debates regarding the identification of a more equitable form of globalization to favor the acceleration of the economic increase and the reduction of poverty.The deficiency of the present international economic institutions, especially the lack of transparency and democratic responsibility, claims back with acuteness the reformation of the architecture of the international institutional system and the promotion of those economical policies which must ensure the stability world-wide economy and the amelioration of the international equity.

  18. Measuring Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Torben M.; Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate technique of factor analysis is used to combine several indicators of economic integration and international transactions into a single measure or index of globalization. The index is an alternative to the simple measure of openness based on trade, and it produces a ranking of countries over time for 23 OECD countries. Ireland is ranked as the most globalized country during the 1990?s, while the UK was at the top during the 1980?s. Some of the most notable changes in the rank...

  19. Going global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, W.; Poirier, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the global market for independent power projects and the increased competition and strategic alliances that are occurring to take advantage of the increasing demand. The topics of the article include the amount of involvement of US companies in the global market, the forces driving the market toward independent power, markets in the United Kingdom, North America, Turkey, Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Europe, the Federal Republic of Germany, India, the former Eastern European countries, Asia and the Pacific nations, and niche markets

  20. Global Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and

  1. Going global?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe; Rasmussen, Christel

    2016-01-01

    occurred at a more micro level. This article explores this issue by studying the international activities of Danish foundations. It finds that grant-making on global issues is increasing, and that several foundations have undergone transformations in their approach to grantmaking, making them surprisingly...

  2. Justice Globalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Erin; Steger, Manfred; Siracusa, Joseph; Battersby, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The pursuit of a global order founded on universal rules extends beyond economics into the normative spheres of law, politics and justice. Justice globalists claim universal principles applicable to all societies irrespective of religion or ideology. This view privileges human rights, democracy and

  3. Age of the Mars Global Northerly Slope: Evidence From Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, George E.

    2002-01-01

    Recent results from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) experiment on Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) indicate that most of Mars is characterized by a very gentle, roughly northerly slope. Detailed mapping in north-central Arabia Terra combined with superposition relations and crater counts indicate that, in that region at least, this northerly slope must have been formed no later than Late Hesperian, with the most likely time of formation being Late Hesperian. Current research in Utopia Planitia intended as a test of extant models for the formation of giant polygons has turned up good evidence for a Late Hesperian age for the northerly tilt in this region as well, as will be discussed.

  4. Global swindle of global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.

    2007-01-01

    Voor sommige mensen is het nog steeds niet aannemelijk dat we te maken hebben met de effecten van ‘Global Warming’, de opwarming van de aarde door voornamelijk de broeikasgassen die vrijkomen bij de verbranding van fossiele brandstoffen. In de media worden voor- en tegenstanders aan het woord

  5. Conceived globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheraghi, Maryam; Schøtt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    and culture which have separate effects. Being man, young, educated and having entrepreneurial competencies promote transnational networking extensively. Networking is embedded in culture, in the way that transnational networking is more extensive in secular-rational culture than in traditional culture.......A firm may be conceived global, in the sense that, before its birth, the founding entrepreneur has a transnational network of advisors which provides an embedding for organising the upstart that may include assembling resources and marketing abroad. The purpose is to account for the entrepreneurs...... the intending, starting and operating phases, fairly constantly with only small fluctuations. The firm is conceived global in terms of the entrepreneur's transnational networking already in the pre-birth phase, when the entrepreneur is intending to start the firm. These phase effects hardly depend on attributes...

  6. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......" provides comprehensive coverage of different types of derivatives, including exchange traded contracts and over-the-counter instruments as well as real options. There is an equal emphasis on the practical application of derivatives and their actual uses in business transactions and corporate risk...... management situations. Its key features include: derivatives are introduced in a global market perspective; describes major derivative pricing models for practical use, extending these principles to valuation of real options; practical applications of derivative instruments are richly illustrated...

  7. Energy globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierno Andres

    1997-01-01

    Toward the future, the petroleum could stop to be the main energy source in the world and the oil companies will only survive if they are adjusted to the new winds that blow in the general energy sector. It will no longer be enough to be the owner of the resource (petroleum or gas) so that a company subsists and be profitable in the long term. The future, it will depend in great measure of the vision with which the oil companies face the globalization concept that begins to experience the world in the energy sector. Concepts like globalization, competition, integration and diversification is something that the companies of the hydrocarbons sector will have very present. Globalization means that it should be been attentive to what happens in the world, beyond of the limits of its territory, or to be caught by competitive surprises that can originate in very distant places. The search of cleaner and friendlier energy sources with the means it is not the only threat that it should fear the petroleum. Their substitution for electricity in the big projects of massive transport, the technology of the communications, the optic fiber and the same relationships with the aboriginal communities are aspects that also compete with the future of the petroleum

  8. Global overeksponering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus A. Foss

    2007-01-01

    forandringer. Den globale orientering kommer blandt andet til udtryk i det relativt store internationale netværk, som bakker de unge op i deres protester - enten ved tilstedeværelse i København eller andre sympatiaktioner. Siden den 11. september, 2001, er globale realiteter blevet eksponeret i massemedierne...... så bliver der blændet fuldt op for linsen d. 11. september, 2001 til en global verden, hvor de demokratiske værdier ikke gælder. Lad mig blot give et eksempel: Guatanamo. Jeg skal hverken tale for eller imod den måde verden er indrettet på - da det er denne analyse uvedkommende - men blot pege på...... med væsentligt større kraft end tidligere. Før den 11. september blev globaliseringen udelukkende tegnet af jetsettet. Altså internationale politikere, kulturkoryfæer, videnskabsfolk og forretningsfolk, der har handler ud fra kendte rationaler. Men jetsettet har ikke længere den privilegeret position...

  9. Development and implementation of a dynamic TES dispatch control component in a PV-CSP techno-economic performance modelling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Linus; Guédez, Rafael; Larchet, Kevin; Laumert, Bjorn

    2017-06-01

    The dispatchability offered by thermal energy storage (TES) in concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar hybrid plants based on such technology presents the most important difference compared to power generation based only on photovoltaics (PV). This has also been one reason for recent hybridization efforts of the two technologies and the creation of Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) payment schemes based on offering higher payment multiples during daily hours of higher (peak or priority) demand. Recent studies involving plant-level thermal energy storage control strategies are however to a large extent based on pre-determined approaches, thereby not taking into account the actual dynamics of thermal energy storage system operation. In this study, the implementation of a dynamic dispatch strategy in the form of a TRNSYS controller for hybrid PV-CSP plants in the power-plant modelling tool DYESOPT is presented. In doing this it was attempted to gauge the benefits of incorporating a day-ahead approach to dispatch control compared to a fully pre-determined approach determining hourly dispatch only once prior to annual simulation. By implementing a dynamic strategy, it was found possible to enhance technical and economic performance for CSP-only plants designed for peaking operation and featuring low values of the solar multiple. This was achieved by enhancing dispatch control, primarily by taking storage levels at the beginning of every simulation day into account. The sequential prediction of the TES level could therefore be improved, notably for evaluated plants without integrated PV, for which the predicted storage levels deviated less than when PV was present in the design. While also featuring dispatch performance gains, optimal plant configurations for hybrid PV-CSP was found to present a trade-off in economic performance in the form of an increase in break-even electricity price when using the dynamic strategy which was offset to some extent by a reduction in

  10. Thermal Tides During the 2001 Martian Global-Scale Dust Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzewich, Scott D.; Wilson, R. John; McConnochie, Timothy H.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Bandfield, Donald J.; Smith, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The 2001 (Mars Year 25) global dust storm radically altered the dynamics of the Martian atmosphere. Using observations from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer onboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and Mars WRF general circulation model simulations, we examine the changes to thermal tides and planetary waves caused by the storm. We find that the extratropical diurnal migrating tide is dramatically enhanced during the storm, particularly in the southern hemisphere, reaching amplitudes of more than 20 K. The tropical diurnal migrating tide is weakened to almost undetectable levels. The diurnal Kelvin waves are also significantly weakened, particularly during the period of global expansion at Ls=200deg-210deg. In contrast, the westward propagating diurnal wavenumber 2 tide strengthens to 4-8 K at altitudes above 30km. The wavenumber 1 stationary wave reaches amplitudes of 10-12 K at 50deg-70degN, far larger than is typically seen during this time of year. The phase of this stationary wave and the enhancement of the diurnal wavenumber 2 tide appear to be responses to the high-altitude westward propagating equatorial wavenumber 1 structure in dust mixing ratio observed during the storm in previous works. This work provides a global picture of dust storm wave dynamics that reveals the coupling between the tropics and high-latitude wave responses. We conclude that the zonal distribution of thermotidal forcing from atmospheric aerosol concentration is as important to understanding the atmospheric wave response as the total global mean aerosol optical depth.

  11. Global safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  12. Calorimetric determination of enthalpies for the proton ionization of N,N-bis[2-hydroxyethyl]-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (BES) and N-tris[hydroxymethyl]methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (TES) in water-methanol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, B.N.; Jumean, F.H.

    2004-01-01

    The enthalpies of proton ionization of the biochemical buffers N,N-bis[2-hydroxyethyl]-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (BES) and N-tris[hydroxymethyl]methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (TES) were obtained in water-methanol mixtures in which the methanol mole fraction (X m ) varied in the range 0-0.36. For both buffers, ionization enthalpy for the first proton (ΔH 1 ) was small in all solvent media. However, upon addition of methanol, ΔH 2 increased steadily from 22.2 to a maximum of 27.2 kJ mol -1 for BES, whereas for TES it varied from 30.0 to 32.4, with a minimum of 28.6 kJ mol -1 at X m =0.123. It is noteworthy that this solvent composition lies within the region of maximum structure enhancement of water by methanol. The results were interpreted in terms of methanol-water interactions

  13. La primera urbanització dels «Abunás». Mamelucs, indis i jesuïtes a les ciutats portugueses de l'Amazònia, segles XVII i XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, Décio de Alencar

    2017-01-01

    Entre els anys de 1650 i 1750 de l'època colonial, diverses «llogarets» d'indis, o reduccions indígenes, van ser creades a la vall de l'Amazones pels missioners jesuïtes. El pla dels seus llogarets va ser viable fins a la seva expulsió en 1759. Els llocs d'aquests llogarets variaven i podien desplaçar-se. L'anàlisi d'aquest moment de fundació subratlla els conflictes en la societat colonial, les seves fronteres i la seva vida quotidiana. Es posarà en dubte el paper jugat pels jesuïtes -pares ...

  14. La primera urbanització dels «Abunás». Mamelucs, indis i jesuïtes a les ciutats portugueses de l'Amazònia, segles XVII i XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    De Alencar Guzmán, Décio

    2017-01-01

    Entre els anys de 1650 i 1750 de l'època colonial, diverses «llogarets» d'indis, o reduccions indígenes, van ser creades a la vall de l'Amazones pels missioners jesuïtes. El pla dels seus llogarets va ser viable fins a la seva expulsió en 1759. Els llocs d'aquests llogarets variaven i podien desplaçar-se. L'anàlisi d'aquest moment de fundació subratlla els conflictes en la societat colonial, les seves fronteres i la seva vida quotidiana. Es posarà en dubte el paper jugat pels jesuïtes -...

  15. Studentu identitātes prezentēšana sociālajos tīklos: “draugiem.lv” un “facebook.com” gadījumu analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Bajāre, Regija

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir studentu identitātes prezentēšana sociālajos tīklos: "draugiem.lv" un "facebook.com" gadījumu analīze. Šī bakalaura darba mērķis ir noskaidrot Latvijas studentu identitātes prezentēšanu sociālajos tīklos draugiem.lv un facebook.com. Šī darba ietvaros ir izstrādāti trīs pētnieciskie jautājumi: kādu informāciju studenti prezentē savos profilos, kādi ir sevis prezentēšanas paradumi, vai studentu prezentētā identitāte atšķiras portālā draugiem.lv no facebook.com? Teorij...

  16. Klientu lojalitātes veicināšanas kritēriji: fitnesa klubu "Atletika", "MyFitness", "Veselības Fabrika" piemērs

    OpenAIRE

    Rožkalna, Kristīne

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir “Klientu lojalitātes veicināšanas kritēriji: fitnesa klubu “Atletika”, “MyFitness”, “Veselības Fabrika” piemērs”. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir fitnesa klubu “Atletika”, “MyFitness”, “Veselības Fabrika” izpēte, identificējot kritērijus klientu lojalitātes veicināšanā. Darbu veido ievads, teorētiskā, metodoloģijas, empīriskā daļa, secinājumi, ieteikumi, pielikums. Teorētisko daļu veido nodaļas par uzņēmējdarbību, zīmolu, klientu lojalitāti, mārketingu, komunikāciju...

  17. Evaluation par l'analyse sensorielle des qualité organoleptiques d'anciennes variétes de pommes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateur M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Organoleptic properties of old apple cultivars evaluated by sensory analysis. In the framework of a research programme focused on the evaluation and the valorization of fruit tree genetic resources, the sensory analysis technique has been used in order to evaluate the organoleptic properties of six old apple cultivars which are on trial in Belgium and North of France. The aims were to define their optimal picking time and storage aptitude, therefore marketing advices could be given to growers. Methodological aspects have been investigated on different sensory analysis parameters adapted to fresh fruits e.g. panel selection and formation, choice of descriptors. Sensory analysis was applied just after picking and periodically during the storage period. For each fruit sample, different characteristics were measured (brix, pH and flesh firmness with the objective to calculate the correlation between sensory analysis data and analytical data. The results show that for the Jonagold cv., there is a very high correlation between ""crunchiness"", ""flesh firmness"" and ""juiciness"" sensory evaluated data. Other results, based on the experimentation of the six old cvs, confirm the correlation between the sensory analysis of the ""flesh firmness"" and the ""juiciness"", they show that the ""flesh firmness"" can be well assessed by a sensory analysis panel, and that the global fruit quality appreciation depends mostly on ""juiciness"", ""flesh firmness"" and sweet sensation. The sensory analysis can give good indication for a better commercial management of apple cvs concerning picking date, storage capacity and the best storage conditions to be chosen.

  18. Global ambitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruton, M.

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses global ambitions concerning the Norwegian petroleum industry. With the advent of the NORSOK (Forum for development and operation) cost reduction programme and a specific focus on key sectors of the market, the Norwegian oil industry is beginning to market its considerable technological achievements internationally. Obviously, the good fortune of having tested this technology in a very demanding domestic arena means that Norwegian offshore support companies, having succeeded at home, are perfectly poised to export their expertise to the international sector. Drawing on the traditional strengths of the country's maritime heritage, with mobile rig and specialized vessel business featuring strongly, other key technologies have been developed. 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. LOFAR-Boötes: properties of high- and low-excitation radio galaxies at 0.5 < z < 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W. L.; Calistro Rivera, G.; Best, P. N.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Duncan, K. J.; de Gasperin, F.; Jarvis, M. J.; Miley, G. K.; Mahony, E. K.; Morabito, L. K.; Nisbet, D. M.; Prandoni, I.; Smith, D. J. B.; Tasse, C.; White, G. J.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a study of the redshift evolution of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a function of the properties of their galaxy hosts in the Boötes field. To achieve this we match low-frequency radio sources from deep 150-MHz LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) observations to an I-band-selected catalogue of galaxies, for which we have derived photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and rest-frame colours. We present spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting to determine the mid-infrared AGN contribution for the radio sources and use this information to classify them as high- versus low-excitation radio galaxies (HERGs and LERGs) or star-forming galaxies. Based on these classifications, we construct luminosity functions for the separate redshift ranges going out to z = 2. From the matched radio-optical catalogues, we select a sub-sample of 624 high power (P150 MHz > 1025 W Hz-1) radio sources between 0.5 ≤ z negative evolution of the LERG luminosity functions over this redshift range, is consistent with LERGs being fuelled by hot gas in quiescent galaxies.

  20. HOSPITALIDADE E TROCAS CONTEMPORÂNEAS NA HOTELARIA UM ESTUDO DE CASO DO QUALITY SUÍTES VILA OLÍMPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Soares Lopes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo contempla pesquisa exploratória de caráter bibliográfico a respeito de temas como a hospitalidade e a hotelaria, em que no seu desenvolvimento buscaram-se consultar sites, livros, e periódicos nacionais e internacionais. Logo após utilizou-se de pesquisa de campo em que se discorre sobre questões associadas a gestão e a prestação de serviços nos meios de hospedagem. Para tanto define como objeto de estudo os empreendimentos administrados pela Atlantica Hotels International, representado pelo Quality Suítes Vila Olímpia. Apresenta análise diagnóstica dos procedimentos operacionais padrão efetuados pelos seus colaboradores ao abordar situações distintas vivenciadas pelo homem em que por meio destas torna-se comum as trocas de gentilezas e atos relacionados ao caráter da hospitalidade. Por fim, em seus resultados demonstra, entre outras considerações, atividades relacionadas a boa receptividade dos visitantes e dos hóspedes por meio de treinamentos, aspectos da gestão e características próprias do prestador de serviço, também chamado de anfitrião comercial.

  1. Le Procès des poètes : Flaubert contre « l’écume du cœur »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Loiseleur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans sa correspondance, si Flaubert prend peu les poètes pour destinataires premiers, il les vise pourtant en permanence. Ses lettres, en particulier celles qu’il écrit à la poétesse Louise Colet, sont en effet l’occasion pour lui de revenir sur son credo esthético-sentimental et de préciser ses propres positions (de poète de la prose dans une lutte déclarée contre les représentants de « la poésie du cœur ».In Flaubert’s correspondence poets are rarely his principal addressees, yet they are his main target. Indeed, his letters, specially those written to the poet Louise Colet, give him the opportunity to re-examine his esthetical-sentimental creed and specify his own position as a prose poet in an open war against those who represent “the poetry of the heart”.

  2. A Microphysically-based Approach to Inferring Porosity, Grain Size, and Dust Abundance in the Seasonal Caps from Atmospherically-corrected TES Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluszkiewicz, J.; Titus, T. N.

    2003-01-01

    One of the highlights of the TES observations in the polar regions has been the identification of a "cryptic" region in the south where CO2 appears to be in the form of a solid slab rather than a fluffy frost. While the exact mechanism(s) by which the cryptic region is formed are still subject of some debate, it appears certain that a type of rapid metamorphism related to the high volatility of CO2 ice is involved. The high volatility of CO2 ice under martian conditions has several Solar System analogs (N2 on Triton and Pluto, SO2 on Io), thus making the martian cryptic region somewhat less cryptic and certainly non-unique among planetary objects. In an endmember scenario, both the formation and the spectral properties of the cryptic region (and of other areas in the seasonal caps) can be quantitatively modeled by considering sintering of an ensemble of quasi-spherical CO2 grains. This model includes the special case of instanteneous slab formation, which occurs when the grains are sufficiently small (in the submicron range) so that their sintering timescale is short relative to the deposition timescale (a situation analogous to the "sintering" of water droplets falling into a pond).

  3. Franšīzes izmantošanas iespējas un efektivitātes novērtēšana Baltijā

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Nadežda

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura tēma ir “Franšīzes izmantošanas iespējas un efektivitātes novērtēšana Baltijā”. Perspektīva biznesa attīstībā ir viens galvenajiem dzinējspēkiem, kurš motivē uzņēmējus, uzsākot savu darbību. Viens no mūsdienās plaši izmantojamajiem biznesa modeļiem ir franšīzes sistēma. Pasaulē bizness uz franšīzes pamata skaitās kā drošs, jo uzņēmējam ir spēja veiksmīgi attīstīt savu komercdarbību bez iepriekšējām zināšanām un pieredzi, jo franšīze paredz ne tikai gatavo biznesa rokasgrāmatu, bet a...

  4. "KinLeaves" reklāmas aktivitātes sociālajā tīklā “Facebook” 2016. gadā

    OpenAIRE

    Mandrika, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt, kādas reklāmas aktivitātes uzņēmums ir veicis un noskaidrot, vai sociālajā tīklā “Facebook” ar reklāmas aktivitātēm ir iespējams sasniegt mērķauditoriju. Darbs sastāv no trīs daļām – teorētiskās, metodoloģiskās un empīriskās. Teorētisko daļu veido nodaļas par reklāmu, sociālo tīklu vietnēm, sociālo tīklu „Facebook” un reklāmu sociālo tīklu vietnēs. Metodoloģiskajā daļā apskatītas pētījumā izmantotās metodes - kontentanalīze, intervija, anketēšana. Empīrisk...

  5. Calendula officinalis L. saturošo produktu bioloģiskās aktivitātes izvērtējums

    OpenAIRE

    Zepa, Līva

    2016-01-01

    Ārstniecības kliņģerītes ir vienas no senākajiem un pazīstamākajiem ārstniecības augiem pasaulē. Tās ir ātraudzīgas un jau vēsturiski plaši izmantotas tautas medicīnā. Pētījumi par ārstniecības kliņģerīšu lomu veselības saglabāšanā un stiprināšanā, izvērtējot aktīvo vielu saturu un sastāvu tajās, tās var pozitīvi ietekmēt cilvēka organismu gan profilakses nolūkos, gan kā papildus terapija ārstēšanas brīdī. Maģistra darba mērķis bija noskaidrot, kādas un cik daudz aktīvās vielas atrodamas pašg...

  6. SeTES, a Self-Teaching Expert System for the analysis, design and prediction of gas production from shales and a prototype for a new generation of Expert Systems in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Boyle, K.; Pullman, S.; Reagan, M. T.; Moridis, G. J.; Blasingame, T. A.; Rector, J. W.; Nikolaou, M.

    2010-12-01

    A Self Teaching Expert System (SeTES) is being developed for the analysis, design and prediction of gas production from shales. An Expert System is a computer program designed to answer questions or clarify uncertainties that its designers did not necessarily envision which would otherwise have to be addressed by consultation with one or more human experts. Modern developments in computer learning, data mining, database management, web integration and cheap computing power are bringing the promise of expert systems to fruition. SeTES is a partial successor to Prospector, a system to aid in the identification and evaluation of mineral deposits developed by Stanford University and the USGS in the late 1970s, and one of the most famous early expert systems. Instead of the text dialogue used in early systems, the web user interface of SeTES helps a non-expert user to articulate, clarify and reason about a problem by navigating through a series of interactive wizards. The wizards identify potential solutions to queries by retrieving and combining together relevant records from a database. Inferences, decisions and predictions are made from incomplete and noisy inputs using a series of probabilistic models (Bayesian Networks) which incorporate records from the database, physical laws and empirical knowledge in the form of prior probability distributions. The database is mainly populated with empirical measurements, however an automatic algorithm supplements sparse data with synthetic data obtained through physical modeling. This constitutes the mechanism for how SeTES self-teaches. SeTES’ predictive power is expected to grow as users contribute more data into the system. Samples are appropriately weighted to favor high quality empirical data over low quality or synthetic data. Finally, a set of data visualization tools digests the output measurements into graphical outputs.

  7. Résultats de recherches récentes sur la structure géologique des gîtes de houille de la Ruhr Results of Recent Research on the Geological Structure of Coal Beds in the Ruhr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaulfuss R.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Un inventaire exact des gîtes de houille était lié à la réorganisation des rapports de propriété dans la région de la Ruhr (Fondation de la Ruhrkohle AG. Du fait que dans les domaines de gîtes de houille en exploitation les réserves de houille ne suffiront pas à assurer à long terme un rendement d'extraction suffisant, on commença une vaste exploration dans des parties de quartier encore inconnues. Il fut ainsi possible d'élargir considérablement les connaissances sur la situation géologique des gîtes de houille grâce à des études par réflexion sismique, des forages profonds et des enregistrements de forages géophysiques. An accurate inventory of the coal beds was dependent upon the reorganization of property reports in the Ruhr region (Ruhrkohle Fondation AG. Because the working coal fields do not contain sufficient coal reserves to guarantee satisfactory productivity rates on a long-term basis, extensive exploration in previously unexplored parts of the area was undertaken. Thus, it became possible to extend considerably our knowledge of the geological structure of the coal beds through refraction shooting, deep drilling, and the well logging.

  8. Skolotāju apmierinātības ar darbu, stresa un pašefektivitātes sakarības skolotāju grupā

    OpenAIRE

    Radziņš, Rolands

    2018-01-01

    No skolotāju apmierinātības ar darbu, stresa pārvarēšanas un pašefektivitātes ir atkarīga ne tikai viena konkrēta darbinieka, bet visas izglītības iestādes skolotāju un personāla labizjūta un pedagoģiskā darba efektivitāte kopumā. Pētījuma „Skolotāju apmierinātības ar darbu, stresa un pašefektivitātes sakarības skolotāju grupā” mērķis, saskaņā ar pasūtījumu, bija noskaidrot skolotāju apmierinātību ar darbu, darba stresa un pašefektivitātes sakarības un izstrādāt atbalsta pasākumus un rekomend...

  9. Global health and global health ethics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benatar, S. R; Brock, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    ...? What are our responsibilities and how can we improve global health? Global Health and Global Health Ethics addresses these questions from the perspective of a range of disciplines, including medicine, philosophy and the social sciences...

  10. Global teaching of global seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Our recent textbook, Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, & Earth Structure (Blackwell, 2003) is used in many countries. Part of the reason for this may be our deliberate attempt to write the book for an international audience. This effort appears in several ways. We stress seismology's long tradition of global data interchange. Our brief discussions of the science's history illustrate the contributions of scientists around the world. Perhaps most importantly, our discussions of earthquakes, tectonics, and seismic hazards take a global view. Many examples are from North America, whereas others are from other areas. Our view is that non-North American students should be exposed to North American examples that are type examples, and that North American students should be similarly exposed to examples elsewhere. For example, we illustrate how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence using both the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska and the Eurasia-Africa boundary from the Azores to the Mediterranean. We illustrate diffuse plate boundary zones using western North America, the Andes, the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and the East Africa Rift. The subduction zone discussions examine Japan, Tonga, and Chile. We discuss significant earthquakes both in the U.S. and elsewhere, and explore hazard mitigation issues in different contexts. Both comments from foreign colleagues and our experience lecturing overseas indicate that this approach works well. Beyond the specifics of our text, we believe that such a global approach is facilitated by the international traditions of the earth sciences and the world youth culture that gives students worldwide common culture. For example, a video of the scene in New Madrid, Missouri that arose from a nonsensical earthquake prediction in 1990 elicits similar responses from American and European students.

  11. Globalizing Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    countries to keep up the process of globalization may be substantial, and the economic gains for such countries from adjusting to a more internationally integrated world economy are clear. However, in small- population economies, especially social-democratic welfare states, the internal pressure......This exploratory article examines the paradox of being open-minded while ethnocentric as expressed in Danish international management practices at the micro level. With a population of 5.4 million, Denmark is one of the smallest of the European countries. The pressure on many small advanced...... to integrate counteracts to some extent the need to maintain openness to differences. Thus, a strong economy and a feeling of smug ethnocentrism in Denmark generate a central paradox in thinking about internationalization in Danish society....

  12. Global Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, I.

    1985-01-01

    Any global view of landforms must include an evaluation of the link between plate tectonics and geomorphology. To explain the broad features of the continents and ocean floors, a basic distinction between the tectogene and cratogene part of the Earth's surface must be made. The tectogene areas are those that are dominated by crustal movements, earthquakes and volcanicity at the present time and are essentially those of the great mountain belts and mid ocean ridges. Cratogene areas comprise the plate interiors, especially the old lands of Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Fundamental as this division between plate margin areas and plate interiors is, it cannot be said to be a simple case of a distinction between tectonically active and stable areas. Indeed, in terms of megageomorphology, former plate margins and tectonic activity up to 600 million years ago have to be considered.

  13. Global engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plass, L.

    2001-01-01

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  14. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, John

    2005-01-01

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

  15. Global gamesmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Ian C; van Putten, Alexander B; McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2003-05-01

    Competition among multinationals these days is likely to be a three-dimensional game of global chess: The moves an organization makes in one market are designed to achieve goals in another in ways that aren't immediately apparent to its rivals. The authors--all management professors-call this approach "competing under strategic interdependence," or CSI. And where this interdependence exists, the complexity of the situation can quickly overwhelm ordinary analysis. Indeed, most business strategists are terrible at anticipating the consequences of interdependent choices, and they're even worse at using interdependency to their advantage. In this article, the authors offer a process for mapping the competitive landscape and anticipating how your company's moves in one market can influence its competitive interactions in others. They outline the six types of CSI campaigns--onslaughts, contests, guerrilla campaigns, feints, gambits, and harvesting--available to any multiproduct or multimarket corporation that wants to compete skillfully. They cite real-world examples such as the U.S. pricing battle Philip Morris waged with R.J. Reynolds--not to gain market share in the domestic cigarette market but to divert R.J. Reynolds's resources and attention from the opportunities Philip Morris was pursuing in Eastern Europe. And, using data they collected from their studies of consumer-products companies Procter & Gamble and Unilever, the authors describe how to create CSI tables and bubble charts that present a graphical look at the competitive landscape and that may uncover previously hidden opportunities. The CSI mapping process isn't just for global corporations, the authors explain. Smaller organizations that compete with a portfolio of products in just one national or regional market may find it just as useful for planning their next business moves.

  16. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1990-01-01

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO 2 and NO x which cause acid rain, and CO 2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  17. Global Trends in Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2005-01-01

    Basically, the surveyors have been dealing with the same tasks for centuries. However, even if the core areas of cadastral surveying and land management are still the same, the paradigms and tools to be used must constantly be adapted to technological development as well as to the ever changing...... societal and administrative conditions. This of course imposes all kinds of challenges upon the profession and educational institutions. Furthermore, issues such as curricula development, quality assurance, continuing professional development, and mutual recognition are crucial to any professional...

  18. Advanced Multiplexed TES Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — X-ray measurements are critical for the understanding of cycles of matter and energy in the Universe, for understanding the nature of dark matter and dark energy,...

  19. Globalization and inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda

    Globalization is increasingly linked to inequality, but with often divergent and polarized findings. Some researchers show that globalization accentuates inequality both within and between countries. Others maintain that these claims are patently incorrect, arguing that globalization has

  20. Exploring Late Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    literature on late globalization from sociocultural and economic perspectives. It illustrates in a vignette the character and features of late globalization observable in the withdrawal from foreign locations or deinternationalization of universities, as late globalizing entitis. The paper discusses...

  1. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  2. Studies of global warming and global energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Atsushi

    1993-01-01

    Global warming caused by increase in atmospheric CO 2 concentration has been the focus of many recent global energy studies. CO 2 is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels. This means that global warming is fundamentally a problem of the global energy system. An analysis of the findings of recent global energy studies is made in this report. The results are categorized from the viewpoint of concern about global warming. The analysis includes energy use and CO 2 emissions, measures taken to restrain CO 2 emissions and the cost of such measure, and suggestions for long term global energy generation. Following this comparative analysis, each of the studies is reviewed in detail. (author) 63 refs

  3. Globalization and State Soverignty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Islam, Mainul

    2003-01-01

    .... Globalized capital is reorganizing business firms and undermining national politics. Globalization creates vast new markets and gigantic new wealth, as well as widespread suffering, disorder and unrest...

  4. Nebanku kredītdevēju ”SMScredit” un ”InCREDIT GROUP” lojalitātes programmas un to novērtējums

    OpenAIRE

    Birnbauma, Egija

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba temats ir „Nebanku kredītdevēju ”SMScredit” un ”InCREDIT GROUP” lojalitātes programmas un to novērtējums.” Darba mērķis ir lojalitātes programmu komunikācijas kanālu vērtējums un klientu vērtējums par programmu noderīgumu, to priekšrocībām un vai programmu darbības principi klientiem ir saprotami. Darbs sastāv no trīs daļām: teorētiskās, metodoloģiskās un empīriskās daļas. Teorētiskajā daļā tiek pētīta literatūra par mārketingu, integrētā mārketinga komunikāciju, patērēt...

  5. "A/S PET Baltija" kvalitātes pārvaldību sistēmu loma uzņēmuma konkurētspējas nodrošināšanā

    OpenAIRE

    Goldšteins, Jānis

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir ,,A/S PET Baltija’’ kvalitātes pārvaldību sistēmu loma uzņēmuma konkurētspējas nodrošināšanā. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt A/S PET Baltija kvalitātes pārvaldības sistēmu darbības ietekmi uz uzņēmuma konkurētspēju, atklāt problēmas un izstrādāt priekšlikumus problēmu samazināšanai. Bakalaura darbs satur: 65 lapas, 4 tabulas, 24 attēlus. Darba pirmajā daļā autors analizē Eiropas Direktīvu un LR likumdošanas normatīvo aktu analīzi atkritumu apsaimniek...

  6. Calorimetric determination of enthalpies for the proton ionization of N,N-bis[2-hydroxyethyl]-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (BES) and N-tris[hydroxymethyl]methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (TES) in water-methanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulos, B.N.; Jumean, F.H

    2004-02-19

    The enthalpies of proton ionization of the biochemical buffers N,N-bis[2-hydroxyethyl]-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (BES) and N-tris[hydroxymethyl]methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (TES) were obtained in water-methanol mixtures in which the methanol mole fraction (X{sub m}) varied in the range 0-0.36. For both buffers, ionization enthalpy for the first proton ({delta}H{sub 1}) was small in all solvent media. However, upon addition of methanol, {delta}H{sub 2} increased steadily from 22.2 to a maximum of 27.2 kJ mol{sup -1} for BES, whereas for TES it varied from 30.0 to 32.4, with a minimum of 28.6 kJ mol{sup -1} at X{sub m}=0.123. It is noteworthy that this solvent composition lies within the region of maximum structure enhancement of water by methanol. The results were interpreted in terms of methanol-water interactions.

  7. Piedošanas, subjektīvās labklājības un uztvertās attiecību kvalitātes saistība

    OpenAIRE

    Plauča, Ilze

    2010-01-01

    Darbā tiek apskatīti piedošanas, uztvertās attiecību kvalitātes un subjektīvās labklājības saistība. Piedošana tiek aplūkota M.Makkuloka (McCullough) izstrādātā modeļa ietvaros, ka piedošana ir atriebības, izvairīšanās un labvēlības motivācijas izmaiņu komplekss. Uztvertās attiecību kvalitātes komponentes ir apmierinātība ar attiecībām , nodošanās, intimitāte jeb tuvība, uzticēšanās, kaislība un mīlestība (Fletcher et al). Subjektīvās labklājības modelis tiek aplūkots Dīnera (Diener) teor...

  8. Latvijas Komercbanku pasīvās operācijas, to nozīme stabilitātes nodrošināšanā

    OpenAIRE

    Supe, Gita

    2014-01-01

    Darba mērķis ir izanalizēt banku pasīvo operāciju nozīmi Latvijas komercbanku stabilitātes nodrošināšanā, kā arī apskatīt, kādi ir banku pasīvo operāciju ietekmējošie faktori, un kā tie ietekmē Latvijas komercbanku darbību. Lai sasniegtu izvirzīto mērķi darba gaitā tika veikti šādi uzdevumi: •raksturotas banku pasīvās operācijas un loma stabilitātes nodrošināšanā; •izpētīti Latvijas komercbanku pasīvi laika periodā 2010. – 2013.g. •izanalizēta banku pasīvo operāciju faktoru ietekm...

  9. Globalization challenges in a globalized world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Gjon Boriçi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is an ongoing phenomenon trying to redefine the economic, social, cultural and political dynamics of contemporary societies. The communication among countries and not only them, has been increased expanding political ties, making possible greater economic integration and wider cultural relations combined with augmented global wealth across the world. But, the process of globalization is in wider terms considered a beneficial one, but also viewed by some countries as a menace to national sovereignty and national culture. This paper tries to explain the obstacles to the process of globalization and its attendant benefits. Although globalization has arisen as a result of a more stable world, the factors that had contributed to its rise also help the factions interested to bring destabilization. In an academic approach in this article, between the research and comparative methods, I have been trying to get the maxims between economy, politics and diplomacy in their efforts of affecting the global era.

  10. Cosmic global strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1991-01-01

    The topics are: global strings; the gravitational field of a straight global string; how do global strings behave?; the axion cosmological energy density; computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields. (orig.)

  11. Globalization and business ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Khadartseva, L.; Agnaeva, L.

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that local conditions of markets may be different, but some global markets, ethics and social responsibility principles should be applicable to all markets. As markets globalize and an increasing proportion of business activity transcends national borders, institutions need to help manage, regulate, and police the global marketplace, and to promote the establishment of multinational treaties to govern the global business system

  12. Climate change, land use and land surveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, P.; Mitchell, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research reveals that the land sector is a major emitter of greenhouse gases. But the land sector has also potential to reduce emissions. Different from other emission sectors like energy and transport, the land sector (in particular the rural area including forests) has the potential to also remove

  13. Climate change, land use and land surveyors

    OpenAIRE

    van der Molen, P.; Mitchell, D.

    2016-01-01

    Research reveals that the land sector is a major emitter of greenhouse gases. But the land sector has also potential to reduce emissions. Different from other emission sectors like energy and transport, the land sector (in particular the rural area including forests) has the potential to also remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere through sequestration and storage. This requires land use, land use change and forestry to be managed with respect to climate change goals. Carbon storage has ...

  14. Mobile Interfaces for Building Control Surveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Chmielewski , Jacek; Walczak , Krzysztof; Wiza , Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The problem of integrating heterogeneous back-end platforms used in public administration has been widely addressed in a number of research and development projects. In such a complex and heterogeneous environment, application of the SOA paradigm can be particularly beneficial. However, in some application domains - such as the Building Control Administration - there is an additional requirement: integration of heterogeneous front-end platforms - including access throu...

  15. Effective utilisation of generation Y Quantity Surveyors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    together and tested by means of open interview discussions with senior QS professionals. ... employers could better utilise generation Y employees. 2. Literature review .... Literature was reviewed by using search engines (Emerald, Business.

  16. The Annual Cycle of Water Vapor on Mars as Observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spectra taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) have been used to monitor the latitude, longitude, and seasonal dependence of water vapor for over one full Martian year (March 1999-March 2001). A maximum in water vapor abundance is observed at high latitudes during mid-summer in both hemispheres, reaching a maximum value of approximately 100 pr-micrometer in the north and approximately 50 pr-micrometer in the south. Low water vapor abundance (water vapor. The latitudinal and seasonal dependence of the decay of the northern summer water vapor maximum implies cross-equatorial transport of water to the southern hemisphere, while there is little or no corresponding transport during the decay of the southern hemisphere summer maximum. The latitude-longitude dependence of annually-averaged water vapor (corrected for topography) has a significant positive correlation with albedo and significant negative correlations with thermal inertia and surface pressure. Comparison of TES results with those retrieved from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) experiments shows some similar features, but also many significant differences. The southern hemisphere maximum observed by TES was not observed by MAWD and the large latitudinal gradient in annually-averaged water vapor observed by MAWD does not appear in the TES results.

  17. Global Mindset in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the call for identification of organizational contingencies related to global mindset, exploration of different forms of global mindset and their relationship with global strategies (Osland, Bird, Mendenhall & Osland, 2006). To this end, this paper explores global mindset...... development in the context of a 3-year single case study of middle manager microfoundations of global mindset in a Danish multinational corporation working with deliberate global mindset capability development as a vehicle for strategy execution and facilitation of global performance. A force field analysis...

  18. GLOBAL RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Er Kirtesh Jailia; Mrs.Manisha jailia; Er.Priyanka Jailia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we are going to discuss about the concept of Global relationship management. This is an important concept because now a day the whole business community is moving globally, means the geographical boundaries are of no more concern for the business communities. The global thinking of the business communities leads to the global relationship hence it is important for them to effectively manage such global relationship so that they can achieve what they want. The main concern is ove...

  19. Global health research needs global networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    To meet the challenges arising from global environmental change on human health, co-developing common approaches and new alliances of science and society are necessary. The first steps towards defining cross-cutting, health-environment issues were developed by the Global Environmental Change and

  20. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefidvash, Farhang

    1997-01-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  1. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefidvash, Farhang [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    1997-07-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  2. Globalization and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPAK NAYYAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe gathering momentum of globalization in the world economy has coincided with the spread of political democracy across countries. Economies have become global. But politics remains national. This essay explores the relationship between globalization and democracy, which is neither linear nor characterized by structural rigidities. It seeks to analyze how globalization might constrain degrees of freedom for nation states and space for democratic politics, and how political democracy within countries might exercise some checks and balances on markets and globalization. The essential argument is that the relationship between globalization and democracy is dialectical and does not conform to ideological caricatures.

  3. Global from the Start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    This article provides insights from recent research on firms that are "born global". A born-global firm is a venture launched to exploit a global niche from the first day of its operations. The insights in this article are relevant to technology entrepreneurs and top management teams of new...... technology firms. After discussing various definitions for the term "born global" and identifying the main characteristics of born-global firms, this article lists a few salient characteristics of firms that are born global in the technology sector. The article concludes by identifying opportunities...

  4. COMPETING CONCEPTIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Sklair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a relatively new idea in the social sciences, although people who work in and write about the mass media, transnational corporations and international business have been using it for some time. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the ways in which sociologists and other social scientists use ideas of globalization and to evaluate the fruitfulness of these competing conceptions. The central feature of the idea of globalization is that many contemporary problems cannot be adequately studied at the level of nation-states, that is, in terms of each country and its inter-national relations. Instead, they need to be conceptualized in terms of global processes. Some have even gone so far as to predict that global forces, by which they usually mean transnational corporations and other global economic institutions, global culture or globalizing belief systems/ideologies of various types, or a combination of all of these, are becoming so powerful that the continuing existence of the nation-state is in serious doubt. This is not a necessary consequence of most theories of globalization. The argument of this paper is that much of the globalization literature is confused because not all those who use the term distinguish it clearly enough from internation-alization, and some writers appear to use the two terms interchangeably. I argue that a clear distinction must be drawn between the inter-national and the global. The hyphen in inter-national is to distinguish (inadequate conceptions of the global' founded on the existing even if changing system of nation-states, from (genuine conceptions of the global based on the emergence of global processes and a global system of social relations not founded on national characteristics or nation-states. This global system theory is the framework for my own research. Globalization studies can be categorized on the basis of four research clusters:1. The world-systems approach; 2. The global

  5. Early Results from the Odyssey THEMIS Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Philip R.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Bell, James F., III; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Ivanov, Anton; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Kieffer, Hugh H.; Lane, Melissa D.; Malin, Michael C.; McConnochie, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) began studying the surface and atmosphere of Mars in February, 2002 using thermal infrared (IR) multi-spectral imaging between 6.5 and 15 m, and visible/near-IR images from 450 to 850 nm. The infrared observations continue a long series of spacecraft observations of Mars, including the Mariner 6/7 Infrared Spectrometer, the Mariner 9 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS), the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) investigations, the Phobos Termoscan, and the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS TES). The THEMIS investigation's specific objectives are to: (1) determine the mineralogy of localized deposits associated with hydrothermal or sub-aqueous environments, and to identify future landing sites likely to represent these environments; (2) search for thermal anomalies associated with active sub-surface hydrothermal systems; (3) study small-scale geologic processes and landing site characteristics using morphologic and thermophysical properties; (4) investigate polar cap processes at all seasons; and (5) provide a high spatial resolution link to the global hyperspectral mineral mapping from the TES investigation. THEMIS provides substantially higher spatial resolution IR multi-spectral images to complement TES hyperspectral (143-band) global mapping, and regional visible imaging at scales intermediate between the Viking and MGS cameras.

  6. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Present processes of global climate change are reviewed. The processes determining global temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. 18 refs

  7. Globalization and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Machikita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Recent empirical studies which utilize plant- or establishment-level data to examine globalization's impact on productivity have discovered many causal mechanisms involved in globalization's impact on firms’ productivity. Because these pathways have been broad, there have been few attempts...

  8. Global Landslide Hazard Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Hazard Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide and snow avalanche hazards based upon work of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute...

  9. Global Carbon Budget 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quere, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Sitch, Stephen; Pongratz, Julia; Manning, Andrew C.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Andrews, Oliver D.; Arora, Vivek K.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Barbero, Leticia; Becker, Meike; Betts, Richard A.; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frederic; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Cosca, Catherine E.; Cross, Jessica; Currie, Kim; Gasser, Thomas; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Hurtt, George; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Kautz, Markus; Keeling, Ralph F.; Goldewijk, Kees Klein; Koertzinger, Arne; Landschuetzer, Peter; Lefevre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lima, Ivan; Lombardozzi, Danica; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Padin, X. Antonio; Peregon, Anna; Pfeil, Benjamin; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rehder, Gregor; Reimer, Janet; Roedenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jorg; Seferian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Tubiello, Francesco N.; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; van Heuven, Steven; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Watson, Andrew J.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Soenke; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  10. Global Tuberculosis Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alt+0 Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 Tuberculosis (TB) Menu Tuberculosis Data and statistics Regional Framework Resources Meetings and events Global tuberculosis report 2017 WHO has published a global TB ...

  11. Gender and Economic Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Harcourt, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The following article draws on the discussion of the iuéd Colloquium on Gender and Economic Globalization. The Colloquium aimed to draw out the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, with a particular focus on poor women in developing countries. Globalization – for or against women? In order to look at the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, and more particularly on poor women’s lives, we are confronted with a complex set of interlinked dynamics. Inequitable g...

  12. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  13. GLOBAL OR NATIONAL BRANDS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina GÎRBOVEANU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, branding is such a strong force that hardly anything goes unbranded. Branding in global markets poses several challenges to the marketers. A key decision is the choice between global and nationals brands. This article gives the answers to the questions: what is, what is need for, what are the advantages, costs and risks of global and national brands? All go to the following conclusion: use global brands where possible and national brands where necessary.

  14. Global Governance, Educational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In the last half decade, a rising literature has focused on the idea that processes of economic, political and social globalization require analysis in terms of governance at the global level. It is argued in this article that emerging forms of global governance have produced significant challenges to conventional conceptions of international…

  15. Global Environment Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Ringtail lemur mom with two of paradise Nations rally to protect global environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Stockholm, Sweden birds-eye view Events GEF-7 Replenishment Trung Truong Son Landscapes

  16. Global Health Security

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-21

    Dr. Jordan Tappero, a CDC senior advisor on global health, discusses the state of global health security.  Created: 9/21/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Center for Global Health (CGH).   Date Released: 9/21/2017.

  17. Global Sourcing of Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    The global sourcing of services offers high returns but is also associated with high risks. The extent to which firms engage in ‘transformational’ global sourcing (i.e., global sourcing implying considerable changes in the home organization) chiefly depends on management's comfort zone which...

  18. Developing Successful Global Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…

  19. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  20. Global Cancer Humanitarian Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat Garcia-Gonzalez of the Max Foundation accepted the first annual NCI Global Cancer Medicine Humanitarian Award for her work in chronic myeloid leukemia at the NCI, Center for Global Health Symposium for Global Cancer Research, held in Boston on March 25, 2015.

  1. Globalization and American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, William; Nicoletti, Augustine

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is a potent force in today's world. The welfare of the United States is tied to the welfare of other countries by economics, the environment, politics, culture, information, and technology. This paper identifies the implications of globalization for education, presents applications of important aspects of globalization that teachers…

  2. Security Components of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is our intention to present what are the main connections between globalization and international security. In terms of global security we can perceive the globalization as a process by which global state is represented by the UN, with a single world system, represented by major security organizations and with global effects. We will present from the beginning the main theoretical aspects that define the phenomenon of globalization, and then our contribution in assessing the implications of this phenomenon on the regional and global security. The results of our research are materialized in the last part of the paper. They emphasize the personal assessments on how the phenomenon of globalization has direct effect on global security. When talking about government, we think of norms, rules and decisionmaking procedures in the management of international life. The value that we add to the new scientific interpretation of the definition of globalization is represented, primarily, by the valuable bibliographic used resources and the original approach on the concept that refers to the links between globalization and security. This article may be, at any time, a starting point in an interesting research direction in the field of global security.

  3. Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2009-04-01

    Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

  4. Saint-André-des-Eaux (Côtes-d’Armor : étude archéologique d’une église paroissiale et de ses peintures murales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Dupuis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Le petit village de Saint-André-des-Eaux se situe dans les Côtes-d’Armor, à une dizaine de kilomètres au sud-est de Dinan. Les vestiges de l’ancienne église paroissiale et de son cimetière prennent place quelques centaines de mètres à l’écart du bourg (fig. 1, sur les abords boisés de l’étang de Bétineuc, un vaste plan d’eau artificiel créé dans les années 1970 afin d’assainir cette zone autrefois marécageuse. En effet, le contexte de plaine, la proximité de la Rance et le maillage resserré ...

  5. Global Ethics Applied: Global Ethics, Economic Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Stückelberger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...

  6. Tellurium sulfates from reactions in oleum and sulfur trioxide: syntheses and crystal structures of TeO(SO_4), Te_4O_3(SO_4)_5, and Te(S_2O_7)_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logemann, Christian; Bruns, Joern; Schindler, Lisa Verena; Zimmermann, Vanessa; Wickleder, Mathias S.

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of K_2TeO_4 with fuming sulfuric acid (65 % SO_3) in sealed glass ampoules at 250 C led to colorless single crystals of TeO(SO_4) [triclinic, P anti 1, Z = 8, a = 819.89(3) pm, b = 836.95(4) pm, c = 1179.12(5) pm, α = 82.820(2) , β = 70.645(2) , γ = 81.897(2) , V = 753.11(6) x 10"6 pm"3]. A horseshoe type [Te_4O_3] fragment is the basic motif in the layer structure of the compound. The [Te_4O_3] moieties are linked to infinite chains by further oxide ions. Monomeric [Te_4O_3] horseshoes are found in the crystal structure of Te_4O_3(SO_4)_5 [trigonal, P3_221, Z = 3, a = 859.05(2) pm, c = 2230.66(7) pm, V = 1425.61(6) x 10"6 pm"3], which was obtained from TeO_2 and fuming sulfuric acid (65 % SO_3) at 200 C as colorless single crystals. By switching to neat SO_3 as reaction medium colorless crystals of Te(S_2O_7)_2 [P2_1/n, Z = 4, a = 1065.25(3) pm, b = 818.50(2) pm, c = 1206.27(3) pm, β = 102.097(1) , V = 1028.40(5) x 10"6 pm"3] form when ortho-telluric acid, H_6TeO_6, is used as the tellurium source. The compound was reported previously, however, obviously with a wrong crystallographic description. In the crystal structure the tellurium atoms are coordinated by two chelating disulfate ions. Further Te-O contacts link the [Te(S_2O_7)_2] units to an extended network. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Global Peace through the Global University System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Hakan AYDIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Utopia is defined in Encarta Dictionary as “an ideal and perfect place or state, where everyone lives in harmony and everything is for the best.” Developments all around the world especially in the last decade have supported the idea that global peace is nothing but just a utopian dream. However, for centuries a group of believers have always been in search of global peace via different means. This book, titled as “Global Peace through the Global University System”, can be considered as one of the artifacts of this search.Actually this book is a collection of papers presented in working conference on the Global University System (GUS hosted by the University of Tampere, Finland in 1999. The main goal of the conference was bringing international experts to share their philosophy, past and present experiences about the GUS. The conference was held by the University of Tampere because UNESCO has an agreement with the University to establish the UNESCOChair in Global e-Learning.

  8. How Global is Global Civil Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Chandhoke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the concept of global civil society has made its appearance on national and international intellectual, as well as political agendas, in a major way. It is of some interest that two other concepts, both of which call for transcendence of national boundaries in precisely the same way as global civil society does, have also made their appearance on the scene of intellectual debates at roughly the same time: the concept of cosmopolitanism and that of transnational justice. All three concepts have dramatically expanded the notion of commitment to one’s fellow beings beyond the nation state. And all three concepts have extended critiques of policies that violate the dignity of human beings from national governments to the practices of inter-national institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Forum. In sum the inter-related concepts of global civil society, cosmopolitanism, and transnational justice have greatly enlarged the traditional domain of political theory. And yet for any political theorist who is acutely conscious of the phenomenon of power, these concepts are not unproblematic. For the practices of global civil society may just reinforce the intellectual and the moral power of the West over the postcolonial world. This is particularly true of say global human rights organizations. This paper will attempt to raise some questions of the concept and the practices of global civil society from the perspective of the countries of the South.

  9. Simulating the Current Water Cycle with the NASA Ames Mars Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Brecht, A. S.; Urata, R. A.; Montmessin, F.

    2017-12-01

    The water cycle is a critical component of the current Mars climate system, and it is now widely recognized that water ice clouds significantly affect the nature of the simulated water cycle. Two processes are key to implementing clouds in a Mars global climate model (GCM): the microphysical processes of formation and dissipation, and their radiative effects on atmospheric heating/cooling rates. Together, these processes alter the thermal structure, change the atmospheric dynamics, and regulate inter-hemispheric transport. We have made considerable progress using the NASA Ames Mars GCM to simulate the current-day water cycle with radiatively active clouds. Cloud fields from our baseline simulation are in generally good agreement with observations. The predicted seasonal extent and peak IR optical depths are consistent MGS/TES observations. Additionally, the thermal response to the clouds in the aphelion cloud belt (ACB) is generally consistent with observations and other climate model predictions. Notably, there is a distinct gap in the predicted clouds over the North Residual Cap (NRC) during local summer, but the clouds reappear in this simulation over the NRC earlier than the observations indicate. Polar clouds are predicted near the seasonal CO2 ice caps, but the column thicknesses of these clouds are generally too thick compared to observations. Our baseline simulation is dry compared to MGS/TES-observed water vapor abundances, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. These areas of disagreement appear to be a consistent with other current water cycle GCMs. Future avenues of investigation will target improving our understanding of what controls the vertical extent of clouds and the apparent seasonal evolution of cloud particle sizes within the ACB.

  10. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  11. Institutionalizing Global Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Global Compact – which is a Global Public Policy Network advocating 10 universal principles in the areas of human rights, labor standards, environmental protection, and anticorruption – has turned into the world's largest corporate responsibility initiative. Although the Global...... Compact is often characterized as a promising way to address global governance gaps, it remains largely unclear why this is the case. To address this problem, we discuss to what extent the initiative represents an institutional solution to exercise global governance. We suggest that new governance modes...

  12. INTERPRETING GLOBAL EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh W. Dalpour

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s constantly changing world it is often times difficult to understand thechanges happening around us every second. Some of these changes may be, inthe aggregate,for good, while others may have unappreciated and heavy costs.What isGlobalization? Globalization is “an elimination of barriers to trade,communication, and cultural exchange. The theory behind globalization is thatworldwide openness will promote the inherent wealth of all nations.”(Jones,2012All this encompasses global cultures, international economics and other growingsocial networks such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. Throughout thisanalysis the pros and cons of globalization will be discussed and also whetherornot globalization is in fact as much of a benefit for today’s global economy─as somany think─will be determined. First,identification of the various types ofglobalization is necessary.

  13. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  14. Entropy-based analysis and bioinformatics-inspired integration of global economic information transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkyu Kim

    Full Text Available The assessment of information transfer in the global economic network helps to understand the current environment and the outlook of an economy. Most approaches on global networks extract information transfer based mainly on a single variable. This paper establishes an entirely new bioinformatics-inspired approach to integrating information transfer derived from multiple variables and develops an international economic network accordingly. In the proposed methodology, we first construct the transfer entropies (TEs between various intra- and inter-country pairs of economic time series variables, test their significances, and then use a weighted sum approach to aggregate information captured in each TE. Through a simulation study, the new method is shown to deliver better information integration compared to existing integration methods in that it can be applied even when intra-country variables are correlated. Empirical investigation with the real world data reveals that Western countries are more influential in the global economic network and that Japan has become less influential following the Asian currency crisis.

  15. Entropy-based analysis and bioinformatics-inspired integration of global economic information transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Gunn; An, Sungbae; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Yoon, Sungroh

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of information transfer in the global economic network helps to understand the current environment and the outlook of an economy. Most approaches on global networks extract information transfer based mainly on a single variable. This paper establishes an entirely new bioinformatics-inspired approach to integrating information transfer derived from multiple variables and develops an international economic network accordingly. In the proposed methodology, we first construct the transfer entropies (TEs) between various intra- and inter-country pairs of economic time series variables, test their significances, and then use a weighted sum approach to aggregate information captured in each TE. Through a simulation study, the new method is shown to deliver better information integration compared to existing integration methods in that it can be applied even when intra-country variables are correlated. Empirical investigation with the real world data reveals that Western countries are more influential in the global economic network and that Japan has become less influential following the Asian currency crisis.

  16. Global solidarity, migration and global health inequity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Straehle, Christine; Chung, Ryoa

    2012-09-01

    The grounds for global solidarity have been theorized and conceptualized in recent years, and many have argued that we need a global concept of solidarity. But the question remains: what can motivate efforts of the international community and nation-states? Our focus is the grounding of solidarity with respect to global inequities in health. We explore what considerations could motivate acts of global solidarity in the specific context of health migration, and sketch briefly what form this kind of solidarity could take. First, we argue that the only plausible conceptualization of persons highlights their interdependence. We draw upon a conception of persons as 'ecological subjects' and from there illustrate what such a conception implies with the example of nurses migrating from low and middle-income countries to more affluent ones. Next, we address potential critics who might counter any such understanding of current international politics with a reference to real-politik and the insights of realist international political theory. We argue that national governments--while not always or even often motivated by moral reasons alone--may nevertheless be motivated to acts of global solidarity by prudential arguments. Solidarity then need not be, as many argue, a function of charitable inclination, or emergent from an acknowledgment of injustice suffered, but may in fact serve national and transnational interests. We conclude on a positive note: global solidarity may be conceptualized to helpfully address global health inequity, to the extent that personal and transnational interdependence are enough to motivate national governments into action. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  18. Forms of global governence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Kharkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global governance as a concept defines the meaning of contemporary world politics both as a discipline and as reality. Interdependent and globalized world requires governance, and a global government has not been formed yet. The theoretical possibility of global governance without global government is proved and justified. The purpose of this article is to analytically identify possible forms of global governance. Three such forms of global governance are identified: hierarchical, market and network. In a hierarchy the governance is due to the asymmetry of power between the parties. Market control happens via anonymous pricing mechanism. Network, in contrast to the market is characterized by a closer value link between the actors, but unlike the hierarchical relationship actors are free to leave the network. Global governance takes three forms and is being implemented by different actors. To determine the most efficient form of global governance is impossible. Efficiency depends on the match between a form and an object of government. It should be noted that meta governance is likely to remain a monopoly of institutionally strong states in global governance.

  19. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  20. Global Citizenship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2016-01-01

    published after 2000 was written by researchers based in the US and if you add other English-speaking countries such as Canada, England, Australia and New Zealand, the proportion is even higher. English in the field of education research often serves as the international lingua franca. Since there is also......Global citizenship as an idea has become an increasingly important issue on the educational agenda since the late 1970’s. The importance allotted to this issue is clear in the attention given to it by for example UNESCO where global citizenship education (GCED) is an area of strategic focus....... Increasingly schools all over the world are attempting to or expected to educate the global citizen, but how exactly do you educate the global citizen? What does this global citizenship consist of? While surely the type of training and education needed to train a global citizen will vary greatly depending...

  1. The psychology of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2002-10-01

    The influence of globalization on psychological functioning is examined. First, descriptions of how globalization is occurring in various world regions are presented. Then the psychological consequences of globalization are described, with a focus on identity issues. Specifically, it is argued that most people worldwide now develop a bicultural identity that combines their local identity with an identity linked to the global culture; that identity confusion may be increasing among young people in non-Western cultures as a result of globalization; that some people join self-selected cultures to maintain an identity that is separate from the global culture; and that a period of emerging adulthood increasingly extends identity explorations beyond adolescence, through the mid- to late twenties.

  2. The new global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Kevin M; Simone, Patricia M; Davison, Veronica; Slutsker, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set.

  3. Salud y justicia global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puyol, Ángel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A question that would have to worry more to the global justice is the huge inequality of health in the world. In this paper, I analyse the causes of the global inequality of health and the ethical arguments for and against the need to treat this inequality from the perspective of the global justice. After refusing the arguments against both of the libertarianism and the statism, and after showing the critics both to the approach to the language of human rights and to the poggean proposal to reduce the duties of global justice to negative moral duties, I defend the need to use a sufficiency approach to global justice based in positive moral duties to face the severity and the moral urgency of the global inequalities of health.

    Una de las cuestiones que debería preocupar más a la teoría de la justicia global es la enorme desigualdad de salud que hay en el mundo. En este artículo, se repasan las causas de la desigualdad global de salud y los argumentos éticos a favor y en contra de la necesidad de tratar dicha desigualdad desde la perspectiva de la justicia global. Tras rechazar los argumentos en contra tanto del libertarismo de derechas como del estatalismo, y tras exponer las críticas tanto al lenguaje de los derechos humanos como a la propuesta poggeana de reducir los deberes de la justicia global a deberes morales negativos, defiendo la necesidad de partir de un criterio de justicia global suficientista y basado en los deberes morales positivos para afrontar la gravedad y la urgencia moral que suponen las desigualdades globales de salud.

  4. Globalization vs National Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    economic market or system in which prices are based on competition among private businesses and not controlled by a government.12 Global Commons...effects of globalization , work in different countries for years of their lives, conduct social networking and business through cyberspace. Civic...Qaeda. Today , The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria recruits and funds operations around the world benefiting from globalization . The central objectives

  5. Global atmospheric changes.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, W T

    1991-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the proces...

  6. Developing Global Transformational Leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsey, Jase R.; Rutti, Raina M.; Lorenz, Melanie P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant increases in training and development of global managers, little is known about the precursors of transformational leadership in Multilatinas. While prior cross-cultural literature suggests that being an autocratic leader is ideal in Multilatinas, using transformational...... leadership theory, we argue that global leaders of Multilatinas embrace a more humanistic approach to leadership because of the importance of relationships between leaders and their followers. Additionally, we argue that global leaders with high levels of cultural intelligence will have high levels...

  7. Globalization and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Imran Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of globalization has been introduced due to technical advancements that has made the world a global village. The world as is now has never been before; it is now a world where multicultural societies have developed, trade and transactions are made between countries, technology reaches every part of the world, and internet has connected every possible idea, opinion, person, and commodity with the rest of the world. In this world of globalization, education has taken a central role, as without education globalization cannot be germinated. Education is a national issue and as such, each country has its own educational policies that are emblems of that country's cultural values, belief system and historical realities. Nevertheless, the globalized world demands for multiculturalism, and commonalities amongst communities to be promoted so as to bring the world closer to accepting cultural diversities and celebrating commonalities. For these aims, educational institutions become institutions for promoting globalization by introducing various cultural and traditional beliefs to the new generation. Recently, globalization has become a popular subject of debate in national and international circiles. Globalization links individuals and institutions across the world through economic forces, digital technologies, and communication. It is moreover subjected to higher living standards, international affiliations, and multiple types of freedom. However, a major part of the world consists of under developed countries where technological advancements, communication, trade and commerce along with other economic activities are not enough to support them to be a part of the global society.

  8. GLOBAL KEYNESIANISM AND BEYOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Kohler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Something like "global Keynesianism" or "transnational socialism" has been mentioned as a desirable alternative to global neoliberalism (Redmond 1997. However, a definition of this kind of global Keynesianism is hard to find. Many leftists tend to associate Keynesianism with corporate power. However, there are also numerous other leftists who view this differently. For example, a member of parliament for the German Green Party stated in a recent interview that "a reformist party today has to be a left-Keynesian party which contradicts the logic of capital" (Ebermann 1998. A number of scholars from several countries, including Canada, pursue post-Keynesian-ism, in the sense of left-Keynesian economics (e.g., Seccareccia 1991. How-ever, available left-Keynesian literature, as I see it, is lacking a world-system perspective. I am trying in this article to synthesize the two perspectives-namely, left-Keynesianism and world-system theory, leading to a perspective of global left-Keynesianism. This leftist global Keynesianism can, perhaps, be described as an approach to economics which emphasizes responsible public management of economic problems in a world-system context. Common themes in global Keynesianism include the importance of public management, democratic politics, the mixed economy, global income distribution, the management of global demand, investment and money, ecological sustainability and the importance of multiple levels of public management-local, national, regional and global.

  9. Global water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  10. BUSINESS GLOBALIZATION: TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND GLOBAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMA Stela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce business globalization and the main globalization factors which, under the current stage, are transnational corporations. Globalization is the result of the pressure put by companies which, in turn, are under the close “magnifier” of all the involved factors (the so-called “stakeholders”. The market and the determining forces are not influenced by a political attitude nowadays marking globalization, but rather the political decisions have followed the course of economic evolutions, a trend that has always been provided by multinational corporations. In order to successfully follow up their activity, companies initiate new businesses, selling or deleting from their portfolio businesses or divisions with a decreasing tendency. Also, companies give up old rules and structures adopting new decision-making processes, control systems and mental patterns. Corporations must learn to become dynamic just like the market, if they wish to maintain, on the long run, a superior rate of income.

  11. From Global Knowledge to Global Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that student learning is enhanced when civic engagement is a component of international education initiatives. When only presented with knowledge about global challenges, students can become frustrated and overwhelmed unless they also understand how they might contribute to solutions. Political science programs are…

  12. Global surrogacy practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Darnovsky (Marcy); D. Beeson (Diane); K.E. Cheney (Kristen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis report summarises discussions of participants in Thematic Area 5 (Global Surrogacy Practices) of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy held in August 2014. The Forum brought together advocates of women’s health, children’s rights and human rights;

  13. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  14. Learning Democratic Global Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a model process of developing knowledge from within different groups and cultures to allow more equitable participation of all world societies in the definition of global governance. Reviews concepts relevant to education's contributions toward learning and creating democratic global governance. Discusses the educational utility of…

  15. Global Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Humanities is aimed at promoting reasearch in all areas of Humanities including philosophy, languages, linguistics, literature, history, fine/applied arts, theater arts, architecture, etc. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/ ...

  16. Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

  17. Globalization of the Semiosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Lauge

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the future perspectives for Foreign Language Studies in the era of Globalization. The intensified globalization processes are studied in the light of Yuri Lotmans concept of the semiosphere and the article advocates the development of a new philology of culture....

  18. Global Diversity and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Art

    2003-01-01

    Argues that global diversity has become a business imperative in today's business climate. Global diversity is of core importance even for companies that are considered domestic. Suggests community colleges need help in understanding their customer base and their shifting values in order to meet their needs and win customer loyalty. (NB)

  19. Critically Theorizing the Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudelli, William

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has unleashed profound changes in education. These include positivistic international school comparisons, a singular focus on schools as drivers of economic development, and the adoption of neoliberal market principles in school. These changes, however, generally go unexamined within the field and literature of global education.…

  20. Globalization of Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Robert F.; Iannarelli, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    A new study, sponsored by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, presented a comprehensive new perspective on the globalization of management education, (AACSB International, 2011). Its findings are sobering: with regard to emerging global trends in higher education and cross-border business, the report reveals a sizable gap…

  1. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  2. Reframing Global Engagement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wende, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has strongly influenced higher education during the last decades. As in many other sectors, this has generated contradictory outcomes. Higher education has opened up to the world and become more engaged at the global level. But how will this process continue with the current backlash

  3. Global Delivery Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Stephan; Larsen, Marcus M.; Bharati, Pratyush

    2013-01-01

    This article examines antecedents and performance implications of global delivery models (GDMs) in global business services. GDMs require geographically distributed operations to exploit both proximity to clients and time-zone spread for efficient service delivery. We propose and empirically show...

  4. The 2030 Global Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Sound land governance is fundamental to achieving the 2030 Global Agenda as set by the Sustainable. Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by all the world’s leaders at the UN Summit in September 2015. This Global Agenda calls for a “data revolution” for sustainable development to empower people...

  5. Middle Schoolers Go Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mark; McTighe, Jay

    2017-01-01

    From global hunger to the world's water crisis, middle school students at New Jersey's West Windsor-Plainsboro Regional School District spend the last few days of the school year problem solving about the planet's most dire issues. With the Global Challenge, the school district's administrators not only want to implement an interesting and dynamic…

  6. Global marketing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John Rance; Galina Zhiltsova

    2009-01-01

    The reasoning issue of this work is to research and define the efficient methods of global marketing control. The report is focused on the following aspects: the importance of the control systems in global marketing environment, the relationship between planning and controlling, types and the

  7. Managing Global Customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Yip (George)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMultinational companies need to manage their relationships with multinational customers in a globally integrated approach. This paper provides a systematic framework for developing and implementing such global customer management programmes. The paper is based on Chapter 1 of George S.

  8. Building Global Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas; Buchem, Ilona; Camacho, Mar; Cronin, Catherine; Gordon, Averill; Keegan, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC) for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning…

  9. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-01-01

    The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive concept...

  10. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian A; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M S; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E M S; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Van Der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere-the "global carbon budget"-is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future

  11. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quéré, Le Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M.S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E.M.S.; Nakaoka, S.; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Laan-Luijkx, van der Ingrid T.; Werf, van der Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project

  12. Global from the Start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2016-01-01

    This article provides insights from recent research on firms that are “born global”. A born-global firm is a venture launched to exploit a global niche from the first day of its operations. The insights in this article are relevant to technology entrepreneurs and top management teams of new...

  13. Globalization of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Globalization-the increasing transnational circulation of money, goods, people, ideas, and information worldwide-is generally recognized as one of the most powerful forces shaping our current and future history. How is it affecting healthcare, and in that context, what is the purpose and significance of Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHM), publisher of this journal? Our goal is not homogenization but rather to provide an opportunity for integration, convergence, and collaboration across cultures. By respecting and conserving the richness and diversity of each new medicine, we embrace globalization. Globalization is of course not new; it began in the Renaissance and particularly with the 15th- and 16th-century voyages of exploration by Columbus, Magellan, and others. Since the beginning of time, there have been interactions and exchanges among different peoples and cultures. However, the current magnitude of globalization is unprecedented and yet still expanding rapidly.

  14. Global gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, E.

    1985-01-01

    A general formula for global gauge and gravitational anomalies is derived. It is used to show that the anomaly free supergravity and superstring theories in ten dimensions are all free of global anomalies that might have ruined their consistency. However, it is shown that global anomalies lead to some restrictions on allowed compactifications of these theories. For example, in the case of O(32) superstring theory, it is shown that a global anomaly related to π 7 (O(32)) leads to a Dirac-like quantization condition for the field strength of the antisymmetric tensor field. Related to global anomalies is the question of the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field. It is argued that the relevant gravitational instantons are exotic spheres. It is shown that the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field is always even in ten dimensional supergravity. (orig.)

  15. Globalization of consumer confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çelik Sadullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of world economies and the importance of nowcasting analysis have been at the core of the recent literature. Nevertheless, these two strands of research are hardly coupled. This study aims to fill this gap through examining the globalization of the consumer confidence index (CCI by applying conventional and unconventional econometric methods. The US CCI is used as the benchmark in tests of comovement among the CCIs of several developing and developed countries, with the data sets divided into three sub-periods: global liquidity abundance, the Great Recession, and postcrisis. The existence and/or degree of globalization of the CCIs vary according to the period, whereas globalization in the form of coherence and similar paths is observed only during the Great Recession and, surprisingly, stronger in developing/emerging countries.

  16. Corporate Stakeholding and Globalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    2016-01-01

    , the global warming, the disasters of global consumerism in terms of the collapse of the Rana Plaza factory in the fashion industry, are examples of how the stakeholder concept cannot continue to be defined as narrow as corporations usually does. The butterfly effect of globalism has shown to be – yes, global....... Even the smallest company, the single consumer and the tiniest decision made by anyone may in the future – perhaps even tomorrow – affect stakeholders, we didn’t know existed. The future generation is also to be considered as stakeholders, which decisions made today may affect. Companies, consumers......, everyday people including children already know this even from the first day at school if not before. What we need is not knowledge about these phenomena – it is how to think globally when we decide locally: in companies, in daily households, in education of our future generations. This chapter discusses...

  17. Generalized global symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Seiberg, Nathan; Willett, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A q-form global symmetry is a global symmetry for which the charged operators are of space-time dimension q; e.g. Wilson lines, surface defects, etc., and the charged excitations have q spatial dimensions; e.g. strings, membranes, etc. Many of the properties of ordinary global symmetries (q=0) apply here. They lead to Ward identities and hence to selection rules on amplitudes. Such global symmetries can be coupled to classical background fields and they can be gauged by summing over these classical fields. These generalized global symmetries can be spontaneously broken (either completely or to a subgroup). They can also have ’t Hooft anomalies, which prevent us from gauging them, but lead to ’t Hooft anomaly matching conditions. Such anomalies can also lead to anomaly inflow on various defects and exotic Symmetry Protected Topological phases. Our analysis of these symmetries gives a new unified perspective of many known phenomena and uncovers new results.

  18. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    the higher costs (but decreased risk for value chain disruption) embedded in a more flexible global sourcing model that allows the firm to replicate and/or relocate activities across multiple locations. We develop a model and propositions on facilitating and constraining conditions of global sourcing...... sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy...... and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...

  19. Global challenges and globalization of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhmetdinova, Farida

    2013-02-01

    This article analyzes problems and implications for man and nature connected with the formation of a new architecture of science, based on the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science (NBIC). It also describes evolution and genesis of bioethics, a scientific discipline and social practice with a special role of ethical management of potential risks of scientific research. The aim was to demonstrate the necessity of bioethical social control in the development of a global bioeconomy driven by NBIC technologies.

  20. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

  1. Globalization as It Happens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    Globalization is usually understood as a structural, epochal condition altering the environment in which people, organizations, and societies operate. But such accounts offer little insight into the infrastructures, practices, and connections that facilitate the production of the global. This art......Globalization is usually understood as a structural, epochal condition altering the environment in which people, organizations, and societies operate. But such accounts offer little insight into the infrastructures, practices, and connections that facilitate the production of the global....... This article uses findings from an ethnographic study of tax planning to show how mundane practices and connectivities forge and organize global operations, and to argue for the value of analyzing processes of globalization in terms of assemblages and infrastructures. Empirically, the article captures how...... the making of ‘tax structures’ involves connecting, for instance, buildings in France, a human in Switzerland, a company in Denmark, various tax laws, a trust fund in New Zealand, and large amounts of money on the move. If studied along the lines of an analytics of ‘globalizing assemblages’, such financial...

  2. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  3. How global brands compete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Douglas B; Quelch, John A; Taylor, Earl L

    2004-09-01

    It's time to rethink global branding. More than two decades ago, Harvard Business School professor Theodore Levitt argued that corporations should grow by selling standardized products all over the world. But consumers in most countries had trouble relating to generic products, so executives instead strove for global scale on backstage activities such as production while customizing product features and selling techniques to local tastes. Such "glocal" strategies now rule marketing. Global branding has lost more luster recently because transnational companies have been under siege, with brands like Coca-Cola and Nike becoming lightning rods for antiglobalization protests. The instinctive reaction of most transnational companies has been to try to fly below the radar. But global brands can't escape notice. In fact, most transnational corporations don't realize that because of their power and pervasiveness, people view them differently than they do other firms. In a research project involving 3,300 consumers in 41 countries, the authors found that most people choose one global brand over another because of differences in the brands'global qualities. Ratherthan ignore the global characteristics of their brands, firms must learn to manage those characteristics. That's critical, because future growth for most companies will likely come from foreign markets. Consumers base preferences on three dimensions of global brands--quality (signaled by a company's global stature); the cultural myths that brands author; and firms' efforts to address social problems. The authors also found that it didn't matter to consumers whether the brands they bought were American--a remarkable finding considering that the study was conducted when anti-American sentiment in many nations was on the rise.

  4. Global resource sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiksen, Linda; Nance, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Written from a global perspective, this book reviews sharing of library resources on a global scale. With expanded discovery tools and massive digitization projects, the rich and extensive holdings of the world's libraries are more visible now than at any time in the past. Advanced communication and transmission technologies, along with improved international standards, present a means for the sharing of library resources around the globe. Despite these significant improvements, a number of challenges remain. Global Resource Sharing provides librarians and library managers with a comprehensive

  5. What qualifies globalization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarauw, Laura Louise

    2012-01-01

    modules and study programmes based on standardized learning outcomes and credits. In recent studies on the Bologna process (Fejes 2008, Ozga 2011) it is hence argued that qualifications frameworks can be seen as a key tool in an inevitable and univocal European standardization and marketisation of higher...... not neutral tools, responding to objective challenges of globalization, but at they same time shaping – or literally ‘framing’ – what is globalization By focusing on qualification frameworks, the paper unveils some of key the struggles over the significance of globalization in a Danish context...

  6. Global Account Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Wulff, Vlad Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Global account management (GAM) has become a critical issue for many multinational corporations that compete in a fast changing global market environment. In this article, we approach GAM from a benchlearning perspective, synthesize selected literature and examine case studies in order to underline...... the importance of multilevel relationships in strategic business-to-business relationships. The purpose of this study is to address various issues related to multilevel relationships in strategic partnerships (e.g. the recruitment of the global account manager and his supporting team, turf wars and compensation...

  7. Global atmospheric changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piver, W T

    1991-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can be directly related to global warming. In terms of human health, because a major cause of increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 is the increased combustion of fossil fuels, global warming also may result in increases in air pollutants, acid deposition, and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To understand better the impacts of global warming phenomena on human health, this review emphasizes the processes that are responsible for the greenhouse effect, air pollution, acid deposition, and increased exposure to UV radiation.

  8. Global Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Christof; Kuhrmann, Marco; Prikladnicki, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Professional software products and IT systems and services today are developed mostly by globally distributed teams, projects, and companies. Successfully orchestrating Global Software Engineering (GSE) has become the major success factor both for organizations and practitioners. Yet, more than...... and experience reported at the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering (ICGSE) series. The outcomes of our analysis show GSE as a field highly attached to industry and, thus, a considerable share of ICGSE papers address the transfer of Software Engineering concepts and solutions to the global stage...

  9. Apmierinātības ar dzīvi, apmierinātības ar darbu, lojalitātes pret organizāciju un darba-dzīves līdzsvara saistība

    OpenAIRE

    Heifeca, Poļina

    2013-01-01

    Darba mērķis - noskaidrot kādas ir saistības starp apmierinātību ar dzīvi, apmierinātību ar darbu, darbinieka lojalitāti pret organizāciju un darba – dzīves līdzsvaru. Pētījumā piedalījās 120 respondenti, 62 sievietes un 58 – vīrieši vecumposmā no 21 līdz 60 gadiem.Maģistra darba pētījumā apmierinātības ar dzīvi izpētei tika izmantota apmierinātības ar dzīvi skala, lojalitātes pret organizāciju noteikšanai tika izmantota lojalitātes pret organizāciju aptauja (Organizational Commitment Questi...

  10. Global Warming: A Myth?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 7. Global Warming: A Myth? - Credibility of Climate Scenarios Predicted by Systems Simulations. Deepanjan Majumdar. General Article Volume 6 Issue 7 July 2001 pp 13-21 ...

  11. Stochastic and global optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dzemyda, Gintautas; Šaltenis, Vydūnas; Zhilinskas, A; Mockus, Jonas

    2002-01-01

    ... and Effectiveness of Controlled Random Search E. M. T. Hendrix, P. M. Ortigosa and I. García 129 9. Discrete Backtracking Adaptive Search for Global Optimization B. P. Kristinsdottir, Z. B. Zabinsky and...

  12. Food, Globalization and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Sonnenfeld, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of

  13. Local, Regional or Global?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    to be consistent with models of internationalization that incorporate different assumptions about strategic choice and global competition. Preliminary results show that large multinationals follow home region oriented internationalization paths, although much of the regional effect reported by previous studies...

  14. The Global Energy Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only. The report begins by outlining...... the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussing how it has evolved over the last 30 years and also, how it is expected to evolve in the coming 30 years....... Afterwards, the security of the world’s energy supply is investigated and it becomes clear that there is both an inevitable shortage of fossil fuels and a dangerous separation of supply and demand. The final topic discussed is renewable energy, since it is one sustainable solution to the global energy...

  15. Global Health Observatory (GHO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... global health estimates Health Equity Monitor 3.1 Maternal mortality Maternal health 3.2 Newborn and child mortality Child ... Programmes) Quick links Contact us Frequently asked questions Employment Feedback Privacy Email scams Regions Africa Americas South- ...

  16. Global reach and engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Popular culture reflects both the interests of and the issues affecting the general public. As concerns regarding climate change and its impacts grow, is it permeating into popular culture and reaching that global audience?

  17. Global Methane Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Global Methane Initiative promotes cost-effective, near-term methane recovery through partnerships between developed and developing countries, with participation from the private sector, development banks, and nongovernmental organizations.

  18. Global Landslide Catalog Export

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) was developed with the goal of identifying rainfall-triggered landslide events around the world, regardless of size, impacts or...

  19. Biodiversity and global change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solbrig, Otto Thomas; Emden, H. M. van; Oordt, P. G. W. J. van; Solbrig, Otto T

    1992-01-01

    The IUBS symposium "Biodiversity and Global Change" held during the 24th General Assembly, 1-6 September, 1991, in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, represented the first attempt to address the issue of bio...

  20. Global Climate Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Hourly Summaries are simple indicators of observational normals which include climatic data summarizations and frequency distributions. These typically...

  1. Globalization, Growth and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, and are based on ... countries, mainly the fast-growing economies of East Asia. ... had no significant overall impact on investment and growth. Other.

  2. Globalization, Growth and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, and are based on findings from the ... Does exporting matter for the poor in South Africa? ... strategies to promote employment and higher wages in.

  3. Global environmental engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Cicerone, RJ; Elliott, S; Turco, RP

    1992-01-01

    All the signs are that global ozone depletion is increasing. Ideas to mitigate the problem that at first glance may seem far-fetched deserve more serious consideration and a scientific process of evaluation. © 1992 Nature Publishing Group.

  4. The global warming problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the global warming problem and activities contributing to the formation of acid rain, urban smog and to the depletion of the ozone layer. Globally, about two-thirds of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions arise from fossil-fuel burning; the rest arise primarily from deforestation. Chlorofluorocarbons are the second largest contributor to global warming, accounting for about 20% of the total. The third largest contributor is methane, followed by ozone and nitrous oxide. A study of current activities in the US that contribute to global warming shows the following: electric power plants account for about 33% of carbon dioxide emissions; motor vehicles, planes and ships (31%); industrial plants (24%); commercial and residential buildings (11%)

  5. Globalization of Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Globalization—the increasing transnational circulation of money, goods, people, ideas, and information worldwide—is generally recognized as one of the most powerful forces shaping our current and future history. How is it affecting healthcare, and in that context, what is the purpose and significance of Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHM), publisher of this journal? Our goal is not homogenization but rather to provide an opportunity for integration, convergence, and collaboration across cultures. By respecting and conserving the richness and diversity of each new medicine, we embrace globalization. Globalization is of course not new; it began in the Renaissance and particularly with the 15th- and 16th-century voyages of exploration by Columbus, Magellan, and others. Since the beginning of time, there have been interactions and exchanges among different peoples and cultures. However, the current magnitude of globalization is unprecedented and yet still expanding rapidly. PMID:24278809

  6. Globalization, Growth and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One-pagers are a publication of IDRC's “Globalization, Growth and Poverty” Program Initiative, and are ... great disparities, with earnings among urban workers with higher education being four or five times larger than those of illiterate rural.

  7. The Global Menace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Summary The history of medicine has gone ‘global.’ Why? Can the proliferation of the ‘global’ in our writing be explained away as a product of staying true to our historical subjects’ categories? Or has this historiography in fact delivered a new ‘global’ problematic or performed serious ‘global’ analytic work? The situation is far from clear, and it is the tension between the global as descriptor and an analytics of the global that concerns me here. I have three main concerns: (1) that there is an epistemic collusion between the discourses of universality that inform medical science and global-talk; (2) that the embrace of the ‘global’ authorises a turning away from analyses of power in history-writing in that (3) this turning away from analyses of power in history-writing leads to scholarship that reproduces rather than critiques globalisation as a set of institutions, discourses and practices. PMID:26345469

  8. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2004), s. 404-407 ISSN 1436-3445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotential WO * vertical systems * global vertical frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  9. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  10. Spatial and temporal distributions of Martian north polar cold spots before, during, and after the global dust storm of 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, C.; Titus, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    In the 1970s, Mariner and Viking observed features in the Mars northern polar region that were a few hundred kilometers in diameter with 20 fj,m brightness temperatures as low as 130 K (considerably below C02 ice sublimation temperatures). Over the past decade, studies have shown that these areas (commonly called "cold spots") are usually due to emissivity effects of frost deposits and occasionally to active C02 snowstorms. Three Mars years of Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer data were used to observe autumn and wintertime cold spot activity within the polar regions. Many cold spots formed on or near scarps of the perennial cap, probably induced by adiabatic cooling due to orographic lifting. These topographically associated cold spots were often smaller than those that were not associated with topography. We determined that initial grain sizes within the cold spots were on the order of a few millimeters, assuming the snow was uncontaminated by dust or water ice. On average, the half-life of the cold spots was 5 Julian days. The Mars global dust storm in 2001 significantly affected cold spot activity in the north polar region. Though overall perennial cap cold spot activity seemed unaffected, the distribution of cold spots did change by a decrease in the number of topographically associated cold spots and an increase in those not associated with topography. We propose that the global dust storm affected the processes that form cold spots and discuss how the global dust storm may have affected these processes. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. E-pasta mārketings un tā izmantošanas efektivitātes analīze Latvijas uzņēmumos

    OpenAIRE

    Ovčiņņikova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma “E-pasta mārketings un tā izmantošanas efektivitātes analīze Latvijas uzņēmumos”. Mūsdienās viens no lielākajiem ienākuma avotiem uzņēmumiem ir spēja pārdod savus produktus, lai iegūtu vislielāko peļņu. Priekš tā tiek izmantoti dažādi mārketinga paņēmieni un mārketinga kanāli. Laba mārketinga stratēģija var panākt to ka produkts sevi pardod, bet papildus pirmreizējam pirkumam ir jāpanāk tas, lai tiktu veikts arī atkārtotais pirkums. Tā kā mūsdienās uzņēmumos ir ļoti sīva ...

  12. Biedrības "Latvijas Universitātes Sports" zīmola izveide un attīstīšana integrēto mārketinga komunikāciju kontekstā

    OpenAIRE

    Dārznieks, Kārlis

    2014-01-01

    Maģistra darba mērķis ir, pamatojoties uz zīmola un mārketinga komunikāciju teorijas analīzi, izpētīt biedrības ,,Latvijas Universitātes sports’’ zīmola veiksmīgas izstrādes un pozicionēšanas iespējas integrēto mārketinga komunikāciju kontekstā, nosakot visatbilstošāko zīmola pozicionēšanas stratēģiju, kā arī izstrādāt komunikāciju plānu zīmola attīstīšanai. Rezultātā tiek izanalizētas līdzšinēji realizētās integrētā mārketinga komunikācijas zīmola atpazīstamības veidošanai, kā arī izstrādāts...

  13. tes audzināšanas stila saistība ar emocionālā intelekta (EI) līmeni 8-12 gadu veciem bērniem

    OpenAIRE

    Grjunberga, Inese

    2014-01-01

    Mūsdienās arvien biežāk var sastapties ar bērniem kuriem ir grūtības adaptēties, mācīties. Bērniem bieži neveidojas labas attiecības ar vienaudžiem, draudzība. Iepriekšējos pētījumos noskaidrots, ka bērna emocionālā attīstība ir saistīta arī ar vecāku audzināšanu.Pētījuma mērķis bija noskaidrot vai mātes audzināšanas stils saistīts ar bērnu emocionālā intelekta līmeni. Pētījumā peidalījās bērni (N=100) no divām Latvijas skolām. Dalībnieki vecumā no 8 – 12 gadiem (M=11. 00, SD=1. 38). No kuri...

  14. Corneal specular microscopy in infectious and noninfectious uveitis Microscopia especular de córnea em pacientes com uveítes infecciosas e não-infecciosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe de Oliveira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Involvement of the cornea endothelium during uveitis has not been extensively studied even though it might participate in or constitute a target of ocular inflammation. Formation of keratic precipitates (KP is a characteristic finding in several forms of uveitis. The aim of this prospective study was to examine the vicinity of keratic precipitates in infectious and noninfectious uveitis by specular microscopy. METHODS: Patients with infectious and noninfectious uveitis in any activity level and presence of keratic precipitates were enrolled. The mean age was 40.5 years (± 14.2 years. A Topcon SP-2000P noncontact specular microscope was used to capture endothelial images in the vicinity of keratic precipitates. Automated morphometric analysis was done for cell size, cell density and cells coefficient of variation. Statistical comparisons were made between the infectious and noninfectious groups. RESULTS: From the 25 patients enrolled in this study, 16 (44% eyes presented infectious uveitis, 19 (53% noninfectious uveitis and 1 (3% eye was excluded due to the impossibility to obtain a specular image. The mean cell density estimated was 2,628 ± 204 cells/mm² in infectious group and 2,622 ± 357 cells/mm² in noninfectious group. The mean cellular area in infectious and noninfectious group was respectively 385 ± 31 µm² and 390 ± 60 µm². The coefficient of variation (% of the cellular area in the vicinity of keratic precipitates was 26.36 ±3.44 in infectious and 27.69 ± 4.61 in noninfectious group. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant (POBJETIVO: Avaliar o endotélio corneano na presença de precipitados ceráticos em pacientes portadores de uveítes infecciosas e não-infecciosas com emprego da microscopia especular de não-contato. MÉTODOS: Prospectivamente foram incluídos 25 pacientes com média de idade de 40,5 (±14,2 anos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a etiologia

  15. Spatio-temporal variability of CO and O3 in Hyderabad (17°N, 78°E, central India, based on MOZAIC and TES observations and WRF-Chem and MOZART-4 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Sheel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the study of the seasonal and interannual variability of carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 at different altitudes of the troposphere over Hyderabad, India, during 2006–2010 using Measurement of OZone and water vapour by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC and observation from Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES aboard NASA's Aura satellite. The MOZAIC observations show maximum seasonal variability in both CO and O3 during winter and pre-monsoon season, with CO in the range (100–200±13 ppbv and O3 in the range (50–70±9 ppbv. The time-series of MOZAIC data shows a significant increase of 4.2±1.3 % in the surface CO and 6.7±1.3 % in the surface O3 during 2006–2010 in Hyderabad. From MOZAIC observations, we identify CO and O3 profiles that are anomalous with respect to the monthly mean and compare those with Weather Research Forecast model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem and Model for OZone and Related Tracers, version 4 profiles for the same day. The anomalous profiles of WRF-Chem are simulated using three convection schemes. The goodness of comparison depends on the convection scheme and the altitude region of the troposphere.

  16. Onze mille pages. Les Œuvres complètes de Montesquieu à Oxford : projet, réalisations, perspectives (février 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Volpilhac-Auger

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available La nouvelle édition des œuvres complètes de Montesquieu en vingt et un volumes (huit sont parus depuis 1998, rattachée à l’École normale supérieure Lettre et Sciences humaines (Lyon depuis 2000 et publiée par la Voltaire Foundation (Oxford, se fonde sur une approche nouvelle du corpus manuscrit comme de la conception même de l’œuvre, saisie dans son devenir ; l’établissement du texte comme l’annotation cherchent à en restituer la force initiale, telle qu’elle a pu apparaître aux contemporains de Montesquieu. Cette entreprise se double d’une réflexion constante sur sa propre pratique, par rapport à l’histoire de l’édition et à la réception (et donc l’interprétation des œuvres de Montesquieu.

  17. MID-INFRARED SELECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER. II. PROPERTIES OF WISE-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE NDWFS BOÖTES FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Blain, A. W.; Brodwin, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Donoso, E.; Jarrett, T. H.; Yan, L.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Stanford, S. A.; Wu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Stern et al. presented a study of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selection of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the 2 deg 2 COSMOS field, finding that a simple criterion W1-W2 ≥ 0.8 provides a highly reliable and complete AGN sample for W2 2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field which also has considerably deeper WISE observations than the COSMOS field, and find that this simple color cut significantly loses reliability at fainter fluxes. We define a modified selection criterion combining the W1–W2 color and the W2 magnitude to provide highly reliable or highly complete AGN samples for fainter WISE sources. In particular, we define a color-magnitude cut that finds 130 ± 4 deg –2 AGN candidates for W2 AGN ∼ 3 × 10 44 erg s –1 , 29% ± 7% of AGNs are observed as Type 1, while at ∼4 × 10 45 erg s –1 the fraction is 64% ± 13%. The distribution of obscuration values suggests that dust in the torus is present as both a diffuse medium and in optically thick clouds

  18. Efektivitātes pētījums: Ceļu Satiksmes drošības direkcijas sociālās vides reklāmas

    OpenAIRE

    Vītola, Zanda

    2013-01-01

    Darba tēma ir „Efektivitātes pētījums: Ceļu Satiksmes drošības direkcijas sociālās vides reklāmas”. Pētījuma problēma – ik gadu palielinās upuru un negadījumu skaits uz Latvijas ceļiem, tāpēc ir svarīgi noskaidrot, cik efektīvas ir CSDD vides reklāmas, lai šo tendenci novērstu. Darba mērķis – noskaidrot sabiedrības viedokli un attieksmi pret CSDD vides reklāmām, atklājot, kā un vai reklāmu vēstījums ietekmē sabiedrību. Darbā izmantota Bārta teorija semiotiskās analīzes izpratnei, Kot...

  19. Globalization, Inequality, and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Badinger; Elisabeth Nindl

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new empirical evidence on the determinants of corruption, focussing on the role of globalization and inequality. The estimates for a panel of 102 countries over the period 1995-2005 point to three main results: i) Detection technologies, reflected in a high level of development, human capital, and political rights reduce corruption, whereas natural resource rents increase corruption. ii) Globalization (in terms of both trade and financial openness) has a neg...

  20. Global warming yearbook: 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arris, L. [ed.

    1999-02-01

    The report brings together a year`s worth of global warming stories - over 280 in all - in one convenient volume. It provides a one-stop report on the scientific, political and industrial implications of global warming. The report includes: detailed coverage of negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol; scientific findings on carbon sources and sinks, coral bleaching, Antarctic ice shelves, plankton, wildlife and tree growth; new developments on fuel economy, wind power, fuel cells, cogeneration, energy labelling and emissions trading.

  1. Promoting Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. Winker, MD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME. The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.

  2. Global surrogacy practices

    OpenAIRE

    Darnovsky, M.; Beeson, D.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarises discussions of participants in Thematic Area 5 (Global Surrogacy Practices) of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy held in August 2014. The Forum brought together advocates of women’s health, children’s rights and human rights; scholars from a range of disciplines; social workers; and legal and policy analysts with expertise in third-party reproduction and/or adoption. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first major convening of ...

  3. Global surrogacy practices

    OpenAIRE

    Darnovsky, Marcy; Beeson, Diane; Cheney, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis report summarises discussions of participants in Thematic Area 5 (Global Surrogacy Practices) of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy held in August 2014. The Forum brought together advocates of women’s health, children’s rights and human rights; scholars from a range of disciplines; social workers; and legal and policy analysts with expertise in third-party reproduction and/or adoption. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first major c...

  4. Financial Globalization and Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Kunieda, Takuma

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates how financial globalization and financial development affect income inequality within a country. We demonstrate that when a country is financially closed to the world market, the Gini coefficient is monotonically decreasing with respect to the degree of financial development, whereas when a country becomes so small due to financial globalization that financial development in the country does not affect the world interest rate, the Gini coefficient is monotonically incr...

  5. Climate and Global Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplessy, J.C.; Pons, A.; Fantechi, R.

    1991-01-01

    The present volume contains the lessons delivered at the course held in Arles, France, on the subject Climate and Global Change: natural variability of the geosphere and biosphere systems, biogeochemical cycles and their perturbation by human activities, monitoring and forecasting global changes (satellite observations, modelling,...). Short presentations of students' own research activities are also proposed (climatic fluctuation in the Mediterranean area, climate/vegetation relations, etc.)

  6. Towards a global polity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    While "one world government" is not on the cards, the globalization of political life has progressed significantly over the last decades. Rather than adding on to existing theoretical frameworks such as the realist picture of international anarchy or the English School's "international society...... and meta-theoretical questions on how to analyze and theorize the global polity, what drives it forward, and whether it can be democratized....

  7. Media Pembelajaran Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Tham, Fikri Jufri; Liliana, Liliana; Purba, Kristo Radion

    2016-01-01

    Computer based learning media is one of the media has an important role in learning. Learning media will be attractive when packaged through interactive media , such as interactive media created in paper manufacture " instructional media global warming" . The advantage gained is that it can increase knowledge, generally educate people to be more concerned about the environment , and also can be a means of entertainment. This application is focused to learn about global warming and packaged in...

  8. THE EVOLUTION OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION DURING THE CURRENT GLOBAL CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Tuca

    2013-01-01

    The current economic crisis constitutes a serious test for the process of globalization. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of the current global crisis on economic globalization. To assess the impact of the current crisis on economic globalization, this paper examines the KOF Index of Globalization, before and during the crisis. The findings generally support the idea that economic globalization has been, in fact, weakened, after the onset of the current crisis. However, t...

  9. Globally Collaborative Experiential Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi UTSUMI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Global University System (GUS [Utsumi, et al, 2003] is a worldwide initiative to create advanced telecommunications infrastructure for access to educational resources across national and cultural boundaries for global peace. GUS aims to create a worldwide consortium of universities to provide the underdeveloped world with access to 21st Century education via broadband Internet technologies. The aim is to achieve “education and healthcare for all,” anywhere, anytime and at any pace. The GUS works in the major regions of the globe with partnerships of higher education and healthcare institutions. Learners in these regions will be able to take their courses from member institutions around the world to receive a GUS degree. These learners and their professors from partner institutions will also form a global forum for exchange of ideas and information and for conducting collaborative research and development with emerging global GRID computer network technology. Globally Collaborative Environmental Peace Gaming (GCEPG project [Utsumi, 2003] with a globally distributed computer simulation system, focusing on the issue of environment and sustainable development in developing countries, is to train would-be decision-makers in crisis management, conflict resolution, and negotiation techniques basing on “facts and figures.” The GUS will supply game players from around the world.

  10. Globalization in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence on Japan......Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence...... adjusting to those of the global currents that cannot be ignored. Further, I would suggest that global, or at least Western, influence is not a new thing in regard to moral education in Japan. The paper will provide an historical overview of the development of moral education since Meiji times and focus...

  11. Globalization and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, J. Lawrence; Carter, Lyn; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Duit, Reinders; Martin, Sonya; Siry, Christina; Krajcik, Joseph; Shin, Namsoo; Choi, Kyunghee; Lee, Hyunju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2013-06-01

    Processes of globalization have played a major role in economic and cultural change worldwide. More recently, there is a growing literature on rethinking science education research and development from the perspective of globalization. This paper provides a critical overview of the state and future development of science education research from the perspective of globalization. Two facets are given major attention. First, the further development of science education as an international research domain is critically analyzed. It seems that there is a predominance of researchers stemming from countries in which English is the native language or at least a major working language. Second, the significance of rethinking the currently dominant variants of science instruction from the perspectives of economic and cultural globalization is given major attention. On the one hand, it is argued that processes concerning globalization of science education as a research domain need to take into account the richness of the different cultures of science education around the world. At the same time, it is essential to develop ways of science instruction that make students aware of the various advantages, challenges and problems of international economic and cultural globalization.

  12. Global environment and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    The environment problems on global scale have been highlighted in addition to the local problems due to the rapid increase of population, the increase of energy demand and so on. The global environment summit was held in Brazil. Now, global environment problems are the problems for mankind, and their importance seems to increase toward 21st century. In such circumstances, cogeneration can reduce carbon dioxide emission in addition to energy conservation, therefore, attention has been paid as the countermeasure for global environment. The background of global environment problems is explained. As to the effectiveness of cogeneration for global environment, the suitability of city gas to environment, energy conservation, the reduction of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides emission are discussed. As for the state of spread of cogeneration, as of March, 1992, those of 2250 MW in terms of power generation capacity have been installed in Japan. It is forecast that cogeneration will increase hereafter. As the future systems of cogeneration, city and industry energy center conception, industrial repowering, multiple house cogeneration and fuel cells are described. (K.I.)

  13. Global Inequality: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Bata

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Global inequality has been little analyzed by sociologists despite their claim to be the scienti?c experts most in charge of the study of human inequalities and social strati?cation. Most undergraduate courses on social inequalities study race, class and gender without ever acknowledging that the greatest inequalities are between those individuals and households that live in developed versus less developed societies. The amount of international inequality has vastly outweighed within country inequalities since at least the 1870s when a wave of economic globalization under the Pax Britannica increased average wages in the core while leaving most of the periphery and the semiperiphery at subsistence levels. Increasing inequality was one of the most important consequences of nineteenth century globalization, and this fact is pregnant with importance for those who seek to understand what the consequences of twentieth century globalization may be. Resistance to global capitalism and attacks on symbols of power are likely to increase, just as they did in the decades following the great expansion of trade and investment in the last decades of the nineteenth century. Research into the causes of increasing inequalities is thus extremely important for social scientists, policy makers and global citizens who need to understand how the world-system works in order to change it.

  14. Study of elasticity and limit analysis of joints and branch pipe tee connections; Etude elastique et analyse limite des piquages et des tes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plancq, David [Nantes Univ., 44 (France)

    1997-09-24

    The industrial context of this study is the behaviour and sizing the pipe joints in PWR and fast neutron reactors. Two aspects have been approached in this framework. The first issue is the elastic behaviour of the pipe joining with a plane or spherical surface or with another pipe in order to get a better understanding of this components usually modelled in classical calculations in a very simplified way. We focused our search on the bending of an intersecting pipe. In the case of the intersection with a plane surface we have conducted our study on the basis of literature results. In the case of intersection on a spherical surface we have also solved entirely the problem by using a sphere shell description different from that usually utilized. Finally, we give an approach to obtain a simple result for the bending of branch pipe tee joints allowing the formulation of a specific finite element. The second issue approached is the limit analysis which allows characterising the plastic failure of this structures and defining reference constraints. This constraints are used in numerous applications. We mention here the rules of pipe sizing and analyzing under primary load, the mechanics of cracks and the definition of global plasticity criteria. To solve this problem we concentrated our studies on the development of a new calculation techniques for the limit load called elastic compensation method (ECM). We have tested it on a large number of classical structures and on the branch pipe tee connections. We propose also a very simple result regarding the lower limit of the bending of a tee junction 111 refs., 88 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic Published: Nov 29, 2017 Facebook Twitter ... 2001-FY 2018 Request The Global Response to HIV/AIDS International efforts to combat HIV began in ...

  16. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  17. Manufacturing mobility in global operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The globalization trend inevitably affects the organization of manufacturing by enterprises. It offers opportunities to examine manufacturing from a global perspective and consequently to produce where it is most appropriate. However, globalization has also led to an increase in competitive

  18. Global chemical pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Hester, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past decade, public and governmental awareness of environmental problems has grown steadily, with an accompanying increase in the regulation of point sources of pollution. As a result, great strides have been made in cleaning polluted rivers and decreasing air pollution near factories. However, traditional regulatory approaches to environmental pollution have focused primarily on protecting the maximally exposed individual located in the immediate vicinity of the pollution source. Little attention has been given to the global implications of human production and use of synthetic chemicals. A consensus is emerging that even trace levels of environmental contamination can have potentially devastating environmental consequences. The authors maintain that ambient levels of pollution have risen to the point where human health is being affected on a global scale. Atmospheric transport is recognized as the primary mode of global distribution and entry into the food chain for organic chemicals. The following are examples of global chemical pollutants that result in human exposure of significant proportions: PCBs, dioxins, benzene, mercury and lead. Current regulatory approaches for environmental pollution do not incorporate ways of dealing with global pollution. Instead the major focus has been on protecting the maximally exposed individual. If we do not want to change our standard of living, the only way to reduce global chemical pollution is to make production and consumption processes more efficient and to lower the levels of production of these toxic chemicals. Thus the only reasonable solution to global pollution is not increased regulation of isolated point sources, but rather an increased emphasis on waste reduction and materials recycling. Until we focus on these issues, we will continue to experience background cancer risk in the 10 -3 range

  19. Unpacking the Global Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper hopes to contribute to a reading of the political economy of the current global crisis with a focus on four interrelated themes. First, we discuss the constitutive role and functional character of crises in the evolution of neo-liberalism in particular and in capitalist reproduction...... opposing crisis responses—from multilaterals to regional organisations to global civil society—and realise that responses from either pro-neoliberal or anti-neoliberal forces are fundamentally the same through the years, simply re-articulating analyses and programmes that they have respectively...... pursued and advocated long before the global crisis. And fourth, in the context of East and Southeast Asia, we examine the tendencies of the global crisis vis-à-vis the strengthening and even acceleration of emergent authoritarian liberalism in the region despite and because of the global crisis....

  20. Salutogenesis, globalization, and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Theodor Dierk; Lehmann, Nadja

    2011-12-01

    Achieving successful communication in transcultural contexts means integrating emotional communication patterns into a global context. Professional, rational communication is characteristic of the cultural dimension, and emotions are characteristic of the direct, interpersonal dimension of human existence. Humans strive to achieve coherence in all dimensions of their lives; this goal is in the end the most essential aspect of psychophysical self-regulation. A major role in integrating emotional needs and cultural features in global coherence is played by the attractor 'global affinity'. The transitions from emotional coherence to cultural coherence, and likewise from cultural coherence to global coherence, can cause considerable insecurity as well as psychological problems, which previously went by the name 'adjustment disorders'. However, instead of pathologizing these processes, we should understand them in a salutogenic sense as challenges important for both individual and collective development. The development of more coherence is regulated by the neuropsychological approach and avoidance system. This system can be consciously fostered by directing our attention to the commonalities of all human beings. Such a global salutogenic orientation furthers both communication and creativity in teamwork. This article introduces a consequent salutogenic and evolutionary systemic view of transcultural communication and demonstrates its effectiveness in a number of case examples.