WorldWideScience

Sample records for global scheduling mechanisms

  1. Realistic Scheduling Mechanism for Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish Mahmood

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a Realistic Scheduling Mechanism (RSM to reduce user frustration and enhance appliance utility by classifying appliances with respective constraints and their time of use effectively. Algorithms are proposed regarding functioning of home appliances. A 24 hour time slot is divided into four logical sub-time slots, each composed of 360 min or 6 h. In these sub-time slots, only desired appliances (with respect to appliance classification are scheduled to raise appliance utility, restricting power consumption by a dynamically modelled power usage limiter that does not only take the electricity consumer into account but also the electricity supplier. Once appliance, time and power usage limiter modelling is done, we use a nature-inspired heuristic algorithm, Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO, optimally to form schedules with given constraints representing each sub-time slot. These schedules tend to achieve an equilibrium amongst appliance utility and cost effectiveness. For validation of the proposed RSM, we provide a comparative analysis amongst unscheduled electrical load usage, scheduled directly by BPSO and RSM, reflecting user comfort, which is based upon cost effectiveness and appliance utility.

  2. Multiprocessor Global Scheduling on Frame-Based DVFS Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Berten, Vandy; Goossens, Joël

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this work, we are interested in multiprocessor energy efficient systems where task durations are not known in advance but are known stochastically. More precisely we consider global scheduling algorithms for frame-based multiprocessor stochastic DVFS (Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling) systems. Moreover we consider processors with a discrete set of available frequencies. We provide a global scheduling algorithm, and formally show that no deadline will ever be mi...

  3. Mechanisms for scheduling games with selfish players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Many challenges in operations research involve optimization. In particular, scheduling treats the optimal planning of tasks. This thesis focuses on machine scheduling models, where a number of tasks, called jobs, need to be scheduled on one or more machines. The outcome is determined by which job is

  4. Global Optimization of Nonlinear Blend-Scheduling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Castillo Castillo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The scheduling of gasoline-blending operations is an important problem in the oil refining industry. This problem not only exhibits the combinatorial nature that is intrinsic to scheduling problems, but also non-convex nonlinear behavior, due to the blending of various materials with different quality properties. In this work, a global optimization algorithm is proposed to solve a previously published continuous-time mixed-integer nonlinear scheduling model for gasoline blending. The model includes blend recipe optimization, the distribution problem, and several important operational features and constraints. The algorithm employs piecewise McCormick relaxation (PMCR and normalized multiparametric disaggregation technique (NMDT to compute estimates of the global optimum. These techniques partition the domain of one of the variables in a bilinear term and generate convex relaxations for each partition. By increasing the number of partitions and reducing the domain of the variables, the algorithm is able to refine the estimates of the global solution. The algorithm is compared to two commercial global solvers and two heuristic methods by solving four examples from the literature. Results show that the proposed global optimization algorithm performs on par with commercial solvers but is not as fast as heuristic approaches.

  5. Decentralized Utilitarian Mechanisms for Scheduling Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, R.; Correa, J.; Gkatzelis, V.; Mirrokni, V.; Olver, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Game Theory and Mechanism Design are by now standard tools for studying and designing massive decentralized systems. Unfortunately, designing mechanisms that induce socially efficient outcomes often requires full information and prohibitively large computational resources. In this work we study

  6. Improved Scheduling Mechanisms for Synchronous Information and Energy Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Danyang; Yang, Songxiang; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Jingya; Ding, Qun

    2017-06-09

    Wireless energy collecting technology can effectively reduce the network time overhead and prolong the wireless sensor network (WSN) lifetime. However, the traditional energy collecting technology cannot achieve the balance between ergodic channel capacity and average collected energy. In order to solve the problem of the network transmission efficiency and the limited energy of wireless devices, three improved scheduling mechanisms are proposed: improved signal noise ratio (SNR) scheduling mechanism (IS2M), improved N-SNR scheduling mechanism (INS2M) and an improved Equal Throughput scheduling mechanism (IETSM) for different channel conditions to improve the whole network performance. Meanwhile, the average collected energy of single users and the ergodic channel capacity of three scheduling mechanisms can be obtained through the order statistical theory in Rayleig, Ricean, Nakagami- m and Weibull fading channels. It is concluded that the proposed scheduling mechanisms can achieve better balance between energy collection and data transmission, so as to provide a new solution to realize synchronous information and energy transmission for WSNs.

  7. Optimal mechanisms for single machine scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, B.; Mishra, D.; Müller, R.; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Papadimitriou, C.; Zhang, S.

    2008-01-01

    We study the design of optimal mechanisms in a setting here job-agents compete for being processed by a service provider that can handle one job at a time. Each job has a processing time and incurs a waiting cost. Jobs need to be compensated for waiting. We consider two models, one where only the

  8. A global quantification of "normal" sleep schedules using smartphone data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Olivia J; Cochran, Amy; Forger, Daniel B

    2016-05-01

    The influence of the circadian clock on sleep scheduling has been studied extensively in the laboratory; however, the effects of society on sleep remain largely unquantified. We show how a smartphone app that we have developed, ENTRAIN, accurately collects data on sleep habits around the world. Through mathematical modeling and statistics, we find that social pressures weaken and/or conceal biological drives in the evening, leading individuals to delay their bedtime and shorten their sleep. A country's average bedtime, but not average wake time, predicts sleep duration. We further show that mathematical models based on controlled laboratory experiments predict qualitative trends in sunrise, sunset, and light level; however, these effects are attenuated in the real world around bedtime. Additionally, we find that women schedule more sleep than men and that users reporting that they are typically exposed to outdoor light go to sleep earlier and sleep more than those reporting indoor light. Finally, we find that age is the primary determinant of sleep timing, and that age plays an important role in the variability of population-level sleep habits. This work better defines and personalizes "normal" sleep, produces hypotheses for future testing in the laboratory, and suggests important ways to counteract the global sleep crisis.

  9. An EV Charging Scheduling Mechanism Based on Price Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocheng Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling EV user’s charging behavior based on charging price and applying renewable energy resources are the effective methods to release the load pressure of power grids brought about by the large-scale popularity of electric vehicles (EVs. This paper presents a novel approach for EV charging scheduling based on price negotiation. Firstly, the EV charging system framework based on price negotiation and renewable energy resources is discussed. Secondly, the price negotiation model is presented, including the initial price models and the conditions of transactions. Finally, an EV charging scheduling mechanism based on price negotiation (CSM-PN, including the price adjustment strategies of both the operator and EV users is proposed to seek a final transaction during multi-round price negotiation. Simulation results show that this novel approach can effectively improve the charging station operator’s income, reduce the EV users’ costs, and balance the load of the power grid while improving the efficiency of the EV charging system.

  10. Simulated Stochastic Approximation Annealing for Global Optimization With a Square-Root Cooling Schedule

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming; Cheng, Yichen; Lin, Guang

    2014-01-01

    cooling schedule, for example, a square-root cooling schedule, while guaranteeing the global optima to be reached when the temperature tends to zero. The new algorithm has been tested on a few benchmark optimization problems, including feed-forward neural

  11. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhamid, Shafi’i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques. PMID:27384239

  12. Secure Scientific Applications Scheduling Technique for Cloud Computing Environment Using Global League Championship Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhamid, Shafi'i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques.

  13. A hybrid online scheduling mechanism with revision and progressive techniques for autonomous Earth observation satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Xing, Lining; Chen, Yingwu

    2017-11-01

    The autonomicity of self-scheduling on Earth observation satellite and the increasing scale of satellite network attract much attention from researchers in the last decades. In reality, the limited onboard computational resource presents challenge for the online scheduling algorithm. This study considered online scheduling problem for a single autonomous Earth observation satellite within satellite network environment. It especially addressed that the urgent tasks arrive stochastically during the scheduling horizon. We described the problem and proposed a hybrid online scheduling mechanism with revision and progressive techniques to solve this problem. The mechanism includes two decision policies, a when-to-schedule policy combining periodic scheduling and critical cumulative number-based event-driven rescheduling, and a how-to-schedule policy combining progressive and revision approaches to accommodate two categories of task: normal tasks and urgent tasks. Thus, we developed two heuristic (re)scheduling algorithms and compared them with other generally used techniques. Computational experiments indicated that the into-scheduling percentage of urgent tasks in the proposed mechanism is much higher than that in periodic scheduling mechanism, and the specific performance is highly dependent on some mechanism-relevant and task-relevant factors. For the online scheduling, the modified weighted shortest imaging time first and dynamic profit system benefit heuristics outperformed the others on total profit and the percentage of successfully scheduled urgent tasks.

  14. Applicability of Markets to Global Scheduling in Grids: Critical Examination of General Equilibrium Theory and Market Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Junko; VanDerWijngaart, Rob F.

    2003-01-01

    Markets are often considered superior to other global scheduling mechanisms for distributed computing systems. This claim is supported by: a casual observation from our every-day life that markets successfully equilibrate supply and demand, and the features of markets which originate in the general equilibrium theory, e.g., efficiency and the lack of necessity of 2 central controller. This paper describes why such beliefs in markets are not warranted. It does so by examining the general equilibrium theory, in terms of scope, abstraction, and interpretation. Not only does the general equilibrium theory fail to provide a satisfactory explanation of actual economies, including a computing-resource economy, it also falls short of supplying theoretical foundations for commonly held views of market desirability. This paper also points out that the argument for the desirability of markets involves circular reasoning and that the desirability can be established only vis-a-vis a scheduling goal. Finally, recasting the conclusion of Arrow's Impossibility Theorem as that for global scheduling, we conclude that there exists no market-based scheduler that is rational (in the sense defined in microeconomic theory), takes into account utility of more than one user, and yet yields a Pareto-optimal outcome for arbitrary user utility functions.

  15. A Mechanized Decision Support System for Academic Scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    an operational system called software. The first step in the development phase is Design . Designers destribute software control by factoring the Data...SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) ELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Scheduling, Decision Support System , Software Design ...scheduling system . It will also examine software - design techniques to identify the most appropriate method- ology for this problem. " - Chapter 3 will

  16. ComprehensiveBench: a Benchmark for the Extensive Evaluation of Global Scheduling Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Laércio L.; Bozzetti, Tiago C.; Castro, Márcio; Navaux, Philippe O. A.; Méhaut, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    Parallel applications that present tasks with imbalanced loads or complex communication behavior usually do not exploit the underlying resources of parallel platforms to their full potential. In order to mitigate this issue, global scheduling algorithms are employed. As finding the optimal task distribution is an NP-Hard problem, identifying the most suitable algorithm for a specific scenario and comparing algorithms are not trivial tasks. In this context, this paper presents ComprehensiveBench, a benchmark for global scheduling algorithms that enables the variation of a vast range of parameters that affect performance. ComprehensiveBench can be used to assist in the development and evaluation of new scheduling algorithms, to help choose a specific algorithm for an arbitrary application, to emulate other applications, and to enable statistical tests. We illustrate its use in this paper with an evaluation of Charm++ periodic load balancers that stresses their characteristics.

  17. Simulated Stochastic Approximation Annealing for Global Optimization With a Square-Root Cooling Schedule

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2014-04-03

    Simulated annealing has been widely used in the solution of optimization problems. As known by many researchers, the global optima cannot be guaranteed to be located by simulated annealing unless a logarithmic cooling schedule is used. However, the logarithmic cooling schedule is so slow that no one can afford to use this much CPU time. This article proposes a new stochastic optimization algorithm, the so-called simulated stochastic approximation annealing algorithm, which is a combination of simulated annealing and the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm. Under the framework of stochastic approximation, it is shown that the new algorithm can work with a cooling schedule in which the temperature can decrease much faster than in the logarithmic cooling schedule, for example, a square-root cooling schedule, while guaranteeing the global optima to be reached when the temperature tends to zero. The new algorithm has been tested on a few benchmark optimization problems, including feed-forward neural network training and protein-folding. The numerical results indicate that the new algorithm can significantly outperform simulated annealing and other competitors. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.

  18. Decentralization and mechanism design for online machine scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arge, Lars; Heydenreich, Birgit; Müller, Rudolf; Freivalds, Rusins; Uetz, Marc Jochen

    We study the online version of the classical parallel machine scheduling problem to minimize the total weighted completion time from a new perspective: We assume that the data of each job, namely its release date $r_j$, its processing time $p_j$ and its weight $w_j$ is only known to the job itself,

  19. Neighbourhood generation mechanism applied in simulated annealing to job shop scheduling problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Chávez, Marco Antonio

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a neighbourhood generation mechanism for the job shop scheduling problems (JSSPs). In order to obtain a feasible neighbour with the generation mechanism, it is only necessary to generate a permutation of an adjacent pair of operations in a scheduling of the JSSP. If there is no slack time between the adjacent pair of operations that is permuted, then it is proven, through theory and experimentation, that the new neighbour (schedule) generated is feasible. It is demonstrated that the neighbourhood generation mechanism is very efficient and effective in a simulated annealing.

  20. Global Governance Mechanisms to Address Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padiyara, Ponnu; Inoue, Hajime; Sprenger, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Since their discovery, antibiotics, and more broadly, antimicrobials, have been a cornerstone of modern medicine. But the overuse and misuse of these drugs have led to rising rates of antimicrobial resistance, which occurs when bacteria adapt in ways that render antibiotics ineffective. A world without effective antibiotics can have drastic impacts on population health, global development, and the global economy. As a global common good, antibiotic effectiveness is vulnerable to the tragedy of the commons, where a shared limited resource is overused by a community when each individual exploits the finite resource for their own benefit. A borderless threat like antimicrobial resistance requires global governance mechanisms to mitigate its emergence and spread, and it is the responsibility of all countries and relevant multilateral organizations. These mechanisms can be in the form of legally binding global governance mechanisms such as treaties and regulatory standards or nonbinding mechanisms such as political declarations, resolutions, or guidelines. In this article, we argue that while both are effective methods, the strong, swift, and coordinated action needed to address rising rates of antimicrobial resistance will be better served through legally binding governance mechanisms.

  1. A Local and Global Search Combine Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Job-Shop Scheduling to Minimize Makespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Lian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Job-shop scheduling problem (JSSP is a branch of production scheduling, which is among the hardest combinatorial optimization problems. Many different approaches have been applied to optimize JSSP, but for some JSSP even with moderate size cannot be solved to guarantee optimality. The original particle swarm optimization algorithm (OPSOA, generally, is used to solve continuous problems, and rarely to optimize discrete problems such as JSSP. In OPSOA, through research I find that it has a tendency to get stuck in a near optimal solution especially for middle and large size problems. The local and global search combine particle swarm optimization algorithm (LGSCPSOA is used to solve JSSP, where particle-updating mechanism benefits from the searching experience of one particle itself, the best of all particles in the swarm, and the best of particles in neighborhood population. The new coding method is used in LGSCPSOA to optimize JSSP, and it gets all sequences are feasible solutions. Three representative instances are made computational experiment, and simulation shows that the LGSCPSOA is efficacious for JSSP to minimize makespan.

  2. A global quantification of “normal” sleep schedules using smartphone data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Olivia J.; Cochran, Amy; Forger, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the circadian clock on sleep scheduling has been studied extensively in the laboratory; however, the effects of society on sleep remain largely unquantified. We show how a smartphone app that we have developed, ENTRAIN, accurately collects data on sleep habits around the world. Through mathematical modeling and statistics, we find that social pressures weaken and/or conceal biological drives in the evening, leading individuals to delay their bedtime and shorten their sleep. A country’s average bedtime, but not average wake time, predicts sleep duration. We further show that mathematical models based on controlled laboratory experiments predict qualitative trends in sunrise, sunset, and light level; however, these effects are attenuated in the real world around bedtime. Additionally, we find that women schedule more sleep than men and that users reporting that they are typically exposed to outdoor light go to sleep earlier and sleep more than those reporting indoor light. Finally, we find that age is the primary determinant of sleep timing, and that age plays an important role in the variability of population-level sleep habits. This work better defines and personalizes “normal” sleep, produces hypotheses for future testing in the laboratory, and suggests important ways to counteract the global sleep crisis. PMID:27386531

  3. Speeding up IA mechanically-steered multistatic radar scheduling with GP-GPUs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, RW

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors investigate speeding up the execution time of Interval Algebra (IA) mechanically-steered multistatic and multisite radar scheduling using a general-purpose graphical processing unit (GP-GPU). Multistatic/multisite radar...

  4. Automated and dynamic scheduling for geodetic VLBI - A simulation study for AuScope and global networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, E. J.; McCallum, L.; Lovell, J. E. J.; McCallum, J. N.

    2018-02-01

    As we move into the next era of geodetic VLBI, the scheduling process is one focus for improvement in terms of increased flexibility and the ability to react with changing conditions. A range of simulations were conducted to ascertain the impact of scheduling on geodetic results such as Earth Orientation Parameters (EOPs) and station coordinates. The potential capabilities of new automated scheduling modes were also simulated, using the so-called 'dynamic scheduling' technique. The primary aim was to improve efficiency for both cost and time without losing geodetic precision, particularly to maximise the uses of the Australian AuScope VLBI array. We show that short breaks in observation will not significantly degrade the results of a typical 24 h experiment, whereas simply shortening observing time degrades precision exponentially. We also confirm the new automated, dynamic scheduling mode is capable of producing the same standard of result as a traditional schedule, with close to real-time flexibility. Further, it is possible to use the dynamic scheduler to augment the 3 station Australian AuScope array and thereby attain EOPs of the current global precision with only intermittent contribution from 2 additional stations. We thus confirm automated, dynamic scheduling bears great potential for flexibility and automation in line with aims for future continuous VLBI operations.

  5. The local–global conjecture for scheduling with non-linear cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Dürr, C.; Thang, N.K.K.; Vásquez, Ó.C.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the classical scheduling problem on a single machine, on which we need to schedule sequentially n given jobs. Every job j has a processing time pj and a priority weight wj, and for a given schedule a completion time Cj. In this paper, we consider the problem of minimizing the objective

  6. Research on a scheduling mechanism in a complex system based on TOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Zhang; Ya-Ming, Zhang; Jinbo, Chen; Kaijun, Leng

    2016-01-01

    Under the condition where there is no seasonal demand fluctuation, short life cycle product supply chain should confront the market environment such as the decreasing of product value, the launch of substitutes and the appearance of competitors’ similar products, and the supply chain will become a very complex system. In this paper, the authors consider a TOC-based scheduling mechanism in this complex supply chain system. under the constant total production cost, it is more important to improve the availability of the wanted product in order to enhance the overall supply chain competitiveness so to obtain more effective output(profit rate) for the supply chain in a long period. Especially we try to apply the SDBR concept into a schedule mechanism in a particular supply chain system, and use numerical analysis to test the efficiency of the proposed method.

  7. A new approach for global synchronization in hierarchical scheduled real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behnam, M.; Nolte, T.; Bril, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present our ongoing work to improve an existing synchronization protocol SIRAP for hierarchically scheduled real-time systems. A less pessimistic schedulability analysis is presented which can make the SIRAP protocol more efficient in terms of calculated CPU resource needs. In addition and for

  8. Mathematical Model and Algorithm for the Reefer Mechanic Scheduling Problem at Seaports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiantong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of seaborne logistics, the international trade of goods transported in refrigerated containers is growing fast. Refrigerated containers, also known as reefers, are used in transportation of temperature sensitive cargo, such as perishable fruits. This trend brings new challenges to terminal managers, that is, how to efficiently arrange mechanics to plug and unplug power for the reefers (i.e., tasks at yards. This work investigates the reefer mechanics scheduling problem at container ports. To minimize the sum of the total tardiness of all tasks and the total working distance of all mechanics, we formulate a mathematical model. For the resolution of this problem, we propose a DE algorithm which is combined with efficient heuristics, local search strategies, and parameter adaption scheme. The proposed algorithm is tested and validated through numerical experiments. Computational results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Reliability-based optimization of maintenance scheduling of mechanical components under fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaurepaire, P.; Valdebenito, M.A.; Schuëller, G.I.; Jensen, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the optimization of the maintenance scheduling of mechanical components under fatigue loading. The cracks of damaged structures may be detected during non-destructive inspection and subsequently repaired. Fatigue crack initiation and growth show inherent variability, and as well the outcome of inspection activities. The problem is addressed under the framework of reliability based optimization. The initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks are efficiently modeled using cohesive zone elements. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by a numerical example, which involves a plate with two holes subject to alternating stress. PMID:23564979

  10. The real mechanisms of the global economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Asensio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main arguments of Bresser Pereira's Globalization and Competition. Development strategies based on the 'conventional orthodoxy' are shown to carry serious drawbacks ("Dutch disease", pernicious effects of external saving, currency overvaluation, while a 'new developmentalism' is promoted, in spite of the widespread belief that the nation-states have been dispossessed of their room for manoeuvre because of the globalization process. The "new developmentalism" is based on domestic finance, balanced public budgets, moderate interest rates and competitiveness policies aimed at neutralizing the tendency to exchange rate overappreciation. The paper also points out a few theoretical questions the book raises.

  11. Planning and scheduling for maritime container yards supporting and facilitating the global supply network

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenkai; Goh, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the challenges facing maritime supply chains and container port logistics service providers in Asia, this book highlights their innovative responses to these challenges through real-world case studies. With a focus on mathematical modeling, simulation and heuristics approaches, this book provides academics, engineers, container terminal operators, students in logistics and supply chain management with the latest approaches that can be used to address the planning and scheduling problem in large container terminal yards. This book can be used on a self-contained basis as teaching cases in an undergraduate or specialist class setting, or on techniques applied to maritime container operations for port operations.

  12. A Fault Detection Mechanism in a Data-flow Scheduled Multithreaded Processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, J.; Yang, Q.; Poss, R.; Jesshope, C.R.; Zhang, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper designs and implements the Redundant Multi-Threading (RMT) in a Data-flow scheduled MultiThreaded (DMT) multicore processor, called Data-flow scheduled Redundant Multi-Threading (DRMT). Meanwhile, It presents Asynchronous Output Comparison (AOC) for RMT techniques to avoid fault detection

  13. A IEEE 802.11e HCCA Scheduler with a Reclaiming Mechanism for Multimedia Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lina Ruscelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The QoS offered by the IEEE 802.11e reference scheduler is satisfactory in the case of Constant Bit Rate traffic streams, but not yet in the case of Variable Bit Rate traffic streams, whose variations stress its scheduling behavior. Despite the numerous proposed alternative schedulers with QoS, multimedia applications are looking for refined methods suitable to ensure service differentiation and dynamic update of protocol parameters. In this paper a scheduling algorithm, Unused Time Shifting Scheduler (UTSS, is deeply analyzed. It is designed to cooperate with a HCCA centralized real-time scheduler through the integration of a bandwidth reclaiming scheme, suitable to recover nonexhausted transmission time and assign that to the next polled stations. UTSS dynamically computes with an O(1 complexity transmission time providing an instantaneous resource overprovisioning. The theoretical analysis and the simulation results highlight that this injection of resources does not affect the admission control nor the centralized scheduler but is suitable to improve the performance of the centralized scheduler in terms of mean access delay, transmission queues length, bursts of traffic management, and packets drop rate. These positive effects are more relevant for highly variable bit rate traffic.

  14. Nonbinding Legal Instruments in Governance for Global Health: Lessons from the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Allyn; Alfvén, Tobias; Hougendobler, Daniel; Buse, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Recent debate over World Health Organization reform has included unprecedented attention to international lawmaking as a future priority function of the Organization. However, the debate is largely focused on the codification of new binding legal instruments. Drawing upon lessons from the success of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism, established pursuant to the United Nations' Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, we argue that effective global health governance requires consideration of a broad range of instruments, both binding and nonbinding. A detailed examination of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism reveals that the choice of the nonbinding format makes an important contribution to its effectiveness. For instance, the flexibility and adaptability of the nonbinding format have allowed the global community to: (1) undertake commitments in a timely manner; (2) adapt and experiment in the face of a dynamic pandemic; and (3) grant civil society an unparalleled role in monitoring and reporting on state implementation of global commitments. UNAIDS' institutional support has also played a vital role in ensuring the continuing effectiveness of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism. Overall, the experience of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism evidences that, at times, nimbler nonbinding instruments can offer benefits over slower, more rigid binding legal approaches to governance, but depend critically, like all instruments, on the perceived legitimacy thereof. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. Global Mechanisms for Sustaining and Enhancing PES Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Farley, Josh; Aquino, Andre; Daniels, Amy; Moulaert, Azur; Lee, Dan; Krause, Abby

    2010-01-01

    An international payment for ecosystem service (IPES) schemes may be one of the only mechanisms available to stimulate the provision of vital non-marketed ecosystem services at the global level, as those nations that benefit from global ecosystem services (GES) cannot readily force other sovereign nations to provide them. Currently, international trade offers trillions of dollars in incentives for countries to convert natural capital into marketable goods and services, and few payments to ent...

  16. Global and local aspects of causality in quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoica Cristinel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantum mechanics forces us to reconsider certain aspects of classical causality. The ‘central mystery’ of quantum mechanics manifests in different ways, depending on the interpretation. This mystery can be formulated as the possibility of selecting part of the initial conditions of the Universe ‘retroactively’. This talk aims to show that there is a global, timeless, ‘bird’s view’ of the spacetime, which makes this mystery more reasonable. We will review some well-known quantum effects from the perspective of global consistency.

  17. Priority setting of strategies and mechanisms for limiting global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Scientific communities have reached a consensus that increases of greenhouse gas emission will result in climatic warming and sea level rises despite existing uncertainties. Major uncertainties include the sensitivities of climate changes in terms of timing, magnitude, and scales of regional changes. Socioeconomic uncertainties encompass population and economic growth, changes in technology, future reliance on fossil fuel, and policies compiled to stabilize the global warming. Moreover, increase in world population coupled with limited resources will increase the vulnerability of ecosystems and social systems. Global warming has become an international concern since the destinies of all nations are closely interwoven by this issue and how nations deal with it. Appropriate strategies and mechanisms are need to slow down the buildup of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases. Questionnaires were sent to 150 experts in 30 countries to evaluate such strategies and mechanisms for dealing with global warming, from both the domestic and international perspectives. This paper will focus primarily on strategy selection

  18. Multi-Level Round-Robin Multicast Scheduling with Look-Ahead Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    constructs the Traffic Matrix before each cell transmission based on the fan-out vectors of the cells in the queues. A scheduling pointer independently moves on each column of the Traffic Matrix in a round-robin fashion and returns the decision to the Decision Matrix. The sync procedure is carried out...

  19. Global and Regional Impacts of the Clean Development Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shunli; De Groot, H.L.F.; Nijkamp, P.; Verhoef, E.T. [VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    Climate change is a serious concern worldwide. Policy research on climate change in the past decades has largely focused on applied modelling exercises. However, the implications of specific policy strategies such as the clean development mechanism (CDM) for global and regional economic and environmental developments has received relatively little attention. This is partly caused by the complexities of modelling an instrument like CDM. By using and modifying the GTAP-E modelling system (GTAP stands for Global Trade Analysis Project), this paper sets out to trace the combined economic and environmental impacts of CDM policies. Particular emphasis is placed on technology transfer induced by alternative CDM policies. Specific attention is devoted to the possible negative consequences of non-participation of the USA in the global coalition, and the associated distributional impacts world-wide.

  20. Global and Regional Impacts of the Clean Development Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shunli; De Groot, H.L.F.; Nijkamp, P.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2009-05-01

    Climate change is a serious concern worldwide. Policy research on climate change in the past decades has largely focused on applied modelling exercises. However, the implications of specific policy strategies such as the clean development mechanism (CDM) for global and regional economic and environmental developments has received relatively little attention. This is partly caused by the complexities of modelling an instrument like CDM. By using and modifying the GTAP-E modelling system (GTAP stands for Global Trade Analysis Project), this paper sets out to trace the combined economic and environmental impacts of CDM policies. Particular emphasis is placed on technology transfer induced by alternative CDM policies. Specific attention is devoted to the possible negative consequences of non-participation of the USA in the global coalition, and the associated distributional impacts world-wide.

  1. Enhancing Performance of Bluetooth Piconets Using Priority Scheduling and Exponential Back-Off Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmendra Chourishi "Maitraya"; Sridevi Seshadri

    2009-01-01

    Bluetooth is a personal wireless communication technology and is being applied in many scenarios. It is an emerging standard for short range, low cost, low power wireless access technology. Current existing MAC (Medium Access Control) scheduling schemes only provide best-effort service for all masterslave connections. It is very challenging to provide QoS (Quality of Service) support for different connections due to the feature of Master Driven TDD (Time Division Duplex)....

  2. INTEGRATED MECHANISMS FOR APROACHING PRIORITY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AT GLOBAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    iLDIKO iOAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated mechanisms for approaching priority environmentalissues at global level. At global level, there are considered priorityenvironmental issues two interdependent processes that are essential for thesupport the processes that provide living conditions and wellbeing for the entirehumankind: climate change and loss of biodiversity. Payments of ecosystemservices became already well-known and applied economic instruments, althoughthere are still many uncertainties in the knowledge of eco-economic interdependencies.The paper discusses these aspects in the first part highlighting advantagesand disadvantages, while in the second part there is analyzed an integratedprogram of the United Nations, which was designed for making progress towardboth climate change, and loss of biodiversity. The REDD program – Reduction ofEmissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation – is addressed to developingcountries and it started in 2008. Based on assessment reports we will try toformulate a number of conclusions regarding the program’s effectiveness.

  3. Sugarcane bagasse gasification: Global reaction mechanism of syngas evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.I.; Gupta, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated using a semi batch reactor. ► Global reaction mechanism combining pyrolysis and gasification reactions is presented. ► High flow rates of syngas supported fragmentation and secondary reactions. ► CO flow rate increased at higher heating rates at the expense of CO 2 production. ► At high temperatures merger between pyrolysis and char gasification occurs. -- Abstract: Steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated. A semi batch reactor with a fixed amount of sugarcane bagasse sample placed in steady flow of high temperature steam at atmospheric pressure has been used. The gasification of bagasse was examined at reactor and steam temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The evolution of syngas flow rate and chemical composition has been monitored. The evolution of chemical composition and total flow rate of the syngas has been used to formulate a global reaction mechanism. The mechanism combines pyrolysis reaction mechanisms from the literature and steam gasification/reforming reactions. Steam gasification steps include steam–hydrocarbons reforming, char gasification and water gas shift reactions. Evidence of fragmentation, secondary ring opening reactions and tertiary reactions resulting in formation of gaseous hydrocarbons is supported by higher flow rates of syngas and hydrogen at high heating rates and high reactor temperatures. Increase in carbon monoxide flow rate at the expense of carbon dioxide flow rate with the increase in reactor temperature has been observed. This increase in the ratio of CO/CO 2 flow rate confirms the production of CO and CO 2 from the competing reaction routes. At 1000 °C gasification a total merging between the pyrolysis step and the char gasification step has been observed. This is attributed to acceleration of char gasification reactions and acceleration of steam–hydrocarbons reforming reactions. These hydrocarbons are the precursors to

  4. Global mechanisms for sustaining and enhancing PES schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, Josh; Moulaert, Azur; Lee, Dan; Krause, Abby; Aquino, Andre; Daniels, Amy

    2010-01-01

    An international payment for ecosystem service (IPES) schemes may be one of the only mechanisms available to stimulate the provision of vital non-marketed ecosystem services at the global level, as those nations that benefit from global ecosystem services (GES) cannot readily force other sovereign nations to provide them. Currently, international trade offers trillions of dollars in incentives for countries to convert natural capital into marketable goods and services, and few payments to entice countries to conserve natural capital in order to sustain critical non-marketed ecosystem services. We examine the biophysical characteristics of climate change and biodiversity to understand the obstacles to developing effective IPES schemes. We find that none of the existing schemes for providing GES are adequate, given the scale of the problem. A cap and auction scheme for CO 2 emissions among wealthy nations could fund IPES and simultaneously deter carbon emissions. To disburse funds, we should adapt Brazil's ICMS ecologico, and apportion available funds to targeted countries in proportion to how well they meet specific criteria designed to measure the provision of GES. Individual countries can then develop their own policies for increasing provision of these services, ensured of compensation if they do so. Indirect IPES should include funding for freely available technologies that protect or provide GES, such as the low carbon energy alternatives that will be essential for curbing climate change. Markets rely on the price mechanism to generate profits, which rations technology to those who can afford it, reducing adoption rates, innovation and total value. (author)

  5. A Study on Partnering Mechanism in B to B EC Server for Global Supply Chain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihara, Toshiya

    B to B Electronic Commerce (EC) technology is now in progress and regarded as an information infrastructure for global business. As the number and diversity of EC participants grows at the agile environment, the complexity of purchasing from a vast and dynamic array of goods and services needs to be hidden from the end user. Putting the complexity into the EC system instead means providing flexible auction server for enabling commerce within different business units. Market mechanism could solve the product distribution problem in the auction server by allocating the scheduled resources according to market prices. In this paper, we propose a partnering mechanism for B to B EC with market-oriented programming that mediates amongst unspecified various companies in the trade, and demonstrate the applicability of the economic analysis to this framework after constructing a primitive EC server. The proposed mechanism facilitates sophisticated B to B EC, which conducts a Pareto optimal solution for all the participating business units in the coming agile era.

  6. Cognitive Self-Scheduled Mechanism for Access Control in Noisy Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Manzano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the challenging environment of intelligent transportation systems (ITS, networked control systems such as platooning guidance of autonomous vehicles require innovative mechanisms to provide real-time communications. Although several proposals are currently under discussion, the design of a rapid, efficient, flexible, and reliable medium access control mechanism which meets the specific constraints of such real-time communications applications remains unsolved in this highly dynamic environment. However, cognitive radio (CR combines the capacity to sense the radio spectrum with the flexibility to adapt to transmission parameters in order to maximize system performance and has thus become an effective approach for the design of dynamic spectrum access (DSA mechanisms. This paper presents the enhanced noncooperative cognitive division multiple access (ENCCMA proposal combining time division multiple access (TDMA and frequency division multiple access (FDMA schemes with CR techniques to obtain a mechanism fulfilling the requirements of real-time communications. The analysis presented here considers the IEEE WAVE and 802.11p as reference standards; however, the proposed medium access control (MAC mechanism can be adapted to operate on the physical layer of different standards. The mechanism also offers the advantage of avoiding signaling, thus enhancing system autonomy as well as behavior in adverse scenarios.

  7. A Novel Cardiotoxic Mechanism for a Pervasive Global Pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brette, Fabien; Shiels, Holly A.; Galli, Gina L. J.; Cros, Caroline; Incardona, John P.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Block, Barbara A.

    2017-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon disaster drew global attention to the toxicity of crude oil and the potential for adverse health effects amongst marine life and spill responders in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The blowout released complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into critical pelagic spawning habitats for tunas, billfishes, and other ecologically important top predators. Crude oil disrupts cardiac function and has been associated with heart malformations in developing fish. However, the precise identity of cardiotoxic PAHs, and the mechanisms underlying contractile dysfunction are not known. Here we show that phenanthrene, a PAH with a benzene 3-ring structure, is the key moiety disrupting the physiology of heart muscle cells. Phenanthrene is a ubiquitous pollutant in water and air, and the cellular targets for this compound are highly conserved across vertebrates. Our findings therefore suggest that phenanthrene may be a major worldwide cause of vertebrate cardiac dysfunction.

  8. Analysis of the status and problems of mechanical module manufacturing schedule of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shuyu; Lu Qinwu; Li Yi

    2014-01-01

    An important feature of the 3rd generation nuclear power projects of AP1000 is the scale application of the modular design and construction technology. The world's first AP1000 project has been started in 2008 in our country, some problems existing in project construction process, such as the mechanical module manufacturing progress can't well meet the needs of the practical engineering. In this article, through investigating and analyzing the main cause of affecting plant mechanical module manufacturing progress, according to our country's actual situation in design, procurement and construction, explore the measures to improve module building progress in the process of AP1000 modular construction project at this stage, provide suggestions for project smooth implementation. (authors)

  9. Global versus local mechanisms of temperature sensing in ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Cristina; Minor, Daniel L

    2018-05-01

    Ion channels turn diverse types of inputs, ranging from neurotransmitters to physical forces, into electrical signals. Channel responses to ligands generally rely on binding to discrete sensor domains that are coupled to the portion of the channel responsible for ion permeation. By contrast, sensing physical cues such as voltage, pressure, and temperature arises from more varied mechanisms. Voltage is commonly sensed by a local, domain-based strategy, whereas the predominant paradigm for pressure sensing employs a global response in channel structure to membrane tension changes. Temperature sensing has been the most challenging response to understand and whether discrete sensor domains exist for pressure and temperature has been the subject of much investigation and debate. Recent exciting advances have uncovered discrete sensor modules for pressure and temperature in force-sensitive and thermal-sensitive ion channels, respectively. In particular, characterization of bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel (BacNa V ) thermal responses has identified a coiled-coil thermosensor that controls channel function through a temperature-dependent unfolding event. This coiled-coil thermosensor blueprint recurs in other temperature sensitive ion channels and thermosensitive proteins. Together with the identification of ion channel pressure sensing domains, these examples demonstrate that "local" domain-based solutions for sensing force and temperature exist and highlight the diversity of both global and local strategies that channels use to sense physical inputs. The modular nature of these newly discovered physical signal sensors provides opportunities to engineer novel pressure-sensitive and thermosensitive proteins and raises new questions about how such modular sensors may have evolved and empowered ion channel pores with new sensibilities.

  10. Sixth-Grade Students' Progress in Understanding the Mechanisms of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintainer, Tammie; Linn, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Developing solutions for complex issues such as global climate change requires an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This study reports on the impact of a technology-enhanced unit designed to improve understanding of global climate change, its mechanisms, and their relationship to everyday energy use. Global Climate Change, implemented in…

  11. Using RFID Positioning Technology to Construct an Automatic Rehabilitation Scheduling Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Sheng; Hung, Lun-Ping; Yen, Neil Y

    2016-01-01

    Accurately and efficiently identifying the location of patients during the course of rehabilitation is an important issue. Wireless transmission technology can reach this goal. Tracking technologies such as RFID (Radio frequency identification) can support process improvement and improve efficiencies of rehabilitation. There are few published models or methods to solve the problem of positioning and apply this technology in the rehabilitation center. We propose a mechanism to enhance the accuracy of positioning technology and provide information about turns and obstacles on the path; and user-centered services based on location-aware to enhanced quality care in rehabilitation environment. This paper outlines the requirements and the role of RFID in assisting rehabilitation environment. A prototype RFID hospital support tool is established. It is designed to provide assistance for monitoring rehabilitation patients. It can simultaneously calculate the rehabilitant's location and the duration of treatment, and automatically record the rehabilitation course of the rehabilitant, so as to improve the management efficiency of the rehabilitation program.

  12. An Improved Task Scheduling Algorithm for Intelligent Control in Tiny Mechanical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN has been already widely used in many fields in terms of industry, agriculture, and military, and so forth. The basic composition is WSN nodes that are capable of performing processing, gathering information, and communicating with other connected nodes in the network. The main components of a WSN node are microcontroller, transceiver, and some sensors. Undoubtedly, it also can be added with some actuators to form a tiny mechanical system. Under this case, the existence of task preemption while executing operating system will not only cost more energy for WSN nodes themselves, but also bring unacceptable system states caused by vibrations. However for these nodes, task I/O delays are inevitable due to the existence of task preemption, which will bring extra overhead for the whole system, and even bring unacceptable system states caused by vibrations. This paper mainly considers the earliest deadline first (EDF task preemption algorithm executed in WSN OS and proposes an improved task preemption algorithm so as to lower the preemption overhead and I/O delay and then improve the system performance. The experimental results show that the improved task preemption algorithm can reduce the I/O delay effectively, so the real-time processing ability of the system is enhanced.

  13. The Global Environment Facility (GEF): Right mechanism for improved implementation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Steinar; Rosendal, Kristin G.

    2012-11-01

    The purpose is to feed into the international discussions of environmental financial mechanisms such as for forestry and mercury by examining the performance of the GEF. We discuss performance against effectiveness and legitimacy and focus on institutional set-up and key actors as explanatory factors. Methodologically, we use document and literature analysis and interviews with key actors in organizations, state representatives and NGOs. The dominant position of the USA and the World Bank has probably contributed to the bias towards a northern environmental agenda and emphasis on effectiveness and climate change projects. The GEF has somewhat predictably diverted the flow of international money from the poorest countries to more rapidly developing countries. Still, despite turf battles between the organizations involved, the broad organisational and thematic composition of the GEF has comparative advantages. This enhances the score on legitimacy especially for biodiversity projects, although they receive less overall funding. The GEF may be seen as an indication of how, regardless of choosing established or new institutions, basic power structures and interests of dominating parties will be largely decisive for what can be achieved in global environmental governance.(auth)

  14. A Physical Mechanism and Global Quantification of Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Yu

    Full Text Available Initiation and progression of cancer depend on many factors. Those on the genetic level are often considered crucial. To gain insight into the physical mechanisms of breast cancer, we construct a gene regulatory network (GRN which reflects both genetic and environmental aspects of breast cancer. The construction of the GRN is based on available experimental data. Three basins of attraction, representing the normal, premalignant and cancer states respectively, were found on the phenotypic landscape. The progression of breast cancer can be seen as switching transitions between different state basins. We quantified the stabilities and kinetic paths of the three state basins to uncover the biological process of breast cancer formation. The gene expression levels at each state were obtained, which can be tested directly in experiments. Furthermore, by performing global sensitivity analysis on the landscape topography, six key genes (HER2, MDM2, TP53, BRCA1, ATM, CDK2 and four regulations (HER2⊣TP53, CDK2⊣BRCA1, ATM→MDM2, TP53→ATM were identified as being critical for breast cancer. Interestingly, HER2 and MDM2 are the most popular targets for treating breast cancer. BRCA1 and TP53 are the most important oncogene of breast cancer and tumor suppressor gene, respectively. This further validates the feasibility of our model and the reliability of our prediction results. The regulation ATM→MDM2 has been extensive studied on DNA damage but not on breast cancer. We notice the importance of ATM→MDM2 on breast cancer. Previous studies of breast cancer have often focused on individual genes and the anti-cancer drugs are mainly used to target the individual genes. Our results show that the network-based strategy is more effective on treating breast cancer. The landscape approach serves as a new strategy for analyzing breast cancer on both the genetic and epigenetic levels and can help on designing network based medicine for breast cancer.

  15. Left Atrial Mechanical Function and Global Strain in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Jin Kim

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia and is associated with adverse outcomes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. Although left atrial (LA remodeling and dysfunction are known to associate with the development of atrial fibrillation in HCM, the changes of the LA in HCM patients remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in LA size and mechanical function in HCM patients compared to control subjects and to determine the characteristics of HCM associated with LA remodeling and dysfunction.Seventy-nine HCM patients (mean age, 54 ± 11 years; 76% were men were compared to 79 age- and sex-matched controls (mean age, 54 ± 11 years; 76% were men and 20 young healthy controls (mean age, 33 ± 5 years; 45% were men. The LA diameter, volume, and mechanical function, including global strain (ε, were evaluated by 2D-speckle tracking echocardiography. The phenotype of HCM, maximal left ventricular (LV wall thickness, LV mass, and presence and extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE were evaluated with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.HCM patients showed increased LA volume index, impaired reservoir function, and decreased LA ε compared to the control subjects. When we divided the HCM group according to a maximal LA volume index (LAVImax of 38.7 ml/m2 or LA ε of 21%, no significant differences in the HCM phenotype and maximal LV wall thickness were observed for patients with LAVImax >38.7 ml/m2 or LA ε ≤21%. Conversely, the LV mass index was significantly higher both in patients with maximal LA volume index >38.7 ml/m2 and with LA ε ≤21% and was independently associated with LAVImax and LA ε. Although the LGE extent was increased in patients with LA ε ≤21%, it was not independently associated with either LAVImax or LA ε.HCM patients showed progressed LA remodeling and dysfunction; the determinant of LA remodeling and dysfunction was LV mass index rather than LV myocardial fibrosis by LGE-magnetic resonance

  16. Refinery scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcus V.; Fraga, Eder T. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Shah, Nilay [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This work addresses the refinery scheduling problem using mathematical programming techniques. The solution adopted was to decompose the entire refinery model into a crude oil scheduling and a product scheduling problem. The envelope for the crude oil scheduling problem is composed of a terminal, a pipeline and the crude area of a refinery, including the crude distillation units. The solution method adopted includes a decomposition technique based on the topology of the system. The envelope for the product scheduling comprises all tanks, process units and products found in a refinery. Once crude scheduling decisions are Also available the product scheduling is solved using a rolling horizon algorithm. All models were tested with real data from PETROBRAS' REFAP refinery, located in Canoas, Southern Brazil. (author)

  17. Global Stability in Dynamical Systems with Multiple Feedback Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Vinther, Frank; Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2016-01-01

    A class of n-dimensional ODEs with up to n feedbacks from the n’th variable is analysed. The feedbacks are represented by non-specific, bounded, non-negative C1 functions. The main result is the formulation and proof of an easily applicable criterion for existence of a globally stable fixed point...

  18. Leveraging non-binding instruments for global health governance: reflections from the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism for WHO reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A L; Alfven, T; Hougendobler, D; Tanaka, S; Buse, K

    2014-02-01

    As countries contend with an increasingly complex global environment with direct implications for population health, the international community is seeking novel mechanisms to incentivize coordinated national and international action towards shared health goals. Binding legal instruments have garnered increasing attention since the World Health Organization adopted its first convention in 2003. This paper seeks to expand the discourse on future global health lawmaking by exploring the potential value of non-binding instruments in global health governance, drawing on the case of the 2001 United Nations General Assembly Special Session Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. In other realms of international concern ranging from the environment to human rights to arms control, non-binding instruments are increasingly used as effective instruments of international cooperation. The experience of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism, established pursuant to the Declaration, evidences that, at times, non-binding legal instruments can offer benefits over slower, more rigid binding legal approaches to governance. The global AIDS response has demonstrated that the use of a non-binding instrument can be remarkably effective in galvanizing increasingly deep commitments, action, reporting compliance and ultimately accountability for results. Based on this case, the authors argued that non-binding instruments deserve serious consideration by the international community for the future of global health governance, including in the context of WHO reform. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microenvironmental change as a mechanism to study global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortie, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Global change is a set of significant processes that influence all aspects of ecosystem functioning and often-natural services within Santa Barbara County. The sensitivity of coastal and urban systems is certainly very high. However, profound changes are also predicted for arid and semi-arid systems globally, and California is no exception. These dryland systems are less buffered by oceanic processes and typically express high inter-annual variation in precipitation and temperatures in addition to perturbations associated with long-term droughts. However, climate estimates and downscaled values can present challenges in providing evidence at the scale relevant to individual species or individuals, and the importance of biotic interactions must be coupled to these estimates in space and time. Coupled indicators of key micro-environmental measures to both positive and negative interactions between foundation species and other organisms provide a metric of buffering capacity and resilience to global change at fine spatial scales. Consequently, the primary objective of this research project is to provide both the a well-articulated, ecologically relevant micro-environmental big data measure of global change within Santa Barbara County and a coupled estimate of concurrent changes in interactions in key species within the region. Shrubs directly and indirectly buffered local changes in the microenvironment thereby functioning as refuges for other species within arid and semi-arid regions subject to dramatic global change drivers. The following major patterns were identified: (i) shrub micro-environments reduce the level of stress and amplitude of variation associated with temperature and moisture, (ii) many plant and animal species including threatened lizards are relatively more common with shrubs within the region, and (iii) the variation in the interaction patterns between species relates to the extent of amelioration provided by shrub-biodiversity complexes within

  20. The role of media in scheduling strategies in Sergipe in the mobilization of the global-local dialectics from a concrete situation: Olympics/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Mezzaroba

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With all the mega sporting events that are happening in Brazil (The 2007 Pan-American Games, The 2013 Confederations Cup, The 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic/Paralympic Games it is possible to visualize a profitable and instigator moment for researches around this topic, concentrating our attention at the 2012 London Olympic Games. The exaltation of the sport phenomenon brought, in this research, the multiple sides through which the media can present itself and join itself with (regarding economy, culture, politics, education etc.. Our objective was to analyze how the media in the state of Sergipe anticipated and gave visibility to the 2012 Olympic Games, building a “sports-media scheduling” strategy, from the mobilization of the global-local dialectic. Characterized as a qualitative study, which has a descriptive-exploratory approach, this research was developed in three areas: print media, digital media and broadcast media – which have highlighted the low effectiveness of the scheduling strategy and the global-local dialectic strategy, whether because of amateurism in journalistic entities, or because of lack of interest, since there were no athletes from Sergipe in the competition.

  1. Schedule Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Warfare, Naval Sea Systems Command Acquisition Cycle Time : Defining the Problem David Tate, Institute for Defense Analyses Schedule Analytics Jennifer...research was comprised of the following high- level steps :  Identify and review primary data sources 1...research. However, detailed reviews of the OMB IT Dashboard data revealed that schedule data is highly aggregated. Program start date and program end date

  2. Global chaos synchronization of electro-mechanical gyrostat systems via variable substitution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yun; Wu Xiaofeng; Liu Zhong

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies global synchronization of non-autonomous chaotic electro-mechanical gyrostat systems via variable substitution control. A master-slave non-autonomous synchronization scheme with variable substitution control is mathematically presented. Based on the scheme, some sufficient algebraic criteria for global chaos synchronization of master and slave electro-mechanical gyrostat systems via various single-variable coupling are derived. The effectiveness of the obtained criteria is numerically illustrated by the examples.

  3. Asymmetric cell division requires specific mechanisms for adjusting global transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Adriana; Medina, Daniel A; García-Martínez, José; Begley, Victoria; Singh, Abhyudai; Chávez, Sebastián; Muñoz-Centeno, Mari C; Pérez-Ortín, José E

    2017-12-01

    Most cells divide symmetrically into two approximately identical cells. There are many examples, however, of asymmetric cell division that can generate sibling cell size differences. Whereas physical asymmetric division mechanisms and cell fate consequences have been investigated, the specific problem caused by asymmetric division at the transcription level has not yet been addressed. In symmetrically dividing cells the nascent transcription rate increases in parallel to cell volume to compensate it by keeping the actual mRNA synthesis rate constant. This cannot apply to the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where this mechanism would provoke a never-ending increasing mRNA synthesis rate in smaller daughter cells. We show here that, contrarily to other eukaryotes with symmetric division, budding yeast keeps the nascent transcription rates of its RNA polymerases constant and increases mRNA stability. This control on RNA pol II-dependent transcription rate is obtained by controlling the cellular concentration of this enzyme. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Limits of policy intervention in a world of neoliberal mechanism designs: Paradoxes of the global crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymski Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current global context poses several paradoxes: the recovery from the 2009 recession was not a recovery; investment, normally driven by profit rates, is lagging and not leading economic activity; the crisis is global but debate involves sub-global levels; and public safety-nets, which have helped to stabilize national income, are being cut. These paradoxes can be traced, in part, to the impact of the “truce” that followed the Keynesian-Monetarist controversy on economists’ ideas about policy activism. This implicit “truce” has removed activist macro policy from discussion, and shifted attention toward institutions as mechanisms for solving game-theoretic coordination problems. Policy activism then centers on how the “agents” (nations can achieve optimal use of their available resources (or optimal access to resources at the global level; and this involves creating and fine-tuning compacts - neoliberal mechanism designs - that can capture rents and attract globally mobile capital. This approach leads economists to see the key problem in the current global crisis as fixing broken neoliberal mechanisms. However, a global economy dominated by mechanisms that feed on aggregate demand without generating it faces the prospect of stagnation or collapse.

  5. Sixth-Grade Students' Progress in Understanding the Mechanisms of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintainer, Tammie; Linn, Marcia

    2015-04-01

    Developing solutions for complex issues such as global climate change requires an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This study reports on the impact of a technology-enhanced unit designed to improve understanding of global climate change, its mechanisms, and their relationship to everyday energy use. Global Climate Change, implemented in the Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE), engages sixth-grade students in conducting virtual investigations using NetLogo models to foster an understanding of core mechanisms including the greenhouse effect. Students then test how the greenhouse effect is enhanced by everyday energy use. This study draws on three data sources: (1) pre- and post-unit interviews, (2) analysis of embedded assessments following virtual investigations, and (3) contrasting cases of two students (normative vs. non-normative understanding of the greenhouse effect). Results show the value of using virtual investigations for teaching the mechanisms associated with global climate change. Interviews document that students hold a wide range of ideas about the mechanisms driving global climate change. Investigations with models help students use evidence-based reasoning to distinguish their ideas. Results show that understanding the greenhouse effect offers a foundation for building connections between everyday energy use and increases in global temperature. An impediment to establishing coherent understanding was the persistence of an alternative conception about ozone as an explanation for climate change. These findings illustrate the need for regular revision of curriculum based on classroom trials. We discuss key design features of models and instructional revisions that can transform the teaching and learning of global climate change.

  6. Global Combustion Mechanisms for Use in CFD Modeling under Oxy-Fuel Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jimmy; Rasmussen, Christian Lund; Giselsson, Trine

    2009-01-01

    Two global multistep schemes, the two-step mechanism of Westbrook and Dryer (WD) and the four-step mechanism of Jones and Lindstedt (JL), have been refined for oxy-fuel conditions. Reference calculations were conducted with a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism, validated for oxy-fuel combustion...... conditions. In the modification approach, the initiating reactions involving hydrocarbon and oxygen were retained, while modifying the H-2-CO-CO2 reactions in order to improve prediction of major species concentrations. The main attention has been to capture the trend and level of CO predicted...... by the detailed mechanism as well as the correct equilibrium concentration. A CFD analysis of a propane oxy-fuel flame has been performed using both the original and modified mechanisms. Compared to the original schemes, the modified WD mechanism improved the prediction of the temperature field and of CO...

  7. Circuit Mechanisms Governing Local vs. Global Motion Processing in Mouse Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune; Yonehara, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    components represented by component direction-selective (CDS) cells. However, how PDS and CDS cells develop their distinct response properties is still unresolved. The visual cortex of the mouse is an attractive model for experimentally solving this issue due to the large molecular and genetic toolbox...... literature on global motion processing based on works in primates and mice. Lastly, we propose what types of experiments could illuminate what circuit mechanisms are governing cortical global visual motion processing. We propose that PDS cells in mouse visual cortex appear as the perfect arena...

  8. Indirect Effects of Global Change: From Physiological and Behavioral Mechanisms to Ecological Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Alex R; Tsukimura, Brian; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2017-07-01

    A major focus of current ecological research is to understand how global change makes species vulnerable to extirpation. To date, mechanistic ecophysiological analyses of global change vulnerability have focused primarily on the direct effects of changing abiotic conditions on whole-organism physiological traits, such as metabolic rate, locomotor performance, cardiac function, and critical thermal limits. However, species do not live in isolation within their physical environments, and direct effects of climate change are likely to be compounded by indirect effects that result from altered interactions with other species, such as competitors and predators. The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017 Symposium "Indirect Effects of Global Change: From Physiological and Behavioral Mechanisms to Ecological Consequences" was designed to synthesize multiple approaches to investigating the indirect effects of global change by bringing together researchers that study the indirect effects of global change from multiple perspectives across habitat, type of anthropogenic change, and level of biological organization. Our goal in bringing together researchers from different backgrounds was to foster cross-disciplinary insights into the mechanistic bases and higher-order ecological consequences of indirect effects of global change, and to promote collaboration among fields. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. SPANR planning and scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Richard F.; Braun, Tracy D.; Kussow, Matthew; Godfrey, Michael; Koyama, Terry

    2001-07-01

    SPANR (Schedule, Plan, Assess Networked Resources) is (i) a pre-run, off-line planning and (ii) a runtime, just-in-time scheduling mechanism. It is designed to support primarily commercial applications in that it optimizes throughput rather than individual jobs (unless they have highest priority). Thus it is a tool for a commercial production manager to maximize total work. First the SPANR Planner is presented showing the ability to do predictive 'what-if' planning. It can answer such questions as, (i) what is the overall effect of acquiring new hardware or (ii) what would be the effect of a different scheduler. The ability of the SPANR Planner to formulate in advance tree-trimming strategies is useful in several commercial applications, such as electronic design or pharmaceutical simulations. The SPANR Planner is demonstrated using a variety of benchmarks. The SPANR Runtime Scheduler (RS) is briefly presented. The SPANR RS can provide benefit for several commercial applications, such as airframe design and financial applications. Finally a design is shown whereby SPANR can provide scheduling advice to most resource management systems.

  10. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  11. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  12. Scheduling the scheduling task : a time management perspective on scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larco Martinelli, J.A.; Wiers, V.C.S.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Time is the most critical resource at the disposal of schedulers. Hence, an adequate management of time from the schedulers may impact positively on the scheduler’s productivity and responsiveness to uncertain scheduling environments. This paper presents a field study of how schedulers make use of

  13. Physical mechanisms of spring and summertime drought related with the global warming over the northern America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W.; Kim, K. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Drought during the growing season (spring through summer) is severe natural hazard in the large cropland over the northern America. It is important to understand how the drought is related with the global warming and how it will change in the future. This study aims to investigate the physical mechanism of global warming impact on the spring and summertime drought over the northern America using Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Function (CSEOF) analysis. The Northern Hemisphere surface warming, the most dominant mode of the surface air temperature, has resulted in decreased relative humidity and precipitation over the mid-latitude region of North America. For the viewpoint of atmospheric water demand, soil moisture and evaporation have also decreased significantly, exacerbating vulnerability of drought. These consistent features of changes in water demand and supply related with the global warming can provide a possibility of credible insight for future drought change.

  14. The Mechanism of Russian Nanoindustry Development Caused by Globalization: Methods and Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtonomova Oksana Alekseevna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the effective mechanism of the Russian nanoindustry functioning by means of globalization benefits is one of the most important factors of raising the national economy competitiveness in the context of transition to a new technological way. Nanotechnologies is one of the key factors of this new way. The mechanism of nanoindustrial development of the Russian Federation caused by globalization is characterized in the article as a way of task-oriented implementation and management of the global nanotechnology industry development on the basis of cooperation of entities at different levels of the global economic system using the appropriate methods, tools, resources and communication channels, factors and capitals. The mechanism aims at adjusting the described contradictions faced by Russian entities in their business activities in the sphere of production, consumption and promotion of nanotechnologies, nanogoods and nanoservices. Within the framework of a theoretical research the author proposes the classification of methods and tools for the development of the Russian nanoindustry through the international cooperation by the criteria of economic functions: planning, institution, organization, management, investment, finance, information, analysis, control – all aimed at promoting the unification of concepts and actions of collaborating entities in the sphere of nanotechnology. The developed methodology of the international nanoindustrial interaction of Russian entities includes the result-oriented, institutional, organizational, budgetary, investment, tax, informative, and administrative methods, as well as analysis, audit, accounting and evaluation. Besides, the article proves the feasibility of marketing tools application in the sphere of nanoindustrial cooperation aimed at developing a more efficient strategy of promoting products with nanofeatures to the global market.

  15. Scheduling for energy and reliability management on multiprocessor real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xuan

    Scheduling algorithms for multiprocessor real-time systems have been studied for years with many well-recognized algorithms proposed. However, it is still an evolving research area and many problems remain open due to their intrinsic complexities. With the emergence of multicore processors, it is necessary to re-investigate the scheduling problems and design/develop efficient algorithms for better system utilization, low scheduling overhead, high energy efficiency, and better system reliability. Focusing cluster schedulings with optimal global schedulers, we study the utilization bound and scheduling overhead for a class of cluster-optimal schedulers. Then, taking energy/power consumption into consideration, we developed energy-efficient scheduling algorithms for real-time systems, especially for the proliferating embedded systems with limited energy budget. As the commonly deployed energy-saving technique (e.g. dynamic voltage frequency scaling (DVFS)) will significantly affect system reliability, we study schedulers that have intelligent mechanisms to recuperate system reliability to satisfy the quality assurance requirements. Extensive simulation is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms on reduction of scheduling overhead, energy saving, and reliability improvement. The simulation results show that the proposed reliability-aware power management schemes could preserve the system reliability while still achieving substantial energy saving.

  16. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  17. A mechanism for land-ocean contrasts in global monsoon trends in a warming climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasullo, J. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, CAS/NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-09-15

    A central paradox of the global monsoon record involves reported decreases in rainfall over land during an era in which the global hydrologic cycle is both expected and observed to intensify. It is within this context that this work develops a physical basis for both interpreting the observed record and anticipating changes in the monsoons in a warming climate while bolstering the concept of the global monsoon in the context of shared feedbacks. The global-land monsoon record across multiple reanalyses is first assessed. Trends that in other studies have been taken as real are shown to likely be spurious as a result of changes in the assimilated data streams both prior to and during the satellite era. Nonetheless, based on satellite estimates, robust increases in monsoon rainfall over ocean do exist and a physical basis for this land-ocean contrast remains lacking. To address the contrast's causes, simulated trends are therefore assessed. While projections of total rainfall are inconsistent across models, the robust land-ocean contrast identified in observations is confirmed. A feedback mechanism is proposed rooted in the facts that land areas warm disproportionately relative to ocean, and onshore flow is the chief source of monsoonal moisture. Reductions in lower tropospheric relative humidity over land domains are therefore inevitable and these have direct consequences for the monsoonal convective environment including an increase in the lifting condensation level and a shift in the distribution of convection generally towards less frequent and potentially more intense events. The mechanism is interpreted as an important modulating influence on the ''rich-get-richer'' mechanism. Caveats for regional monsoons exist and are discussed. (orig.)

  18. GTSO: Global Trace Synchronization and Ordering Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Network Monitoring Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring is one of the best ways to evaluate the behavior of computer systems. When the monitored system is a distributed system—such as a wireless sensor network (WSN)—the monitoring operation must also be distributed, providing a distributed trace for further analysis. The temporal sequence of occurrence of the events registered by the distributed monitoring platform (DMP) must be correctly established to provide cause-effect relationships between them, so the logs obtained in different monitor nodes must be synchronized. Many of synchronization mechanisms applied to DMPs consist in adjusting the internal clocks of the nodes to the same value as a reference time. However, these mechanisms can create an incoherent event sequence. This article presents a new method to achieve global synchronization of the traces obtained in a DMP. It is based on periodic synchronization signals that are received by the monitor nodes and logged along with the recorded events. This mechanism processes all traces and generates a global post-synchronized trace by scaling all times registered proportionally according with the synchronization signals. It is intended to be a simple but efficient offline mechanism. Its application in a WSN-DMP demonstrates that it guarantees a correct ordering of the events, avoiding the aforementioned issues. PMID:29295494

  19. GTSO: Global Trace Synchronization and Ordering Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Network Monitoring Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Marlon; Campelo, José Carlos; Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael

    2017-12-23

    Monitoring is one of the best ways to evaluate the behavior of computer systems. When the monitored system is a distributed system-such as a wireless sensor network (WSN)-the monitoring operation must also be distributed, providing a distributed trace for further analysis. The temporal sequence of occurrence of the events registered by the distributed monitoring platform (DMP) must be correctly established to provide cause-effect relationships between them, so the logs obtained in different monitor nodes must be synchronized. Many of synchronization mechanisms applied to DMPs consist in adjusting the internal clocks of the nodes to the same value as a reference time. However, these mechanisms can create an incoherent event sequence. This article presents a new method to achieve global synchronization of the traces obtained in a DMP. It is based on periodic synchronization signals that are received by the monitor nodes and logged along with the recorded events. This mechanism processes all traces and generates a global post-synchronized trace by scaling all times registered proportionally according with the synchronization signals. It is intended to be a simple but efficient offline mechanism. Its application in a WSN-DMP demonstrates that it guarantees a correct ordering of the events, avoiding the aforementioned issues.

  20. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  1. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  2. Circuit Mechanisms Governing Local vs. Global Motion Processing in Mouse Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Rasmussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A withstanding question in neuroscience is how neural circuits encode representations and perceptions of the external world. A particularly well-defined visual computation is the representation of global object motion by pattern direction-selective (PDS cells from convergence of motion of local components represented by component direction-selective (CDS cells. However, how PDS and CDS cells develop their distinct response properties is still unresolved. The visual cortex of the mouse is an attractive model for experimentally solving this issue due to the large molecular and genetic toolbox available. Although mouse visual cortex lacks the highly ordered orientation columns of primates, it is organized in functional sub-networks and contains striate- and extrastriate areas like its primate counterparts. In this Perspective article, we provide an overview of the experimental and theoretical literature on global motion processing based on works in primates and mice. Lastly, we propose what types of experiments could illuminate what circuit mechanisms are governing cortical global visual motion processing. We propose that PDS cells in mouse visual cortex appear as the perfect arena for delineating and solving how individual sensory features extracted by neural circuits in peripheral brain areas are integrated to build our rich cohesive sensory experiences.

  3. Mechanism of ENSO influence on the South Asian monsoon rainfall in global model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sneh; Kar, Sarat C.

    2018-02-01

    Coupled ocean atmosphere global climate models are increasingly being used for seasonal scale simulation of the South Asian monsoon. In these models, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) evolve as coupled air-sea interaction process. However, sensitivity experiments with various SST forcing can only be done in an atmosphere-only model. In this study, the Global Forecast System (GFS) model at T126 horizontal resolution has been used to examine the mechanism of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forcing on the monsoon circulation and rainfall. The model has been integrated (ensemble) with observed, climatological and ENSO SST forcing to document the mechanism on how the South Asian monsoon responds to basin-wide SST variations in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The model simulations indicate that the internal variability gets modulated by the SSTs with warming in the Pacific enhancing the ensemble spread over the monsoon region as compared to cooling conditions. Anomalous easterly wind anomalies cover the Indian region both at 850 and 200 hPa levels during El Niño years. The locations and intensity of Walker and Hadley circulations are altered due to ENSO SST forcing. These lead to reduction of monsoon rainfall over most parts of India during El Niño events compared to La Niña conditions. However, internally generated variability is a major source of uncertainty in the model-simulated climate.

  4. Global thermo-mechanical effects from a KBS-3 type repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, E.; Olofsson, Stig-Olof

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study has been to identify the global thermo-mechanical effects in the bedrock hosting a nuclear waste repository. Numerical thermo-mechanical modeling using distinct element models was performed. The number of fracture zones, the heat intensity of the waste, the material properties of the rock mass and the boundary conditions of the models were varied. Different models for multi-level repositories were also analyzed and compared to the main single-level case. Further, the global influence from the excavation of repository tunnels and deposition holes was examined by introducing weaker rock mass material properties in the repository region of one model. The maximum compression stress obtained for the main model is 44 MPa and occurs at the repository level after about 100 years of deposition. Due to thermal expansion, the rock mass displaces upward, and the maximum heave at the ground surface after 1000 years is calculated to be 16 cm. In the area close to the ground surface the horizontal stresses reduce, causing the rock to yield in tension down to a depth of about 80 meters. The fracture zones show opening displacements at shallow depths and closing and shearing at the repository level. The maximum displacements are 0.3-2.5 cm for closing, 0.0-0.8 cm for opening and 0.2-2.2 cm for shearing. The resultant stresses and displacements depend in large part on the assumptions made concerning the heat intensity of the waste. In the main model, an initial heat intensity of 10 W/m 2 is assumed, which gives larger effects than the case with 6 W/m 2 . Another important input parameter for the analysis is the Young's modulus of the rock mass. In the main model, a value of 30 GPa is assumed. Higher values of Young's modulus give larger thermo-mechanical effects. All multi-level repository layouts give rise to higher temperatures than the single-level layout, causing the compressive stresses to increase more at the repository level. The multi

  5. Transport, mechanical and global migration data of multilayer copolyamide nanocomposite films with different layouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfato, P; Garofalo, E; Di Maio, L; Incarnato, L

    2017-06-01

    Transport, mechanical and global migration data concern multilayer food packaging films with different layouts, all incorporating a layered silicate/polyamide nanocomposite as oxygen barrier layer, and a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as moisture resistant layer in direct contact with food. The data are related to "Tuning of co-extrusion processing conditions and film layout to optimize the performances of PA/PE multilayer nanocomposite films for food packaging" by Garofalo et al. (2017) [1]. Nanocomposite multilayer films, with different relative layer thicknesses and clay types, were produced using a laboratory scale co-extrusion blown-film equipment and were analyzed in terms of transport to oxygen and water vapor, mechanical properties and overall migration. The results have shown that all the multilayer hybrid films, based on the copolyamide layer filled with Cloisite 30B, displayed the most significant oxygen barrier improvements and the best mechanical properties compared to the unfilled films. No significant alteration of the overall migration values was observed, as expectable [2], [3], [4]. The performance improvement was more relevant in the case of the film with the thinner nanocomposite layer.

  6. Improved Space Surveillance Network (SSN) Scheduling using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottler, D.

    There are close to 20,000 cataloged manmade objects in space, the large majority of which are not active, functioning satellites. These are tracked by phased array and mechanical radars and ground and space-based optical telescopes, collectively known as the Space Surveillance Network (SSN). A better SSN schedule of observations could, using exactly the same legacy sensor resources, improve space catalog accuracy through more complementary tracking, provide better responsiveness to real-time changes, better track small debris in low earth orbit (LEO) through efficient use of applicable sensors, efficiently track deep space (DS) frequent revisit objects, handle increased numbers of objects and new types of sensors, and take advantage of future improved communication and control to globally optimize the SSN schedule. We have developed a scheduling algorithm that takes as input the space catalog and the associated covariance matrices and produces a globally optimized schedule for each sensor site as to what objects to observe and when. This algorithm is able to schedule more observations with the same sensor resources and have those observations be more complementary, in terms of the precision with which each orbit metric is known, to produce a satellite observation schedule that, when executed, minimizes the covariances across the entire space object catalog. If used operationally, the results would be significantly increased accuracy of the space catalog with fewer lost objects with the same set of sensor resources. This approach inherently can also trade-off fewer high priority tasks against more lower-priority tasks, when there is benefit in doing so. Currently the project has completed a prototyping and feasibility study, using open source data on the SSN's sensors, that showed significant reduction in orbit metric covariances. The algorithm techniques and results will be discussed along with future directions for the research.

  7. An alternative mechanism for international health aid: evaluating a Global Social Protection Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Several public health groups have called for the creation of a global fund for 'social protection'-a fund that produces the international equivalent of domestic tax collection and safety net systems to finance care for the ill and disabled and related health costs. All participating countries would pay into a global fund based on a metric of their ability to pay and withdraw from the common pool based on a metric of their need for funds. We assessed how alternative strategies and metrics by which to operate such a fund would affect its size and impact on health system financing. Using a mathematical model, we found that common targets for health funding in low-income countries require higher levels of aid expenditures than presently distributed. Some mechanisms exist that may incentivize reduction of domestic health inequalities, and direct most funds towards the poorest populations. Payments from high-income countries are also likely to decrease over time as middle-income countries' economies grow.

  8. Scheduling the powering tests

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero-Soto, E; Casas-Lino, M P; Fernandez-Robles, C; Foraz, K; Pojer, M; Saban, R; Schmidt, R; Solfaroli-Camillocci, M; Vergara-Fernandez, A

    2008-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is now entering in its final phase before receiving beam, and the activities at CERN between 2007 and 2008 have shifted from installation work to the commissioning of the technical systems ("hardware commissioning"). Due to the unprecedented complexity of this machine, all the systems are or will be tested as far as possible before the cool-down starts. Systems are firstly tested individually before being globally tested together. The architecture of LHC, which is partitioned into eight cryogenically and electrically independent sectors, allows the commissioning on a sector by sector basis. When a sector reaches nominal cryogenic conditions, commissioning of the magnet powering system to nominal current for all magnets can be performed. This paper briefly describes the different activities to be performed during the powering tests of the superconducting magnet system and presents the scheduling issues raised by co-activities as well as the management of resources.

  9. Canceling effect: a natural mechanism to reduce the effects of global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    The temperature sensitivity of enzymes responsible for organic matter decomposition in soil is crucial for predicting the effects of global warming on the carbon cycle and sequestration. We tested the hypothesis that differences in temperature sensitivity of enzyme kinetic parameters Vmax and Km will lead to a canceling effect: strong reduction of temperature response of catalytic reactions. Short-term temperature response of Vmax and Km of three hydrolytic enzymes responsible for decomposition of cellulose (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase) and hemicelluloses (xylanase) were analyzed in situ from 0 to 40 °C. The apparent activation energy varied between enzymes from 20.7 to 35.2 kJ mol-1 corresponding to the Q10 values of the enzyme activities of 1.4-1.9 (with Vmax-Q10 1.0-2.5 and Km-Q10 0.94-2.3). Temperature response of all tested enzymes fitted well to the Arrhenius equation. Despite that,the fitting of Arrhenius model revealed the non-linear increase of two cellulolytic enzymes activities with two distinct thresholds at 10-15 °C and 25-30 °C, which were less pronounced for xylanase. The nonlinearity between 10 and 15 °C was explained by 30-80% increase in Vmax. At 25-30 °C, however, the abrupt decrease of enzyme-substrate affinity was responsible for non-linear increase of enzyme activities. Our study is the first demonstrating nonlinear response of Vmax and Km to temperature causing canceling effect, which was most strongly pronounced at low substrate concentrations and at temperatures above 15 °C. Under cold climate, however, the regulation of hydrolytic activity by canceling in response to warming is negligible because canceling was never observed below 10 °C. The canceling, therefore, can be considered as natural mechanism reducing the effects of global warming on decomposition of soil organics at moderate temperatures. The non-linearity of enzyme responses to warming and the respective thresholds should therefore be investigated for other enzymes

  10. A multistep damage recognition mechanism for global genomic nucleotide excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugasawa, K; Okamoto, T; Shimizu, Y; Masutani, C; Iwai, S; Hanaoka, F

    2001-03-01

    A mammalian nucleotide excision repair (NER) factor, the XPC-HR23B complex, can specifically bind to certain DNA lesions and initiate the cell-free repair reaction. Here we describe a detailed analysis of its binding specificity using various DNA substrates, each containing a single defined lesion. A highly sensitive gel mobility shift assay revealed that XPC-HR23B specifically binds a small bubble structure with or without damaged bases, whereas dual incision takes place only when damage is present in the bubble. This is evidence that damage recognition for NER is accomplished through at least two steps; XPC-HR23B first binds to a site that has a DNA helix distortion, and then the presence of injured bases is verified prior to dual incision. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) were hardly recognized by XPC-HR23B, suggesting that additional factors may be required for CPD recognition. Although the presence of mismatched bases opposite a CPD potentiated XPC-HR23B binding, probably due to enhancement of the helix distortion, cell-free excision of such compound lesions was much more efficient than expected from the observed affinity for XPC-HR23B. This also suggests that additional factors and steps are required for the recognition of some types of lesions. A multistep mechanism of this sort may provide a molecular basis for ensuring the high level of damage discrimination that is required for global genomic NER.

  11. Immunization Schedules for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Adults (19 Years of Age and ... diseases that can be prevented by vaccines . 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Adults by Age and ...

  12. Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  13. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  14. Web Publishing Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Section 207(f)(2) of the E-Gov Act requires federal agencies to develop an inventory and establish a schedule of information to be published on their Web sites, make those schedules available for public comment. To post the schedules on the web site.

  15. Preemptive scheduling with rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, H.; Skutella, M.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of preemptively scheduling a set of n jobs on m (identical, uniformly related, or unrelated) parallel machines. The scheduler may reject a subset of the jobs and thereby incur job-dependent penalties for each rejected job, and he must construct a schedule for the remaining

  16. Preemptive scheduling with rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; Skutella, M.; Woeginger, G.J.; Paterson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We consider the problem of preemptively scheduling a set of n jobs on m (identical, uniformly related, or unrelated) parallel machines. The scheduler may reject a subset of the jobs and thereby incur job-dependent penalties for each rejected job, and he must construct a schedule for the remaining

  17. Outage scheduling and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.E.; Segall, P.; Smith, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Successful preparation and implementation of an outage schedule and completion of scheduled and emergent work within an identified critical path time frame is a result of careful coordination by Operations, Work Control, Maintenance, Engineering, Planning and Administration and others. At the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) careful planning has been responsible for meeting all scheduled outage critical paths

  18. Scheduling with Time Lags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Zhang (Xiandong)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractScheduling is essential when activities need to be allocated to scarce resources over time. Motivated by the problem of scheduling barges along container terminals in the Port of Rotterdam, this thesis designs and analyzes algorithms for various on-line and off-line scheduling problems

  19. Plant communities as drivers of soil respiration: pathways, mechanisms, and significance for global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, D. B.; Fisher, R. A.; Wardle, D. A.

    2011-08-01

    Understanding the impacts of plant community characteristics on soil carbon dioxide efflux (R) is a key prerequisite for accurate prediction of the future carbon (C) balance of terrestrial ecosystems under climate change. However, developing a mechanistic understanding of the determinants of R is complicated by the presence of multiple different sources of respiratory C within soil - such as soil microbes, plant roots and their mycorrhizal symbionts - each with their distinct dynamics and drivers. In this review, we synthesize relevant information from a wide spectrum of sources to evaluate the current state of knowledge about plant community effects on R, examine how this information is incorporated into global climate models, and highlight priorities for future research. Despite often large variation amongst studies and methods, several general trends emerge. Mechanisms whereby plants affect R may be grouped into effects on belowground C allocation, aboveground litter properties and microclimate. Within vegetation types, the amount of C diverted belowground, and hence R, may be controlled mainly by the rate of photosynthetic C uptake, while amongst vegetation types this should be more dependent upon the specific C allocation strategies of the plant life form. We make the case that plant community composition, rather than diversity, is usually the dominant control on R in natural systems. Individual species impacts on R may be largest where the species accounts for most of the biomass in the ecosystem, has very distinct traits to the rest of the community and/or modulates the occurrence of major natural disturbances. We show that climate vegetation models incorporate a number of pathways whereby plants can affect R, but that simplifications regarding allocation schemes and drivers of litter decomposition may limit model accuracy. We also suggest that under a warmer future climate, many plant communities may shift towards dominance by fast growing plants which

  20. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons

  3. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  4. Market-based mechanisms for biodiversity conservation: a review of existing schemes and an outline for a global mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarado Quesada, I.; Hein, L.G.; Weikard, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous decline of biodiversity over the past decades suggests that efforts to decrease biodiversity loss have been insufficient. One option to deal with this problem is the use of market-based mechanisms for biodiversity conservation. Several studies have analysed such mechanisms individually,

  5. A stochastic self-scheduling program for compressed air energy storage (CAES) of renewable energy sources (RESs) based on a demand response mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalelou, Afshin Najafi; Fakhri, Alireza Pashaei; Nojavan, Sayyad; Majidi, Majid; Hatami, Hojat

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal stochastic energy management of renewable energy sources (RESs) is proposed. • The compressed air energy storage (CAES) besides RESs is used in the presence of DRP. • Determination charge and discharge of CAES in order to reduce the expected operation cost. • Moreover, demand response program (DRP) is proposed to minimize the operation cost. • The uncertainty modeling of input data are considered in the proposed stochastic framework. - Abstract: In this paper, a stochastic self-scheduling of renewable energy sources (RESs) considering compressed air energy storage (CAES) in the presence of a demand response program (DRP) is proposed. RESs include wind turbine (WT) and photovoltaic (PV) system. Other energy sources are thermal units and CAES. The time-of-use (TOU) rate of DRP is considered in this paper. This DRP shifts the percentage of load from the expensive period to the cheap one in order to flatten the load curve and minimize the operation cost, consequently. The proposed objective function includes minimizing the operation costs of thermal unit and CAES, considering technical and physical constraints. The proposed model is formulated as mixed integer linear programming (MILP) and it is been solved using General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization package. Furthermore, CAES and DRP are incorporated in the stochastic self-scheduling problem by a decision maker to reduce the expected operation cost. Meanwhile, the uncertainty models of market price, load, wind speed, temperature and irradiance are considered in the formulation. Finally, to assess the effects of DRP and CAES on self-scheduling problem, four case studies are utilized, and significant results were obtained, which indicate the validity of the proposed stochastic program.

  6. Handedness results from Complementary Hemispheric Dominance, not Global Hemispheric Dominance: Evidence from Mechanically Coupled Bilateral Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woytowicz, Elizabeth J; Westlake, Kelly P; Whitall, Jill; Sainburg, Robert L

    2018-05-09

    Two contrasting views of handedness can be described as 1) complementary dominance, in which each hemisphere is specialized for different aspects of motor control, and 2) global dominance, in which the hemisphere contralateral to the dominant arm is specialized for all aspects of motor control. The present study sought to determine which motor lateralization hypothesis best predicts motor performance during common bilateral task of stabilizing an object (e.g. bread) with one hand while applying forces to the object (e.g. slicing) using the other hand. We designed an experimental equivalent of this task, performed in a virtual environment with the unseen arms supported by frictionless air-sleds. The hands were connected by a spring, and the task was to maintain the position of one hand, while moving the other hand to a target. Thus, the reaching hand was required to take account of the spring load to make smooth and accurate trajectories, while the stabilizer hand was required to impede the spring load to keep a constant position. Right-handed subjects performed two task sessions (right hand reach and left hand stabilize; left hand reach and right hand stabilize) with the order of the sessions counterbalanced between groups. Our results indicate a hand by task-component interaction, such that the right hand showed straighter reaching performance while the left showed more stable holding performance. These findings provide support for the complementary dominance hypothesis and suggest that the specializations of each cerebral hemisphere for impedance and dynamic control mechanisms are expressed during bilateral interactive tasks.

  7. Global modeling of flux transfer events: generation mechanism and spacecraft signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, J.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental mode of energy and momentum transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere. It is known to occur in different forms depending on solar wind and magnetospheric conditions. In particular, steady reconnection can be distinguished from pulse-like reconnection events which are also known as Flux Transfer Events (FTEs). The formation mechanism of FTEs and their contolling factors remain controversial. We use global MHD simulations of Earth's magnetosphere to show that for southward IMF conditions: a) steady reconnection preferentially occurs without FTEs when the stagnation flow line nearly coincides with the X-line location, which requires small dipole tilt and nearly due southward IMF, b) FTEs occur when the flow/field symmetry is broken, which requires either a large dipole tilt and/or a substantial east-west component of the IMF, c) the predicted spacecraft signature and the repetition frequency of FTEs in the simulations agrees very well with typical observations, lending credibility to the the model, d) the fundamental process that leads to FTE formation is multiple X-line formation caused by the flow and field patterns in the magnetosheath and requires no intrinsic plasma property variations like variable resistivity, e) if the dipole tilt breaks the symmetry FTEs occur only in the winter hemisphere whereas the reconnection signatures in the summer hemisphere are steady with no bipolar FTE-like signatures, f) if the IMF east-west field component breaks the symmetry FTEs occur in both hemispheres, and g) FTE formation depends on sufficient resolution and low diffusion in the model -- coarse resolution and/or high diffusivity lead to flow-through reconnection signatures that appear unphysical given the frequent observation of FTEs.

  8. NASA scheduling technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Jerry R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a consolidated report on ten major planning and scheduling systems that have been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A description of each system, its components, and how it could be potentially used in private industry is provided in this paper. The planning and scheduling technology represented by the systems ranges from activity based scheduling employing artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to constraint based, iterative repair scheduling. The space related application domains in which the systems have been deployed vary from Space Shuttle monitoring during launch countdown to long term Hubble Space Telescope (HST) scheduling. This paper also describes any correlation that may exist between the work done on different planning and scheduling systems. Finally, this paper documents the lessons learned from the work and research performed in planning and scheduling technology and describes the areas where future work will be conducted.

  9. Plant communities as drivers of soil respiration: pathways, mechanisms, and significance for global change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Metcalfe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impacts of plant community characteristics on soil carbon dioxide efflux (R is a key prerequisite for accurate prediction of the future carbon (C balance of terrestrial ecosystems under climate change. However, developing a mechanistic understanding of the determinants of R is complicated by the presence of multiple different sources of respiratory C within soil – such as soil microbes, plant roots and their mycorrhizal symbionts – each with their distinct dynamics and drivers. In this review, we synthesize relevant information from a wide spectrum of sources to evaluate the current state of knowledge about plant community effects on R, examine how this information is incorporated into global climate models, and highlight priorities for future research. Despite often large variation amongst studies and methods, several general trends emerge.

    Mechanisms whereby plants affect R may be grouped into effects on belowground C allocation, aboveground litter properties and microclimate. Within vegetation types, the amount of C diverted belowground, and hence R, may be controlled mainly by the rate of photosynthetic C uptake, while amongst vegetation types this should be more dependent upon the specific C allocation strategies of the plant life form. We make the case that plant community composition, rather than diversity, is usually the dominant control on R in natural systems. Individual species impacts on R may be largest where the species accounts for most of the biomass in the ecosystem, has very distinct traits to the rest of the community and/or modulates the occurrence of major natural disturbances. We show that climate vegetation models incorporate a number of pathways whereby plants can affect R, but that simplifications regarding allocation schemes and drivers of litter decomposition may limit model accuracy. We also suggest that under a warmer future

  10. Global thermo-mechanical effects from a KBS-3 type repository. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, E.; Olofsson, Stig-Olof; Hakami, H.; Israelsson, Jan

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this study has been to identify the global thermomechanical effects in the bedrock hosting a nuclear waste repository - i.e. the effects at large distances from the repository. Numerical thermomechanical modeling was performed in several steps, beginning with elastic continuum models and followed by distinct element models (3DEC), in which fracture zones are explicitly simulated. The number of fracture zones, the heat intensity of the waste, the material properties of the rock mass and the boundary conditions of the models were varied in different simulations. The results from the numerical modeling show that the principal stresses increase near the repository. The maximum stress obtained for the main model is 44 MPa and occurs at the repository level after about 100 years of deposition. Due to thermal expansion, the rock mass displaces upward, and the maximum heave at the ground surface after 1000 years is calculated to be 16 cm. In the area close to the ground surface, above the center of the repository, the horizontal stresses reduce, causing the rock to yield in tension down to a depth of about 80 m. In correspondence with the stress changes, the fracture zones show opening normal displacements at shallow depths and closing normal displacements and shearing at the repository level. The maximum displacements of the different fracture zones are 0.3-2.5 cm for closing, 0.0-0.8 cm for opening and 0.2-2.2 cm for shearing. Another important input parameter for the analysis is the Young's modulus of the rock mass. In the main model, a value of 30 GPa is assumed. Higher values of Young's modulus give larger thermo-mechanical effects. Other changes of the properties considered give minor changes of the rock mass behavior. All multi-level repository layouts give rise to higher temperatures than the single-level layout, causing the compressive stresses to increase more at the repository level. Fracture zone displacements caused by different layouts are

  11. Design of articulated mechanisms with a degree of freedom constraint using global optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawamoto, Atsushi; Stolpe, Mathias

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with design of articulated mechanisms using a truss ground structure representation. The considered mechanism design problem is to maximize the output displacement for a given input force by choosing a prescribed number of truss elements out of all the available elements, so...... that the resultant mechanism has one mechanical degree of freedom when supported in a statically determinate manner. The mechanical degree of freedom constraint is included since it is essential for obtaining a proper articulated mechanism design. The Green-Lagrange strain measure is used to accommodate for large...

  12. A compact skeletal mechanism for n -dodecane with optimized semi-global low-temperature chemistry for diesel engine simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Tong; Pei, Yuanjiang; Zhong, Bei-Jing; Som, Sibendu; Lu, Tianfeng; Luo, Kai Hong

    2017-03-01

    A skeletal mechanism with 54 species and 269 reactions was developed to predict pyrolysis and oxidation of n-dodecane as a diesel fuel surrogate involving both high-temperature (high-T) and low-temperature (low-T) conditions. The skeletal mechanism was developed from a semi-detailed mechanism developed at the University of Southern California (USC). Species and reactions for high-T pyrolysis and oxidation of C5-C12 were reduced by using reaction flow analysis (RFA), isomer lumping, and then merged into a skeletal C0-C4 core to form a high-T sub-mechanism. Species and lumped semi-global reactions for low-T chemistry were then added to the high-T sub-mechanism and a 54-species skeletal mechanism is obtained. The rate parameters of the low-T reactions were tuned against a detailed mechanism by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as the Spray A flame experimental data, to improve the prediction of ignition delay at low-T conditions, while the high-T chemistry remained unchanged. The skeletal mechanism was validated for auto-ignition, perfectly stirred reactors (PSR), flow reactors and laminar premixed flames over a wide range of flame conditions. The skeletal mechanism was then employed to simulate three-dimensional turbulent spray flames at compression ignition engine conditions and validated against experimental data from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN).

  13. Scheduling for decommissioning projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podmajersky, O.E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the Project Scheduling system being employed by the Decommissioning Operations Contractor at the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). Results from the planning system show that the project continues to achieve its cost and schedule goals. An integrated cost and schedule control system (C/SCS) which uses the concept of earned value for measurement of performance was instituted in accordance with DOE orders. The schedule and cost variances generated by the C/SCS system are used to confirm management's assessment of project status. This paper describes the types of schedules and tools used on the SSDP project to plan and monitor the work, and identifies factors that are unique to a decommissioning project that make scheduling critical to the achievement of the project's goals. 1 fig

  14. Program reference schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones

  15. Approximating Preemptive Stochastic Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Megow Nicole; Vredeveld Tjark

    2009-01-01

    We present constant approximative policies for preemptive stochastic scheduling. We derive policies with a guaranteed performance ratio of 2 for scheduling jobs with release dates on identical parallel machines subject to minimizing the sum of weighted completion times. Our policies as well as their analysis apply also to the recently introduced more general model of stochastic online scheduling. The performance guarantee we give matches the best result known for the corresponding determinist...

  16. Revisiting Symbiotic Job Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Eyerman , Stijn; Michaud , Pierre; Rogiest , Wouter

    2015-01-01

    International audience; —Symbiotic job scheduling exploits the fact that in a system with shared resources, the performance of jobs is impacted by the behavior of other co-running jobs. By coscheduling combinations of jobs that have low interference, the performance of a system can be increased. In this paper, we investigate the impact of using symbiotic job scheduling for increasing throughput. We find that even for a theoretically optimal scheduler, this impact is very low, despite the subs...

  17. Schedule control in Ling Ao nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Ahai

    2007-01-01

    Ling Ao Nuclear Power Station (LANP) is first one built up by self-reliance in China with power capacity 990x2 MWe. The results of quality control, schedule control and cost control are satisfactory. The commercial operation days of Unit 1 and Unit 2 were 28th May 2002 and 8th Jan. 2003 respectively, which were 48 days and 66 days in advance of the project schedule. This paper presents the practices of self-reliance schedule control system in LANP. The paper includes 10 sections: schedule control system; targets of schedule control; schedule control at early stage of project; construction schedule; scheduling practice; Point curves; schedule control of design and procurement; a good practice of construction schedule control on site; commissioning and startup schedule; schedule control culture. Three figures are attached. The main contents of the self-reliance schedule control system are as follows: to draw up reasonable schedules and targets; to setup management mechanism and procedures; to organize powerful project management team; to establish close monitoring system; to provide timely progress reports and statistics information. Five kinds of schedule control targets are introduced, i.e. bar-chart schedule; milesones; Point curves; interface management; hydraulic test schedule of auxiliary piping loops; EMR/EMC/EESR issuance schedules. Six levels of bar-chart schedules were adopted in LANP, but the bar-chart schedules were not satisfactory for complicated erection condition on site, even using six levels of schedules. So a kind of Point curves was developed and their advantages are explained. Scheduling method of three elements: activity, duration, logic, which was adopted in LANP, is introduced. The duration of each piping activities in LANP level 2 project schedule was calculated based on the relevant working Point quantities. The analysis and adjustment of Point curves are illustrated, i.e. balance of monthly quantities; possible production in the peakload

  18. Improving global health governance to combat counterfeit medicines: a proposal for a UNODC-WHO-Interpol trilateral mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-10-31

    Perhaps no greater challenge exists for public health, patient safety, and shared global health security, than fake/falsified/fraudulent, poor quality unregulated drugs, also commonly known as "counterfeit medicines", now endemic in the global drug supply chain. Counterfeit medicines are prevalent everywhere, from traditional healthcare settings to unregulated sectors, including the Internet. These dangerous medicines are expanding in both therapeutic and geographic scope, threatening patient lives, leading to antimicrobial resistance, and profiting criminal actors. Despite clear global public health threats, surveillance for counterfeit medicines remains extremely limited, with available data pointing to an increasing global criminal trade that has yet to be addressed appropriately. Efforts by a variety of public and private sector entities, national governments, and international organizations have made inroads in combating this illicit trade, but are stymied by ineffectual governance and divergent interests. Specifically, recent efforts by the World Health Organization, the primary international public health agency, have failed to adequately incorporate the broad array of stakeholders necessary to combat the problem. This has left the task of combating counterfeit medicines to other organizations such as UN Office of Drugs and Crime and Interpol in order to fill this policy gap. To address the current failure of the international community to mobilize against the worldwide counterfeit medicines threat, we recommend the establishment of an enhanced global health governance trilateral mechanism between WHO, UNODC, and Interpol to leverage the respective strengths and resources of these organizations. This would allow these critical organizations, already engaged in the fight against counterfeit medicines, to focus on and coordinate their respective domains of transnational crime prevention, public health, and law enforcement field operations. Specifically, by

  19. Decentralized Job Scheduling in the Cloud Based on a Spatially Generalized Prisoner’s Dilemma Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gąsior Jakub

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a novel distributed solution to a security-aware job scheduling problem in cloud computing infrastructures. We assume that the assignment of the available resources is governed exclusively by the specialized brokers assigned to individual users submitting their jobs to the system. The goal of this scheme is allocating a limited quantity of resources to a specific number of jobs minimizing their execution failure probability and total completion time. Our approach is based on the Pareto dominance relationship and implemented at an individual user level. To select the best scheduling strategies from the resulting Pareto frontiers and construct a global scheduling solution, we developed a decision-making mechanism based on the game-theoretic model of Spatial Prisoner’s Dilemma, realized by selfish agents operating in the two-dimensional cellular automata space. Their behavior is conditioned by the objectives of the various entities involved in the scheduling process and driven towards a Nash equilibrium solution by the employed social welfare criteria. The performance of the scheduler applied is verified by a number of numerical experiments. The related results show the effectiveness and scalability of the scheme in the presence of a large number of jobs and resources involved in the scheduling process.

  20. Environmental market failures. Are there any local market-based corrective mechanisms for global problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, R.U.

    1997-01-01

    The paper reviews various policy tools that have been discussed in the literature, including legal, administrative and fiscal (tax) schemes, as well as tradeable emission permits and concludes that none of them are really suitable for dealing with global problems. An alternative is suggested, namely the use of tradeable individual consumption quotas for traded commodities at the national level, to be extended later to the global level by trading quotas among nations (assuming agreement can be reached on the basis for determining quotas). 28 refs

  1. Forests and global warming mitigation in Brazil: opportunities in the Brazilian forest sector for responses to global warming under the 'clean development mechanism''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol created global warming response opportunities through the clean development mechanism that allow countries like Brazil to receive investments from companies and governments wishing to offset their emissions of greenhouse gases. Brazil has a special place in strategies for combating global warming because its vast areas of tropical forest represent a potentially large source of emissions if deforested. A number of issues need to be settled to properly assign credit for carbon in the types of options presented by the Brazilian forest sector. These include definition of the units of carbon (permanent sequestration versus carbon-ton-years, the latter being most appropriate for forest options), the means of crediting forest reserve establishment, adoption of discounting or other time-preference weighting for carbon, definition of the accounting method (avoided emissions versus stock maintenance), and mechanism to allow program contributions to be counted, rather than restricting consideration to free-standing projects. Silvicultural plantations offer opportunities for carbon benefits, but have high social impacts in the Brazilian context. Plantations also inherently compete with deforestation reduction options for funds. Forest management has been proposed as a global warming response option, but the assignment of any value to time makes this unattractive in terms of carbon benefits. However, reduced-impact logging can substantially reduce emissions over those from traditional logging practices. Slowing deforestation is the major opportunity offered by Brazil. Slowing deforestation will require understanding its causes and creating functional models capable of generating land-use change scenarios with and without different policy changes and other activities. Brazil already has a number of programs designed to slow deforestation, but the continued rapid loss of forest highlights the vast gulf that exists between the magnitude of the problem and the

  2. Alternative Work Schedules: Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…

  3. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  4. The triangle scheduling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, Christoph; Hanzálek, Zdeněk; Konrad, Christian; Seddik, Yasmina; Sitters, R.A.; Vásquez, Óscar C.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel scheduling problem, where jobs occupy a triangular shape on the time line. This problem is motivated by scheduling jobs with different criticality levels. A measure is introduced, namely the binary tree ratio. It is shown that the Greedy algorithm solves the problem to

  5. Molecular mechanisms responsive to dehydration may impact the invasiveness of perennial weeds under global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge is an invasive perennial weed in the great plains of the US and Canada. The ability of this herbaceous weed to regenerate new shoot growth from an abundance of crown and root buds after severe abiotic stress is critical for survival. Due to its adaptable and aggressive nature, global cl...

  6. Mechanisms of private meta-governance: an analysis of global private governance for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbergen, P.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of global governance for sustainable development is its fragmentation. Next to public regulations, there are often many private regulations in force on the same issue, which are induced by collaborations between businesses and NGOs. Traditionally, it is assumed that

  7. Global-scale combustion sources of organic aerosols: sensitivity to formation and removal mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-06-01

    Organic compounds from combustion sources such as biomass burning and fossil fuel use are major contributors to the global atmospheric load of aerosols. We analyzed the sensitivity of model-predicted global-scale organic aerosols (OA) to parameters that control primary emissions, photochemical aging, and the scavenging efficiency of organic vapors. We used a computationally efficient module for the description of OA composition and evolution in the atmosphere (ORACLE) of the global chemistry-climate model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry). A global dataset of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements was used to evaluate simulated primary (POA) and secondary (SOA) OA concentrations. Model results are sensitive to the emission rates of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) and POA. Assuming enhanced reactivity of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and IVOCs with OH substantially improved the model performance for SOA. The use of a hybrid approach for the parameterization of the aging of IVOCs had a small effect on predicted SOA levels. The model performance improved by assuming that freshly emitted organic compounds are relatively hydrophobic and become increasingly hygroscopic due to oxidation.

  8. Protective Effects and Mechanism of Puerarin on Learning-Memory Disorder after Global Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-qin; GUO He-na; WANG Hu-qing; CHANG Ming-ze; ZHANG Gui-lian; ZHAO Ying-xian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of puerarin on the learning-memory disorder after global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, and to explore its mechanism of action. Methods: The global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model was established using the modified Pulsinelli four-vessel occlusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with puerarin (100 mg/kg) 1 h before ischemia and once every 6 h afterwards. The learning-memory ability was evaluated by the passive avoidance test. The dynamic changes of the cell counts of apoptosis and positive expression of Bcl-2 in the hippocampus CA1 region were determined by the TUNEL and immunohistochemical methods, respectively. Results: (1) Compared with the reperfusion group, the step through latency (STL) in the passive avoidance test in the puerarin group was prolonged significantly (P<0.01). (2) The apoptotic neurons were injured most severely on the 3rd day in the hippocampal CA1 region after global ischemia and reperfusion. In the pueradn group, the number of apoptotic cells decreased at respective time points after ischemia-reperfusion (P<0.01). (3) The level of positive expression of Bcl-2 varied according to the duration of reperfusion and the peak level occurred on day 1 in the hippocampal CA1 region after global cerebral ischemia. Compared with the reperfusion group, the expression of Bcl-2 in the pueradn group was up-regulated at the respective time points after ischemia raperfusion (P<0.01), reaching the peak on day 1. Conclusions: Puerarin could improve the learning-memory ability after global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats. The protective mechanism might be related to the effect of inhibiting or delaying the cell apoptosis through up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 after ischemia and reperfusion.

  9. MEDICAL STAFF SCHEDULING USING SIMULATED ANNEALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Rosocha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The efficiency of medical staff is a fundamental feature of healthcare facilities quality. Therefore the better implementation of their preferences into the scheduling problem might not only rise the work-life balance of doctors and nurses, but also may result into better patient care. This paper focuses on optimization of medical staff preferences considering the scheduling problem.Methodology/Approach: We propose a medical staff scheduling algorithm based on simulated annealing, a well-known method from statistical thermodynamics. We define hard constraints, which are linked to legal and working regulations, and minimize the violations of soft constraints, which are related to the quality of work, psychic, and work-life balance of staff.Findings: On a sample of 60 physicians and nurses from gynecology department we generated monthly schedules and optimized their preferences in terms of soft constraints. Our results indicate that the final value of objective function optimized by proposed algorithm is more than 18-times better in violations of soft constraints than initially generated random schedule that satisfied hard constraints.Research Limitation/implication: Even though the global optimality of final outcome is not guaranteed, desirable solutionwas obtained in reasonable time. Originality/Value of paper: We show that designed algorithm is able to successfully generate schedules regarding hard and soft constraints. Moreover, presented method is significantly faster than standard schedule generation and is able to effectively reschedule due to the local neighborhood search characteristics of simulated annealing.

  10. Job scheduling in a heterogenous grid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Shan, Hongzhang; Smith, Warren

    2004-02-11

    Computational grids have the potential for solving large-scale scientific problems using heterogeneous and geographically distributed resources. However, a number of major technical hurdles must be overcome before this potential can be realized. One problem that is critical to effective utilization of computational grids is the efficient scheduling of jobs. This work addresses this problem by describing and evaluating a grid scheduling architecture and three job migration algorithms. The architecture is scalable and does not assume control of local site resources. The job migration policies use the availability and performance of computer systems, the network bandwidth available between systems, and the volume of input and output data associated with each job. An extensive performance comparison is presented using real workloads from leading computational centers. The results, based on several key metrics, demonstrate that the performance of our distributed migration algorithms is significantly greater than that of a local scheduling framework and comparable to a non-scalable global scheduling approach.

  11. Scheduling multimedia services in cloud computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunchang; Li, Chunlin; Luo, Youlong; Shao, Yanling; Zhang, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Currently, security is a critical factor for multimedia services running in the cloud computing environment. As an effective mechanism, trust can improve security level and mitigate attacks within cloud computing environments. Unfortunately, existing scheduling strategy for multimedia service in the cloud computing environment do not integrate trust mechanism when making scheduling decisions. In this paper, we propose a scheduling scheme for multimedia services in multi clouds. At first, a novel scheduling architecture is presented. Then, We build a trust model including both subjective trust and objective trust to evaluate the trust degree of multimedia service providers. By employing Bayesian theory, the subjective trust degree between multimedia service providers and users is obtained. According to the attributes of QoS, the objective trust degree of multimedia service providers is calculated. Finally, a scheduling algorithm integrating trust of entities is proposed by considering the deadline, cost and trust requirements of multimedia services. The scheduling algorithm heuristically hunts for reasonable resource allocations and satisfies the requirement of trust and meets deadlines for the multimedia services. Detailed simulated experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed trust scheduling scheme.

  12. Global Strategy Implementation at the Business Unit Level: Operational Capabilities and Administrative Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall Roth; David M Schweiger; Allen J Morrison

    1991-01-01

    The study examines the impact of internationally strategy on organizational design and the influence of the organizational design on effectiveness at the business unit level. The empirical findings are based on survey responses from eighty-two business units competing in global industries. The findings are supportive of the contingency notion which suggests that business unit effectiveness is a function of the fit between the international strategy and the organizational design.© 1991 JIBS. J...

  13. Designing an advanced available-to-promise mechanism compatible with the make-to-forecast production systems through integrating inventory allocation and job shop scheduling with due dates and weighted earliness/tardiness cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the competitive business world, applying a reliable and powerful mechanism to support decision makers in manufacturing companies and helping them save time by considering varieties of effective factors is an inevitable issue. Advanced Available-to-Promise is a perfect tool to design and perform such a mechanism. In this study, this mechanism which is compatible with the Make-to-Forecast production systems is presented. The ability to distinguish between batch mode and real-time mode advanced available-to-promise is one of the unique superiorities of the proposed model. We also try to strengthen this mechanism by integrating the inventory allocation and job shop scheduling by considering due dates and weighted earliness/tardiness cost that leads to more precise decisions. A mixed integer programming (MIP model and a heuristic algorithm according to its disability to solve large size problems are presented. The designed experiments and the obtained results have proved the efficiency of the proposed heuristic method.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A MAINTENANCE SCHEDULING MODEL FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of minor maintenance, for each machine within this time span. In order to minimize the total cost of repairs and production. A numerical application of this development model in a case study is presented. Key words: Maintenance, modeling, scheduling, optimization. [Global Jnl Engineering Res. Vol.1(2) 2002: 107-118] ...

  15. NASA Schedule Management Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

  16. Flexible mechanisms in the corporate greenhouse: implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the globalization of the electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreuder, Y.; Sherry, C. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Policy

    2001-07-01

    The contradictions and unresolved tensions between economic globalization and climate change negotiations have added urgency to the climate change debate. The paper argues that the declining role of the nation state in the global economy and the increasing reach of transnational corporations throughout the world present a serious challenge to the environmental integrity and success of international environmental treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol. In particular efficacy and equity of the flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol are questioned as illustrated by the patterns of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) of the US electric power industry in the developing world. US FDI in the electric power sectors of developing countries supports continued carbon-intensive development patterns which will make the long-term goals of the Kyoto Protocol more difficult to achieve. Consequently, FDI raises questions about justifiability of giving credit to Annex I countries through CDM projects undertaken by transnational electric power corporations. 13 refs.

  17. Using a vision cognitive algorithm to schedule virtual machines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Jiaqi; Mhedheb Yousri; Tao Jie; Jrad Foued; Liu Qinghuai; Streit Achim

    2014-01-01

    Scheduling virtual machines is a major research topic for cloud computing, because it directly influences the performance, the operation cost and the quality of services. A large cloud center is normally equipped with several hundred thousand physical machines. The mission of the scheduler is to select the best one to host a virtual machine. This is an NPhard global optimization problem with grand challenges for researchers. This work studies the Virtual Machine (VM) scheduling problem on the...

  18. Global climate regulation and border adjustment mechanisms: the case of carbon importers inclusion in the european trading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    The creation of an inclusion mechanism applied to imports whose production process increases significantly the global climate risk is looked upon as a solution to a collective-action problem. Such a mechanism would provide those States that will sign the next United Nations Convention on Climate Change with a potential remedy if and when gaps between quantified objects, to which all are committed, entail significant competition distortions. Whether this mechanism assumes the form of an external carbon tax or consists in including importers in the European system of CO 2 quota exchanges, it would surely respond to the re-distributive need generated by global warming, provided that the proceeds are used to help bring industrial production in developing countries up to standard. These restrictive measures aimed at preserving the planet are probably compatible with the extraordinary regimes applied by the WTO, which already uses exogenous non-trade norms to arbitrate conflicts. This would validate further the legitimacy of authority transfers onto the WTO, whose scope of legal authority increases constantly, along with that of conflicts that stem from collective preferences. (author)

  19. A Comparative Study on Recently-Introduced Nature-Based Global Optimization Methods in Complex Mechanical System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbaset El Hadi Saad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced global optimization algorithms have been continuously introduced and improved to solve various complex design optimization problems for which the objective and constraint functions can only be evaluated through computation intensive numerical analyses or simulations with a large number of design variables. The often implicit, multimodal, and ill-shaped objective and constraint functions in high-dimensional and “black-box” forms demand the search to be carried out using low number of function evaluations with high search efficiency and good robustness. This work investigates the performance of six recently introduced, nature-inspired global optimization methods: Artificial Bee Colony (ABC, Firefly Algorithm (FFA, Cuckoo Search (CS, Bat Algorithm (BA, Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA and Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO. These approaches are compared in terms of search efficiency and robustness in solving a set of representative benchmark problems in smooth-unimodal, non-smooth unimodal, smooth multimodal, and non-smooth multimodal function forms. In addition, four classic engineering optimization examples and a real-life complex mechanical system design optimization problem, floating offshore wind turbines design optimization, are used as additional test cases representing computationally-expensive black-box global optimization problems. Results from this comparative study show that the ability of these global optimization methods to obtain a good solution diminishes as the dimension of the problem, or number of design variables increases. Although none of these methods is universally capable, the study finds that GWO and ABC are more efficient on average than the other four in obtaining high quality solutions efficiently and consistently, solving 86% and 80% of the tested benchmark problems, respectively. The research contributes to future improvements of global optimization methods.

  20. Governance Mechanism for Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Stochastic Differential Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today developed and developing countries have to admit the fact that global warming is affecting the earth, but the fundamental problem of how to divide up necessary greenhouse gas reductions between developed and developing countries remains. In this paper, we propose cooperative and noncooperative stochastic differential game models to describe greenhouse gas emissions decision makings of developed and developing countries, calculate their feedback Nash equilibrium and the Pareto optimal solution, characterize parameter spaces that developed and developing countries can cooperate, design cooperative conditions under which participants buy the cooperative payoff, and distribute the cooperative payoff with Nash bargaining solution. Lastly, numerical simulations are employed to illustrate the above results.

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Possible Neuroprotective Mechanisms in the Model of Global Ischemia in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Maria Elizabeth Pereira; Correia, Alyne Oliveira; Mendon?a, Francisco Nilson Maciel; Uchoa, Luiz Ricardo Ara?jo; Vasconcelos, Jessica Tamara Nunes; de Ara?jo, Carlos Ney Alencar; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Siqueira, Rafaelly Maria Pinheiro; Cerqueira, Gilberto dos Santos; Neves, Kelly Rose Tavares; Arida, Ricardo M?rio; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros

    2016-01-01

    Background. Omega-3 (ω3) administration was shown to protect against hypoxic-ischemic injury. The objectives were to study the neuroprotective effects of ω3, in a model of global ischemia. Methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to carotid occlusion (30 min), followed by reperfusion. The groups were SO, untreated ischemic and ischemic treated rats with ω3 (5 and 10 mg/kg, 7 days). The SO and untreated ischemic animals were orally treated with 1% cremophor and, 1 h after the last administrati...

  2. Physician Fee Schedule Search

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website is designed to provide information on services covered by the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule (MPFS). It provides more than 10,000 physician services,...

  3. Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Outpatient clinical laboratory services are paid based on a fee schedule in accordance with Section 1833(h) of the Social Security Act. The clinical laboratory fee...

  4. CERN confirms LHC schedule

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The CERN Council held its 125th session on 20 June. Highlights of the meeting included confirmation that the LHC is on schedule for a 2007 start-up, and the announcement of a new organizational structure in 2004.

  5. DMEPOS Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure codes and payment category, jurisdication, and short description assigned to each...

  6. Project Schedule Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizouni, Rabeb; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    overrun both their budget and time. To improve the quality of initial project plans, we show in this paper the importance of (1) reflecting features’ priorities/risk in task schedules and (2) considering uncertainties related to human factors in plan schedules. To make simulation tasks reflect features......’ priority as well as multimodal team allocation, enhanced project schedules (EPS), where remedial actions scenarios (RAS) are added, were introduced. They reflect potential schedule modifications in case of uncertainties and promote a dynamic sequencing of involved tasks rather than the static conventional...... this document as an instruction set. The electronic file of your paper will be formatted further at Journal of Software. Define all symbols used in the abstract. Do not cite references in the abstract. Do not delete the blank line immediately above the abstract; it sets the footnote at the bottom of this column....

  7. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...... depends on the actual stand allocation but also on the number of zones and the layout of these. A mathematical model of the problem is proposed, which integrates the stand allocation and the staff scheduling. A heuristic solution method is developed and applied on a real case from British Airways, London...

  8. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-11-01

    This single page document is the November 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the production reactor.

  9. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-10-01

    This single page document is the October 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  10. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-10-15

    This single page document is the October 15, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  11. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-09-15

    This single page document is the September 15, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  12. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-12-15

    This single page document is the December 16, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production reactor.

  13. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-12-01

    This single page document is the December 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production reactor.

  14. Fee Schedules - General Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A fee schedule is a complete listing of fees used by Medicare to pay doctors or other providers-suppliers. This comprehensive listing of fee maximums is used to...

  15. CMS Records Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Records Schedule provides disposition authorizations approved by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) for CMS program-related records...

  16. Mechanisms Controlling Global Mean Sea Surface Temperature Determined From a State Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, R. M.; Piecuch, C. G.

    2018-04-01

    Global mean sea surface temperature (T¯) is a variable of primary interest in studies of climate variability and change. The temporal evolution of T¯ can be influenced by surface heat fluxes (F¯) and by diffusion (D¯) and advection (A¯) processes internal to the ocean, but quantifying the contribution of these different factors from data alone is prone to substantial uncertainties. Here we derive a closed T¯ budget for the period 1993-2015 based on a global ocean state estimate, which is an exact solution of a general circulation model constrained to most extant ocean observations through advanced optimization methods. The estimated average temperature of the top (10-m thick) level in the model, taken to represent T¯, shows relatively small variability at most time scales compared to F¯, D¯, or A¯, reflecting the tendency for largely balancing effects from all the latter terms. The seasonal cycle in T¯ is mostly determined by small imbalances between F¯ and D¯, with negligible contributions from A¯. While D¯ seems to simply damp F¯ at the annual period, a different dynamical role for D¯ at semiannual period is suggested by it being larger than F¯. At periods longer than annual, A¯ contributes importantly to T¯ variability, pointing to the direct influence of the variable ocean circulation on T¯ and mean surface climate.

  17. Global sensitivity analysis of thermo-mechanical models in numerical weld modelling; Analyse de sensibilite globale de modeles thermomecaniques de simulation numerique du soudage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petelet, M

    2007-10-15

    Current approach of most welding modellers is to content themselves with available material data, and to chose a mechanical model that seems to be appropriate. Among inputs, those controlling the material properties are one of the key problems of welding simulation: material data are never characterized over a sufficiently wide temperature range {exclamation_point} This way to proceed neglect the influence of the uncertainty of input data on the result given by the computer code. In this case, how to assess the credibility of prediction? This thesis represents a step in the direction of implementing an innovative approach in welding simulation in order to bring answers to this question, with an illustration on some concretes welding cases. The global sensitivity analysis is chosen to determine which material properties are the most sensitive in a numerical welding simulation and in which range of temperature. Using this methodology require some developments to sample and explore the input space covering welding of different steel materials. Finally, input data have been divided in two groups according to their influence on the output of the model (residual stress or distortion). In this work, complete methodology of the global sensitivity analysis has been successfully applied to welding simulation and lead to reduce the input space to the only important variables. Sensitivity analysis has provided answers to what can be considered as one of the probable frequently asked questions regarding welding simulation: for a given material which properties must be measured with a good accuracy and which ones can be simply extrapolated or taken from a similar material? (author)

  18. ATLAS construction schedule

    CERN Multimedia

    Kotamaki, M

    The goal during the last few months has been to freeze and baseline as much as possible the schedules of various ATLAS systems and activities. The main motivations for the re-baselining of the schedules have been the new LHC schedule aiming at first collisions in early 2006 and the encountered delays in civil engineering as well as in the production of some of the detectors. The process was started by first preparing a new installation schedule that takes into account all the new external constraints and the new ATLAS staging scenario. The installation schedule version 3 was approved in the March EB and it provides the Ready For Installation (RFI) milestones for each system, i.e. the date when the system should be available for the start of the installation. TCn is now interacting with the systems aiming at a more realistic and resource loaded version 4 before the end of the year. Using the new RFI milestones as driving dates a new summary schedule has been prepared, or is under preparation, for each system....

  19. Mechanical dispersion and global longitudinal strain by speckle tracking echocardiography: Predictors of appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candan, Ozkan; Gecmen, Cetin; Bayam, Emrah; Guner, Ahmet; Celik, Mehmet; Doğan, Cem

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigated whether mechanical dispersion which reflects electrical abnormality and other echocardiographic and clinic parameters predict appropriate ICD shock in patients undergone ICD implantation for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Sixty-three patients who received ICD implantation for primary or secondary prevention were included in the study. Patients' clinical, electrocardiographic, 2D classic, and speckle tracking echocardiographic data were collected. Mechanical dispersion was defined as the standard deviation of time to peak negative strain in 18 left ventricular segments. Appropriate ICD therapy was defined as cardioversion or defibrillation due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Patients were divided into two groups as occurrence or the absence of appropriate ICD therapy. A total of 17 (26.9%) patients were observed to have an appropriate ICD therapy during follow-up periods. In patients who performed appropriate ICD therapy, a larger left atrial volume index, higher sudden cardiac death (SCD)-Risk Score, longer mechanical dispersion, and decreased global longitudinal peak strain (GLPS) were observed. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, including (GLPS, mechanical dispersion, LAVi, and SCD-Risk Score) was used to determine independent predictors of occurrence of appropriate ICD therapy during the follow-up. Mechanical dispersion, GLPS, and SCD-Risk Score were found to be independent predictors of occurrence of appropriate ICD therapy. Mechanical dispersion, GLPS, and SCD-Risk Score were found to be predictive for appropriate ICD therapy in patients receiving ICD implantation. Readily measurable mechanical dispersion and GLPS could be helpful to distinguish patients at high risk who could optimally benefit from ICD therapy. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of Cold Drawing Pass Schedule on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of ST 52 during Cold Drawing of Seamless Tubes and its Influence on Springback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadabhau Baban Karanjule

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In-elastic recovery behavior of seamless tube material has been investigated by uniaxial tensile tests. Unloading Stress–Strain curves obtained under different passes of cold drawing process shows that the percentage of in-elastic recovery to the total recovery increased with plastic deformation. This paper is an experimental study that shows Young’s Modulus decreases with plastic strain for ST 52 material. It is found that with increase in plastic strain, Young’s Modulus reduces rapidly initially then reduces more slowly and finally settles to stable value due to increase in plastic deformation and ultimately increased residual stresses. This variation of Young’s’ Modulus is related to internal stresses, residual stresses, micro cracks, dislocations during plastic deformation. Similarly, Scan Electron Microscopy (SEM and Micro-hardness testing reveals that mechanical properties are better in the first pass sample of multiple cold drawing passes. The results of this study reveals that 10-20% degradation occurs in Young’s Modulus for 5-7% plastic strain and better mechanical properties are achieved in the first pass sample.

  1. Mechanisms of Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols and Implications for Global Radiative Forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seinfeld, John H. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2011-12-02

    Organic material constitutes about 50% of global atmospheric aerosol mass, and the dominant source of organic aerosol is the oxidation of volatile hydrocarbons, to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Understanding the formation of SOA is crucial to predicting present and future climate effects of atmospheric aerosols. The goal of this program is to significantly increase our understanding of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere. Ambient measurements indicate that the amount of SOA in the atmosphere exceeds that predicted in current models based on existing laboratory chamber data. This would suggest that either the SOA yields measured in laboratory chambers are understated or that all major organic precursors have not been identified. In this research program we are systematically exploring these possibilities.

  2. Reduction and Uncertainty Analysis of Chemical Mechanisms Based on Local and Global Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gaetano

    Numerical simulations of critical reacting flow phenomena in hypersonic propulsion devices require accurate representation of finite-rate chemical kinetics. The chemical kinetic models available for hydrocarbon fuel combustion are rather large, involving hundreds of species and thousands of reactions. As a consequence, they cannot be used in multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamic calculations in the foreseeable future due to the prohibitive computational cost. In addition to the computational difficulties, it is also known that some fundamental chemical kinetic parameters of detailed models have significant level of uncertainty due to limited experimental data available and to poor understanding of interactions among kinetic parameters. In the present investigation, local and global sensitivity analysis techniques are employed to develop a systematic approach of reducing and analyzing detailed chemical kinetic models. Unlike previous studies in which skeletal model reduction was based on the separate analysis of simple cases, in this work a novel strategy based on Principal Component Analysis of local sensitivity values is presented. This new approach is capable of simultaneously taking into account all the relevant canonical combustion configurations over different composition, temperature and pressure conditions. Moreover, the procedure developed in this work represents the first documented inclusion of non-premixed extinction phenomena, which is of great relevance in hypersonic combustors, in an automated reduction algorithm. The application of the skeletal reduction to a detailed kinetic model consisting of 111 species in 784 reactions is demonstrated. The resulting reduced skeletal model of 37--38 species showed that the global ignition/propagation/extinction phenomena of ethylene-air mixtures can be predicted within an accuracy of 2% of the full detailed model. The problems of both understanding non-linear interactions between kinetic parameters and

  3. Abnormal global processing along the dorsal visual pathway in autism: a possible mechanism for weak visuospatial coherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Gibson, Lisa; Maybery, Murray; Durkin, Kevin; Badcock, David R

    2005-01-01

    Frith and Happe (Frith, U., & Happe, F. (1994). Autism: Beyond theory of mind. Cognition, 50, 115-132) argue that individuals with autism exhibit 'weak central coherence': an inability to integrate elements of information into coherent wholes. Some authors have speculated that a high-level impairment might be present in the dorsal visual pathway in autism, and furthermore, that this might account for weak central coherence, at least at the visuospatial level. We assessed the integrity of the dorsal visual pathway in children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and in typically developing children, using two visual tasks, one examining functioning at higher levels of the dorsal cortical stream (Global Dot Motion (GDM)), and the other assessing lower-level dorsal stream functioning (Flicker Contrast Sensitivity (FCS)). Central coherence was tested using the Children's Embedded Figures Test (CEFT). Relative to the typically developing children, the children with ASD had shorter CEFT latencies and higher GDM thresholds but equivalent FCS thresholds. Additionally, CEFT latencies were inversely related to GDM thresholds in the ASD group. These outcomes indicate that the elevated global motion thresholds in autism are the result of high-level impairments in dorsal cortical regions. Weak visuospatial coherence in autism may be in the form of abnormal cooperative mechanisms in extra-striate cortical areas, which might contribute to differential performance when processing stimuli as Gestalts, including both dynamic (i.e., global motion perception) and static (i.e., disembedding performance) stimuli.

  4. Global Mechanical Response and Its Relation to Deformation and Failure Modes at Various Length Scales Under Shock Impact in Alumina AD995 Armor Ceramic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dandekar, D. P; McCauley, J. W; Green, W. H; Bourne, N. K; Chen, M. W

    2008-01-01

    ... maps relating the experimentally measured global mechanical response of a material through matured shock wave diagnostics to the nature of concurrent deformation and damage generated at varying length scales under shock wave loading.

  5. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  6. Clostridium difficile Infections: A Global Overview of Drug Sensitivity and Resistance Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed S. Banawas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile (C. difficile is the most prevalent causative pathogen of healthcare-associated diarrhea. Notably, over the past 10 years, the number of Clostridium difficile outbreaks has increased with the rate of morbidity and mortality. The occurrence and spread of C. difficile strains that are resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs complicate prevention as well as potential treatment options. Most C. difficile isolates are still susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. Incidences of C. difficile resistance to other antimicrobial drugs have also been reported. Most of the antibiotics correlated with C. difficile infection (CDI, such as ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalosporins, clindamycin, and fluoroquinolones, continue to be associated with the highest risk for CDI. Still, the detailed mechanism of resistance to metronidazole or vancomycin is not clear. Alternation in the target sites of the antibiotics is the main mechanism of erythromycin, fluoroquinolone, and rifamycin resistance in C. difficile. In this review, different antimicrobial agents are discussed and C. difficile resistance patterns and their mechanism of survival are summarized.

  7. Constraint-based job shop scheduling with ILOG SCHEDULER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, W.P.M.; Le Pape, C.

    1998-01-01

    We introduce constraint-based scheduling and discuss its main principles. An approximation algorithm based on tree search is developed for the job shop scheduling problem using ILOG SCHEDULER. A new way of calculating lower bounds on the makespan of the job shop scheduling problem is presented and

  8. Nonblocking Scheduling for Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Balke, Wolf-Tilo; Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    . In this paper, we propose a novel nonblocking scheduling mechanism that is used prior to the actual service invocations. Its aim is to reach an agreement between the client and all participating providers on what transaction processing times have to be expected, accepted, and guaranteed. This enables service......For improved flexibility and concurrent usage existing transaction management models for Web services relax the isolation property of Web service-based transactions. Correctness of the concurrent execution then has to be ensured by commit order-preserving transaction schedulers. However, local...... schedulers of service providers typically do take into account neither time constraints for committing the whole transaction, nor the individual services' constraints when scheduling decisions are made. This often leads to an unnecessary blocking of transactions by (possibly long-running) others...

  9. Planning and scheduling - A schedule's performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, N.M.

    1993-01-01

    Planning and scheduling is a process whose time has come to PSI Energy. With an awareness of the challenges ahead, individuals must look for ways to enhance the corporate competitiveness. Working toward this goal means that each individual has to dedicate themselves to this more competitive corporate environment. Being competitive may be defined as the ability of each employee to add value to the corporation's economic well being. The timely and successful implementation of projects greatly enhances competitiveness. Those projects that do not do well often suffer from lack of proper execution - not for lack of talent or strategic vision. Projects are consumers of resources such as cash and people. They produce a return when completed and will generate a better return when properly completed utilizing proven project management techniques. Completing projects on time, within budget and meeting customer expectations is the way a corporation builds it's future. This paper offers suggestions on implementing planning and scheduling and provides a review of results in the form of management reports

  10. Plant communities as drivers of soil respiration: pathways, mechanisms, and significance for global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, D. B.; Fisher, R. A.; Wardle, D. A.

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the impacts of plant community characteristics on soil carbon dioxide efflux (R) is a key prerequisite for accurate prediction of the future carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems under climate change. In this review, we synthesize relevant information from a wide spectrum of sources to evaluate the current state of knowledge about plant community effects on R, examine how this information is incorporated into global climate models, and highlight priorities for future research. Plant species consistently exhibit cohesive suites of traits, linked to contrasting life history strategies, which exert a variety of impacts on R. As such, we propose that plant community shifts towards dominance by fast growing plants with nutrient rich litter could provide a major, though often neglected, positive feedback to climate change. Within vegetation types, belowground carbon flux will mainly be controlled by photosynthesis, while amongst vegetation types this flux will be more dependent upon the specific characteristics of the plant life form. We also make the case that community composition, rather than diversity, is usually the dominant control on ecosystem processes in natural systems. Individual species impacts on R may be largest where the species accounts for most of the biomass in the ecosystem, has very distinct traits to the rest of the community, or modulates the occurrence of major natural disturbances. We show that climate-vegetation models incorporate a number of pathways whereby plants can affect R, but that simplifications regarding allocation schemes and drivers of litter decomposition may limit model accuracy. This situation could, however, be relatively easily improved with targeted experimental and field studies. Finally, we identify key gaps in knowledge and recommend them as priorities for future work. These include the patterns of photosynthate partitioning amongst belowground components, ecosystem level effects of individual plant traits

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Possible Neuroprotective Mechanisms in the Model of Global Ischemia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elizabeth Pereira Nobre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Omega-3 (ω3 administration was shown to protect against hypoxic-ischemic injury. The objectives were to study the neuroprotective effects of ω3, in a model of global ischemia. Methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to carotid occlusion (30 min, followed by reperfusion. The groups were SO, untreated ischemic and ischemic treated rats with ω3 (5 and 10 mg/kg, 7 days. The SO and untreated ischemic animals were orally treated with 1% cremophor and, 1 h after the last administration, they were behaviorally tested and euthanized for neurochemical (DA, DOPAC, and NE determinations, histological (Fluoro jade staining, and immunohistochemical (TNF-alpha, COX-2 and iNOS evaluations. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Newman-Keuls as the post hoc test. Results. Ischemia increased the locomotor activity and rearing behavior that were partly reversed by ω3. Ischemia decreased striatal DA and DOPAC contents and increased NE contents, effects reversed by ω3. This drug protected hippocampal neuron degeneration, as observed by Fluoro-Jade staining, and the increased immunostainings for TNF-alpha, COX-2, and iNOS were partly or totally blocked by ω3. Conclusion. This study showed a neuroprotective effect of ω3, in great part due to its anti-inflammatory properties, stimulating translational studies focusing on its use in clinic for stroke managing.

  12. Global simulation of flux transfer events: Generation mechanism and spacecraft signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, J.

    We use global MHD simulations of Earth's magnetosphere to show that for southward IMF conditions: a) steady reconnection preferentially occurs without FTEs when the stagnation flow line nearly coincides with the X-line location, which requires small dipole tilt and nearly due southward IMF, b) FTEs occur when the flow/field symmetry is broken, which requires either a large dipole tilt and/or a substantial east-west component of the IMF, c) the predicted spacecraft signature and the repetition frequency of FTEs in the simulations agrees very well with typical observations, lending credibility to the the model, d) the fundamental process that leads to FTE formation is multiple X-line formation caused by the flow and field patterns in the magnetosheath and requires no intrinsic plasma property variations like variable resistivity, e) if the dipole tilt breaks the symmetry FTEs occur only in the winter hemisphere whereas the reconnection signatures in the summer hemisphere are steady with no bipolar FTE-like signatures, f) if the IMF east-west field component breaks the symmetry FTEs occur in both hemispheres but are least likely observed near the subsolar point, and g) FTE formation depends on sufficient resolution and low diffusion in the model. Too coarse resolution and/or too high diffusivity lead to flow-through reconnection signatures that appear unphysical given the frequent observation of FTEs.

  13. Point Climat no. 11 'Japan's Bilateral Offset Crediting Mechanism: A Bilateral Solution to a Global Issue?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Hanh; Delbosc, Anais

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: In order to achieve its long-term emission reduction target following the Fukushima incident, Japan would rely more heavily on international offsetting activities. Concurrent to vigorous proposals to reform the CDM, Japan is also promoting an offset crediting scheme through bilateral agreements with developing countries as a post-2012 market mechanism. Despite potential benefits, issues relating to the accounting rules, environmental integrity and implications to carbon markets warrant further consideration prior to international recognition

  14. A global perspective on mechanical prosthetic heart valve thrombosis: Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsoy, Mustafa Ozan; Kalçık, Macit; Yesin, Mahmut; Karakoyun, Süleyman; Bayam, Emrah; Gündüz, Sabahattin; Özkan, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Prosthetic valve thrombosis is one of the major causes of primary valve failure, which can be life-threatening. Multimodality imaging is necessary for determination of leaflet immobilization, cause of underlying pathology (thrombus versus pannus or both), and whether thrombolytic therapy attempt in the patient would be successful or surgery is needed. Current guidelines for the management of prosthetic valve thrombosis lack definitive class I recommendations due to lack of randomized controlled trials, and usually leave the choice of treatment to the clinician’s experience. In this review, we aimed to summarize the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of mechanical prosthetic valve thrombosis. PMID:28005024

  15. Constraint-based scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  16. Epigenetic mechanisms in pulmonary arterial hypertension: the need for global perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Chelladurai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a severe and progressive disease, characterised by high pulmonary artery pressure that usually culminates in right heart failure. Recent findings of alterations in the DNA methylation state of superoxide dismutase 2 and granulysin gene loci; histone H1 levels; aberrant expression levels of histone deacetylases and bromodomain-containing protein 4; and dysregulated microRNA networks together suggest the involvement of epigenetics in PAH pathogenesis. Thus, PAH pathogenesis evidently involves the interplay of a predisposed genetic background, epigenetic state and injurious events. Profiling the genome-wide alterations in the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation or histone modification pattern in PAH vascular cells, may explain the great variability in susceptibility and disease severity that is frequently associated with pronounced remodelling and worse clinical outcome. Moreover, the influence of genetic predisposition and the acquisition of epigenetic alterations in response to environmental cues in PAH progression and establishment has largely been unexplored on a genome-wide scale. In order to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to the development of PAH and to design novel therapeutic strategies, high-throughput approaches have to be adopted to facilitate systematic identification of the disease-specific networks using next-generation sequencing technologies, the application of these technologies in PAH has been relatively trivial to date.

  17. Scheduling algorithms for rapid imaging using agile Cubesat constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Li, Alan S.; Merrick, James H.

    2018-02-01

    Distributed Space Missions such as formation flight and constellations, are being recognized as important Earth Observation solutions to increase measurement samples over space and time. Cubesats are increasing in size (27U, ∼40 kg in development) with increasing capabilities to host imager payloads. Given the precise attitude control systems emerging in the commercial market, Cubesats now have the ability to slew and capture images within short notice. We propose a modular framework that combines orbital mechanics, attitude control and scheduling optimization to plan the time-varying, full-body orientation of agile Cubesats in a constellation such that they maximize the number of observed images and observation time, within the constraints of Cubesat hardware specifications. The attitude control strategy combines bang-bang and PD control, with constraints such as power consumption, response time, and stability factored into the optimality computations and a possible extension to PID control to account for disturbances. Schedule optimization is performed using dynamic programming with two levels of heuristics, verified and improved upon using mixed integer linear programming. The automated scheduler is expected to run on ground station resources and the resultant schedules uplinked to the satellites for execution, however it can be adapted for onboard scheduling, contingent on Cubesat hardware and software upgrades. The framework is generalizable over small steerable spacecraft, sensor specifications, imaging objectives and regions of interest, and is demonstrated using multiple 20 kg satellites in Low Earth Orbit for two case studies - rapid imaging of Landsat's land and coastal images and extended imaging of global, warm water coral reefs. The proposed algorithm captures up to 161% more Landsat images than nadir-pointing sensors with the same field of view, on a 2-satellite constellation over a 12-h simulation. Integer programming was able to verify that

  18. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    of car drivers' route and mode choice under uncertain travel times. Our analysis exposes some important methodological issues related to complex non-linear scheduling models: One issue is identifying the point in time where the marginal utility of being at the destination becomes larger than the marginal......Different assumptions about travelers' scheduling preferences yield different measures of the cost of travel time variability. Only few forms of scheduling preferences provide non-trivial measures which are additive over links in transport networks where link travel times are arbitrarily...... utility of being at the origin. Another issue is that models with the exponential marginal utility formulation suffer from empirical identification problems. Though our results are not decisive, they partly support the constant-affine specification, in which the value of travel time variability...

  19. An improved sheep flock heredity algorithm for job shop scheduling and flow shop scheduling problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouli Anandaraman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP and Flow Shop Scheduling Problem (FSSP are strong NP-complete combinatorial optimization problems among class of typical production scheduling problems. An improved Sheep Flock Heredity Algorithm (ISFHA is proposed in this paper to find a schedule of operations that can minimize makespan. In ISFHA, the pairwise mutation operation is replaced by a single point mutation process with a probabilistic property which guarantees the feasibility of the solutions in the local search domain. A Robust-Replace (R-R heuristic is introduced in place of chromosomal crossover to enhance the global search and to improve the convergence. The R-R heuristic is found to enhance the exploring potential of the algorithm and enrich the diversity of neighborhoods. Experimental results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, whose optimization performance is markedly superior to that of genetic algorithms and is comparable to the best results reported in the literature.

  20. Potential of mechanical metamaterials to induce their own global rotational motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, K. K.; Wojciechowski, K. W.; Dudek, M. R.; Gatt, R.; Mizzi, L.; Grima, J. N.

    2018-05-01

    The potential of several classes of mechanical metamaterials to induce their own overall rotational motion through the individual rotation of their subunits is examined. Using a theoretical approach, we confirm that for various rotating rigid unit systems, if by design the sum of angular momentum of subunits rotating in different directions is made to be unequal, then the system will experience an overall rotation, the extent of which may be controlled through careful choice of the geometric parameters defining these systems. This phenomenon of self-induced rotation is also confirmed experimentally. Furthermore, we discuss how these systems can be designed in a special way so as to permit extended rotations which allows them to overcome geometric lockage and the relevance of this concept in applications ranging from satellites to spacecraft and telescopes employed in space.

  1. Fundamental and semi-global kinetic mechanisms for hydrocarbon combustion. Final report, March 1977-October 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryer, F L; Glassman, I; Brezinsky, K

    1981-03-01

    Over the past three and one half years, substantial research efforts of the Princeton Fuels Research Group have been directed towards the development of simplified mechanisms which would accurately describe the oxidation of hydrocarbons fuels. The objectives of this combustion research included the study of semi-empirical modeling (that is an overall description) of the chemical kinetic mechanisms of simple hydrocarbon fuels. Such fuels include the alkanes: ethane, propane, butane, hexane and octane as well as the critically important alkenes: ethene, propene and butene. As an extension to this work, the study of the detailed radical species characteristics of combustion systems was initiated as another major aspect of the program, with emphasis on the role of the OH and HO/sub 2/ radicals. Finally, the studies of important alternative fuel problems linked the program to longer range approaches to the energy supply question. Studies of alternative fuels composed the major elements of this area of the program. The efforts on methanol research were completed, and while the aromatics aspects of the DOE work have been a direct extension of efforts supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, they represented a significant part of the overall research effort. The emphasis in the proposed program is to provide further fundamental understanding of the oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels which will be useful in guiding engineering approaches. Although the scope of program ranges from the fundamentals of chemical kinetics to that of alternative fuel combustion, the objective in mind is to provide insight and guidance to the understanding of practical combustion environments. The key to our approach has been our understanding of the fundamental combustion chemistry and its relation to the important practical combustion problems which exist in implementing energy efficient, alternate fuels technologies.

  2. Post LS1 schedule

    CERN Document Server

    Lamont, M

    2014-01-01

    The scheduling limits for a typical long year taking into account technical stops, machine development, spe- cial physics runs are presented. An attempt is then made to outline a ten year post LS1 schedule taking into account the disparate requirements outlined in the previous talks in this session. The demands on the planned long shutdowns and the impact of these demands on their proposed length will be discussed. The option of using ion running as a pre-shutdown cool-down period will be addressed.

  3. Global insights into acetic acid resistance mechanisms and genetic stability of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains by comparative genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Tao; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-12-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus (Ap) CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 are two acetic acid bacteria strains that, because of their strong abilities to produce and tolerate high concentrations of acetic acid, have been widely used to brew vinegar in China. To globally understand the fermentation characteristics, acid-tolerant mechanisms and genetic stabilities, their genomes were sequenced. Genomic comparisons with 9 other sequenced Ap strains revealed that their chromosomes were evolutionarily conserved, whereas the plasmids were unique compared with other Ap strains. Analysis of the acid-tolerant metabolic pathway at the genomic level indicated that the metabolism of some amino acids and the known mechanisms of acetic acid tolerance, might collaboratively contribute to acetic acid resistance in Ap strains. The balance of instability factors and stability factors in the genomes of Ap CICC 20001 and CGMCC 1.41 strains might be the basis for their genetic stability, consistent with their stable industrial performances. These observations provide important insights into the acid resistance mechanism and the genetic stability of Ap strains and lay a foundation for future genetic manipulation and engineering of these two strains.

  4. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  5. Global patterns and substrate-based mechanisms of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shuli; Classen, Aimée T; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Kardol, Paul; Liu, Lingli; Luo, Yiqi; Rustad, Lindsey; Sun, Jian; Tang, Jianwu; Templer, Pamela H; Thomas, R Quinn; Tian, Dashuan; Vicca, Sara; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xia, Jianyang; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition is impacting the services that ecosystems provide to humanity. However, the mechanisms determining impacts on the N cycle are not fully understood. To explore the mechanistic underpinnings of N impacts on N cycle processes, we reviewed and synthesised recent progress in ecosystem N research through empirical studies, conceptual analysis and model simulations. Experimental and observational studies have revealed that the stimulation of plant N uptake and soil retention generally diminishes as N loading increases, while dissolved and gaseous losses of N occur at low N availability but increase exponentially and become the dominant fate of N at high loading rates. The original N saturation hypothesis emphasises sequential N saturation from plant uptake to soil retention before N losses occur. However, biogeochemical models that simulate simultaneous competition for soil N substrates by multiple processes match the observed patterns of N losses better than models based on sequential competition. To enable better prediction of terrestrial N cycle responses to N loading, we recommend that future research identifies the response functions of different N processes to substrate availability using manipulative experiments, and incorporates the measured N saturation response functions into conceptual, theoretical and quantitative analyses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  6. The mechanism of erythrocyte sedimentation. Part 2: The global collapse of settling erythrocyte network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribush, A; Meyerstein, D; Meyerstein, N

    2010-01-01

    Results reported in the companion paper showed that erythrocytes in quiescent blood are combined into a network followed by the formation of plasma channels within it. This study is focused on structural changes in the settling dispersed phase subsequent to the channeling and the effect of the structural organization on the sedimentation rate. It is suggested that the initial, slow stage of erythrocyte sedimentation is mainly controlled by the gravitational compactness of the collapsed network. The lifetime of RBC network and hence the duration of the slow regime of erythrocyte sedimentation decrease with an increase in the intercellular pair potential and with a decrease in Hct. The gravitational compactness of the collapsed network causes its rupture into individual fragments. The catastrophic collapse of the network transforms erythrocyte sedimentation from slow to fast regime. The size of RBC network fragment is insignificantly affected by Hct and is mainly determined by the intensity of intercellular attractive interactions. When cells were suspended in the weak aggregating medium, the Stokes radius of fragments does not differ measurably from that of individual RBCs. The proposed mechanism provides a reasonable explanation of the effects of RBC aggregation, Hct and the initial height of the blood column on the delayed erythrocyte sedimentation.

  7. An Independent Review and Accountability Mechanism for the Sustainable Development Goals: The Possibilities of a Framework Convention on Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Eric A

    2016-06-01

    The Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), a proposed global treaty to be rooted in the right to health and aimed at health equity, could establish a nuanced, layered, and multi-faceted regime of compliance with, and accountability to, the right to health. In so doing, it would significantly strengthen accountability for the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which it would encompass. Legally binding, the FCGH could facilitate accountability through the courts and catalyze comprehensive domestic accountability regimes, requiring national strategies that include transparency, community and national mechanisms for accountability and participation and an enabling environment for social empowerment. A "Right to Health Capacity Fund" could ensure resources to implement these strategies. Inclusive national processes could establish targets, benchmarks, and indicators consistent with FCGH guidance, with regular reporting to a treaty body, which could also hear individual cases. State reports could be required to include plans to overcome implementation gaps, subjecting poorly complying states to penalties and targeted capacity building measures. Regional special rapporteurs could facilitate compliance through regular country visits, while also responding to serious violations. And reaching beyond government compliance, from capacity building to the courts and contractual obligations, the FCGH could establish nationally enforceable right to health obligations on the private sector.

  8. Global reaction mechanism for the auto-ignition of full boiling range gasoline and kerosene fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersickel, A.; Wright, Y. M.; Boulouchos, K.

    2013-12-01

    Compact reaction schemes capable of predicting auto-ignition are a prerequisite for the development of strategies to control and optimise homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. In particular for full boiling range fuels exhibiting two stage ignition a tremendous demand exists in the engine development community. The present paper therefore meticulously assesses a previous 7-step reaction scheme developed to predict auto-ignition for four hydrocarbon blends and proposes an important extension of the model constant optimisation procedure, allowing for the model to capture not only ignition delays, but also the evolutions of representative intermediates and heat release rates for a variety of full boiling range fuels. Additionally, an extensive validation of the later evolutions by means of various detailed n-heptane reaction mechanisms from literature has been presented; both for perfectly homogeneous, as well as non-premixed/stratified HCCI conditions. Finally, the models potential to simulate the auto-ignition of various full boiling range fuels is demonstrated by means of experimental shock tube data for six strongly differing fuels, containing e.g. up to 46.7% cyclo-alkanes, 20% napthalenes or complex branched aromatics such as methyl- or ethyl-napthalene. The good predictive capability observed for each of the validation cases as well as the successful parameterisation for each of the six fuels, indicate that the model could, in principle, be applied to any hydrocarbon fuel, providing suitable adjustments to the model parameters are carried out. Combined with the optimisation strategy presented, the model therefore constitutes a major step towards the inclusion of real fuel kinetics into full scale HCCI engine simulations.

  9. Leading global energy and environmental transformation: Unified ASEAN biomass-based bio-energy system incorporating the clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the ten member countries in the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) have experienced high economic growth and, in tandem, a substantial increment in energy usage and demand. Consequently, they are now under intense pressure to secure reliable energy supplies to keep up with their growth rate. Fossil fuels remain the primary source of energy for the ASEAN countries, due to economic and physical considerations. This situation has led to unrestrained emissions of greenhouse gases to the environment and thus effectively contributes to global climate change. The abundant supply of biomass from their tropical environmental conditions offers great potential for ASEAN countries to achieve self-reliance in energy supplies. This fact can simultaneously transform into the main driving force behind combating global climate change, which is associated with the usage of fossil fuels. This research article explores the potential and advantages for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy supply, processing and distribution network with an emphasis on regional collaborations. It also investigates the implementation and operational challenges in terms of political, economic and technical factors for the cross-border energy scheme. Reliance of ASEAN countries on the clean development mechanism (CDM) to address most of the impediments in developing the project is also under scrutiny. Unified co-operation among ASEAN countries in integrating biomass-based bio-energy systems and utilising the clean development mechanism (CDM) as the common effort could serve as the prime example for regional partnerships in achieving sustainable development for the energy and environmental sector in the future. -- Highlights: →A study that explores feasibility for ASEAN investment in biomass-based bio-energy. →Focus is given on regional supply, processing and distribution network. →Cross-border implementation and operational challenges are discussed thoroughly.

  10. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yzquierdo, Antonio Pérez-Calero; Hernández, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison

    2014-01-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue 'Moore's Law' style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  11. Harmonious personnel scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijn van Draat, Laurens; Post, Gerhard F.; Veltman, Bart; Winkelhuijzen, Wessel

    2006-01-01

    The area of personnel scheduling is very broad. Here we focus on the ‘shift assignment problem’. Our aim is to discuss how ORTEC HARMONY handles this planning problem. In particular we go into the structure of the optimization engine in ORTEC HARMONY, which uses techniques from genetic algorithms,

  12. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  13. Practical job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Shifting Bottleneck procedure is an intuitive and reasonably good approximation algorithm for the notoriously difficult classical job shop scheduling problem. The principle of decomposing a classical job shop problem into a series of single-machine problems can also easily be applied to job shop

  14. "Creative" Work Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris

    Many creative or flexible work scheduling options are becoming available to the many working parents, students, handicapped persons, elderly individuals, and others who are either unable or unwilling to work a customary 40-hour work week. These options may be broadly categorized as either restructured or reduced work time options. The three main…

  15. Conception of Self-Construction Production Scheduling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hai; Zhang, Xuerui; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Fujimura, Shigeru

    With the high speed innovation of information technology, many production scheduling systems have been developed. However, a lot of customization according to individual production environment is required, and then a large investment for development and maintenance is indispensable. Therefore now the direction to construct scheduling systems should be changed. The final objective of this research aims at developing a system which is built by it extracting the scheduling technique automatically through the daily production scheduling work, so that an investment will be reduced. This extraction mechanism should be applied for various production processes for the interoperability. Using the master information extracted by the system, production scheduling operators can be supported to accelerate the production scheduling work easily and accurately without any restriction of scheduling operations. By installing this extraction mechanism, it is easy to introduce scheduling system without a lot of expense for customization. In this paper, at first a model for expressing a scheduling problem is proposed. Then the guideline to extract the scheduling information and use the extracted information is shown and some applied functions are also proposed based on it.

  16. LTE uplink scheduling - flow level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; van den Berg, J.L.; Heijenk, G.; Litjens, R.; Sacchi, Claudio; Bellalta, Boris; Vinel, Alexey; Schlegel, Christian; Granelli, Fabrizio; Zhang, Yan

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which is in charge of allocating resources to active flows in both the frequency and

  17. LTE uplink scheduling - Flow level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; Berg, J.L. van den; Heijenk, G.; Litjens, R.

    2011-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which is in charge of allocating resources to active flows in both the frequency and

  18. Decompression Mechanisms and Decompression Schedule Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-20

    phisiology - The effects of altitude. Handbook of Physiology, Section 3: Respiration, Vol. II. W.O. Fenn and H. Rahn eds. Wash, D.C.; Am. Physiol. Soc. 1 4...decompression studies from other laboratories. METHODS Ten experienced and physically qualified divers ( ages 22-42) were compressed at a rate of 60...STATISTICS* --- ---------------------------------------------------------- EXPERIMENT N AGE (yr) HEIGHT (cm) WEIGHT (Kg) BODY FAT

  19. Scheduling techniques in the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoch, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Scheduling techniques in the ROSE are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: agenda; ROSE summary and history; NCC-ROSE task goals; accomplishments; ROSE timeline manager; scheduling concerns; current and ROSE approaches; initial scheduling; BFSSE overview and example; and summary.

  20. United Nations Global Compact as a Corporate Social Responsibility Mechanism: A Case Study of Krüger A/S

    OpenAIRE

    Bereng, Reitumetse Esther

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Over the years, copious research has been done on variety of voluntary sustainable development initiatives including Corporate Social Responsibility. This research takes a different route to Corporate Social Responsibility, by looking into this voluntary initiative through the spectrum of the United Nations Global Compact. It looks into the United Nations Global Compact as a mechanism for Corporate Social Responsibility in order to find out the true motives behind Krüger A/S engagin...

  1. Location-based Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

    on the market. However, CPM is primarily an activity based method that takes the activity as the unit of focus and there is criticism raised, specifically in the case of construction projects, on the method for deficient management of construction work and continuous flow of resources. To seek solutions...... to the identified limitations of the CPM method, an alternative planning and scheduling methodology that includes locations is tested. Location-based Scheduling (LBS) implies a shift in focus, from primarily the activities to the flow of work through the various locations of the project, i.e. the building. LBS uses...... the graphical presentation technique of Line-of-balance, which is adapted for planning and management of work-flows that facilitates resources to perform their work without interruptions caused by other resources working with other activities in the same location. As such, LBS and Lean Construction share...

  2. Routing and scheduling and fleet management for liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    The problem of routing, scheduling and fleet management in global liner shipping is presented. The developed model incorporates the ships' speed as a decision variable. Furthermore, the model must be able to handle problems of the size and complexity experienced by the global liner shipping...

  3. Modelling altered fractionation schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The author discusses the conflicting requirements of hyperfractionation and accelerated fractionation used in radiotherapy, and the development of computer modelling to predict how to obtain an optimum of tumour cell kill without exceeding normal-tissue tolerance. The present trend is to shorten hyperfractionated schedules from 6 or 7 weeks to give overall times of 4 or 5 weeks as in new schedules by Herskovic et al (1992) and Harari (1992). Very high doses are given, much higher than can be given when ultrashort schedules such as CHART (12 days) are used. Computer modelling has suggested that optimum overall times, to yield maximum cell kill in tumours ((α/β = 10 Gy) for a constant level of late complications (α/β = 3 Gy) would be X or X-1 weeks, where X is the doubling time of the tumour cells in days (Fowler 1990). For median doubling times of about 5 days, overall times of 4 or 5 weeks should be ideal. (U.K.)

  4. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time-differentiated cong......Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time...... from the underlying scheduling preferences (Noland and Small, 1995, Bates et al., 2001, Fosgerau and Karlström, 2010). The scheduling preferences can be formally represented as time-dependent rates of utility derived at different locations. Assuming that the travellers are rational and choose departure......’ departure time choice. The assumption underlying the scheduling approach is that the traveller rationally maximises her total utility obtained during a period of time. The total utility depends on time of departure from the origin and time of arrival to the destination. The total utility is usually assumed...

  5. Heterotrophic compensation: a possible mechanism for resilience of coral reefs to global warming or a sign of prolonged stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Hughes

    Full Text Available Thermally induced bleaching has caused a global decline in corals and the frequency of such bleaching events will increase. Thermal bleaching severely disrupts the trophic behaviour of the coral holobiont, reducing the photosynthetically derived energy available to the coral host. In the short term this reduction in energy transfer from endosymbiotic algae results in an energy deficit for the coral host. If the bleaching event is short-lived then the coral may survive this energy deficit by depleting its lipid reserves, or by increasing heterotrophic energy acquisition. We show for the first time that the coral animal is capable of increasing the amount of heterotrophic carbon incorporated into its tissues for almost a year following bleaching. This prolonged heterotrophic compensation could be a sign of resilience or prolonged stress. If the heterotrophic compensation is in fact an acclimatization response, then this physiological response could act as a buffer from future bleaching by providing sufficient heterotrophic energy to compensate for photoautotrophic energy losses during bleaching, and potentially minimizing the effect of subsequent elevated temperature stresses. However, if the elevated incorporation of zooplankton is a sign that the effects of bleaching continue to be stressful on the holobiont, even after 11 months of recovery, then this physiological response would indicate that complete coral recovery requires more than 11 months to achieve. If coral bleaching becomes an annual global phenomenon by mid-century, then present temporal refugia will not be sufficient to allow coral colonies to recover between bleaching events and coral reefs will become increasingly less resilient to future climate change. If, however, increasing their sequestration of zooplankton-derived nutrition into their tissues over prolonged periods of time is a compensating mechanism, the impacts of annual bleaching may be reduced. Thus, some coral species

  6. Toward an Autonomous Telescope Network: the TBT Scheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racero, E.; Ibarra, A.; Ocaña, F.; de Lis, S. B.; Ponz, J. D.; Castillo, M.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2015-09-01

    Within the ESA SSA program, it is foreseen to deploy several robotic telescopes to provide surveillance and tracking services for hazardous objects. The TBT project will procure a validation platform for an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario, consisting of two telescopes located in Spain and Australia, to collect representative test data for precursor SSA services. In this context, the planning and scheduling of the night consists of two software modules, the TBT Scheduler, that will allow the manual and autonomous planning of the night, and the control of the real-time response of the system, done by the RTS2 internal scheduler. The TBT Scheduler allocates tasks for both telescopes without human intervention. Every night it takes all the inputs needed and prepares the schedule following some predefined rules. The main purpose of the scheduler is the distribution of the time for follow-up of recently discovered targets and surveys. The TBT Scheduler considers the overall performance of the system, and combine follow-up with a priori survey strategies for both kind of objects. The strategy is defined according to the expected combined performance for both systems the upcoming night (weather, sky brightness, object accessibility and priority). Therefore, TBT Scheduler defines the global approach for the network and relies on the RTS2 internal scheduler for the final detailed distribution of tasks at each sensor.

  7. Optimal Scheduling of Domestic Appliances via MILP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Bradac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a consumption scheduling mechanism for domestic appliances within a home area network. The aim of the proposed scheduling is to minimize the total energy price paid by the consumer and to reduce power peaks in order to achieve a balanced daily load schedule. An exact and computationally efficient mixed-integer linear programming (MILP formulation of the problem is presented. This model is verified by several problem instances. Realistic scenarios based on the real price tariffs commercially available in the Czech Republic are calculated. The results obtained by solving the optimization problem are compared with a simulation of the ripple control service currently used by many domestic consumers in the Czech Republic.

  8. A reduced feedback proportional fair multiuser scheduling scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed and ordered scheduling mechanism. A slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we propose a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-diversity scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the per-user feedback thresholds. We demonstrate by numerical examples that our reduced feedback proportional fair scheduler operates within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the achievable rates by the conventional full feedback proportional fair scheduler in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. An Improved Multiobjective PSO for the Scheduling Problem of Panel Block Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty is common in ship construction. However, few studies have focused on scheduling problems under uncertainty in shipbuilding. This paper formulates the scheduling problem of panel block construction as a multiobjective fuzzy flow shop scheduling problem (FSSP with a fuzzy processing time, a fuzzy due date, and the just-in-time (JIT concept. An improved multiobjective particle swarm optimization called MOPSO-M is developed to solve the scheduling problem. MOPSO-M utilizes a ranked-order-value rule to convert the continuous position of particles into the discrete permutations of jobs, and an available mapping is employed to obtain the precedence-based permutation of the jobs. In addition, to improve the performance of MOPSO-M, archive maintenance is combined with global best position selection, and mutation and a velocity constriction mechanism are introduced into the algorithm. The feasibility and effectiveness of MOPSO-M are assessed in comparison with general MOPSO and nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II.

  10. Performance Evaluation of New Joint EDF-RM Scheduling Algorithm for Real Time Distributed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Real Time System, the achievement of deadline is the main target of every scheduling algorithm. Earliest Deadline First (EDF, Rate Monotonic (RM, and least Laxity First are some renowned algorithms that work well in their own context. As we know, there is a very common problem Domino's effect in EDF that is generated due to overloading condition (EDF is not working well in overloading situation. Similarly, performance of RM is degraded in underloading condition. We can say that both algorithms are complements of each other. Deadline missing in both events happens because of their utilization bounding strategy. Therefore, in this paper we are proposing a new scheduling algorithm that carries through the drawback of both existing algorithms. Joint EDF-RM scheduling algorithm is implemented in global scheduler that permits task migration mechanism in between processors in the system. In order to check the improved behavior of proposed algorithm we perform simulation. Results are achieved and evaluated in terms of Success Ratio (SR, Average CPU Utilization (ECU, Failure Ratio (FR, and Maximum Tardiness parameters. In the end, the results are compared with the existing (EDF, RM, and D_R_EDF algorithms. It has been shown that the proposed algorithm performs better during overloading condition as well in underloading condition.

  11. Global and Local Mechanical Responses for Necking of Rectangular Bars Using Updated and Total Lagrangian Finite Element Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Careglio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In simulations of forged and stamping processes using the finite element method, load displacement paths and three-dimensional stress and strains states should be well and reliably represented. The simple tension test is a suitable and economical tool to calibrate constitutive equations with finite strains and plasticity for those simulations. A complex three-dimensional stress and strain states are developed when this test is done on rectangular bars and the necking phenomenon appears. In this work, global and local numerical results of the mechanical response of rectangular bars subjected to simple tension test obtained from two different finite element formulations are compared and discussed. To this end, Updated and Total Lagrangian formulations are used in order to get the three-dimensional stress and strain states. Geometric changes together with strain and stress distributions at the cross section where necking occurs are assessed. In particular, a detailed analysis of the effective plastic strain, stress components in axial and transverse directions and pressure, and deviatoric stress components is presented. Specific numerical results are also validated with experimental measurements comparing, in turn, the performance of the two numerical approaches used in this study.

  12. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practices in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 22 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability

  13. Practical quantum appointment scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchette, Dave; Lovitz, Benjamin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2018-04-01

    We propose a protocol based on coherent states and linear optics operations for solving the appointment-scheduling problem. Our main protocol leaks strictly less information about each party's input than the optimal classical protocol, even when considering experimental errors. Along with the ability to generate constant-amplitude coherent states over two modes, this protocol requires the ability to transfer these modes back-and-forth between the two parties multiple times with very low losses. The implementation requirements are thus still challenging. Along the way, we develop tools to study quantum information cost of interactive protocols in the finite regime.

  14. Scheduling theory, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pinedo, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    This new edition of the well-established text Scheduling: Theory, Algorithms, and Systems provides an up-to-date coverage of important theoretical models in the scheduling literature as well as important scheduling problems that appear in the real world. The accompanying website includes supplementary material in the form of slide-shows from industry as well as movies that show actual implementations of scheduling systems. The main structure of the book, as per previous editions, consists of three parts. The first part focuses on deterministic scheduling and the related combinatorial problems. The second part covers probabilistic scheduling models; in this part it is assumed that processing times and other problem data are random and not known in advance. The third part deals with scheduling in practice; it covers heuristics that are popular with practitioners and discusses system design and implementation issues. All three parts of this new edition have been revamped, streamlined, and extended. The reference...

  15. Dynamics of one- and two-dimensional fronts in a bistable equation with time-delayed global feedback: Propagation failure and control mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubendir, Yassine; Mendez, Vicenc; Rotstein, Horacio G.

    2010-01-01

    We study the evolution of fronts in a bistable equation with time-delayed global feedback in the fast reaction and slow diffusion regime. This equation generalizes the Hodgkin-Grafstein and Allen-Cahn equations. We derive a nonlinear equation governing the motion of fronts, which includes a term with delay. In the one-dimensional case this equation is linear. We study the motion of one- and two-dimensional fronts, finding a much richer dynamics than for the previously studied cases (without time-delayed global feedback). We explain the mechanism by which localized fronts created by inhibitory global coupling loose stability in a Hopf bifurcation as the delay time increases. We show that for certain delay times, the prevailing phase is different from that corresponding to the system in the absence of global coupling. Numerical simulations of the partial differential equation are in agreement with the analytical predictions.

  16. Optimal deployment schedule of an active twist rotor for performance enhancement and vibration reduction in high-speed flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young H. YOU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The best active twist schedules exploiting various waveform types are sought taking advantage of the global search algorithm for the reduction of hub vibration and/or power required of a rotor in high-speed conditions. The active twist schedules include two non-harmonic inputs formed based on segmented step functions as well as the simple harmonic waveform input. An advanced Particle Swarm assisted Genetic Algorithm (PSGA is employed for the optimizer. A rotorcraft Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD code CAMRAD II is used to perform the rotor aeromechanics analysis. A Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD code is coupled with CSD for verification and some physical insights. The PSGA optimization results are verified against the parameter sweep study performed using the harmonic actuation. The optimum twist schedules according to the performance and/or vibration reduction strategy are obtained and their optimization gains are compared between the actuation cases. A two-phase non-harmonic actuation schedule demonstrates the best outcome in decreasing the power required while a four-phase non-harmonic schedule results in the best vibration reduction as well as the simultaneous reductions in the power required and vibration. The mechanism of reduction to the performance gains is identified illustrating the section airloads, angle-of-attack distribution, and elastic twist deformation predicted by the present approaches.

  17. Perceptions of randomized security schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurich, Nicholas; John, Richard S

    2014-04-01

    Security of infrastructure is a major concern. Traditional security schedules are unable to provide omnipresent coverage; consequently, adversaries can exploit predictable vulnerabilities to their advantage. Randomized security schedules, which randomly deploy security measures, overcome these limitations, but public perceptions of such schedules have not been examined. In this experiment, participants were asked to make a choice between attending a venue that employed a traditional (i.e., search everyone) or a random (i.e., a probability of being searched) security schedule. The absolute probability of detecting contraband was manipulated (i.e., 1/10, 1/4, 1/2) but equivalent between the two schedule types. In general, participants were indifferent to either security schedule, regardless of the probability of detection. The randomized schedule was deemed more convenient, but the traditional schedule was considered fairer and safer. There were no differences between traditional and random schedule in terms of perceived effectiveness or deterrence. Policy implications for the implementation and utilization of randomized schedules are discussed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Real-time scheduling of software tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, L.T.

    1995-01-01

    When designing real-time systems, it is often desirable to schedule execution of software tasks based on the occurrence of events. The events may be clock ticks, interrupts from a hardware device, or software signals from other software tasks. If the nature of the events, is well understood, this scheduling is normally a static part of the system design. If the nature of the events is not completely understood, or is expected to change over time, it may be necessary to provide a mechanism for adjusting the scheduling of the software tasks. RHIC front-end computers (FECs) provide such a mechanism. The goals in designing this mechanism were to be as independent as possible of the underlying operating system, to allow for future expansion of the mechanism to handle new types of events, and to allow easy configuration. Some considerations which steered the design were programming paradigm (object oriented vs. procedural), programming language, and whether events are merely interesting moments in time, or whether they intrinsically have data associated with them. The design also needed to address performance and robustness tradeoffs involving shared task contexts, task priorities, and use of interrupt service routine (ISR) contexts vs. task contexts. This paper will explore these considerations and tradeoffs

  19. Scheduling of resource-constrained projects

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Project management has become a widespread instrument enabling organizations to efficiently master the challenges of steadily shortening product life cycles, global markets and decreasing profit margins. With projects increasing in size and complexity, their planning and control represents one of the most crucial management tasks. This is especially true for scheduling, which is concerned with establishing execution dates for the sub-activities to be performed in order to complete the project. The ability to manage projects where resources must be allocated between concurrent projects or even sub-activities of a single project requires the use of commercial project management software packages. However, the results yielded by the solution procedures included are often rather unsatisfactory. Scheduling of Resource-Constrained Projects develops more efficient procedures, which can easily be integrated into software packages by incorporated programming languages, and thus should be of great interest for practiti...

  20. The TOMCAT global chemical transport model v1.6: description of chemical mechanism and model evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Monks

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the tropospheric chemical mechanism scheme used in the TOMCAT 3-D chemical transport model. The current scheme includes a more detailed representation of hydrocarbon chemistry than previously included in the model, with the inclusion of the emission and oxidation of ethene, propene, butane, toluene and monoterpenes. The model is evaluated against a range of surface, balloon, aircraft and satellite measurements. The model is generally able to capture the main spatial and seasonal features of high and low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3, volatile organic compounds (VOCs and reactive nitrogen. However, model biases are found in some species, some of which are common to chemistry models and some that are specific to TOMCAT and warrant further investigation. The most notable of these biases are (1 a negative bias in Northern Hemisphere (NH winter and spring CO and a positive bias in Southern Hemisphere (SH CO throughout the year, (2 a positive bias in NH O3 in summer and a negative bias at high latitudes during SH winter and (3 a negative bias in NH winter C2 and C3 alkanes and alkenes. TOMCAT global mean tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH concentrations are higher than estimates inferred from observations of methyl chloroform but similar to, or lower than, multi-model mean concentrations reported in recent model intercomparison studies. TOMCAT shows peak OH concentrations in the tropical lower troposphere, unlike other models which show peak concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere. This is likely to affect the lifetime and transport of important trace gases and warrants further investigation.

  1. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  2. Rostering and Task Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders Høeg

    . The rostering process is non-trivial and especially when service is required around the clock, rostering may involve considerable effort from a designated planner. Therefore, in order to minimize costs and overstaffing, to maximize the utilization of available staff, and to ensure a high level of satisfaction...... as possible to the available staff, while respecting various requirements and rules and while including possible transportation time between tasks. This thesis presents a number of industrial applications in rostering and task scheduling. The applications exist within various contexts in health care....... Mathematical and logic-based models are presented for the problems considered. Novel components are added to existing models and the modeling decisions are justified. In one case, the model is solved by a simple, but efficient greedy construction heuristic. In the remaining cases, column generation is applied...

  3. Sport Tournament Automated Scheduling System

    OpenAIRE

    Raof R. A. A; Sudin S.; Mahrom N.; Rosli A. N. C

    2018-01-01

    The organizer of sport events often facing problems such as wrong calculations of marks and scores, as well as difficult to create a good and reliable schedule. Most of the time, the issues about the level of integrity of committee members and also issues about errors made by human came into the picture. Therefore, the development of sport tournament automated scheduling system is proposed. The system will be able to automatically generate the tournament schedule as well as automatically calc...

  4. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    Title 44 United States Code, ''Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations cited in the General Services Administration's (GSA) ''Federal Information Resources Management Regulations'' (FIRMR), Part 201-9, ''Creation, Maintenance, and Use of Records,'' and regulation issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter XII, Subchapter B, ''Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 2, contains ''NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 2 totally reorganizes the records schedules from a functional arrangement to an arrangement by the host office. A subject index and a conversion table have also been developed for the NRC schedules to allow staff to identify the new schedule numbers easily and to improve their ability to locate applicable schedules

  5. Global policy and programme guidance on maternal nutrition: what exists, the mechanisms for providing it, and how to improve them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimpton, Roger

    2012-07-01

    Undernutrition in one form or another affects the majority of women of reproductive age in most developing countries. However, there are few or no effective programmes trying to solve maternal undernutrition problems. The purpose of the paper is to examine global policy and programme guidance mechanisms for nutrition, what their content is with regard to maternal nutrition in particular, as well as how these might be improved. Almost all countries have committed themselves politically to ensuring the right of pregnant and lactating women to good nutrition through the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Despite this, the World Health Organization (WHO) has not endorsed any policy commitments with regard to maternal nutrition. The only policy guidance coming from the various technical departments of WHO relates to the control of maternal anaemia. There is no policy or programme guidance concerning issues of maternal thinness, weight gain during pregnancy and/or low birthweight prevention. Few if any countries have maternal nutrition programmes beyond those for maternal anaemia, and most of those are not effective. The lack of importance given to maternal nutrition is related in part to a weakness of evidence, related to the difficulty of getting ethical clearance, as well as a generalised tendency to downplay the importance of those interventions found to be efficacious. No priority has been given to implementing existing policy and programme guidance for the control of maternal anaemia largely because of a lack of any dedicated funding, linked to a lack of Millennium Development Goals indicator status. This is partly due to the poor evidence base, as well as to the common belief that maternal anaemia programmes were not effective, even if efficacious. The process of providing evidence-based policy and programme guidance to member states is currently being revamped and strengthened by the Department of Nutrition for Health and

  6. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of 4-Fluoroisobutyryl Fentanyl into Schedule I. Temporary scheduling order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule the synthetic opioid, N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)isobutyramide (4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl or para-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl), and its isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, into schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety. As a result of this order, the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to schedule I controlled substances will be imposed on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, reverse distribute, import, export, engage in research, conduct instructional activities or chemical analysis, or possess), or propose to handle, 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl.

  7. International cooperation as a mechanism for the development of environmental management Theoretical approach to the Global Environmental Management Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Morales, Paola Maria

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a theoretical study of a global environmental management structure. This structure can be made possible after a new Global Environmental Order (CID) is established. The new order should be supported by the international development politics. It also has to be funded in the understanding of the interaction dynamics: ecosystem- culture. The theoretical studies of this work on global environmental Management allowed identifying the main difficulties to be overcome by the CID in order to fulfill its role as a leading actor in the global environmental transformation. The first issue to be considered by the CID is related to the fact that the actual regulation and follow up politics are insufficient. A second difficulty has to do with the very few results obtained on guaranteeing fair exchange of information and technology between Northern and Southern countries.

  8. Manufacturing Scheduling Using Colored Petri Nets and Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Drakaki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Agent-based intelligent manufacturing control systems are capable to efficiently respond and adapt to environmental changes. Manufacturing system adaptation and evolution can be addressed with learning mechanisms that increase the intelligence of agents. In this paper a manufacturing scheduling method is presented based on Timed Colored Petri Nets (CTPNs and reinforcement learning (RL. CTPNs model the manufacturing system and implement the scheduling. In the search for an optimal solution a scheduling agent uses RL and in particular the Q-learning algorithm. A warehouse order-picking scheduling is presented as a case study to illustrate the method. The proposed scheduling method is compared to existing methods. Simulation and state space results are used to evaluate performance and identify system properties.

  9. Cloud Computing Task Scheduling Based on Cultural Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jian-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The task scheduling strategy based on cultural genetic algorithm(CGA is proposed in order to improve the efficiency of task scheduling in the cloud computing platform, which targets at minimizing the total time and cost of task scheduling. The improved genetic algorithm is used to construct the main population space and knowledge space under cultural framework which get independent parallel evolution, forming a mechanism of mutual promotion to dispatch the cloud task. Simultaneously, in order to prevent the defects of the genetic algorithm which is easy to fall into local optimum, the non-uniform mutation operator is introduced to improve the search performance of the algorithm. The experimental results show that CGA reduces the total time and lowers the cost of the scheduling, which is an effective algorithm for the cloud task scheduling.

  10. Using a vision cognitive algorithm to schedule virtual machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jiaqi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling virtual machines is a major research topic for cloud computing, because it directly influences the performance, the operation cost and the quality of services. A large cloud center is normally equipped with several hundred thousand physical machines. The mission of the scheduler is to select the best one to host a virtual machine. This is an NPhard global optimization problem with grand challenges for researchers. This work studies the Virtual Machine (VM scheduling problem on the cloud. Our primary concern with VM scheduling is the energy consumption, because the largest part of a cloud center operation cost goes to the kilowatts used. We designed a scheduling algorithm that allocates an incoming virtual machine instance on the host machine, which results in the lowest energy consumption of the entire system. More specifically, we developed a new algorithm, called vision cognition, to solve the global optimization problem. This algorithm is inspired by the observation of how human eyes see directly the smallest/largest item without comparing them pairwisely. We theoretically proved that the algorithm works correctly and converges fast. Practically, we validated the novel algorithm, together with the scheduling concept, using a simulation approach. The adopted cloud simulator models different cloud infrastructures with various properties and detailed runtime information that can usually not be acquired from real clouds. The experimental results demonstrate the benefit of our approach in terms of reducing the cloud center energy consumption

  11. Vertical eddy diffusion as a key mechanism for removing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the global surface oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmann, Rainer; Jurado, Elena; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Dachs, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Here we estimate the importance of vertical eddy diffusion in removing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the surface Ocean and assess its importance as a global sink. Measured water column profiles of PFOA were reproduced by assuming that vertical eddy diffusion in a 3-layer ocean model is the sole cause for the transport of PFOA to depth. The global oceanic sink due to eddy diffusion for PFOA is high, with accumulated removal fluxes over the last 40 years of 660 t, with the Atlantic Ocean accounting for 70% of the global oceanic sink. The global oceans have removed 13% of all PFOA produced to a depth greater than 100 m via vertical eddy diffusion; an additional 4% has been removed via deep water formation. The top 100 m of the surface oceans store another 21% of all PFOA produced (∼1100 t). Highlights: •Eddy diffusion has removed ∼660 t of PFOA from surface oceans over the last 40 years. •Atlantic Ocean accounts for 70% of the global oceanic sink of PFOA. •Vertical eddy diffusion has moved ∼13% of PFOA to oceans deeper than 100 m. •Around 4% of PFOA has been removed via deep water formation. •The top 100 m of global oceans contain ∼21% of historical PFOA production. -- Vertical eddy diffusion is an important removal process for hydrophilic organic pollutants such as PFOA from the surface ocean

  12. Practical principles in appointment scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, A.; Mandjes, M.

    2015-01-01

    Appointment schedules aim at achieving a proper balance between the conflicting interests of the service provider and her clients: a primary objective of the service provider is to fully utilize her available time, whereas clients want to avoid excessive waiting times. Setting up schedules that

  13. Nontraditional work schedules for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, Lynnae; Sanborn, Michael; Alexander, Emily

    2008-11-15

    Nontraditional work schedules for pharmacists at three institutions are described. The demand for pharmacists and health care in general continues to increase, yet significant material changes are occurring in the pharmacy work force. These changing demographics, coupled with historical vacancy rates and turnover trends for pharmacy staff, require an increased emphasis on workplace changes that can improve staff recruitment and retention. At William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Affairs Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin, creative pharmacist work schedules and roles are now mainstays to the recruitment and retention of staff. The major challenge that such scheduling presents is the 8 hours needed to prepare a six-week schedule. Baylor Medical Center at Grapevine in Dallas, Texas, has a total of 45 pharmacy employees, and slightly less than half of the 24.5 full-time-equivalent staff work full-time, with most preferring to work one, two, or three days per week. As long as the coverage needs of the facility are met, Envision Telepharmacy in Alpine, Texas, allows almost any scheduling arrangement preferred by individual pharmacists or the pharmacist group covering the facility. Staffing involves a great variety of shift lengths and intervals, with shifts ranging from 2 to 10 hours. Pharmacy leaders must be increasingly aware of opportunities to provide staff with unique scheduling and operational enhancements that can provide for a better work-life balance. Compressed workweeks, job-sharing, and team scheduling were the most common types of alternative work schedules implemented at three different institutions.

  14. Modeling the Cray memory scheduler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickham, K.L.; Litteer, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report documents the results of a project to evaluate low cost modeling and simulation tools when applied to modeling the Cray memory scheduler. The specific tool used is described and the basics of the memory scheduler are covered. Results of simulations using the model are discussed and a favorable recommendation is made to make more use of this inexpensive technology.

  15. Flexible Work Schedules. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerka, Sandra

    Flexible work schedules are one response to changes in the composition of the work force, new life-styles, and changes in work attitudes. Types of alternative work schedules are part-time and temporary employment, job sharing, and flextime. Part-time workers are a diverse group--women, the very young, and older near-retirees. Although part-time…

  16. The application of artificial intelligence to astronomical scheduling problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1992-01-01

    Efficient utilization of expensive space- and ground-based observatories is an important goal for the astronomical community; the cost of modern observing facilities is enormous, and the available observing time is much less than the demand from astronomers around the world. The complexity and variety of scheduling constraints and goals has led several groups to investigate how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques might help solve these kinds of problems. The earliest and most successful of these projects was started at Space Telescope Science Institute in 1987 and has led to the development of the Spike scheduling system to support the scheduling of Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The aim of Spike at STScI is to allocate observations to timescales of days to a week observing all scheduling constraints and maximizing preferences that help ensure that observations are made at optimal times. Spike has been in use operationally for HST since shortly after the observatory was launched in Apr. 1990. Although developed specifically for HST scheduling, Spike was carefully designed to provide a general framework for similar (activity-based) scheduling problems. In particular, the tasks to be scheduled are defined in the system in general terms, and no assumptions about the scheduling timescale are built in. The mechanisms for describing, combining, and propagating temporal and other constraints and preferences are quite general. The success of this approach has been demonstrated by the application of Spike to the scheduling of other satellite observatories: changes to the system are required only in the specific constraints that apply, and not in the framework itself. In particular, the Spike framework is sufficiently flexible to handle both long-term and short-term scheduling, on timescales of years down to minutes or less. This talk will discuss recent progress made in scheduling search techniques, the lessons learned from early HST operations, the application of Spike

  17. AP1000 construction schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Westinghouse performed this study as part of EPRI interest in advancing the use of computer aided processes to reduce the cost of nuclear power plants. EPRI believed that if one could relate appropriate portions of an advanced light water reactor plant model to activities in its construction sequence, and this relationship could be portrayed visually, then optimization of the construction sequence could be developed as never before. By seeing a 3-D representation of the plant at any point in its construction sequence, more informed decisions can be made on the feasibility or attractiveness of follow on or parallel steps in the sequence. The 3-D representation of construction as a function of time (4-D) could also increase the confidence of potential investors concerning the viability of the schedule and the plant ultimate cost. This study performed by Westinghouse confirmed that it is useful to be able to visualize a plant construction in 3-D as a function of time in order to optimize the sequence of construction activities. (author)

  18. TECHNICAL COORDINATION SCHEDULE & INTEGRATION

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Zeuner

    Introduction The endgame of CMS installation in the underground cavern is in full swing, with several major milestones having been passed since the last CMS week. The Tracker was installed inside the Vactank just before the CERN end-of-year shutdown. Shortly after the reopening in 2008, the two remaining endcap disks, YE-2 and YE-1, were lowered, marking the completion of eight years of assembly in the surface building SX5. The remaining tasks, before the detector can be closed for the Cosmic Run At Four Tesla (CRAFT), are the installation of the thermal shields, the cabling of the negative endcap, the cabling of the tracker and the beam pipe installation. In addition to these installation tasks, a test closure of the positive endcap is planned just before the installation of the central beam pipe. The schedule is tight and complicated but the goal to close CMS by the end of May for a cosmic test with magnetic field remains feasible. Safety With all large components now being underground, the shortage...

  19. Modeling of Agile Intelligent Manufacturing-oriented Production Scheduling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Qi Sheng; Chang-Ping Tang; Ci-Xing Lv

    2010-01-01

    Agile intelligent manufacturing is one of the new manufacturing paradigms that adapt to the fierce globalizing market competition and meet the survival needs of the enterprises, in which the management and control of the production system have surpassed the scope of individual enterprise and embodied some new features including complexity, dynamicity, distributivity, and compatibility. The agile intelligent manufacturing paradigm calls for a production scheduling system that can support the cooperation among various production sectors, the distribution of various resources to achieve rational organization, scheduling and management of production activities. This paper uses multi-agents technology to build an agile intelligent manufacturing-oriented production scheduling system. Using the hybrid modeling method, the resources and functions of production system are encapsulated, and the agent-based production system model is established. A production scheduling-oriented multi-agents architecture is constructed and a multi-agents reference model is given in this paper.

  20. Scheduling Broadcasts in a Network of Timelines

    KAUST Repository

    Manzoor, Emaad A.

    2015-05-12

    Broadcasts and timelines are the primary mechanism of information exchange in online social platforms today. Services like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram have enabled ordinary people to reach large audiences spanning cultures and countries, while their massive popularity has created increasingly competitive marketplaces of attention. Timing broadcasts to capture the attention of such geographically diverse audiences has sparked interest from many startups and social marketing gurus. However, formal study is lacking on both the timing and frequency problems. In this thesis, we introduce, motivate and solve the broadcast scheduling problem of specifying the timing and frequency of publishing content to maximise the attention received. We validate and quantify three interacting behavioural phenomena to parametrise social platform users: information overload, bursty circadian rhythms and monotony aversion, which is defined here for the first time. Our analysis of the influence of monotony refutes the common assumption that posts on social network timelines are consumed piecemeal independently. Instead, we reveal that posts are consumed in chunks, which has important consequences for any future work considering human behaviour over social network timelines. Our quantification of monotony aversion is also novel, and has applications to problems in various domains such as recommender list diversification, user satiation and variety-seeking consumer behaviour. Having studied the underlying behavioural phenomena, we link schedules, timelines, attention and behaviour by formalising a timeline information exchange process. Our formulation gives rise to a natural objective function that quantifies the expected collective attention an arrangement of posts on a timeline will receive. We apply this formulation as a case-study on real-data from Twitter, where we estimate behavioural parameters, calculate the attention potential for different scheduling strategies and, using the

  1. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  2. Gain scheduling using the Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1999-01-01

    Gain scheduling controllers are considered in this paper. The gain scheduling problem where the scheduling parameter vector cannot be measured directly, but needs to be estimated is considered. An estimation of the scheduling vector has been derived by using the Youla parameterization. The use...... in connection with H_inf gain scheduling controllers....

  3. A Principal Components Analysis of the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, H. G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Investigated the adequacy of the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) as a global measure of assertiveness. Analysis indicated that the RAS does not provide a unidimensional index of assertiveness, but rather measures a number of factors including situation-specific assertive behavior, aggressiveness, and a more general assertiveness. (Author)

  4. Scheduling strategies for LTE uplink with flow behaviour analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, D.C.; Berg, J.L. van den; Litjens, R.; Heijenk, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology developed to support diversity of data traffic at potentially high rates. It is foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which is in charge of allocating resources to active flows in both the frequency and time dimension. In this paper we present a performance comparison of two distinct scheduling schemes for LTE uplink (fa...

  5. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim

    2001-01-01

    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...

  6. Vertical eddy diffusion as a key mechanism for removing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the global surface oceans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmann, R.; Jurado Cojo, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325788227; Dijkstra, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073504467; Dachs, J.

    2013-01-01

    Here we estimate the importance of vertical eddy diffusion in removing perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the surface Ocean and assess its importance as a global sink. Measured water column profiles of PFOA were reproduced by assuming that vertical eddy diffusion in a 3-layer ocean model is the sole

  7. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Infants and Children (Birth through 6 ... any questions please talk to your doctor. 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Infants and Children Schedule ...

  8. Energy-efficient TDMA medium access control protocol scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we study the energy efficiency and channel efficiency of TDMA MAC protocol scheduling mechanisms. Most MAC protocols are based on phase grouping that basically has three phases in a frame: uplink, downlink and reservation. We propose a new mechanism in which we have multiple uplink and

  9. Operating Theatre Planning and Scheduling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; Vanberkel, P.T.; Hall, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we present a number of approaches to operating theatre planning and scheduling. We organize these approaches hierarchically which serves to illustrate the breadth of problems confronted by researchers. At each hierarchicalplanning level we describe common problems, solution

  10. Schedule Sales Query Raw Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Schedule Sales Query presents sales volume figures as reported to GSA by contractors. The reports are generated as quarterly reports for the current year and the...

  11. Multiagent scheduling models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Agnetis, Alessandro; Gawiejnowicz, Stanisław; Pacciarelli, Dario; Soukhal, Ameur

    2014-01-01

    This book presents multi-agent scheduling models in which subsets of jobs sharing the same resources are evaluated by different criteria. It discusses complexity results, approximation schemes, heuristics and exact algorithms.

  12. Executive Schedule C System (ESCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Used to store information on Federal employees in the Senior Executive Service (SES) and appointed employees in the Schedule C System. Every four years, just after...

  13. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  14. Development of an international schedule for the assessment and staging of care for dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semrau, M.; Burns, A.; Djukic-Dejanovic, S.; Eraslan, D.; Han, C.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Lobo, A.; Mihai, A.; Morris, J.; Palumbo, C.; Robert, P.; Stiens, G.; Stoppe, G.; Volpe, U.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Sartorius, N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A reliable and valid global staging scale has been lacking within dementia care. OBJECTIVE: To develop an easy-to-use multi-dimensional clinical staging schedule for dementia. METHODS: The schedule was developed through: i) Two series of focus groups (40 and 48 participants,

  15. Construction schedules slack time minimizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemiński, Michał

    2017-07-01

    The article presents two copyright models for minimizing downtime working brigades. Models have been developed for construction schedules performed using the method of work uniform. Application of flow shop models is possible and useful for the implementation of large objects, which can be divided into plots. The article also presents a condition describing gives which model should be used, as well as a brief example of optimization schedule. The optimization results confirm the legitimacy of the work on the newly-developed models.

  16. Different Mechanisms of Soil Microbial Response to Global Change Result in Different Outcomes in the MIMICS-CN Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyker-Snowman, E.; Wieder, W. R.; Grandy, S.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial-explicit models of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling have improved upon simulations of C and N stocks and flows at site-to-global scales relative to traditional first-order linear models. However, the response of microbial-explicit soil models to global change factors depends upon which parameters and processes in a model are altered by those factors. We used the MIcrobial-MIneral Carbon Stabilization Model with coupled N cycling (MIMICS-CN) to compare modeled responses to changes in temperature and plant inputs at two previously-modeled sites (Harvard Forest and Kellogg Biological Station). We spun the model up to equilibrium, applied each perturbation, and evaluated 15 years of post-perturbation C and N pools and fluxes. To model the effect of increasing temperatures, we independently examined the impact of decreasing microbial C use efficiency (CUE), increasing the rate of microbial turnover, and increasing Michaelis-Menten kinetic rates of litter decomposition, plus several combinations of the three. For plant inputs, we ran simulations with stepwise increases in metabolic litter, structural litter, whole litter (structural and metabolic), or labile soil C. The cumulative change in soil C or N varied in both sign and magnitude across simulations. For example, increasing kinetic rates of litter decomposition resulted in net releases of both C and N from soil pools, while decreasing CUE produced short-term increases in respiration but long-term accumulation of C in litter pools and shifts in soil C:N as microbial demand for C increased and biomass declined. Given that soil N cycling constrains the response of plant productivity to global change and that soils generate a large amount of uncertainty in current earth system models, microbial-explicit models are a critical opportunity to advance the modeled representation of soils. However, microbial-explicit models must be improved by experiments to isolate the physiological and stoichiometric

  17. Global Precipitation Measurement Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Art

    2010-01-01

    This poster presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites which are designed to measure the Earth's precipitation. It includes the schedule of launches for the various satellites in the constellation, and the coverage of the constellation, It also reviews the mission capabilities, and the mission science objectives.

  18. The development and experimental validation of a reduced ternary kinetic mechanism for the auto-ignition at HCCI conditions, proposing a global reaction path for ternary gasoline surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon; Amouroux, Jacques [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2009-02-15

    To acquire a high amount of information of the behaviour of the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) auto-ignition process, a reduced surrogate mechanism has been composed out of reduced n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene mechanisms, containing 62 reactions and 49 species. This mechanism has been validated numerically in a 0D HCCI engine code against more detailed mechanisms (inlet temperature varying from 290 to 500 K, the equivalence ratio from 0.2 to 0.7 and the compression ratio from 8 to 18) and experimentally against experimental shock tube and rapid compression machine data from the literature at pressures between 9 and 55 bar and temperatures between 700 and 1400 K for several fuels: the pure compounds n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene as well as binary and ternary mixtures of these compounds. For this validation, stoichiometric mixtures and mixtures with an equivalence ratio of 0.5 are used. The experimental validation is extended by comparing the surrogate mechanism to experimental data from an HCCI engine. A global reaction pathway is proposed for the auto-ignition of a surrogate gasoline, using the surrogate mechanism, in order to show the interactions that the three compounds can have with one another during the auto-ignition of a ternary mixture. (author)

  19. Quality Improvement, Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-Mix Manufacturing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle B.S...Mechanical Engineering Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Theses 2 Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and... Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle Submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering on January 13, 2017, in

  20. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  1. Distributed continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesse, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents DynaSCOPE as distributed control method for continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants (DVPP). DVPPs aggregate the flexibility of distributed energy units to address current energy markets. As an extension of the Virtual Power Plant concept they show high dynamics in aggregation and operation of energy units. Whereas operation schedules are set up for all energy units in a day-ahead planning procedure, incidents may render these schedules infeasible during execution, like deviation from prognoses or outages. Thus, a continuous scheduling process is needed to ensure product fulfillment. With DynaSCOPE, software agents representing single energy units solve this problem in a completely distributed heuristic approach. Using a stepped concept, several damping mechanisms are applied to allow minimum disturbance while continuously trying to fulfill the product as contracted at the market.

  2. Environmental monitoring master sampling schedule, January--December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for calendar year 1990 for the Environment Surveillance and Ground-Water Monitoring Projects. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. This schedule includes ground-water sampling performed by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  3. Schedules for Regulatory Regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The idea of regulating transporters' terms of operations is that if the market itself does not produce optimal outcomes, then it can be mimicked to do so through regulatory and other public instruments. The first-best solution could be a subsidized (publicly owned) enterprise that sets tariffs according to marginal costs. This has been the tradition in many European countries in the aftermath of WW2. Due to lack of innovative pressure on and x-inefficiency in these companies, this solution is today viewed as inferior to the system of regulating independent (privately owned) firms. When the European gas market becomes liberalized, part of the process in many countries is to (partially) privatise the transport utilities. Privatised or not, in a liberalized market, the transport utilities should face an independent authority that overviews their operations not only in technical, but also in economic terms. Under regulation, a ''visible hand'' is introduced to correct the imperfect market's ''invisible hand''. By regulating the framework and conditions for how firms may operate, public authorities seek to achieve what is considered optimal for the society. The incentives and disincentives given for pricing and production should create mechanisms leading to an efficient allocation of resources and ''acceptable'' distribution of income. As part of intervening into firms' behavior, regulation may be introduced to direct the firm to behave in certain ways. The framework and regulatory mechanisms for the market must then be constructed in a way that companies voluntarily produce an amount at a price that gives maximal profits and simultaneously satisfies social goals. The regulations should lead to consistency between the company's desire to maximize profits and the society's desire for maximizing welfare, as in a perfectly competitive market. This is the core of regulatory economics

  4. Timing of global regression and microbial bloom linked with the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction: implications for driving mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresel, Björn; Bucher, Hugo; Bagherpour, Borhan; Brosse, Morgane; Guodun, Kuang; Schaltegger, Urs

    2017-03-06

    New high-resolution U-Pb dates indicate a duration of 89 ± 38 kyr for the Permian hiatus and of 14 ± 57 kyr for the overlying Triassic microbial limestone in shallow water settings of the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China. The age and duration of the hiatus coincides with the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) and the extinction interval in the Meishan Global Stratotype Section and Point, and strongly supports a glacio-eustatic regression, which best explains the genesis of the worldwide hiatus straddling the PTB in shallow water records. In adjacent deep marine troughs, rates of sediment accumulation display a six-fold decrease across the PTB compatible with a dryer and cooler climate as indicated by terrestrial plants. Our model of the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction (PTBME) hinges on the synchronicity of the hiatus with the onset of the Siberian Traps volcanism. This early eruptive phase released sulfur-rich volatiles into the stratosphere, thus simultaneously eliciting a short-lived ice age responsible for the global regression and a brief but intense acidification. Abrupt cooling, shrunk habitats on shelves and acidification may all have synergistically triggered the PTBME. Subsequently, the build-up of volcanic CO 2 induced a transient cool climate whose early phase saw the deposition of the microbial limestone.

  5. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practives in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 24 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. NRCS-I applies to records common to all or most NRC offices; NRCS-II applies to program records as found in the various offices of the Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, and the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Panel; NRCS-III applies to records accumulated by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; and NRCS-IV applies to records accumulated in the various NRC offices under the Executive Director for Operations. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability

  6. Sport Tournament Automated Scheduling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raof R. A. A

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The organizer of sport events often facing problems such as wrong calculations of marks and scores, as well as difficult to create a good and reliable schedule. Most of the time, the issues about the level of integrity of committee members and also issues about errors made by human came into the picture. Therefore, the development of sport tournament automated scheduling system is proposed. The system will be able to automatically generate the tournament schedule as well as automatically calculating the scores of each tournament. The problem of scheduling the matches of a round robin and knock-out phase in a sport league are given focus. The problem is defined formally and the computational complexity is being noted. A solution algorithm is presented using a two-step approach. The first step is the creation of a tournament pattern and is based on known graph-theoretic method. The second one is an assignment problem and it is solved using a constraint based depth-first branch and bound procedure that assigns actual teams to numbers in the pattern. As a result, the scheduling process and knock down phase become easy for the tournament organizer and at the same time increasing the level of reliability.

  7. Global oscillations of a fluid torus as a modulation mechanism for black-hole high-frequency QPOs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bursa, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 326 (2005), s. 849-855 ISSN 0004-6337 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : black hole physics * gravitation * X-rays Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.871, year: 2005

  8. CARMENES instrument control system and operational scheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro; Guàrdia, Josep; Colomé, Josep; Ribas, Ignasi; Gesa, Lluis; Morales, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Seifert, Walter; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, José A.; Reiners, Ansgar

    2014-07-01

    visibility, sky background, required time sampling coverage) and the dynamic change of the system conditions (i.e., weather, system conditions). Off-line and on-line strategies are integrated into a single tool for a suitable transfer of the target prioritization made by the science team to the real-time schedule that will be used by the instrument operators. A suitable solution will be expected to increase the efficiency of telescope operations, which will represent an important benefit in terms of scientific return and operational costs. We present the operational scheduling tool designed for CARMENES, which is based on two algorithms combining a global and a local search: Genetic Algorithms and Hill Climbing astronomy-based heuristics, respectively. The algorithm explores a large amount of potential solutions from the vast search space and is able to identify the most efficient ones. A planning solution is considered efficient when it optimizes the objectives defined, which, in our case, are related to the reduction of the time that the telescope is not in use and the maximization of the scientific return, measured in terms of the time coverage of each target in the survey. We present the results obtained using different test cases.

  9. Mars Global Surveyor Data Analysis Program. Origins of Small Volcanic Cones: Eruption Mechanisms and Implications for Water on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagents, Sarah A.; Greeley, Ronald; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the proposed work was to determine the origins of small volcanic cones observed in Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data, and their implications for regolith ice stores and magma volatile contents. For this 1-year study, our approach involved a combination of: Quantitative morphologic analysis and interpretation of Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data; Numerical modeling of eruption processes responsible for producing the observed features; Fieldwork on terrestrial analogs in Iceland. Following this approach, this study succeeded in furthering our understanding of (i) the spatial and temporal distribution of near-surface water ice, as defined by the distribution and sizes of rootless volcanic cones ("pseudocraters"), and (ii) the properties, eruption conditions, and volatile contents of magmas producing primary vent cones.

  10. A Field Study of Structures, Affordances, and Coordination Mechanisms of a Cross-Organizational Extended Team in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    Context: Growing popularity of Global Software Development (GSD) has resulted in an increasing number of cross-organizational teams that are formed according to Extended Team Model (ETM). There is little empirical body of knowledge about the structures (work, social, and communication) that may...... exist in these types of teams and the potential strengths and weaknesses of these structures in dealing with GSD challenges. Objective: This research has been motivated by the need of studying the types of work, communication and social structures designed and implemented for a cross...... interviews with both onshore and offshore team members. We applied qualitative data analysis approach called thematic analysis for finding the answers to our key research questions. Results: Our study has identified that the current work structure of ETM create several kinds of interdependencies for which...

  11. Schedulability Analysis for Java Finalizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Søndergaard, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Java finalizers perform clean-up and finalisation of objects at garbage collection time. In real-time Java profiles the use of finalizers is either discouraged (RTSJ, Ravenscar Java) or even disallowed (JSR-302), mainly because of the unpredictability of finalizers and in particular their impact...... on the schedulability analysis. In this paper we show that a controlled scoped memory model results in a structured and predictable execution of finalizers, more reminiscent of C++ destructors than Java finalizers. Furthermore, we incorporate finalizers into a (conservative) schedulability analysis for Predictable Java...... programs. Finally, we extend the SARTS tool for automated schedulability analysis of Java bytecode programs to handle finalizers in a fully automated way....

  12. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington

  13. Microstructure, local and global mechanical properties of friction stir welds in aluminium alloy 6005A-T6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simar, A.; Brechet, Y.; Meester, B. de; Denquin, A.; Pardoen, T.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the welding speed on the microstructure, local and overall mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints has been investigated in the aluminium alloy 6005A-T6. The fine hardening precipitation within the heat-affected zone has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Post-welding heat treatments have been applied to obtain indications on the level of solid solution supersaturation in the as welded state. The local mechanical behaviour was determined using thin specimens extracted from various regions of the weld. The overall properties were measured on samples cut perpendicular to the weld. Specific attention was devoted to the relationship between the local microstructure and local hardening properties in the weakest region, which govern the overall strength and ductility of the welds

  14. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  15. Intercell scheduling: A negotiation approach using multi-agent coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yunna; Li, Dongni; Zheng, Dan; Jia, Yunde

    2016-10-01

    Intercell scheduling problems arise as a result of intercell transfers in cellular manufacturing systems. Flexible intercell routes are considered in this article, and a coalition-based scheduling (CBS) approach using distributed multi-agent negotiation is developed. Taking advantage of the extended vision of the coalition agents, the global optimization is improved and the communication cost is reduced. The objective of the addressed problem is to minimize mean tardiness. Computational results show that, compared with the widely used combinatorial rules, CBS provides better performance not only in minimizing the objective, i.e. mean tardiness, but also in minimizing auxiliary measures such as maximum completion time, mean flow time and the ratio of tardy parts. Moreover, CBS is better than the existing intercell scheduling approach for the same problem with respect to the solution quality and computational costs.

  16. Enhanced OTSG economics optimizing CAPEX + OPEX + Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Peter [KTI Engineered to Perform (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This presentation gives an insight into the economics involved in producing once-through steam (OTSG) generators in Canada and it offers a proposal for improving returns in the industry. The objective of this presentation was to show the importance of developing OTSG manufacturing based on the future of this technology. The growing demand for OTSG by oil companies was presented, suggesting that this is a good time to put effort into developing more efficient designs. After the background of this technology was discussed, several economical aspects of the process were addressed; for instance, reducing capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operation expenditure (OPEX), outsourcing production, and project scheduling and execution. Initiatives proposed included: reducing plot size, producing larger OTSGs, reducing downtime, using alternative fuels, forming a global manufacturing network, and avoiding order blockage. Finally, the idea of designing a portable OTSG was proposed, showing its flexibility in oil extraction projects.

  17. Artificial intelligence approaches to astronomical observation scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Miller, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Automated scheduling will play an increasing role in future ground- and space-based observatory operations. Due to the complexity of the problem, artificial intelligence technology currently offers the greatest potential for the development of scheduling tools with sufficient power and flexibility to handle realistic scheduling situations. Summarized here are the main features of the observatory scheduling problem, how artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied, and recent progress in AI scheduling for Hubble Space Telescope.

  18. Globalization and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Machikita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Recent empirical studies which utilize plant- or establishment-level data to examine globalization's impact on productivity have discovered many causal mechanisms involved in globalization's impact on firms’ productivity. Because these pathways have been broad, there have been few attempts...

  19. Timing of global regression and microbial bloom linked with the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction: implications for driving mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresel, Bjoern; Bucher, Hugo; Bagherpour, Borhan; Brosse, Morgane; Guodun, Kuang; Schaltegger, Urs

    2017-04-01

    High-precision U-Pb dating of single-zircon crystals by chemical abrasion-isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) is applied to volcanic beds that are intercalated in sedimentary sequences across the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB). By assuming that the zircon crystallization age closely approximate that of the volcanic eruption and subsequent deposition, U-Pb zircon geochronology is the preferred approach for dating abiotic and biotic events, such as the formational PTB and the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction (PTBME). We will present new U-Pb zircon dates for a series of volcanic ash beds in shallow-marine Permian-Triassic sections in the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China. These high-resolution U-Pb dates indicate a duration of 90 ± 38 kyr for the Permian sedimentary hiatus and a duration of 13 ± 57 kyr for the overlying Triassic microbial limestone in the shallow water settings of the Nanpanjiang pull apart Basin. The age and duration of the hiatus coincides with the formational PTB and the extinction interval in the Meishan Global Stratotype Section and Point, thus strongly supporting a glacio-eustatic regression, which best explains the genesis of the worldwide hiatus straddling the PTB in shallow water records. In adjacent deep marine troughs, rates of sediment accumulation display a six-fold decrease across the PTB compatible with a dryer and cooler climate during the Griesbachian as indicated by terrestrial plants. Our model of the PTBME hinges on the synchronicity of the hiatus with the onset of the Siberian Traps volcanism. This early eruptive phase likely released sulfur-rich volatiles into the stratosphere, thus simultaneously eliciting a short-lived ice age responsible for the global regression and a brief but intense acidification. Abrupt cooling, shrunk habitats on shelves and acidification may all have synergistically triggered the PTBME. Subsequently, the build-up of volcanic CO2 induced this transient cool

  20. The evolution of international policies and mechanisms to advance sustainable forest management and mitigate global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologna, J.; Lyke, J.; Theophile, K.

    1995-01-01

    Scientific findings regarding global climate change and deforestation led industrialized nations to bring both issues to the forefront of an international dialogue on the environment. International institutional attention to deforestation began in 1985 with the Tropical Forestry Action Program which helped countries develop plans for sustainable forest management. A few years later, the International Tropical Timber Organization, though designed to facilitate tropical timber trade, adopted guidelines for sustainable management of tropical production forests. Next, the activities before and after UNCED established a general set of forest principles and regional efforts to define sustainable forest management. The World Bank has also sought to reduce past lending failures that led to deforestation and other environmental degradation, through programmatic redirections and macro-economic policy reforms. Finally, through innovative financial incentives, industrialized and developing countries are identifying opportunities to offset debts and increase economic development without depleting forest resources. Collectively, these efforts have let to some trends that support sustainable forest management and mitigate climate change. The upcoming years will see a proactive set of multilateral programs to address deforestation, an increasing link between trade and the environment, and more uses of financial incentives to encourage sustainable forest management

  1. Scheduling of Irrigation and Leaching Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Hassan Al-haddad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iraq depends mainly on Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to provide high percentage of agricultural water use for thousands years. At last years, Iraq is suffering from shortage in water resources due to global climate changes and unfair water politics of the neighboring countries, which affected the future of agriculture plans for irrigation, added to that the lack of developed systems of water management in the irrigation projects and improper allocation of irrigation water, which reduces water use efficiency and lead to losing irrigation water and decreasing in agricultural yield. This study aims at studying the usability of irrigation and leaching scheduling within the irrigating projects and putting a complete annual or seasonal irrigation program as a solution for the scarcity of irrigation water, the increase of irrigation efficiency, lessening the salinity in the projects and preparing an integral irrigation calendar through field measurements of soil physical properties and chemical for project selected and compared to the results of the irrigation scheduling and leaching with what is proposed by the designers. The process is accomplished by using a computer program which was designed by Water Resources Department at the University of Baghdad, with some modification to generalize it and made it applicable to various climatic zone and different soil types. Study area represented by large project located at the Tigris River, and this project was (Al-Amara irrigation project. Sufficient samples of project's soil were collected so as to identify soil physical and chemical properties and the salinity of soil and water as well as identifying the agrarian cycles virtually applied to this project. Finally, a comparison was conducted between the calculated water quantities and the suggested ones by the designers. The research results showed that using this kind of scheduling (previously prepared irrigation and leaching scheduling with its properties

  2. Adaptive Gain Scheduled Semiactive Vibration Control Using a Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Hiramoto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an adaptive gain scheduled semiactive control method using an artificial neural network for structural systems subject to earthquake disturbance. In order to design a semiactive control system with high control performance against earthquakes with different time and/or frequency properties, multiple semiactive control laws with high performance for each of multiple earthquake disturbances are scheduled with an adaptive manner. Each semiactive control law to be scheduled is designed based on the output emulation approach that has been proposed by the authors. As the adaptive gain scheduling mechanism, we introduce an artificial neural network (ANN. Input signals of the ANN are the measured earthquake disturbance itself, for example, the acceleration, velocity, and displacement. The output of the ANN is the parameter for the scheduling of multiple semiactive control laws each of which has been optimized for a single disturbance. Parameters such as weight and bias in the ANN are optimized by the genetic algorithm (GA. The proposed design method is applied to semiactive control design of a base-isolated building with a semiactive damper. With simulation study, the proposed adaptive gain scheduling method realizes control performance exceeding single semiactive control optimizing the average of the control performance subject to various earthquake disturbances.

  3. Environmental monitoring master sampling schedule: January--December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for calendar year 1989 for the Surface and Ground-Water Environmental Monitoring Projects. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. This schedule includes routine ground-water sampling performed by PNL for Westinghouse Hanford Company, but does not include samples that may be collected in 1989 to support special studies or special contractor projects, or for quality control. The sampling schedule for Site-wide chemical monitoring is not included here, because it varies each quarter as needed, based on past results and operating needs. This schedule does not include Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water sampling performed by PNL for Hanford Site contractors, nor does it include sampling that may be done by other DOE Hanford contractors

  4. A Review Of Fault Tolerant Scheduling In Multicore Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Malhotra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we have discussed about various fault tolerant task scheduling algorithm for multi core system based on hardware and software. Hardware based algorithm which is blend of Triple Modulo Redundancy and Double Modulo Redundancy in which Agricultural Vulnerability Factor is considered while deciding the scheduling other than EDF and LLF scheduling algorithms. In most of the real time system the dominant part is shared memory.Low overhead software based fault tolerance approach can be implemented at user-space level so that it does not require any changes at application level. Here redundant multi-threaded processes are used. Using those processes we can detect soft errors and recover from them. This method gives low overhead fast error detection and recovery mechanism. The overhead incurred by this method ranges from 0 to 18 for selected benchmarks. Hybrid Scheduling Method is another scheduling approach for real time systems. Dynamic fault tolerant scheduling gives high feasibility rate whereas task criticality is used to select the type of fault recovery method in order to tolerate the maximum number of faults.

  5. Global transcriptomic profiling of aspen trees under elevated [CO2] to identify potential molecular mechanisms responsible for enhanced radial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hairong; Gou, Jiqing; Yordanov, Yordan; Zhang, Huaxin; Thakur, Ramesh; Jones, Wendy; Burton, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees growing under elevated [CO(2)] at a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) site produced significantly more biomass than control trees. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed increase in biomass by producing transcriptomic profiles of the vascular cambium zone (VCZ) and leaves, and then performed a comparative study to identify significantly changed genes and pathways after 12 years exposure to elevated [CO(2)]. In leaves, elevated [CO(2)] enhanced expression of genes related to Calvin cycle activity and linked pathways. In the VCZ, the pathways involved in cell growth, cell division, hormone metabolism, and secondary cell wall formation were altered while auxin conjugation, ABA synthesis, and cytokinin glucosylation and degradation were inhibited. Similarly, the genes involved in hemicellulose and pectin biosynthesis were enhanced, but some genes that catalyze important steps in lignin biosynthesis pathway were inhibited. Evidence from systemic analysis supported the functioning of multiple molecular mechanisms that underpin the enhanced radial growth in response to elevated [CO(2)].

  6. Global view of the mechanisms of improved learning and memory capability in mice with music-exposure by microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bo; Zhu, Shujia; Li, Shijia; Zeng, Qingwen; Mei, Bing

    2009-08-28

    Music has been proved beneficial to improve learning and memory in many species including human in previous research work. Although some genes have been identified to contribute to the mechanisms, it is believed that the effect of music is manifold, behind which must concern a complex regulation network. To further understand the mechanisms, we exposed the mice to classical music for one month. The subsequent behavioral experiments showed improvement of spatial learning capability and elevation of fear-motivated memory in the mice with music-exposure as compared to the naïve mice. Meanwhile, we applied the microarray to compare the gene expression profiles of the hippocampus and cortex between the mice with music-exposure and the naïve mice. The results showed approximately 454 genes in cortex (200 genes up-regulated and 254 genes down-regulated) and 437 genes in hippocampus (256 genes up-regulated and 181 genes down-regulated) were significantly affected in music-exposing mice, which mainly involved in ion channel activity and/or synaptic transmission, cytoskeleton, development, transcription, hormone activity. Our work may provide some hints for better understanding the effects of music on learning and memory.

  7. Multiresource allocation and scheduling for periodic soft real-time applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Kartik; Chiueh, Tzi-cker

    2001-12-01

    Real-time applications that utilize multiple system resources, such as CPU, disks, and network links, require coordinated scheduling of these resources in order to meet their end-to-end performance requirements. Most state-of-the-art operating systems support independent resource allocation and deadline-driven scheduling but lack coordination among multiple heterogeneous resources. This paper describes the design and implementation of an Integrated Real-time Resource Scheduler (IRS) that performs coordinated allocation and scheduling of multiple heterogeneous resources on the same machine for periodic soft real-time application. The principal feature of IRS is a heuristic multi-resource allocation algorithm that reserves multiple resources for real-time applications in a manner that can maximize the number of applications admitted into the system in the long run. At run-time, a global scheduler dispatches the tasks of the soft real-time application to individual resource schedulers according to the precedence constraints between tasks. The individual resource schedulers, which could be any deadline based schedulers, can make scheduling decisions locally and yet collectively satisfy a real-time application's performance requirements. The tightness of overall timing guarantees is ultimately determined by the properties of individual resource schedulers. However, IRS maximizes overall system resource utilization efficiency by coordinating deadline assignment across multiple tasks in a soft real-time application.

  8. Carbon Disulfide (CS2) Mechanisms in Formation of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Formation from Unconventional Shale Gas Extraction and Processing Operations and Global Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L; Patel, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) has been historically associated with the production of rayon, cellophane, and carbon tetrachloride. This study identifies multiple mechanisms by which CS2 contributes to the formation of CO2 in the atmosphere. CS2 and other associated sulfide compounds were found by this study to be present in emissions from unconventional shale gas extraction and processing (E&P) operations. The breakdown products of CS2; carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are indirect greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to CO2 levels in the atmosphere. The heat-trapping nature of CO2 has been found to increase the surface temperature, resulting in regional and global climate change. The purpose of this study is to identify five mechanisms by which CS2 and the breakdown products of CS2 contribute to atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The five mechanisms of CO2 formation are as follows: Chemical Interaction of CS2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) present in natural gas at high temperatures, resulting in CO2 formation;Combustion of CS2 in the presence of oxygen producing SO2 and CO2;Photolysis of CS2 leading to the formation of COS, CO, and SO2, which are indirect contributors to CO2 formation;One-step hydrolysis of CS2, producing reactive intermediates and ultimately forming H2S and CO2;Two-step hydrolysis of CS2 forming the reactive COS intermediate that reacts with an additional water molecule, ultimately forming H2S and CO2. CS2 and COS additionally are implicated in the formation of SO2 in the stratosphere and/or troposphere. SO2 is an indirect contributor to CO2 formation and is implicated in global climate change.

  9. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  10. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  11. How useful are preemptive schedules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brucker, P.; Heitmann, S.; Hurink, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Machine scheduling admits two options to process jobs. In a preemptive mode processing may be interrupted and resumed later even on a different machine. In a nonpreemptive mode interruptions are not allowed. Usually, the possibility to preempt jobs leads to better performance values. However, also

  12. Interaction in activity location scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, V.; Vries, de B.; Dijkstra, J.; Jessurun, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the interaction in activity location scheduling which is the main subject of an ongoing research project called "User Simulation of Space Utilization". The aim of this research project is to develop an overall model for the simulation of human movement and utilization of

  13. Scheduling with target start times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.A.; Velde, van de S.L.; Klein Haneveld, W.K.; Vrieze, O.J.; Kallenberg, L.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    We address the single-machine problem of scheduling n independent jobs subject to target start times. Target start times are essentially release times that may be violated at a certain cost. The goal is to minimize an objective function that is composed of total completion time and maximum

  14. Stochastic scheduling on unrelated machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutella, Martin; Sviridenko, Maxim; Uetz, Marc Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Two important characteristics encountered in many real-world scheduling problems are heterogeneous machines/processors and a certain degree of uncertainty about the actual sizes of jobs. The first characteristic entails machine dependent processing times of jobs and is captured by the classical

  15. Flexible Schedules and Shift Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Flexible work hours have gained prominence, as more than 25 million workers (27.6% of all full-time workers) can now vary their schedules. However, there has been little change since the mid-1980s in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift. (JOW)

  16. Scheduling periodic tasks with slack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korst, J.H.M.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Lenstra, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the problem of nonpreemptively scheduling periodic tasks on a minimum number of identical processors, assuming that some slack is allowed in the time between successive executions of a periodic task. We prove that the problem is NP-hard in the strong sense. Necessary and sufficient

  17. Toward Realistic Acquisition Schedule Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    replace earlier versions of the F/A-18. Joint and International Nature At the time of JSF conception, there was a clear preference at the highest levels...ALPHABET SOUP ” (Aboulafia, 2015) OF STUDIES AND CONCEPTS • … MERGED INTO JAST • … WHICH EVOLVED TO JSF • WELL-KNOWN COST AND SCHEDULE

  18. Analyzing NPS Scheduling Using OSIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    School TEACHER SCHEDULE BLOCKS REPORT Date: 2/19/93 Period Name ID Term Days 1234 Adragna , Joe 170401 1 F xx Agrawal, Brij 120101 1 F xx Almquist...LOAD REPORT Date: 3/18/93 Total Max Consec Total Teacher ID Term Classes Classes Stud Adragna , Joe 170401 1 1 1 3 Agrawal, Brij 120101 1 2 2 98 Aiello

  19. Evolutionary Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Solving NP-Hard No-Wait Flow Shop Scheduling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi A. Bewoor

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The no-wait flow shop is a flowshop in which the scheduling of jobs is continuous and simultaneous through all machines without waiting for any consecutive machines. The scheduling of a no-wait flow shop requires finding an appropriate sequence of jobs for scheduling, which in turn reduces total processing time. The classical brute force method for finding the probabilities of scheduling for improving the utilization of resources may become trapped in local optima, and this problem can hence be observed as a typical NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem that requires finding a near optimal solution with heuristic and metaheuristic techniques. This paper proposes an effective hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO metaheuristic algorithm for solving no-wait flow shop scheduling problems with the objective of minimizing the total flow time of jobs. This Proposed Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (PHPSO algorithm presents a solution by the random key representation rule for converting the continuous position information values of particles to a discrete job permutation. The proposed algorithm initializes population efficiently with the Nawaz-Enscore-Ham (NEH heuristic technique and uses an evolutionary search guided by the mechanism of PSO, as well as simulated annealing based on a local neighborhood search to avoid getting stuck in local optima and to provide the appropriate balance of global exploration and local exploitation. Extensive computational experiments are carried out based on Taillard’s benchmark suite. Computational results and comparisons with existing metaheuristics show that the PHPSO algorithm outperforms the existing methods in terms of quality search and robustness for the problem considered. The improvement in solution quality is confirmed by statistical tests of significance.

  20. Global Consumption of Flame Retardants and Related Environmental Concerns: A Study on Possible Mechanical Recycling of Flame Retardant Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Yasin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flame retardants (FRs have been around us for decades to increase the chances of survival against fire or flame by limiting its propagation. The FR textiles, irrespective of their atmospheric presence are used in baby clothing, pushchairs, car seats, etc. The overall FR market in Asia, Europe, and the United States in 2007 was around 1.8 million metric tonnes. It is estimated that the worldwide consumption of FRs will reach 2.8 million tonnes in 2018. Unfortunately, a sustainable approach for textile waste, especially in the case of FR textiles, is absent. Incineration and landfill of FR textiles are hindered by various toxic outcomes. To address the need for sustainable methods of discarding FR textiles, the mechanical recycling of cotton curtains was evaluated.

  1. From simple receptors to complex multimodal percepts: a first global picture on the mechanisms involved in perceptual binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velik, Rosemarie

    2012-01-01

    The binding problem in perception is concerned with answering the question how information from millions of sensory receptors, processed by millions of neurons working in parallel, can be merged into a unified percept. Binding in perception reaches from the lowest levels of feature binding up to the levels of multimodal binding of information coming from the different sensor modalities and also from other functional systems. The last 40 years of research have shown that the binding problem cannot be solved easily. Today, it is considered as one of the key questions to brain understanding. To date, various solutions have been suggested to the binding problem including: (1) combination coding, (2) binding by synchrony, (3) population coding, (4) binding by attention, (5) binding by knowledge, expectation, and memory, (6) hardwired vs. on-demand binding, (7) bundling and binding of features, (8) the feature-integration theory of attention, and (9) synchronization through top-down processes. Each of those hypotheses addresses important aspects of binding. However, each of them also suffers from certain weak points and can never give a complete explanation. This article gives a brief overview of the so far suggested solutions of perceptual binding and then shows that those are actually not mutually exclusive but can complement each other. A computationally verified model is presented which shows that, most likely, the different described mechanisms of binding act (1) at different hierarchical levels and (2) in different stages of "perceptual knowledge acquisition." The model furthermore considers and explains a number of inhibitory "filter mechanisms" that suppress the activation of inappropriate or currently irrelevant information.

  2. From simple receptors to complex multimodal percepts: A first global picture on the mechanisms involved in perceptual binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie eVelik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The binding problem in perception is concerned with answering the question how information from millions of sensory receptors, processed by millions of neurons working in parallel, can be merged into a unified percept. Binding in perception reaches from the lowest levels of feature binding up to the levels of multimodal binding of information coming from the different sensor modalities and also from other functional systems. The last 40 years of research have shown that the binding problem cannot be solved easily. Today, it is considered as one of the key questions to brain understanding. To date, various solutions have been suggested to the binding problem including: (1 combination coding, (2 binding by synchrony, (3 population coding, (4 binding by attention, (5 binding by knowledge, expectation, and memory, (6 hardwired versus on-demand binding, (7 bundling and binding of features, (8 the feature-integration theory of attention, (9 synchronization through top-down processes. Each of those hypotheses addresses important aspects of binding. However, each of them also suffers from certain weak points and can never give a complete explanation. This article gives a brief overview of the so far suggested solutions of perceptual binding and then shows that those are actually not mutually exclusive but can complement each other. A computationally verified model is presented which shows that, most likely, the different described mechanisms of binding act (1 at different hierarchical levels and (2 in different stages of perceptual knowledge acquisition. The model furthermore considers and explains a number of inhibitory filter mechanisms that suppress the activation of inappropriate or currently irrelevant information.

  3. The applicability of knowledge-based scheduling to the utilities industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, G.; Gargan, R. Jr.; Duggan, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Nuclear Power Division, has identified the three major goals of high technology applications for nuclear power plants. These goals are to enhance power production through increasing power generation efficiency, to increase productivity of the operations, and to reduce the threats to the safety of the plant. Our project responds to the second goal by demonstrating that significant productivity increases can be achieved for outage maintenance operations based on existing knowledge-based scheduling technology. Its use can also mitigate threats to potential safety problems by means of the integration of risk assessment features into the scheduler. The scheduling approach uses advanced techniques enabling the automation of the routine scheduling decision process that previously was handled by people. The process of removing conflicts in scheduling is automated. This is achieved by providing activity representations that allow schedulers to express a variety of different scheduling constraints and by implementing scheduling mechanisms that simulate kinds of processes that humans use to find better solutions from a large number of possible solutions. This approach allows schedulers to express detailed constraints between activities and other activities, resources (material and personnel), and requirements that certain states exist for their execution. Our scheduler has already demonstrated its benefit to improving the shuttle processing flow management at Kennedy Space Center. Knowledge-based scheduling techniques should be examined by utilities industry researchers, developers, operators and management for application to utilities planning problems because of its great cost benefit potential. 4 refs., 4 figs

  4. A new mathematical programming model for long-term production scheduling considering geological uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamnejad, J.; Moosavi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the optimum production schedules over the life of a mine is a critical mechanism in open pit mine planning procedures. Long-term production scheduling is used to maximize the net present value of the project under technical, financial, and environmental constraints. Mathematical programming models are well suited for optimizing long-term production schedules of open pit mines. There are two approaches to solving long-term production problems: deterministic- and uncertainty- b...

  5. Resource sharing under global scheduling with partial processor bandwidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afshar, Sara; Behnam, Moris; Bril, Reinder J.; Nolte, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Resource efficient approaches are of great importance for resource constrained embedded systems. In this paper, we present an approach targeting systems where tasks of a critical application are partitioned on a multi-core platform and by using resource reservation techniques, the remaining

  6. Mechanisms for the inversion of chirality: Global reaction route mapping of stereochemical pathways in a probable chiral extraterrestrial molecule, 2-aminopropionitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Ramanpreet; Vikas

    2015-01-01

    2-Aminopropionitrile (APN), a probable candidate as a chiral astrophysical molecule, is a precursor to amino-acid alanine. Stereochemical pathways in 2-APN are explored using Global Reaction Route Mapping (GRRM) method employing high-level quantum-mechanical computations. Besides predicting the conventional mechanism for chiral inversion that proceeds through an achiral intermediate, a counterintuitive flipping mechanism is revealed for 2-APN through chiral intermediates explored using the GRRM. The feasibility of the proposed stereochemical pathways, in terms of the Gibbs free-energy change, is analyzed at the temperature conditions akin to the interstellar medium. Notably, the stereoinversion in 2-APN is observed to be more feasible than the dissociation of 2-APN and intermediates involved along the stereochemical pathways, and the flipping barrier is observed to be as low as 3.68 kJ/mol along one of the pathways. The pathways proposed for the inversion of chirality in 2-APN may provide significant insight into the extraterrestrial origin of life

  7. Scheduling strategies for LTE uplink with flow behaviour analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; Berg, J.L. van den; Litjens, R.; Heijenk, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology developed to support diversity of data traffic at potentially high rates. It is foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which

  8. Scheduling strategies for LTE uplink with flow behaviour analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Litjens, R.; Brogle, Marc; Osipov, Evgeny; Heijenk, Gerhard J.

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a cellular technology developed to support diversity of data traffic at potentially high rates. It is foreseen to extend the capacity and improve the performance of current 3G cellular networks. A key mechanism in the LTE traffic handling is the packet scheduler, which

  9. Development of Watch Schedule Using Rules Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkevicius, Darius; Vasilecas, Olegas

    The software for schedule creation and optimization solves a difficult, important and practical problem. The proposed solution is an online employee portal where administrator users can create and manage watch schedules and employee requests. Each employee can login with his/her own account and see his/her assignments, manage requests, etc. Employees set as administrators can perform the employee scheduling online, manage requests, etc. This scheduling software allows users not only to see the initial and optimized watch schedule in a simple and understandable form, but also to create special rules and criteria and input their business. The system using rules automatically will generate watch schedule.

  10. How memory mechanisms are a key component in the guidance of our eye movements: evidence from the global effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvis, J D; Van der Stigchel, S

    2014-04-01

    Investigating eye movements has been a promising approach to uncover the role of visual working memory in early attentional processes. Prior research has already demonstrated that eye movements in search tasks are more easily drawn toward stimuli that show similarities to working memory content, as compared with neutral stimuli. Previous saccade tasks, however, have always required a selection process, thereby automatically recruiting working memory. The present study was an attempt to confirm the role of working memory in oculomotor selection in an unbiased saccade task that rendered memory mechanisms irrelevant. Participants executed a saccade in a display with two elements, without any instruction to aim for one particular element. The results show that when two objects appear simultaneously, a working memory match attracts the first saccade more profoundly than do mismatch objects, an effect that was present throughout the saccade latency distribution. These findings demonstrate that memory plays a fundamental biasing role in the earliest competitive processes in the selection of visual objects, even when working memory is not recruited during selection.

  11. A Reputation-based Distributed District Scheduling Algorithm for Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Borra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop and test a distributed algorithm providing Energy Consumption Schedules (ECS in smart grids for a residential district. The goal is to achieve a given aggregate load prole. The NP-hard constrained optimization problem reduces to a distributed unconstrained formulation by means of Lagrangian Relaxation technique, and a meta-heuristic algorithm based on a Quantum inspired Particle Swarm with Levy flights. A centralized iterative reputation-reward mechanism is proposed for end-users to cooperate to avoid power peaks and reduce global overload, based on random distributions simulating human behaviors and penalties on the eective ECS diering from the suggested ECS. Numerical results show the protocols eectiveness.

  12. Project management with dynamic scheduling baseline scheduling, risk analysis and project control

    CERN Document Server

    Vanhoucke, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this book is known as dynamic scheduling, and is used to refer to three dimensions of project management and scheduling: the construction of a baseline schedule and the analysis of a project schedule's risk as preparation of the project control phase during project progress. This dynamic scheduling point of view implicitly assumes that the usability of a project's baseline schedule is rather limited and only acts as a point of reference in the project life cycle.

  13. A mechanism for the formation and sustainment of the self-organized global profile and E   ×   B staircase in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Kishimoto, Y.; Imadera, K.; Li, J. Q.; Wang, Z. X.

    2018-05-01

    The mechanism for the formation and sustainment of a self-organized global profile and the ‘ E   ×   B staircase’ are investigated through simulations of a flux-driven ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence based on GKNET, a 5D global gyrokinetic code. The staircase is found to be initiated from the radially extended ITG mode structures with nearly up-down symmetry during the saturation phase, and is established as it evolves into a quasi-steady turbulence, leading to a self-organized global temperature profile and to meso-scale isomorphic profiles of the radial electric field and the temperature gradient. It is found that the quasi-regular E   ×   B shear flow pattern is primarily originated from an even-symmetrical zonal flow produced by the extended ITG mode, which flow pattern exhibits an in-phase relation with the mean flow variation induced by the temperature relaxation. Consequently, the staircase is initiated through the profiles of total electric field and temperature gradient with a self-organized manner. Since the sign of E   ×   B shear flow at the central part are opposite to that at both edges, it disintegrates the ITG mode into smaller scale eddies. Meanwhile, smaller scale eddies tend to be aligned radially by spontaneous phase matching, which can provide the growth of mode amplitude and the formation of radially extended mode structures, leading to the bursty heat transport. This process is repeated quasi-periodically, sustaining self-organized structures and the E   ×   B staircase. Moreover, the equilibrium mean field is found to be of specific importance in causing the structures and dynamics from meso- to macro scales in toroidal plasmas.

  14. A new mechanism for warm-season precipitation response to global warming based on convection-permitting simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Aiguo; Rasmussen, Roy M.; Liu, Changhai; Ikeda, Kyoko; Prein, Andreas F.

    2017-08-01

    Climate models project increasing precipitation intensity but decreasing frequency as greenhouse gases increase. However, the exact mechanism for the frequency decrease remains unclear. Here we investigate this by analyzing hourly data from regional climate change simulations with 4 km grid spacing covering most of North America using the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The model was forced with present and future boundary conditions, with the latter being derived by adding the CMIP5 19-model ensemble mean changes to the ERA-interim reanalysis. The model reproduces well the observed seasonal and spatial variations in precipitation frequency and histograms, and the dry interval between rain events over the contiguous US. Results show that overall precipitation frequency indeed decreases during the warm season mainly due to fewer light-moderate precipitation (0.1 2.0 mm/h) events, while heavy (2 10 mm/h) events increase. Dry spells become longer and more frequent, together with a reduction in time-mean relative humidity (RH) in the lower troposphere during the warm season. The increased dry hours and decreased RH lead to a reduction in overall precipitation frequency and also for light-moderate precipitation events, while water vapor-induced increases in precipitation intensity and the positive latent heating feedback in intense storms may be responsible for the large increase in intense precipitation. The size of intense storms increases while their number decreases in the future climate, which helps explain the increase in local frequency of heavy precipitation. The results generally support a new hypothesis for future warm-season precipitation: each rainstorm removes ≥7% more moisture from the air per 1 K local warming, and surface evaporation and moisture advection take slightly longer than currently to replenish the depleted moisture before the next storm forms, leading to longer dry spells and a reduction in precipitation frequency, as well as

  15. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Vaaben, Bo

    Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker cons...... consumption and the impact on the remaining network and the customer service level. The model is applied to 4 real cases from Maersk Line. Solutions are comparable or superior to those chosen by operations managers. Cost savings of up to 58% may be achieved.......Maritime transportation is the backbone of world trade and is accountable for around 3% of the worlds CO2 emissions. We present the Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) to evaluate a given disruption scenario and to select a recovery action balancing the trade off between increased bunker...

  16. CMS Planning and Scheduling System

    CERN Document Server

    Kotamaki, M

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the procedures and the system to build and maintain the schedules needed to manage time, resources, and progress of the CMS project. The system is based on the decomposition of the project into work packages, which can be each considered as a complete project with its own structure. The system promotes the distribution of the decision making and responsibilities to lower levels in the organisation by providing a state-of-the-art system to formalise the external commitments of the work packages without limiting their ability to modify their internal schedules to best meet their commitments. The system lets the project management focus on the interfaces between the work packages and alerts the management immediately if a conflict arises. The proposed system simplifies the planning and management process and eliminates the need for a large, centralised project management system.

  17. 75 FR 42831 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    .../or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law... Income, Credits, Deductions and Other Items), Schedule L (Balance Sheets per Books), Schedule M-1 (Reconciliation of Income (Loss) per Books With Income (Loss) per Return)), Schedule M-2 (Analysis of Partners...

  18. Preemptive scheduling in overloaded systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrobak, M.; Epstein, L.; Noga, J.; Sgall, Jiří; van Stee, R.; Tichý, Tomáš; Vakhania, N.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2003), s. 183-197 ISSN 0022-0000 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/01/1195; GA MŠk ME 476; GA AV ČR IAA1019901; GA MŠk LN00A056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : scheduling * online algorithms * benefit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.795, year: 2003

  19. WCET Analysis for Preemptive Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Gebhard, Gernot

    2008-01-01

    Hard real-time systems induce strict constraints on the timing of the task set. Validation of these timing constraints is thus a major challenge during the design of such a system. Whereas the derivation of timing guarantees must already be considered complex if tasks are running to completion, it gets even more complex if tasks are scheduled preemptively -- especially due to caches, deployed to improve the average performance. In this paper we propose a new method to compu...

  20. Scheduling Maintenance Jobs in Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Abed, Fidaa; Chen, Lin; Disser, Yann; Groß, Martin; Megow, Nicole; Meißner, Julie; Richter, Alexander T.; Rischke, Roman

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the problem of scheduling the maintenance of edges in a network, motivated by the goal of minimizing outages in transportation or telecommunication networks. We focus on maintaining connectivity between two nodes over time; for the special case of path networks, this is related to the problem of minimizing the busy time of machines. We show that the problem can be solved in polynomial time in arbitrary networks if preemption is allowed. If preemption is restricted to integral t...

  1. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program

  2. Broadcast scheduling for mobile advertising

    OpenAIRE

    De Reyck, B.; Degraeve, Z.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a broadcast scheduling system developed for a precision marketing firm specialized in location-sensitive permission-based mobile advertising using SMS (Short Message Service) text messaging. Text messages containing advertisements were sent to registered customers when they were shopping in one of two shopping centers in the vicinity of London. The ads typically contained a limited-time promotional offer. The company's problem was deciding which ads to send out to which customers ...

  3. Schedule of the nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heigl, F.

    1977-01-01

    The lecure tries to explain the main phases which must be passed to establish nuclear power plants, the feasibility phase, preconstruction and construction phase. Each phase consists of a lot of activities which are commented. Further the lecture tries to give some ideas of durances and dependence between the phases or activities to get a complete time schedule of the realization of a nuclear power project. (HP) [de

  4. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  5. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  6. Power-scheduling - Introduction of the FPBG1 System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, A.; Meier, W.

    2006-01-01

    This article takes a look at the Scheduled Balance Group system (in German: 'Fahrplanbilanzgruppensystem', FPBG) which was successfully introduced in Switzerland in December 2005. The development of the system is described and the reasons for the development of a new concept for Switzerland are discussed. The system permits the use of standard European scheduling processes for national and international power traders and supports Switzerland's function as an important power hub in Europe. The basics behind the concept are discussed and the mechanisms of its functioning are illustrated in graphical form. The implementation of the system by the ETRANS company is looked at and various questions posed in this connection are answered

  7. An Adaptive Power Efficient Packet Scheduling Algorithm for Wimax Networks

    OpenAIRE

    R Murali Prasad; P. Satish Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Admission control schemes and scheduling algorithms are designed to offer QoS services in 802.16/802.16e networks and a number of studies have investigated these issues. But the channel condition and priority of traffic classes are very rarely considered in the existing scheduling algorithms. Although a number of energy saving mechanisms have been proposed for the IEEE 802.16e, to minimize the power consumption of IEEE 802.16e mobile stations with multiple real-time connections has not yet be...

  8. Guidelines of Decommissioning Schedule Establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Yun, Taesik; Kim, Younggook; Kim, Hee-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Decommissioning has recently become an issue highlighted in Korea due to the Permanent Shutdown (PS) of Kori-1 plant. Since Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) Company decided the PS of Kori-1 instead of further continued operation, Kori-1 will be the first decommissioning plant of the commercial reactors in Korea. Korean regulatory authority demands Initial Decommissioning Plan (IDP) for all the plants in operation and under construction. In addition, decommissioning should be considered for the completion of the life cycle of NPPs. To date, Korea has no experience regarding decommissioning of the commercial reactor and a lot of uncertainties will be expected due to its site-specific factors. However, optimized decommissioning process schedule must be indispensable in the safety and economic efficiency of the project. Differed from USA, Korea has no experience and know-hows of the operation and site management for decommissioning. Hence, in Korea, establishment of decommissioning schedule has to give more weight to safety than precedent cases. More economical and rational schedule will be composed by collecting and analyzing the experience data and site-specific data and information as the decommissioning progresses. In a long-range outlook, KHNP having capability of NPP decommissioning will try to decommissioning business in Korea and foreign countries.

  9. Shiftwork Scheduling for the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the problems of scheduling shift work, touching on such topics as employee desires, health requirements, and business needs. He presents a method for developing shift schedules that addresses these three areas. Implementation hints are also provided. (CH)

  10. Robust and Flexible Scheduling with Evolutionary Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel T.

    Over the last ten years, there have been numerous applications of evolutionary algorithms to a variety of scheduling problems. Like most other research on heuristic scheduling, the primary aim of the research has been on deterministic formulations of the problems. This is in contrast to real world...... scheduling problems which are usually not deterministic. Usually at the time the schedule is made some information about the problem and processing environment is available, but this information is uncertain and likely to change during schedule execution. Changes frequently encountered in scheduling...... environments include machine breakdowns, uncertain processing times, workers getting sick, materials being delayed and the appearance of new jobs. These possible environmental changes mean that a schedule which was optimal for the information available at the time of scheduling can end up being highly...

  11. Pittsburgh International Airport - Scheduled Passenger Traffic

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Here you can find Pittsburgh International Airport’s Monthly Scheduled Traffic Reports. Each of these reports contain a year-over-year (YOY) analysis of scheduled...

  12. DME Prosthetics Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics-Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule. The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure codes...

  13. GSA eLibrary Schedules and Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — GSA eLibrary (formerly Schedules e-Library) is the online source for the latest contract award information for: GSA Schedules; Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)...

  14. Interactive Anticipatory Scheduling for Two Military Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howe, Adele

    2003-01-01

    ...; these models partially explain what makes some job shop scheduling problems difficult. For the second, several algorithms for Air Force Satellite Control Network scheduling have been compared on historical and recent data...

  15. A Framework for Simplifying the Development of Kernel Schedulers: Design and Performance Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Gilles; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Duschene, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    Writing a new scheduler and integrating it into an existing OS is a daunting task, requiring the understanding of multiple low-level kernel mechanisms. Indeed, implementing a new scheduler is outside the expertise of application programmers, even though they are the ones who understand best the s...

  16. Optimal Cluster Mill Pass Scheduling With an Accurate and Rapid New Strip Crown Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Arif S.; Grandhi, Ramana V.; Zipf, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Besides the requirement to roll coiled sheet at high levels of productivity, the optimal pass scheduling of cluster-type reversing cold mills presents the added challenge of assigning mill parameters that facilitate the best possible strip flatness. The pressures of intense global competition, and the requirements for increasingly thinner, higher quality specialty sheet products that are more difficult to roll, continue to force metal producers to commission innovative flatness-control technologies. This means that during the on-line computerized set-up of rolling mills, the mathematical model should not only determine the minimum total number of passes and maximum rolling speed, it should simultaneously optimize the pass-schedule so that desired flatness is assured, either by manual or automated means. In many cases today, however, on-line prediction of strip crown and corresponding flatness for the complex cluster-type rolling mills is typically addressed either by trial and error, by approximate deflection models for equivalent vertical roll-stacks, or by non-physical pattern recognition style models. The abundance of the aforementioned methods is largely due to the complexity of cluster-type mill configurations and the lack of deflection models with sufficient accuracy and speed for on-line use. Without adequate assignment of the pass-schedule set-up parameters, it may be difficult or impossible to achieve the required strip flatness. In this paper, we demonstrate optimization of cluster mill pass-schedules using a new accurate and rapid strip crown model. This pass-schedule optimization includes computations of the predicted strip thickness profile to validate mathematical constraints. In contrast to many of the existing methods for on-line prediction of strip crown and flatness on cluster mills, the demonstrated method requires minimal prior tuning and no extensive training with collected mill data. To rapidly and accurately solve the multi-contact problem

  17. How should periods without social interaction be scheduled? Children's preference for practical schedules of positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown that children prefer contingent reinforcement (CR) rather than yoked noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) when continuous reinforcement is programmed in the CR schedule. Preference has not, however, been evaluated for practical schedules that involve CR. In Study 1, we assessed 5 children's preference for obtaining social interaction via a multiple schedule (periods of fixed-ratio 1 reinforcement alternating with periods of extinction), a briefly signaled delayed reinforcement schedule, and an NCR schedule. The multiple schedule promoted the most efficient level of responding. In general, children chose to experience the multiple schedule and avoided the delay and NCR schedules, indicating that they preferred multiple schedules as the means to arrange practical schedules of social interaction. In Study 2, we evaluated potential controlling variables that influenced 1 child's preference for the multiple schedule and found that the strong positive contingency was the primary variable. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Network scheduling at Belene NPP construction site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Four types of schedules differing in the level of their detail are singled out to enhance the efficiency of Belene NPP Project implementation planning and monitoring: Level 1 Schedule–Summary Integrated Overall Time Schedule (SIOTS) is an appendix to EPC Contract. The main purpose of SIOTS is the large scale presentation of the current information on the Project implementation. Level 2 Schedule–Integrated Overall Time Schedule (IOTS)is the contract schedule for the Contractor (ASE JSC) and their subcontractors.The principal purpose of IOTS is the work progress planning and monitoring, the analysis of the effect of activities implementation upon the progress of the Project as a whole. IOTS is the reporting schedule at the Employer –Contractor level. Level 3 Schedules, Detail Time Schedules(DTS) are developed by those who actually perform the work and are agreed upon with Atomstroyexport JSC.The main purpose of DTS is the detail planning of Atomstroyexport subcontractor's activities. DTSare the reporting schedules at the level of Contractor-Subcontractor. Level 4 Schedules are the High Detail Time Schedules (HDTS), which are the day-to-day plans of work implementation and are developed, as a rule, for a week's time period.Each lower level time schedule details the activities of the higher level time schedule

  19. Vehicle and driver scheduling for public transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The problem of driver scheduling involves the construction of a legal set of shifts, including allowance : of overtime, which cover the blocks in a particular vehicle schedule. A shift is the work scheduled to be performed by : a driver in one day, w...

  20. An improved scheduling algorithm for linear networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ayadi, Yassin

    2017-01-01

    In accordance with the present disclosure, embodiments of an exemplary scheduling controller module or device implement an improved scheduling process such that the targeted reduction in schedule length can be achieve while incurring minimal energy penalty by allowing for a large rate (or duration) selection alphabet.

  1. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... serving at least 10,000 people must submit their sampling schedule for the initial round of source water... submitting the sampling schedule that EPA approves. (3) Systems serving fewer than 10,000 people must submit... analytical result for a scheduled sampling date due to equipment failure, loss of or damage to the sample...

  2. An improved scheduling algorithm for linear networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2017-02-09

    In accordance with the present disclosure, embodiments of an exemplary scheduling controller module or device implement an improved scheduling process such that the targeted reduction in schedule length can be achieve while incurring minimal energy penalty by allowing for a large rate (or duration) selection alphabet.

  3. 77 FR 41258 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Establishment of FOIA Fee Schedule. SUMMARY: The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board is publishing its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Fee Schedule Update pursuant to...

  4. 76 FR 43819 - FOIA Fee Schedule Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD 10 CFR Part 1703 FOIA Fee Schedule Update AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. ACTION: Establishment of FOIA Fee Schedule. SUMMARY: The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board is publishing its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Fee Schedule Update pursuant to...

  5. 75 FR 7411 - Schedule of Water Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River... Administrative Manual--Part III--Basin Regulations--Water Supply Charges to revise the schedule of water charges... commenter and the subject line ``Schedule of Water Charges.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: Please...

  6. Missed deadline notification in best-effort schedulers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banachowski, Scott A.; Wu, Joel; Brandt, Scott A.

    2003-12-01

    It is common to run multimedia and other periodic, soft real-time applications on general-purpose computer systems. These systems use best-effort scheduling algorithms that cannot guarantee applications will receive responsive scheduling to meet deadline or timing requirements. We present a simple mechanism called Missed Deadline Notification (MDN) that allows applications to notify the system when they do not receive their desired level of responsiveness. Consisting of a single system call with no arguments, this simple interface allows the operating system to provide better support for soft real-time applications without any a priori information about their timing or resource needs. We implemented MDN in three different schedulers: Linux, BEST, and BeRate. We describe these implementations and their performance when running real-time applications and discuss policies to prevent applications from abusing MDN to gain extra resources.

  7. Deadline based scheduling for data-intensive applications in clouds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiong; Cang Yeliang; Zhu Lipeng; Hu Bin; Deng Song; Wang Dong

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing emerges as a new computing pattern that can provide elastic services for any users around the world.It provides good chances to solve large scale scientific problems with fewer efforts.Application deployment remains an important issue in clouds.Appropriate scheduling mechanisms can shorten the total completion time of an application and therefore improve the quality of service (QoS) for cloud users.Unlike current scheduling algorithms which mostly focus on single task allocation,we propose a deadline based scheduling approach for data-intensive applications in clouds.It does not simply consider the total completion time of an application as the sum of all its subtasks' completion time.Not only the computation capacity of virtual machine (VM) is considered,but also the communication delay and data access latencies are taken into account.Simulations show that our proposed approach has a decided advantage over the two other algorithms.

  8. Cooperated Bayesian algorithm for distributed scheduling problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG Lei; XIAO Tian-yuan

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new distributed Bayesian optimization algorithm (BOA) to overcome the efficiency problem when solving NP scheduling problems.The proposed approach integrates BOA into the co-evolutionary schema,which builds up a concurrent computing environment.A new search strategy is also introduced for local optimization process.It integrates the reinforcement learning(RL) mechanism into the BOA search processes,and then uses the mixed probability information from BOA (post-probability) and RL (pre-probability) to enhance the cooperation between different local controllers,which improves the optimization ability of the algorithm.The experiment shows that the new algorithm does better in both optimization (2.2%) and convergence (11.7%),compared with classic BOA.

  9. Novel Hybrid Scheduling Technique for Sensor Nodes with Mixed Criticality Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micea, Mihai-Victor; Stangaciu, Cristina-Sorina; Stangaciu, Valentin; Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2017-06-26

    Sensor networks become increasingly a key technology for complex control applications. Their potential use in safety- and time-critical domains has raised the need for task scheduling mechanisms specially adapted to sensor node specific requirements, often materialized in predictable jitter-less execution of tasks characterized by different criticality levels. This paper offers an efficient scheduling solution, named Hybrid Hard Real-Time Scheduling (H²RTS), which combines a static, clock driven method with a dynamic, event driven scheduling technique, in order to provide high execution predictability, while keeping a high node Central Processing Unit (CPU) utilization factor. From the detailed, integrated schedulability analysis of the H²RTS, a set of sufficiency tests are introduced and demonstrated based on the processor demand and linear upper bound metrics. The performance and correct behavior of the proposed hybrid scheduling technique have been extensively evaluated and validated both on a simulator and on a sensor mote equipped with ARM7 microcontroller.

  10. Peer-to-peer Cooperative Scheduling Architecture for National Grid Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyska, Ludek; Ruda, Miroslav; Toth, Simon

    For some ten years, the Czech National Grid Infrastructure MetaCentrum uses a single central PBSPro installation to schedule jobs across the country. This centralized approach keeps a full track about all the clusters, providing support for jobs spanning several sites, implementation for the fair-share policy and better overall control of the grid environment. Despite a steady progress in the increased stability and resilience to intermittent very short network failures, growing number of sites and processors makes this architecture, with a single point of failure and scalability limits, obsolete. As a result, a new scheduling architecture is proposed, which relies on higher autonomy of clusters. It is based on a peer to peer network of semi-independent schedulers for each site or even cluster. Each scheduler accepts jobs for the whole infrastructure, cooperating with other schedulers on implementation of global policies like central job accounting, fair-share, or submission of jobs across several sites. The scheduling system is integrated with the Magrathea system to support scheduling of virtual clusters, including the setup of their internal network, again eventually spanning several sites. On the other hand, each scheduler is local to one of several clusters and is able to directly control and submit jobs to them even if the connection of other scheduling peers is lost. In parallel to the change of the overall architecture, the scheduling system itself is being replaced. Instead of PBSPro, chosen originally for its declared support of large scale distributed environment, the new scheduling architecture is based on the open-source Torque system. The implementation and support for the most desired properties in PBSPro and Torque are discussed and the necessary modifications to Torque to support the MetaCentrum scheduling architecture are presented, too.

  11. It Is Not Just about the Schedule: Key Factors in Effective Reference Desk Scheduling and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Susan; Fernandes, Maria Isabel; McKay, Devin

    2008-01-01

    Reference desk scheduling is one of the most challenging tasks in the organizational structure of an academic library. The ability to turn this challenge into a workable and effective function lies with the scheduler and indirectly the cooperation of all librarians scheduled for reference desk service. It is the scheduler's sensitivity to such…

  12. Cure Schedule for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 9.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCoy, John D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Emerson & Cuming technical data sheet (TDS) for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 9 lists three alternate cure schedules for the material, each of which would result in a different state of reaction and different material properties. Here, a cure schedule that attains full reaction of the material is defined. The use of this cure schedule will eliminate variance in material properties due to changes in the cure state of the material, and the cure schedule will serve as the method to make material prior to characterizing properties. The following recommendation uses one of the schedules within the TDS and adds a “post cure” to obtain full reaction.

  13. Optimizing Unmanned Aircraft System Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    ASC-U uses a deterministic algorithm to optimize over a given finite time horizon to obtain near-optimal UAS mission area assignments. ASC-U...the details of the algorithm . We set an upper bound on the total number of schedules that can be generated, so as not to create unsolvable ILPs. We...COL_MISSION_NAME)) If Trim( CStr (rMissions(iRow, COL_MISSION_REQUIRED))) <> "" Then If CLng(rMissions(iRow, COL_MISSION_REQUIRED)) > CLng

  14. ENHANCED HYBRID PSO – ACO ALGORITHM FOR GRID SCHEDULING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mathiyalagan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing is a high performance computing environment to solve larger scale computational demands. Grid computing contains resource management, task scheduling, security problems, information management and so on. Task scheduling is a fundamental issue in achieving high performance in grid computing systems. A computational GRID is typically heterogeneous in the sense that it combines clusters of varying sizes, and different clusters typically contains processing elements with different level of performance. In this, heuristic approaches based on particle swarm optimization and ant colony optimization algorithms are adopted for solving task scheduling problems in grid environment. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is one of the latest evolutionary optimization techniques by nature. It has the better ability of global searching and has been successfully applied to many areas such as, neural network training etc. Due to the linear decreasing of inertia weight in PSO the convergence rate becomes faster, which leads to the minimal makespan time when used for scheduling. To make the convergence rate faster, the PSO algorithm is improved by modifying the inertia parameter, such that it produces better performance and gives an optimized result. The ACO algorithm is improved by modifying the pheromone updating rule. ACO algorithm is hybridized with PSO algorithm for efficient result and better convergence in PSO algorithm.

  15. A System for Automatically Generating Scheduling Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of automated schedulers by designing and implementing an algorithm by automatically generating heuristics by selecting a schedule. The particular application selected by applying this method solves the problem of scheduling telescope observations, and is called the Associate Principal Astronomer. The input to the APA scheduler is a set of observation requests submitted by one or more astronomers. Each observation request specifies an observation program as well as scheduling constraints and preferences associated with the program. The scheduler employs greedy heuristic search to synthesize a schedule that satisfies all hard constraints of the domain and achieves a good score with respect to soft constraints expressed as an objective function established by an astronomer-user.

  16. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Markes, B.M.; McKinney, S.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document provides Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) a schedule of monitoring and sampling routines for the Operational Environmental Monitoring (OEM) program during calendar year (CY) 1995. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Near-Field Monitoring. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Near-Field Monitoring and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1995

  17. A software-based technique enabling composable hierarchical preemptive scheduling for time-triggered applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nejad, A.B.; Molnos, A.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2013-01-01

    Many embedded real-time applications are typically time-triggered and preemptive schedulers are used to execute tasks of such applications. Orthogonally, composable partitioned embedded platforms use preemptive time-division multiplexing mechanism to isolate applications. Existing composable systems

  18. Schedule optimization study implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This Implementation Plan is intended to provide a basis for improvements in the conduct of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Hanford. The Plan is based on the findings of the Schedule Optimization Study (SOS) team which was convened for two weeks in September 1992 at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL). The need for the study arose out of a schedule dispute regarding the submission of the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit (OU) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan. The SOS team was comprised of independent professionals from other federal agencies and the private sector experienced in environmental restoration within the federal system. The objective of the team was to examine reasons for the lengthy RI/FS process and recommend ways to expedite it. The SOS team issued their Final Report in December 1992. The report found the most serious impediments to cleanup relate to a series of management and policy issues which are within the control of the three parties managing and monitoring Hanford -- the DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology). The SOS Report identified the following eight cross-cutting issues as the root of major impediments to the Hanford Site cleanup. Each of these eight issues is quoted from the SOS Report followed by a brief, general description of the proposed approach being developed

  19. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site

  20. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  1. Project Scheduling Heuristics-Based Standard PSO for Task-Resource Assignment in Heterogeneous Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Maw Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The task scheduling problem has been widely studied for assigning resources to tasks in heterogeneous grid environment. Effective task scheduling is an important issue for the performance of grid computing. Meanwhile, the task scheduling problem is an NP-complete problem. Hence, this investigation introduces a named “standard“ particle swarm optimization (PSO metaheuristic approach to efficiently solve the task scheduling problems in grid. Meanwhile, two promising heuristics based on multimode project scheduling are proposed to help in solving interesting scheduling problems. They are the best performance resource heuristic and the latest finish time heuristic. These two heuristics applied to the PSO scheme are for speeding up the search of the particle and improving the capability of finding a sound schedule. Moreover, both global communication topology and local ring communication topology are also investigated for efficient study of proposed scheme. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach in this investigation can successfully solve the task-resource assignment problems in grid computing and similar scheduling problems.

  2. From non-preemptive to preemptive scheduling using synchronization synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černý, Pavol; Clarke, Edmund M; Henzinger, Thomas A; Radhakrishna, Arjun; Ryzhyk, Leonid; Samanta, Roopsha; Tarrach, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    We present a computer-aided programming approach to concurrency. The approach allows programmers to program assuming a friendly, non-preemptive scheduler, and our synthesis procedure inserts synchronization to ensure that the final program works even with a preemptive scheduler. The correctness specification is implicit, inferred from the non-preemptive behavior. Let us consider sequences of calls that the program makes to an external interface. The specification requires that any such sequence produced under a preemptive scheduler should be included in the set of sequences produced under a non-preemptive scheduler. We guarantee that our synthesis does not introduce deadlocks and that the synchronization inserted is optimal w.r.t. a given objective function. The solution is based on a finitary abstraction, an algorithm for bounded language inclusion modulo an independence relation, and generation of a set of global constraints over synchronization placements. Each model of the global constraints set corresponds to a correctness-ensuring synchronization placement. The placement that is optimal w.r.t. the given objective function is chosen as the synchronization solution. We apply the approach to device-driver programming, where the driver threads call the software interface of the device and the API provided by the operating system. Our experiments demonstrate that our synthesis method is precise and efficient. The implicit specification helped us find one concurrency bug previously missed when model-checking using an explicit, user-provided specification. We implemented objective functions for coarse-grained and fine-grained locking and observed that different synchronization placements are produced for our experiments, favoring a minimal number of synchronization operations or maximum concurrency, respectively.

  3. Nurse Scheduling by Cooperative GA with Effective Mutation Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Makoto

    In this paper, we propose an effective mutation operators for Cooperative Genetic Algorithm (CGA) to be applied to a practical Nurse Scheduling Problem (NSP). The nurse scheduling is a very difficult task, because NSP is a complex combinatorial optimizing problem for which many requirements must be considered. In real hospitals, the schedule changes frequently. The changes of the shift schedule yields various problems, for example, a fall in the nursing level. We describe a technique of the reoptimization of the nurse schedule in response to a change. The conventional CGA is superior in ability for local search by means of its crossover operator, but often stagnates at the unfavorable situation because it is inferior to ability for global search. When the optimization stagnates for long generation cycle, a searching point, population in this case, would be caught in a wide local minimum area. To escape such local minimum area, small change in a population should be required. Based on such consideration, we propose a mutation operator activated depending on the optimization speed. When the optimization stagnates, in other words, when the optimization speed decreases, the mutation yields small changes in the population. Then the population is able to escape from a local minimum area by means of the mutation. However, this mutation operator requires two well-defined parameters. This means that user have to consider the value of these parameters carefully. To solve this problem, we propose a periodic mutation operator which has only one parameter to define itself. This simplified mutation operator is effective over a wide range of the parameter value.

  4. Planning construction of integrative schedule management for nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhenglin; Wang Wenying; Peng Fei

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the planning construction of integrative schedule management for Nuclear Power Project. It details schedule management system and the requirement of schedulers and the mode of three schedule management flats. And analysis it combing with the implementation of construction water and all special schedules before FCD to further propose the improving and researching direction for the integrative schedule management. (authors)

  5. A Formal Product-Line Engineering Approach for Schedulers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orhan, Güner; Aksit, Mehmet; Rensink, Arend; Jololian, Leon; Robbins, David E.; Fernandes, Steven L.

    2017-01-01

    Scheduling techniques have been applied to a large category of software systems, such as, processor scheduling in operating systems, car scheduling in elevator systems, facility scheduling at airports, antenna scheduling in radar systems, scheduling of events, control signals and data in

  6. The CHI 2013 interactive schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satyanarayan, Arvind; Strazzulla, Daniel; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2013-01-01

    CHI 2013 offers over 500 separate events including paper presentations, panels, courses, case studies and special interest groups. Given the size of the conference, it is no longer practical to host live summaries of these events. Instead, a 30-second Video Preview summary of each event is availa......CHI 2013 offers over 500 separate events including paper presentations, panels, courses, case studies and special interest groups. Given the size of the conference, it is no longer practical to host live summaries of these events. Instead, a 30-second Video Preview summary of each event...... is available. The CHI'13 Interactive Schedule helps attendees navigate this wealth of video content in order to identify events they would like to attend. It consists of a number of large display screens throughout the conference venue which cycle through a video playlist of events. Attendees can interact...

  7. The ASDEX Upgrade discharge schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, G.; Engelhardt, K.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T.

    2007-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade's recently commissioned discharge control system (DCS) marks the transition from a traditional programmed system to a highly flexible 'data driven' one. The allocation of application processes (APs) to controllers, the interconnection of APs through uniquely named signals, and AP control parameter values are all defined as data, and can easily be adapted to the requirements of a particular discharge. The data is laid down in a set of XML documents which APs request via HTTP from a configuration server before a discharge. The use of XML allows for easy parsing, and structural validation through (XSD) schemas. The central input to the configuration process is the discharge schedule (DS), which embodies the dynamic behaviour of a planned discharge as reference trajectories grouped in segments, concatenated through transition conditions. Editing, generation and validation tools, and version control through CVS allow for efficient management of DSs

  8. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L E

    1992-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. Samples for radiological analyses include Air-Particulate Filter, gases and vapor; Water/Columbia River, Onsite Pond, Spring, Irrigation, and Drinking; Foodstuffs/Animal Products including Whole Milk, Poultry and Eggs, and Beef; Foodstuffs/Produce including Leafy Vegetables, Vegetables, and Fruit; Foodstuffs/Farm Products including Wine, Wheat and Alfalfa; Wildlife; Soil; Vegetation; and Sediment. Direct Radiation Measurements include Terrestrial Locations, Columbia River Shoreline Locations, and Onsite Roadway, Railway and Aerial, Radiation Surveys.

  9. Planning and Scheduling of Airline Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay ORHAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Civil Aviation sector has grown at a rate of 53 % between the years 2002-2008 owing to countrywide economical developments and some removed restrictions in the aviation field. Successful international companies in the sector use advanced computer-supported solution methods for their planning and scheduling problems. These methods have been providing significant competitive advantages to those companies. There are four major scheduling and planning problems in the airline sector: flight scheduling, aircraft scheduling, crew scheduling and disruptions management. These aforementioned scheduling and planning problems faced by all airline companies in the airline sector were examined in detail. Studies reveal that companies using the advanced methods might gain significant cost reductions. However, even then, the time required for solving large scale problems may not satisfy the decision quality desired by decision makers. In such cases, using modern decision methods integrated with advanced technologies offer companies an opportunity for significant cost-advantages.

  10. Optimization of Hierarchically Scheduled Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2005-01-01

    We present an approach to the analysis and optimization of heterogeneous distributed embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource......, they are organized in a hierarchy. In this paper, we address design problems that are characteristic to such hierarchically scheduled systems: assignment of scheduling policies to tasks, mapping of tasks to hardware components, and the scheduling of the activities. We present algorithms for solving these problems....... Our heuristics are able to find schedulable implementations under limited resources, achieving an efficient utilization of the system. The developed algorithms are evaluated using extensive experiments and a real-life example....

  11. On Coding of Scheduling Information in OFDM

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Fredrik; Moosavi, Reza; Eriksson, Jonas; Larsson, Erik G.; Wiberg, Niklas; Frenger, Pål

    2009-01-01

    Control signaling strategies for scheduling information in cellular OFDM systems are studied. A single-cell multiuser system model is formulated that provides system capacity estimates accounting for the signaling overhead. Different scheduling granularities are considered, including the one used in the specifications for the 3G Long Term Evolution (LTE). A greedy scheduling method is assumed, where each resource is assigned to the user for which it can support the highest number of bits. The...

  12. Management of Temporal Constraints for Factory Scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    consistency of scheduling decisions were implemented in both the ISIS [Fox 84] and SOJA [LePape 85a] scheduling systems. More recent work with the...kinds of time propagation systems: the symbolic and the numeric ones. Symbolic systems combine relationships with a temporal logic a la Allen [Allen 81...maintains consistency by narrowing time windows associated with activities as decisions are made, and SOJA [LePape 85b] guarantees a schedule’s

  13. Cost effective shift schedules enhance utility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how new shift scheduling concepts can save utility operations millions of dollars every year and yet maintain safety and improve employee morale. The key to scheduling is to define and match the work load. This includes discretionary as well as daily, weekly, and yearly core work loads. In most power plants the overall work load (including maintenance, operations, materials handling, etc.) on day shift is greater than on other shifts, hence an unbalanced schedule would be appropriate

  14. Trustable Virtual Machine Scheduling in a Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Hermenier , Fabien; Henrio , Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In an Infrastructure As A Service (IaaS) cloud, the scheduler deploys VMs to servers according to service level objectives (SLOs). Clients and service providers must both trust the infrastructure. In particular they must be sure that the VM scheduler takes decisions that are consistent with its advertised behaviour. The difficulties to master every theoretical and practical aspects of a VM scheduler implementation leads however to faulty behaviours that break SLOs and ...

  15. Flow shop scheduling with heterogeneous workers

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides, Alexander J.; Ritt, Marcus; Miralles Insa, Cristóbal Javier

    2014-01-01

    We propose an extension to the flow shop scheduling problem named Heterogeneous Flow Shop Scheduling Problem (Het-FSSP), where two simultaneous issues have to be resolved: finding the best worker assignment to the workstations, and solving the corresponding scheduling problem. This problem is motivated by Sheltered Work centers for Disabled, whose main objective is the labor integration of persons with disabilities, an important aim not only for these centers but for any company d...

  16. A hybrid job-shop scheduling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellingrath, Bernd; Robbach, Peter; Bayat-Sarmadi, Fahid; Marx, Andreas

    1992-01-01

    The intention of the scheduling system developed at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Material Flow and Logistics is the support of a scheduler working in a job-shop. Due to the existing requirements for a job-shop scheduling system the usage of flexible knowledge representation and processing techniques is necessary. Within this system the attempt was made to combine the advantages of symbolic AI-techniques with those of neural networks.

  17. LEARNING SCHEDULER PARAMETERS FOR ADAPTIVE PREEMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Prakhar Ojha; Siddhartha R Thota; Vani M; Mohit P Tahilianni

    2015-01-01

    An operating system scheduler is expected to not allow processor stay idle if there is any process ready or waiting for its execution. This problem gains more importance as the numbers of processes always outnumber the processors by large margins. It is in this regard that schedulers are provided with the ability to preempt a running process, by following any scheduling algorithm, and give us an illusion of simultaneous running of several processes. A process which is allowed t...

  18. Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squires, K.G.

    1995-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel

  19. Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, K.G.

    1995-03-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel.

  20. Cloud Service Scheduling Algorithm Research and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a cloud service scheduling model that is referred to as the Task Scheduling System (TSS. In the user module, the process time of each task is in accordance with a general distribution. In the task scheduling module, we take a weighted sum of makespan and flowtime as the objective function and use an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and a Genetic Algorithm (GA to solve the problem of cloud task scheduling. Simulation results show that the convergence speed and output performance of our Genetic Algorithm-Chaos Ant Colony Optimization (GA-CACO are optimal.

  1. A customizable, scalable scheduling and reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jody L; Whitman, Beverly J; Mackley, Lisa A; Armstrong, Robert; Shotto, Robert T

    2014-06-01

    Scheduling is essential for running a facility smoothly and for summarizing activities in use reports. The Penn State Hershey Clinical Simulation Center has developed a scheduling interface that uses off-the-shelf components, with customizations that adapt to each institution's data collection and reporting needs. The system is designed using programs within the Microsoft Office 2010 suite. Outlook provides the scheduling component, while the reporting is performed using Access or Excel. An account with a calendar is created for the main schedule, with separate resource accounts created for each room within the center. The Outlook appointment form's 2 default tabs are used, in addition to a customized third tab. The data are then copied from the calendar into either a database table or a spreadsheet, where the reports are generated.Incorporating this system into an institution-wide structure allows integration of personnel lists and potentially enables all users to check the schedule from their desktop. Outlook also has a Web-based application for viewing the basic schedule from outside the institution, although customized data cannot be accessed. The scheduling and reporting functions have been used for a year at the Penn State Hershey Clinical Simulation Center. The schedule has increased workflow efficiency, improved the quality of recorded information, and provided more accurate reporting. The Penn State Hershey Clinical Simulation Center's scheduling and reporting system can be adapted easily to most simulation centers and can expand and change to meet future growth with little or no expense to the center.

  2. 15 CFR 700.14 - Preferential scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.14 Preferential scheduling. (a) A...

  3. BIM-BASED SCHEDULING OF CONSTRUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Büchmann-Slorup, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The potential of BIM is generally recognized in the construction industry, but the practical application of BIM for management purposes is, however, still limited among contractors. The objective of this study is to review the current scheduling process of construction in light of BIM...... and communicate. Scheduling on the detailed level, on the other hand, follows a stipulated approach to scheduling, i.e. the Last Planner System (LPS), which is characterized by involvement of all actors in the construction phase. Thus, the major challenge when implementing BIM-based scheduling is to improve...

  4. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF LOCATION-BASED SCHEDULING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

    2007-01-01

    The traditional method for planning, scheduling and controlling activities and resources in construction projects is the CPM-scheduling, which has been the predominant scheduling method since its introduction in the late 1950s. Over the years, CPM has proven to be a very powerful technique...... that will be used in this study. LBS is a scheduling method that rests upon the theories of line-of-balance and which uses the graphic representation of a flowline chart. As such, LBS is adapted for planning and management of workflows and, thus, may provide a solution to the identified shortcomings of CPM. Even...

  5. Instructions, multiple schedules, and extinction: Distinguishing rule-governed from schedule-controlled behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, S C; Brownstein, A J; Haas, J R; Greenway, D E

    1986-09-01

    Schedule sensitivity has usually been examined either through a multiple schedule or through changes in schedules after steady-state responding has been established. This study compared the effects of these two procedures when various instructions were given. Fifty-five college students responded in two 32-min sessions under a multiple fixed-ratio 18/differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate 6-s schedule, followed by one session of extinction. Some subjects received no instructions regarding the appropriate rates of responding, whereas others received instructions to respond slowly, rapidly, or both. Relative to the schedule in operation, the instructions were minimal, partially inaccurate, or accurate. When there was little schedule sensitivity in the multiple schedule, there was little in extinction. When apparently schedule-sensitive responding occurred in the multiple schedule, however, sensitivity in extinction occurred only if differential responding in the multiple schedule could not be due to rules supplied by the experimenter. This evidence shows that rule-governed behavior that occurs in the form of schedule-sensitive behavior may not in fact become schedule-sensitive even though it makes contact with the scheduled reinforcers.

  6. Cross-Layer Adaptive Feedback Scheduling of Wireless Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Feng; Ma, Longhua; Peng, Chen; Sun, Youxian; Dong, Jinxiang

    2008-01-01

    There is a trend towards using wireless technologies in networked control systems. However, the adverse properties of the radio channels make it difficult to design and implement control systems in wireless environments. To attack the uncertainty in available communication resources in wireless control systems closed over WLAN, a cross-layer adaptive feedback scheduling (CLAFS) scheme is developed, which takes advantage of the co-design of control and wireless communications. By exploiting cross-layer design, CLAFS adjusts the sampling periods of control systems at the application layer based on information about deadline miss ratio and transmission rate from the physical layer. Within the framework of feedback scheduling, the control performance is maximized through controlling the deadline miss ratio. Key design parameters of the feedback scheduler are adapted to dynamic changes in the channel condition. An event-driven invocation mechanism for the feedback scheduler is also developed. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is efficient in dealing with channel capacity variations and noise interference, thus providing an enabling technology for control over WLAN. PMID:27879934

  7. Cross-Layer Adaptive Feedback Scheduling of Wireless Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxiang Dong

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a trend towards using wireless technologies in networked control systems. However, the adverse properties of the radio channels make it difficult to design and implement control systems in wireless environments. To attack the uncertainty in available communication resources in wireless control systems closed over WLAN, a cross-layer adaptive feedback scheduling (CLAFS scheme is developed, which takes advantage of the co-design of control and wireless communications. By exploiting crosslayer design, CLAFS adjusts the sampling periods of control systems at the application layer based on information about deadline miss ratio and transmission rate from the physical layer. Within the framework of feedback scheduling, the control performance is maximized through controlling the deadline miss ratio. Key design parameters of the feedback scheduler are adapted to dynamic changes in the channel condition. An eventdriven invocation mechanism for the feedback scheduler is also developed. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is efficient in dealing with channel capacity variations and noise interference, thus providing an enabling technology for control over WLAN.

  8. Ensemble-average versus suspension-scale Cauchy continuum-mechanical definitions of stress in polarized suspensions: Global homogenization of a dilute suspension of dipolar spherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almog, Y.; Brenner, H.

    1999-01-01

    The macroscale rheological properties of a dilute suspension exposed to a uniform external field and composed of identical, rigid, inhomogeneous, dipolar, spherical particles dispersed in an incompressible Newtonian fluid and possessing the same mean density as the latter fluid are derived from knowledge of its microscale properties by applying a global ensemble-averaging technique. Each dipole, which is permanently embedded in the particle, is assumed to be generated by the presence of an inhomogeneous external body-force field in the particle interior resulting from the action of the uniform external field on an inhomogeneous distribution of interior matter. It is shown that although the ensemble-average stress tensor is symmetric, the suspension nevertheless behaves macroscopically as if it possessed an asymmetric stress tensor. This seeming contradiction can be traced to the fact that the average body force acting on the contents of any arbitrarily drawn volume lying in the interior of the suspension does not vanish despite the fact that each particle is 'neutrally buoyant'. That this force is not zero stems from the fact that some particles necessarily straddle the closed surface bounding that volume, and that the distribution of external body forces over the interiors of these particles is nonuniform. As such, that portion of the spherical particle lying outside of the surface enclosing the domain exerts a force on the remaining portion of the sphere lying within that domain. We then demonstrate that the natural macroscopic model, which is derived by equating the divergence of the suspension-scale stress appearing in that model to the ensemble-average external body-force field, and which predicts a symmetric stress tensor, is macroscopically deficient with respect to the more intuitive asymmetric stress model usually proposed by continuum mechanicians for such a suspension. It is shown that the latter, continuum-mechanical model recovers all the physically

  9. Kinetics of the reduction of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) by methane (CH{sub 4}) during chemical looping combustion: A global mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monazam, Esmail R; Breault, Ronald W; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Richards, George; Carpenter, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has emerged as a promising technology for fossil fuel combustion which produces a sequestration ready concentrated CO{sub 2} stream in power production. A CLC system is composed with two reactors, an air and a fuel reactor. An oxygen carrier such as hematite (94%Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) circulates between the reactors, which transfers the oxygen necessary for the fuel combustion from the air to the fuel. An important issue for the CLC process is the selection of metal oxide as oxygen carrier, since it must retain its reactivity through many cycles. The primary objective of this work is to develop a global mechanism with respective kinetics rate parameters such that CFD simulations can be performed for large systems. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the reduction of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in a continuous stream of CH{sub 4} (15, 20, and 35%) was conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 825{degrees}C over ten reduction cycles. The mass spectroscopy analysis of product gas indicated the presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O at the early stage of reaction and H{sub 2} and CO at the final stage of reactions. A kinetic model based on two parallel reactions, 1) first-order irreversible rate kinetics and 2) Avrami equation describing nucleation and growth processes, was applied to the reduction data. It was found, that the reaction rates for both reactions increase with, both, temperature and the methane concentration in inlet gas.

  10. Schedule Control and Nursing Home Quality: Exploratory Evidence of a Psychosocial Predictor of Resident Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, David A; Berkman, Lisa F; Buxton, Orfeu M; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2016-02-01

    To examine whether nursing homes' quality of care was predicted by schedule control (workers' ability to decide work hours), independently of other staffing characteristics. Prospective ecological study of 30 nursing homes in New England. Schedule control was self-reported via survey in 2011-2012 (N = 1,045). Quality measures included the prevalence of decline in activities of daily living, residents' weight loss, and pressure ulcers, indicators systematically linked with staffing characteristics. Outcomes data for 2012 were retrieved from Medicare.gov. Robust Linear Regressions showed that higher schedule control predicted lower prevalence of pressure ulcers (β = -0.51, p job satisfaction, and turnover intentions. Higher schedule control might enhance the planning and delivery of strategies to prevent or cure pressure ulcers. Further research is needed to identify potential causal mechanisms by which schedule control could improve quality of care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. A Scheduling Algorithm for Minimizing the Packet Error Probability in Clusterized TDMA Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash T. Toyserkani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider clustered wireless networks, where transceivers in a cluster use a time-slotted mechanism (TDMA to access a wireless channel that is shared among several clusters. An approximate expression for the packet-loss probability is derived for networks with one or more mutually interfering clusters in Rayleigh fading environments, and the approximation is shown to be good for relevant scenarios. We then present a scheduling algorithm, based on Lagrangian duality, that exploits the derived packet-loss model in an attempt to minimize the average packet-loss probability in the network. Computer simulations of the proposed scheduling algorithm show that a significant increase in network throughput can be achieved compared to uncoordinated scheduling. Empirical trials also indicate that the proposed optimization algorithm almost always converges to an optimal schedule with a reasonable number of iterations. Thus, the proposed algorithm can also be used for bench-marking suboptimal scheduling algorithms.

  12. Integrated Fractional Load and Packet Scheduling for OFDMA Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monghal, Guillaume Damien; Kumar, S.; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper study the performance of an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) system under fractional load based in long term evolution (LTE) downlink. Fractional load is defined by a situation where only a fraction of the bandwidth is used for transmission due to lack of traffic....... This type of situation should result in a global increase of signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) conditions in the network. We propose different methods integrating the transmission pattern selection to the packet scheduling functionality of the enode-B depending only on the channel quality...

  13. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leave intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule for planned medical treatment, then the employee... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. 825... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the...

  14. Designing cyclic appointment schedules for outpatient clinics with scheduled and unscheduled patient arrivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortbeek, Nikky; Zonderland, Maartje E.; Braaksma, Aleida; Vliegen, Ingrid M. H.; Boucherie, Richard J.; Litvak, Nelly; Hans, Erwin W.

    2014-01-01

    We present a methodology to design appointment systems for outpatient clinics and diagnostic facilities that offer both walk-in and scheduled service. The developed blueprint for the appointment schedule prescribes the number of appointments to plan per day and the moment on the day to schedule the

  15. Designing cyclic appointment schedules for outpatient clinics with scheduled and unscheduled patient arrivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortbeek, Nikky; Zonderland, Maartje Elisabeth; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Litvak, Nelli; Hans, Elias W.

    2011-01-01

    We present a methodology to design appointment systems for outpatient clinics and diagnostic facilities that offer both walk-in and scheduled service. The developed blueprint for the appointment schedule prescribes the number of appointments to plan per day and the moment on the day to schedule the

  16. Accelerating exact schedulability analysis for fixed-priority pre-emptive scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hang, Y.; Jiale, Z.; Keskin, U.; Bril, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The schedulability analysis for fixed-priority preemptive scheduling (FPPS) plays a significant role in the real-time systems domain. The so-called Hyperplanes Exact Test (HET) [1] is an example of an exact schedulability test for FPPS. In this paper, we aim at improving the efficiency of HET by

  17. ELIMINATION OF THE DISADVANTAGES OF SCHEDULING-NETWORK PLANNING BY APPLYING THE MATRIX OF KEY PROJECT EVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Morozenko Andrey Aleksandrovich; Krasovskiy Dmitriy Viktorovich

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses the current disadvantages of the scheduling-network planning in the management of the terms of investment-construction project. Problems associated with the construction of the schedule and the definitions of the duration of the construction project are being studied. The problems of project management for the management apparatus are shown, which consists in the absence of mechanisms for prompt response to deviations in the parameters of the scheduling-network diagram. ...

  18. A dynamic approach to vehicle scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Huisman (Dennis); R. Freling (Richard); A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a dynamic approach to the vehicle scheduling problem. We discuss the potential benefit of our approach compared to the traditional one, where the vehicle scheduling problem is solved only once for a whole period and the travel times are assumed to be fixed. In our

  19. State Teacher Salary Schedules. Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In the United States most teacher compensation issues are decided at the school district level. However, a group of states have chosen to play a role in teacher pay decisions by instituting statewide teacher salary schedules. Education Commission of the States has found that 17 states currently make use of teacher salary schedules. This education…

  20. Evolutionary Scheduler for the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Alexandre; Lee, Seungwon; Wang, Yeou-Fang; Zheng, Hua; Chau, Savio; Tung, Yu-Wen; Terrile, Richard J.; Hovden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A computer program assists human schedulers in satisfying, to the maximum extent possible, competing demands from multiple spacecraft missions for utilization of the transmitting/receiving Earth stations of NASA s Deep Space Network. The program embodies a concept of optimal scheduling to attain multiple objectives in the presence of multiple constraints.

  1. Decay-usage scheduling in multiprocessors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epema, D.H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Decay-usage scheduling is a priority-aging time-sharing scheduling policy capable of dealing with a workload of both interactive and batch jobs by decreasing the priority of a job when it acquires CPU time, and by increasing its priority when it does not use the (a) CPU. In this article we deal with

  2. 5 CFR 950.801 - Campaign schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Campaign schedule. 950.801 Section 950... VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS CFC Timetable § 950.801 Campaign schedule. (a) The Combined Federal Campaign will be.../International and International parts of the Charity List to all local campaigns by a date to be determined by...

  3. 46 CFR 525.2 - Terminal schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... domestic law and international conventions and agreements adopted by the United States; such terminal... their own negligence, or that impose upon others the obligation to indemnify or hold-harmless the terminals from liability for their own negligence. (2) Enforcement of terminal schedules. Any schedule that...

  4. 21 CFR 1308.13 - Schedule III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule III. 1308.13 Section 1308.13 Food and... opposite it. (b) Stimulants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any... a stimulant effect on the central nervous sxstem, including its salts, isomers (whether optical...

  5. Management Matters. Changing to Flexible Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2005-01-01

    Elementary school library media specialists state that one of the most frustrating issues they face is the fixed schedules in their library media centers. Beyond the cost effectiveness issue, the fixed schedule severely limits using the resources of the library media center for inquiry learning and collaborative teaching experiences between the…

  6. Agent-based scheduling for aircraft deicing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, X.; Ter Mors, A.W.; Roos, N.; Witteveen, C.

    2006-01-01

    The planning and scheduling of the deicing and anti-icing activities is an important and challenging part of airport departure planning. Deicing planning has to be done in a highly dynamic environment involving several autonomous and self-interested parties. Traditional centralized scheduling

  7. Robust scheduling in an uncertain environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents research on scheduling in an uncertain environment, which forms a part of the rolling stock life cycle logistics applied research and development program funded by Dutch railway industry companies. The focus therefore lies on scheduling of maintenance operations on rolling stock

  8. TECHNICAL COORDINATION, SCHEDULE AND INTEGRATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Introduction and Schedule After nearly seven months of concentrated effort, the installation of services on YB0 moved off the CMS critical path in late November. In line with v36 planning provisions, the additional time needed to finish this challeng¬ing task was accommodated by reducing sequential dependencies between assembly tasks, putting more tasks (especially heavy logistic movements) in parallel with activities on, or within, the central wheel. Thus the lowering of wheels YB-1 and YB -2 and of disk YE-3 is already complete, the latter made possible, in the shadow of YB0 work, by inverting the order of the 3 endcap disks in the surface building. Weather conditions permitting, the Tracker will be transported to point 5 during CMS week for insertion in EB before CERN closes. The lowering of the last two disks will take place mid- and end-of January, respectively. Thus central beampipe installation can be confidently planned to start in February as foreseen, allowing closure of CMS in time for CRA...

  9. TECHNICAL COORDINATION, SCHEDULE AND INTEGRATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Introduction Despite the holiday season affecting available manpower, many key internal milestones have been passed over the summer, thanks to the dedication and commitment of the team at point 5. In particular, the installation on, and within, YB0 has progressed steadily through several potentially difficult phases. The v36 planning contingency of lowering YB-1 and YB-1 wheels on schedule in October, before Tracker installation, will be executed in order to give more time to complete YB0 services work, whilst still being consistent with completion of heavy lowering by the end of 2007. Safety In the underground areas the peak level of activity and parallel work has been reached and this will continue for the coming months. Utmost vigilance is required of everybody working underground and this must be maintained. However, it is encouraging to note that the compliance with safety rules is, in general, good. More and more work will be carried out from scaffolding and mobile access platforms. (cherry-picke...

  10. Scheduling mammograms for asymptomatic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohagan, J.K.; Darby, W.P.; Spitznagel, E.L.; Tome, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    A decision theoretic model was used to investigate the relative importance of risk level, radiation hazard, mammographic accuracy, and cost in mammographic screening decision. The model uses woman-specific medical and family history facts and clinic-specific information regarding mammographic accuracy and practice to profile both woman and clinic, and to formulate periodic screening recommendations. Model parameters were varied extensively to investigate the sensitivity of screening schedules to input values. Multivariate risk was estimated within the program using published data from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project 5-year follow-up study. Radiation hazard estimates were developed from published radiation physics and radioepidemiologic risk data. Benchmark values for mammographic sensitivity and specificity under screening conditions were calculated from Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project data. Procedural costs used in the analysis were varied around values reflecting conditions at the Washington University Medical Center. Mortality advantages of early versus late breast cancer detection were accounted for using Health Insurance Plan of New York case survival rates. Results are compared with published screening policies to provide insight into implicit assumptions behind those policies. This analysis emphasizes the importance of accounting for variations in clinical accuracy under screening circumstances, in costs, in radiation exposure, and in woman-specific risk when recommending mammographic screening

  11. TECHNICAL COORDINATION, SCHEDULE AND INTEGRATION

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Introduction Since the lowering of YB0 in February, less spectacular but nonetheless crucial progress has been made along the critical path to CMS completion. The YB0 has been aligned with the beamline to a fraction of a mm, and the HCAL has been fully installed. Cabling scaffolding for YB0 services has been built and one half (-z end) of the ECAL barrel has been installed. The YB0 services installation has begun, with two of the major technical challenges delaying bulk installation, namely PP1 detailed design, manufacture and installation plus Tracker cooling pipe insulation, now apparently solved. Significant difficulties in detailed design, integration and procurement of cable ducts remain. Despite this, the design of the +end is close to complete, and Tracker power cable installation on two sectors of the +end is well advanced. A new master schedule, v36.0, is being prepared to account for the updated actual situation at point 5 and for the revised LHC machine planning. Safety The enormous amount of...

  12. Global Journal of Engineering Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Global Journal of Engineering Research is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Engineering Research including Mechanical, Civil, Electrical, Chemical, Electronics, Geological etc. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/ ...

  13. Scheduling nursing personnel on a microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C J; Kao, C Y

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that with the shortage of nursing personnel, hospital administrators have to pay more attention to the needs of nurses to retain and recruit them. Also asserts that improving nurses' schedules is one of the most economic ways for the hospital administration to create a better working environment for nurses. Develops an algorithm for scheduling nursing personnel. Contrary to the current hospital approach, which schedules nurses on a person-by-person basis, the proposed algorithm constructs schedules on a day-by-day basis. The algorithm has inherent flexibility in handling a variety of possible constraints and goals, similar to other non-cyclical approaches. But, unlike most other non-cyclical approaches, it can also generate a quality schedule in a short time on a microcomputer. The algorithm was coded in C language and run on a microcomputer. The developed software is currently implemented at a leading hospital in Taiwan. The response to the initial implementation is quite promising.

  14. NASA Instrument Cost/Schedule Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Mrozinski, Joe; Fox, George

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Office of Independent Program and Cost Evaluation (IPCE) has established a number of initiatives to improve its cost and schedule estimating capabilities. 12One of these initiatives has resulted in the JPL developed NASA Instrument Cost Model. NICM is a cost and schedule estimator that contains: A system level cost estimation tool; a subsystem level cost estimation tool; a database of cost and technical parameters of over 140 previously flown remote sensing and in-situ instruments; a schedule estimator; a set of rules to estimate cost and schedule by life cycle phases (B/C/D); and a novel tool for developing joint probability distributions for cost and schedule risk (Joint Confidence Level (JCL)). This paper describes the development and use of NICM, including the data normalization processes, data mining methods (cluster analysis, principal components analysis, regression analysis and bootstrap cross validation), the estimating equations themselves and a demonstration of the NICM tool suite.

  15. Scheduling algorithm for data relay satellite optical communication based on artificial intelligent optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-hu; Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Shang-hong; Li, Yong-jun; Wang, Xiang; Dong, Yi; Dong, Chen

    2013-08-01

    Optical satellite communication with the advantages of broadband, large capacity and low power consuming broke the bottleneck of the traditional microwave satellite communication. The formation of the Space-based Information System with the technology of high performance optical inter-satellite communication and the realization of global seamless coverage and mobile terminal accessing are the necessary trend of the development of optical satellite communication. Considering the resources, missions and restraints of Data Relay Satellite Optical Communication System, a model of optical communication resources scheduling is established and a scheduling algorithm based on artificial intelligent optimization is put forwarded. According to the multi-relay-satellite, multi-user-satellite, multi-optical-antenna and multi-mission with several priority weights, the resources are scheduled reasonable by the operation: "Ascertain Current Mission Scheduling Time" and "Refresh Latter Mission Time-Window". The priority weight is considered as the parameter of the fitness function and the scheduling project is optimized by the Genetic Algorithm. The simulation scenarios including 3 relay satellites with 6 optical antennas, 12 user satellites and 30 missions, the simulation result reveals that the algorithm obtain satisfactory results in both efficiency and performance and resources scheduling model and the optimization algorithm are suitable in multi-relay-satellite, multi-user-satellite, and multi-optical-antenna recourses scheduling problem.

  16. Cloud computing task scheduling strategy based on improved differential evolution algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Junwei; He, Qian; Fang, Yiqiu

    2017-04-01

    In order to optimize the cloud computing task scheduling scheme, an improved differential evolution algorithm for cloud computing task scheduling is proposed. Firstly, the cloud computing task scheduling model, according to the model of the fitness function, and then used improved optimization calculation of the fitness function of the evolutionary algorithm, according to the evolution of generation of dynamic selection strategy through dynamic mutation strategy to ensure the global and local search ability. The performance test experiment was carried out in the CloudSim simulation platform, the experimental results show that the improved differential evolution algorithm can reduce the cloud computing task execution time and user cost saving, good implementation of the optimal scheduling of cloud computing tasks.

  17. An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Single-Machine Inverse Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Mou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the scheduling is to arrange operations on suitable machines with optimal sequence for corresponding objectives. In order to meet market requirements, scheduling systems must own enough flexibility against uncertain events. These events can change production status or processing parameters, even causing the original schedule to no longer be optimal or even to be infeasible. Traditional scheduling strategies, however, cannot cope with these cases. Therefore, a new idea of scheduling called inverse scheduling has been proposed. In this paper, the inverse scheduling with weighted completion time (SMISP is considered in a single-machine shop environment. In this paper, an improved genetic algorithm (IGA with a local searching strategy is proposed. To improve the performance of IGA, efficient encoding scheme, fitness evaluation mechanism, feasible initialization methods, and a local search procedure have been employed in the paper. Because of the local improving method, the proposed IGA can balance its exploration ability and exploitation ability. We adopt 27 instances to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results illustrated that the proposed algorithm can generate satisfactory solutions. This approach also has been applied to solve the scheduling problem in the real Chinese shipyard and can bring some benefits.

  18. Analisis Performansi Algoritma Penjadwalan Log Rule dan Frame Level Schedule Skenario Multicell Pada Layer Mac LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile telecommunications technology gradually evolved to support better services such as voice, data, and video to users of telecommunications services. LTE (Long Term Evolution is a network based on Internet Protocol (IP standardized by 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP. To support it, LTE requires a mechanism that can support. One of them by applying methods of scheduling packets in each service. Scheduling is a different treatment to packets that come in accordance with the priorities of the scheduling algorithm. In this research, to analyze the performance of LTE with paramater delay, packet loss ratio, throughput and fairness index uses a scheduling algorithms Frame Level Schedule (FLS and Log Rule on LTE-Simulator with scenarios using Voip traffic, Video and Best Effort (BE. The results is scheduling algorithms FLS is better than log rule in term of throughput values, while of scheduling algorithms log rule is better than FLS in terms of delay based on the number and speed of the users. This indicates that both scheduling algorithms suitable for use in LTE networks within conditions of traffic real time services, but not for non real time services such as BE.

  19. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markes, B.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-10

    This document provides the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) and the Project Hanford Management Contractor.(PHMC) a schedule in accordance with the WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance` and BHI- EE-02, Environmental Requirements, of monitoring and sampling routines for the Near-Field Monitoring (NFM) program during calendar year (CY) 1997. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Near-Field Monitoring. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Near- Field Monitoring and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1998. The outside perimeter road surveys of 200 East and West Area and the rail survey from the 300 Area to Columbia Center will be performed in the year 2000 per agreement with Department of Energy. Richland Field Office. This schedule does not discuss staffing needs, nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines. Personnel performing routines to meet this schedule shall communicate any need for assistance in completing these routines to Radiological Control management and Near-Field Monitoring. After each routine survey is completed, a copy of the survey record, maps, and data sheets will be forwarded to Near-Field Monitoring. These routine surveys will not be considered complete until this documentation is received. At the end of each month, the ERC and PHMC radiological control organizations shall forward a copy of the Routine

  20. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2004), s. 404-407 ISSN 1436-3445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotential WO * vertical systems * global vertical frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  1. Multiagent scheduling method with earliness and tardiness objectives in flexible job shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zuobao; Weng, Michael X

    2005-04-01

    Flexible job-shop scheduling problems are an important extension of the classical job-shop scheduling problems and present additional complexity. Such problems are mainly due to the existence of a considerable amount of overlapping capacities with modern machines. Classical scheduling methods are generally incapable of addressing such capacity overlapping. We propose a multiagent scheduling method with job earliness and tardiness objectives in a flexible job-shop environment. The earliness and tardiness objectives are consistent with the just-in-time production philosophy which has attracted significant attention in both industry and academic community. A new job-routing and sequencing mechanism is proposed. In this mechanism, two kinds of jobs are defined to distinguish jobs with one operation left from jobs with more than one operation left. Different criteria are proposed to route these two kinds of jobs. Job sequencing enables to hold a job that may be completed too early. Two heuristic algorithms for job sequencing are developed to deal with these two kinds of jobs. The computational experiments show that the proposed multiagent scheduling method significantly outperforms the existing scheduling methods in the literature. In addition, the proposed method is quite fast. In fact, the simulation time to find a complete schedule with over 2000 jobs on ten machines is less than 1.5 min.

  2. Hybrid Discrete Differential Evolution Algorithm for Lot Splitting with Capacity Constraints in Flexible Job Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-level batch chromosome coding scheme is proposed to solve the lot splitting problem with equipment capacity constraints in flexible job shop scheduling, which includes a lot splitting chromosome and a lot scheduling chromosome. To balance global search and local exploration of the differential evolution algorithm, a hybrid discrete differential evolution algorithm (HDDE is presented, in which the local strategy with dynamic random searching based on the critical path and a random mutation operator is developed. The performance of HDDE was experimented with 14 benchmark problems and the practical dye vat scheduling problem. The simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm has the strong global search capability and can effectively solve the practical lot splitting problems with equipment capacity constraints.

  3. Integration of look-ahead multicast and unicast scheduling for input-queued cell switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an integration of multicast and unicast traffic scheduling algorithms for input-queued cell switches. The multi-level round-robin multicast scheduling (ML-RRMS) algorithm with the look-ahead (LA) mechanism provides a highly scalable architecture and is able to reduce the head...... module that filters out the conflicting requests to ensure fairness. Simulation results show that comparing with the scheme using WBA for the multicast scheduling, the scheme proposed in this paper reduces the HOL blocking problem for multicast traffic and provides a significant improvement in terms...

  4. The comparison of predictive scheduling algorithms for different sizes of job shop scheduling problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W. M.; Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Krenczyk, D.

    2016-08-01

    In the paper a survey of predictive and reactive scheduling methods is done in order to evaluate how the ability of prediction of reliability characteristics influences over robustness criteria. The most important reliability characteristics are: Mean Time to Failure, Mean Time of Repair. Survey analysis is done for a job shop scheduling problem. The paper answers the question: what method generates robust schedules in the case of a bottleneck failure occurrence before, at the beginning of planned maintenance actions or after planned maintenance actions? Efficiency of predictive schedules is evaluated using criteria: makespan, total tardiness, flow time, idle time. Efficiency of reactive schedules is evaluated using: solution robustness criterion and quality robustness criterion. This paper is the continuation of the research conducted in the paper [1], where the survey of predictive and reactive scheduling methods is done only for small size scheduling problems.

  5. SMAP Instrument Mechanical System Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimko, Eric; French, Richard; Riggs, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch by the end of 2014, is being developed to measure the soil moisture and soil freeze/thaw state on a global scale over a three-year period. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP measurements are invaluable across many science and applications disciplines including hydrology, climate, carbon cycle, and the meteorological, environment, and ecology applications communities. The SMAP observatory is composed of a despun bus and a spinning instrument platform that includes both a deployable 6 meter aperture low structural frequency Astromesh reflector and a spin control system. The instrument section has engendered challenging mechanical system issues associated with the antenna deployment, flexible antenna pointing in the context of a multitude of disturbances, spun section mass properties, spin control system development, and overall integration with the flight system on both mechanical and control system levels. Moreover, the multitude of organizations involved, including two major vendors providing the spin subsystem and reflector boom assembly plus the flight system mechanical and guidance, navigation, and control teams, has led to several unique system engineering challenges. Capturing the key physics associated with the function of the flight system has been challenging due to the many different domains that are applicable. Key interfaces and operational concepts have led to complex negotiations because of the large number of organizations that integrate with the instrument mechanical system. Additionally, the verification and validation concerns associated with the mechanical system have had required far-reaching involvement from both the flight system and other subsystems. The SMAP instrument mechanical systems engineering issues and their solutions are described in this paper.

  6. Design of Gain Scheduling Control Using State Derivative Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Ismael Hardy Llins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the study of systems subject to time-varying parameters has awakened the interest of many researchers. The gain scheduling control strategy guarantees a good performance for systems of this type and also is considered as the simplest to deal with problems of this nature. Moreover, the class of systems in which the state derivative signals are easier to obtain than the state signals, such as in the control for reducing vibrations in a mechanical system, has gained an important hole in control theory. Considering those ideas, we propose sufficient conditions via LMI for designing a gain scheduling controller using state derivative feedback. The D-stability methodology was used for improving the performance of the transitory response. Practical implementation in an active suspension system and comparison with other methods validates the efficiency of the proposed strategy.

  7. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Project: construction schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, W.J.; Martin, E.M.; Shivley, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The construction schedule for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant and its evolution are described. The initial schedule basis, changes necessitated by the evaluation of the overall plant design, and constructability improvements that have been effected to assure adherence to the schedule are presented. The schedule structure and hierarchy are discussed, as are tools used to define, develop, and evaluate the schedule

  8. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Title 44 US Code, ''Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ''Management and Use of Information and Records,'' and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ''Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ''NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA's General Records Schedule (dated August 1995)

  9. Schedule-Aware Workflow Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Ronny S.; Russell, Nick C.; van der Aalst, Wil M. P.; Moleman, Arnold J.; Bakker, Piet J. M.

    Contemporary workflow management systems offer work-items to users through specific work-lists. Users select the work-items they will perform without having a specific schedule in mind. However, in many environments work needs to be scheduled and performed at particular times. For example, in hospitals many work-items are linked to appointments, e.g., a doctor cannot perform surgery without reserving an operating theater and making sure that the patient is present. One of the problems when applying workflow technology in such domains is the lack of calendar-based scheduling support. In this paper, we present an approach that supports the seamless integration of unscheduled (flow) and scheduled (schedule) tasks. Using CPN Tools we have developed a specification and simulation model for schedule-aware workflow management systems. Based on this a system has been realized that uses YAWL, Microsoft Exchange Server 2007, Outlook, and a dedicated scheduling service. The approach is illustrated using a real-life case study at the AMC hospital in the Netherlands. In addition, we elaborate on the experiences obtained when developing and implementing a system of this scale using formal techniques.

  10. Mission Operations Planning and Scheduling System (MOPSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Terri; Hempel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    MOPSS is a generic framework that can be configured on the fly to support a wide range of planning and scheduling applications. It is currently used to support seven missions at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in roles that include science planning, mission planning, and real-time control. Prior to MOPSS, each spacecraft project built its own planning and scheduling capability to plan satellite activities and communications and to create the commands to be uplinked to the spacecraft. This approach required creating a data repository for storing planning and scheduling information, building user interfaces to display data, generating needed scheduling algorithms, and implementing customized external interfaces. Complex scheduling problems that involved reacting to multiple variable situations were analyzed manually. Operators then used the results to add commands to the schedule. Each architecture was unique to specific satellite requirements. MOPSS is an expert system that automates mission operations and frees the flight operations team to concentrate on critical activities. It is easily reconfigured by the flight operations team as the mission evolves. The heart of the system is a custom object-oriented data layer mapped onto an Oracle relational database. The combination of these two technologies allows a user or system engineer to capture any type of scheduling or planning data in the system's generic data storage via a GUI.

  11. Scheduling nurses’ shifts at PGI Cikini Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainggolan, J. C. T.; Kusumastuti, R. D.

    2018-03-01

    Hospitals play an essential role in the community by providing medical services to the public. In order to provide high quality medical services, hospitals must manage their resources (including nurses) effectively and efficiently. Scheduling of nurses’ work shifts, in particular, is crucial, and must be conducted carefully to ensure availability and fairness. This research discusses the job scheduling system for nurses in PGI Cikini Hospital, Jakarta with Goal Programming approach. The research objectives are to identify nurse scheduling criteria and find the best schedule that can meet the criteria. The model has hospital regulations (including government regulations) as hard constraints, and nurses’ preferences as soft constraints. We gather primary data (hospital regulations and nurses’ preferences) through interviews with three Head Nurses and distributing questionnaires to fifty nurses. The results show that on the best schedule, all hard constraints can be satisfied. However, only two out of four soft constraints are satisfied. Compared to current scheduling practice, the resulting schedule ensures the availability of nurses as it satisfies all hospital’s regulations and it has a higher level of fairness as it can accommodate some of the nurses’ preferences.

  12. PROMSYS, Plant Equipment Maintenance and Inspection Scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.L.; Srite, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: PROMSYS is a computer system designed to automate the scheduling of routine maintenance and inspection of plant equipment. This 'programmed maintenance' provides the detailed planning and accomplishment of lubrication, inspection, and similar repetitive maintenance activities which can be scheduled at specified predetermined intervals throughout the year. The equipment items included are the typical pumps, blowers, motors, compressors, automotive equipment, refrigeration units, filtering systems, machine shop equipment, cranes, elevators, motor-generator sets, and electrical switchgear found throughout industry, as well as cell ventilation, shielding, containment, and material handling equipment unique to nuclear research and development facilities. Four related programs are used to produce sorted schedule lists, delinquent work lists, and optional master lists. Five additional programs are used to create and maintain records of all scheduled and unscheduled maintenance history. 2 - Method of solution: Service specifications and frequency are established and stored. The computer program reviews schedules weekly and prints, on schedule cards, instructions for service that is due the following week. The basic output from the computer program comes in two forms: programmed-maintenance schedule cards and programmed-maintenance data sheets. The data sheets can be issued in numerical building, route, and location number sequence as equipment lists, grouped for work assigned to a particular foreman as the foreman's equipment list, or grouped by work charged to a particular work order as the work-order list. Data sheets grouped by equipment classification are called the equipment classification list

  13. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Title 44 US Code, ``Public Printing and Documents,`` regulations issued by the General Service Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR Chapter 101, Subchapter B, ``Management and Use of Information and Records,`` and regulations issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter 12, Subchapter B, ``Records Management,`` require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA`s General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 3, contains ``NRC`s Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,`` and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 3 incorporates NARA approved changes and additions to the NRC schedules that have been implemented since the last revision dated March, 1992, reflects recent organizational changes implemented at the NRC, and includes the latest version of NARA`s General Records Schedule (dated August 1995).

  14. A Data Scheduling and Management Infrastructure for the TEAM Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andelman, S.; Baru, C.; Chandra, S.; Fegraus, E.; Lin, K.; Unwin, R.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of the Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network (www.teamnetwork.org) is "To generate real time data for monitoring long-term trends in tropical biodiversity through a global network of TEAM sites (i.e. field stations in tropical forests), providing an early warning system on the status of biodiversity to effectively guide conservation action". To achieve this, the TEAM Network operates by collecting data via standardized protocols at TEAM Sites. The standardized TEAM protocols include the Climate, Vegetation and Terrestrial Vertebrate Protocols. Some sites also implement additional protocols. There are currently 7 TEAM Sites with plans to grow the network to 15 by June 30, 2009 and 50 TEAM Sites by the end of 2010. Climate Protocol The Climate Protocol entails the collection of climate data via meteorological stations located at the TEAM Sites. This includes information such as precipitation, temperature, wind direction and strength and various solar radiation measurements. Vegetation Protocol The Vegetation Protocol collects standardized information on tropical forest trees and lianas. A TEAM Site will have between 6-9 1ha plots where trees and lianas larger than a pre-specified size are mapped, identified and measured. This results in each TEAM Site repeatedly measuring between 3000-5000 trees annually. Terrestrial Vertebrate Protocol The Terrestrial Vertebrate Protocol collects standardized information on mid-sized tropical forest fauna (i.e. birds and mammals). This information is collected via camera traps (i.e. digital cameras with motion sensors housed in weather proof casings). The images taken by the camera trap are reviewed to identify what species are captured in the image by the camera trap. The image and the interpretation of what is in the image are the data for the Terrestrial Vertebrate Protocol. The amount of data collected through the TEAM protocols provides a significant yet exciting IT challenge. The TEAM Network is

  15. PHENIX WBS notes. Cost and schedule review copy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M&S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate Total, M&S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry.

  16. PHENIX Work Breakdown Structure. Cost and schedule review copy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M&S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate shows Total, M&S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry.

  17. Bridging the Gap Between Planning and Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari K.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Planning research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has often focused on problems where there are cascading levels of action choice and complex interactions between actions. In contrast. Scheduling research has focused on much larger problems where there is little action choice, but the resulting ordering problem is hard. In this paper, we give an overview of M planning and scheduling techniques, focusing on their similarities, differences, and limitations. We also argue that many difficult practical problems lie somewhere between planning and scheduling, and that neither area has the right set of tools for solving these vexing problems.

  18. Hypergraph+: An Improved Hypergraph-Based Task-Scheduling Algorithm for Massive Spatial Data Processing on Master-Slave Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data processing often requires massive datasets, and the task/data scheduling efficiency of these applications has an impact on the overall processing performance. Among the existing scheduling strategies, hypergraph-based algorithms capture the data sharing pattern in a global way and significantly reduce total communication volume. Due to heterogeneous processing platforms, however, single hypergraph partitioning for later scheduling may be not optimal. Moreover, these scheduling algorithms neglect the overlap between task execution and data transfer that could further decrease execution time. In order to address these problems, an extended hypergraph-based task-scheduling algorithm, named Hypergraph+, is proposed for massive spatial data processing. Hypergraph+ improves upon current hypergraph scheduling algorithms in two ways: (1 It takes platform heterogeneity into consideration offering a metric function to evaluate the partitioning quality in order to derive the best task/file schedule; and (2 It can maximize the overlap between communication and computation. The GridSim toolkit was used to evaluate Hypergraph+ in an IDW spatial interpolation application on heterogeneous master-slave platforms. Experiments illustrate that the proposed Hypergraph+ algorithm achieves on average a 43% smaller makespan than the original hypergraph scheduling algorithm but still preserves high scheduling efficiency.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Bidding-Based Multi-Agent Scheduling Algorithms for Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gordillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence techniques have being applied to many problems in manufacturing systems in recent years. In the specific field of manufacturing scheduling many studies have been published trying to cope with the complexity of the manufacturing environment. One of the most utilized approaches is (multi agent-based scheduling. Nevertheless, despite the large list of studies reported in this field, there is no resource or scientific study on the performance measure of this type of approach under very common and critical execution situations. This paper focuses on multi-agent systems (MAS based algorithms for task allocation, particularly in manufacturing applications. The goal is to provide a mechanism to measure the performance of agent-based scheduling approaches for manufacturing systems under key critical situations such as: dynamic environment, rescheduling, and priority change. With this mechanism it will be possible to simulate critical situations and to stress the system in order to measure the performance of a given agent-based scheduling method. The proposed mechanism is a pioneering approach for performance evaluation of bidding-based MAS approaches for manufacturing scheduling. The proposed method and evaluation methodology can be used to run tests in different manufacturing floors since it is independent of the workshop configuration. Moreover, the evaluation results presented in this paper show the key factors and scenarios that most affect the market-like MAS approaches for manufacturing scheduling.

  20. Global warning, global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  1. Efficient Academic Scheduling at the U.S. Naval Academy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zane, David

    2003-01-01

    This research project examined academic scheduling problems at the U.S. Naval Academy. The focus was on devising methods to construct good final exam schedules and improve existing course schedules by facilitation course changes...

  2. Efficient Load Scheduling Method For Power Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijo M Joy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient load scheduling method to meet varying power supply needs is presented in this paper. At peak load times the power generation system fails due to its instability. Traditionally we use load shedding process. In load shedding process disconnect the unnecessary and extra loads. The proposed method overcomes this problem by scheduling the load based on the requirement. Artificial neural networks are used for this optimal load scheduling process. For generate economic scheduling artificial neural network has been used because generation of power from each source is economically different. In this the total load required is the inputs of this network and the power generation from each source and power losses at the time of transmission are the output of the neural network. Training and programming of the artificial neural networks are done using MATLAB.

  3. Quantify Risk to Manage Cost and Schedule

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raymond, Fred

    1999-01-01

    Too many projects suffer from unachievable budget and schedule goals, caused by unrealistic estimates and the failure to quantify and communicate the uncertainty of these estimates to managers and sponsoring executives...

  4. Alternative Work Schedules Increase Employee Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, John R.; Cohen, Stanley L.

    1983-01-01

    Facets of alternative work schedules (AWS) are discussed: importance of employee control, possible negative consequences, AWS handbook, time monitoring systems, and treatment of exceptions. AWS' effect on productivity and motivation is examined. (SK)

  5. The Composition of the Master Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cynthia C.; Behrend, Dirk; MacMillan, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Over a period of about four months, the IVS Coordinating Center (IVSCC) each year composes the Master Schedule for the IVS observing program of the next calendar year. The process begins in early July when the IVSCC contacts the IVS Network Stations to request information about available station time as well as holiday and maintenance schedules for the upcoming year. Going through various planning stages and a review process with the IVS Observing Program Committee (OPC), the final version of the Master Schedule is posted by early November. We describe the general steps of the composition and illustrate them with the example of the planning for the Master Schedule of the 2010 observing year.

  6. Schedule Sales Query Report Generation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Schedule Sales Query presents sales volume figures as reported to GSA by contractors. The reports are generated as quarterly reports for the current year and the...

  7. Knowledge-based scheduling of arrival aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeczowski, K.; Davis, T.; Erzberger, H.; Lev-Ram, I.; Bergh, C.

    1995-01-01

    A knowledge-based method for scheduling arrival aircraft in the terminal area has been implemented and tested in real-time simulation. The scheduling system automatically sequences, assigns landing times, and assigns runways to arrival aircraft by utilizing continuous updates of aircraft radar data and controller inputs. The scheduling algorithms is driven by a knowledge base which was obtained in over two thousand hours of controller-in-the-loop real-time simulation. The knowledge base contains a series of hierarchical 'rules' and decision logic that examines both performance criteria, such as delay reduction, as well as workload reduction criteria, such as conflict avoidance. The objective of the algorithms is to devise an efficient plan to land the aircraft in a manner acceptable to the air traffic controllers. This paper will describe the scheduling algorithms, give examples of their use, and present data regarding their potential benefits to the air traffic system.

  8. Scheduling Network Traffic for Grid Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette

    This thesis concerns scheduling of network traffic in grid context. Grid computing consists of a number of geographically distributed computers, which work together for solving large problems. The computers are connected through a network. When scheduling job execution in grid computing, data...... transmission has so far not been taken into account. This causes stability problems, because data transmission takes time and thus causes delays to the execution plan. This thesis proposes the integration of job scheduling and network routing. The scientific contribution is based on methods from operations...... research and consists of six papers. The first four considers data transmission in grid context. The last two solves the data transmission problem, where the number of paths per data connection is bounded from above. The thesis shows that it is possible to solve the integrated job scheduling and network...

  9. Congruent Validity of the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Thomas L.; Brown, Nina W.

    1979-01-01

    The validity of the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) was investigated by correlating it with the six Class I scales of the California Psychological Inventory on a sample of undergraduate students. Results supported the validity of the RAS. (JKS)

  10. Cure Schedule for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCoy, John D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Henkel technical data sheet (TDS) for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 11 lists three alternate cure schedules for the material, each of which would result in a different state of reaction and different material properties. Here, a cure schedule that attains full reaction of the material is defined. The use of this cure schedule will eliminate variance in material properties due to changes in the cure state of the material, and the cure schedule will serve as the method to make material prior to characterizing properties. The following recommendation was motivated by (1) a desire to cure at a single temperature for ease of manufacture and (2) a desire to keep the cure temperature low (to minimize residual stress build-up associated with the cooldown from the cure temperature to room temperature) without excessively limiting the cure reaction due to vitrification (i.e., material glass transition temperature, Tg, exceeding cure temperature).

  11. Job shop scheduling by local search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Lenstra, J.K.; Laarhoven, van P.J.M.; Ulder, N.L.J.

    1992-01-01

    We present a computational performance analysis of local search algorithms for job shop scheduling. The algorithms under investigation are iterative improvement, simulated annealing, threshold accepting and genetic local search. Our study shows that simulated annealing performs best in the sense

  12. Scheduling job shop - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, M.; Abbas, A.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The scheduling in job shop is important for efficient utilization of machines in the manufacturing industry. There are number of algorithms available for scheduling of jobs which depend on machines tools, indirect consumables and jobs which are to be processed. In this paper a case study is presented for scheduling of jobs when parts are treated on available machines. Through time and motion study setup time and operation time are measured as total processing time for variety of products having different manufacturing processes. Based on due dates different level of priority are assigned to the jobs and the jobs are scheduled on the basis of priority. In view of the measured processing time, the times for processing of some new jobs are estimated and for efficient utilization of the machines available an algorithm is proposed and validated.

  13. The School Schedule--Servant or Mistress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark

    1984-01-01

    Pointing out that time is a dimension of school wealth, the author explores its use in school schedules. Administrators need to be aware of the relationship between time allocation and learning consequences. (MD)

  14. Economic and psychological burden of scheduled surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancellation of scheduled surgery creates a financial burden for hospitals, caregivers and ..... costs and disregard some of the aspects mentioned in the ..... cancellation of elective surgical procedures in a Spanish general.

  15. Onboard Autonomous Scheduling Intelligence System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Scheduling the daily activities of the crew on a human space mission is currently a cumbersome job performed by a large team of operations experts on the ground....

  16. Home Appliance Load Scheduling with SEMIAH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Ghasem Azar, Armin; Zhang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The European research project SEMIAH aims at designing a scalable infrastructure for residential demand response. This paper presents the progress towards a centralized load scheduling algorithm for controlling home appliances taking power grid constraints and satisfaction of consumers into account....

  17. Courts, Scheduled Damages, and Medical Malpractice Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the impact of the introduction of schedules of non-economic damages (i.e. tiered caps systems) on the behavior of insurers operating in the medical liability market for hospitals while controlling the performance of the judicial system, measured as court backlog. Using a difference......-in-differences strategy on Italian data, we find that the introduction of schedules increases the presence of insurers (i.e. medical liability market attractiveness) only in inefficient judicial districts. In the same way, court inefficiency is attractive to insurers for average values of schedules penetration...... of the market, with an increasing positive impact of inefficiency as the territorial coverage of schedules increases. Finally, no significant impact is registered on paid premiums. Our analysis sheds light on a complex set of elements affecting the decisions of insurers in malpractice markets. The analysis...

  18. 76 FR 18262 - January 2011 Pay Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... an OPM memorandum, CPM 2009-27. (See http://www.opm.gov/oca/compmemo/index.asp .) Executive Order... Schedule ($165,300 in 2011, the same level as in 2010). On December 27, 2010, OPM issued a memorandum (CPM...

  19. Heuristic Approach for Balancing Shift Schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Yun, Young Su; Lee, Yong Hee

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a heuristic approach for balancing shift schedules is proposed. For the shift schedules, various constraints which have usually been considered in realworld industry are used, and the objective is to minimize the differences of the workloads in each workgroup. The constraints and objective function are implemented in the proposed heuristic approach. Using a simple instance, the efficiency of the proposed heuristic approach is proved

  20. Algorithms for classical and modern scheduling problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Subject of this thesis is the design and the analysis of algorithms for scheduling problems. In the first part, we focus on energy-efficient scheduling, where one seeks to minimize the energy needed for processing certain jobs via dynamic adjustments of the processing speed (speed scaling). We consider variations and extensions of the standard model introduced by Yao, Demers, and Shenker in 1995 [79], including the addition of a sleep state, the avoidance of preemption, and variable speed lim...

  1. Maritime wideband communication networks video transmission scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief covers emerging maritime wideband communication networks and how they facilitate applications such as maritime distress, urgency, safety and general communications. It provides valuable insight on the data transmission scheduling and protocol design for the maritime wideband network. This brief begins with an introduction to maritime wideband communication networks including the architecture, framework, operations and a comprehensive survey on current developments. The second part of the brief presents the resource allocation and scheduling for video packet transmission wit

  2. Lift scheduling organization : Lift Concept for Lemminkainen

    OpenAIRE

    Mingalimov, Iurii

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to make a simple schedule for the main contractors and clients to check and control workflow connected with lifts. It gathers works with electricity, construction, engineering networks, installing equipment and commissioning works. The schedule was carried out during working on the building site Aino in Saint Petersburg in Lemminkӓinen. The duration of work was 5 months. The lift concept in Lemminkӓinen is very well controlled in comparison with other buil...

  3. Revised data taking schedule with ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gazdzicki, Marek; Aduszkiewicz, A; Andrieu, B; Anticic, T; Antoniou, N; Argyriades, J; Asryan, A G; Baatar, B; Blondel, A; Blumer, J; Boldizsar, L; Bravar, A; Brzychczyk, J; Bubak, A; Bunyatov, S A; Choi, K U; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Cleymans, J; Derkach, D A; Diakonos, F; Dominik, W; Dumarchez, J; Engel, R; Ereditato, A; Feofilov, G A; Fodor, Z; Ferrero, A; Gazdzicki, M; Golubeva, M; Grebieszkow, K; Grzeszczuk, A; Guber, F; Hasegawa, T; Haungs, A; Igolkin, S; Ivanov, A S; Ivashkin, A; Kadija, K; Katrynska, N; Kielczewska, D; Kikola, D; Kisiel, J; Kobayashi, T; Kolesnikov, V I; Kolev, D; Kolevatov, R S; Kondratiev, V P; Kowalski, S; Kurepin, A; Lacey, R; Laszlo, A; Lyubushkin, V V; Majka, Z; I Malakhov, A; Marchionni, A; Marcinek, A; Maris, I; Matveev, V; Melkumov, G L; Meregaglia, A; Messina, M; Mijakowski, P; Mitrovski, M; Montaruli, T; Mrówczynski, St; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Naumenko, P A; Nikolic, V; Nishikawa, K; Palczewski, T; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Peryt, W; Planeta, R; Pluta, J; Popov, B A; Posiadala, M; Przewlocki, P; Rauch, W; Ravonel, M; Renfordt, R; Röhrich, D; Rondio, E; Rossi, B; Roth, M; Rubbia, A; Rybczynski, M; Sadovskii, A; Sakashita, K; Schuster, T; Sekiguchi, T; Seyboth, P; Shibata, M; Sissakian, A N; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Sorin, A S; Staszel, P; Stefanek, G; Stepaniak, J; Strabel, C; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Szuba, M; Tada, M; Taranenko, A; Tsenov, R; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Vassiliou, M; Vechernin, V V; Vesztergombi, G; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek, A; Zipper, W; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the revised data taking schedule of NA61 with ion beams. The revision takes into account limitations due to the new LHC schedule as well as final results concerning the physics performance with secondary ion beams. It is proposed to take data with primary Ar and Xe beams in 2012 and 2014, respectively, and to test and use for physics a secondary B beam from primary Pb beam fragmentation in 2010, 2011 and 2013.

  4. Job schedul in Grid batch farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We present here a study for a scheduler which cooperates with the queueing system TORQUE and is tailored to the needs of a HEP-dominated large Grid site with around 10000 jobs slots. Triggered by severe scaling problems of MAUI, a scheduler, referred to as MYSCHED, was developed and put into operation. We discuss conceptional aspects as well as experiences after almost two years of running.

  5. Prescribed Travel Schedules for Fatigue Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Johnston, Smith; Lockley, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Fatigue Management Team is developing recommendations for managing fatigue during travel and for shift work operations, as Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Circadian Desynchrony in ISS Operations. The Guidelines provide the International Space Station (ISS ) flight surgeons and other operational clinicians with evidence-based recommendations for mitigating fatigue and other factors related to sleep loss and circadian desynchronization. As much international travel is involved both before and after flight, the guidelines provide recommendations for: pre-flight training, in-flight operations, and post-flight rehabilitation. The objective of is to standardize the process by which care is provided to crewmembers, ground controllers, and other support personnel such as trainers, when overseas travel or schedule shifting is required. Proper scheduling of countermeasures - light, darkness, melatonin, diet, exercise, and medications - is the cornerstone for facilitating circadian adaptation, improving sleep, enhancing alertness, and optimizing performance. The Guidelines provide, among other things, prescribed travel schedules that outline the specific implementation of these mitigation strategies. Each travel schedule offers evidence based protocols for properly using the NASA identified countermeasures for fatigue. This presentation will describe the travel implementation schedules and how these can be used to alleviate the effects of jet lag and/or schedule shifts.

  6. Integrated Job Scheduling and Network Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Pisinger, David

    2013-01-01

    We consider an integrated job scheduling and network routing problem which appears in Grid Computing and production planning. The problem is to schedule a number of jobs at a finite set of machines, such that the overall profit of the executed jobs is maximized. Each job demands a number of resou...... indicate that the algorithm can be used as an actual scheduling algorithm in the Grid or as a tool for analyzing Grid performance when adding extra machines or jobs. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.......We consider an integrated job scheduling and network routing problem which appears in Grid Computing and production planning. The problem is to schedule a number of jobs at a finite set of machines, such that the overall profit of the executed jobs is maximized. Each job demands a number...... of resources which must be sent to the executing machine through a network with limited capacity. A job cannot start before all of its resources have arrived at the machine. The scheduling problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer Program (MIP) and proved to be NP-hard. An exact solution approach using Dantzig...

  7. Staffing, overtime, and shift scheduling project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    Recent events at the Peach Bottom nuclear power plant have demonstrated the need to establish a quantifiable basis for assessing the safety significance of long work hours on nuclear power plant operators. The incidents at TMI-2, Chernobyl, and Bhopal, which all occurred during the late evening/night shift, further highlight the importance of the relationship between shift scheduling and performance. The objective of this project is to estimate, using statistical analysis on data from the nuclear industry, the effects on safety of staffing levels, overtime, and shift scheduling for operators and maintenance personnel. Regarding staffing levels, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently has no explicit regulation concerning the minimum acceptable levels of staffing in a plant that has an operating license. The NRC has no systematic method for collecting data on the number of licensed operators on the operating crews. In 1982 the NRC recommended that plants write into their technical specifications a model policy on overtime. Currently, 77 nuclear power plant units have the model policy or a modification of it written into their technical specifications; 33 units have no policy on overtime. The model policy sets limits on overtime for safety related personnel, although these limits can be exceeded with plant manger approval. The US nuclear power industry has three types of shift schedules: (1) forward-rotating 8-hour/day shift schedules, (2) backward-rotating 8-hour/day schedules, and (3) 12-hour/day schedules

  8. Interactive Dynamic Mission Scheduling for ASCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, A.; Nagase, F.; Isobe, T.

    The Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) mission requires scheduling for each 6-month observation phase, further broken down into weekly schedules at a few minutes resolution. Two tools, SPIKE and NEEDLE, written in Lisp and C, use artificial intelligence (AI) techniques combined with a graphic user interface for fast creation and alteration of mission schedules. These programs consider viewing and satellite attitude constraints as well as observer-requested criteria and present an optimized set of solutions for review by the planner. Six-month schedules at 1 day resolution are created for an oversubscribed set of targets by the SPIKE software, originally written for HST and presently being adapted for EUVE, XTE and AXAF. The NEEDLE code creates weekly schedules at 1 min resolution using in-house orbital routines and creates output for processing by the command generation software. Schedule creation on both the long- and short-term scale is rapid, less than 1 day for long-term, and one hour for short-term.

  9. Self-scheduling with Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, S A; Brown, H N

    1999-01-01

    Excessive time was being spent by the emergency department (ED) staff, head nurse, and unit secretary on a complex 6-week manual self-scheduling system. This issue, plus inevitable errors and staff dissatisfaction, resulted in a manager-lead initiative to automate elements of the scheduling process using Microsoft Excel. The implementation of this initiative included: common coding of all 8-hour and 12-hour shifts, with each 4-hour period represented by a cell; the creation of a 6-week master schedule using the "count-if" function of Excel based on current staffing guidelines; staff time-off requests then entered by the department secretary; the head nurse, with staff input, then fine-tuned the schedule to provide even unit coverage. Outcomes of these changes included an increase in staff satisfaction, time saved by the head nurse, and staff work time saved because there was less arguing about the schedule. Ultimately, the automated self-scheduling method was expanded to the entire 700-bed hospital.

  10. Renewal through Participation in Global Food Security Governance: Implementing the International Food Security and Nutrition Civil Society Mechanism to the Committee on World Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, J.A.B.; Barling, D.

    2012-01-01

    The food commodity price rises from 2006 to 2008 engendered a period
    of political renewal and reform in the governance of global food security. The
    Committee on World Food Security (CFS) was designated as the main international forum dealing with food security and nutrition in 2009 as part

  11. Towards a New Cosmopolitanism: Global Reflexive Interactive Democracy as a New Mechanism for Civil Society Participation in Agri-food Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, J.A.B.; Bevilaqua, D.

    2010-01-01

    In an increasingly interconnected world, where the widespread travel of goods highlights our interconnectedness, who has the power to decide the global regulations that shape the production, processing and exchange of agri-food products? How are such decisions made and by whom? Who decides what is

  12. A Privacy-Preserving Distributed Optimal Scheduling for Interconnected Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of microgrids (MGs, interconnected operation of multiple MGs is becoming a promising strategy for the smart grid. In this paper, a privacy-preserving distributed optimal scheduling method is proposed for the interconnected microgrids (IMG with a battery energy storage system (BESS and renewable energy resources (RESs. The optimal scheduling problem is modeled to minimize the coalitional operation cost of the IMG, including the fuel cost of conventional distributed generators and the life loss cost of BESSs. By using the framework of the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM, a distributed optimal scheduling model and an iteration solution algorithm for the IMG is introduced; only the expected exchanging power (EEP of each MG is required during the iterations. Furthermore, a privacy-preserving strategy for the sharing of the EEP among MGs is designed to work with the mechanism of the distributed algorithm. According to the security analysis, the EEP can be delivered in a cooperative and privacy-preserving way. A case study and numerical results are given in terms of the convergence of the algorithm, the comparison of the costs and the implementation efficiency.

  13. Schedule Matters: Understanding the Relationship between Schedule Delays and Costs on Overruns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerowicz, Walt; Shinn, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between schedule delays and cost overruns on complex projects. It is generally accepted by many project practitioners that cost overruns are directly related to schedule delays. But what does "directly related to" actually mean? Some reasons or root causes for schedule delays and associated cost overruns are obvious, if only in hindsight. For example, unrealistic estimates, supply chain difficulties, insufficient schedule margin, technical problems, scope changes, or the occurrence of risk events can negatively impact schedule performance. Other factors driving schedule delays and cost overruns may be less obvious and more difficult to quantify. Examples of these less obvious factors include project complexity, flawed estimating assumptions, over-optimism, political factors, "black swan" events, or even poor leadership and communication. Indeed, is it even possible the schedule itself could be a source of delay and subsequent cost overrun? Through literature review, surveys of project practitioners, and the authors' own experience on NASA programs and projects, the authors will categorize and examine the various factors affecting the relationship between project schedule delays and cost growth. The authors will also propose some ideas for organizations to consider to help create an awareness of the factors which could cause or influence schedule delays and associated cost growth on complex projects.

  14. Integrating Preventive Maintenance Scheduling As Probability Machine Failure And Batch Production Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses integrated model of batch production scheduling and machine maintenance scheduling. Batch production scheduling uses minimize total actual flow time criteria and machine maintenance scheduling uses the probability of machine failure based on Weibull distribution. The model assumed no nonconforming parts in a planning horizon. The model shows an increase in the number of the batch (length of production run up to a certain limit will minimize the total actual flow time. Meanwhile, an increase in the length of production run will implicate an increase in the number of PM. An example was given to show how the model and algorithm work.

  15. Forms of global governence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Kharkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global governance as a concept defines the meaning of contemporary world politics both as a discipline and as reality. Interdependent and globalized world requires governance, and a global government has not been formed yet. The theoretical possibility of global governance without global government is proved and justified. The purpose of this article is to analytically identify possible forms of global governance. Three such forms of global governance are identified: hierarchical, market and network. In a hierarchy the governance is due to the asymmetry of power between the parties. Market control happens via anonymous pricing mechanism. Network, in contrast to the market is characterized by a closer value link between the actors, but unlike the hierarchical relationship actors are free to leave the network. Global governance takes three forms and is being implemented by different actors. To determine the most efficient form of global governance is impossible. Efficiency depends on the match between a form and an object of government. It should be noted that meta governance is likely to remain a monopoly of institutionally strong states in global governance.

  16. An optimal dynamic interval preventive maintenance scheduling for series systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yicong; Feng, Yixiong; Zhang, Zixian; Tan, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies preventive maintenance (PM) with dynamic interval for a multi-component system. Instead of equal interval, the time of PM period in the proposed dynamic interval model is not a fixed constant, which varies from interval-down to interval-up. It is helpful to reduce the outage loss on frequent repair parts and avoid lack of maintenance of the equipment by controlling the equipment maintenance frequency, when compared to a periodic PM scheme. According to the definition of dynamic interval, the reliability of system is analyzed from the failure mechanisms of its components and the different effects of non-periodic PM actions on the reliability of the components. Following the proposed model of reliability, a novel framework for solving the non-periodical PM schedule with dynamic interval based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm is proposed. The framework denotes the strategies include updating strategy, deleting strategy, inserting strategy and moving strategy, which is set to correct the invalid population individuals of the algorithm. The values of the dynamic interval and the selections of PM action for the components on every PM stage are determined by achieving a certain level of system availability with the minimum total PM-related cost. Finally, a typical rotary table system of NC machine tool is used as an example to describe the proposed method. - Highlights: • A non-periodic preventive maintenance scheduling model is proposed. • A framework for solving the non-periodical PM schedule problem is developed. • The interval of non-periodic PM is flexible and schedule can be better adjusted. • Dynamic interval leads to more efficient solutions than fixed interval does

  17. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  18. Effect of martial arts practice on global self-esteem in people with visual impairment and the associated mechanisms and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Qasim, Samir H.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of exercise programmes on psychosocial characteristics, namely self-esteem, of people with visual impairment (VI) is limited. Martial arts practice has been found to improve global self-esteem among different age groups and among people with different abilities, but not for people with VI. This presents a notable gap in the research literature on people with VI. This thesis conducted three studies with the aim of investigating whether martial arts practice improves s...

  19. Planning and Scheduling for Environmental Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    Environmental Sensor Networks are a new way of monitoring the environment. They comprise autonomous sensor nodes in the environment that record real-time data, which is retrieved, analyzed, integrated with other data sets (e.g. satellite images, GIS, process models) and ultimately lead to scientific discoveries. Sensor networks must operate within time and resource constraints. Sensors have limited onboard memory, energy, computational power, communications windows and communications bandwidth. The value of data will depend on when, where and how it was collected, how detailed the data is, how long it takes to integrate the data, and how important the data was to the original scientific question. Planning and scheduling of sensor networks is necessary for effective, safe operations in the face of these constraints. For example, power bus limitations may preclude sensors from simultaneously collecting data and communicating without damaging the sensor; planners and schedulers can ensure these operations are ordered so that they do not happen simultaneously. Planning and scheduling can also ensure best use of the sensor network to maximize the value of collected science data. For example, if data is best recorded using a particular camera angle but it is costly in time and energy to achieve this, planners and schedulers can search for times when time and energy are available to achieve the optimal camera angle. Planning and scheduling can handle uncertainty in the problem specification; planners can be re-run when new information is made available, or can generate plans that include contingencies. For example, if bad weather may prevent the collection of data, a contingent plan can check lighting conditions and turn off data collection to save resources if lighting is not ideal. Both mobile and immobile sensors can benefit from planning and scheduling. For example, data collection on otherwise passive sensors can be halted to preserve limited power and memory

  20. Interoceanic canal excavation scheduling via computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldonado, Orlino C [Holmes and Narver, Inc., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The computer simulation language GPSS/360 was used to simulate the schedule of several nuclear detonation programs for the interoceanic canal project. The effects of using different weather restriction categories due to air blast and fallout were investigated. The effect of increasing the number of emplacement and stemming crews and the effect of varying the reentry period after detonating a row charge or salvo were also studied. Detonation programs were simulated for the proposed Routes 17A and 25E. The study demonstrates the method of using computer simulation so that a schedule and its associated constraints can be assessed for feasibility. Since many simulation runs can be made for a given set of detonation program constraints, one readily obtains an average schedule for a range of conditions. This provides a method for analyzing time-sensitive operations so that time and cost-effective operational schedules can be established. A comparison of the simulated schedules with those that were published shows them to be similar. (author)

  1. Integrated network design and scheduling problems :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurre, Sarah G.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the class of integrated network design and scheduling problems. These problems focus on selecting and scheduling operations that will change the characteristics of a network, while being speci cally concerned with the performance of the network over time. Motivating applications of INDS problems include infrastructure restoration after extreme events and building humanitarian distribution supply chains. While similar models have been proposed, no one has performed an extensive review of INDS problems from their complexity, network and scheduling characteristics, information, and solution methods. We examine INDS problems under a parallel identical machine scheduling environment where the performance of the network is evaluated by solving classic network optimization problems. We classify that all considered INDS problems as NP-Hard and propose a novel heuristic dispatching rule algorithm that selects and schedules sets of arcs based on their interactions in the network. We present computational analysis based on realistic data sets representing the infrastructures of coastal New Hanover County, North Carolina, lower Manhattan, New York, and a realistic arti cial community CLARC County. These tests demonstrate the importance of a dispatching rule to arrive at near-optimal solutions during real-time decision making activities. We extend INDS problems to incorporate release dates which represent the earliest an operation can be performed and exible release dates through the introduction of specialized machine(s) that can perform work to move the release date earlier in time. An online optimization setting is explored where the release date of a component is not known.

  2. Maternal Nonstandard Work Schedules and Breastfeeding Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilanawala, Afshin

    2017-06-01

    Objectives Although maternal employment rates have increased in the last decade in the UK, there is very little research investigating the linkages between maternal nonstandard work schedules (i.e., work schedules outside of the Monday through Friday, 9-5 schedule) and breastfeeding initiation and duration, especially given the wide literature citing the health advantages of breastfeeding for mothers and children. Methods This paper uses a population-based, UK cohort study, the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 17,397), to investigate the association between types of maternal nonstandard work (evening, night, away from home overnight, and weekends) and breastfeeding behaviors. Results In unadjusted models, exposure to evening shifts was associated with greater odds of breastfeeding initiation (OR 1.71, CI 1.50-1.94) and greater odds of short (OR 1.55, CI 1.32-1.81), intermediate (OR 2.01, CI 1.64-2.47), prolonged partial duration (OR 2.20, CI 1.78-2.72), and prolonged exclusive duration (OR 1.53, CI 1.29-1.82), compared with mothers who were unemployed and those who work other types of nonstandard shifts. Socioeconomic advantage of mothers working evening schedules largely explained the higher odds of breastfeeding initiation and duration. Conclusions Socioeconomic characteristics explain more breastfeeding behaviors among mothers working evening shifts. Policy interventions to increase breastfeeding initiation and duration should consider the timing of maternal work schedules.

  3. Step-by-step cyclic processes scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, G.; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaszak, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research is to pro......Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research...... is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at AGVs fleet scheduling subject to assumed itineraries of concurrently manufactured product types. In other words, assuming a given layout of FMS’s material handling and production routes of simultaneously manufactured...... orders, the main objective is to provide the declarative framework aimed at conditions allowing one to calculate the AGVs fleet schedule in online mode. An illustrative example of the relevant algebra-like driven step-by-stem cyclic scheduling is provided....

  4. Interoceanic canal excavation scheduling via computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldonado, Orlino C.

    1970-01-01

    The computer simulation language GPSS/360 was used to simulate the schedule of several nuclear detonation programs for the interoceanic canal project. The effects of using different weather restriction categories due to air blast and fallout were investigated. The effect of increasing the number of emplacement and stemming crews and the effect of varying the reentry period after detonating a row charge or salvo were also studied. Detonation programs were simulated for the proposed Routes 17A and 25E. The study demonstrates the method of using computer simulation so that a schedule and its associated constraints can be assessed for feasibility. Since many simulation runs can be made for a given set of detonation program constraints, one readily obtains an average schedule for a range of conditions. This provides a method for analyzing time-sensitive operations so that time and cost-effective operational schedules can be established. A comparison of the simulated schedules with those that were published shows them to be similar. (author)

  5. 78 FR 21818 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Methylone Into Schedule I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ..., methamphetamine, and MDMA, Schedule I and II substances. These effects included elevated body temperature... of reuptake of monoamines, and in vivo studies (microdialysis, locomotor activity, body temperature.... Yet another commenter claimed that Schedule I placement would ``cripple efforts at learning,'' make it...

  6. Parents' Family Time and Work Schedules: The Split-Shift Schedule in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, P.; Kalmijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data on couples from the 2003 Spanish Time Use Survey (N = 1,416) to analyze how work schedules are associated with family, couple, parent–child, and non-family leisure activities. Spain is clearly an interesting case for the institutionalized split-shift schedule, a long lunch break

  7. A master surgical scheduling approach for cyclic scheduling in operating room departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrum, Jeroen M.; van Houdenhoven, M.; Hurink, Johann L.; Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; Kazemier, G.

    This paper addresses the problem of operating room (OR) scheduling at the tactical level of hospital planning and control. Hospitals repetitively construct operating room schedules, which is a time-consuming, tedious, and complex task. The stochasticity of the durations of surgical procedures

  8. A model for generating master surgical schedules to allow cyclic scheduling in operating room departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrum, J.M.; van Houdenhoven, M.; Hurink, Johann L.; Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; Kazemier, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of operating room scheduling at the tactical level of hospital planning and control. Hospitals repetitively construct operating room schedules, which is a time consuming tedious and complex task. The stochasticity of the durations of surgical procedures complicates

  9. Global Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    at the mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  10. 14 CFR 399.81 - Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling. 399.81... Unrealistic or deceptive scheduling. (a) It is the policy of the Board to consider unrealistic scheduling of... to the advertising of scheduled performance, it is the policy of the Board to regard as an unfair or...

  11. An introduction to optimal satellite range scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez Álvarez, Antonio José

    2015-01-01

    The satellite range scheduling (SRS) problem, an important operations research problem in the aerospace industry consisting of allocating tasks among satellites and Earth-bound objects, is examined in this book. SRS principles and solutions are applicable to many areas, including: Satellite communications, where tasks are communication intervals between sets of satellites and ground stations Earth observation, where tasks are observations of spots on the Earth by satellites Sensor scheduling, where tasks are observations of satellites by sensors on the Earth. This self-contained monograph begins with a structured compendium of the problem and moves on to explain the optimal approach to the solution, which includes aspects from graph theory, set theory, game theory and belief networks. This book is accessible to students, professionals and researchers in a variety of fields, including: operations research, optimization, scheduling theory, dynamic programming and game theory. Taking account of the distributed, ...

  12. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AI BASED QOS SCHEDULER FOR MOBILE WIMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. David Neels Pon Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in broadband wireless access (BWA has been growing due to increased user mobility and the need for data access at all times. IEEE 802.16e based WiMAX networks promise the best available quality of experience for mobile data service users. WiMAX networks incorporate several Quality of Service (QoS mechanisms at the Media Access Control (MAC level for guaranteed services for multimedia viz. data, voice and video. The problem of assuring QoS is how to allocate available resources among users to meet the QoS criteria such as delay, delay jitter, fairness and throughput requirements. IEEE standard does not include a standard scheduling mechanism and leaves it for various implementer differentiations. Although a lot of the real-time and non real-time packet scheduling schemes has been proposed, it needs to be modified to apply to Mobile WiMAX system that supports five kinds of service classes. In this paper, we propose a novel Priority based Scheduling scheme that uses Artificial Intelligence to support various services by considering the QoS constraints of each class. The simulation results show that slow mobility does not affect the performances and faster mobility and the increment in users beyond a particular load have their say in defining average throughput, average per user throughput, fairness index, average end to end delay and average delay jitter. Nevertheless the results are encouraging that the proposed scheme provides QoS support for each class efficiently.

  13. Schedule and staffing of a nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polliart, A.J.; Csik, B.

    1977-01-01

    Establishment of construction schedule: a) preliminary construction schedule; b) PERT (Program Evaluation Review Techniques) analytical method; c) identify key milestone target dates; d) inter-action by participants and contribution to support revised construction schedule. - Construction schedule control: a) ability to update and modify construction schedule; b) alternate plans to circumvent restraints (problems); c) critical path activity-controls; d) continuous review and report system. - Updating construction site reports to include: 1) progress, 2) accomplishments, 3) potential problems and alternate plans; b) progress reports on related support services; c) total assessment of participating groups on schedule; d) information required by management for decisions. - Typical causes for delays in project schedule. (orig.) [de

  14. Mechanisms controlling primary and new production in a global ecosystem model – Part II: The role of the upper ocean short-term periodic and episodic mixing events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Popova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of 6 h, daily, weekly and monthly atmospheric forcing resulted in dramatically different predictions of plankton productivity in a global 3-D coupled physical-biogeochemical model. Resolving the diurnal cycle of atmospheric variability by use of 6 h forcing, and hence also diurnal variability in UML depth, produced the largest difference, reducing predicted global primary and new production by 25% and 10% respectively relative to that predicted with daily and weekly forcing. This decrease varied regionally, being a 30% reduction in equatorial areas primarily because of increased light limitation resulting from deepening of the mixed layer overnight as well as enhanced storm activity, and 25% at moderate and high latitudes primarily due to increased grazing pressure resulting from late winter stratification events. Mini-blooms of phytoplankton and zooplankton occur in the model during these events, leading to zooplankton populations being sufficiently well developed to suppress the progress of phytoplankton blooms. A 10% increase in primary production was predicted in the peripheries of the oligotrophic gyres due to increased storm-induced nutrient supply end enhanced winter production during the short term stratification events that are resolved in the run forced by 6 h meteorological fields. By resolving the diurnal cycle, model performance was significantly improved with respect to several common problems: underestimated primary production in the oligotrophic gyres; overestimated primary production in the Southern Ocean; overestimated magnitude of the spring bloom in the subarctic Pacific Ocean, and overestimated primary production in equatorial areas. The result of using 6 h forcing on predicted ecosystem dynamics was profound, the effects persisting far beyond the hourly timescale, and having major consequences for predicted global and new production on an annual basis.

  15. Global usability

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  16. Crane Scheduling for a Plate Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Odense Steel Shipyard produces the worlds largest container ships. The first process of producing the steel ships is handling arrival and storage of steel plates until they are needed in production. This paper considers the problem of scheduling two cranes that carry out the movements of plates...... into, around and out of the storage. The system is required to create a daily schedule for the cranes, but also handle possible disruptions during the execution of the plan. The problem is solved with a Simulated Annealing algorithm....

  17. Autonomous scheduling technology for Earth orbital missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a dynamic autonomous system (DYASS) of resources for the mission support of near-Earth NASA spacecraft is discussed and the current NASA space data system is described from a functional perspective. The future (late 80's and early 90's) NASA space data system is discussed. The DYASS concept, the autonomous process control, and the NASA space data system are introduced. Scheduling and related disciplines are surveyed. DYASS as a scheduling problem is also discussed. Artificial intelligence and knowledge representation is considered as well as the NUDGE system and the I-Space system.

  18. Scheduling projects with multiskill learning effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Hong; Zhang, Lianying

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the project scheduling problem with multiskill learning effect. A new model is proposed to deal with the problem, where both autonomous and induced learning are considered. In order to obtain the optimal solution, a genetic algorithm with specific encoding and decoding schemes is introduced. A numerical example is used to illustrate the proposed model. The computational results show that the learning effect cannot be neglected in project scheduling. By means of determining the level of induced learning, the project manager can balance the project makespan with total cost.

  19. Anesthesiology Nurse Scheduling using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Altamirano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present an approach designed to solve a real world problem: the Anesthesiology Nurse Scheduling Problem (ANSP at a public French hospital. The anesthesiology nurses are one of the most shared resources in the hospital and we attempt to find a fair/balanced schedule for them, taking into account a set of constraints and the nursesarsquo; stated preferences, concerning the different shifts. We propose a particle swarm optimization algorithm to solve the ANSP. Finally, we compare our technique with previous results obtained using integer programming.

  20. Real-time systems scheduling 2 focuses

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc. Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since it is responsible for software execution in a timely manner. This book, the second of two volumes on the subject, brings together knowledge on specific topics and discusses the recent advances for some of them.  It addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in real-time scheduling, giving comprehensive references to important papers, but the chapters are short and not overloaded with co