WorldWideScience

Sample records for global scales case

  1. The case for a Supersite for real-time GNSS hazard monitoring on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Sever, Y. E.

    2017-12-01

    Real-time measurements from many hundreds of GNSS tracking sites around the world are publicly available today, and the amount of streaming data is steadily increasing as national agencies densify their local and global infrastructure for natural hazard monitoring and a variety of geodetic, cadastral, and other civil applications. Thousands of such sites can soon be expected on a global scale. It is a challenge to manage and make optimal use of this massive amount of real-time data. We advocate the creation of Supersite(s), in the parlance of the U.N. Global Earth Observation System of Systems (https://www.earthobservations.org/geoss.php), to generate high level real-time data products from the raw GNSS measurements from all available sources (many thousands of sites). These products include: • High rate, real-time positioning time series for assessing rapid crustal motion due to Earthquakes, volcanic activities, land slides, etc. • Co-seismic displacement to help resolve earthquake mechanism and moment magnitude • Real-time total electron content (TEC) fluctuations to augment Dart buoy in detecting and tracking tsunamis • Aggregation of the many disparate raw data dispensation servers (Casters)Recognizing that natural hazards transcend national boundaries in terms of direct and indirect (e.g., economical, security) impact, the benefits from centralized, authoritative processing of GNSS measurements is manifold: • Offers a one-stop shop to less developed nations and institutions for raw and high-level products, in support of research and applications • Promotes the installation of tracking sites and the contribution of data from nations without the ability to process the data • Reduce dependency on local responsible agencies impacted by a natural disaster • Reliable 24/7 operations, independent of voluntary, best effort contributions from good-willing scientific organizationsThe JPL GNSS Real-Time Earthquake and Tsunami (GREAT) Alert has been

  2. Distinguishing globally-driven changes from regional- and local-scale impacts: The case for long-term and broad-scale studies of recovery from pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S J; Evans, A J; Mieszkowska, N; Adams, L C; Bray, S; Burrows, M T; Firth, L B; Genner, M J; Leung, K M Y; Moore, P J; Pack, K; Schuster, H; Sims, D W; Whittington, M; Southward, E C

    2017-11-30

    Marine ecosystems are subject to anthropogenic change at global, regional and local scales. Global drivers interact with regional- and local-scale impacts of both a chronic and acute nature. Natural fluctuations and those driven by climate change need to be understood to diagnose local- and regional-scale impacts, and to inform assessments of recovery. Three case studies are used to illustrate the need for long-term studies: (i) separation of the influence of fishing pressure from climate change on bottom fish in the English Channel; (ii) recovery of rocky shore assemblages from the Torrey Canyon oil spill in the southwest of England; (iii) interaction of climate change and chronic Tributyltin pollution affecting recovery of rocky shore populations following the Torrey Canyon oil spill. We emphasize that "baselines" or "reference states" are better viewed as envelopes that are dependent on the time window of observation. Recommendations are made for adaptive management in a rapidly changing world. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Large-scale groundwater modeling using global datasets: a test case for the Rhine-Meuse basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. Sutanudjaja

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current generation of large-scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component. Large-scale groundwater models, involving aquifers and basins of multiple countries, are still rare mainly due to a lack of hydro-geological data which are usually only available in developed countries. In this study, we propose a novel approach to construct large-scale groundwater models by using global datasets that are readily available. As the test-bed, we use the combined Rhine-Meuse basin that contains groundwater head data used to verify the model output. We start by building a distributed land surface model (30 arc-second resolution to estimate groundwater recharge and river discharge. Subsequently, a MODFLOW transient groundwater model is built and forced by the recharge and surface water levels calculated by the land surface model. Results are promising despite the fact that we still use an offline procedure to couple the land surface and MODFLOW groundwater models (i.e. the simulations of both models are separately performed. The simulated river discharges compare well to the observations. Moreover, based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run several groundwater model scenarios with various hydro-geological parameter settings, we observe that the model can reasonably well reproduce the observed groundwater head time series. However, we note that there are still some limitations in the current approach, specifically because the offline-coupling technique simplifies the dynamic feedbacks between surface water levels and groundwater heads, and between soil moisture states and groundwater heads. Also the current sensitivity analysis ignores the uncertainty of the land surface model output. Despite these limitations, we argue that the results of the current model show a promise for large-scale groundwater modeling practices, including for data-poor environments and at the global scale.

  4. Gentrification at a medium global scale in Latin America. The case of the reconstruction of Managua, Nicaragua 1972 - 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alejandro Inzulza Contardo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary context, it is possible to study gentrification processes at a wide range of scales across the global territory. Within this framework, the role of intermediate cities is crucial, especially when undergoing post earthquake reconstruction, as it happens in many Latin American cities. This article amplifies the gentrification debate, looking at reconstruction urban policies applied on intermediate cities, using the Diagram of Earthquake Alert Cycle (DCAT as theoretical framework. The gentrification process triggered by interventions in Managua’s central area, between 1972 and 2014, is documented. Five landmarks related to specific reconstruction policies, are studied, as they have played a role in the development of real estate speculation processes, contributing to social replacement, as well as the growth of the urban area of the city. The article concludes that gentrification has been present since the beginning of the post 1972 interventions in the city of Managua, even though it is not regarded as part of the government’s agenda, which means that it requires attention, in order to revert the process towards the generation of new opportunities for urban development.

  5. Spatial-based assessment at continental to global scale : case studies in petroleum exploration and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, Lisa Jean

    2017-01-01

    Access to natural resources is a problem current and future generations must overcome. To better understand potential changes in access for society due to environmental impacts, global spatio-temporal modeling is required. Spatial data for global assessments have uncertainty, and decision making can

  6. Integrating habitat restoration and fisheries management : A small-scale case-study to support EEL conservation at the global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccotti E.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a methodological framework for the management of local eel stocks that integrates habitat restoration with optimal fishery management. The Bolsena lake (Viterbo, Italy and its emissary, the river Marta, were taken as a reference system. The river flows in the Mediterranean sea but its course is fragmented by a number of dams built in the past century preventing eel migration from and to the sea. Eel fishery in the Bolsena lake is thus sustained by periodic stocking of glass eels caught at the Marta river estuary. A detailed demographic model was applied to simulate fishery yields and potential spawner escapement under different recruitment and management scenarios. It was estimated that the high exploitation rates occurring in the nineties reduced the potential spawner escapement from the Bolsena lake to less than 1 t; under current harvesting rates, the potential spawner escapement is estimated in about 12 t while in pristine conditions (i.e. high recruitment and no fishing estimated spawner escapement is about 21 t. This analysis thus showed that current fishery management would comply with the 40% spawner escapement requirement of the EU regulation 1100/2007 if the connections between the Bolsena lake emissary and the sea were fully re-established. This confirms the opportunity of an integrated approach to management at the catchment area level scale for eel populations, that shall hopefully contribute to the conservation of the global stock.

  7. Mapping tree density at a global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crowther, T.W.; Glick, H.B.; Covey, K.R.; Bettigole, C.; Maynard, D.S.; Thomas, S.M.; Smith, J.R.; Hintler, G.; Duguid, M.C.; Amatulli, G.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    The global extent and distribution of forest trees is central to our understanding of the terrestrial biosphere. We provide the first spatially continuous map of forest tree density at a global scale. This map reveals that the global number of trees is approximately 3.04 trillion, an order of

  8. On the children's global assessment scale (CGAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Lundh, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Rating scales and diagnostic instruments have become increasingly important tools in psychiatric care over the past several decades. Using these standardized tools to collect information and evaluate patients enables streamlined evidence-based diagnosis and assessments of functioning. This thesis revolves around the Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), a widely used rating scale designed to measure how a child functions psychosocially in daily life. In Paper I, t...

  9. Mapping tree density at a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, T W; Glick, H B; Covey, K R; Bettigole, C; Maynard, D S; Thomas, S M; Smith, J R; Hintler, G; Duguid, M C; Amatulli, G; Tuanmu, M-N; Jetz, W; Salas, C; Stam, C; Piotto, D; Tavani, R; Green, S; Bruce, G; Williams, S J; Wiser, S K; Huber, M O; Hengeveld, G M; Nabuurs, G-J; Tikhonova, E; Borchardt, P; Li, C-F; Powrie, L W; Fischer, M; Hemp, A; Homeier, J; Cho, P; Vibrans, A C; Umunay, P M; Piao, S L; Rowe, C W; Ashton, M S; Crane, P R; Bradford, M A

    2015-09-10

    The global extent and distribution of forest trees is central to our understanding of the terrestrial biosphere. We provide the first spatially continuous map of forest tree density at a global scale. This map reveals that the global number of trees is approximately 3.04 trillion, an order of magnitude higher than the previous estimate. Of these trees, approximately 1.39 trillion exist in tropical and subtropical forests, with 0.74 trillion in boreal regions and 0.61 trillion in temperate regions. Biome-level trends in tree density demonstrate the importance of climate and topography in controlling local tree densities at finer scales, as well as the overwhelming effect of humans across most of the world. Based on our projected tree densities, we estimate that over 15 billion trees are cut down each year, and the global number of trees has fallen by approximately 46% since the start of human civilization.

  10. Continental and global scale flood forecasting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emerton, Rebecca E.; Stephens, Elisabeth M.; Pappenberger, Florian; Pagano, Thomas P.; Weerts, A.H.; Wood, A.; Salamon, Peter; Brown, James D.; Hjerdt, Niclas; Donnelly, Chantal; Baugh, Calum A.; Cloke, Hannah L.

    2016-01-01

    Floods are the most frequent of natural disasters, affecting millions of people across the globe every year. The anticipation and forecasting of floods at the global scale is crucial to preparing for severe events and providing early awareness where local flood models and warning services may not

  11. Scaling laws predict global microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Kenneth J; Lennon, Jay T

    2016-05-24

    Scaling laws underpin unifying theories of biodiversity and are among the most predictively powerful relationships in biology. However, scaling laws developed for plants and animals often go untested or fail to hold for microorganisms. As a result, it is unclear whether scaling laws of biodiversity will span evolutionarily distant domains of life that encompass all modes of metabolism and scales of abundance. Using a global-scale compilation of ∼35,000 sites and ∼5.6⋅10(6) species, including the largest ever inventory of high-throughput molecular data and one of the largest compilations of plant and animal community data, we show similar rates of scaling in commonness and rarity across microorganisms and macroscopic plants and animals. We document a universal dominance scaling law that holds across 30 orders of magnitude, an unprecedented expanse that predicts the abundance of dominant ocean bacteria. In combining this scaling law with the lognormal model of biodiversity, we predict that Earth is home to upward of 1 trillion (10(12)) microbial species. Microbial biodiversity seems greater than ever anticipated yet predictable from the smallest to the largest microbiome.

  12. Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Döll

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term average groundwater recharge, which is equivalent to renewable groundwater resources, is the major limiting factor for the sustainable use of groundwater. Compared to surface water resources, groundwater resources are more protected from pollution, and their use is less restricted by seasonal and inter-annual flow variations. To support water management in a globalized world, it is necessary to estimate groundwater recharge at the global scale. Here, we present a best estimate of global-scale long-term average diffuse groundwater recharge (i.e. renewable groundwater resources that has been calculated by the most recent version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model WGHM (spatial resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°, daily time steps. The estimate was obtained using two state-of-the-art global data sets of gridded observed precipitation that we corrected for measurement errors, which also allowed to quantify the uncertainty due to these equally uncertain data sets. The standard WGHM groundwater recharge algorithm was modified for semi-arid and arid regions, based on independent estimates of diffuse groundwater recharge, which lead to an unbiased estimation of groundwater recharge in these regions. WGHM was tuned against observed long-term average river discharge at 1235 gauging stations by adjusting, individually for each basin, the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and total runoff. We estimate that global groundwater recharge was 12 666 km3/yr for the climate normal 1961–1990, i.e. 32% of total renewable water resources. In semi-arid and arid regions, mountainous regions, permafrost regions and in the Asian Monsoon region, groundwater recharge accounts for a lower fraction of total runoff, which makes these regions particularly vulnerable to seasonal and inter-annual precipitation variability and water pollution. Average per-capita renewable groundwater resources of countries vary between 8 m3

  13. Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll, P.; Fiedler, K.

    2008-05-01

    Long-term average groundwater recharge, which is equivalent to renewable groundwater resources, is the major limiting factor for the sustainable use of groundwater. Compared to surface water resources, groundwater resources are more protected from pollution, and their use is less restricted by seasonal and inter-annual flow variations. To support water management in a globalized world, it is necessary to estimate groundwater recharge at the global scale. Here, we present a best estimate of global-scale long-term average diffuse groundwater recharge (i.e. renewable groundwater resources) that has been calculated by the most recent version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model WGHM (spatial resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°, daily time steps). The estimate was obtained using two state-of-the-art global data sets of gridded observed precipitation that we corrected for measurement errors, which also allowed to quantify the uncertainty due to these equally uncertain data sets. The standard WGHM groundwater recharge algorithm was modified for semi-arid and arid regions, based on independent estimates of diffuse groundwater recharge, which lead to an unbiased estimation of groundwater recharge in these regions. WGHM was tuned against observed long-term average river discharge at 1235 gauging stations by adjusting, individually for each basin, the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and total runoff. We estimate that global groundwater recharge was 12 666 km3/yr for the climate normal 1961-1990, i.e. 32% of total renewable water resources. In semi-arid and arid regions, mountainous regions, permafrost regions and in the Asian Monsoon region, groundwater recharge accounts for a lower fraction of total runoff, which makes these regions particularly vulnerable to seasonal and inter-annual precipitation variability and water pollution. Average per-capita renewable groundwater resources of countries vary between 8 m3/(capita yr) for Egypt to more than 1 million m3

  14. Scaling behaviour of the global tropopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Varotsos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Detrended fluctuation analysis is applied to the time series of the global tropopause height derived from the 1980–2004 daily radiosonde data, in order to detect long-range correlations in its time evolution.

    Global tropopause height fluctuations in small time-intervals are found to be positively correlated to those in larger time intervals in a power-law fashion. The exponent of this dependence is larger in the tropics than in the middle and high latitudes in both hemispheres. Greater persistence is observed in the tropopause of the Northern than in the Southern Hemisphere. A plausible physical explanation of the fact that long-range correlations in tropopause variability decreases with increasing latitude is that the column ozone fluctuations (that are closely related with the tropopause ones exhibit long range correlations, which are larger in tropics than in the middle and high latitudes at long time scales.

    This finding for the tropopause height variability should reduce the existing uncertainties in assessing the climatic characteristics. More specifically the reliably modelled values of a climatic variable (i.e. past and future simulations must exhibit the same scaling behaviour with that possibly existing in the real observations of the variable under consideration. An effort has been made to this end by applying the detrended fluctuation analysis to the global mean monthly land and sea surface temperature anomalies during the period January 1850–August 2008. The result obtained supports the findings presented above, notably: the correlations between the fluctuations in the global mean monthly land and sea surface temperature display scaling behaviour which must characterizes any projection.

  15. Scaling microbial physiology in global models (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Hinckley, E. S.; Allison, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    A growing chorus from the biogeochemistry, soil science, and ecosystem modeling communities calls for model structures that provide direct microbial control over soil C dynamics. Thus, we describe a new model that explicitly represents microbial physiology in its representation of soil C cycling on the global scale. Presently, the model is parameterized based on measurements of microbial enzyme kinetics, but we must make assumptions about other aspects of microbial physiology (e.g., microbial growth efficiency and microbial turnover rates). We demonstrate that, compared to traditional soil biogeochemistry modeling approaches, the microbial explicit model can simulate global soil C pools that more closely match contemporary observations (based on the Harmonized World Soils Database), but generate wildly divergent results in response to environmental perturbations. The discrepancy between projections in non-steady state simulations highlight the modeling processes, parameters, and structures that deserve greater attention from both empirical and modeling communities and provide avenues to begin exploring soil biogeochemical theory across spatial and temporal scales.

  16. Teaching cases on transportation and global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This project developed a series of three teaching cases that explore the implications of global : warming for transportation policy in the United States. The cases are intended to be used in : graduate and undergraduate courses on transportation poli...

  17. Globalization of Brewing and Economies of Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    for beers and economies of scale in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale in marketing and distribution costs. Based on information...... to be shared between the merging partners as marketing and distribution costs are very high in this industry....

  18. Global-Scale Patterns of Forest Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Riitters

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available We report an analysis of forest fragmentation based on 1-km resolution land-cover maps for the globe. Measurements in analysis windows from 81 km 2 (9 x 9 pixels, "small" scale to 59,049 km 2 (243 x 243 pixels, "large" scale were used to characterize the fragmentation around each forested pixel. We identified six categories of fragmentation (interior, perforated, edge, transitional, patch, and undetermined from the amount of forest and its occurrence as adjacent forest pixels. Interior forest exists only at relatively small scales; at larger scales, forests are dominated by edge and patch conditions. At the smallest scale, there were significant differences in fragmentation among continents; within continents, there were significant differences among individual forest types. Tropical rain forest fragmentation was most severe in North America and least severe in Europe-Asia. Forest types with a high percentage of perforated conditions were mainly in North America (five types and Europe-Asia (four types, in both temperate and subtropical regions. Transitional and patch conditions were most common in 11 forest types, of which only a few would be considered as "naturally patchy" (e.g., dry woodland. The five forest types with the highest percentage of interior conditions were in North America; in decreasing order, they were cool rain forest, coniferous, conifer boreal, cool mixed, and cool broadleaf.

  19. Global small-scale lunar cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipskiy, Y. N.; Pskovskiy, Y. P.; Rodionova, Z. F.; Shevchenko, V. V.; Chikmachev, V. I.; Volchkova, L. I.

    1972-01-01

    The primary sources information for compiling this map were the photographs of the visible hemisphere obtained by earth-based observatories, the Luna 3 and Zond 3 pictures, and a small number of Lunar Orbiter pictures. The primary content of the complete lunar map is the surface relief and its tonal characteristics. In preparing the map, particular attention was devoted to the variety of lunar relief forms. The color spectrum of the map was selected not only for the natural coloring of the lunar surface, but also with the objective of achieving maximum expressiveness. A lunar globe to scale 1:10 million was prepared along with the preparation of the map. The scale of the globe, half that of the map, led to some selection and generalization of the relief forms. The globe permits maintaining simultaneously geometric similarity of contours, exact proportions of areas, and identical scales in all directions. The globe was prepared in both the Latin and Russian languages.

  20. Global Hawk Systems Engineering. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Charles Garland, whose support was integral in guiding me throughout this case study. Bill Kinzig Global Hawk Systems Engineering Case Study...necessary to characterize the system’s utility. 3.2.3.2 First Flight AV-1 rolled out of the TRA facility on February 20, 1997. While at Lindbergh Field... Lindbergh Field, but its delivery to Edwards AFB, California, was already late. Thus, the air vehicle was disassembled and trucked to Edwards AFB on

  1. Sensitivities in global scale modeling of isoprene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. von Kuhlmann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitivity study of the treatment of isoprene and related parameters in 3D atmospheric models was conducted using the global model of tropospheric chemistry MATCH-MPIC. A total of twelve sensitivity scenarios which can be grouped into four thematic categories were performed. These four categories consist of simulations with different chemical mechanisms, different assumptions concerning the deposition characteristics of intermediate products, assumptions concerning the nitrates from the oxidation of isoprene and variations of the source strengths. The largest differences in ozone compared to the reference simulation occured when a different isoprene oxidation scheme was used (up to 30-60% or about 10 nmol/mol. The largest differences in the abundance of peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN were found when the isoprene emission strength was reduced by 50% and in tests with increased or decreased efficiency of the deposition of intermediates. The deposition assumptions were also found to have a significant effect on the upper tropospheric HOx production. Different implicit assumptions about the loss of intermediate products were identified as a major reason for the deviations among the tested isoprene oxidation schemes. The total tropospheric burden of O3 calculated in the sensitivity runs is increased compared to the background methane chemistry by 26±9  Tg( O3 from 273 to an average from the sensitivity runs of 299 Tg(O3. % revised Thus, there is a spread of ± 35% of the overall effect of isoprene in the model among the tested scenarios. This range of uncertainty and the much larger local deviations found in the test runs suggest that the treatment of isoprene in global models can only be seen as a first order estimate at present, and points towards specific processes in need of focused future work.

  2. Agricultural insecticides threaten surface waters at the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Sebastian; Schulz, Ralf

    2015-05-05

    Compared with nutrient levels and habitat degradation, the importance of agricultural pesticides in surface water may have been underestimated due to a lack of comprehensive quantitative analysis. Increasing pesticide contamination results in decreasing regional aquatic biodiversity, i.e., macroinvertebrate family richness is reduced by ∼30% at pesticide concentrations equaling the legally accepted regulatory threshold levels (RTLs). This study provides a comprehensive metaanalysis of 838 peer-reviewed studies (>2,500 sites in 73 countries) that evaluates, for the first time to our knowledge on a global scale, the exposure of surface waters to particularly toxic agricultural insecticides. We tested whether measured insecticide concentrations (MICs; i.e., quantified insecticide concentrations) exceed their RTLs and how risks depend on insecticide development over time and stringency of environmental regulation. Our analysis reveals that MICs occur rarely (i.e., an estimated 97.4% of analyses conducted found no MICs) and there is a complete lack of scientific monitoring data for ∼90% of global cropland. Most importantly, of the 11,300 MICs, 52.4% (5,915 cases; 68.5% of the sites) exceeded the RTL for either surface water (RTLSW) or sediments. Thus, the biological integrity of global water resources is at a substantial risk. RTLSW exceedances depend on the catchment size, sampling regime, and sampling date; are significantly higher for newer-generation insecticides (i.e., pyrethroids); and are high even in countries with stringent environmental regulations. These results suggest the need for worldwide improvements to current pesticide regulations and agricultural pesticide application practices and for intensified research efforts on the presence and effects of pesticides under real-world conditions.

  3. Detecting reciprocity at a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R.; Obradovich, Nick; Sun, Lijun; Woon, Wei Lee; LeVeck, Brad L.; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    Reciprocity stabilizes cooperation from the level of microbes all the way up to humans interacting in small groups, but does reciprocity also underlie stable cooperation between larger human agglomerations, such as nation states? Famously, evolutionary models show that reciprocity could emerge as a widespread strategy for achieving international cooperation. However, existing studies have only detected reciprocity-driven cooperation in a small number of country pairs. We apply a new method for detecting mutual influence in dynamical systems to a new large-scale data set that records state interactions with high temporal resolution. Doing so, we detect reciprocity between many country pairs in the international system and find that these reciprocating country pairs exhibit qualitatively different cooperative dynamics when compared to nonreciprocating pairs. Consistent with evolutionary theories of cooperation, reciprocating country pairs exhibit higher levels of stable cooperation and are more likely to punish instances of noncooperation. However, countries in reciprocity-based relationships are also quicker to forgive single acts of noncooperation by eventually returning to previous levels of mutual cooperation. By contrast, nonreciprocating pairs are more likely to exploit each other’s cooperation via higher rates of defection. Together, these findings provide the strongest evidence to date that reciprocity is a widespread mechanism for achieving international cooperation. PMID:29326983

  4. Potential vorticity dynamics for global scale circulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.; Schubert, W.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most notable advances in extratropical dynamics this decade has been the understanding of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic processes by using potential vorticity dynamics, the so called open-quotes IPV thinking.close quotes This analysis method has also been successfully extended to some tropical atmospheric circulation systems such as hurricanes and the Hadley circulation. The fundamental idea behind such a dynamic system rests with the fact that PV is a tracer-like quantity since it is conserved (in the absence of friction and diabatic heating) following a fluid particle and carries both significant dynamic and thermodynamic information regarding fluid motion. Thus, the prediction and inversion of PV form the most succinct dynamic view of atmospheric and oceanic motions. Furthermore, PV dynamics provides access to many insightful dynamic analyses such as: Propagation of Rossby waves, barotropic and baroclinic instabilities for shear flows, and wave-mean flow interactions. All these features make IPV analysis a very attractive tool for studying geophysical fluid systems

  5. Bringing the Global Scale to Education in Natural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    Given the ominous trajectory of rapid global environmental change, environmental managers must grapple with global scale structures, processes, and concepts. The concept of the Anthropocene Epoch, albeit contested, is highly integrative across disciplines and temporal scales, and thus potentially helpful in the context of educating environmental managers. It can be framed temporally in terms of the geologic history of the global environment, the initiation and acceleration of anthropogenic impacts on the environment, and a future global environment that is highly dependent on human decisions. A key lesson from Earth's pre-human geologic history is that global climate has generally been linked to greenhouse gas concentrations, and many mass extinction events were associated with high greenhouse gas concentrations. The pervasive impacts of the contemporary technosphere on the biosphere point especially to the need to conserve biosphere capital. Scenarios of Earth's future environment, based on Earth system models, suggest that business-as-usual technologies and economic practices will set the stage for a biophysical environment that is hostile (if not inimical) to a high technology global civilization. These lessons can inform and inspire sub-global management efforts to mitigate and adapt to global environmental change.

  6. Global terrestrial biogeochemistry: Perturbations, interactions, and time scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braswell, B.H. Jr.

    1996-12-01

    Global biogeochemical processes are being perturbed by human activity, principally that which is associated with industrial activity and expansion of urban and agricultural complexes. Perturbations have manifested themselves at least since the beginning of the 19th Century, and include emissions of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from fossil fuel combustion, agricultural emissions of reactive nitrogen, and direct disruption of ecosystem function through land conversion. These perturbations yield local impacts, but there are also global consequences that are the sum of local-scale influences. Several approaches to understanding the global-scale implications of chemical perturbations to the Earth system are discussed. The lifetime of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is an important concept for understanding the current and future commitment to an altered atmospheric heat budget. The importance of the terrestrial biogeochemistry relative to the lifetime of excess CO{sub 2} is demonstrated using dynamic, aggregated models of the global carbon cycle.

  7. Radiology and Global Health: The Case for a New Subspecialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Lungren

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In high- and medium-income countries, the use of radiology has grown substantially in the last several decades. But in the developing world, access to medical imaging remains a critical problem. Unlike more structured efforts in the field of global health, interventions in global radiology have been largely unplanned, fragmented and sometimes irrelevant to the needs of the recipient society, and have not resulted in any significant progress. Access to medical imaging around the world remains dismal. There is a therefore a clear and urgent need for the radiology community to develop a vision for global radiology, beginning with defining the scope of the subject and establishing measurable goals. Agreement must be reached to declare global radiology as a bona fide subspecialty of radiology. This should soon be followed by the establishment of divisions of Global Radiology in academic radiology departments. Resident and medical students should be taught how physicians in low -income countries practice medicine without access to adequate radiology. As part of training and electives, residents and medical students should accompany global health teams to countries where the need for radiology services is great. Global scholar exchange and sabbatical opportunities should be offered to staff radiologists. Successful implementation of a unified vision of global radiology has the potential to improve access to medical imaging on a large scale. Radiology journals dedicated to the promotion of global radiology can play an important role in providing forums of discussion, analyses and sharing of field experiences. In this discussion we have attempted to make a case for assigning global radiology a subspecialty status.

  8. Globalization: Ecological consequences of global-scale connectivity in people, resources and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globalization is a phenomenon affecting all facets of the Earth System. Within the context of ecological systems, it is becoming increasingly apparent that global connectivity among terrestrial systems, the atmosphere, and oceans is driving many ecological dynamics at finer scales and pushing thresh...

  9. Effects of climate variability on global scale flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P.; Dettinger, M. D.; Kummu, M.; Jongman, B.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.

    2013-12-01

    In this contribution we demonstrate the influence of climate variability on flood risk. Globally, flooding is one of the worst natural hazards in terms of economic damages; Munich Re estimates global losses in the last decade to be in excess of $240 billion. As a result, scientifically sound estimates of flood risk at the largest scales are increasingly needed by industry (including multinational companies and the insurance industry) and policy communities. Several assessments of global scale flood risk under current and conditions have recently become available, and this year has seen the first studies assessing how flood risk may change in the future due to global change. However, the influence of climate variability on flood risk has as yet hardly been studied, despite the fact that: (a) in other fields (drought, hurricane damage, food production) this variability is as important for policy and practice as long term change; and (b) climate variability has a strong influence in peak riverflows around the world. To address this issue, this contribution illustrates the influence of ENSO-driven climate variability on flood risk, at both the globally aggregated scale and the scale of countries and large river basins. Although it exerts significant and widespread influences on flood peak discharges in many parts of the world, we show that ENSO does not have a statistically significant influence on flood risk once aggregated to global totals. At the scale of individual countries, though, strong relationships exist over large parts of the Earth's surface. For example, we find particularly strong anomalies of flood risk in El Niño or La Niña years (compared to all years) in southern Africa, parts of western Africa, Australia, parts of Central Eurasia (especially for El Niño), the western USA (especially for La Niña), and parts of South America. These findings have large implications for both decadal climate-risk projections and long-term future climate change

  10. The ecology of dust: local- to global-scale perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Field, Jason P [UA; Belnap, Jayne [NON LANL; Breshears, David D [UA; Neff, Jason [CU; Okin, Gregory S [UCLA; Painter, Thomas H [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Ravi, Sujith [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Reheis, Marith C [UCLA; Reynolds, Richard L [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    Emission and redistribution of dust due to wind erosion in drylands drives major biogeochemical dynamics and provides important aeolian environmental connectivity at scales from individual plants up to the global scale. Yet, perhaps because most relevant research on aeolian processes has been presented in a geosciences rather than ecological context, most ecological studies do not explicitly consider dust-driven processes. To bridge this disciplinary gap, we provide a general overview of the ecological importance of dust, examine complex interactions between wind erosion and ecosystem dynamics from the plant-interspace scale to regional and global scales, and highlight specific examples of how disturbance affects these interactions and their consequences. Changes in climate and intensification of land use will both likely lead to increased dust production. To address these challenges, environmental scientists, land managers and policy makers need to more explicitly consider dust in resource management decisions.

  11. Globalizing Lessons Learned from Regional-scale Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    The Mid Atlantic Regional Association Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARACOOS) has accumulated a decade of experience designing, building and operating a Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System for the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). MARACOOS serves societal goals and supports scientific discovery at the scale of a Large Marine Ecosystem (LME). Societal themes include maritime safety, ecosystem decision support, coastal inundation, water quality and offshore energy. Scientific results that feed back on societal goals with better products include improved understanding of seasonal transport pathways and their impact on phytoplankton blooms and hypoxia, seasonal evolution of the subsurface Mid Atlantic Cold Pool and its impact on fisheries, biogeochemical transformations in coastal plumes, coastal ocean evolution and impact on hurricane intensities, and storm sediment transport pathways. As the global ocean observing requirements grow to support additional societal needs for information on fisheries and aquaculture, ocean acidification and deoxygenation, water quality and offshore development, global observing will necessarily evolve to include more coastal observations and forecast models at the scale of the world's many LMEs. Here we describe our efforts to share lessons learned between the observatory operators at the regional-scale of the LMEs. Current collaborators are spread across Europe, and also include Korea, Indonesia, Australia, Brazil and South Africa. Specific examples include the development of a world standard QA/QC approach for HF Radar data that will foster the sharing of data between countries, basin-scale underwater glider missions between internationally-distributed glider ports to developed a shared understanding of operations and an ongoing evaluation of the global ocean models in which the regional models for the LME will be nested, and joint training programs to develop the distributed teams of scientists and technicians

  12. Globalization and health: A case study of Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetinder Kaur

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is an extremely complex phenomenon and it is the interactive co-evolution of multiple technological, cultural, economic, institutional, social and environmental trends at all conceivable spatio-temporal scales. The commercialization of agriculture in Punjab through the Green Revolution led to the effects, which were far-reaching and irreversible. The Green Revolution replaced indigenous agriculture with modern agriculture led to the use of high yielding seed varieties leading to a loss of indigenous varieties of various crops; the contamination of soils and water systems from the use of pesticides, chemical fertilizers, modern irrigation systems and dependency on modern machinery and technology. The data is collected from various secondary sources and arranged into three sections. The first section of the research paper deals with concepts of globalization and health. The theoretical framework relating globalization and health is the content of second section. The impact of globalization, in the form of Green Revolution technologies on the health in the Indian state of Punjab, is the content of last section. The research paper proposes a theoretical model for health impacts of globalization in Punjab. The proposed model indicates that the globalization led to three kinds of changes in context of Punjab, namely, economic changes, socio-cultural changes and environmental changes. All these changes had profound effects on health such that the people of Punjab are battling health problems including a noticeable rise in cancer cases, kidney ailments, pre-mature ageing and infertility.

  13. Assessment of competence for caesarean section with global rating scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, R.N.; Ali, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish as reliable and valid the nine-point global rating scale for assessing residents' independent performance of Caesarean Section. Methods: The validation study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Aga Khan University Hospital, from April to December 2008, and comprised 15 residents during 40 Caesarean Sections over 9 months. Independently two evaluators rated each procedure and the difficulty of each case. Results: The observations per faculty ranged from 1-8 (mean 4.07+- 2.56). The Year 4 residents were observed the most i.e. 32 (40%), followed by Year 3, 30 (37.5%); Year 2; 14 (17.5%); and Year 1, 4 (5%). Mean time required for observation of the surgery was 43.81+-14.28 (range: 20-90) with a mode of 45 min. Mean aggregate rating on all items showed gradual progression with the year of residency. The assessment tool had an internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) of 0.9097 with low inter-rater reliability. Conclusion: The evaluation tool was found to be reliable and valid for evaluating a resident's competence for performing Caesarean Section. Training of the assessors is required for a better inter-rater agreement. (author)

  14. Global scaling properties of the spectrum for the Fibonacci chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W. M.

    1987-02-01

    By means of the approximate renormalization approach of Niu and Nori [Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2057 (1986)] the widths of subband segments in the spectrum and the occupation probabilities on subbands are obtained to the lowest order for the two-value Fibonacci chains. The global scaling properties of the spectrum are then analytically calculated.

  15. Global scale ionospheric irregularities associated with thunderstorm activity

    CERN Document Server

    Pulinets, S A

    2002-01-01

    The potential difference near 280 kV exists between ground and ionosphere. This potential difference is generated by thunderstorm discharges all over the world, and return current closes the circuit in the areas of fair weather (so-called fair weather current). The model calculations and experimental measurements clearly demonstrate non-uniform latitude-longitude distribution of electric field within the atmosphere. The recent calculations show that the strong large scale vertical atmospheric electric field can penetrate into the ionosphere and create large scale irregularities of the electron concentration. To check this the global distributions of thunderstorm activity obtained with the satellite monitoring for different seasons were compared with the global distributions of ionosphere critical frequency (which is equivalent to peak electron concentration) obtained with the help of satellite topside sounding. The similarity of the obtained global distributions clearly demonstrates the effects of thunderstor...

  16. Global scale ionospheric irregularities associated with thunderstorm activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulinets, Sergey A.; Depuev, Victor H.

    2003-01-01

    The potential difference near 280 kV exists between ground and ionosphere. This potential difference is generated by thunderstorm discharges all over the world, and return current closes the circuit in the areas of fair weather (so-called fair weather current). The model calculations and experimental measurements clearly demonstrate non-uniform latitude-longitude distribution of electric field within the atmosphere. The recent calculations show that the strong large scale vertical atmospheric electric field can penetrate into the ionosphere and create large scale irregularities of the electron concentration. To check this the global distributions of thunderstorm activity obtained with the satellite monitoring for different seasons were compared with the global distributions of ionosphere critical frequency (which is equivalent to peak electron concentration) obtained with the help of satellite topside sounding. The similarity of the obtained global distributions clearly demonstrates the effects of thunderstorm electric fields onto the Earth's ionosphere. (author)

  17. Empirical scaling law connecting persistence and severity of global terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianbo; Fang, Peng; Liu, Feiyan

    2017-09-01

    Terrorism and counterterrorism have both been evolving rapidly. From time to time, there have been debates on whether the new terrorism is evolutionary or revolutionary. Such debate often becomes more heated after major terrorist activities, such as the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 and the November 13, 2015 coordinated Paris terror attack. Using country-wide terrorism data since 1970, we show that there exist scaling laws governing the continuity and persistence of world-wide terrorism, with the long-term scaling parameter for each country closely related to its yearly global terrorism index. This suggests that the new terrorism is more accurately considered evolutionary. It is further shown that the imbalance in the seesaw of terrorism and counterterrorism is not only responsible for the scaling behavior found here, but also provides new means of quantifying the severity of the global terrorism.

  18. BETR global - A geographically-explicit global-scale multimedia contaminant fate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, Matthew; Waldow, Harald von; Tay, Pascal; Armitage, James M.; Woehrnschimmel, Henry; Riley, William J.; McKone, Thomas E.; Hungerbuhler, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    We present two new software implementations of the BETR Global multimedia contaminant fate model. The model uses steady-state or non-steady-state mass-balance calculations to describe the fate and transport of persistent organic pollutants using a desktop computer. The global environment is described using a database of long-term average monthly conditions on a 15 o x 15 o grid. We demonstrate BETR Global by modeling the global sources, transport, and removal of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). - Two new software implementations of the Berkeley-Trent Global Contaminant Fate Model are available. The new model software is illustrated using a case study of the global fate of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).

  19. Transient Global Amnesia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Alan Rison

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transient global amnesia is a syndrome of temporary and reversible disruption of short-term memory accompanied by repetitive questioning. Although the etiology is unknown, the prognosis usually benign, and no particular treatment is required, it is important for all involved clinicians to recognize the diagnosis and possess knowledge about the evaluation of these affected patients. Case Presentation: A middle-aged Caucasian woman presented for neurologic evaluation for acute forgetfulness. Neurologic examination disclosed repetitive questioning with preserved orientation and no focal motor, speech, sensory, coordination, or cranial nerve deficits. Neurologic investigations did not reveal any pathologic findings. Her memory improved and reverted to normal baseline over the course of a 24-hour hospital stay. Conclusion: Transient global amnesia is an interesting syndrome of reversible anterograde amnesia associated with repetitive questioning that occurs with an unclear etiology in middle-aged and elderly individuals. Due clinical diligence is required in the investigation of these patients. Treatment is generally not required, and the condition usually does not recur. Clinicians, including neurologists, internists, family practice physicians, and psychiatrists, need awareness of this condition.

  20. Ecosystem service trade-offs across global contexts and scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Cavender-Bares

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Meeting human needs while sustaining the planet's life support systems is the fundamental challenge of our time. What role sustenance of biodiversity and contrasting ecosystem services should play in achieving a sustainable future varies along philosophical, cultural, institutional, societal, and governmental divisions. Contrasting biophysical constraints and perspectives on human well-being arise both within and across countries that span the tropics and temperate zone. Direct sustenance of livelihoods from ecosystem services in East Africa contrasts with the complex and diverse relationships with the land in Mexico and the highly monetary-based economy of the United States. Lack of understanding of the contrasting contexts in which decision-making about trade-offs occurs creates impediments to collective global efforts to sustain the Earth's life support systems. While theoretical notions of the goals of sustainability science seek a unified path forward, realities on the ground present challenges. This Special Feature seeks to provide both an analytical framework and a series of case studies to illuminate impediments posed to sustainability by contrasting biophysical constraints and human perspectives on what should be sustained. The contributors aim to clarify the trade-offs posed to human welfare in sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem services and the challenges in managing for a sustainable future in which human well-being is not compromised as compared to today. Our goal is to provide novel insights on how sustainability can be achieved internationally through exploration of constraints, trade-offs, and human values examined at multiple scales, and across geographic regions from a range of cultural perspectives.

  1. Global-scale hydrological response to future glacier mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Matthias; Hock, Regine

    2018-02-01

    Worldwide glacier retreat and associated future runoff changes raise major concerns over the sustainability of global water resources1-4, but global-scale assessments of glacier decline and the resulting hydrological consequences are scarce5,6. Here we compute global glacier runoff changes for 56 large-scale glacierized drainage basins to 2100 and analyse the glacial impact on streamflow. In roughly half of the investigated basins, the modelled annual glacier runoff continues to rise until a maximum (`peak water') is reached, beyond which runoff steadily declines. In the remaining basins, this tipping point has already been passed. Peak water occurs later in basins with larger glaciers and higher ice-cover fractions. Typically, future glacier runoff increases in early summer but decreases in late summer. Although most of the 56 basins have less than 2% ice coverage, by 2100 one-third of them might experience runoff decreases greater than 10% due to glacier mass loss in at least one month of the melt season, with the largest reductions in central Asia and the Andes. We conclude that, even in large-scale basins with minimal ice-cover fraction, the downstream hydrological effects of continued glacier wastage can be substantial, but the magnitudes vary greatly among basins and throughout the melt season.

  2. Global mental health and its discontents: an inquiry into the making of global and local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemme, Doerte; D'souza, Nicole A

    2014-12-01

    Global Mental Health's (GMH) proposition to "scale up" evidence-based mental health care worldwide has sparked a heated debate among transcultural psychiatrists, anthropologists, and GMH proponents; a debate characterized by the polarization of "global" and "local" approaches to the treatment of mental health problems. This article highlights the institutional infrastructures and underlying conceptual assumptions that are invested in the production of the "global" and the "local" as distinct, and seemingly incommensurable, scales. It traces how the conception of mental health as a "global" problem became possible through the emergence of Global Health, the population health metric DALY, and the rise of evidence-based medicine. GMH also advanced a moral argument to act globally emphasizing the notion of humanity grounded in a shared biology and the universality of human rights. However, despite the frequent criticism of GMH promoting the "bio"-medical model, we argue that novel logics have emerged which may be more important for establishing global applicability than arguments made in the name of "nature": the procedural standardization of evidence and the simplification of psychiatric expertise. Critical scholars, on the other hand, argue against GMH in the name of the "local"; a trope that underlines specificity, alterity, and resistance against global claims. These critics draw on the notions of "culture," "colonialism," the "social," and "community" to argue that mental health knowledge is locally contingent. Yet, paying attention to the divergent ways in which both sides conceptualize the "social" and "community" may point to productive spaces for an analysis of GMH beyond the "global/local" divide. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Reconstruction of groundwater depletion using a global scale groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Wada, Yoshi; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater forms an integral part of the global hydrological cycle and is the world's largest accessible source of fresh water to satisfy human water needs. It buffers variable recharge rates over time, thereby effectively sustaining river flows in times of drought as well as evaporation in areas with shallow water tables. Moreover, although lateral groundwater flows are often slow, they cross topographic and administrative boundaries at appreciable rates. Despite the importance of groundwater, most global scale hydrological models do not consider surface water-groundwater interactions or include a lateral groundwater flow component. The main reason of this omission is the lack of consistent global-scale hydrogeological information needed to arrive at a more realistic representation of the groundwater system, i.e. including information on aquifer depths and the presence of confining layers. The latter holds vital information on the accessibility and quality of the global groundwater resource. In this study we developed a high resolution (5 arc-minutes) global scale transient groundwater model comprising confined and unconfined aquifers. This model is based on MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) and coupled with the land-surface model PCR GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011) via recharge and surface water levels. Aquifers properties were based on newly derived estimates of aquifer depths (de Graaf et al., 2014b) and thickness of confining layers from an integration of lithological and topographical information. They were further parameterized using available global datasets on lithology (Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2011) and permeability (Gleeson et al., 2014). In a sensitivity analysis the model was run with various hydrogeological parameter settings, under natural recharge only. Scenarios of past groundwater abstractions and corresponding recharge (Wada et al., 2012, de Graaf et al. 2014a) were evaluated. The resulting estimates of groundwater depletion are lower than

  4. Toward a global multi-scale heliophysics observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeter, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    We live within the only known stellar-planetary system that supports life. What we learn about this system is not only relevant to human society and its expanding reach beyond Earth's surface, but also to our understanding of the origins and evolution of life in the universe. Heliophysics is focused on solar-terrestrial interactions mediated by the magnetic and plasma environment surrounding the planet. A defining feature of energy flow through this environment is interaction across physical scales. A solar disturbance aimed at Earth can excite geospace variability on scales ranging from thousands of kilometers (e.g., global convection, region 1 and 2 currents, electrojet intensifications) to 10's of meters (e.g., equatorial spread-F, dispersive Alfven waves, plasma instabilities). Most "geospace observatory" concepts are focused on a single modality (e.g., HF/UHF radar, magnetometer, optical) providing a limited parameter set over a particular spatiotemporal resolution. Data assimilation methods have been developed to couple heterogeneous and distributed observations, but resolution has typically been prescribed a-priori and according to physical assumptions. This paper develops a conceptual framework for the next generation multi-scale heliophysics observatory, capable of revealing and quantifying the complete spectrum of cross-scale interactions occurring globally within the geospace system. The envisioned concept leverages existing assets, enlists citizen scientists, and exploits low-cost access to the geospace environment. Examples are presented where distributed multi-scale observations have resulted in substantial new insight into the inner workings of our stellar-planetary system.

  5. On global H-mode scaling laws for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardaun, O.; Lackner, K.; Thomsen, K.; Christiansen, J.; Cordey, J.; Gottardi, N.; Keilhacker, M.; Smeulders, P.

    1989-01-01

    Investigation of the scaling of the energy confinement time τ E with various plasma parameters has since long been an interesting, albeit not uncontroversial topic in plasma physics. Various global scaling laws have been derived for ohmic as well as (NBI and/or RF heated) L-mode discharges. Due to the scarce availability of computerised, extensive and validated H-mode datasets, systematic statistical analysis of H-mode scaling behaviour has hitherto been limited. A common approach is to fit the available H-mode data by an L-mode scaling law (e.g., Kaye-Goldston, Rebut-Lallia) with one or two adjustable constant terms. In this contribution we will consider the alternative approach of fitting all free parameters of various simple scaling models to two recently compiled datasets consisting of about 140 ELM-free and 40 ELMy H-mode discharges, measured at JET in the period 1986-1988. From this period, approximately all known H-mode shots have been included that satisfy the following criteria: D-injected D + discharges with no RF heating, a sufficiently long (≥300 ms) and regular P NBI flat-top, and validated main diagnostics. (author) 13 refs., 1 tab

  6. Terrestrial nitrogen-carbon cycle interactions at the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehle, S

    2013-07-05

    Interactions between the terrestrial nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) cycles shape the response of ecosystems to global change. However, the global distribution of nitrogen availability and its importance in global biogeochemistry and biogeochemical interactions with the climate system remain uncertain. Based on projections of a terrestrial biosphere model scaling ecological understanding of nitrogen-carbon cycle interactions to global scales, anthropogenic nitrogen additions since 1860 are estimated to have enriched the terrestrial biosphere by 1.3 Pg N, supporting the sequestration of 11.2 Pg C. Over the same time period, CO2 fertilization has increased terrestrial carbon storage by 134.0 Pg C, increasing the terrestrial nitrogen stock by 1.2 Pg N. In 2001-2010, terrestrial ecosystems sequestered an estimated total of 27 Tg N yr(-1) (1.9 Pg C yr(-1)), of which 10 Tg N yr(-1) (0.2 Pg C yr(-1)) are due to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen availability already limits terrestrial carbon sequestration in the boreal and temperate zone, and will constrain future carbon sequestration in response to CO2 fertilization (regionally by up to 70% compared with an estimate without considering nitrogen-carbon interactions). This reduced terrestrial carbon uptake will probably dominate the role of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle in the climate system, as it accelerates the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. However, increases of N2O emissions owing to anthropogenic nitrogen and climate change (at a rate of approx. 0.5 Tg N yr(-1) per 1°C degree climate warming) will add an important long-term climate forcing.

  7. ENSO impacts on flood risk at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip; Dettinger, Michael; Jongman, Brenden; Kummu, Matti; Winsemius, Hessel

    2014-05-01

    We present the impacts of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on society and the economy, via relationships between ENSO and the hydrological cycle. We also discuss ways in which this knowledge can be used in disaster risk management and risk reduction. This contribution provides the most recent results of an ongoing 4-year collaborative research initiative to assess and map the impacts of large scale interannual climate variability on flood hazard and risk at the global scale. We have examined anomalies in flood risk between ENSO phases, whereby flood risk is expressed in terms of indicators such as: annual expected damage; annual expected affected population; annual expected affected Gross Domestic Product (GDP). We show that large anomalies in flood risk occur during El Niño or La Niña years in basins covering large parts of the Earth's surface. These anomalies reach statistical significance river basins covering almost two-thirds of the Earth's surface. Particularly strong anomalies exist in southern Africa, parts of western Africa, Australia, parts of Central Eurasia (especially for El Niño), the western USA (especially La Niña anomalies), and parts of South America. We relate these anomalies to possible causal relationships between ENSO and flood hazard, using both modelled and observed data on flood occurrence and extremity. The implications for flood risk management are many-fold. In those regions where disaster risk is strongly influenced by ENSO, the potential predictably of ENSO could be used to develop probabilistic flood risk projections with lead times up to several seasons. Such data could be used by the insurance industry in managing risk portfolios and by multinational companies for assessing the robustness of their supply chains to potential flood-related interruptions. Seasonal forecasts of ENSO influence of peak flows could also allow for improved flood early warning and regulation by dam operators, which could also reduce overall risks

  8. Globalization and Tourism: Study case Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Rotariu, Ilie

    2007-01-01

    The globalization process is seen from an Eastern point of view under Western theories. A particular option is offered under bio structure and entropy theories. A detailed analyze of Romanian tourism before ’90 s tries to save statistics and information classified during communists. Among the ways of extending globalization, the economical transition in former socialist countries is pointed out with an example on Romanian tourism. A large space is allowed to evaluate the future of global econ...

  9. ILLEGAL MIGRATION IN THE GLOBAL WORLD: SCALES, CONSEQUENCES, COUNTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Aleshkovski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retracted articleThe present article examines the theoretical and methodological issues in the study of illegal migration and international cooperation aimed at preventing illegal migration. When analyzing the issues of illegal immigration, the theoretical and methodological justification becomes of a special importance. At present, the task of systematization and standardization of terminology with respect to illegal migration analysis seems to be especially relevant, without which it is impossible to start formalizing data on the global scale. The present study provides us with the analysis of the phenomenon of illegal immigration, outlines methodological obstacles in assessing the scale of illegal immigration as well as its negative consequences. Author suggests a model for measuring illegal immigration and ways to improve state regulations of illegal migration. 

  10. Existence and global exponential stability of periodic solutions for n-dimensional neutral dynamic equations on time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Li, Yongkun; Zhang, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, by using the existence of the exponential dichotomy of linear dynamic equations on time scales and the theory of calculus on time scales, we study the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solutions for a class of n-dimensional neutral dynamic equations on time scales. We also present an example to illustrate the feasibility of our results. The results of this paper are completely new and complementary to the previously known results even in both the case of differential equations (time scale [Formula: see text]) and the case of difference equations (time scale [Formula: see text]).

  11. The global financial crisis and health: scaling up our effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Economic events of the past year are beginning to create hardships for tens of thousands of Canadians. There are likely to be health effects as well, to the extent that unemployment and poverty rates rise. Conditions, however, will be much worse for those living in poorer countries. High-income countries are committing trillions of dollars in countercyclical spending and banking bail-outs. Poorer countries need to do the same, but lack the resources to do so. Yet foreign aid and fairer trade are widely expected to be among the first high-income country victims of the recession fallout as nations turn inwards and protectionist. This is neither good for global health nor necessary given the scale of untaxed (or unfairly taxed) wealth that could be harnessed for a truly global rescue package. Policy choices confront us. The Canadian public health community must hold our political leadership accountable for making those choices that will improve health globally and not further imperil the well-being of much of the world's population in efforts to secure our own future economic revival.

  12. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Primary Production at a Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Cecile Severine; Gregg, Watson W.

    2013-01-01

    We used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of four phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. First, we assessed the contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production at a global scale for the period 1998-2011. Globally, diatoms contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production ((is)approximately 50%, the equivalent of 20 PgC·y1). Coccolithophores and chlorophytes each contributed approximately 20% ((is) approximately 7 PgC·y1) of the total primary production and cyanobacteria represented about 10% ((is) approximately 4 PgC·y1) of the total primary production. Primary production by diatoms was highest in the high latitudes ((is) greater than 40 deg) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We then assessed interannual variability of this group-specific primary production over the period 1998-2011. Globally the annual relative contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production varied by maximum 4% (1-2 PgC·y1). We assessed the effects of climate variability on group-specific primary production using global (i.e., Multivariate El Niño Index, MEI) and "regional" climate indices (e.g., Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability as indicated by significant correlation (p (is) less than 0.05) between the MEI and the group-specific primary production from all groups except coccolithophores. In the Atlantic, climate variability as indicated by NAO was significantly correlated to the primary production of 2 out of the 4 groups in the North Central Atlantic (diatoms/cyanobacteria) and in the North Atlantic (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). We found that climate variability as indicated by SAM had only a limited effect

  13. Cases on Global E-Learning Practices: Successes and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ramesh C., Ed.; Mishra, Sanjaya, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Cases on Global E-Learning Practices: Successes and Pitfalls" looks into global practices of e-learning, examining the successes and failures of e-learning professionals. It provides a judicious mix of practical experiences and research in the form of case studies. Written by experts from all over the globe, this book shows how to…

  14. Building capacity in biodiversity monitoring at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeller, Dirk S.; Bohm, Monika; Arvanitidis, Christos; Barber-Meyer, Shannon; Brummitt, Neil; Chandler, Mark; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Costello, Mark J.; Ding, Hui; García-Moreno, Jaime; Gill, Michael J.; Haase, Peter; Jones, Miranda; Juillard, Romain; Magnusson, William E.; Martin, Corinne S.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Proença, Vânia; Peng, Cui; Regan, Eugenie; Schmiedel, Ute; Simsika, John P.; Weatherdon, Lauren; Waterman, Carly; Xu, Haigen; Belnap, Jayne

    2017-01-01

    Human-driven global change is causing ongoing declines in biodiversity worldwide. In order to address these declines, decision-makers need accurate assessments of the status of and pressures on biodiversity. However, these are heavily constrained by incomplete and uneven spatial, temporal and taxonomic coverage. For instance, data from regions such as Europe and North America are currently used overwhelmingly for large-scale biodiversity assessments due to lesser availability of suitable data from other, more biodiversity-rich, regions. These data-poor regions are often those experiencing the strongest threats to biodiversity, however. There is therefore an urgent need to fill the existing gaps in global biodiversity monitoring. Here, we review current knowledge on best practice in capacity building for biodiversity monitoring and provide an overview of existing means to improve biodiversity data collection considering the different types of biodiversity monitoring data. Our review comprises insights from work in Africa, South America, Polar Regions and Europe; in government-funded, volunteer and citizen-based monitoring in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. The key steps to effectively building capacity in biodiversity monitoring are: identifying monitoring questions and aims; identifying the key components, functions, and processes to monitor; identifying the most suitable monitoring methods for these elements, carrying out monitoring activities; managing the resultant data; and interpreting monitoring data. Additionally, biodiversity monitoring should use multiple approaches including extensive and intensive monitoring through volunteers and professional scientists but also harnessing new technologies. Finally, we call on the scientific community to share biodiversity monitoring data, knowledge and tools to ensure the accessibility, interoperability, and reporting of biodiversity data at a global scale.

  15. Scaling future tropical cyclone damage with global mean temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, T.; Bresch, D.; Frieler, K.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical cyclones (TC) are one of the most damaging natural hazards and severely affectmany countries around the globe each year. Their nominal impact is projected to increasesubstantially as the exposed coastal population grows, per capita income increases, andanthropogenic climate change manifests. The magnitude of this increase, however, variesacross regions and is obscured by the stochastic behaviour of TCs, so far impeding arigorous quantification of trends in TC damage with global mean temperature (GMT) rise. Here, we build on the large sample of spatially explicit TCs simulations generated withinISIMIP(2b) for 1) pre-industrial conditions, 2) the historical period, and 3) future projectionsunder RCP2.6 and RCP6.0 to estimate future TC damage assuming fixed present-daysocio-economic conditions or SSP-based future projections of population patterns andincome. Damage estimates will be based on region-specific empirical damage modelsderived from reported damages and accounting for regional characteristics of vulnerability.Different combinations of 1) socio-economic drivers with pre-industrial climate or 2) changingclimate with fixed socio-economic conditions will be used to derive functional relationshipsbetween regionally aggregated changes in damages on one hand and global meantemperature and socio-economic predictors on the other hand. The obtained region-specific scaling of future TC damage with GMT provides valuable inputfor IPCC's special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C by quantifying theincremental changes in impact with global warming. The approach allows for an update ofdamage functions used in integrated assessment models, and contributes to assessing theadequateness of climate mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  16. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Michael H; Daniel, David G; Revicki, Dennis A; Canuso, Carla M; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Fu, Dong-Jing; Alphs, Larry; Ishak, K. Jack; Bartko, John J; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder scale is a new rating scale adapted from the Clinical Global Impression scale for use in patients with schizoaffective disorder. The psychometric characteristics of the Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder are described.

  17. From global scaling to the dynamics of individual cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depersin, Jules; Barthelemy, Marc

    2018-03-06

    Scaling has been proposed as a powerful tool to analyze the properties of complex systems and in particular for cities where it describes how various properties change with population. The empirical study of scaling on a wide range of urban datasets displays apparent nonlinear behaviors whose statistical validity and meaning were recently the focus of many debates. We discuss here another aspect, which is the implication of such scaling forms on individual cities and how they can be used for predicting the behavior of a city when its population changes. We illustrate this discussion in the case of delay due to traffic congestion with a dataset of 101 US cities in the years 1982-2014. We show that the scaling form obtained by agglomerating all of the available data for different cities and for different years does display a nonlinear behavior, but which appears to be unrelated to the dynamics of individual cities when their population grows. In other words, the congestion-induced delay in a given city does not depend on its population only, but also on its previous history. This strong path dependency prohibits the existence of a simple scaling form valid for all cities and shows that we cannot always agglomerate the data for many different systems. More generally, these results also challenge the use of transversal data for understanding longitudinal series for cities.

  18. From global scaling to the dynamics of individual cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depersin, Jules; Barthelemy, Marc

    2018-03-01

    Scaling has been proposed as a powerful tool to analyze the properties of complex systems and in particular for cities where it describes how various properties change with population. The empirical study of scaling on a wide range of urban datasets displays apparent nonlinear behaviors whose statistical validity and meaning were recently the focus of many debates. We discuss here another aspect, which is the implication of such scaling forms on individual cities and how they can be used for predicting the behavior of a city when its population changes. We illustrate this discussion in the case of delay due to traffic congestion with a dataset of 101 US cities in the years 1982–2014. We show that the scaling form obtained by agglomerating all of the available data for different cities and for different years does display a nonlinear behavior, but which appears to be unrelated to the dynamics of individual cities when their population grows. In other words, the congestion-induced delay in a given city does not depend on its population only, but also on its previous history. This strong path dependency prohibits the existence of a simple scaling form valid for all cities and shows that we cannot always agglomerate the data for many different systems. More generally, these results also challenge the use of transversal data for understanding longitudinal series for cities.

  19. Modeling of Urban Heat Island at Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    KC, B.; Ruth, M.

    2015-12-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) is the temperature difference between urban and its rural background temperature. At the local level, the choice of building materials and urban geometry are vital in determining the UHI magnitude of a city. At the city scale, economic growth, population, climate, and land use dynamics are the main drivers behind changes in UHIs. The main objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive assessment of UHI based on these "macro variables" at regional and global scale. We based our analysis on published research for Europe, North America, and Asia, reporting data for 83 cities across the globe with unique climatic, economic, and environmental conditions. Exploratory data analysis including Pearson correlation was performed to explore the relationship between UHI and PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤5 microns), PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 microns), vegetation per capita, built area, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), population density and population. Additionally, dummy variables were used to capture potential influences of climate types (based on Koppen classifications) and the ways by which UHI was measured. We developed three linear regression models, one for each of the three continents (Asia, Europe, and North America) and one model for all the cities across these continents. This study provides a unique perspective for predicting UHI magnitudes at large scales based on economic activity and pollution levels of a city, which has important implications in urban planning.

  20. Large-Scale and Global Hydrology. Chapter 92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Koster, Randal; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Famiglietti, James S.; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    Powered by the sun, water moves continuously between and through Earths oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial reservoirs. It enables life, shapes Earths surface, and responds to and influences climate change. Scientists measure various features of the water cycle using a combination of ground, airborne, and space-based observations, and seek to characterize it at multiple scales with the aid of numerical models. Over time our understanding of the water cycle and ability to quantify it have improved, owing to advances in observational capabilities, the extension of the data record, and increases in computing power and storage. Here we present some of the most recent estimates of global and continental ocean basin scale water cycle stocks and fluxes and provide examples of modern numerical modeling systems and reanalyses.Further, we discuss prospects for predicting water cycle variability at seasonal and longer scales, which is complicated by a changing climate and direct human impacts related to water management and agriculture. Changes to the water cycle will be among the most obvious and important facets of climate change, thus it is crucial that we continue to invest in our ability to monitor it.

  1. Looking at the big scale - Global Flood Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, P.; Alfieri, L.; Thielen-del Pozo, J.; Muraro, D.; Pappenberger, F.; Krzeminsk, B.

    2012-04-01

    Reacting to the increasing need for better preparedness to worldwide hydrological extremes, the Joint Research Centre has joined forces with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF), to couple state-of-the art weather forecasts with a hydrological model on global scale. On a pre-operationally basis a fully hydro-meteorological flood forecasting model is running since July 2011 and producing daily probabilistic discharge forecast with worldwide coverage and forecast horizon of about 1 month. An important aspect of this global system is that it is set-up on continental scale and therefore independent of administrative and political boundaries - providing downstream countries with information on upstream river conditions as well as continental and global overviews. The prototype of a Global Flood Alert System consists of HTESSEL land surface scheme coupled with LISFLOOD hydrodynamic model for the flow routing in the river network. Both hydrological models are set up on global coverage with horizontal grid resolution of 0.1° and daily time step for input and output data. To estimate corresponding discharge warning thresholds for selected return periods, the coupled HTESSEL-LISFLOOD hydrological model is driven with ERA-Interim input meteorological data for a 21 year period from 1989 onward. For daily forecasts the ensemble stream flow predictions are run by feeding Variable Resolution Ensemble Prediction System (VarEPS) weather forecasts into the coupled model. VarEPS consist of 51-member ensemble global forecasts for 15 days. The hydrological simulations are computed for a 45-day time horizon, to account the routing of flood waves through large river basins with time of concentration of the order of one month. Both results, the discharge thresholds from the long term run and the multiple hydrographs of the daily ensemble stream flow prediction are joined together to produce probabilistic information of critical threshold exceedance. Probabilistic

  2. The Mountain Invasion Research Network (MIREN): Linking Local and Global Scales for Addressing an Ecological Consequence of Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph Kueffer; Curtis Daehler; Hansjörg Dietz; Keith McDougall; Catherine Parks; Aníbal Pauchard; Lisa Rew

    2014-01-01

    Many modern environmental problems span vastly different spatial scales, from the management of local ecosystems to understanding globally interconnected processes, and addressing them through international policy. MIREN tackles one such “glocal” (global/local) environmental problem – plant invasions in mountains – through a transdisciplinary, multi-scale learning...

  3. Potential for using regional and global datasets for national scale ecosystem service modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Deborah; Jackson, Bethanna

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem service models are increasingly being used by planners and policy makers to inform policy development and decisions about national-level resource management. Such models allow ecosystem services to be mapped and quantified, and subsequent changes to these services to be identified and monitored. In some cases, the impact of small scale changes can be modelled at a national scale, providing more detailed information to decision makers about where to best focus investment and management interventions that could address these issues, while moving toward national goals and/or targets. National scale modelling often uses national (or local) data (for example, soils, landcover and topographical information) as input. However, there are some places where fine resolution and/or high quality national datasets cannot be easily obtained, or do not even exist. In the absence of such detailed information, regional or global datasets could be used as input to such models. There are questions, however, about the usefulness of these coarser resolution datasets and the extent to which inaccuracies in this data may degrade predictions of existing and potential ecosystem service provision and subsequent decision making. Using LUCI (the Land Utilisation and Capability Indicator) as an example predictive model, we examine how the reliability of predictions change when national datasets of soil, landcover and topography are substituted with coarser scale regional and global datasets. We specifically look at how LUCI's predictions of where water services, such as flood risk, flood mitigation, erosion and water quality, change when national data inputs are replaced by regional and global datasets. Using the Conwy catchment, Wales, as a case study, the land cover products compared are the UK's Land Cover Map (2007), the European CORINE land cover map and the ESA global land cover map. Soils products include the National Soil Map of England and Wales (NatMap) and the European

  4. Global Wildfire Forecasts Using Large Scale Climate Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2016-04-01

    Using weather readings, fire early warning can provided forecast 4-6 hour in advance to minimize fire loss. The benefit would be dramatically enhanced if relatively accurate long-term projection can be also provided. Here we present a novel method for predicting global fire season severity (FSS) at least three months in advance using multiple large-scale climate indices (CIs). The predictive ability is proven effective for various geographic locations and resolution. Globally, as well as in most continents, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant driving force controlling interannual FSS variability, whereas other CIs also play indispensable roles. We found that a moderate El Niño event is responsible for 465 (272-658 as interquartile range) Tg carbon release and an annual increase of 29,500 (24,500-34,800) deaths from inhalation exposure to air pollutants. Southeast Asia accounts for half of the deaths. Both intercorrelation and interaction of WPs and CIs are revealed, suggesting possible climate-induced modification of fire responses to weather conditions. Our models can benefit fire management in response to climate change.

  5. Ideas and institutions in global governance - the case of microcredit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    There is a growing demand for effective strategic problem solving in relation to a wide array of global policy problems such as AIDS, poverty, global warming, etc. This makes the introduction of new policy ideas for institutional change increasingly important in global governance. But researchers...... need a new approach in order to better grasp the complexity in global problem solving. We need to know more about how ideas emerge, spread and transform in a complex, networked global environment. New literature on institutional dynamics can inform the literature on global governance networks......, especially when it comes to the meta-governance of global networks. Based on a case study of microcredit and its emergence as a policy idea in development policy, the paper will illustrate the use of institutional dynamic conceptualisation in global governance....

  6. Global Production: The Case of Offshore Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbjerg, Jacob; Havn, Erling; Bansler, Jørgen P.

    1997-01-01

    The production of goods and services is becoming more and more international, or even global, as large transnational corporations and networks of small and medium sized companies distribute their activities across the world in their quest for cheap labour or other economic resources. The production...

  7. Constraining the global carbon budget from global to regional scales - The measurement challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francey, R.J.; Rayner, P.J.; Allison, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Global Carbon Cycle can be modelled by a Bayesian synthesis inversion technique, where measured atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and isotopic compositions are analysed by use of an atmospheric transport model and estimates of regional sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon. The uncertainty associated to carbon flux estimates even on a regional scale can be improved considerably using the inversion technique. In this approach, besides the necessary control on the precision of atmospheric transport models and on the constraints for surface fluxes, an important component is the calibration of atmospheric CO 2 concentration and isotope measurements. The recent improved situation in respect to data comparability is discussed using results of conducted interlaboratory comparison exercises and larger scale calibration programs are proposed for the future to further improve the comparability of analytical data. (author)

  8. Global Financial Crisis and Philanthropy: Malaysian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Nga, Janice Lay Hui

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of the global financial crisis and its impacts on philanthropy and civil society organisations (CSOs) in Malaysia. CSOs are popularly known as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Malaysia. Financial crisis has caused NGOs in many countries to receive less funding. This situation may threaten and discourage voluntary works. Undoubtedly, these beneficial contributions from the NGOs are needful services to the society. This paper examines the impact of fina...

  9. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  10. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Pacyna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013 and future (2035 air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions, including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year−1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %, followed by biomass burning (9 %. A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has

  11. Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    foundation for attributing species responses to global change may be achieved by complementing an attributes-based approach by one estimating the relationship between repeated measures of organismal and environmental changes over short time scales. To assess the benefit of this multiscale perspective, we......Species attributes are commonly used to infer impacts of environmental change on multiyear species trends, e.g. decadal changes in population size. However, by themselves attributes are of limited value in global change attribution since they do not measure the changing environment. A broader...... investigate the recent impact of multiple environmental changes on European farmland birds, here focusing on climate change and land use change. We analyze more than 800 time series from 18 countries spanning the past two decades. Analysis of long-term population growth rates documents simultaneous responses...

  12. Globalization Contextualized: An Organization-Environment Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades, changes in higher education, the emerging global economy, and other social changes all influence the environment in which community colleges operate. This article investigates leadership perceptions of adaptation to a rapidly globalizing education environment. Data were collected through a multisite case study that…

  13. Book Review: Climate Justice: Case Studies in Global and Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Climate Justice: Case Studies in Global and Regional Governance Challenges. Book Author: Randall S. Abate (Ed.) Environmental Law Institute Washington DC 2016. ISBN 978-1-58576-181-4 ...

  14. Exploring Global Change In Place-Based Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity of global climate change makes the subject challenging for the average student, particularly given the nuanced feedbacks and exceptions to the general "warming" or "drying" trend that may be experienced at the local and regional level at which most people experience geologic processes. Geoscience educators can reduce these barriers and draw in student learners by adopting a place-based approach to teaching and researching geologic principles that relate to global change. Assisting students in recognizing and understanding the geologic environment in which they live and study has the side benefit of making the potential effect of climate change tangible. This presentation will review several approaches for using place-based case studies to explore global climate change issues in large lecture, small seminar, field research and service learning environments. The special place project used in large introductory physical geology courses requires each student to select a place familiar and unique to them for an in depth study of the common course content as the semester progresses. Students are specifically tasked with identifying how their site came to be, the geologic processes that act upon it today, how the site may have been different during the last glacial advance and how global climate change (specifically warming of 3OC over 50 years) might impact the site. The concept that change has occurred at the student's site in the past, even far from glacial environments, opens students to the scale of potential anthropogenic climate change. A freshman seminar Global Warming & Climate Change - Service in Preparation for Climate Change: The Second Battle of New Orleans focused on the environmental threats to New Orleans and southeastern Louisiana resulting from regional land use decisions in the centuries before Hurricane Katrina, and the threat that global change relating to sea level rise, acceleration of the hydrologic cycle and intensification of

  15. Pilot Validation Study: Canadian Global Rating Scale for Colonoscopy Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Carpentier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The United Kingdom Global Rating Scale (GRS-UK measures unit-level quality metrics processes in digestive endoscopy. We evaluated the psychometric properties of its Canadian version (GRS-C, endorsed by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG. Methods. Prospective data collection at three Canadian endoscopy units assessed GRS-C validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change according to responses provided by physicians, endoscopy nurses, and administrative personnel. These responses were compared to national CAG endoscopic quality guidelines and GRS-UK statements. Results. Most respondents identified the overarching theme each GRS-C item targeted, confirming face validity. Content validity was suggested as 18 out of 23 key CAG endoscopic quality indicators (78%, 95% CI: 56–93% were addressed in the GRS-C; statements not included pertained to educational programs and competency monitoring. Concordance ranged 75–100% comparing GRS-C and GRS-UK ratings. Test-retest reliability Kappa scores ranged 0.60–0.83, while responsiveness to change scores at 6 months after intervention implementations were greater (P<0.001 in two out of three units. Conclusion. The GRS-C exhibits satisfactory metrics, supporting its use in a national quality initiative aimed at improving processes in endoscopy units. Data collection from more units and linking to actual patient outcomes are required to ensure that GRS-C implementation facilitates improved patient care.

  16. Global fits of GUT-scale SUSY models with GAMBIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athron, Peter [Monash University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); Balazs, Csaba [Monash University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); Bringmann, Torsten; Dal, Lars A.; Krislock, Abram; Raklev, Are [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Oslo (Norway); Buckley, Andy [University of Glasgow, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Chrzaszcz, Marcin [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Conrad, Jan; Edsjoe, Joakim; Farmer, Ben [AlbaNova University Centre, Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Cornell, Jonathan M. [McGill University, Department of Physics, Montreal, QC (Canada); Jackson, Paul; White, Martin [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Kvellestad, Anders; Savage, Christopher [NORDITA, Stockholm (Sweden); Mahmoudi, Farvah [Univ Lyon, Univ Lyon 1, CNRS, ENS de Lyon, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon UMR5574, Saint-Genis-Laval (France); Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Martinez, Gregory D. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Putze, Antje [LAPTh, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Rogan, Christopher [Harvard University, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ruiz de Austri, Roberto [IFIC-UV/CSIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Saavedra, Aldo [Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale (Australia); The University of Sydney, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies, Centre for Translational Data Science, School of Physics, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Scott, Pat [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Serra, Nicola [Universitaet Zuerich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Weniger, Christoph [University of Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: The GAMBIT Collaboration

    2017-12-15

    We present the most comprehensive global fits to date of three supersymmetric models motivated by grand unification: the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM), and its Non-Universal Higgs Mass generalisations NUHM1 and NUHM2. We include likelihoods from a number of direct and indirect dark matter searches, a large collection of electroweak precision and flavour observables, direct searches for supersymmetry at LEP and Runs I and II of the LHC, and constraints from Higgs observables. Our analysis improves on existing results not only in terms of the number of included observables, but also in the level of detail with which we treat them, our sampling techniques for scanning the parameter space, and our treatment of nuisance parameters. We show that stau co-annihilation is now ruled out in the CMSSM at more than 95% confidence. Stop co-annihilation turns out to be one of the most promising mechanisms for achieving an appropriate relic density of dark matter in all three models, whilst avoiding all other constraints. We find high-likelihood regions of parameter space featuring light stops and charginos, making them potentially detectable in the near future at the LHC. We also show that tonne-scale direct detection will play a largely complementary role, probing large parts of the remaining viable parameter space, including essentially all models with multi-TeV neutralinos. (orig.)

  17. Scaled biotic disruption during early Eocene global warming events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Gibbs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals are transient warming events associated with massive perturbations of the global carbon cycle, and are considered partial analogues for current anthropogenic climate change. Because the magnitude of carbon release varied between the events, they are natural experiments ideal for exploring the relationship between carbon cycle perturbations, climate change and biotic response. Here we quantify marine biotic variability through three million years of the early Eocene that include five hyperthermals, utilizing a method that allows us to integrate the records of different plankton groups through scenarios ranging from background to major extinction events. Our long time-series calcareous nannoplankton record indicates a scaling of biotic disruption to climate change associated with the amount of carbon released during the various hyperthermals. Critically, only the three largest hyperthermals, the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 and the I1 event, show above-background variance, suggesting that the magnitude of carbon input and associated climate change needs to surpass a threshold value to cause significant biotic disruption.

  18. Global fits of GUT-scale SUSY models with GAMBIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athron, Peter; Balázs, Csaba; Bringmann, Torsten; Buckley, Andy; Chrząszcz, Marcin; Conrad, Jan; Cornell, Jonathan M.; Dal, Lars A.; Edsjö, Joakim; Farmer, Ben; Jackson, Paul; Krislock, Abram; Kvellestad, Anders; Mahmoudi, Farvah; Martinez, Gregory D.; Putze, Antje; Raklev, Are; Rogan, Christopher; de Austri, Roberto Ruiz; Saavedra, Aldo; Savage, Christopher; Scott, Pat; Serra, Nicola; Weniger, Christoph; White, Martin

    2017-12-01

    We present the most comprehensive global fits to date of three supersymmetric models motivated by grand unification: the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM), and its Non-Universal Higgs Mass generalisations NUHM1 and NUHM2. We include likelihoods from a number of direct and indirect dark matter searches, a large collection of electroweak precision and flavour observables, direct searches for supersymmetry at LEP and Runs I and II of the LHC, and constraints from Higgs observables. Our analysis improves on existing results not only in terms of the number of included observables, but also in the level of detail with which we treat them, our sampling techniques for scanning the parameter space, and our treatment of nuisance parameters. We show that stau co-annihilation is now ruled out in the CMSSM at more than 95% confidence. Stop co-annihilation turns out to be one of the most promising mechanisms for achieving an appropriate relic density of dark matter in all three models, whilst avoiding all other constraints. We find high-likelihood regions of parameter space featuring light stops and charginos, making them potentially detectable in the near future at the LHC. We also show that tonne-scale direct detection will play a largely complementary role, probing large parts of the remaining viable parameter space, including essentially all models with multi-TeV neutralinos.

  19. Scale-dependency of the global mean surface temperature trend and its implication for the recent hiatus of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Franzke, Christian L E

    2015-08-11

    Studies of the global mean surface temperature trend are typically conducted at a single (usually annual or decadal) time scale. The used scale does not necessarily correspond to the intrinsic scales of the natural temperature variability. This scale mismatch complicates the separation of externally forced temperature trends from natural temperature fluctuations. The hiatus of global warming since 1999 has been claimed to show that human activities play only a minor role in global warming. Most likely this claim is wrong due to the inadequate consideration of the scale-dependency in the global surface temperature (GST) evolution. Here we show that the variability and trend of the global mean surface temperature anomalies (GSTA) from January 1850 to December 2013, which incorporate both land and sea surface data, is scale-dependent and that the recent hiatus of global warming is mainly related to natural long-term oscillations. These results provide a possible explanation of the recent hiatus of global warming and suggest that the hiatus is only temporary.

  20. Scale-dependency of the global mean surface temperature trend and its implication for the recent hiatus of global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Franzke, Christian L. E.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the global mean surface temperature trend are typically conducted at a single (usually annual or decadal) time scale. The used scale does not necessarily correspond to the intrinsic scales of the natural temperature variability. This scale mismatch complicates the separation of externally forced temperature trends from natural temperature fluctuations. The hiatus of global warming since 1999 has been claimed to show that human activities play only a minor role in global warming. Most likely this claim is wrong due to the inadequate consideration of the scale-dependency in the global surface temperature (GST) evolution. Here we show that the variability and trend of the global mean surface temperature anomalies (GSTA) from January 1850 to December 2013, which incorporate both land and sea surface data, is scale-dependent and that the recent hiatus of global warming is mainly related to natural long-term oscillations. These results provide a possible explanation of the recent hiatus of global warming and suggest that the hiatus is only temporary. PMID:26259555

  1. Global Burden of Disease of Mercury Used in Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, Nadine; Tobollik, Myriam; Plass, Dietrich; Hornberg, Claudia; Ericson, Bret; Fuller, Richard; Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan

    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the world's largest anthropogenic source of mercury emission. Gold miners are highly exposed to metallic mercury and suffer occupational mercury intoxication. The global disease burden as a result of this exposure is largely unknown because the informal character of ASGM restricts the availability of reliable data. To estimate the prevalence of occupational mercury intoxication and the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to chronic metallic mercury vapor intoxication (CMMVI) among ASGM gold miners globally and in selected countries. Estimates of the number of artisanal small-scale gold (ASG) miners were extracted from reviews supplemented by a literature search. Prevalence of moderate CMMVI among miners was determined by compiling a dataset of available studies that assessed frequency of intoxication in gold miners using a standardized diagnostic tool and biomonitoring data on mercury in urine. Severe cases of CMMVI were not included because it was assumed that these persons can no longer be employed as miners. Cases in workers' families and communities were not considered. Years lived with disability as a result of CMMVI among ASG miners were quantified by multiplying the number of prevalent cases of CMMVI by the appropriate disability weight. No deaths are expected to result from CMMVI and therefore years of life lost were not calculated. Disease burden was calculated by multiplying the prevalence rate with the number of miners for each country and the disability weight. Sensitivity analyses were performed using different assumptions on the number of miners and the intoxication prevalence rate. Globally, 14-19 million workers are employed as ASG miners. Based on human biomonitoring data, between 25% and 33% of these miners-3.3-6.5 million miners globally-suffer from moderate CMMVI. The resulting global burden of disease is estimated to range from 1.22 (uncertainty interval [UI] 0.87-1.61) to 2.39 (UI 1

  2. Global asymptotic stabilization of large-scale hydraulic networks using positive proportional controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    An industrial case study involving a large-scale hydraulic network underlying a district heating system subject to structural changes is considered. The problem of controlling the pressure drop across the so-called end-user valves in the network to a designated vector of reference values under......-users. Furthermore, by a proper design of controller gains the closed-loop equilibrium point can be designed to belong to an arbitrarily small neighborhood of the desired equilibrium point. Since there exists a globally asymptotically stable equilibrium point independently on the number of end-users in the system...

  3. Global Financial Crisis and Philanthropy: Malaysian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Lay Hui Nga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the issue of the global financial crisis and its impacts on philanthropy and civil society organisations (CSOs in Malaysia. CSOs are popularly known as non-governmental organisations (NGOs in Malaysia. Financial crisis has caused NGOs in many countries to receive less funding. This situation may threaten and discourage voluntary works. Undoubtedly, these beneficial contributions from the NGOs are needful services to the society. This paper examines the impact of financial crisis through the lens of NGOs and philanthropy activities in Malaysia. It utilises primary and secondary data, employs a mixed method approach, and uses quantitative and qualitative data. While there are many influencing factors in this development, this paper presents several significant aspects in the Malaysian context, including the style and nature of giving, culture, religion, and political pressure. This study attempts to seek potential solutions, pathways and possible approaches beneficial to NGOs and philanthropy activities for their sustainability in facing the financial crisis and its consequences. Experiences and lessons learnt in Malaysia may well be useful and applicable to some extent in other countries.

  4. Case studies for developing globally responsible engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Global Dimension in Engineering Education

    2015-01-01

    Document realitzat amb un ajut financer de la Unió Europea. Per poder accedir al material complementari per a docents dels 28 casos estudi que formen el llibre, activeu el "Document relacionat" Col·lecció de 28 casos estudi per a professors d'enginyeria: 1. Rural development and planning in LDCs: the “Gamba Deve – Licoma axis”,district of Caia, Mozambique 2. Reducing the impact of soil erosion and reservoir siltation on agricultural production and water availability: the case stu...

  5. Loma Linda Global Surgery Elective: First 1000 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Dustin K; Graybill, Cassandra K; Fekadu, Arega; Hayton, Ryan A

    To determine the nature and volume of surgical cases being performed by US general surgery residents during a global surgery elective. Retrospective review of case logs from 2012 to 2016. Malamulo Mission Hospital is a rural hospital in southern Malawi. Rotating residents from a US-based general surgery residency program. Residents performed 12 cases per week from a variety of surgical disciplines. Global surgery rotations with dedicated faculty can provide excellent surgical variety and volume to enhance the training of residents. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards forecasting volcanic eruptions on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, A. J.; Heimisson, E. R.; Gaddes, M.; Bagnardi, M.; Sigmundsson, F.; Spaans, K.; Parks, M.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Holohan, E. P.; Wright, T. J.; Jonsdottir, K.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Dumont, S.; Ofeigsson, B.; Vogfjord, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions can cause loss of life, damage health, and have huge economic impacts, providing strong societal motivation for predicting eruptive behavior prior to and during eruptions. I will present here recent progress we have made in mechanical modelling with a predictive capacity, and how we are expanding volcano monitoring to a global scale. The eruption of Bardarbunga volcano, Iceland, in 2014-2015 was the largest eruption there for more than 200 years, producing 1.6 km3of lava. Prior to eruption, magma propagated almost 50 km beneath the surface, over a period of two weeks. Key questions to answer in advance of such eruptions are: will it erupt, where, how much and for how long? We developed a model based on magma taking a path that maximizes energy release, which aligns well with the actual direction taken. Our model also predicts eruption in a topographic low, as actually occurred. As magma was withdrawn, the volcano surface sagged downwards. A coupled model of magma flow and piston-like collapse predicts a declining magma flow rate and ground subsidence rate, in accordance with that observed. With such a model, observations can be used to predict the timescale and rates of eruption, even before one starts. The primary data needed to constrain these predictive models are measurements of surface deformation. In Iceland, this is achieved using high accuracy GPS, however, most volcanoes have no ground instrumentation. A recent ESA mission, Sentinel-1, can potentially image deformation at almost all subaerial volcanoes every 6 days, using a technique called interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). This will allow us to detect early stages of magma migration at any volcano, then task other satellites to acquire data at a higher rate. We are working on a system to process all Sentinel-1 data in near-real time, which is a big data challenge. We have also developed new algorithms that maximize signal extraction from each new acquisition and

  7. Global Scale Methane Emissions from On-Site Wastewater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M. C.; Guan, K.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Pit latrines and other on-site sanitation methods are important forms of wastewater management at the global scale, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for more than 1.7 billion people in developing and middle-income regions. Latrines have also been identified as major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic waste in pits. Understanding the greenhouse gas footprint of different wastewater systems is essential for sustainable water resource development and management. Despite this importance, CH4 emissions from decentralized wastewater treatment have received little attention in the scientific literature, and the rough calculations underlying government inventories and integrated assessment models do not accurately capture variations in emissions within and between countries. In this study, we improve upon earlier efforts and develop the first spatially explicit approach to quantifying latrine CH4 emissions, combining a high-resolution geospatial analysis of population, urbanization, and water table (as an indicator of anaerobic decomposition pathways) with CH4 emissions factors from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Country-level health and sanitation surveys were used to determine latrine utilization in 2000 and predict usage in 2015. 18 representative countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America were selected for this analysis to illustrate regional variations in CH4 emissions and to include the greatest emitting nations. Our analysis confirms that pit latrines are a globally significant anthropogenic CH4 source, emitting 4.7 Tg CH4 yr-1 in the countries considered here. This total is projected to decrease ~25% by 2015, however, driven largely by rapid urbanization in China and decreased reliance on latrines in favor of flush toilets. India has the greatest potential for large growth in emissions in the post-2015 period, since public health campaigns to end open defecation

  8. Strong leadership: the case for global connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Elizabeth A; Scammell, Janet; Bevan, Ann; Hundley, Vanora A

    2017-04-01

    To identify how nurse leaders view and experience the opportunities offered by one of the largest global nursing organisations Sigma Theta Tau International. Worldwide, nursing leadership is challenged with addressing the complex issues impacting on care delivery. International nursing organisations are a means to bring together individuals to promote leadership and scholarship for nursing practice to promote patient safety and quality care. The newly established all-England chapter of Sigma Theta Tau International is a recent addition to the society in terms of nurse leadership in Europe, as such faces challenges as it establishes its identity and seeks to interpret the organisational vision: to advance world health through nursing leadership and scholarship. Moving forward, members views were sought on the goals of the chapter and how they may be enacted. In July 2013, all chapter members at that time had been nominated on the basis of achievement in nurse leadership; all were invited to participate in an online survey. The online questionnaire contained a series of closed and open questions. Most respondents joined because they believed in the vision and networking opportunities Sigma Theta Tau International provides. Three themes were extracted from the data: the value of networking and communication, leadership and the development of culturally sensitive organisations and the need for shared scholarship for nursing practice. Findings indicate the growth of effective leadership at all levels of nursing could be harnessed through successful collaboration and keen support for robust connections between practice and education to promote quality care. Whilst challenging, globalisation presents an opportunity for a nursing society such as Sigma Theta Tau International to work collaboratively to address healthcare issues. A nursing society that explores and resolves its own complex issues by actively promoting leadership and collaborative scholarship reveals a

  9. Using Scaling to Understand, Model and Predict Global Scale Anthropogenic and Natural Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, S.; del Rio Amador, L.

    2014-12-01

    The atmosphere is variable over twenty orders of magnitude in time (≈10-3 to 1017 s) and almost all of the variance is in the spectral "background" which we show can be divided into five scaling regimes: weather, macroweather, climate, macroclimate and megaclimate. We illustrate this with instrumental and paleo data. Based the signs of the fluctuation exponent H, we argue that while the weather is "what you get" (H>0: fluctuations increasing with scale), that it is macroweather (Hbackground as close to white noise and focuses on quasi-periodic variability assumes a spectrum that is in error by a factor of a quadrillion (≈ 1015). Using this scaling framework, we can quantify the natural variability, distinguish it from anthropogenic variability, test various statistical hypotheses and make stochastic climate forecasts. For example, we estimate the probability that the warming is simply a giant century long natural fluctuation is less than 1%, most likely less than 0.1% and estimate return periods for natural warming events of different strengths and durations, including the slow down ("pause") in the warming since 1998. The return period for the pause was found to be 20-50 years i.e. not very unusual; however it immediately follows a 6 year "pre-pause" warming event of almost the same magnitude with a similar return period (30 - 40 years). To improve on these unconditional estimates, we can use scaling models to exploit the long range memory of the climate process to make accurate stochastic forecasts of the climate including the pause. We illustrate stochastic forecasts on monthly and annual scale series of global and northern hemisphere surface temperatures. We obtain forecast skill nearly as high as the theoretical (scaling) predictability limits allow: for example, using hindcasts we find that at 10 year forecast horizons we can still explain ≈ 15% of the anomaly variance. These scaling hindcasts have comparable - or smaller - RMS errors than existing GCM

  10. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  11. Black Carbon Absorption at the Global Scale Is Affected by Particle-Scale Diversity in Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierce, Laura; Bond, Tami C.; Bauer, Susanne E.; Mena, Francisco; Riemer, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) exerts a strong, but uncertain, warming effect on the climate. BC that is coated with non-absorbing material absorbs more strongly than the same amount of BC in an uncoated particle, but the magnitude of this absorption enhancement (E(sub abs)) is not well constrained. Modelling studies and laboratory measurements have found stronger absorption enhancement than has been observed in the atmosphere. Here, using a particle-resolved aerosol model to simulate diverse BC populations, we show that absorption is overestimated by as much as a factor of two if diversity is neglected and population-averaged composition is assumed across all BC-containing particles. If, instead, composition diversity is resolved, we find E(sub abs) = 1 - 1.5 at low relative humidity, consistent with ambient observations. This study offers not only an explanation for the discrepancy between modelled and observed absorption enhancement, but also demonstrates how particle-scale simulations can be used to develop relationships for global-scale models.

  12. Development and psychometric evaluation of a clinical global impression for schizoaffective disorder scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael H; Daniel, David G; Revicki, Dennis A; Canuso, Carla M; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Fu, Dong-Jing; Alphs, Larry; Ishak, K Jack; Bartko, John J; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder scale is a new rating scale adapted from the Clinical Global Impression scale for use in patients with schizoaffective disorder. The psychometric characteristics of the Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder are described. Content validity was assessed using an investigator questionnaire. Inter-rater reliability was determined with 12 sets of videotaped interviews rated independently by two trained individuals. Test-retest reliability was assessed using 30 randomly selected raters from clinical trials who evaluated the same videos on separate occasions two weeks apart. Convergent and divergent validity and effect size were evaluated by comparing scores between the Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Young Mania Rating Scale scales using pooled patient data from two clinical trials. Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder scores were then linked to corresponding Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores. Content validity was strong. Inter-rater agreement was good to excellent for most scales and subscales (intra-class correlation coefficient ≥ 0.50). Test-retest showed good reproducibility, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.444 to 0.898. Spearman correlations between Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder domains and corresponding symptom scales were 0.60 or greater, and effect sizes for Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder overall and domain scores were similar to Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Young Mania Rating Scale, and 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores. Raters anticipated that the scale might be less effective in distinguishing negative from depressive symptoms, and, in fact, the results here may reflect that clinical reality. Multiple lines of evidence support the

  13. Global scales for cognitive screening in Parkinson's disease: Critique and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorvanek, Matej; Goldman, Jennifer G; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Marras, Connie; Rektorova, Irena; Schmand, Ben; van Duijn, Erik; Goetz, Christopher G; Weintraub, Daniel; Stebbins, Glenn T; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common nonmotor manifestation of Parkinson's disease, with deficits ranging from mild cognitive difficulties in 1 or more of the cognitive domains to severe dementia. The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society commissioned the assessment of the clinimetric properties of cognitive rating scales measuring global cognitive performance in PD to make recommendations regarding their use. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify the scales used to assess global cognitive performance in PD, and the identified scales were reviewed and rated as "recommended," "recommended with caveats," "suggested," or "listed" by the panel using previously established criteria. A total of 12 cognitive scales were included in this review. Three scales, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale Second Edition, and the Parkinson's Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale, were classified as "recommended." Two scales were classified as "recommended with caveats": the Mini-Mental Parkinson, because of limited coverage of executive abilities, and the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Cognition, which has limited data on sensitivity to change. Six other scales were classified as "suggested" and 1 scale as "listed." Because of the existence of "recommended" scales for assessment of global cognitive performance in PD, this task force suggests that the development of a new scale for this purpose is not needed at this time. However, global cognitive scales are not a substitute for comprehensive neuropsychological testing. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Kinetics programs for simulation of tropospheric photochemistry on the global scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S.; Kao, C.Y.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Turco, R.P.; Zhao, X.P. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (US). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    1993-08-01

    The study of tropospheric kinetics underlies global change because key greenhouse gases are photochemically active. Modeling of tropospheric chemistry on a global scale is essential because some indirect greenhouse gases are short-lived and interact in a non-linear fashion. It is also extremely challenging, however; the global change grid is extensive in both the physical and temporal domains, and critical lower atmospheric species include the organics and their oxidized derivatives, which are numerous. Several types of optimization may be incorporated into kinetics modules to enhance their ability to simulate the complete lower atmospheric gas phase chemical system. (1) The photochemical integrator can be accelerated by avoiding matrix and iterative solutions and by establishing families. Accuracy and mass conservation are sacrificed in the absence of iteration, but atom balancing is restorable post hoc. (2) Chemistry can be arranged upon the massive grid to exploit parallel processing, and solutions to its continuity equations can be automated to permit experimentation with species and reaction lists or family definitions. Costs in programming effort will be incurred in these cases. (3) Complex hydrocarbon decay sequences can be streamlined either through structural lumping methods descended from smog investigations, which require considerable calibration, or by defining surrogates for classes of compounds, with a loss in constituent detail. From among the available options, the most advantageous permutations will vary with the specific nature of any eventual global scale study, and there is likely to be demand for many approaches. Tracer transport codes serve as a foundation upon which tropospheric chemistry packages will be tested. Encroachment of the NO{sub x} sphere of influence upon tropical rain forests and the upper free troposphere are two examples of specific problems to which full three-dimensional chemical simulations might be applied.

  15. Kinetics programs for simulation of tropospheric photochemistry on the global scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.; Kao, C.Y.J.; Turco, R.P.; Zhao, X.P.

    1993-08-01

    The study of tropospheric kinetics underlies global change because key greenhouse gases are photochemically active. Modeling of tropospheric chemistry on a global scale is essential because some indirect greenhouse gases are short-lived and interact in a non-linear fashion. It is also extremely challenging, however; the global change grid is extensive in both the physical and temporal domains, and critical lower atmospheric species include the organics and their oxidized derivatives, which are numerous. Several types of optimization may be incorporated into kinetics modules to enhance their ability to simulate the complete lower atmospheric gas phase chemical system. (1) The photochemical integrator can be accelerated by avoiding matrix and iterative solutions and by establishing families. Accuracy and mass conservation are sacrificed in the absence of iteration, but atom balancing is restorable post hoc. (2) Chemistry can be arranged upon the massive grid to exploit parallel processing, and solutions to its continuity equations can be automated to permit experimentation with species and reaction lists or family definitions. Costs in programming effort will be incurred in these cases. (3) Complex hydrocarbon decay sequences can be streamlined either through structural lumping methods descended from smog investigations, which require considerable calibration, or by defining surrogates for classes of compounds, with a loss in constituent detail. From among the available options, the most advantageous permutations will vary with the specific nature of any eventual global scale study, and there is likely to be demand for many approaches. Tracer transport codes serve as a foundation upon which tropospheric chemistry packages will be tested. Encroachment of the NO x sphere of influence upon tropical rain forests and the upper free troposphere are two examples of specific problems to which full three-dimensional chemical simulations might be applied

  16. Decision Making Processes for Global Product Development - a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Erik Stefan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Global Product Development (GPD), outsourcing and offshoring of product development is a widespread phenomenon on today’s global economy, and consequently most engineering manufacturing companies will have to make decisions regarding how to organise their product development activities globally....... This paper investigates decision making in the GPD context, partly by summarizing existing literatures and studies in the field, and partly through a case study of decision making processes in a global engineering company. Through interviews a range of GPD decisions were mapped and analysed in order...... to investigate how decisions are made and which information decisions are based on. The study found that decision making is not always structured, and that prioritised decision making is more dominant than planned decision making. The findings set the stage for further analysis of decision making in GPD...

  17. THE GROWING THREAT OF GLOBAL POVERTY: The Case of Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ingo Böbel

    2005-01-01

    The goal is to try to give inputs on a global problem: eradicating poverty on a global scale. That is, to find evidence and discuss complex problems regarding cronic poverty, a major source of instability in our world today, and to put forward what could be some possible solutions. The aim of this endeavour is to further sensitize public opinion to a major, chronic and exponential problem that is affecting an increasing number of the population world wide. The focus is on (sub-Saharan) Africa...

  18. Integrating Curriculum: A Case Study of Teaching Global Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Patrick, Kate; Reynolds, Ruth; Macqueen, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Despite widespread support for integrated approaches to teaching, classroom practice reveals a lack of implementation. This paper explores challenges and opportunities in teaching an integrated curriculum, and connects this with the contemporary notion of a twenty-first century curriculum and pedagogy. A case study of Global Education (GE) is used…

  19. Challenges with Scaling Scrum to Large-Scale Software Development: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Simen

    2017-01-01

    Agile software development methods have become popular since the introduction of the Agile Manifesto in 2001. Agile methods, such as Scrum, are originally created for small co-located teams but have been adopted to large-scale development organizations. The accompanying challenges of using Scrum in large-scale development are not fully explored and understood. This thesis aim to explore and identify challenges regarding large-scale agile development in a global software development organizati...

  20. Irrational Delay Revisited: Examining Five Procrastination Scales in a Global Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Svartdal, Frode; Steel, Piers

    2017-01-01

    Source at http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01927 Scales attempting to measure procrastination focus on different facets of the phenomenon, yet they share a common understanding of procrastination as an unnecessary, unwanted, and disadvantageous delay. The present paper examines in a global sample (N = 4,169) five different procrastination scales – Decisional Procrastination Scale (DPS), Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS), Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS), Adult Inventory of Procr...

  1. Globalization Then and Now: Increasing Scale Reduces Local Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Tainter

    2006-01-01

    One consequence of globalization is that parts of the world that were once remote and minimally influenced by broader political and economic developments now find themselves profoundly affected by forces beyond their comprehension. Communities that were once self-sufficient and resilient come to depend on larger systems, no longer control their own destinies, and...

  2. Reducing global mercury emissions in artisanal and small-scale ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    caused mercury emissions, surpassing even coal-burning. With more than 15 million small-scale gold miners operating in more than 70 countries today, finding a way to reduce mercury emissions is vital.

  3. BETR Global - A geographically explicit global-scale multimedia contaminant fate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macleod, M.; Waldow, H. von; Tay, P.; Armitage, J. M.; Wohrnschimmel, H.; Riley, W.; McKone, T. E.; Hungerbuhler, K.

    2011-04-01

    We present two new software implementations of the BETR Global multimedia contaminant fate model. The model uses steady-state or non-steady-state mass-balance calculations to describe the fate and transport of persistent organic pollutants using a desktop computer. The global environment is described using a database of long-term average monthly conditions on a 15{sup o} x 15{sup o} grid. We demonstrate BETR Global by modeling the global sources, transport, and removal of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).

  4. Response of vegetation to drought time-scales across global land biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Gouveia, Célia; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Beguería, Santiago; Trigo, Ricardo; López-Moreno, Juan I; Azorín-Molina, César; Pasho, Edmond; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Revuelto, Jesús; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2013-01-02

    We evaluated the response of the Earth land biomes to drought by correlating a drought index with three global indicators of vegetation activity and growth: vegetation indices from satellite imagery, tree-ring growth series, and Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP) records. Arid and humid biomes are both affected by drought, and we suggest that the persistence of the water deficit (i.e., the drought time-scale) could be playing a key role in determining the sensitivity of land biomes to drought. We found that arid biomes respond to drought at short time-scales; that is, there is a rapid vegetation reaction as soon as water deficits below normal conditions occur. This may be due to the fact that plant species of arid regions have mechanisms allowing them to rapidly adapt to changing water availability. Humid biomes also respond to drought at short time-scales, but in this case the physiological mechanisms likely differ from those operating in arid biomes, as plants usually have a poor adaptability to water shortage. On the contrary, semiarid and subhumid biomes respond to drought at long time-scales, probably because plants are able to withstand water deficits, but they lack the rapid response of arid biomes to drought. These results are consistent among three vegetation parameters analyzed and across different land biomes, showing that the response of vegetation to drought depends on characteristic drought time-scales for each biome. Understanding the dominant time-scales at which drought most influences vegetation might help assessing the resistance and resilience of vegetation and improving our knowledge of vegetation vulnerability to climate change.

  5. Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) and the Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) is presented in vugraph form. The objectives of GEWEX are as follows: determine the hydrological cycle by global measurements; model the global hydrological cycle; improve observations and data assimilation; and predict response to environmental change. The objectives of GCIP are as follows: determine the time/space variability of the hydrological cycle over a continental-scale region; develop macro-scale hydrologic models that are coupled to atmospheric models; develop information retrieval schemes; and support regional climate change impact assessment.

  6. Financial competitiveness of organic agriculture on a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, David W; Reganold, John P

    2015-06-16

    To promote global food and ecosystem security, several innovative farming systems have been identified that better balance multiple sustainability goals. The most rapidly growing and contentious of these systems is organic agriculture. Whether organic agriculture can continue to expand will likely be determined by whether it is economically competitive with conventional agriculture. Here, we examined the financial performance of organic and conventional agriculture by conducting a meta-analysis of a global dataset spanning 55 crops grown on five continents. When organic premiums were not applied, benefit/cost ratios (-8 to -7%) and net present values (-27 to -23%) of organic agriculture were significantly lower than conventional agriculture. However, when actual premiums were applied, organic agriculture was significantly more profitable (22-35%) and had higher benefit/cost ratios (20-24%) than conventional agriculture. Although premiums were 29-32%, breakeven premiums necessary for organic profits to match conventional profits were only 5-7%, even with organic yields being 10-18% lower. Total costs were not significantly different, but labor costs were significantly higher (7-13%) with organic farming practices. Studies in our meta-analysis accounted for neither environmental costs (negative externalities) nor ecosystem services from good farming practices, which likely favor organic agriculture. With only 1% of the global agricultural land in organic production, our findings suggest that organic agriculture can continue to expand even if premiums decline. Furthermore, with their multiple sustainability benefits, organic farming systems can contribute a larger share in feeding the world.

  7. An experimental system for flood risk forecasting at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, L.; Dottori, F.; Kalas, M.; Lorini, V.; Bianchi, A.; Hirpa, F. A.; Feyen, L.; Salamon, P.

    2016-12-01

    Global flood forecasting and monitoring systems are nowadays a reality and are being applied by an increasing range of users and practitioners in disaster risk management. Furthermore, there is an increasing demand from users to integrate flood early warning systems with risk based forecasts, combining streamflow estimations with expected inundated areas and flood impacts. To this end, we have developed an experimental procedure for near-real time flood mapping and impact assessment based on the daily forecasts issued by the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). The methodology translates GloFAS streamflow forecasts into event-based flood hazard maps based on the predicted flow magnitude and the forecast lead time and a database of flood hazard maps with global coverage. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information to derive flood risk. Impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood prone areas, potential economic damage, and affected population, infrastructures and cities. To further increase the reliability of the proposed methodology we integrated model-based estimations with an innovative methodology for social media monitoring, which allows for real-time verification of impact forecasts. The preliminary tests provided good results and showed the potential of the developed real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management. In particular, the link with social media is crucial for improving the accuracy of impact predictions.

  8. Numerical simulation of explosive volcanic eruptions from the conduit flow to global atmospheric scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. J. Ernst

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions are unsteady multiphase phenomena, which encompass many inter-related processes across the whole range of scales from molecular and microscopic to macroscopic, synoptic and global. We provide an overview of recent advances in numerical modelling of volcanic effects, from conduit and eruption column processes to those on the Earth s climate. Conduit flow models examine ascent dynamics and multiphase processes like fragmentation, chemical reactions and mass transfer below the Earth surface. Other models simulate atmospheric dispersal of the erupted gas-particle mixture, focusing on rapid processes occurring in the jet, the lower convective regions, and pyroclastic density currents. The ascending eruption column and intrusive gravity current generated by it, as well as sedimentation and ash dispersal from those flows in the immediate environment of the volcano are examined with modular and generic models. These apply simplifications to the equations describing the system depending on the specific focus of scrutiny. The atmospheric dispersion of volcanic clouds is simulated by ash tracking models. These are inadequate for the first hours of spreading in many cases but focus on long-range prediction of ash location to prevent hazardous aircraft - ash encounters. The climate impact is investigated with global models. All processes and effects of explosive eruptions cannot be simulated by a single model, due to the complexity and hugely contrasting spatial and temporal scales involved. There is now the opportunity to establish a closer integration between different models and to develop the first comprehensive description of explosive eruptions and of their effects on the ground, in the atmosphere, and on the global climate.

  9. Groundwater Development Stress: Global-Scale Indices Compared to Regional Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M; Clark, Brian R; Ely, David M; Faunt, Claudia C

    2018-03-01

    The increased availability of global datasets and technologies such as global hydrologic models and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites have resulted in a growing number of global-scale assessments of water availability using simple indices of water stress. Developed initially for surface water, such indices are increasingly used to evaluate global groundwater resources. We compare indices of groundwater development stress for three major agricultural areas of the United States to information available from regional water budgets developed from detailed groundwater modeling. These comparisons illustrate the potential value of regional-scale analyses to supplement global hydrological models and GRACE analyses of groundwater depletion. Regional-scale analyses allow assessments of water stress that better account for scale effects, the dynamics of groundwater flow systems, the complexities of irrigated agricultural systems, and the laws, regulations, engineering, and socioeconomic factors that govern groundwater use. Strategic use of regional-scale models with global-scale analyses would greatly enhance knowledge of the global groundwater depletion problem. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Groundwater development stress: Global-scale indices compared to regional modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William; Clark, Brian R.; Ely, Matt; Faunt, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The increased availability of global datasets and technologies such as global hydrologic models and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites have resulted in a growing number of global-scale assessments of water availability using simple indices of water stress. Developed initially for surface water, such indices are increasingly used to evaluate global groundwater resources. We compare indices of groundwater development stress for three major agricultural areas of the United States to information available from regional water budgets developed from detailed groundwater modeling. These comparisons illustrate the potential value of regional-scale analyses to supplement global hydrological models and GRACE analyses of groundwater depletion. Regional-scale analyses allow assessments of water stress that better account for scale effects, the dynamics of groundwater flow systems, the complexities of irrigated agricultural systems, and the laws, regulations, engineering, and socioeconomic factors that govern groundwater use. Strategic use of regional-scale models with global-scale analyses would greatly enhance knowledge of the global groundwater depletion problem.

  11. Global Policing and the Case of Kim Dotcom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Palmer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In early 2012, 76 heavily armed police conducted a raid on a house in Auckland, New Zealand. The targets were Kim Dotcom, a German national with a NZ residency visa, and several colleagues affiliated with Megaupload, an online subscription-based peer-to-peer (P2P file sharing facility. The alleged offences involved facilitating unlawful file sharing and United States federal criminal copyright violations. Following the raid, several court cases provide valuable insights into emerging ‘global policing’ practices (Bowling and Sheptycki 2012 based on communications between sovereign enforcement agencies.  This article uses these cases to explore the growth of ‘extraterritorial’ police powers that operate ‘across borders’ (Nadelmann 1993 as part of several broader transformations of global policing in the digital age.

  12. Scale out databases for CERN use cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowski, Zbigniew; Grzybek, Maciej; Canali, Luca; Garcia, Daniel Lanza; Surdy, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    Data generation rates are expected to grow very fast for some database workloads going into LHC run 2 and beyond. In particular this is expected for data coming from controls, logging and monitoring systems. Storing, administering and accessing big data sets in a relational database system can quickly become a very hard technical challenge, as the size of the active data set and the number of concurrent users increase. Scale-out database technologies are a rapidly developing set of solutions for deploying and managing very large data warehouses on commodity hardware and with open source software. In this paper we will describe the architecture and tests on database systems based on Hadoop and the Cloudera Impala engine. We will discuss the results of our tests, including tests of data loading and integration with existing data sources and in particular with relational databases. We will report on query performance tests done with various data sets of interest at CERN, notably data from the accelerator log database. (paper)

  13. Scale out databases for CERN use cases

    CERN Document Server

    Baranowski, Zbigniew; Canali, Luca; Garcia, Daniel Lanza; Surdy, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    Data generation rates are expected to grow very fast for some database workloads going into LHC run 2 and beyond. In particular this is expected for data coming from controls, logging and monitoring systems. Storing, administering and accessing big data sets in a relational database system can quickly become a very hard technical challenge, as the size of the active data set and the number of concurrent users increase. Scale-out database technologies are a rapidly developing set of solutions for deploying and managing very large data warehouses on commodity hardware and with open source software. In this paper we will describe the architecture and tests on database systems based on Hadoop and the Cloudera Impala engine. We will discuss the results of our tests, including tests of data loading and integration with existing data sources and in particular with relational databases. We will report on query performance tests done with various data sets of interest at CERN, notably data from the accelerator log dat...

  14. FOREST ECOSYSTEMS AND GLOBAL CHANGE: THE CASE STUDY OF INSUBRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pautasso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems face multiple challenges due to climate change, invasive species, urbanization, land use change and the interactions between these global change drivers. This review provides an overview of such challenges for the case study of Insubria. Insubria is a region on the Southern side of the European Alps, famous for its stunning lakes (e.g., Como, Garda, Lugano, Maggiore, blessed by a relatively mild and humid climate, and shaped by the geologic fault line between the African and European plates. Global change impacts in Insubria pose a threat to its biodiversity and chestnut woodlands, particularly through modified winter forest fire regimes. Insubric biodiversity conservation, in turn, is essential to counteract the effects of climate change. Sustainable management of Insubric forests is made more difficult by rural abandonment, air pollution and invasive exotic species. There is a need to develop reliable long-term bio-indicators and to predict the shift of Insubric species, ecosystems and tree-lines due to rapid climate changes. Insubric studies on forests and global change call for enhanced international collaboration in forest management and research. Interdisciplinary approaches are needed to move from studies of single global change drivers to experiments, scenarios and models taking into account their combination and our responses to global change.

  15. Cross-scale intercomparison of climate change impacts simulated by regional and global hydrological models in eleven large river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattermann, F. F.; Krysanova, V.; Gosling, S. N.; Dankers, R.; Daggupati, P.; Donnelly, C.; Flörke, M.; Huang, S.; Motovilov, Y.; Buda, S.; Yang, T.; Müller, C.; Leng, G.; Tang, Q.; Portmann, F. T.; Hagemann, S.; Gerten, D.; Wada, Y.; Masaki, Y.; Alemayehu, T.; Satoh, Y.; Samaniego, L.

    2017-01-04

    Ideally, the results from models operating at different scales should agree in trend direction and magnitude of impacts under climate change. However, this implies that the sensitivity of impact models designed for either scale to climate variability and change is comparable. In this study, we compare hydrological changes simulated by 9 global and 9 regional hydrological models (HM) for 11 large river basins in all continents under reference and scenario conditions. The foci are on model validation runs, sensitivity of annual discharge to climate variability in the reference period, and sensitivity of the long-term average monthly seasonal dynamics to climate change. One major result is that the global models, mostly not calibrated against observations, often show a considerable bias in mean monthly discharge, whereas regional models show a much better reproduction of reference conditions. However, the sensitivity of two HM ensembles to climate variability is in general similar. The simulated climate change impacts in terms of long-term average monthly dynamics evaluated for HM ensemble medians and spreads show that the medians are to a certain extent comparable in some cases with distinct differences in others, and the spreads related to global models are mostly notably larger. Summarizing, this implies that global HMs are useful tools when looking at large-scale impacts of climate change and variability, but whenever impacts for a specific river basin or region are of interest, e.g. for complex water management applications, the regional-scale models validated against observed discharge should be used.

  16. How Large-Scale Research Facilities Connect to Global Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Policies for large-scale research facilities (LSRFs) often highlight their spillovers to industrial innovation and their contribution to the external connectivity of the regional innovation system hosting them. Arguably, the particular institutional features of LSRFs are conducive for collaborati...... with domestic universities or government laboratories. Policies conceiving LSRFs as “knowledge attractors” therefore should consider the complementarities between research at a LSRF and in its academic context at a regional or national level....

  17. Multi-scale climate modelling over Southern Africa using a variable-resolution global model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, FA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available -resolution global simulations, to ultra-high resolution simulations at the micro-scale. The model used for these experiments is a variable-resolution global atmospheric model, the conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM). It is shown that CCAM may be used to obtain...

  18. Global Stability of Complex-Valued Genetic Regulatory Networks with Delays on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yajing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the global exponential stability of complex-valued genetic regulatory networks with delays is investigated. Besides presenting conditions guaranteeing the existence of a unique equilibrium pattern, its global exponential stability is discussed. Some numerical examples for different time scales.

  19. Should Global Items on Student Rating Scales Be Used for Summative Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the simplest indicators of teaching or course effectiveness is student ratings on one or more global items from the entire rating scale. That approach seems intuitively sound and easy to use. Global items have even been recommended by a few researchers to get a quick-read, at-a-glance summary for summative decisions about faculty. The…

  20. Forest annual carbon cost : A global-scale analysis of autotrophic respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piao, Shilonog; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan A.; Chen, Anping; Chao, C. A O; Fang, Jingyun; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Yiqi, L. U O; Wang, Shaopeng

    Forest autotrophic respiration (Ra) plays an important role in the carbon balance of forest ecosystems. However, its drivers at the global scale are not well known. Based on a global forest database, we explore the relationships of annual Ra with mean annual temperature (MAT) and biotic factors

  1. Variations in tropical convection as an amplifier of global climate change at the millennial scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanochkoa, T.S.; Ganeshram, R.S.; Brummer, G.J.A.; Ganssen, G.M.; Jung, S.J.A.; Moreton, S.G.; Kroon, D.

    2005-01-01

    The global expression of millennial-scale climatic change during the glacial period and the persistence of this signal in Holocene records point to atmospheric teleconnections as the mechanism propagating rapid climate variations. We suggest rearrangements in the tropical convection system globally

  2. Irrational Delay Revisited: Examining Five Procrastination Scales in a Global Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartdal, Frode; Steel, Piers

    2017-01-01

    Scales attempting to measure procrastination focus on different facets of the phenomenon, yet they share a common understanding of procrastination as an unnecessary, unwanted, and disadvantageous delay. The present paper examines in a global sample ( N = 4,169) five different procrastination scales - Decisional Procrastination Scale (DPS), Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS), Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS), Adult Inventory of Procrastination Scale (AIP), and General Procrastination Scale (GPS), focusing on factor structures and item functioning using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Item Response Theory. The results indicated that The PPS (12 items selected from DPS, AIP, and GPS) measures different facets of procrastination even better than the three scales it is based on. An even shorter version of the PPS (5 items focusing on irrational delay), corresponds well to the nine-item IPS. Both scales demonstrate good psychometric properties and appear to be superior measures of core procrastination attributes than alternative procrastination scales.

  3. Irrational Delay Revisited: Examining Five Procrastination Scales in a Global Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frode Svartdal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Scales attempting to measure procrastination focus on different facets of the phenomenon, yet they share a common understanding of procrastination as an unnecessary, unwanted, and disadvantageous delay. The present paper examines in a global sample (N = 4,169 five different procrastination scales – Decisional Procrastination Scale (DPS, Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS, Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS, Adult Inventory of Procrastination Scale (AIP, and General Procrastination Scale (GPS, focusing on factor structures and item functioning using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Item Response Theory. The results indicated that The PPS (12 items selected from DPS, AIP, and GPS measures different facets of procrastination even better than the three scales it is based on. An even shorter version of the PPS (5 items focusing on irrational delay, corresponds well to the nine-item IPS. Both scales demonstrate good psychometric properties and appear to be superior measures of core procrastination attributes than alternative procrastination scales.

  4. Global Product and Local Consequences. Case of Barbie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Pilch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has turned various producers, such as international concerns, into leading actors on the global market. Their brands are recognised all around the world and their products are present in a significant number of households. An example of this can be the Barbie doll, created by Mattel, which is sold in 150 different countries. The concerns operate on a global scale but they have a local impact, which can be analysed in terms of individuals, groups or local communities. This applies to the Barbie doll as it affects its users, their environment, people related to the concern and its stakeholders. The aim of the article is to present these influences and assess their meaning.

  5. Development of probability distributions for regional climate change from uncertain global mean warming and an uncertain scaling relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To produce probability distributions for regional climate change in surface temperature and precipitation, a probability distribution for global mean temperature increase has been combined with the probability distributions for the appropriate scaling variables, i.e. the changes in regional temperature/precipitation per degree global mean warming. Each scaling variable is assumed to be normally distributed. The uncertainty of the scaling relationship arises from systematic differences between the regional changes from global and regional climate model simulations and from natural variability. The contributions of these sources of uncertainty to the total variance of the scaling variable are estimated from simulated temperature and precipitation data in a suite of regional climate model experiments conducted within the framework of the EU-funded project PRUDENCE, using an Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA. For the area covered in the 2001–2004 EU-funded project SWURVE, five case study regions (CSRs are considered: NW England, the Rhine basin, Iberia, Jura lakes (Switzerland and Mauvoisin dam (Switzerland. The resulting regional climate changes for 2070–2099 vary quite significantly between CSRs, between seasons and between meteorological variables. For all CSRs, the expected warming in summer is higher than that expected for the other seasons. This summer warming is accompanied by a large decrease in precipitation. The uncertainty of the scaling ratios for temperature and precipitation is relatively large in summer because of the differences between regional climate models. Differences between the spatial climate-change patterns of global climate model simulations make significant contributions to the uncertainty of the scaling ratio for temperature. However, no meaningful contribution could be found for the scaling ratio for precipitation due to the small number of global climate models in the PRUDENCE project and natural variability, which is

  6. Global-scale Full Waveform Ambient Noise Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, K.; Ermert, L. A.; Boehm, C.; Krischer, L.; Afanasiev, M.; Fichtner, A.

    2017-12-01

    In earthquake tomography, modern tomographic methods exploit waveforms for the benefit of improved resolution. However, these techniques cannot be applied to noise correlation functions without knowing the distribution of noise sources. To overcome this limitation, we develop a method - referred to as full waveform ambient noise inversion - that is valid for arbitrary noise source distributions in both space and frequency, accounts for 3D heterogeneous and attenuating media and the full seismic wave propagation physics. The fundamental idea is to drop the principle of Green function retrieval, which is the basis for current noise tomographic studies, and to establish correlation functions as self-consistent observables in seismology. Based on a synthetic study in 2D, investigating the prerequisites for a joint inversion for noise sources and Earth structure, we extend the open-source waveform modelling and inversion package Salvus (http://salvus.io). It allows us to compute correlation functions in 3D media with heterogeneous noise sources at the surface and the corresponding sensitivity kernels for the distribution of noise sources and Earth structure. We present sensitivity kernels for different cross-correlation time lags and various noise source distributions, and study the effect of 3D heterogeneous Earth structure. For a validation of full waveform ambient noise inversion, we apply it to a global dataset focusing on the Earth's hum period band.

  7. Symmetric scaling properties in global surface air temperature anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Efstathiou, Maria N.

    2015-08-01

    We have recently suggested "long-term memory" or internal long-range correlation within the time-series of land-surface air temperature (LSAT) anomalies in both hemispheres. For example, an increasing trend in the LSAT anomalies is followed by another one at a different time in a power-law fashion. However, our previous research was mainly focused on the overall long-term persistence, while in the present study, the upward and downward scaling dynamics of the LSAT anomalies are analysed, separately. Our results show that no significant fluctuation differences were found between the increments and decrements in LSAT anomalies, over the whole Earth and over each hemisphere, individually. On the contrary, the combination of land-surface air and sea-surface water temperature anomalies seemed to cause a departure from symmetry and the increments in the land and sea surface temperature anomalies appear to be more persistent than the decrements.

  8. The (in)effectiveness of Global Land Policies on Large-Scale Land Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoog, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to current crises, large-scale land acquisition (LSLA) is becoming a topic of growing concern. Public data from the ‘Land Matrix Global Observatory’ project (Land Matrix 2014a) demonstrates that since 2000, 1,664 large-scale land transactions in low- and middle-income countries were reported,

  9. Open Street Map Data as Source for Built-Up and Urban Areas on Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhoff, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Many types of applications require information about built-up areas and urban areas. Thus, there is a need for a global, vector-based, up-to-date, and free dataset of high resolution and accuracy. The OpenStreetMap (OSM) dataset fulfills those demands in principle. However, its focus is not land use or land cover. These observations lead to following questions: (1) Which OSM features can be used for computing built-up areas on global scale? (2) How can we derive built-up and urban areas on global scale in sufficient accuracy and performance by using standard software and hardware? (3) Is the quality of the result sufficient on global scale? In this paper, we investigate the first two questions in detail and give some insights into the third question.

  10. Cloud Geospatial Analysis Tools for Global-Scale Comparisons of Population Models for Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancher, M.; Lieber, A.; Scott, L.

    2017-12-01

    The volume of satellite and other Earth data is growing rapidly. Combined with information about where people are, these data can inform decisions in a range of areas including food and water security, disease and disaster risk management, biodiversity, and climate adaptation. Google's platform for planetary-scale geospatial data analysis, Earth Engine, grants access to petabytes of continually updating Earth data, programming interfaces for analyzing the data without the need to download and manage it, and mechanisms for sharing the analyses and publishing results for data-driven decision making. In addition to data about the planet, data about the human planet - population, settlement and urban models - are now available for global scale analysis. The Earth Engine APIs enable these data to be joined, combined or visualized with economic or environmental indicators such as nighttime lights trends, global surface water, or climate projections, in the browser without the need to download anything. We will present our newly developed application intended to serve as a resource for government agencies, disaster response and public health programs, or other consumers of these data to quickly visualize the different population models, and compare them to ground truth tabular data to determine which model suits their immediate needs. Users can further tap into the power of Earth Engine and other Google technologies to perform a range of analysis from simple statistics in custom regions to more complex machine learning models. We will highlight case studies in which organizations around the world have used Earth Engine to combine population data with multiple other sources of data, such as water resources and roads data, over deep stacks of temporal imagery to model disease risk and accessibility to inform decisions.

  11. The sensitivity of soil respiration to soil temperature, moisture, and carbon supply at the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, Andrew; Ballantyne, Ashley; Cooper, Leila; Maneta, Marco; Kimball, John; Watts, Jennifer

    2017-05-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is a major pathway by which fixed carbon in the biosphere is returned to the atmosphere, yet there are limits to our ability to predict respiration rates using environmental drivers at the global scale. While temperature, moisture, carbon supply, and other site characteristics are known to regulate soil respiration rates at plot scales within certain biomes, quantitative frameworks for evaluating the relative importance of these factors across different biomes and at the global scale require tests of the relationships between field estimates and global climatic data. This study evaluates the factors driving Rs at the global scale by linking global datasets of soil moisture, soil temperature, primary productivity, and soil carbon estimates with observations of annual Rs from the Global Soil Respiration Database (SRDB). We find that calibrating models with parabolic soil moisture functions can improve predictive power over similar models with asymptotic functions of mean annual precipitation. Soil temperature is comparable with previously reported air temperature observations used in predicting Rs and is the dominant driver of Rs in global models; however, within certain biomes soil moisture and soil carbon emerge as dominant predictors of Rs. We identify regions where typical temperature-driven responses are further mediated by soil moisture, precipitation, and carbon supply and regions in which environmental controls on high Rs values are difficult to ascertain due to limited field data. Because soil moisture integrates temperature and precipitation dynamics, it can more directly constrain the heterotrophic component of Rs, but global-scale models tend to smooth its spatial heterogeneity by aggregating factors that increase moisture variability within and across biomes. We compare statistical and mechanistic models that provide independent estimates of global Rs ranging from 83 to 108 Pg yr -1 , but also highlight regions of uncertainty

  12. Afasia global sem hemiparesia: relato de caso Global aphasia without hemiparesis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCUS TULIUS TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Afasia global geralmente é acompanhada por hemiparesia direita devido à extensão da lesão subjacente. Recentemente têm sido registrados na literatura casos em que tal síndrome ou não se acompanha do déficit motor ou este é apenas transitório, sendo esta condição conhecida como afasia global sem hemiparesia (AGSH. Relatamos caso de AGSH devido a infarto cerebral embólico cardiogênico, corroborando a tese de que esta condição pode ter valor preditivo para o diagnóstico de infartos embólicos.Symptoms and signs of a stroke indicate which areas of the brain are affected and may also suggest the pathophysiology. We report herein a case of global aphasia without hemiparesis due to embolic infarct. Our case suggests that this situation may be an important sign for embolic cerebral infarction, as reported in literature.

  13. Act local, think global: how the Malawi experience of scaling up antiretroviral treatment has informed global policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Harries

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in Malawi was based on a public health approach adapted to its resource-poor setting, with principles and practices borrowed from the successful tuberculosis control framework. From 2004 to 2015, the number of new patients started on ART increased from about 3000 to over 820,000. Despite being a small country, Malawi has made a significant contribution to the 15 million people globally on ART and has also contributed policy and service delivery innovations that have supported international guidelines and scale up in other countries. The first set of global guidelines for scaling up ART released by the World Health Organization (WHO in 2002 focused on providing clinical guidance. In Malawi, the ART guidelines adopted from the outset a more operational and programmatic approach with recommendations on health systems and services that were needed to deliver HIV treatment to affected populations. Seven years after the start of national scale-up, Malawi launched a new strategy offering all HIV-infected pregnant women lifelong ART regardless of the CD4-cell count, named Option B+. This strategy was subsequently incorporated into a WHO programmatic guide in 2012 and WHO ART guidelines in 2013, and has since then been adopted by the majority of countries worldwide. In conclusion, the Malawi experience of ART scale-up has become a blueprint for a public health response to HIV and has informed international efforts to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030.

  14. EXAMINING FLORISTIC BOUNDARIES BETWEEN GARDEN TYPES AT THE GLOBAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Padullés Cubino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los jardines son una importante fuente de bienes y servicios para los residentes de un hogar. Su función se traduce directamente en el tipo de plantas que en ellos se cultiva. Por otro lado, la terminología usada para denominar los distintos tipos de jardín en inglés (garden, homegarden, forest garden, etc. varía según su función y propósito. Los factores que explican la diferenciación y distribución de los jardines a escala global no habían sido previamente explorados hasta ahora. En este estudio se han analizado los inventarios florísticos de 44 conjuntos de jardines de to do el mundo para explorar sus similitudes taxonómicas y los factores que configuran la distribución de su flora. Para ello, se escogieron distintas variables biofísicas y socioeconómicas a una escala apropiada de trabajo. Como resultado, los factores biofísicos y climáticos (temperatura, precipitación, evapotranspiración potencial y distancia entre asentamientos se hallaron significativamente relacionados con la distribución de las especies; no obstante, todos estos factores resultaron ser menos importantes que el GDP (PIB per cápita, utilizado aquí como indicador de los ingresos del hogar, y que se obtuvo como el principal impulsor de la composición de los jardines. También el resto de factores sociales y culturales incluidos en el análisis, como son la similitud entre las lenguas de los distintos asentamientos o la densidad de población, se encontraron como variables significativas. Cabe señalar que el presente análisis omite cierto número de variables debido a la no disponibilidad de datos. Algunas de estas variables son el tamaño del jardín o el género de su dueño, las cuales han sido reconocidas previamente como agentes influyentes en la composición vegetal de los jardines. El estudio concluye que los géneros vegetales cultivados en los conjuntos de jardines son muy diferentes entre sí y que, por lo tanto, las distinciones entre

  15. Cross - Scale Intercomparison of Climate Change Impacts Simulated by Regional and Global Hydrological Models in Eleven Large River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattermann, F. F.; Krysanova, V.; Gosling, S. N.; Dankers, R.; Daggupati, P.; Donnelly, C.; Florke, M.; Huang, S.; Motovilov, Y.; Buda, S.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Ideally, the results from models operating at different scales should agree in trend direction and magnitude of impacts under climate change. However, this implies that the sensitivity to climate variability and climate change is comparable for impact models designed for either scale. In this study, we compare hydrological changes simulated by 9 global and 9 regional hydrological models (HM) for 11 large river basins in all continents under reference and scenario conditions. The foci are on model validation runs, sensitivity of annual discharge to climate variability in the reference period, and sensitivity of the long-term average monthly seasonal dynamics to climate change. One major result is that the global models, mostly not calibrated against observations, often show a considerable bias in mean monthly discharge, whereas regional models show a better reproduction of reference conditions. However, the sensitivity of the two HM ensembles to climate variability is in general similar. The simulated climate change impacts in terms of long-term average monthly dynamics evaluated for HM ensemble medians and spreads show that the medians are to a certain extent comparable in some cases, but have distinct differences in other cases, and the spreads related to global models are mostly notably larger. Summarizing, this implies that global HMs are useful tools when looking at large-scale impacts of climate change and variability. Whenever impacts for a specific river basin or region are of interest, e.g. for complex water management applications, the regional-scale models calibrated and validated against observed discharge should be used.

  16. Top-down constraints on disturbance dynamics in the terrestrial carbon cycle: effects at global and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A. A.; Exbrayat, J. F.; van der Velde, I.; Peters, W.; Williams, M.

    2014-12-01

    Large uncertainties preside over terrestrial carbon flux estimates on a global scale. In particular, the strongly coupled dynamics between net ecosystem productivity and disturbance C losses are poorly constrained. To gain an improved understanding of ecosystem C dynamics from regional to global scale, we apply a Markov Chain Monte Carlo based model-data-fusion approach into the CArbon DAta-MOdel fraMework (CARDAMOM). We assimilate MODIS LAI and burned area, plant-trait data, and use the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) and maps of above ground biomass as prior knowledge for initial conditions. We optimize model parameters based on (a) globally spanning observations and (b) ecological and dynamic constraints that force single parameter values and parameter inter-dependencies to be representative of real world processes. We determine the spatial and temporal dynamics of major terrestrial C fluxes and model parameter values on a global scale (GPP = 123 +/- 8 Pg C yr-1 & NEE = -1.8 +/- 2.7 Pg C yr-1). We further show that the incorporation of disturbance fluxes, and accounting for their instantaneous or delayed effect, is of critical importance in constraining global C cycle dynamics, particularly in the tropics. In a higher resolution case study centred on the Amazon Basin we show how fires not only trigger large instantaneous emissions of burned matter, but also how they are responsible for a sustained reduction of up to 50% in plant uptake following the depletion of biomass stocks. The combination of these two fire-induced effects leads to a 1 g C m-2 d-1reduction in the strength of the net terrestrial carbon sink. Through our simulations at regional and global scale, we advocate the need to assimilate disturbance metrics in global terrestrial carbon cycle models to bridge the gap between globally spanning terrestrial carbon cycle data and the full dynamics of the ecosystem C cycle. Disturbances are especially important because their quick occurrence may have

  17. Analysis of global multiscale finite element methods for wave equations with continuum spatial scales

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Lijian

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss a numerical multiscale approach for solving wave equations with heterogeneous coefficients. Our interest comes from geophysics applications and we assume that there is no scale separation with respect to spatial variables. To obtain the solution of these multiscale problems on a coarse grid, we compute global fields such that the solution smoothly depends on these fields. We present a Galerkin multiscale finite element method using the global information and provide a convergence analysis when applied to solve the wave equations. We investigate the relation between the smoothness of the global fields and convergence rates of the global Galerkin multiscale finite element method for the wave equations. Numerical examples demonstrate that the use of global information renders better accuracy for wave equations with heterogeneous coefficients than the local multiscale finite element method. © 2010 IMACS.

  18. A Biophysical Image Compositing Technique for the Global-Scale Extraction and Mapping of Barren Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram C. Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the barren lands play a key role in the interaction between land cover dynamics and climate system, an efficient methodology for the global-scale extraction and mapping of the barren lands is important. The discriminative potential of the existing soil/bareness indexes was assessed by collecting globally distributed reference data belonging to major land cover types. The existing soil/bareness indexes parameterized at the local scale did not work satisfactorily everywhere at the global level. A new technique called the Biophysical Image Composite (BIC is proposed in the research by exploiting time-series of the multi-spectral data to capture global-scale barren land attributes effectively. The BIC is a false color composite image made up of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, short wave infrared reflectance, and green reflectance, which were specially selected from the highest vegetation activity period by avoiding signals from the seasonal snowfall. The drastic contrast between the barren lands and vegetation as exhibited by the BIC provides a robust extraction and mapping of the barren lands, and facilitates its visual interpretation. Random Forests based supervised classification approach was applied on the BIC for the mapping of global barren lands. A new global barren land cover map of year 2013 was produced with high accuracy. The comparison of the resulted map with an existing map of the same year showed a substantial discrepancy between two maps due to methodological variation. To cope with this problem, the BIC based mapping methodology, with a special account of the land surface phenological changes, is suggested to standardize the global-scale estimates and mapping of the barren lands.

  19. The global governance of human cloning: the case of UNESCO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Adèle

    2017-03-21

    Since Dolly the Sheep was cloned in 1996, the question of whether human reproductive cloning should be banned or pursued has been the subject of international debate. Feelings run strong on both sides. In 2005, the United Nations adopted its Declaration on Human Cloning to try to deal with the issue. The declaration is ambiguously worded, prohibiting "all forms of human cloning inasmuch as they are incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life". It received only ambivalent support from UN member states. Given this unsatisfactory outcome, in 2008 UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) set up a Working Group to investigate the possibility of a legally binding convention to ban human reproductive cloning. The Working Group was made up of members of the International Bioethics Committee, established in 1993 as part of UNESCO's Bioethics Programme. It found that the lack of clarity in international law is unhelpful for those states yet to formulate national regulations or policies on human cloning. Despite this, member states of UNESCO resisted the idea of a convention for several years. This changed in 2015, but there has been no practical progress on the issue. Drawing on official records and first-hand observations at bioethics meetings, this article examines the human cloning debate at UNESCO from 2008 onwards, thus building on and advancing current scholarship by applying recent ideas on global governance to an empirical case. It concludes that, although human reproductive cloning is a challenging subject, establishing a robust global governance framework in this area may be possible via an alternative deliberative format, based on knowledge sharing and feasibility testing rather than the interest-based bargaining that is common to intergovernmental organizations and involving a wide range of stakeholders. This article is published as part of a collection on global governance.

  20. The global governance of human cloning: the case of UNESCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Adèle

    2017-01-01

    Since Dolly the Sheep was cloned in 1996, the question of whether human reproductive cloning should be banned or pursued has been the subject of international debate. Feelings run strong on both sides. In 2005, the United Nations adopted its Declaration on Human Cloning to try to deal with the issue. The declaration is ambiguously worded, prohibiting “all forms of human cloning inasmuch as they are incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life”. It received only ambivalent support from UN member states. Given this unsatisfactory outcome, in 2008 UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) set up a Working Group to investigate the possibility of a legally binding convention to ban human reproductive cloning. The Working Group was made up of members of the International Bioethics Committee, established in 1993 as part of UNESCO’s Bioethics Programme. It found that the lack of clarity in international law is unhelpful for those states yet to formulate national regulations or policies on human cloning. Despite this, member states of UNESCO resisted the idea of a convention for several years. This changed in 2015, but there has been no practical progress on the issue. Drawing on official records and first-hand observations at bioethics meetings, this article examines the human cloning debate at UNESCO from 2008 onwards, thus building on and advancing current scholarship by applying recent ideas on global governance to an empirical case. It concludes that, although human reproductive cloning is a challenging subject, establishing a robust global governance framework in this area may be possible via an alternative deliberative format, based on knowledge sharing and feasibility testing rather than the interest-based bargaining that is common to intergovernmental organizations and involving a wide range of stakeholders. This article is published as part of a collection on global governance. PMID:28382210

  1. COMPETITIVENESS IN THE AGE OF GLOBALIZATION. THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Sorin-George

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental determinant of the competitiveness of a nation is the productivity of the companies acting in its economy. In the age of globalization, countries compete not only for markets, technology, skills and investments, but also for raising their standards of living. The national prosperity is highly affected by competitiveness, defined as the productivity with which a nation uses its resources. The objectives of our paper are to analyze the concept of national competitivenes and to outline the importance of competitiveness in today’s uncertain world. In this respect, we consider competitiveness as a multifaceted concept including both quantitative and qualitative aspects. The objectives of our paper were achieved by reviewing the literature, and by presenting the case of Romania.

  2. Statin-associated polymyalgia rheumatica. An analysis using WHO global individual case safety database: a case/non-case approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda J I de Jong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess whether there is an association between statin use and the occurrence of polymyalgia rheumatic (PMR in the spontaneous reporting database of the World Health Organisation (WHO. METHODS: We conducted a case/non-case study based on individual case safety reports (ICSR in the WHO global ICSR database (VigiBase. Case reports containing the adverse event term polymyalgia rheumatica (WHOART or MedDRA Preferred Term were defined as cases. Non-cases were all case reports containing other adverse event terms. Each case was matched to five non-cases by age, gender, and time of reporting. Case reports regarding a statin as suspected or concomitant drug were identified using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate reporting odds ratios (RORs with 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: We identified 327 reports of PMR as cases and 1635 reports of other ADRs as non-cases. Among cases, statins were more frequently reported as suspected agent (29.4% compared to non-cases (2.9%. After adjustment for several covariates, statins were significantly associated with reports of PMR (ROR 14.21; 95% CI 9.89-20.85. CONCLUSION: The results of this study lends support to previous anecdotal case reports in the literature suggesting that the use of a statin may be associated with the occurrence of PMR. Further studies are needed to study the strength of the association in more detail and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  3. Global MHD Modelling of the ISM - From large towards small scale turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avillez, M.; Breitschwerdt, D.

    2005-06-01

    Dealing numerically with the turbulent nature and non-linearity of the physical processes involved in the ISM requires the use of sophisticated numerical schemes coupled to HD and MHD mathematical models. SNe are the main drivers of the interstellar turbulence by transferring kinetic energy into the system. This energy is dissipated by shocks (which is more efficient) and by molecular viscosity. We carried out adaptive mesh refinement simulations (with a finest resolution of 0.625 pc) of the turbulent ISM embedded in a magnetic field with mean field components of 2 and 3 μG. The time scale of our run was 400 Myr, sufficiently long to avoid memory effects of the initial setup, and to allow for a global dynamical equilibrium to be reached in case of a constant energy input rate. It is found that the longitudinal and transverse turbulent length scales have a time averaged (over a period of 50 Myr) ratio of 0.52-0.6, almost similar to the one expected for isotropic homogeneous turbulence. The mean characteristic size of the larger eddies is found to be ˜ 75 pc in both runs. In order to check the simulations against observations, we monitored the OVI and HI column densities within a superbubble created by the explosions of 19 SNe having masses and velocities of the stars that exploded in vicinity of the Sun generating the Local Bubble. The model reproduces the FUSE absorption measurements towards 25 white dwarfs of the OVI column density as function of distance and of N(HI). In particular for lines of sight with lengths smaller than 120 pc it is found that there is no correlation between N(OVI) and N(HI).

  4. Interaction of Economic Freedom and Foreign Direct Investment Globally: Special Cases from Neglected Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yhlas Sovbetov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the macroeconomic impact of economic freedom on foreign direct investments inflows in both global and regional panel analyses involving 156 countries through the period of 1995-2016. Unlike to prior literature, it includes often neglected nations such as Fragile and Conflict-Affected states, Sub-Saharan, Oceanian, and Post-Soviet countries. The paper finds a positive impact of economic freedom on FDI under fixed-effects model in global case where a unit change in economic freedom scales FDI inflows up to 1.15 units. More specifically, all 9 regions also refer to positive and significant impact of economic freedom on FDI. The highest impact is recorded in European countries, whereas the lowest ones are documented in Fragile-Conflict affected states, Sub-Saharan zone, and Oceanian countries.

  5. Preparing the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) for global retrospective air quality modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA has a plan to leverage recent advances in meteorological modeling to develop a "Next-Generation" air quality modeling system that will allow consistent modeling of problems from global to local scale. The meteorological model of choice is the Model for Predic...

  6. Cultivating sources of competitive advantage : Opportunities for small-scale African farmers in global value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthaar, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale farmers in developing countries often appropriate little of the value created in global value chains. The farmers typically receive only a fraction of what consumers pay for a certain product. In the current thesis we studied which resources farmers have access to that enable them to

  7. Global change impacts on large-scale biogeographic patterns of marine organisms on Atlantic oceanic islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ávila, S.P.; Cordeiro, R.; Madeira, P.; Silva, L.; Medeiros, A.; Rebelo, A.C.; Melo, C.; Neto, A.I.; Haroun, R.; Monteiro, A.; Rijsdijk, K.; Johnson, M.E.

    2018-01-01

    Past climate changes provide important clues for advancement of studies on current global change biology. We have tested large-scale biogeographic patterns through four marine groups from twelve Atlantic Ocean archipelagos and searched for patterns between species richness/endemism and littoral

  8. Water dependency and water exploitation at global scale as indicators of water security

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roo, A. P. J.; Beck, H.; Burek, P.; Bernard, B.

    2015-12-01

    A water dependency index has been developed indicating the dependency of water consumption from upstream sources of water, sometimes across (multiple) national border. This index is calculated at global scale using the 0.1 global LISFLOOD hydrological modelling system forced by WFDEI meteorological data for the timeframe 1979-2012. The global LISFLOOD model simulates the most important hydrological processes, as well as water abstraction and consumption from various sectors, and flood routing, at daily scale, with sub-timesteps for routing and subgrid parameterization related to elevation and landuse. The model contains also options for water allocation, to allow preferences of water use for particular sectors in water scarce periods. LISFLOOD is also used for the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS), the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS), continental scale climate change impact studies on floods and droughts. The water dependency indicator is calculated on a monthly basis, and various annual and multiannual indicators are derived from it. In this study, the indicator will be compared against water security areas known from other studies. Other indicators calculated are the Water Exploitation Index (WEI+), which is a commonly use water security indicator in Europe, and freshwater resources per capita indicators at regional, national and river basin scale. Several climate scnearios are run to indicate future trends in water security.

  9. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping on Global Scale using Method of Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L.; Lin, Q.; Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a quantitative model for mapping global landslide susceptibility based on logistic regression. After investigating explanatory factors for landslides in the existing literatures, five factors were selected to model landslide susceptibility: relative relief, extreme precipitation, lithology, ground motion and soil moisture. When building model, 70% of landslide and non-landslide points were randomly selected for logistic regression, and the others were used for model validation. For evaluating the accuracy of predictive models, this paper adopts several criteria including receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve method. Logistic regression experiments found all five factors to be significant in explaining landslide occurrence on global scale. During the modeling process, percentage correct in confusion matrix of landslide classification was approximately 80% and the area under the curve (AUC) was nearly 0.87. During the validation process, the above statistics were about 81% and 0.88, respectively. Such result indicates that the model has strong robustness and stable performance. Existing studies of global landslide susceptibility mapping have generally used qualitative methods based on expert knowledge. The accumulation of global landslide data makes it practical to mapping global landslide susceptibility quantitatively. This quantitative assessment found that at a global scale, soil moisture dominates the occurrence of landslides and topographic factor is secondary.

  10. Global-Scale Consequences of Magnetic-Helicity Injection and Condensation on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Duncan H.; DeVore, C. Richard; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2013-01-01

    In the recent paper of Antiochos, a new concept for the injection of magnetic helicity into the solar corona by small-scale convective motions and its condensation onto polarity inversion lines (PILs) has been developed. We investigate this concept through global simulations of the Sun's photospheric and coronal magnetic fields and compare the results with the hemispheric pattern of solar filaments. Assuming that the vorticity of the cells is predominately counter-clockwise/clockwise in the northern/southern hemisphere, the convective motions inject negative/positive helicity into each hemisphere. The simulations show that: (i) On a north-south orientated PIL, both differential rotation and convective motions inject the same sign of helicity which matches that required to reproduce the hemispheric pattern of filaments. (ii) On a high latitude east-west orientated polar crown or sub-polar crown PIL, the vorticity of the cells has to be approximately 2-3 times greater than the local differential rotation gradient in order to overcome the incorrect sign of helicity injection from differential rotation. (iii) In the declining phase of the cycle, as a bipole interacts with the polar field, in some cases helicity condensation can reverse the effect of differential rotation along the East-West lead arm, but not in all cases. The results show that this newly developed concept of magnetic helicity injection and condensation is a viable method to explain the hemispheric pattern of filaments in conjunction with the mechanisms used in Yeates et al. (2008). Future observational studies should focus on determining the vorticity component within convective motions to determine, both its magnitude and latitudinal variation relative to the differential rotation gradient on the Sun.

  11. Global Exponential Stability of Delayed Cohen-Grossberg BAM Neural Networks with Impulses on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of calculus on time scales, the homeomorphism theory, Lyapunov functional method, and some analysis techniques, sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence, uniqueness, and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of Cohen-Grossberg bidirectional associative memory (BAM neural networks with distributed delays and impulses on time scales. This is the first time applying the time-scale calculus theory to unify the discrete-time and continuous-time Cohen-Grossberg BAM neural network with impulses under the same framework.

  12. The clinical global impression scale for borderline personality disorder patients (CGI-BPD): a scale sensible to detect changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, V; Barrachina, J; Soler, J; Pascual, J C; Campins, M J; Puigdemont, D; Alvarez, E

    2007-01-01

    The CGI-BPD scale is an adaptation of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale designed to assess severity and post-intervention changes in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). It contains 10 items that score the nine relevant psychopathological domains of BPD, plus an additional global score. The CGI-BPD has two formats, the CGI-BPD-S, to evaluate the present severity, and the CGIBPD- I to evaluate improvement. To establish the psychometric properties of the CGI-BPD, the test was administered to 78 BPD patients, 11 men and 67 women, within the framework of a 4-month therapeutic intervention. The modified scale showed good validity and reliability (alpha 0.85 and 0.89; CCI: 0.86 and 0.78), adequate sensitivity to change, and a two-factor structure accounting for 67.4 % of total variance. While remaining simple to administer, the CGI-BPD may correct the excessive generalisation contained in its original version and is a useful tool to evaluate severity and change in BPD patients.

  13. Analysis of four scales for global severity evaluation in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Rojo-Abuin, Jose Manuel; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Serrano-Dueñas, Marcos; Garretto, Nélida; Martínez-Castrillo, Juan Carlos; Arillo, Víctor Campos; Fernández, William; Chaná-Cuevas, Pedro; Arakaki, Tomoko; Alvarez, Mario; Ibañez, Ivonne Pedroso; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Chaudhuri, Kallol Ray; Merello, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Global evaluations of Parkinson’s disease (PD) severity are available, but their concordance and accuracy have not been previously tested. The present international, cross-sectional study was aimed at determining the agreement level among four global scales for PD (Hoehn and Yahr, HY; Clinical Global Impression of Severity, CGIS; Clinical Impression of Severity Index, CISI-PD; and Patient Global Impression of Severity, PGIS) and identifying which of them better correlates with itemized PD assessments. Assessments included additional scales for evaluation of the movement impairment, disability, affective disorders, and quality of life. Spearman correlation coefficients, weighted and generalized kappa, and Kendall’s concordance coefficient were used. Four hundred thirty three PD patients, 66% in HY stages 2 or 3, mean disease duration 8.8 years, were analyzed. Correlation between the global scales ranged from 0.60 (HY with PGIS) to 0.91 (CGIS with CISI-PD). Kendall’s coefficient of concordance resulted 0.76 (P<0.0001). HY and CISI-PD showed the highest association with age, disease duration, and levodopa-equivalent daily dose, and CISI-PD with measures of PD manifestations, disability, and quality of life. PGIS and CISI-PD correlated similarly with anxiety and depression scores. The lowest agreement in classifying patients as mild, moderate, or severe was observed between PGIS and HY or CISI-PD (58%) and the highest between CGIS and CISI-PD (84.3%). The four PD global severity scales agree moderately to strongly among them; clinician-based ratings estimate PD severity, as established by other measures, better than PGIS; and the CISI-PD showed the highest association with measures of impairment, disability, and quality of life. PMID:28725695

  14. The benefits of global scaling in multi-criteria decision analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie P. Monat

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available When there are multiple competing objectives in a decision-making process, Multi-Attribute Choice scoring models are excellent tools, permitting the incorporation of both subjective and objective attributes. However, their accuracy depends upon the subjective techniques used to construct the attribute scales and their concomitant weights. Conventional techniques using local scales tend to overemphasize small differences in attribute measures, which may yield erroneous conclusions. The Range Sensitivity Principle (RSP is often invoked to adjust attribute weights when local scales are used. In practice, however, decision makers often do not follow the prescriptions of the Range Sensitivity Principle and under-adjust the weights, resulting in potentially poor decisions. Examples are discussed as is a proposed solution: the use of global scales instead of local scales.

  15. Contributions of groundwater pumping to global sea level rise: Continental-scale and interannual analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, P. J. F.; Chen, Y.; Lo, M. H.; Wada, Y.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Reager, J. T., II; Zhang, C.; Wu, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater depletion (GWD) is an anthropogenic driver of changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS). Despite small in magnitudes comparing to most terrestrial hydrologic fluxes, it has important long-term contributions to global sea level rise (SLR). Past studies on the evaluation of the contributions from GWD to SLR were generally limited to a global-scale context and a long-term average perspective. This study examines the impacts of GWD on both terrestrial and atmospheric water balances and quantify the respective contribution to global sea level rise (SLR) using a global climate modelling approach. The annual contributions to global SLR from each continent during the modelling period 1900-1999 are quantified and compared. The contribution from each continent can be decomposed into a direct effect via the change in continental river discharges (R) and an indirect effect via the change in atmosphere water vapour convergence from ocean to land (C). An increase in R and a reduction in C would contribute positively to global SLR. The contribution due to GWD to SLR is compared with the contribution due to natural variability of TWS. Through this study, different dynamics and mechanisms responsible for the GWD contribution to SLR in different continents and time horizons can be identified for better understanding this globally significant environmental issue under warming climate.

  16. Comparative water use of native and invasive plants at multiple scales: a global meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Molly A; Sack, Lawren

    2010-09-01

    Ecohydrology and invasive ecology have become increasingly important in the context of global climate change. This study presents the first in-depth analysis of the water use of invasive and native plants of the same growth form at multiple scales: leaf, plant, and ecosystem. We reanalyzed data for several hundred native and invasive species from over 40 published studies worldwide to glean global trends and to highlight how patterns vary depending on both scale and climate. We analyzed all pairwise combinations of co-occurring native and invasive species for higher comparative resolution of the likelihood of an invasive species using more water than a native species and tested for significance using bootstrap methods. At each scale, we found several-fold differences in water use between specific paired invasive and native species. At the leaf scale, we found a strong tendency for invasive species to have greater stomatal conductance than native species. At the plant scale, however, natives and invasives were equally likely to have the higher sap flow rates. Available data were much fewer for the ecosystem scale; nevertheless, we found that invasive-dominated ecosystems were more likely to have higher sap flow rates per unit ground area than native-dominated ecosystems. Ecosystem-scale evapotranspiration, on the other hand, was equally likely to be greater for systems dominated by invasive and native species of the same growth form. The inherent disconnects in the determination of water use when changing scales from leaf to plant to ecosystem reveal hypotheses for future studies and a critical need for more ecosystem-scale water use measurements in invasive- vs. native-dominated systems. The differences in water use of native and invasive species also depended strongly on climate, with the greater water use of invasives enhanced in hotter, wetter climates at the coarser scales.

  17. Long-term predictability of soil moisture dynamics at the global scale: Persistence versus large-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai-Shaw, Nadine; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Hirschi, Martin; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-08-01

    Here we investigate factors that influence the long lead time predictability of soil moisture variability using standard statistical methods. As predictors we first consider soil moisture persistence only, using two independent global soil moisture data sets. In a second step we include three teleconnection indices indicative of the main northern, tropical, and southern atmospheric modes, i.e., the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), and the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO). For many regions results show significant skill in predicting soil moisture variability with lead times up to 5 months. Soil moisture persistence plays a key role at monthly to subseasonal time scales. With increasing lead times large-scale atmospheric drivers become more important, and areas influenced by teleconnection indices show higher predictability. This long lead time predictability of soil moisture may help to improve early warning systems for important natural hazards, such as heat waves, droughts, wildfires, and floods.

  18. Shifting corporate geographies in global cities of the South: Mexico City and Johannesburg as case studie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parnreiter, Christof

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global city research links the expansion of advanced producer services in major cities to the internationalisation of real estate markets as well as to the spread of (mainly high-rise office complexes. This research, however, has based its findings mainly on cases of the Global North. This paper examines, based on Grant and Nijman’s (2002 suggestion that the “internal spatial organisation of gateway cities in the less-developed world” reflects “the city’s role in the global political economy”, which patterns occur in two metropoles of the Global South. In addition to this, the analysis focuses especially on the driving forces behind the changes in corporate geographies. The analysis is placed in Mexico City and Johannesburg and based on real estate market data (offices as well as background documents on urban development. The outcome shows that in these cities, local transformation processes of the real estate market and office space location are indeed considerably shaped by global market dynamics. However, the findings also indicate that there is no clear scale dependence of the territorial form. In order to comprehensively understand the changes in the corporate geographies therefore, it is necessary to direct more attention to local and national dynamics. The restructuring of the built environment in both cities can only be grasped fully by considering the particular role of local and national governments. This additional entry point to an understanding of shifting corporate geographies helps to put recent dynamics of global capitalism and politics of urban neoliberalism in perspective.

  19. Inter-rater reliability of the German version of the Nurses' Global Assessment of Suicide Risk scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Bernd; Grieser, Manuela; Abderhalden, Christoph; Cutcliffe, John R

    2016-10-01

    In comparison to the general population, the suicide rates of psychiatric inpatient populations in Germany and Switzerland are very high. An important preventive contribution to the lowering of the suicide rates in mental health care is to ensure that the risk of suicide of psychiatric inpatients is assessed as accurately as possible. While risk-assessment instruments can serve an important function in determining such risk, very few have been translated to German. Therefore, in the present study, we reported on the German version of Nurses' Global Assessment of Suicide Risk (NGASR) scale. After translating the original instrument into German and pretesting the German version, we tested the inter-rater reliability of the instrument. Twelve video case studies were evaluated by 13 raters with the NGASR scale in a 'laboratory' trial. In each case, the observer's agreement was calculated for the single items, the overall scale, the risk levels, and the sum scores. The statistical data analysis was conducted with kappa and AC1 statistics for dichotomous (items, scale) scales. A high-to-very high observers' agreement (AC1: 0.62-1.00, kappa: 0.00-1.00) was determined for 16 items of the German version of the NGASR scale. We conclude that the German version of the NGASR scale is a reliable instrument for evaluating risk factors for suicide. A reliable application in the clinical practise appears to be enhanced by training in the use of the instrument and the right implementation instructions. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  20. Downscaling the Impacts of Large-Scale LUCC on Surface Temperature along with IPCC RCPs: A Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzheng Deng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the potential impacts of large-scale land use and land cover changes (LUCC on surface temperature from a global perspective. As important types of LUCC, urbanization, deforestation, cultivated land reclamation, and grassland degradation have effects on the climate, the potential changes of the surface temperature caused by these four types of large-scale LUCC from 2010 to 2050 are downscaled, and this issue analyzed worldwide along with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. The first case study presents some evidence of the effects of future urbanization on surface temperature in the Northeast megalopolis of the United States of America (USA. In order to understand the potential climatological variability caused by future forest deforestation and vulnerability, we chose Brazilian Amazon region as the second case study. The third selected region in India as a typical region of cultivated land reclamation where the possible climatic impacts are explored. In the fourth case study, we simulate the surface temperature changes caused by future grassland degradation in Mongolia. Results show that the temperature in built-up area would increase obviously throughout the four land types. In addition, the effects of all four large-scale LUCC on monthly average temperature change would vary from month to month with obviously spatial heterogeneity.

  1. Assessing flood risk at the global scale: model setup, results, and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Philip J; Jongman, Brenden; Weiland, Frederiek Sperna; Winsemius, Hessel C; Bouwman, Arno; Ligtvoet, Willem; Van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc F P

    2013-01-01

    Globally, economic losses from flooding exceeded $19 billion in 2012, and are rising rapidly. Hence, there is an increasing need for global-scale flood risk assessments, also within the context of integrated global assessments. We have developed and validated a model cascade for producing global flood risk maps, based on numerous flood return-periods. Validation results indicate that the model simulates interannual fluctuations in flood impacts well. The cascade involves: hydrological and hydraulic modelling; extreme value statistics; inundation modelling; flood impact modelling; and estimating annual expected impacts. The initial results estimate global impacts for several indicators, for example annual expected exposed population (169 million); and annual expected exposed GDP ($1383 billion). These results are relatively insensitive to the extreme value distribution employed to estimate low frequency flood volumes. However, they are extremely sensitive to the assumed flood protection standard; developing a database of such standards should be a research priority. Also, results are sensitive to the use of two different climate forcing datasets. The impact model can easily accommodate new, user-defined, impact indicators. We envisage several applications, for example: identifying risk hotspots; calculating macro-scale risk for the insurance industry and large companies; and assessing potential benefits (and costs) of adaptation measures. (letter)

  2. Global media and violence in Africa : The case of Somalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    It has been argued that Africa has been sidelined in the global ICT revolution and that African societies appear to be cut off from global flows of information. Nevertheless, the manner in which war was waged in Somalia between 1991 and 1994 indicates that this global revolution has affected the

  3. Comparing the Sustainability of Local and Global Food Chains: A Case Study of Cheese Products in Switzerland and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Schmitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Local food has recently gained popularity under the assumption that it is more sustainable than food from distant locations. However, evidence is still lacking to fully support this assumption. The goal of this study is to compare local and global food chains in five dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic, social, ethical and health, covering all stages of the chain. In particular, four cheese supply chains are compared in detail: a local (L’Etivaz and global (Le Gruyère case in Switzerland and a local (Single Gloucester and global (Cheddar case in the UK. A multi-dimensional perspective is adopted to compare their sustainability performance. Eight attributes of performance (affordability, creation and distribution of added value, information and communication, consumer behaviour, resource use, biodiversity, nutrition and animal welfare are used to frame the comparative analysis. The results suggest that local cheese performs better in the field of added value creation and distribution, animal welfare and biodiversity. Global chains, by contrast, perform better in terms of affordability and efficiency and some environmental indicators. This analysis needed to be expressed in qualitative terms rather than quantified indicators and it has been especially useful to identify the critical issues and trade-offs that hinder sustainability at different scales. Cheese supply chains in Switzerland and the UK also often present hybrid arrangements in term of local and global scales. Comparison is therefore most meaningful when presented on a local (farmhouse/global (creamery continuum.

  4. Modelling Groundwater Depletion at Regional and Global Scales: Present State and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2015-01-01

    Except for frozen water in ice and glaciers, groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this paper, the most recent advances quantifying groundwater depletion (GWD) are comprehensively reviewed. This paper critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches estimating GWD at regional and global scales, and the evidence of feedbacks to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with GWD. Finally, critical challenges and opportunities in the use of groundwater are identified for the adaption to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  5. GloFAS-Seasonal: Operational Seasonal Ensemble River Flow Forecasts at the Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerton, Rebecca; Zsoter, Ervin; Smith, Paul; Salamon, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal hydrological forecasting has potential benefits for many sectors, including agriculture, water resources management and humanitarian aid. At present, no global scale seasonal hydrological forecasting system exists operationally; although smaller scale systems have begun to emerge around the globe over the past decade, a system providing consistent global scale seasonal forecasts would be of great benefit in regions where no other forecasting system exists, and to organisations operating at the global scale, such as disaster relief. We present here a new operational global ensemble seasonal hydrological forecast, currently under development at ECMWF as part of the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). The proposed system, which builds upon the current version of GloFAS, takes the long-range forecasts from the ECMWF System4 ensemble seasonal forecast system (which incorporates the HTESSEL land surface scheme) and uses this runoff as input to the Lisflood routing model, producing a seasonal river flow forecast out to 4 months lead time, for the global river network. The seasonal forecasts will be evaluated using the global river discharge reanalysis, and observations where available, to determine the potential value of the forecasts across the globe. The seasonal forecasts will be presented as a new layer in the GloFAS interface, which will provide a global map of river catchments, indicating whether the catchment-averaged discharge forecast is showing abnormally high or low flows during the 4-month lead time. Each catchment will display the corresponding forecast as an ensemble hydrograph of the weekly-averaged discharge forecast out to 4 months, with percentile thresholds shown for comparison with the discharge climatology. The forecast visualisation is based on a combination of the current medium-range GloFAS forecasts and the operational EFAS (European Flood Awareness System) seasonal outlook, and aims to effectively communicate the nature of a seasonal

  6. Solidarity Action in Global Labor Networks. Four Cases of Workplace Organizing at Foreign Affiliates in the Global South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization transforms workforces of transnational corporation from predominantly home countrydominated workforces into foreign-dominated, multinational workforces. Thus, the national grounding of trade unions as the key form of labor organizing is challenged by new multinational compositions and cross-border relocations of corporate employment affecting working conditions of employees and trade unions in local places. We assume that economic globalization is characterized by expanding global corporate network of vertically and horizontally integrated (equity-based and disintegrated (nonequity-based value chains. We also assume that globalization can both impede and enable labor empowerment. Based on these premises the key question is, how can labor leverage effective power against management in global corporate networks? This question is split into two subquestions: a How can labor theoretically reorganize from national unions and industrial relations institutions into global labor networks that allow prolabor improvement in global workplaces? b How and why has labor in a globalized economy secured the core International Labor Organization (ILO international labor right to organize companies and conduct collective bargaining? The Global Labor Network perspective is adopted as an analytical framework. Empirically, a comparative case methodology is applied comprising four more or less successful industrial disputes where labor achieved the right to organize and undertake collective bargaining. The disputes took place in affiliated factories of foreign transnational corporations located in Malaysia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Turkey. The conclusion is that the combination of global labor capabilities and global labor strategizing must generate strategic labor power that adequately matches the weaknesses of the counterpart’s global corporate network in order to achieve prolabor outcomes. The most efficient solidarity action was leveraged

  7. Which Global Rating Scale? A Comparison of the ASSET, BAKSSS, and IGARS for the Assessment of Simulated Arthroscopic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Robert M; Baldwin, Mathew J; Akhtar, Kash; Alvand, Abtin; Rees, Jonathan L

    2016-01-06

    With the move to competency-based models of surgical training, a number of assessment methods have been developed. Of these, global rating scales have emerged as popular tools, and several are specific to the assessment of arthroscopic skills. Our aim was to determine which one of a group of commonly used global rating scales demonstrated superiority in the assessment of simulated arthroscopic skills. Sixty-three individuals of varying surgical experience performed a number of arthroscopic tasks on a virtual reality simulator (VirtaMed ArthroS). Performance was blindly assessed by two observers using three commonly used global rating scales used to assess simulated skills. Performance was also assessed by validated objective motion analysis. All of the global rating scales demonstrated construct validity, with significant differences between each skill level and each arthroscopic task (p rating scale. Correlations of global rating scale ratings with motion analysis were high and strong for each global rating scale when correlated with time taken (Spearman rho, -0.95 to -0.76; p rating scale demonstrated superiority as an assessment tool. For these commonly used arthroscopic global rating scales, none was particularly superior and any one score could therefore be used. Agreement on using a single score seems sensible, and it would seem unnecessary to develop further scales with the same domains for these purposes. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  8. Global scale climate-crop yield relationships and the impacts of recent warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobell, David B; Field, Christopher B

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the global production of major crops are important drivers of food prices, food security and land use decisions. Average global yields for these commodities are determined by the performance of crops in millions of fields distributed across a range of management, soil and climate regimes. Despite the complexity of global food supply, here we show that simple measures of growing season temperatures and precipitation-spatial averages based on the locations of each crop-explain ∼30% or more of year-to-year variations in global average yields for the world's six most widely grown crops. For wheat, maize and barley, there is a clearly negative response of global yields to increased temperatures. Based on these sensitivities and observed climate trends, we estimate that warming since 1981 has resulted in annual combined losses of these three crops representing roughly 40 Mt or $5 billion per year, as of 2002. While these impacts are small relative to the technological yield gains over the same period, the results demonstrate already occurring negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields at the global scale

  9. Evaluating the synchronicity in yield variations of staple crops at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozawa, M.

    2014-12-01

    Reflecting the recent globalization trend in world commodity market, several major production countries are producing large amount of staple crops, especially, maize and soybean. Thus, simultaneous crop failure (abrupt reduction in crop yield, lean year) due to extreme weather and/or climate change could lead to unstable food supply. This study try to examine the synchronicity in yield variations of staple crops at global scale. We use a gridded crop yields database, which includes the historical year-to-year changes in staple crop yields with a spatial resolution of 1.125 degree in latitude/longitude during a period of 1982-2006 (Iizumi et al. 2013). It has been constructed based on the agriculture statistics issued by local administrative bureaus in each country. For the regions being lack of data, an interpolation was conducted to obtain the values referring to the NPP estimates from satellite data as well as FAO country yield. For each time series of the target crop yield, we firstly applied a local kernel regression to represent the long-term trend component. Next, the deviations of yearly yield from the long-term trend component were defined as ΔY(i, y) in year y at grid i. Then, the correlation of deviation between grids i and j in year y is defined as Cij(y) = ΔY(i, y) ΔY(j, y). In addition, Pij = represents the time-averaged correlation of deviation between grids i and j. Bracket means the time average operation over 25 years (1982-2006). As the results, figures show the time changes in the number of grid pairs, in which both the deviation are negative. It represent the time changes in ratio of the grid pairs where both crop yields synchronically decreased to the total grid pairs. The years denoted by arrows in the figures indicate the case that all the ratios of three country pairs (i.e. China-USA, USA-Brazil and Brazil-China) are relatively larger (>0.6 for soybean and >0.5 for maize). This suggests that the reductions in crop yield occurred

  10. Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

    2014-05-01

    To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Fractal Markets Hypothesis and the Global Financial Crisis: Scaling, Investment Horizons and Liquidity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2012), 1250065-1-1250065-13 ISSN 0219-5259 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 118310; SVV(CZ) 265 504 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : fractal markets hypothesis * scaling * fractal ity * investment horizons * efficient markets hypothesis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/kristoufek- fractal markets hypothesis and the global financial crisis scaling investment horizons and liquidity.pdf

  12. Construction of a global assessment scale of family function, using a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, M; Svensson, E

    2001-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires are commonly used in family research, but very little attention is paid to the specific measurement properties of the ordered categorical data recorded. The item responses of self-report questionnaires consist of ordered categories. The main property of this type of data is that the labels do not represent a mathematical value but only an order, i.e., one set of labels can be replaced by another set of increasing numbers of symbols. The non-additivity of categorical data means that sum scores cannot be used as a global assessment of the variable. The aims of this study were to further develop the third version of the self-report questionnaire Family Adaptability and Cohesion, Evaluation Scales (FACES), for use in Sweden and to construct a global scale of family function for the variables cohesion and adaptability. The statistical methods used take account of the rank-invariant properties of ordered categorical data.

  13. How important is biological ice nucleation in clouds on a global scale?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoose, C; Kristjansson, J E; Burrows, S M

    2010-01-01

    The high ice nucleating ability of some biological particles has led to speculations about living and dead organisms being involved in cloud ice and precipitation formation, exerting a possibly significant influence on weather and climate. In the present study, the role of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) as heterogeneous ice nuclei is investigated with a global model. Emission parametrizations for bacteria, fungal spores and pollen based on recent literature are introduced, as well as an immersion freezing parametrization based on classical nucleation theory and laboratory measurements. The simulated contribution of PBAPs to the global average ice nucleation rate is only 10 -5 %, with an uppermost estimate of 0.6%. At the same time, observed PBAP concentrations in air and biological ice nucleus concentrations in snow are reasonably well captured by the model. This implies that 'bioprecipitation' processes (snow and rain initiated by PBAPs) are of minor importance on the global scale.

  14. Multi-scale spatial modeling of human exposure from local sources to global intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wannaz, Cedric; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Exposure studies, used in human health risk and impact assessments of chemicals are largely performed locally or regionally. It is usually not known how global impacts resulting from exposure to point source emissions compare to local impacts. To address this problem, we introduce Pangea......, an innovative multi-scale, spatial multimedia fate and exposure assessment model. We study local to global population exposure associated with emissions from 126 point sources matching locations of waste-to-energy plants across France. Results for three chemicals with distinct physicochemical properties...... are expressed as the evolution of the population intake fraction through inhalation and ingestion as a function of the distance from sources. For substances with atmospheric half-lives longer than a week, less than 20% of the global population intake through inhalation (median of 126 emission scenarios) can...

  15. Using friends as sensors to detect global-scale contagious outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Garcia-Herranz

    Full Text Available Recent research has focused on the monitoring of global-scale online data for improved detection of epidemics, mood patterns, movements in the stock market political revolutions, box-office revenues, consumer behaviour and many other important phenomena. However, privacy considerations and the sheer scale of data available online are quickly making global monitoring infeasible, and existing methods do not take full advantage of local network structure to identify key nodes for monitoring. Here, we develop a model of the contagious spread of information in a global-scale, publicly-articulated social network and show that a simple method can yield not just early detection, but advance warning of contagious outbreaks. In this method, we randomly choose a small fraction of nodes in the network and then we randomly choose a friend of each node to include in a group for local monitoring. Using six months of data from most of the full Twittersphere, we show that this friend group is more central in the network and it helps us to detect viral outbreaks of the use of novel hashtags about 7 days earlier than we could with an equal-sized randomly chosen group. Moreover, the method actually works better than expected due to network structure alone because highly central actors are both more active and exhibit increased diversity in the information they transmit to others. These results suggest that local monitoring is not just more efficient, but also more effective, and it may be applied to monitor contagious processes in global-scale networks.

  16. Scaling methane emissions in ruminants and global estimates in wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Barbería, F J

    2017-02-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) emissions by human activities have more than doubled since the 1700s, and they contribute to global warming. One of the sources of CH 4 is produced by incomplete oxidation of feed in the ruminant's gut. Domestic ruminants produce most of the emissions from animal sources, but emissions by wild ruminants have been poorly estimated. This study (i) scales CH 4 against body mass in 503 experiments in ruminants fed herbage, and assesses the effect of different sources of variation, using published and new data; and (ii) it uses these models to produce global estimates of CH 4 emissions from wild ruminants. The incorporation of phylogeny, diet and technique of measuring in to a model that scales log 10 CH 4 gd -1 against log 10 body mass (kg), reduces the slope, from 1.075 to 0.868, making it not significantly steeper than the scaling coefficient of metabolic requirements to body mass. Scaling models that include dry matter intake (DMI) and dietary fiber indicate that although both increase CH 4 , dietary fiber depresses CH 4 as the levels of DMI increases. Cattle produces more CH 4 per unit of DMI than red deer, sheep or goat, and there are no significant differences between CH 4 produced by red deer and sheep. The average estimates of global emissions from wild ruminants calculated using different models are smaller (1.094-2.687Tgy -1 ) than those presented in the reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (15Tgyr -1 ). Potential causes to explain such discrepancy are the uncertainty on the world's wild ruminant population size, and the use of methane output from cattle, a high methane producer, as representative methane output of wild ruminants. The main limitation researchers' face in calculating accurate global CH 4 emissions from wild ungulates is a lack of reliable information on their population sizes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioremediation at a global scale: from the test tube to planet Earth

    OpenAIRE

    de Lorenzo, V?ctor; Marli?re, Philippe; Sol?, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Summary Planet Earth's biosphere has evolved over billions of years as a balanced bio?geological system ultimately sustained by sunpower and the large?scale cycling of elements largely run by the global environmental microbiome. Humans have been part of this picture for much of their existence. But the industrial revolution started in the XIX century and the subsequent advances in medicine, chemistry, agriculture and communications have impacted such balances to an unprecedented degree ? and ...

  18. Ionosphere fluctuations and global indices: A scale dependent wavelet-based cross-correlation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roux, S. G.; Knížová, Petra; Mošna, Zbyšek; Abry, P.

    90-91, Special Issue (2012), s. 186-197 ISSN 1364-6826 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : cross-correlation * F-layer * Fof2-measurements * geomagnetic activity * global indices * ionosphere * scale invariance * solar activity Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 1.417, year: 2012 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682612000983

  19. A new approach to inventorying bodies of water, from local to global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartout, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Having reliable estimates of the number of water bodies on different geographical scales is of great importance to better understand biogeochemical cycles and to tackle the social issues related to the economic and cultural use of water bodies. However, limnological research suffers from a lack of reliable inventories; the available scientific references are predominately based on water bodies of natural origin, large in size and preferentially located in previously glaciated areas. Artificial, small and randomly distributed water bodies, especially ponds, are usually not inventoried. Following Wetzel’s theory (1990, some authors included them in global inventories by using remote sensing or mathematical extrapolation, but fieldwork on the ground has been done on a very limited amount of territory. These studies have resulted in an explosive increase in the estimated number of water bodies, going from 8.44 million lakes (Meybeck 1995 to 3.5 billion water bodies (Downing 2010. These numbers raise several questions, especially about the methodology used for counting small-sized water bodies and the methodological treatment of spatial variables. In this study, we use inventories of water bodies for Sweden, Finland, Estonia and France to show incoherencies generated by the “global to local” approach. We demonstrate that one universal relationship does not suffice for generating the regional or global inventories of water bodies because local conditions vary greatly from one region to another and cannot be offset adequately by each other. The current paradigm for global estimates of water bodies in limnology, which is based on one representative model applied to different territories, does not produce sufficiently exact global inventories. The step-wise progression from the local to the global scale requires the development of many regional equations based on fieldwork; a specific equation that adequately reflects the actual relationship

  20. Global warming precipitation accumulation increases above the current-climate cutoff scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelin, J David; Sahany, Sandeep; Stechmann, Samuel N; Bernstein, Diana N

    2017-02-07

    Precipitation accumulations, integrated over rainfall events, can be affected by both intensity and duration of the storm event. Thus, although precipitation intensity is widely projected to increase under global warming, a clear framework for predicting accumulation changes has been lacking, despite the importance of accumulations for societal impacts. Theory for changes in the probability density function (pdf) of precipitation accumulations is presented with an evaluation of these changes in global climate model simulations. We show that a simple set of conditions implies roughly exponential increases in the frequency of the very largest accumulations above a physical cutoff scale, increasing with event size. The pdf exhibits an approximately power-law range where probability density drops slowly with each order of magnitude size increase, up to a cutoff at large accumulations that limits the largest events experienced in current climate. The theory predicts that the cutoff scale, controlled by the interplay of moisture convergence variance and precipitation loss, tends to increase under global warming. Thus, precisely the large accumulations above the cutoff that are currently rare will exhibit increases in the warmer climate as this cutoff is extended. This indeed occurs in the full climate model, with a 3 °C end-of-century global-average warming yielding regional increases of hundreds of percent to >1,000% in the probability density of the largest accumulations that have historical precedents. The probabilities of unprecedented accumulations are also consistent with the extension of the cutoff.

  1. Global warming precipitation accumulation increases above the current-climate cutoff scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelin, J. David; Sahany, Sandeep; Stechmann, Samuel N.; Bernstein, Diana N.

    2017-02-01

    Precipitation accumulations, integrated over rainfall events, can be affected by both intensity and duration of the storm event. Thus, although precipitation intensity is widely projected to increase under global warming, a clear framework for predicting accumulation changes has been lacking, despite the importance of accumulations for societal impacts. Theory for changes in the probability density function (pdf) of precipitation accumulations is presented with an evaluation of these changes in global climate model simulations. We show that a simple set of conditions implies roughly exponential increases in the frequency of the very largest accumulations above a physical cutoff scale, increasing with event size. The pdf exhibits an approximately power-law range where probability density drops slowly with each order of magnitude size increase, up to a cutoff at large accumulations that limits the largest events experienced in current climate. The theory predicts that the cutoff scale, controlled by the interplay of moisture convergence variance and precipitation loss, tends to increase under global warming. Thus, precisely the large accumulations above the cutoff that are currently rare will exhibit increases in the warmer climate as this cutoff is extended. This indeed occurs in the full climate model, with a 3 °C end-of-century global-average warming yielding regional increases of hundreds of percent to >1,000% in the probability density of the largest accumulations that have historical precedents. The probabilities of unprecedented accumulations are also consistent with the extension of the cutoff.

  2. Cooperative Coevolution with Formula-Based Variable Grouping for Large-Scale Global Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Liu, Haiyan; Wei, Fei; Zong, Tingting; Li, Xiaodong

    2017-08-09

    For a large-scale global optimization (LSGO) problem, divide-and-conquer is usually considered an effective strategy to decompose the problem into smaller subproblems, each of which can then be solved individually. Among these decomposition methods, variable grouping is shown to be promising in recent years. Existing variable grouping methods usually assume the problem to be black-box (i.e., assuming that an analytical model of the objective function is unknown), and they attempt to learn appropriate variable grouping that would allow for a better decomposition of the problem. In such cases, these variable grouping methods do not make a direct use of the formula of the objective function. However, it can be argued that many real-world problems are white-box problems, that is, the formulas of objective functions are often known a priori. These formulas of the objective functions provide rich information which can then be used to design an effective variable group method. In this article, a formula-based grouping strategy (FBG) for white-box problems is first proposed. It groups variables directly via the formula of an objective function which usually consists of a finite number of operations (i.e., four arithmetic operations "[Formula: see text]", "[Formula: see text]", "[Formula: see text]", "[Formula: see text]" and composite operations of basic elementary functions). In FBG, the operations are classified into two classes: one resulting in nonseparable variables, and the other resulting in separable variables. In FBG, variables can be automatically grouped into a suitable number of non-interacting subcomponents, with variables in each subcomponent being interdependent. FBG can easily be applied to any white-box problem and can be integrated into a cooperative coevolution framework. Based on FBG, a novel cooperative coevolution algorithm with formula-based variable grouping (so-called CCF) is proposed in this article for decomposing a large-scale white-box problem

  3. Simulations of global-scale dynamo action in the Sun and other stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin

    2011-04-01

    Our Sun is a magnetic star, and its eleven-year cycles of magnetic activity profoundly affect our modern technological society. The magnetic fields we see at the solar surface are built by dynamo processes in the Sun's sub-surface convection zone. There, global-scale plasma motions couple with rotation to build and rebuild the global-scale magnetic fields and drive cycles of magnetic activity, though the exact processes at work in solar and stellar dynamos remain elusive. The Sun is not the only magnetic star: indeed magnetism is a ubiquitous feature of stars that have convection zones near their surfaces. Observations of younger suns indicate that they rotate quite rapidly, have strong magnetic fields at their surfaces, and show signs of cyclic activity. Here we explore recent 3-D MHD simulations of the solar dynamo and of stellar dynamos in younger, more rapidly rotating solar-type stars. These are conducted with the anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code on modern supercomputers. These simulations of global-scale convection and dynamo action produce strikingly organized magnetic structures in the bulk of their convection zones. Wreaths of magnetic field fill the convection zone and can undergo regular cycles of polarity reversal. Indeed, we find that cyclic behavior is a common feature throughout the parameter space we have explored. Simulations like these are providing new views on the phenomena of solar and stellar dynamo action.

  4. Satellite observed global variations in ecosystem-scale plant water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, F.; Wigneron, J. P.; Brandt, M.; Fensholt, R.

    2017-12-01

    Plant water storage is a key component in ecohydrological processes and tightly coupled with global carbon and energy budgets. Field measurements of individual trees have revealed diurnal and seasonal variations in plant water storage across different tree species and sizes. However, global estimation of plant water storage is challenged by up-scaling from individual trees to an ecosystem scale. The L-band passive microwaves are sensitive to water stored in the stems, branches and leaves, with dependence on the vegetation structure. Thus, the L-band vegetation optical depth (L-VOD) parameter retrieved from satellite passive microwave observations can be used as a proxy for ecosystem-scale plant water storage. Here, we employ the recently developed SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) L-VOD dataset to investigate spatial patterns in global plant water storage and its diurnal and seasonal variations. In addition, we compare the spatiotemporal patterns between plant water storage and canopy greenness (i.e., enhanced vegetation indices, EVI) to gain ecohydrological insights among different territorial biomes, including boreal forest and tropical woodland. Generally, seasonal dynamics of plant water storage is much smaller than canopy greenness, yet the temporal coupling of these two traits is totally different between boreal and tropical regions, which could be related to their strategies in plant water regulation.

  5. Primary sources of selected POPs: regional and global scale emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breivik, Knut; Alcock, Ruth; Li Yifan; Bailey, Robert E.; Fiedler, Heidelore; Pacyna, Jozef M.

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade, a number of studies have been devoted to the sources and emissions of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) at regional and global scales. While significant improvements in knowledge have been achieved for some pesticides, the quantitative understanding of the emission processes and emission patterns for 'non-pesticide' POPs are still considered limited. The key issues remaining for the non-pesticide POPs are in part determined by their general source classification. For industrial chemicals, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), there is considerable uncertainty with respect to the relative importance of atmospheric emissions from various source categories. For PCBs, temperature is discussed as a potential key factor influencing atmospheric emission levels and patterns. When it comes to the unintentional by-products of combustion and industrial processes (PCDD/Fs), there is still a large uncertainty with respect to the relative contribution of emissions from unregulated sources such as backyard barrel burning that requires further consideration and characterisation. For hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the relative importance of primary and secondary atmospheric emissions in controlling current atmospheric concentrations remains one of the key uncertainties. While these and other issues may remain unresolved, knowledge concerning the emissions of POPs is a prerequisite for any attempt to understand and predict the distribution and fate of these chemicals on a regional and global scale as well as to efficiently minimise future environmental burdens. - Knowledge of primary emissions is a prerequisite for understanding and predicting POPs on a regional/global scale

  6. Transforming Global Health by Improving the Science of Scale-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E Kruk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In its report Global Health 2035, the Commission on Investing in Health proposed that health investments can reduce mortality in nearly all low- and middle-income countries to very low levels, thereby averting 10 million deaths per year from 2035 onward. Many of these gains could be achieved through scale-up of existing technologies and health services. A key instrument to close this gap is policy and implementation research (PIR that aims to produce generalizable evidence on what works to implement successful interventions at scale. Rigorously designed PIR promotes global learning and local accountability. Much greater national and global investments in PIR capacity will be required to enable the scaling of effective approaches and to prevent the recycling of failed ideas. Sample questions for the PIR research agenda include how to close the gap in the delivery of essential services to the poor, which population interventions for non-communicable diseases are most applicable in different contexts, and how to engage non-state actors in equitable provision of health services in the context of universal health coverage.

  7. The improved Clinical Global Impression Scale (iCGI: development and validation in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadouri Alane

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI is frequently used in medical care and clinical research because of its face validity and practicability. This study proposes to improve the reliability of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI scale in depressive disorders by the use of a semi-standardized interview, a new response format, and a Delphi procedure. Methods Thirty patients hospitalised for a major depressive episode were filmed at T1 (first week in hospital and at T2 (2 weeks later during a 5' specific interview. The Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale and the Symptom Check List were also rated. Eleven psychiatrists rated these videos using either the usual CGI response format or an improved response format, with or without a Delphi procedure. Results The new response format slightly improved (but not significantly the interrater agreement, the Delphi procedure did not. The best results were obtained when ratings by 4 independent raters were averaged. In this situation, intraclass correlation coefficients were about 0.9. Conclusion The Clinical Global Impression is a useful approach in psychiatry since it apprehends patients in their entirety. This study shows that it is possible to quantify such impressions with a high level of interrater agreement.

  8. The Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) in clinical practice--substance and reliability as judged by intraclass correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrborg, J; Larsen, F W; Nielsen, S

    2000-01-01

    Studies on the inter-rater reliability on the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and the Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) involving different subgroups of 145 outpatients from 4 to 16 years of age showed fair to substantial intraclass correlations of 0.59 to 0.90. Raters...

  9. Scaling in global climate records: is the nonlinear paradigm the emperor's new clothes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rypdal, Kristoffer; Rypdal, Martin; Fredriksen, Hege-Beate

    2016-04-01

    The reigning paradigm is that scaling in climate time series is a result of internal nonlinearities in the dynamical equations and analogous to the scale-invariant cascades in turbulence. This picture is quite reasonable for the high-dimensional spatiotemporal variability of the atmosphere interacting with the mixed ocean layer up to decadal time scales. However, GCMs with, and without, full ocean circulation indicate that scaling on longer time scales in global mean temperature data depends on the heat transport into the deep ocean mediated by this circulation. The global surface temperature response involves several time constants, one involving the heat capacity of the mixed layer, and the others the heat capacities of different water masses of the ocean. A linear "N-box model" describing the heat exchange between N such masses, is capable of producing the observed scaling characteristics. In fact even a two-box model with two exponential relaxation times produces results almost indistinguishable from a power-law response model, and both provide accurate descriptions of the response of AOGCMs in the CMIP5 ensemble. The response of the global atmospheric CO2 concentration to past and future anthropogenic emissions can also be modeled rather accurately by a power-law linear response function on time scales up to centuries. As an illustration a simple conceptual model for the global mean surface temperature response to CO2 emissions is presented and analysed. It consists of linear long-memory models for the temperature anomaly response ΔT to radiative forcing and atmospheric CO2-concentration response ΔC to emission rate. The responses are connected by the standard logarithmic relation between CO2 concentration and its radiative forcing. The model depends on two sensitivity parameters, αT and αC, and two "inertia parameters," the memory exponents βT and βC. Based on observation data, and constrained by results from CMIP5 models, the likely values and range of

  10. Globalization and Academic's Workplace Learning: A Case Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuhong; Seddon, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is the major confronting challenge of higher education worldwide. And internationalization has become a response of higher education to meet the demands and challenges of globalization. In the recent decades, Chinese government has developed different policies to steer education reforms in order to achieve the aim of…

  11. Globalization, Technology Transfer and the Knowledge Gap: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper, discusses the impact of oligopolistic research on transfer of global pharmaceutical manufacturing technology to the less developed countries of the South (Nigeria) in post globalism. On the basis of empirical evidence from the advanced industrialized world, it is argued that the growth of oligopolistic research has ...

  12. Globalization Revisited: The Case of Uniqueness and "Creative Industries"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.; Choi, C.J.; Chen, Shu

    2005-01-01

    AbstractThe debate about the extent of globalization of firms and markets continues to be a major research area within international business (Rugman 2000). Rugman and Verbeke (2003) have provided compelling evidence for a tendency to regionalization rather than globalization for the large majority

  13. Developing and testing a global-scale regression model to quantify mean annual streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, Valerio; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Clavreul, Julie; King, Henry; Schipper, Aafke M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying mean annual flow of rivers (MAF) at ungauged sites is essential for assessments of global water supply, ecosystem integrity and water footprints. MAF can be quantified with spatially explicit process-based models, which might be overly time-consuming and data-intensive for this purpose, or with empirical regression models that predict MAF based on climate and catchment characteristics. Yet, regression models have mostly been developed at a regional scale and the extent to which they can be extrapolated to other regions is not known. In this study, we developed a global-scale regression model for MAF based on a dataset unprecedented in size, using observations of discharge and catchment characteristics from 1885 catchments worldwide, measuring between 2 and 106 km2. In addition, we compared the performance of the regression model with the predictive ability of the spatially explicit global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB by comparing results from both models to independent measurements. We obtained a regression model explaining 89% of the variance in MAF based on catchment area and catchment averaged mean annual precipitation and air temperature, slope and elevation. The regression model performed better than PCR-GLOBWB for the prediction of MAF, as root-mean-square error (RMSE) values were lower (0.29-0.38 compared to 0.49-0.57) and the modified index of agreement (d) was higher (0.80-0.83 compared to 0.72-0.75). Our regression model can be applied globally to estimate MAF at any point of the river network, thus providing a feasible alternative to spatially explicit process-based global hydrological models.

  14. Can We Use Regression Modeling to Quantify Mean Annual Streamflow at a Global-Scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, V.; Huijbregts, M. A. J.; Hendriks, J. A.; Beusen, A.; Clavreul, J.; King, H.; Schipper, A.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying mean annual flow of rivers (MAF) at ungauged sites is essential for a number of applications, including assessments of global water supply, ecosystem integrity and water footprints. MAF can be quantified with spatially explicit process-based models, which might be overly time-consuming and data-intensive for this purpose, or with empirical regression models that predict MAF based on climate and catchment characteristics. Yet, regression models have mostly been developed at a regional scale and the extent to which they can be extrapolated to other regions is not known. In this study, we developed a global-scale regression model for MAF using observations of discharge and catchment characteristics from 1,885 catchments worldwide, ranging from 2 to 106 km2 in size. In addition, we compared the performance of the regression model with the predictive ability of the spatially explicit global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB [van Beek et al., 2011] by comparing results from both models to independent measurements. We obtained a regression model explaining 89% of the variance in MAF based on catchment area, mean annual precipitation and air temperature, average slope and elevation. The regression model performed better than PCR-GLOBWB for the prediction of MAF, as root-mean-square error values were lower (0.29 - 0.38 compared to 0.49 - 0.57) and the modified index of agreement was higher (0.80 - 0.83 compared to 0.72 - 0.75). Our regression model can be applied globally at any point of the river network, provided that the input parameters are within the range of values employed in the calibration of the model. The performance is reduced for water scarce regions and further research should focus on improving such an aspect for regression-based global hydrological models.

  15. The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decorte, Tom

    2010-07-01

    The shift to (inter)regional production, trade and domestic cultivation has become an irreversible international trend. Until now, the focus of most empirical work has been on large-scale, commercially oriented and professionally organized segments of the cannabis industry, often based on police data and on the perspective of law enforcement agencies. This paper offers a review of recent Dutch-language research that focuses on cannabis cultivation. Empirical studies were identified through literature searches using relevant search terms and Web of Science, Elin, Social Science Research Network and Elsevier ScienceDirect. The paper presents the main findings of Dutch and Belgian empirical work on the factors that stimulated the import substitution process on the cannabis market, aspects related to quality and potency issues, typologies of cannabis growers, and (unintended) effects of pursued policies. In the light of this (selective) review the author offers some commentary and analysis concerning the claims made by different stakeholders, and concludes with some reflections on future research and on policy implications. The author outlines the importance of small-scale, independent or ideologically oriented cannabis cultivation as an under-researched market segment. The author also makes a case for greater toleration of small-scale cannabis cultivation, to secure the least worst of cannabis markets. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Globalizing Social Justice Education: The Case of The Global Solidarity Network Study e-Broad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Yvonne D.; Kostic, Kevin; Toton, Suzanne C.; Zurek, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the development, implementation, and evaluation of "The Global Solidarity Network Study e-Broad Program (GSNSeBP)", an online social justice educational program that is blended into an onsite academic course. This global electronic program, which was developed through a partnership between Catholic Relief Services (CRS) and…

  17. Projected Irrigation Requirement Under Climate Change in Korean Peninsula by Apply Global Hydrologic Model to Local Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Lee, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding spatial distribution of irrigation requirement is critically important for agricultural water management. However, many studies considering future agricultural water management in Korea assessed irrigation requirement on watershed or administrative district scale, but have not accounted the spatial distribution. Lumped hydrologic model has typically used in Korea for simulating watershed scale irrigation requirement, while distribution hydrologic model can simulate the spatial distribution grid by grid. To overcome this shortcoming, here we applied a grid base global hydrologic model (H08) into local scale to estimate spatial distribution under future irrigation requirement of Korean Peninsula. Korea is one of the world's most densely populated countries, with also high produce and demand of rice which requires higher soil moisture than other crops. Although, most of the precipitation concentrate in particular season and disagree with crop growth season. This precipitation character makes management of agricultural water which is approximately 60% of total water usage critical issue in Korea. Furthermore, under future climate change, the precipitation predicted to be more concentrated and necessary need change of future water management plan. In order to apply global hydrological model into local scale, we selected appropriate major crops under social and local climate condition in Korea to estimate cropping area and yield, and revised the cropping area map more accurately. As a result, future irrigation requirement estimation varies under each projection, however, slightly decreased in most case. The simulation reveals, evapotranspiration increase slightly while effective precipitation also increase to balance the irrigation requirement. This finding suggest practical guideline to decision makers for further agricultural water management plan including future development of water supply plan to resolve water scarcity.

  18. Bioremediation at a global scale: from the test tube to planet Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorenzo, Víctor; Marlière, Philippe; Solé, Ricard

    2016-09-01

    Planet Earth's biosphere has evolved over billions of years as a balanced bio-geological system ultimately sustained by sunpower and the large-scale cycling of elements largely run by the global environmental microbiome. Humans have been part of this picture for much of their existence. But the industrial revolution started in the XIX century and the subsequent advances in medicine, chemistry, agriculture and communications have impacted such balances to an unprecedented degree - and the problem has nothing but exacerbated in the last 20 years. Human overpopulation, industrial growth along with unsustainable use of natural resources have driven many sites and perhaps the planetary ecosystem as a whole, beyond recovery by spontaneous natural means, even if the immediate causes could be stopped. The most conspicuous indications of such a state of affairs include the massive change in land use, the accelerated increase in the levels of greenhouse gases, the frequent natural disasters associated to climate change and the growing non-recyclable waste (e.g. plastics and recalcitrant chemicals) that we release to the Environment. While the whole planet is afflicted at a global scale by chemical pollution and anthropogenic emissions, the ongoing development of systems and synthetic biology, metagenomics, modern chemistry and some key concepts from ecological theory allow us to tackle this phenomenal challenge and propose large-scale interventions aimed at reversing and even improving the situation. This involves (i) identification of key reactions or processes that need to be re-established (or altogether created) for ecosystem reinstallation, (ii) implementation of such reactions in natural or designer hosts able to self-replicate and deliver the corresponding activities when/where needed in a fashion guided by sound ecological modelling, (iii) dispersal of niche-creating agents at a global scale and (iv) containment, monitoring and risk assessment of the whole process

  19. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, James W; Phuanakoonon, Suparat; Nema, K Henry; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Papua New Guinea, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Papua New Guinea. The study relied on a literature review and 30 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. Global Fund-supported activities were found to be largely integrated, or at least coordinated, with the national HIV and TB programmes. However, this has reinforced the vertical nature of these programmes with respect to the general health system, with parallel systems established to meet the demands of programme scale-up and the performance-based nature of Global Fund investment in the weak health system context of Papua New Guinea. The more parallel functions include monitoring and evaluation, and procurement and supply chain systems, while human resources and infrastructure for service delivery are increasingly integrated at more local levels. Positive synergies of Global Fund support include engagement of civil-society partners, and a reliable supply of high-quality drugs which may have increased patient confidence in the health system. However, the severely limited and overburdened pool of human resources has been skewed towards the three diseases, both at management and service delivery levels. There is also concern surrounding the sustainability of the disease programmes, given their dependence on donors. Increasing Global Fund attention towards health system strengthening was viewed positively, but should acknowledge that system changes are slow

  20. Landslide susceptibility mapping on a global scale using the method of logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Le; Lin, Qigen; Wang, Ying

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a statistical model for mapping global landslide susceptibility based on logistic regression. After investigating explanatory factors for landslides in the existing literature, five factors were selected for model landslide susceptibility: relative relief, extreme precipitation, lithology, ground motion and soil moisture. When building the model, 70 % of landslide and nonlandslide points were randomly selected for logistic regression, and the others were used for model validation. To evaluate the accuracy of predictive models, this paper adopts several criteria including a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve method. Logistic regression experiments found all five factors to be significant in explaining landslide occurrence on a global scale. During the modeling process, percentage correct in confusion matrix of landslide classification was approximately 80 % and the area under the curve (AUC) was nearly 0.87. During the validation process, the above statistics were about 81 % and 0.88, respectively. Such a result indicates that the model has strong robustness and stable performance. This model found that at a global scale, soil moisture can be dominant in the occurrence of landslides and topographic factor may be secondary.

  1. SUPPLIER SELECTION IN GLOBAL SOURCING: THE CASE OF ELEVATOR INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Okuogume, Harrison

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine KONE’s sourcing decision making process and the criteria for selecting supplier in global sourcing operation. Selection model based analysis was created according to the identified process to study the current sourcing of component or materials management. The vast available literature and researches make the work more challenging. The theoretical part of this thesis focuses on the definition of global sourcing, supplier selection and supply chain...

  2. Sensitivity of Water Scarcity Events to ENSO-Driven Climate Variability at the Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Eisner, S.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Ward, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, freshwater shortage is one of the most dangerous risks for society. Changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions have aggravated water scarcity over the past decades. A wide range of studies show that water scarcity will intensify in the future, as a result of both increased consumptive water use and, in some regions, climate change. Although it is well-known that El Niño- Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects patterns of precipitation and drought at global and regional scales, little attention has yet been paid to the impacts of climate variability on water scarcity conditions, despite its importance for adaptation planning. Therefore, we present the first global-scale sensitivity assessment of water scarcity to ENSO, the most dominant signal of climate variability. We show that over the time period 1961-2010, both water availability and water scarcity conditions are significantly correlated with ENSO-driven climate variability over a large proportion of the global land area (> 28.1 %); an area inhabited by more than 31.4% of the global population. We also found, however, that climate variability alone is often not enough to trigger the actual incidence of water scarcity events. The sensitivity of a region to water scarcity events, expressed in terms of land area or population exposed, is determined by both hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions. Currently, the population actually impacted by water scarcity events consists of 39.6% (CTA: consumption-to-availability ratio) and 41.1% (WCI: water crowding index) of the global population, whilst only 11.4% (CTA) and 15.9% (WCI) of the global population is at the same time living in areas sensitive to ENSO-driven climate variability. These results are contrasted, however, by differences in growth rates found under changing socioeconomic conditions, which are relatively high in regions exposed to water scarcity events. Given the correlations found between ENSO and water availability and scarcity

  3. Life cycle impact assessment of terrestrial acidification: modeling spatially explicit soil sensitivity at the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pierre-Olivier; Deschênes, Louise; Margni, Manuele

    2012-08-07

    This paper presents a novel life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach to derive spatially explicit soil sensitivity indicators for terrestrial acidification. This global approach is compatible with a subsequent damage assessment, making it possible to consistently link the developed midpoint indicators with a later endpoint assessment along the cause-effect chain-a prerequisite in LCIA. Four different soil chemical indicators were preselected to evaluate sensitivity factors (SFs) for regional receiving environments at the global scale, namely the base cations to aluminum ratio, aluminum to calcium ratio, pH, and aluminum concentration. These chemical indicators were assessed using the PROFILE geochemical steady-state soil model and a global data set of regional soil parameters developed specifically for this study. Results showed that the most sensitive regions (i.e., where SF is maximized) are in Canada, northern Europe, the Amazon, central Africa, and East and Southeast Asia. However, the approach is not bereft of uncertainty. Indeed, a Monte Carlo analysis showed that input parameter variability may induce SF variations of up to over 6 orders of magnitude for certain chemical indicators. These findings improve current practices and enable the development of regional characterization models to assess regional life cycle inventories in a global economy.

  4. Global-scale combustion sources of organic aerosols: sensitivity to formation and removal mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-06-01

    Organic compounds from combustion sources such as biomass burning and fossil fuel use are major contributors to the global atmospheric load of aerosols. We analyzed the sensitivity of model-predicted global-scale organic aerosols (OA) to parameters that control primary emissions, photochemical aging, and the scavenging efficiency of organic vapors. We used a computationally efficient module for the description of OA composition and evolution in the atmosphere (ORACLE) of the global chemistry-climate model EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry). A global dataset of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements was used to evaluate simulated primary (POA) and secondary (SOA) OA concentrations. Model results are sensitive to the emission rates of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) and POA. Assuming enhanced reactivity of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and IVOCs with OH substantially improved the model performance for SOA. The use of a hybrid approach for the parameterization of the aging of IVOCs had a small effect on predicted SOA levels. The model performance improved by assuming that freshly emitted organic compounds are relatively hydrophobic and become increasingly hygroscopic due to oxidation.

  5. MODELING THE SUN’S SMALL-SCALE GLOBAL PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, K. A.; Mackay, D. H.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new model for the Sun’s global photospheric magnetic field during a deep minimum of activity, in which no active regions emerge. The emergence and subsequent evolution of small-scale magnetic features across the full solar surface is simulated, subject to the influence of a global supergranular flow pattern. Visually, the resulting simulated magnetograms reproduce the typical structure and scale observed in quiet Sun magnetograms. Quantitatively, the simulation quickly reaches a steady state, resulting in a mean field and flux distribution that are in good agreement with those determined from observations. A potential coronal magnetic field is extrapolated from the simulated full Sun magnetograms to consider the implications of such a quiet photospheric magnetic field on the corona and inner heliosphere. The bulk of the coronal magnetic field closes very low down, in short connections between small-scale features in the simulated magnetic network. Just 0.1% of the photospheric magnetic flux is found to be open at 2.5 R ⊙ , around 10–100 times less than that determined for typical Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager synoptic map observations. If such conditions were to exist on the Sun, this would lead to a significantly weaker interplanetary magnetic field than is currently observed, and hence a much higher cosmic ray flux at Earth.

  6. Uncertainties in climate change projections, from the global to the regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi F.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A discussion is presented of the different sources of uncertainty in the production of climate change projections at the global to the regional scale. In particular the following uncertainty sources are identified and discussed: greenhouse gas (GHG emission/concentration scenario, model configuration (or intra-model and bias, internal unforced variability due to the non-linearities of the climate system, and downscaling uncertainty. Specific examples are presented to intercompare the importance of these sources of uncertainty, which depends on different factors, such as the time horizon of the projection, the variable under consideration and the scale of interest. In general, scenario and model configuration uncertainty dominate for long term climate change, especially at the global scale. The contribution of internal variability increases for near term projections and for higher order climate statistics. Downscaling uncertainty is significant for variables primarily affected by local processes, such as summer convective precipitation. It is argued that because of these sources of uncertainty, the climate prediction problem should be addressed in a probabilistic, rather than deterministic way. The discussion is placed within the context of the identification of two categories of uncertainty source, the Knowledge Uncertainty due to our imperfect knowledge and representation of the problem, and the Intrinsic Uncertainty inherent to the problem. While the former should be reduced with improved science, the latter should be characterized to the largest possible extent to account for all possible outcomes.

  7. Global flood risk response to large-scale land-ocean-atmospheric interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P. J.; Dettinger, M. D.; Jongman, B.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.

    2012-12-01

    The economic consequences of flooding are huge, as exemplified by recent major floods in Thailand, Pakistan, and the Mississippi Basin. Moreover, research shows that economic flood risks are increasing around the world. Whilst much research is being carried out to assess how this may be related to socioeconomic development (increased exposure to floods) or climate change (increased hazard), the role of interannual climate variability caused by land-ocean-atmospheric interactions, is poorly understood at the global scale. To address these issues, we recently initiated a 4-year project to assess and map the impacts of large scale interannual climate variability on both flood risk (in terms of expected annual economic damages) and flood hazard at the global scale. In this contribution, we assess El Niño Southern Oscillation's (ENSO) impact on global flood risk, and discuss implications for key stakeholders. The research involves a model chain coupling the results of a hydrological model, inundation model, and flood damage model. In terms of risk, we simulate clear and significant differences in annual expected economic damage between El Niño (EN) years and non-EN years, and between La Niña (LN) and non-LN years. These are related to large-scale land-ocean atmospheric interactions, which force significant changes in flood hazard magnitudes. However, our analyses reveal asymmetrical results between ENSO modes. For example, whilst several basins in southern Africa have much higher annual floods in LN years than in neutral years, the opposite signal is less clear. We present seasonal composites of climatic and atmospheric variables to explain these differences. Moreover, we find strong correlations between ENSO indices and (simulated and observed) peak annual floods in rivers all around the world. In many regions, the strength of these relationships is greater than those between the ENSO indices and mean annual discharge. The application of these results to short and

  8. Spatially explicit fate factors of waterborne nitrogen emissions at the global scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Mayorga, Emilio; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Marine eutrophication impacts due to waterborne nitrogen (N) emissions may vary significantly with their type and location. The environmental fate of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) forms is essential to understand the impacts they may trigger in receiving coastal waters. Current life...... cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods apply fate factors (FFs) with limited specificity of DIN emission routes, and often lack spatial differentiation and global applicability. This paper describes a newly developed method to estimate spatially explicit FFs for marine eutrophication at a global scale...... express the persistence of the fraction of the original DIN emission in the receiving coastal large marine ecosystems (LMEs). The method further discriminates three DIN emission routes, i.e., diffuse emission from soils, and direct point emissions to freshwater or marine water. Based on modelling...

  9. NEWS Climatology Project: The State of the Water Cycle at Continental to Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; LEcuyer, Tristan; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Olson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project is to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project is a multiinstitutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe results of the first stage of the water budget analysis, whose goal was to characterize the current state of the water cycle on mean monthly, continental scales. We examine our success in closing the water budget within the expected uncertainty range and the effects of forcing budget closure as a method for refining individual flux estimates.

  10. Forest annual carbon cost: a global-scale analysis of autotrophic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Shilong; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan A; Chen, Anping; Cao, Chao; Fang, Jingyun; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Shaopeng

    2010-03-01

    Forest autotrophic respiration (R(a)) plays an important role in the carbon balance of forest ecosystems. However, its drivers at the global scale are not well known. Based on a global forest database, we explore the relationships of annual R(a) with mean annual temperature (MAT) and biotic factors including net primary productivity (NPP), total biomass, stand age, mean tree height, and maximum leaf area index (LAI). The results show that the spatial patterns of forest annual R(a) at the global scale are largely controlled by temperature. R(a) is composed of growth (R(g)) and maintenance respiration (R(m)). We used a modified Arrhenius equation to express the relationship between R(a) and MAT. This relationship was calibrated with our data and shows that a 10 degrees C increase in MAT will result in an increase of annual R(m) by a factor of 1.9-2.5 (Q10). We also found that the fraction of total assimilation (gross primary production, GPP) used in R(a) is lowest in the temperate regions characterized by a MAT of approximately 11 degrees C. Although we could not confirm a relationship between the ratio of R(a) to GPP and age across all forest sites, the R(a) to GPP ratio tends to significantly increase in response to increasing age for sites with MAT between 8 degrees and 12 degrees C. At the plant scale, direct up-scaled R(a) estimates were found to increase as a power function with forest total biomass; however, the coefficient of the power function (0.2) was much smaller than that expected from previous studies (0.75 or 1). At the ecosystem scale, R(a) estimates based on both GPP - NPP and TER - R(h) (total ecosystem respiration - heterotrophic respiration) were not significantly correlated with forest total biomass (P > 0.05) with either a linear or a power function, implying that the previous individual-based metabolic theory may be not suitable for the application at ecosystem scale.

  11. Globalization, Local and Global Identities of Students (Case study: University of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Hobbi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization is both a disputable issue and an ambiguous one and it has been approached through various and sometimes contradictory views. One of the major topics related to the process of globalization is the subject of survival or persistence of local identities in the mainstream of global economy and culture. Different views have been presented in this respect. One of them claims that globalization has a negative influence on local identities, and eliminates the differences. Some others, however, state an opposite view. This paper has identified three fundamental but different approaches and examines them by the research’s data .This research which its subjects are Fars, Turk and Kurd students of Tabriz University, indicates that as the global identity among the students’ increases, their local identities decrease. In other words, with enhancement of globalization process, local identities starts to decrease and it means that second and third approach’s theories in the research is rejected and the first approach’s theories are confirmed.

  12. Synthesis and review: Tackling the nitrogen management challenge: from global to local scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Stefan; Bekunda, Mateete; Howard, Clare M.; Karanja, Nancy; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Bleeker, Albert; Sutton, Mark A.

    2016-12-01

    One of the ‘grand challenges’ of this age is the anthropogenic impact exerted on the nitrogen cycle. Issues of concern range from an excess of fixed nitrogen resulting in environmental pressures for some regions, while for other regions insufficient fixed nitrogen affects food security and may lead to health risks. To address these issues, nitrogen needs to be managed in an integrated fashion, at a variety of scales (from global to local). Such management has to be based on a thorough understanding of the sources of reactive nitrogen released into the environment, its deposition and effects. This requires a comprehensive assessment of the key drivers of changes in the nitrogen cycle both spatially, at the field, regional and global scale and over time. In this focus issue, we address the challenges of managing reactive nitrogen in the context of food production and its impacts on human and ecosystem health. In addition, we discuss the scope for and design of management approaches in regions with too much and too little nitrogen. This focus issue includes several contributions from authors who participated at the N2013 conference in Kampala in November 2013, where delegates compiled and agreed upon the ‘Kampala Statement-for-Action on Reactive Nitrogen in Africa and Globally’. These contributions further underline scientifically the claims of the ‘Kampala Statement’, that simultaneously reducing pollution and increasing nitrogen available in the food system, by improved nitrogen management offers win-wins for environment, health and food security in both developing and developed economies. The specific messages conveyed in the Kampala Statement focus on improving nitrogen management (I), including the reduction of nitrogen losses from agriculture, industry, transport and energy sectors, as well as improving waste treatment and informing individuals and institutions (II). Highlighting the need for innovation and increased awareness among stakeholders (III

  13. Global Cooling Drive Tectonic Scale Aridification of Asian Interior since Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F.; Zhu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Global cooling and the uplift of Tibetan Plateau are two potential mechanisms for tectonic scale aridification of Asian interior since Miocene. However, their relative importance is still controversial due to lack of continuous paleoclimate record. Here, using a 164 m long sediment core from Site U1438 in the Amami Sankaku Basin (ASB) in the NW Pacific, we show that the tectonic scale aridification of Asian interior is linked to global cooling rather than the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. We analyzed the characteristics and variations of clastic mineral (e.g. quartz), clay minerals, radiogenic strontium (Sr) and neodymium (Nd) isotopes of the fine pelagic mud intervals from the sediment core. These new evidences indicate a continuous input of Asian dust from Asian interior to ASB since Miocene. We found that Asian dust in the ASB overall increased starting from ca.15.0 Myr (mid-Miocene), and ca. 3.5 Myr (Late Pliocene). The variations of Asian dust transport and accumulation closely responds to known times of enhanced Asian aridification and prevailing westerlies. The overall and gradual increase of Asian dust since mid-Miocene and Late Pliocene are in agreement with the formation and development of the polar ice caps, and are coupled with the gradual decrease of the global temperature recorded by the δ18O ratio of forams, but lag behind the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. We argue that global cooling drove the aridification of the Asian interior and resulted in the increase of Asian dust deposition in the ASB.

  14. Assessing the influence of watershed characteristics on chlorophyll a in waterbodies at global and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelmer, Whitney; Kao, Yu-Chun; Bunnell, David B.; Deines, Andrew M.; Bennion, David; Rogers, Mark W.; Brooks, Colin N.; Sayers, Michael J.; Banach, David M.; Grimm, Amanda G.; Shuchman, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of primary production of lentic water bodies (i.e., lakes and reservoirs) is valuable to researchers and resource managers alike, but is very rarely done at the global scale. With the development of remote sensing technologies, it is now feasible to gather large amounts of data across the world, including understudied and remote regions. To determine which factors were most important in explaining the variation of chlorophyll a (Chl-a), an indicator of primary production in water bodies, at global and regional scales, we first developed a geospatial database of 227 water bodies and watersheds with corresponding Chl-a, nutrient, hydrogeomorphic, and climate data. Then we used a generalized additive modeling approach and developed model selection criteria to select models that most parsimoniously related Chl-a to predictor variables for all 227 water bodies and for 51 lakes in the Laurentian Great Lakes region in the data set. Our best global model contained two hydrogeomorphic variables (water body surface area and the ratio of watershed to water body surface area) and a climate variable (average temperature in the warmest model selection criteria to select models that most parsimoniously related Chl-a to predictor variables quarter) and explained ~ 30% of variation in Chl-a. Our regional model contained one hydrogeomorphic variable (flow accumulation) and the same climate variable, but explained substantially more variation (58%). Our results indicate that a regional approach to watershed modeling may be more informative to predicting Chl-a, and that nearly a third of global variability in Chl-a may be explained using hydrogeomorphic and climate variables.

  15. Global-scale high-resolution ( 1 km) modelling of mean, maximum and minimum annual streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, Valerio; Huijbregts, Mark; Hendriks, Jan; Beusen, Arthur; Clavreul, Julie; King, Henry; Schipper, Aafke

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying mean, maximum and minimum annual flow (AF) of rivers at ungauged sites is essential for a number of applications, including assessments of global water supply, ecosystem integrity and water footprints. AF metrics can be quantified with spatially explicit process-based models, which might be overly time-consuming and data-intensive for this purpose, or with empirical regression models that predict AF metrics based on climate and catchment characteristics. Yet, so far, regression models have mostly been developed at a regional scale and the extent to which they can be extrapolated to other regions is not known. We developed global-scale regression models that quantify mean, maximum and minimum AF as function of catchment area and catchment-averaged slope, elevation, and mean, maximum and minimum annual precipitation and air temperature. We then used these models to obtain global 30 arc-seconds (˜ 1 km) maps of mean, maximum and minimum AF for each year from 1960 through 2015, based on a newly developed hydrologically conditioned digital elevation model. We calibrated our regression models based on observations of discharge and catchment characteristics from about 4,000 catchments worldwide, ranging from 100 to 106 km2 in size, and validated them against independent measurements as well as the output of a number of process-based global hydrological models (GHMs). The variance explained by our regression models ranged up to 90% and the performance of the models compared well with the performance of existing GHMs. Yet, our AF maps provide a level of spatial detail that cannot yet be achieved by current GHMs.

  16. Reliability and validity of a self-rated analogue scale for global measure of successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwee, Xinyi; Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Kua, Ee Heok; Jeste, Dilip V; Kumar, Rajeev; Ng, Tze Pin

    2014-08-01

    Dimension-specific objective measures are criticized for their limited perspective and failure to endorse subjective perceptions by respondents, but the validity and correlates of a subjective global measure of successful aging (SA) are still not well established. We evaluated the reliability and validity of a self-rated analogue scale of global SA in an elderly Singaporean population. Cross-sectional data analysis using a comprehensive questionnaire survey. 489 community-dwelling Singaporeans aged 65 years and over. Self-rated SA on an analogue scale from 1 (least successful) to 10 (most successful) was analyzed for its relationship to criterion-based measures of five specific dimensions (physical health and function, mental well-being, social engagement, psychological well-being, and spirituality/religiosity), as well as outcome measures (life satisfaction and quality of life). Self-rated SA was significantly correlated to measures of specific dimensions (standardized β from 0.11 to 0.39), most strongly with psychological functioning (β = 0.391). The five dimension-specific measures together accounted for 16.7% of the variance in self-rated SA. Self-rated SA best predicted life satisfaction (R(2) = 0.26) more than any dimension-specific measure (R(2) from 0.05 to 0.17). Self-rated SA, vis-à-vis dimension-specific measures, was related to a different set of correlates, and was notably independent of chronological age, sex, education, socioeconomic status, and medical comorbidity, but was significantly related to ethnicity. The self-rated analogue scale is a sensitive global measure of SA encompassing a spectrum of underlying dimensions and subjective perspectives and its validity is well supported in this study. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Accounting for global-mean warming and scaling uncertainties in climate change impact studies: application to a regulated lake system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A probabilistic assessment of climate change and related impacts should consider a large range of potential future climate scenarios. State-of-the-art climate models, especially coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models and Regional Climate Models (RCMs cannot, however, be used to simulate such a large number of scenarios. This paper presents a methodology for obtaining future climate scenarios through a simple scaling methodology. The projections of several key meteorological variables obtained from a few regional climate model runs are scaled, based on different global-mean warming projections drawn in a probability distribution of future global-mean warming. The resulting climate change scenarios are used to drive a hydrological and a water management model to analyse the potential climate change impacts on a water resources system. This methodology enables a joint quantification of the climate change impact uncertainty induced by the global-mean warming scenarios and the regional climate response. It is applied to a case study in Switzerland, a water resources system formed by three interconnected lakes located in the Jura Mountains. The system behaviour is simulated for a control period (1961–1990 and a future period (2070–2099. The potential climate change impacts are assessed through a set of impact indices related to different fields of interest (hydrology, agriculture and ecology. The results obtained show that future climate conditions will have a significant influence on the performance of the system and that the uncertainty induced by the inter-RCM variability will contribute to much of the uncertainty of the prediction of the total impact. These CSRs cover the area considered in the 2001–2004 EU funded project SWURVE.

  18. Securitization of Migration: an Australian case study of global trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Humphrey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Post September 11 migration has increasingly been framed as a security problem. In the 2010 Australian election campaign migration was connected to security (defense of our borders, terrorism and social cohesion and to related issues of insecurity about the future (population size,sustainability and economic growth. Thisframing of migration as a national security issue overlooks the reality that Australian immigration is part of the global flow of population. Migration is an international issue experienced by states as a national question of border control and sovereignty seeking to manage the consequences of global inequality and mobility. This paper analyses the 'security turn' in migration debates in Australia and the North and the way the securitization of migration signifies the transformation of security from the problem of producing national order to the problem of managing global disorder resulting in the merging of national and international security strategies.

  19. The radiological impact of radionuclides dispersed on a regional and global scale: Methods for assessment and their application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The basic features of models, developed to assess the radiological impact of radionuclides that become dispersed on a regional or global scale, have been reviewed. Particular attention has been given to identifying the important processes that need to be modelled in order to make a reliable estimate of the radiological impact, rather than attempting to judge which models are the most appropriate. Judgements on the latter will be sensitive to the particular application; in some cases a very simple approach may be sufficient, whereas in others a more rigorous analysis may be necessary. Two aspects are important in assessing the radiological impact: these are the exposure of critical groups, and the collective dose in the exposed population

  20. Assessment of Global Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Utility of the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Smith, Laura A.; Schry, Amie R.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of global functioning is an important consideration in treatment outcome research; yet, there is little guidance on its evidence-based assessment for children with autism spectrum disorders. This study investigated the utility and validity of clinician-rated global functioning using the Developmental Disability-Child Global Assessment…

  1. Comparison and Evaluation of Global Scale Studies of Vulnerability and Risks to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccione, Veruska; Allen, Simon K.; Huggel, Christian; Birkmann, Joern

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the present and future distribution of different climate change impacts and vulnerability to climate change is a central subject in the context of climate justice and international climate policy. Commonly, it is claimed that poor countries that contributed little to anthropogenic climate change are those most affected and most vulnerable to climate change. Such statements are backed by a number of global-scale vulnerability studies, which identified poor countries as most vulnerable. However, some studies have challenged this view, likewise highlighting the high vulnerability of richer countries. Overall, no consensus has been reached so far about which concept of vulnerability should be applied and what type of indicators should be considered. Furthermore, there is little agreement which specific countries are most vulnerable. This is a major concern in view of the need to inform international climate policy, all the more if such assessments should contribute to allocate climate adaptation funds as was invoked at some instances. We argue that next to the analysis of who is most vulnerable, it is also important to better understand and compare different vulnerability profiles assessed in present global studies. We perform a systematic literature review of global vulnerability assessments with the scope to highlight vulnerability distribution patterns. We then compare these distributions with global risk distributions in line with revised and adopted concepts by most recent IPCC reports. It emerges that improved differentiation of key drivers of risk and the understanding of different vulnerability profiles are important contributions, which can inform future adaptation policies at the regional and national level. This can change the perspective on, and basis for distributional issues in view of climate burden share, and therefore can have implications for UNFCCC financing instruments (e.g. Green Climate Fund). However, in order to better compare

  2. Phosphorus in agricultural soils: drivers of its distribution at the global scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringeval, Bruno [ISPA, Villenave d' Ornon (France); Augusto, Laurent [ISPA, Villenave d' Ornon (France); Monod, Herve [Univ. Paris-Saclay, Jouy-en-Josas (France); van Apeldoorn, Dirk [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (The Netherlands); Bouwman, Lex [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (The Netherlands); Yang, Xiaojuan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Achat, David L. [ISPA, Villenave d' Ornon (France); Chini, Louise P. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Van Oost, Kristof [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Guenet, Bertrand [Univ. Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Wang, Rong [Univ. Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Decharme, Bertrand [CNRS/Meteo-France, Toulouse (France); Nesme, Thomas [ISPA, Villenave d' Ornon (France); Pellerin, Sylvain [ISPA, Villenave d' Ornon (France)

    2017-01-09

    Phosphorus (P) availability in soils limits crop yields in many regions of the world, while excess of soil P triggers aquatic eutrophication in other regions. Numerous processes drive the global spatial distribution of P in agricultural soils, but their relative roles remain unclear. Here, we combined several global datasets describing these drivers with a soil P dynamics model to simulate the distribution of P in agricultural soils and to assess the contributions of the different drivers at the global scale. We analyzed both the labile inorganic P (PILAB), a proxy of the pool involved in plant nutrition and the total soil P (PTOT). We found that the soil biogeochemical background (BIOG) and farming practices (FARM) were the main drivers of the spatial variability in cropland soil P content but that their contribution varied between PTOT vs PILAB. Indeed, 97% of the PTOT spatial variability could be explained by BIOG, while BIOG and FARM explained 41% and 58% of PILAB spatial variability, respectively. Other drivers such as climate, soil erosion, atmospheric P deposition and soil buffering capacity made only very small contribution. Lastly, our study is a promising approach to investigate the potential effect of P as a limiting factor for agricultural ecosystems and for global food production. Additionally, we quantified the anthropogenic perturbation of P cycle and demonstrated how the different drivers are combined to explain the global distribution of agricultural soil P.

  3. Spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of global scale climate-groundwater interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Gleeson, T. P.; Moosdorf, N.; Schneider, A. C.; Hartmann, J.; Befus, K. M.; Lehner, B.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between groundwater and climate are important to resolve in both space and time as they influence mass and energy transfers at Earth's land surface. Despite the significance of these processes, little is known about the spatio-temporal distribution of such interactions globally, and many large-scale climate, hydrological and land surface models oversimplify groundwater or exclude it completely. In this study we bring together diverse global geomatic data sets to map spatial patterns in the sensitivity and degree of connectedness between the water table and the land surface, and use the output from a global groundwater model to assess the locations where the lateral import or export of groundwater is significant. We also quantify the groundwater response time, the characteristic time for groundwater systems to respond to a change in boundary conditions, and map its distribution globally to assess the likely dynamics of groundwater's interaction with climate. We find that more than half of the global land surface significantly exports or imports groundwater laterally. Nearly 40% of Earth's landmass has water tables that are strongly coupled to topography with water tables shallow enough to enable a bi-directional exchange of moisture with the climate system. However, only a small proportion (around 12%) of such regions have groundwater response times of 100 years or less and have groundwater fluxes that would significantly respond to rapid environmental changes over this timescale. We last explore fundamental relationships between aridity, groundwater response times and groundwater turnover times. Our results have wide ranging implications for understanding and modelling changes in Earth's water and energy balance and for informing robust future water management and security decisions.

  4. The global land rush: what the evidence reveals about scale and geography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo; Polack, Emily

    2012-04-15

    In developing countries, millions of people depend on land for their food and livelihoods. But a global 'land rush' — moves to acquire large tracts of land across the world — is increasing competition for this vital resource. A growing body of evidence points to the scale, geography, players and key characteristics of the phenomenon. Some of this is based on media reports and some on country level inventories. Much of the data cannot be compared due to variations in methodology, timescale and the differing criteria for what makes a land deal. Further improving data and analysis is critical. But while exact numbers will keep changing, all evidence indicates that land acquisitions are happening quickly and on a large scale. So we urgently need to get on with developing appropriate responses.

  5. A global classification of coastal flood hazard climates associated with large-scale oceanographic forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Ana; Vitousek, Sean; Camus, Paula; Tomás, Antonio; Espejo, Antonio; Losada, Inigo J; Barnard, Patrick L; Erikson, Li H; Ruggiero, Peter; Reguero, Borja G; Mendez, Fernando J

    2017-07-11

    Coastal communities throughout the world are exposed to numerous and increasing threats, such as coastal flooding and erosion, saltwater intrusion and wetland degradation. Here, we present the first global-scale analysis of the main drivers of coastal flooding due to large-scale oceanographic factors. Given the large dimensionality of the problem (e.g. spatiotemporal variability in flood magnitude and the relative influence of waves, tides and surge levels), we have performed a computer-based classification to identify geographical areas with homogeneous climates. Results show that 75% of coastal regions around the globe have the potential for very large flooding events with low probabilities (unbounded tails), 82% are tide-dominated, and almost 49% are highly susceptible to increases in flooding frequency due to sea-level rise.

  6. Global scale stratospheric processes as measured by the infrasound IMS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.; Kechut, P.

    2012-12-01

    IMS infrasound array data are routinely processed at the International Data Center (IDC). The wave parameters of the detected signals are estimated with the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation method (PMCC). We have processed continuous recordings from 41 certified IMS stations from 2005 to 2010 in the 0.01-5 Hz frequency band using a new implementation of the PMCC algorithm. Microbaroms are the dominant source of signals near-continuously and globally detected. The observed azimuthal seasonal trend correlates well with the variation of the effective sound speed ratio (Veff-ratio) which is a proxy for the combined effects of refraction due to sound speed gradients and advection due to along-path stratospheric wind on infrasound propagation. Systematic correlations between infrasound parameters (e.g. number of detections, amplitude) and Veff-ratio calculated at different ranges of altitudes are performed. Combined with propagation modeling, we show that such an analysis enables a characterization of the wind and temperature structure above the stratosphere and may provide detailed information on upper atmospheric processes (e.g., large-scale planetary waves, stratospheric warming effects) from the seasonal trend to short time scale variability. We discuss the potential benefit of long-term infrasound monitoring to infer stratospheric processes for the first time on a global scale. This study suggests poorly resolved stratospheric wind fluctuations at low latitude regions with strengths of horizontal wind structures underestimated by at least ~10 m/s. It is expected that this correlation between infrasound observations and the state-of-the-art atmospheric specifications will allow to statistically quantify the spatial and temporal resolutions of the wind structures at different ranges of altitudes, latitudes and time scales.

  7. Climate Cases: Learning about Student Conceptualizations of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Benjamin P.

    2013-01-01

    The complex topic of global climate change continues to be a challenging yet important topic among science educators and researchers. This mixed methods study adds to the growing research by investigating student conceptions of climate change from a system theory perspective (Von Bertalanffy, 1968) by asking the question, "How do differences…

  8. Education and Development in a Globalized Environment: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Again, in the present globalized society in which every nation is connected to the other, education is perhaps the only instrument for people to adequately cope with the new trend. In most contemporary nation-states including Nigeria, the level of educational attainment vary across regions. Such discrepancy also exist within ...

  9. BRICS STATES IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE: THE WTO CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra G. Koval

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The rise of emerging powers in the world economy has a significant impact on the transformation of global economic governance. The countries with emerging economies seek to enhance their role in international economic organizations and decision-making at the global level. The main players here are the BRICS countries. The contradictions between these countries and Western states represent a modern challenge to the functioning of the global governance. This is clearly demonstrated by the failure of the international trade negotiations under the WTO, which leads to the shift of member states’ priorities towards megaregional trade agreements and indicates the need for changes in the organization. The WTO cannot be seen today as a “rich men’s club” since emerging powers are eager to actively participate in trade negotiations, while recognizing the established rules and regulations. Despite the attempts of certain cooperation in their policies, BRICS countries differ in their trade interests. These states not only play different roles at the world markets of goods and services, but also apply various tariff and non-tariff measures. Moreover, a significant number of protectionist measures affects intra-BRICS trade. These differences complicate the cooperation of emerging powers in the international trading system and entangle the process of transformation of global economic governance.

  10. Disability, economic globalization and privatization: A case study of India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2012-01-01

    have benefitted middle-class and highly-skilled disabled persons, the majority of people with disabilities have been left out of India's economic affluence. We contend that India's globalized economy and reduced state role necessitate renewed understanding of human rights, including disability rights....

  11. Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Global Transformational Leadership (GTL scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia van Beveren

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to adapt and consequently validate theGlobal Transformational Leadershipmeasuring scale (GTL. The scale was therefore applied to a sample of 456 members of 70 work groups, belonging to 26 organizations. The factorial structure of the scale was analysed through the exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, with the sample being split in two equal parts: EFA was conducted in both sub-samples and CFA was applied in the second sub-sample. The internal consistency was evaluated via Cronbach's alpha and the nomological validity was analysed via the evaluation of the GTL's correlations with both team-level autonomy and quality of group experience. The results revealed the presence of a unidimensional scale with a good level of internal consistency. Regarding the nomological validity, the results pointed to hypothetical relations, since the GTL showed positive correlations with the variables considered. Thus, the Portuguese version of the GTL is presented as a useful instrument for evaluating transformational leadership.

  12. Determining global distribution of microplastics by combining citizen science and in-depth case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosker, Thijs; Behrens, Paul; Vijver, Martina G

    2017-05-01

    Microplastics (microplastics levels. The difference in extraction procedures can especially impact study outcomes, making it difficult, and sometimes impossible, to directly compare results among studies. To address this, we recently developed a standard operating procedure (SOP) for sampling microplastics on beaches. We are now assessing regional and global variations in beach microplastics using this standardized approach for 2 research projects. Our first project involves the general public through citizen science. Participants collect sand samples from beaches using a basic protocol, and we subsequently extract and quantify microplastics in a central laboratory using the SOP. Presently, we have 80+ samples from around the world and expect this number to further increase. Second, we are conducting 2, in-depth, regional case studies: one along the Dutch coast (close to major rivers, a known source of microplastic input into marine systems), and the other on the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean (in the proximity to a hotspot of plastics in the North Atlantic Ocean). In both projects, we use our new SOP to determine regional variation in microplastics, including differences in physicochemical characteristics such as size, shape, and polymer type. Our research will provide, for the first time, a systematic comparison on levels of microplastics on beaches at both a regional and global scale. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:536-541. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  13. "Annotated Lectures": Student-Instructor Interaction in Large-Scale Global Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Diehl

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe an "Annotated Lectures" system, which will be used in a global virtual teaching and student collaboration event on embodied intelligence presented by the University of Zurich. The lectures will be broadcasted via video-conference to lecture halls of different universities around the globe. Among other collaboration features, an "Annotated Lectures" system will be implemented in a 3D collaborative virtual environment and used by the participating students to make annotations to the video-recorded lectures, which will be sent to and answered by their supervisors, and forwarded to the lecturers in an aggregated way. The "Annotated Lectures" system aims to overcome the issues of limited studentinstructor interaction in large-scale education, and to foster an intercultural and multidisciplinary discourse among students who review the lectures in a group. After presenting the concept of the "Annotated Lectures" system, we discuss a prototype version including a description of the technical components and its expected benefit for large-scale global education.

  14. Impact of different economic factors on biological invasions on the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Cheng, Xinyue; Xu, Rumei

    2011-04-13

    Social-economic factors are considered as the key to understand processes contributing to biological invasions. However, there has been few quantified, statistical evidence on the relationship between economic development and biological invasion on a worldwide scale. Herein, using principal factor analysis, we investigated the relationship between biological invasion and economic development together with biodiversity for 91 economies throughout the world. Our result indicates that the prevalence of invasive species in the economies can be well predicted by economic factors (R(2) = 0.733). The impact of economic factors on the occurrence of invasive species for low, lower-middle, upper-middle and high income economies are 0%, 34.3%, 46.3% and 80.8% respectively. Greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2), Nitrous oxide, Methane and Other greenhouse gases) and also biodiversity have positive relationships with the global occurrence of invasive species in the economies on the global scale. The major social-economic factors that are correlated to biological invasions are different for various economies, and therefore the strategies for biological invasion prevention and control should be different.

  15. Top-down constraints on disturbance dynamics in the terrestrial carbon cycle: effects at global and regional scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, A. A.; Exbrayat, J. F.; van der Velde, I.; Peters, W.; Williams, M.

    2014-01-01

    Large uncertainties preside over terrestrial carbon flux estimates on a global scale. In particular, the strongly coupled dynamics between net ecosystem productivity and disturbance C losses are poorly constrained. To gain an improved understanding of ecosystem C dynamics from regional to global

  16. Genome-wide evolutionary dynamics of influenza B viruses on a global scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky Langat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The global-scale epidemiology and genome-wide evolutionary dynamics of influenza B remain poorly understood compared with influenza A viruses. We compiled a spatio-temporally comprehensive dataset of influenza B viruses, comprising over 2,500 genomes sampled worldwide between 1987 and 2015, including 382 newly-sequenced genomes that fill substantial gaps in previous molecular surveillance studies. Our contributed data increase the number of available influenza B virus genomes in Europe, Africa and Central Asia, improving the global context to study influenza B viruses. We reveal Yamagata-lineage diversity results from co-circulation of two antigenically-distinct groups that also segregate genetically across the entire genome, without evidence of intra-lineage reassortment. In contrast, Victoria-lineage diversity stems from geographic segregation of different genetic clades, with variability in the degree of geographic spread among clades. Differences between the lineages are reflected in their antigenic dynamics, as Yamagata-lineage viruses show alternating dominance between antigenic groups, while Victoria-lineage viruses show antigenic drift of a single lineage. Structural mapping of amino acid substitutions on trunk branches of influenza B gene phylogenies further supports these antigenic differences and highlights two potential mechanisms of adaptation for polymerase activity. Our study provides new insights into the epidemiological and molecular processes shaping influenza B virus evolution globally.

  17. Optimization Model for Mitigating Global Warming at the Farm Scale: An Application to Japanese Rice Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Masuda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, greenhouse gas emissions from rice production, especially CH4 emissions in rice paddy fields, are the primary contributors to global warming from agriculture. When prolonged midseason drainage for mitigating CH4 emissions from rice paddy fields is practiced with environmentally friendly rice production based on reduced use of synthetic pesticides and chemical fertilizers, Japanese rice farmers can receive an agri-environmental direct payment. This paper examines the economic and environmental effects of the agri-environmental direct payment on the adoption of a measure to mitigate global warming in Japanese rice farms using a combined application of linear programming and life cycle assessment at the farm scale. Eco-efficiency, which is defined as net farm income divided by global warming potential, is used as an integrated indicator for assessing the economic and environmental feasibilities. The results show that under the current direct payment level, the prolonged midseason drainage technique does not improve the eco-efficiency of Japanese rice farms because the practice of this technique in environmentally friendly rice production causes large economic disadvantages in exchange for small environmental advantages. The direct payment rates for agri-environmental measures should be determined based on the condition that environmentally friendly agricultural practices improve eco-efficiency compared with conventional agriculture.

  18. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Class-specific Primary Production at a Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Cecile; Gregg, Watson

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton is responsible for over half of the net primary production on earth. The knowledge on the contribution of various phytoplankton groups to the total primary production is still poorly understood. Data from satellite observations suggest that for upwelling regions, photosynthetic rates by microplankton is higher than that of nanoplankton but that when the spatial extent is considered, the production by nanoplankton is comparable or even larger than microplankton. Here, we used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of 4 phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. Globally, diatoms were the group that contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production (approx. 50%) followed by coccolithophores and chlorophytes. Primary production by diatoms was highest in high latitude (>45 deg) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We assessed the effects of climate variability on the class-specific primary production using global (i.e. Multivariate El Nino Index, MEI) and 'regional' climate indices (e.g. Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability. These results provide a modeling and data assimilation perspective to phytoplankton partitioning of primary production and contribute to our understanding of the dynamics of the carbon cycle in the oceans at a global scale.

  19. An experimental system for flood risk forecasting and monitoring at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Kalas, Milan; Lorini, Valerio; Salamon, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Global flood forecasting and monitoring systems are nowadays a reality and are being applied by a wide range of users and practitioners in disaster risk management. Furthermore, there is an increasing demand from users to integrate flood early warning systems with risk based forecasting, combining streamflow estimations with expected inundated areas and flood impacts. Finally, emerging technologies such as crowdsourcing and social media monitoring can play a crucial role in flood disaster management and preparedness. Here, we present some recent advances of an experimental procedure for near-real time flood mapping and impact assessment. The procedure translates in near real-time the daily streamflow forecasts issued by the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) into event-based flood hazard maps, which are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information at global scale to derive risk forecast. Impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood prone areas, potential economic damage, and affected population, infrastructures and cities. To increase the reliability of our forecasts we propose the integration of model-based estimations with an innovative methodology for social media monitoring, which allows for real-time verification and correction of impact forecasts. Finally, we present the results of preliminary tests which show the potential of the proposed procedure in supporting emergency response and management.

  20. Global-scale modes of surface temperature variability on interannual to century timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Using 100 years of global temperature anomaly data, we have performed a singluar value decomposition of temperature variations in narrow frequency bands to isolate coherent spatio-temporal modes of global climate variability. Statistical significance is determined from confidence limits obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. Secular variance is dominated by a globally coherent trend; with nearly all grid points warming in phase at varying amplitude. A smaller, but significant, share of the secular variance corresponds to a pattern dominated by warming and subsequent cooling in the high latitude North Atlantic with a roughly centennial timescale. Spatial patterns associated with significant peaks in variance within a broad period range from 2.8 to 5.7 years exhibit characteristic El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) patterns. A recent transition to a regime of higher ENSO frequency is suggested by our analysis. An interdecadal mode in the 15-to-18 years period and a mode centered at 7-to-8 years period both exhibit predominantly a North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) temperature pattern. A potentially significant decadal mode centered on 11-to-12 years period also exhibits an NAO temperature pattern and may be modulated by the century-scale North Atlantic variability.

  1. Influence of ENSO on coastal flood hazard and exposure at the global-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, S.; Haigh, I. D.; Guimarães Nobre, G.; Aerts, J.; Ward, P.

    2017-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant signal of interannual climate variability. The unusually warm (El Niño) and cold (La Niña) oceanic and atmospheric conditions in the tropical Pacific drives interannual variability in both mean and extreme sea levels, which in turn may influence the probabilities and impacts of coastal flooding. We assess the influence of ENSO on coastal flood hazard and exposure using daily timeseries from the Global Time and Surge Reanalysis (GTSR) dataset (Muis et al., 2016). As the GTSR timeseries do not include steric effects (i.e. density differences), we improve the GTSR timeseries by adding steric sea levels. Evaluation against observed sea levels shows that the including steric sea levels leads to a much better representation of the seasonal and interannual variability. We show that sea level anomalies occur during ENSO years with higher sea levels during La Niña in the South-Atlantic, Indian Ocean and the West Pacific, whereas sea levels are lower in the east Pacific. The pattern is generally inversed for El Niño. We also find an effect of ENSO in the number of people exposed to coastal flooding. Although the effect is minor at the global-scale, it may be important for flood risk management to consider at the national or sub national levels. Previous studies at the global-scale have used tide gauge observation to assess the influence of ENSO on extreme sea levels. The advantage of our approach over observations is that GTSR provides a consistent dataset with a full global coverage for the period 1979-2014. This allows us to assess ENSO's influence on sea level extremes anywhere in the world. Furthermore, it enables us to also calculate the impacts of extreme sea levels in terms of coastal flooding and exposed population. ReferencesMuis et al (2016) A global reanalysis of storm surges and extreme sea levels. Nature Communications.7:11969. doi:10.1038/ncomms11969.

  2. Simulating cropping periods to parametrize varietieś phenology at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoli, Sara; Egli, Dennis B.; Müller, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Phenology is a fundamental trait characterizing crop varieties, and it largely determines the selection of these in different environments. To simulate phenological development is a key feature of most crop models at any scale. There is a general lack of information on how crop varieties are distributed globally, and therefore on how to parametrize phenological traits in global-scale vegetation models. We address this issue by developing a model (routine) to simulate global cropping periods of six major grain crops. The sowing dates are estimated as proposed by Waha et al. (2012). With a consistent rule-based approach, we simulate the most suitable harvest dates. We derive from the literature some physiological traits of the crops, such as temperature thresholds for growth and development, and the time allocated to different phenophases. The occurrence of suitable periods for critical stages of the crop cycle is then used to classify the climate in each location and to identify the most suitable growing season for each crop. The simulated cropping periods are on average in agreement with the two most applied global datasets (MIRCA2000 and SAGE) in the modelling community. Our model highlights the central role of climate and crop physiology in the agronomic decision making process. The results show that a single set of rules (with crop-specific parameters) is valid for simulating the growing season of any of the grain crops. To set the sowing time and the reproductive phase in non-stressful periods are both strategies to optimize crop productivity. The species studied here have similar optimum temperature for the reproductive phase, while they differ more in the base temperature for sowing, as well as in the duration of the flowering to physiological maturity period. These aspects together largely influence the selection of the best growing period of the different grain crops. Due its simplicity, the model cannot capture the entire variability of the observed

  3. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Class-Specific Primary Production at a Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Cecile Severine; Gregg, Watson W.

    2014-01-01

    We used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) combined with remote sensing data via assimilation to evaluate the contribution of 4 phytoplankton groups to the total primary production. First we assessed the contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production at a global scale for the period 1998-2011. Globally, diatoms were the group that contributed the most to the total phytoplankton production (50, the equivalent of 20 PgC y-1. Coccolithophores and chlorophytes each contributed to 20 (7 PgC y-1 of the total primary production and cyanobacteria represented about 10 (4 PgC y(sub-1) of the total primary production. Primary production by diatoms was highest in high latitude (45) and in major upwelling systems (Equatorial Pacific and Benguela system). We then assessed interannual variability of this group-specific primary production over the period 1998-2011. Globally the annual relative contribution of each phytoplankton groups to the total primary production varied by maximum 4 (1-2 PgC y-1. We assessed the effects of climate variability on the class-specific primary production using global (i.e. Multivariate El Nio Index, MEI) and regional climate indices (e.g. Southern Annular Mode (SAM), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)). Most interannual variability occurred in the Equatorial Pacific and was associated with climate variability as indicated by significant correlation (p 0.05) between the MEI and the class-specific primary production from all groups except coccolithophores. In the Atlantic, climate variability as indicated by NAO was significantly correlated to the primary production of 2 out of the 4 groups in the North Central Atlantic (diatomscyanobacteria) and in the North Atlantic (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). We found that climate variability as indicated by SAM had only a limited effect on the class-specific primary production in the Southern Ocean. These results provide a modeling and

  4. The Lifespan Self-Esteem Scale: Initial Validation of a New Measure of Global Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michelle A; Donnellan, M Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H

    2018-01-01

    This article introduces the Lifespan Self-Esteem Scale (LSE), a short measure of global self-esteem suitable for populations drawn from across the lifespan. Many existing measures of global self-esteem cannot be used across multiple developmental periods due to changes in item content, response formats, and other scale characteristics. This creates a need for a new lifespan scale so that changes in global self-esteem over time can be studied without confounding maturational changes with alterations in the measure. The LSE is a 4-item measure with a 5-point response format using items inspired by established self-esteem scales. The scale is essentially unidimensional and internally consistent, and it converges with existing self-esteem measures across ages 5 to 93 (N = 2,714). Thus, the LSE appears to be a useful measure of global self-esteem suitable for use across the lifespan as well as contexts where a short measure is desirable, such as populations with short attention spans or large projects assessing multiple constructs. Moreover, the LSE is one of the first global self-esteem scales to be validated for children younger than age 8, which provides the opportunity to broaden the field to include research on early formation and development of global self-esteem, an area that has previously been limited.

  5. Very small glaciers under climate change: from the local to the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, M.; Fischer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Very small glaciers (climate archive. Very small glaciers have generally shorter response times than valley glaciers and their mass balance is strongly dependent on snow redistribution processes. Worldwide glacier monitoring has focused on medium-sized to large glaciers leaving us with a relatively limited understanding of the behavior of very small glaciers. With warming climate there is an increasing concern that very small glaciers might be the first to disappear. Already in the next decades this might result in the complete deglaciation of mountain ranges with glacier equilibrium lines close to the highest peaks, such as in the Rocky Mountains, the European Alps, the Andes or parts of High Mountain Asia. In this contribution, we present a comprehensive modelling framework to assess past and future changes in very small glaciers at the mountain-range scale. Among other processes our model accounts for snow redistribution, changes in glacier geometry and dynamic changes in debris-coverage, and computes e.g. distributed mass balance, englacial temperature and proglacial runoff. Detailed glacier projections until 2060 are shown for the Swiss Alps based on new data sets, and the 21st century contribution of all very small glaciers worldwide to sea-level rise is quantified using a global model. Grid-based modelling of surface mass balance and retreat for 1133 very small glaciers in Switzerland indicates that 70% of them will completely vanish within the next 25 years. However, a few avalanche-fed glaciers at low elevation might be able to survive even substantial atmospheric warming. We find relatively high static and dynamic sensitivities for gently-sloping glaciers. At the global scale, glaciers presently smaller than 1 km2 make up for only 0.7% of total ice volume but account for 6.7% of sea-level rise contribution during the period 2015-2025. This indicates that very small glaciers are a non-negligible component of global glacier change, at least in the near

  6. BRAIN DRAIN IN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    MARIANA BĂLAN; COSMIN OLTEANU

    2017-01-01

    Migration is an old phenomenon in the history of humankind. However, the magnitude, complexity, and structure of migration flows in the global era are all unprecedented. According to the United Nations Report “Trends in International Migrant Stock: the 2015 Revision” at world level 244 million international migrants were recorded in 2015. With the increase in the number of migrants, the emigration of ‘high-skilled’ individuals is also growing. OECD and United Nation Statistics sho...

  7. Increasing Global Competitiveness: A Case for the Pakistan Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Shamyla Chaudry

    2007-01-01

    The issue of global competitiveness is critical for developing countries. This paper looks at the drivers that influence industrial competitiveness and provides a comparison of these drivers for Pakistan, India and China. The analysis shows that Pakistan lags behind China and India in most of the main components of the industrial competitiveness index. The analysis also presents a series of micro and macro level policy recommendations aimed at increasing Pakistan’s industrial competitiveness.

  8. COMPETITIVENESS IN THE AGE OF GLOBALIZATION. THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Toma Sorin-George; Marinescu Paul; Ianole Rodica

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental determinant of the competitiveness of a nation is the productivity of the companies acting in its economy. In the age of globalization, countries compete not only for markets, technology, skills and investments, but also for raising their standards of living. The national prosperity is highly affected by competitiveness, defined as the productivity with which a nation uses its resources. The objectives of our paper are to analyze the concept of national competitivenes and to o...

  9. A human-scale perspective on global warming: Zero emission year and personal quotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Alberto; Rojas, Maisa; Mac Lean, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    This article builds on the premise that human consumption of goods, food and transport are the ultimate drivers of climate change. However, the nature of the climate change problem (well described as a tragedy of the commons) makes it difficult for individuals to recognise their personal duty to implement behavioural changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, this article aims to analyse the climate change issue from a human-scale perspective, in which each of us has a clearly defined personal quota of CO2 emissions that limits our activity and there is a finite time during which CO2 emissions must be eliminated to achieve the "well below 2°C" warming limit set by the Paris Agreement of 2015 (COP21). Thus, this work's primary contribution is to connect an equal per capita fairness approach to a global carbon budget, linking personal levels with planetary levels. Here, we show that a personal quota of 5.0 tons of CO2 yr-1 p-1 is a representative value for both past and future emissions; for this level of a constant per-capita emissions and without considering any mitigation, the global accumulated emissions compatible with the "well below 2°C" and 2°C targets will be exhausted by 2030 and 2050, respectively. These are references years that provide an order of magnitude of the time that is left to reverse the global warming trend. More realistic scenarios that consider a smooth transition toward a zero-emission world show that the global accumulated emissions compatible with the "well below 2°C" and 2°C targets will be exhausted by 2040 and 2080, respectively. Implications of this paper include a return to personal responsibility following equity principles among individuals, and a definition of boundaries to the personal emissions of CO2.

  10. A human-scale perspective on global warming: Zero emission year and personal quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Maisa; Mac Lean, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    This article builds on the premise that human consumption of goods, food and transport are the ultimate drivers of climate change. However, the nature of the climate change problem (well described as a tragedy of the commons) makes it difficult for individuals to recognise their personal duty to implement behavioural changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, this article aims to analyse the climate change issue from a human-scale perspective, in which each of us has a clearly defined personal quota of CO2 emissions that limits our activity and there is a finite time during which CO2 emissions must be eliminated to achieve the “well below 2°C” warming limit set by the Paris Agreement of 2015 (COP21). Thus, this work’s primary contribution is to connect an equal per capita fairness approach to a global carbon budget, linking personal levels with planetary levels. Here, we show that a personal quota of 5.0 tons of CO2 yr-1 p-1 is a representative value for both past and future emissions; for this level of a constant per-capita emissions and without considering any mitigation, the global accumulated emissions compatible with the “well below 2°C” and 2°C targets will be exhausted by 2030 and 2050, respectively. These are references years that provide an order of magnitude of the time that is left to reverse the global warming trend. More realistic scenarios that consider a smooth transition toward a zero-emission world show that the global accumulated emissions compatible with the “well below 2°C” and 2°C targets will be exhausted by 2040 and 2080, respectively. Implications of this paper include a return to personal responsibility following equity principles among individuals, and a definition of boundaries to the personal emissions of CO2. PMID:28628676

  11. The Global-Scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastes, R. W.; McClintock, W. E.; Burns, A. G.; Anderson, D. N.; Andersson, L.; Codrescu, M.; Correira, J. T.; Daniell, R. E.; England, S. L.; Evans, J. S.; Harvey, J.; Krywonos, A.; Lumpe, J. D.; Richmond, A. D.; Rusch, D. W.; Siegmund, O.; Solomon, S. C.; Strickland, D. J.; Woods, T. N.; Aksnes, A.; Budzien, S. A.; Dymond, K. F.; Eparvier, F. G.; Martinis, C. R.; Oberheide, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere constitute a dynamic system that varies daily in response to energy inputs from above and from below. This system can exhibit a significant response within an hour to changes in those inputs, as plasma and fluid processes compete to control its temperature, composition, and structure. Within this system, short wavelength solar radiation and charged particles from the magnetosphere deposit energy, and waves propagating from the lower atmosphere dissipate. Understanding the global-scale response of the thermosphere-ionosphere ( T-I) system to these drivers is essential to advancing our physical understanding of coupling between the space environment and the Earth's atmosphere. Previous missions have successfully determined how the "climate" of the T-I system responds. The Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission will determine how the "weather" of the T-I responds, taking the next step in understanding the coupling between the space environment and the Earth's atmosphere. Operating in geostationary orbit, the GOLD imaging spectrograph will measure the Earth's emissions from 132 to 162 nm. These measurements will be used image two critical variables—thermospheric temperature and composition, near 160 km—on the dayside disk at half-hour time scales. At night they will be used to image the evolution of the low latitude ionosphere in the same regions that were observed earlier during the day. Due to the geostationary orbit being used the mission observes the same hemisphere repeatedly, allowing the unambiguous separation of spatial and temporal variability over the Americas.

  12. Global Scale Analysis of the Stream Power Law Parameters based on Worldwide 10Be Denudation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, M. A.; Mudd, S. M.; Attal, M.

    2015-12-01

    The stream power law, expressed as E = KAmSn where E is erosion rate [LT-1], K is erodibility [T-1L(1-2m)], A is drainage area [L2], S is channel gradient [L/L] and m and n are constants, is the most widely used model for bedrock channel incision. Despite its simplicity and limitations, the model has proved useful for a large number of applications such as topographic evolution, knickpoint migration, palaeotopography reconstruction, and the determination of uplift patterns and rates. However, the unknown parameters K, m and n are often fixed arbitrarily or are based on assumptions about the physics of the erosion processes that are not always valid, which considerably alters the use and interpretation of the model. In this study, we compile published 10Be basin-wide erosion rates (N= 1423) in order to assess the m/n ratio (or concavity index), the slope exponent n and erodibility coefficient K using the integral method of channel profile analysis. These three parameters are calculated for 67 areas and allow for a global scale analysis in terms of climatic, tectonic and environmental settings. Our results suggest that (i) many sites are too noisy or do not have enough data to predict n and K with a satisfying level of confidence; (ii) the slope exponent is predominantly greater than one, meaning that the relationship between erosion rate and the channel gradient is non-linear, supporting the idea that incision is a threshold controlled process. Furthermore, a multi-regression analysis and the calculation of n and K using a reference concavity index m/n = 0.45 demonstrates that (iii) many intuitive or previously demonstrated local-scale trends, such as the correlation between erosion rate and climate, do not appear at a global scale.

  13. Teacher Education for Citizenship in a Globalized World: A Case Study in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estellés, Marta; Romero, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Considering the attention that global citizenship education has recently received, it is not much of a surprise that teacher education programs and courses around the world are including stated goals related to the preparation of teachers to educate their students for global and participatory citizenship. This is also the case of the Faculty of…

  14. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90% ...

  15. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations: 1. Case study development and ensemble large-scale forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Toto, Tami; Endo, Satoshi; Lin, Wuyin; Wang, Jian; Feng, Sha; Zhang, Yunyan; Turner, David D.; Liu, Yangang; Li, Zhijin; Xie, Shaocheng; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Zhang, Minghua; Khairoutdinov, Marat

    2015-06-01

    Observation-based modeling case studies of continental boundary layer clouds have been developed to study cloudy boundary layers, aerosol influences upon them, and their representation in cloud- and global-scale models. Three 60 h case study periods span the temporal evolution of cumulus, stratiform, and drizzling boundary layer cloud systems, representing mixed and transitional states rather than idealized or canonical cases. Based on in situ measurements from the Routine AAF (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility) CLOWD (Clouds with Low Optical Water Depth) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign and remote sensing observations, the cases are designed with a modular configuration to simplify use in large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. Aircraft measurements of aerosol number size distribution are fit to lognormal functions for concise representation in models. Values of the aerosol hygroscopicity parameter, κ, are derived from observations to be 0.10, which are lower than the 0.3 typical over continents and suggestive of a large aerosol organic fraction. Ensemble large-scale forcing data sets are derived from the ARM variational analysis, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, and a multiscale data assimilation system. The forcings are assessed through comparison of measured bulk atmospheric and cloud properties to those computed in "trial" large-eddy simulations, where more efficient run times are enabled through modest reductions in grid resolution and domain size compared to the full-sized LES grid. Simulations capture many of the general features observed, but the state-of-the-art forcings were limited at representing details of cloud onset, and tight gradients and high-resolution transients of importance. Methods for improving the initial conditions and forcings are discussed. The cases developed are available to the general modeling community for studying continental boundary clouds.

  16. Case Study of a Global Simulation in French as a Foreign Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Study of a Global Simulation in French as a Foreign Language with Beginner Level Learners at the University Of Namibia: A Search for an Authentic Language and Culture Exposure in an African Anglophone Country.

  17. The MUSIC of galaxy clusters - II. X-ray global properties and scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, V.; Sembolini, F.; De Petris, M.; Valdarnini, R.; Yepes, G.; Gottlöber, S.

    2014-03-01

    We present the X-ray properties and scaling relations of a large sample of clusters extracted from the Marenostrum MUltidark SImulations of galaxy Clusters (MUSIC) data set. We focus on a sub-sample of 179 clusters at redshift z ˜ 0.11, with 3.2 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ observations and derive observable-like global properties of the intracluster medium (ICM), as X-ray temperature (TX) and luminosity (LX). TX is found to slightly underestimate the true mass-weighted temperature, although tracing fairly well the cluster total mass. We also study the effects of TX on scaling relations with cluster intrinsic properties: total (M500 and gas Mg,500 mass; integrated Compton parameter (YSZ) of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) thermal effect; YX = Mg,500 TX. We confirm that YX is a very good mass proxy, with a scatter on M500-YX and YSZ-YX lower than 5 per cent. The study of scaling relations among X-ray, intrinsic and SZ properties indicates that simulated MUSIC clusters reasonably resemble the self-similar prediction, especially for correlations involving TX. The observational approach also allows for a more direct comparison with real clusters, from which we find deviations mainly due to the physical description of the ICM, affecting TX and, particularly, LX.

  18. Validation of a global scale to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork in mental health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Ryoko; Yamano, Mayumi; Osako, Mitue; Hirabayashi, Naotugu; Oshima, Nobuo; Sigeta, Masahiro; Reeves, Scott

    2017-12-01

    Few scales currently exist to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork through team members' perceptions of working together in mental health settings. The purpose of this study was to revise and validate an interprofessional scale to assess the quality of teamwork in inpatient psychiatric units and to use it multi-nationally. A literature review was undertaken to identify evaluative teamwork tools and develop an additional 12 items to ensure a broad global focus. Focus group discussions considered adaptation to different care systems using subjective judgements from 11 participants in a pre-test of items. Data quality, construct validity, reproducibility, and internal consistency were investigated in the survey using an international comparative design. Exploratory factor analysis yielded five factors with 21 items: 'patient/community centred care', 'collaborative communication', 'interprofessional conflict', 'role clarification', and 'environment'. High overall internal consistency, reproducibility, adequate face validity, and reasonable construct validity were shown in the USA and Japan. The revised Collaborative Practice Assessment Tool (CPAT) is a valid measure to assess the quality of interprofessional teamwork in psychiatry and identifies the best strategies to improve team performance. Furthermore, the revised scale will generate more rigorous evidence for collaborative practice in psychiatry internationally.

  19. Global stability analysis and robust design of multi-time-scale biological networks under parametric uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Baese, Anke; Koshkouei, Ali J; Emmett, Mark R; Goodall, David P

    2009-01-01

    Biological networks are prone to internal parametric fluctuations and external noises. Robustness represents a crucial property of these networks, which militates the effects of internal fluctuations and external noises. In this paper biological networks are formulated as coupled nonlinear differential systems operating at different time-scales under vanishing perturbations. In contrast to previous work viewing biological parametric uncertain systems as perturbations to a known nominal linear system, the perturbed biological system is modeled as nonlinear perturbations to a known nonlinear idealized system and is represented by two time-scales (subsystems). In addition, conditions for the existence of a global uniform attractor of the perturbed biological system are presented. By using an appropriate Lyapunov function for the coupled system, a maximal upper bound for the fast time-scale associated with the fast state is derived. The proposed robust system design principles are potentially applicable to robust biosynthetic network design. Finally, two examples of two important biological networks, a neural network and a gene regulatory network, are presented to illustrate the applicability of the developed theoretical framework.

  20. NMMB/BSC-DUST: an online mineral dust atmospheric model from meso to global scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, K.; Pérez, C.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.; Janjic, Z.; Black, T.; Nickovic, S.

    2009-04-01

    While mineral dust distribution and effects are important at global scales, they strongly depend on dust emissions that are controlled on small spatial and temporal scales. Most global dust models use prescribed wind fields provided by meteorological centers (e.g., NCEP and ECMWF) and their spatial resolution is currently never better than about 1°×1°. Regional dust models offer substantially higher resolution (10-20 km) and are typically coupled with weather forecast models that simulate processes that GCMs either cannot resolve or can resolve only poorly. These include internal circulation features such as the low-level nocturnal jet which is a crucial feature for dust emission in several dust ‘hot spot' sources in North Africa. Based on our modeling experience with the BSC-DREAM regional forecast model (http://www.bsc.es/projects/earthscience/DREAM/) we are currently implementing an improved mineral dust model [Pérez et al., 2008] coupled online with the new global/regional NMMB atmospheric model under development in NOAA/NCEP/EMC [Janjic, 2005]. The NMMB is an evolution of the operational WRF-NMME extending from meso to global scales. The NMMB will become the next-generation NCEP model for operational weather forecast in 2010. The corresponding unified non-hydrostatic dynamical core ranges from meso to global scale allowing regional and global simulations. It has got an add-on non-hydrostatic module and it is based on the Arakawa B-grid and hybrid pressure-sigma vertical coordinates. NMMB is fully embedded into the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF), treating dynamics and physics separately and coupling them easily within the ESMF structure. Our main goal is to provide global dust forecasts up to 7 days at mesoscale resolutions. New features of the model include a physically-based dust emission scheme after White [1979], Iversen and White [1982] and Marticorena and Bergametti [1995] that takes the effects of saltation and sandblasting into account

  1. Optimization Case Study: ISR Allocation in the Global Force Management Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    CASE STUDY: ISR ALLOCATION IN THE GLOBAL FORCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS by Guillermo I. Carrillo September 2016 Thesis Advisor: Walter E. Owen...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZATION CASE STUDY: ISR ALLOCATION IN THE GLOBAL FORCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS 5...maximizes the distribution of a finite number of full motion video intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance ( ISR ) assets to a prioritized list of

  2. Management games in learning process of business skills : case: global management challenge Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Yichuan

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is management games in learning process of business skills, Case: Global Management Challenge Finland. The thesis seeks to find out how different management games are used worldwide in learning business skills, it introduces the biggest strategic and management game: Global Management Challenge, studies the case of this game in Finland, discusses how management games could help students learn different business skills and proposes future training programs for thi...

  3. Asbestos case and its current implications for global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marsili

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding a major body of evidence on the carcinogenicity of all asbestos fibres and a general consensus of the scientific community on the health impact of this agent, asbestos is still produced and used in a large number of countries, thus determining further harm for future generations. Prevention of asbestos-related disease requires international cooperation, transfer of know-how and dissemination of successful procedures in order to contrast asbestos exposure in the frame of a global environmental health approach.

  4. Scaling up Corporate Social Investments in Education: Five Strategies That Work. Global Views. Policy Paper 2012-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Fleet, Justin W.

    2012-01-01

    Scaling up good corporate social investment practices in developing countries is crucial to realizing the "Education for All" and "Millennium Development Goals". Yet very few corporate social investments have the right mix of vision, financing, cross-sector engagement and leadership to come to scale. Globally, 67 million…

  5. The politics of land deals - a comparative analysis of global land policies on large-scale land acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoog, S.M.; Amsterdam/Berlin/Sao Paulo, Global Land Project

    2014-01-01

    Due to current crises, large-scale land acquisition is becoming a topic of growing concern. Public data from the ‘Land Matrix Global Observatory’ project demonstrates that in low- and middle-income countries, since 2000, 1,419 large-scale land deals (transnational and domestic) have been concluded,

  6. The Politics of Land Deals : A Comparative Analysis of Global Land Policies on Large-Scale Land Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoog, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to current crises, large-scale land acquisition is becoming a topic of growing concern. Public data from the ‘Land Matrix Global Observatory’ demonstrates that since 2000, 1,782 large-scale land transactions in low- and middle-income countries were reported, covering an area of more than 137

  7. The Politics of Land Deals – A Comparative Analysis of Global Land Policies on Large-Scale Land Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoog, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to current crises, large-scale land acquisition is becoming a topic of growing concern. Public data from the ‘Land Matrix Global Observatory’ project demonstrates that since 2000, 1,609 large-scale land transactions in low- and middle-income countries were reported, covering an area of 68

  8. Responding to Globalization: Impacts of Certification on Colombian Small-Scale Coffee Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Rueda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eco-certification of food and other agricultural products has been promoted as a way of making markets work for sustainability. Certification programs offer a price premium to producers who invest in more sustainable practices. The literature on the impacts of certification has focused primarily on the economic benefits farmers perceive from participating in these schemes. These benefits, however, are often subject to price variability, offering only a partial explanation of why farmers join and stay in certification programs. We evaluated the potential of the Rainforest Alliance certification program to foster more resilient social-ecological systems in the face of globalization. Using the case of Santander, Colombia, and a pair-based comparison of 86 households to effectively produce a robust counterfactual, we showed that certification provides important environmental benefits, while improving the well-being of farmers and their communities. Furthermore, the study showed that price premiums are only one of many elements defining the success of certification, particularly important for motivating farmers to join, but less so to explain retention and upgrading. The case of Colombian coffee growers illustrates how the connections between local social-ecological systems and larger global forces can produce more sustainable livelihoods and land uses.

  9. Improving Treatment Trial Outcomes for Rett Syndrome: The Development of Rett-specific Anchors for the Clinical Global Impression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neul, Jeffrey L; Glaze, Daniel G; Percy, Alan K; Feyma, Tim; Beisang, Arthur; Dinh, Thuy; Suter, Bernhard; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Snape, Mike; Horrigan, Joseph; Jones, Nancy E

    2015-11-01

    Rett syndrome is a genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder. Although the clinical consequences of Rett syndrome are profound and lifelong, currently no approved drug treatments are available specifically targeted to Rett symptoms. High quality outcome measures, specific to the core symptoms of a disorder are a critical component of well-designed clinical trials for individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. The Clinical Global Impression Scale is a measure of global clinical change with strong face validity that has been widely used as an outcome measure in clinical trials of central nervous system disorders. Despite its favorable assay sensitivity in clinical trials, as a global measure, the Clinical Global Impression Scale is not specific to the signs and symptoms of the disorder under study. Development of key anchors for the scale, specific to the disorder being assessed, holds promise for enhancing the validity and reliability of the measure for disorders such as Rett syndrome. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Competing in the Global LED Industry: The Case of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Light-emitting diode (LED is a very essential application for energy-savings nowadays. The revenue of the Taiwan LED components industry is ranked top one in the world, followed by that of Japan and South Korea. Based on the advantage of their electronics industry, Taiwanese LED companies create a unique model to compete with the international firms. Large international LED companies achieve economies of scale by vertically integrating their operations. Taiwanese LED companies specialize and achieve an optimal efficiency by vertically disintegrating across the upstream, midstream, and downstream sectors in the value chains. Taiwanese LED companies create economies of scale and economies of scope through a complete industrial value chain.

  11. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  12. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  13. Studying Scale-Up and Spread as Social Practice: Theoretical Introduction and Empirical Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, James; Shaw, Sara; Wherton, Joseph; Hughes, Gemma; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2017-07-07

    Health and care technologies often succeed on a small scale but fail to achieve widespread use (scale-up) or become routine practice in other settings (spread). One reason for this is under-theorization of the process of scale-up and spread, for which a potentially fruitful theoretical approach is to consider the adoption and use of technologies as social practices. This study aimed to use an in-depth case study of assisted living to explore the feasibility and usefulness of a social practice approach to explaining the scale-up of an assisted-living technology across a local system of health and social care. This was an individual case study of the implementation of a Global Positioning System (GPS) "geo-fence" for a person living with dementia, nested in a much wider program of ethnographic research and organizational case study of technology implementation across health and social care (Studies in Co-creating Assisted Living Solutions [SCALS] in the United Kingdom). A layered sociological analysis included micro-level data on the index case, meso-level data on the organization, and macro-level data on the wider social, technological, economic, and political context. Data (interviews, ethnographic notes, and documents) were analyzed and synthesized using structuration theory. A social practice lens enabled the uptake of the GPS technology to be studied in the context of what human actors found salient, meaningful, ethical, legal, materially possible, and professionally or culturally appropriate in particular social situations. Data extracts were used to illustrate three exemplar findings. First, professional practice is (and probably always will be) oriented not to "implementing technologies" but to providing excellent, ethical care to sick and vulnerable individuals. Second, in order to "work," health and care technologies rely heavily on human relationships and situated knowledge. Third, such technologies do not just need to be adopted by individuals; they need

  14. Global-scale analysis of river flow alterations due to water withdrawals and reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Döll

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Global-scale information on natural river flows and anthropogenic river flow alterations is required to identify areas where aqueous ecosystems are expected to be strongly degraded. Such information can support the identification of environmental flow guidelines and a sustainable water management that balances the water demands of humans and ecosystems. This study presents the first global assessment of the anthropogenic alteration of river flow regimes, in particular of flow variability, by water withdrawals and dams/reservoirs. Six ecologically relevant flow indicators were quantified using an improved version of the global water model WaterGAP. WaterGAP simulated, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 degree, river discharge as affected by human water withdrawals and dams around the year 2000, as well as naturalized discharge without this type of human interference. Compared to naturalized conditions, long-term average global discharge into oceans and internal sinks has decreased by 2.7% due to water withdrawals, and by 0.8% due to dams. Mainly due to irrigation, long-term average river discharge and statistical low flow Q90 (monthly river discharge that is exceeded in 9 out of 10 months have decreased by more than 10% on one sixth and one quarter of the global land area (excluding Antarctica and Greenland, respectively. Q90 has increased significantly on only 5% of the land area, downstream of reservoirs. Due to both water withdrawals and reservoirs, seasonal flow amplitude has decreased significantly on one sixth of the land area, while interannual variability has increased on one quarter of the land area mainly due to irrigation. It has decreased on only 8% of the land area, in areas downstream of reservoirs where consumptive water use is low. The impact of reservoirs is likely underestimated by our study as small reservoirs are not taken into account. Areas most affected by anthropogenic river flow

  15. Case studies address global health research, partnerships, equity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-07-16

    Jul 16, 2012 ... ... Trends, Outcomes and Impacts. Evaluating a streamlined clinical tool and educational outreach intervention for health care workers in Malawi: The PALM PLUS case study. Comparing antiretroviral treatment outcomes between a prospective community-based and hospital-based cohort of HIV patients in ...

  16. Managing common resources in local and global systems. Applying theory across scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sylvia [ed.

    1997-12-31

    The main point brought forward in this publication is the productiveness of applying theoretical elements, developed within common property resource (CPR) literature, to a broader field of cases on different scales. The common framework for the contributions is a series of seminars held at the Department of Water and Environmental Studies in the spring of 1996, covering expanding work during the last decade on common property resource (CPR) management. It is obvious that there were a broad range of definitions of the concept CPR in the literature. The common pool/property resource concepts are both used, often depending on the resource studied, and authors in this volume have used both terms accordingly. Certain points are raised from empirical cases presented in this volume that are partly missing or not thoroughly stressed in other work in the area of CPR management and which crystallized much clearer when contrasting the situation for cases from different scales. Separate abstracts have been performed for five of the seven contributions

  17. Environmental degradation, global food production, and risk for large-scale migrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeoes, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate to what extent global food production is affected by the ongoing environmental degradation through processes, such as soil erosion, salinization, chemical contamination, ultraviolet radiation, and biotic stress. Estimates have also been made of available opportunities to improve food production efficiency by, e.g., increased use of fertilizers, irrigation, and biotechnology, as well as improved management. Expected losses and gains of agricultural land in competition with urbanization, industrial development, and forests have been taken into account. Although estimated gains in food production deliberately have been overestimated and losses underestimated, calculations indicate that during the next 30-35 years the annual net gain in food production will be significantly lower than the rate of world population growth. An attempt has also been made to identify possible scenarios for large-scale migrations, caused mainly by rapid population growth in combination with insufficient local food production and poverty. 18 refs, 7 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Theoretical Characterization of Visual Signatures and Calculation of Approximate Global Harmonic Frequency Scaling Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashinski, D. O.; Nelson, R. G.; Chase, G. M.; di Nallo, O. E.; Byrd, E. F. C.

    2016-05-01

    We are investigating the accuracy of theoretical models used to predict the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared spectra, as well as other properties, of product materials ejected from the muzzle of currently fielded systems. Recent advances in solid propellants has made the management of muzzle signature (flash) a principle issue in weapons development across the calibers. A priori prediction of the electromagnetic spectra of formulations will allow researchers to tailor blends that yield desired signatures and determine spectrographic detection ranges. Quantum chemistry methods at various levels of sophistication have been employed to optimize molecular geometries, compute unscaled harmonic frequencies, and determine the optical spectra of specific gas-phase species. Electronic excitations are being computed using Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT). Calculation of approximate global harmonic frequency scaling factors for specific DFT functionals is also in progress. A full statistical analysis and reliability assessment of computational results is currently underway. Work supported by the ARL, DoD-HPCMP, and USMA.

  19. [Against the odds: strategies, achievements and challenges of nursing on a global scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luiz A de Castro

    2008-01-01

    This essay focuses upon the transnational history of Professional Nursing. Women leaders across the Atlantic were behind major associative movements touched by feminist and libertarian ideas. Since the 1890s, this crisscrossing of actors and ideas defies any simple labeling of'national models'. This paper argues against the existence of a 'French model', as an alternative to the ideas and practices proposed by the 'Rockefeller nurses' in Rio de Janeiro during the 1920s. Instead, the roots of professionalism at that time could only be sown by the American nurses, who breathed from a truly transnational debate. At that time of intense ideological agitation about doctrines and best practices, the International Council of Nurses (ICN) pointed in the direction of increasing autonomy, associational life, and anti-patriarchal ideologies. This international process, often discontinuous and contradictory, stressed an ethics of caring and stimulated an ethos of professional autonomy among nurses on a global scale.

  20. Tracking global change at local scales: Phenology for science, outreach, conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharron, Ed; Mitchell, Brian

    2011-06-01

    A Workshop Exploring the Use of Phenology Studies for Public Engagement; New Orleans, Louisiana, 14 March 2011 ; During a George Wright Society Conference session that was led by the USA National Phenology Network (USANPN; http://www.usanpn.org) and the National Park Service (NPS), professionals from government organizations, nonprofits, and higher-education institutions came together to explore the possibilities of using phenology monitoring to engage the public. One of the most visible effects of global change on ecosystems is shifts in phenology: the timing of biological events such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds. These shifts are already occurring and reflect biological responses to climate change at local to regional scales. Changes in phenology have important implications for species ecology and resource management and, because they are place-based and tangible, serve as an ideal platform for education, outreach, and citizen science.

  1. The Centre for Mountain Studies: Active From Scottish to Global Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Woolvin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Centre for Mountain Studies (CMS, located at Perth College, University of the Highlands and Islands, Scotland, hosts the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Chair in Sustainable Mountain Development. Since 2000, CMS staff and students have been active in research and knowledge exchange activities at scales from the local—in Scotland—to the global (Price 2011; Glass et al 2013. In addition to hosting the Mountains of our Future Earth conference (Perth III, recent international activities have focused on climate change, biosphere reserves, social innovation, and stakeholder engagement in biodiversity research. Projects in Scotland have mainly addressed land management and local communities. The CMS also runs a part-time online MSc program in Sustainable Mountain Development.

  2. Plant diversity increases with the strength of negative density dependence at the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaManna, Joseph A; Mangan, Scott A; Alonso, Alfonso; Bourg, Norman A; Brockelman, Warren Y; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Chang, Li-Wan; Chiang, Jyh-Min; Chuyong, George B; Clay, Keith; Condit, Richard; Cordell, Susan; Davies, Stuart J; Furniss, Tucker J; Giardina, Christian P; Gunatilleke, I A U Nimal; Gunatilleke, C V Savitri; He, Fangliang; Howe, Robert W; Hubbell, Stephen P; Hsieh, Chang-Fu; Inman-Narahari, Faith M; Janík, David; Johnson, Daniel J; Kenfack, David; Korte, Lisa; Král, Kamil; Larson, Andrew J; Lutz, James A; McMahon, Sean M; McShea, William J; Memiaghe, Hervé R; Nathalang, Anuttara; Novotny, Vojtech; Ong, Perry S; Orwig, David A; Ostertag, Rebecca; Parker, Geoffrey G; Phillips, Richard P; Sack, Lawren; Sun, I-Fang; Tello, J Sebastián; Thomas, Duncan W; Turner, Benjamin L; Vela Díaz, Dilys M; Vrška, Tomáš; Weiblen, George D; Wolf, Amy; Yap, Sandra; Myers, Jonathan A

    2017-06-30

    Theory predicts that higher biodiversity in the tropics is maintained by specialized interactions among plants and their natural enemies that result in conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD). By using more than 3000 species and nearly 2.4 million trees across 24 forest plots worldwide, we show that global patterns in tree species diversity reflect not only stronger CNDD at tropical versus temperate latitudes but also a latitudinal shift in the relationship between CNDD and species abundance. CNDD was stronger for rare species at tropical versus temperate latitudes, potentially causing the persistence of greater numbers of rare species in the tropics. Our study reveals fundamental differences in the nature of local-scale biotic interactions that contribute to the maintenance of species diversity across temperate and tropical communities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  3. Globalization, Inequality, and Transnational Activism: A Case Study on Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moctezuma Garcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has transformed how states are governed through a neoliberal economic approach that reinforces an unregulated capitalist market. An emphasis on Chile is important because it was the first state in Latin America to apply neoliberalism and has been hailed as a prime example for other developing states to integrate similar strategies to strengthen the local economy. However, inequality continues to persist despite economic gains. A combination of historical struggles affecting victims of the Pinochet era and present struggles with poverty, have resulted in a constant conflict between the power elite and the rest of society. Social movements in Chile have played a pivotal role in raising international awareness and pressuring the local government to protect the rights of highly vulnerable populations. A focus on transnational activism provides an effective medium for local and international advocates to work together toward holding Chile accountable for addressing social disparities.

  4. SUSTAINABLE TALL BUILDINGS: CASES FROM THE GLOBAL SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheir M Al-Kodmany

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines recent sustainable tall buildings in the Global South, mainly in the Middle East and China. These buildings are redefining how architects, engineers, and planners view skyscrapers, creating a new building typology in regards to function, ecology, technology, and user comfort, in the process. These “futuristic” buildings are setting new social, spatial, and environmental standards, setting a milestone in ecologically friendly architecture. Most of the reviewed projects in this paper have achieved national and international recognition from architectural and planning organizations. They represent the most recent work in the field and have exerted a profound impact on the architectural profession. This paper also summarizes the key lessons that sustainable tall buildings have brought to the field, highlighting the role of breakthrough technologies in enhancing the efficient performance and sustainability of future tall buildings.

  5. Gender, technology change and globalization: the case of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H; Zhao, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of women workers in China while the country's economy is changing into a globalized, technologically advanced one. New computer-based technology is increasingly acknowledged as a powerful and pervasive force that can shape or, at least in many ways, affect employment. It is hailed for opening up fresh employment opportunities and reducing the physical stress involved in work. However, the possibilities of redundancies or intensification of workload also exist. By focusing on changes in women's work, the article reveals the contradictions inherent in following a development path based on ever-higher levels of technology in the context of an intensive mode of production, to which productivity is the core value. The economy is bolstered and some workers gain employment in expanding industries. However, workers, who lack access to training and who are reliant on the dwindling state support for their reproductive responsibilities, are marginalized and seek employment in the growing informal economy.

  6. The use of global rating scales for OSCEs in veterinary medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma K Read

    Full Text Available OSCEs (Objective Structured Clinical Examinations are widely used in health professions to assess clinical skills competence. Raters use standardized binary checklists (CL or multi-dimensional global rating scales (GRS to score candidates performing specific tasks. This study assessed the reliability of CL and GRS scores in the assessment of veterinary students, and is the first study to demonstrate the reliability of GRS within veterinary medical education. Twelve raters from two different schools (6 from University of Calgary [UCVM] and 6 from Royal (Dick School of Veterinary Studies [R(DSVS] were asked to score 12 students (6 from each school. All raters assessed all students (video recordings during 4 OSCE stations (bovine haltering, gowning and gloving, equine bandaging and skin suturing. Raters scored students using a CL, followed by the GRS. Novice raters (6 R(DSVS were assessed independently of expert raters (6 UCVM. Generalizability theory (G theory, analysis of variance (ANOVA and t-tests were used to determine the reliability of rater scores, assess any between school differences (by student, by rater, and determine if there were differences between CL and GRS scores. There was no significant difference in rater performance with use of the CL or the GRS. Scores from the CL were significantly higher than scores from the GRS. The reliability of checklist scores were .42 and .76 for novice and expert raters respectively. The reliability of the global rating scale scores were .7 and .86 for novice and expert raters respectively. A decision study (D-study showed that once trained using CL, GRS could be utilized to reliably score clinical skills in veterinary medicine with both novice and experienced raters.

  7. Regional and urban down scaling of global climate scenarios for health impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Perez, L.; Gonzalez, R. M.; Pecci, J.; Garzon, A.; Palacios, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this contribution we have used global climate RCP IPCC scenarios to produce climate and air pollution maps at regional (25 km resolution) and urban scale with 200 m spatial resolution over Europe and five European cities in order to investigate the impact on meteorological variables and pollutant concentrations . We have used the very well known mesoscale meteorological model WRF-Chem (NOAA, US). We have used 2011 as control past year and two RCP scenarios from CCSM global climate model with 4.5 W/m2 and 8.5 W/m2 for 2030, 2050 and 2100 years. After running WRF-Chem model, using the boundary conditions provided by RCP scenarios with the emissions of 2011, we have performed a detailed down scaling process using CALMET diagnostic model to obtain a full 200 m spatial resolution map of five European cities (London, Antwerp, Madrid, Milan, and Helsinki). We will show the results and the health impacts for future RCP IPCC climate scenarios in comparison with the 2011 control year information for climate and health indicators. Finally, we have also investigated the impact of the aerosol effects in the short wave radiation mean value. Two simulations with the WRF-Chem model have been performed over Europe in 2010. A baseline simulation without any feedback effects and a second simulation including the direct effects affecting the solar radiation reaching the surface as well as the indirect aerosol effect with potential impacts on increasing or decreasing the precipitation rates. Aerosol effects produce an increase of incoming radiation over Atlantic Ocean (up to 70%) because the prescribed aerosol concentrations in the WRF-Chem without feedbacks is substantially higher than the aerosol concentrations produced when we activate the feedback effects. The decrease in solar radiation in the Sahara area (10%) is found to be produced because the prescribed aerosol concentration in the no feedback simulation is lower than when we activate the feedback effects. (Author)

  8. Magnitude and variability of land evaporation and its components at the global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Miralles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A process-based methodology is applied to estimate land-surface evaporation from multi-satellite information. GLEAM (Global Land-surface Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology combines a wide range of remotely-sensed observations to derive daily actual evaporation and its different components. Soil water stress conditions are defined from a root-zone profile of soil moisture and used to estimate transpiration based on a Priestley and Taylor equation. The methodology also derives evaporationfrom bare soil and snow sublimation. Tall vegetation rainfall interception is independently estimated by means of the Gash analytical model. Here, GLEAM is applied daily, at global scale and a quarter degree resolution. Triple collocation is used to calculate the error structure of the evaporation estimates and test the relative merits of two different precipitation inputs. The spatial distribution of evaporation – and its different components – is analysed to understand the relative importance of each component over different ecosystems. Annual land evaporation is estimated as 67.9 × 103 km3, 80% corresponding to transpiration, 11% to interception loss, 7% to bare soil evaporation and 2% snow sublimation. Results show that rainfall interception plays an important role in the partition of precipitation into evaporation and water available for runoff at a continental scale. This study gives insights into the relative importance of precipitation and net radiation in driving evaporation, and how the seasonal influence of these controls varies over different regions. Precipitation is recognised as an important factor driving evaporation, not only in areas that have limited soil water availability, but also in areas of high rainfall interception and low available energy.

  9. The use of global rating scales for OSCEs in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emma K; Bell, Catriona; Rhind, Susan; Hecker, Kent G

    2015-01-01

    OSCEs (Objective Structured Clinical Examinations) are widely used in health professions to assess clinical skills competence. Raters use standardized binary checklists (CL) or multi-dimensional global rating scales (GRS) to score candidates performing specific tasks. This study assessed the reliability of CL and GRS scores in the assessment of veterinary students, and is the first study to demonstrate the reliability of GRS within veterinary medical education. Twelve raters from two different schools (6 from University of Calgary [UCVM] and 6 from Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies [R(D)SVS] were asked to score 12 students (6 from each school). All raters assessed all students (video recordings) during 4 OSCE stations (bovine haltering, gowning and gloving, equine bandaging and skin suturing). Raters scored students using a CL, followed by the GRS. Novice raters (6 R(D)SVS) were assessed independently of expert raters (6 UCVM). Generalizability theory (G theory), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests were used to determine the reliability of rater scores, assess any between school differences (by student, by rater), and determine if there were differences between CL and GRS scores. There was no significant difference in rater performance with use of the CL or the GRS. Scores from the CL were significantly higher than scores from the GRS. The reliability of checklist scores were .42 and .76 for novice and expert raters respectively. The reliability of the global rating scale scores were .7 and .86 for novice and expert raters respectively. A decision study (D-study) showed that once trained using CL, GRS could be utilized to reliably score clinical skills in veterinary medicine with both novice and experienced raters.

  10. Regional and urban down scaling of global climate scenarios for health impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Perez, L.; Gonzalez, R. M.; Pecci, J.; Garzon, A.; Palacios, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we have used global climate RCP IPCC scenarios to produce climate and air pollution maps at regional (25 km resolution) and urban scale with 200 m spatial resolution over Europe and five European cities in order to investigate the impact on meteorological variables and pollutant concentrations . We have used the very well known mesoscale meteorological model WRF-Chem (NOAA, US). We have used 2011 as control past year and two RCP scenarios from CCSM global climate model with 4.5 W/m2 and 8.5 W/m2 for 2030, 2050 and 2100 years. After running WRF-Chem model, using the boundary conditions provided by RCP scenarios with the emissions of 2011, we have performed a detailed down scaling process using CALMET diagnostic model to obtain a full 200 m spatial resolution map of five European cities (London, Antwerp, Madrid, Milan, and Helsinki). We will show the results and the health impacts for future RCP IPCC climate scenarios in comparison with the 2011 control year information for climate and health indicators. Finally, we have also investigated the impact of the aerosol effects in the short wave radiation mean value. Two simulations with the WRF-Chem model have been performed over Europe in 2010. A baseline simulation without any feedback effects and a second simulation including the direct effects affecting the solar radiation reaching the surface as well as the indirect aerosol effect with potential impacts on increasing or decreasing the precipitation rates. Aerosol effects produce an increase of incoming radiation over Atlantic Ocean (up to 70%) because the prescribed aerosol concentrations in the WRF-Chem without feedbacks is substantially higher than the aerosol concentrations produced when we activate the feedback effects. The decrease in solar radiation in the Sahara area (10%) is found to be produced because the prescribed aerosol concentration in the no feedback simulation is lower than when we activate the feedback effects. (Author)

  11. How Much Global Burned Area Can Be Forecast on Seasonal Time Scales Using Sea Surface Temperatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Morton, Douglas C.; Andela, Niels; Giglio, Louis; Randerson, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale sea surface temperature (SST) patterns influence the interannual variability of burned area in many regions by means of climate controls on fuel continuity, amount, and moisture content. Some of the variability in burned area is predictable on seasonal timescales because fuel characteristics respond to the cumulative effects of climate prior to the onset of the fire season. Here we systematically evaluated the degree to which annual burned area from the Global Fire Emissions Database version 4 with small fires (GFED4s) can be predicted using SSTs from 14 different ocean regions. We found that about 48 of global burned area can be forecast with a correlation coefficient that is significant at a p burning. Continental regions where burned area had a higher degree of predictability included equatorial Asia, where 92% of the burned area exceeded the correlation threshold, and Central America, where 86% of the burned area exceeded this threshold. Pacific Ocean indices describing the El Nino-Southern Oscillation were more important than indices from other ocean basins, accounting for about 1/3 of the total predictable global burned area. A model that combined two indices from different oceans considerably improved model performance, suggesting that fires in many regions respond to forcing from more than one ocean basin. Using OCI-burned area relationships and a clustering algorithm, we identified 12 hotspot regions in which fires had a consistent response to SST patterns. Annual burned area in these regions can be predicted with moderate confidence levels, suggesting operational forecasts may be possible with the aim of improving ecosystem management.

  12. An Evaluation of Ozone Dry Deposition in Global Scale Chemistry Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardacre, C.; Wild, O.; Emberson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Dry deposition of atmospheric oxidants to the Earth's surface or vegetation is important as both a major removal pathway governing their atmospheric abundance and as a key input of oxidants and nutrients to sensitive vegetation surfaces. By linking the atmosphere and biosphere, dry deposition processes contribute to wider climate and Earth system feedbacks which need to be adequately quantified for a full understanding of Earth system responses. In addition, they have immediate policy-relevant implications for air quality, ecosystem health and crop productivity that need to be assessed on local, regional and global scales. In this study we use results from the recent Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP) model intercomparison to explore how dry deposition of ozone varies across 15 current atmospheric chemistry and transport models. While most models take a similar, resistances-based approach to parameterising dry deposition, there are substantial differences across the models in the magnitude and variability of the annual and monthly ozone deposition fluxes which contribute to the differences in modelled surface ozone and in the global tropospheric ozone budget. We find that the range in global ozone deposition flux over the HTAP model ensemble spans about 30% with deposition to ocean, grass land and tropical forests being particularly variable. Further, we compare modelled dry deposition of ozone to measurements made at a variety of locations in Europe and North America, noting differences of up to a factor of two but no clear systematic bias over the sites examined. We extend this analysis by running sensitivity studies to determine the importance of key parameters in the ozone dry deposition process, including soil moisture and leaf area index. This study provides an important first step towards quantifying the uncertainty in ozone dry deposition and permitting a more thorough, observation-based evaluation of this important process.

  13. A Global Analysis of Fine-Scale Wadati-Benioff Zone Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldhauser, F.; Schaff, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the fine-scale seismicity structure of subducting slabs worldwide using high-precision earthquake locations computed from a global, cross-correlation-based double-difference analysis of the complete ISC bulletin data and waveforms archived at IRIS. Correlation statistics of the more than 30 regional and teleseismic phase types processed vary greatly between different subduction zones, as does the distribution of correlated earthquakes along the slabs. Most of the correlated phases along the Aleutian arc, one of our initial focus regions, are first arriving P- and S-waves and core phases, with rapidly decaying numbers of correlated later arriving phases. In comparison, the South American subduction zone shows similar numbers of correlations for most phase types. The distribution of correlated earthquakes in the Aleutian subduction zone extends along a band in the center of the seismogenic zone, suggesting that brittle failure near the up-dip and down-dip edges of the mega thrust is more complex. The distribution of correlated earthquakes in more complicated settings like the South American and Sumatra-Andaman subduction zones is modulated by changes in slab geometry and structure, consistent with focal mechanisms of larger event in these areas. The relocations typically image a narrower and more clearly defined Wadatai-Benioff zone (WBZ) compared to the ISC locations. They delineate the subduction interface and reveal detailed seismicity structures within both the subducting and the overriding plates. With relative location uncertainties of a few km or better we are able to resolve and study the internal structure and spatio-temporal characteristics of WBZ seismicity. The new data is able to resolve the narrow (data, using Slab1.0 as a global proxy for slab geometry. An initial global search for DSZs did not indicate that DSZs are a characteristic feature of all subduction zones.

  14. The population genomics of begomoviruses: global scale population structure and gene flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna HC

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapidly growing availability of diverse full genome sequences from across the world is increasing the feasibility of studying the large-scale population processes that underly observable pattern of virus diversity. In particular, characterizing the genetic structure of virus populations could potentially reveal much about how factors such as geographical distributions, host ranges and gene flow between populations combine to produce the discontinuous patterns of genetic diversity that we perceive as distinct virus species. Among the richest and most diverse full genome datasets that are available is that for the dicotyledonous plant infecting genus, Begomovirus, in the Family Geminiviridae. The begomoviruses all share the same whitefly vector, are highly recombinogenic and are distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions where they seriously threaten the food security of the world's poorest people. Results We focus here on using a model-based population genetic approach to identify the genetically distinct sub-populations within the global begomovirus meta-population. We demonstrate the existence of at least seven major sub-populations that can further be sub-divided into as many as thirty four significantly differentiated and genetically cohesive minor sub-populations. Using the population structure framework revealed in the present study, we further explored the extent of gene flow and recombination between genetic populations. Conclusions Although geographical barriers are apparently the most significant underlying cause of the seven major population sub-divisions, within the framework of these sub-divisions, we explore patterns of gene flow to reveal that both host range differences and genetic barriers to recombination have probably been major contributors to the minor population sub-divisions that we have identified. We believe that the global Begomovirus population structure revealed here could

  15. Dissonance and harmony between global and regional-scale seismic anisotropy and mantle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    Huge numbers of SKS splitting observations and improved surface-wave based models of azimuthal anisotropy have advanced our understanding of how convection is recorded in mantle fabrics in the upper mantle. However, we are still debating the relative importance of frozen to actively forming olivine fabrics, subduction zone anisotropy lacks a clear reference model, and regional marine studies yield conflicting evidence as to what exactly is going on at the base of the plates and below. Here, I review the degree of agreement between regional and global observations of seismic anisotropy and how well those may be matched by first-order mantle convection models. Updated bean counting can help contextualize the spatial scales of alignment, and I discuss several examples of the relative roles of plate shear to mantle density anomalies and frozen-in structure for oceanic and continental plates. Resolution of seismological models is globally uneven, but there are some locales where such exercises may yield information on the relative strength of asthenosphere and mantle. Another long-standing question is how olivine fabrics record flow under different stress and volatile conditions. I illustrate how different petrological assumptions might be used to reconcile observations of azimuthal dependency of wave speeds for both Love and Rayleigh waves, and how this could improve our models of the upper mantle, much in the spirit of Montagner's vectorial tomography. This is but one approach to improve the regional realism of global geodynamic background models to understand where in space and time dissonance arises, and if a harmonious model may yet be constructed given our assumptions about the workings of the mantle.

  16. Relationships between human population density and burned area at continental and global scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistinas, Ioannis; Oom, Duarte; Sá, Ana C L; Harrison, Sandy P; Prentice, I Colin; Pereira, José M C

    2013-01-01

    We explore the large spatial variation in the relationship between population density and burned area, using continental-scale Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) based on 13 years of satellite-derived burned area maps from the global fire emissions database (GFED) and the human population density from the gridded population of the world (GPW 2005). Significant relationships are observed over 51.5% of the global land area, and the area affected varies from continent to continent: population density has a significant impact on fire over most of Asia and Africa but is important in explaining fire over population density is associated with both increased and decreased in fire. The nature of the relationship depends on land-use: increasing population density is associated with increased burned are in rangelands but with decreased burned area in croplands. Overall, the relationship between population density and burned area is non-monotonic: burned area initially increases with population density and then decreases when population density exceeds a threshold. These thresholds vary regionally. Our study contributes to improved understanding of how human activities relate to burned area, and should contribute to a better estimate of atmospheric emissions from biomass burning.

  17. The Effects of Bursty Bulk Flows on Global-Scale Current Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Cao, J.; Fu, H.; Lu, H.; Yao, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Using a global magnetospheric MHD model coupled with a kinetic ring current model, we investigate the effects of magnetotail dynamics, particularly the earthward bursty bulk flows (BBFs) produced by the tail reconnection, on the global-scale current systems. The simulation results indicate that after BBFs brake around X = -10 RE due to the dipolar "magnetic wall," vortices are generated on the edge of the braking region and inside the inner magnetosphere. Each pair of vortex in the inner magnetosphere disturbs the westward ring current to arc radially inward as well as toward high latitudes. The resultant pressure gradient on the azimuthal direction induces region-1 sense field-aligned component from the ring current, which eventually is diverted into the ionosphere at high latitudes, giving rise to a pair of field-aligned current (FAC) eddies in the ionosphere. On the edge of the flow braking region where vortices also emerge, a pair of region-1 sense FACs arises, diverted fromthe cross-tail duskward current, generating a substorm current wedge. This is again attributed to the increase of thermal pressure ahead of the bursty flows turning azimuthally. It is further found that when multiple BBFs, despite their localization, continually and rapidly impinge on the "wall," carrying sufficient tail plasma sheet population toward the Earth, they can lead to the formation of a new ring current. These results indicate the important role that BBFs play in bridging the tail and the inner magnetosphere ring current and bring new insight into the storm-substorm relation.

  18. Born Global from the Resource-Based Theory: A Case Study in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tabares

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how a born global firm goes into international market from inception at its early years. The objective of this paper is to analyze from the resource-based theory how a born global firm engages in international market. This empirical investigation has been carried out as an explorative single-case study, a high-tech firm, Digital Partner, based in Medellin, Antioquia. The main findings of the research show that organizational capabilities based on intellectual capital are crucial for the development of a born global. Thus, capabilities such as entrepreneurship, global vision, internationally market knowledge, learning management, IT capabilities, technological innovation, collaborative work, networks and customer orientation are recurrent and they correspond to other similar research results. Contributions of the study are both academic (for the advance of the research in born global field and practical (for the design of governmental policies to foster born global firms.

  19. Modeling urbanization patterns at a global scale with generative adversarial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, A. T.; Strano, E.; Gonzalez, M.

    2017-12-01

    Current demographic projections show that, in the next 30 years, global population growth will mostly take place in developing countries. Coupled with a decrease in density, such population growth could potentially double the land occupied by settlements by 2050. The lack of reliable and globally consistent socio-demographic data, coupled with the limited predictive performance underlying traditional urban spatial explicit models, call for developing better predictive methods, calibrated using a globally-consistent dataset. Thus, richer models of the spatial interplay between the urban built-up land, population distribution and energy use are central to the discussion around the expansion and development of cities, and their impact on the environment in the context of a changing climate. In this talk we discuss methods for, and present an analysis of, urban form, defined as the spatial distribution of macroeconomic quantities that characterize a city, using modern machine learning methods and best-available remote-sensing data for the world's largest 25,000 cities. We first show that these cities may be described by a small set of patterns in radial building density, nighttime luminosity, and population density, which highlight, to first order, differences in development and land use across the world. We observe significant, spatially-dependent variance around these typical patterns, which would be difficult to model using traditional statistical methods. We take a first step in addressing this challenge by developing CityGAN, a conditional generative adversarial network model for simulating realistic urban forms. To guide learning and measure the quality of the simulated synthetic cities, we develop a specialized loss function for GAN optimization that incorporates standard spatial statistics used by urban analysis experts. Our framework is a stark departure from both the standard physics-based approaches in the literature (that view urban forms as fractals with a

  20. Global Scale DAYCENT Model Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies for Cropped Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Grosso, S.; Parton, W.; Ojima, D.; Deangelo, B.; Rose, S.

    2005-12-01

    Conversion of native vegetation to cropland and intensification of agriculture typically results in increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and NO3 leaching. Agriculture is responsible for ~50% and ~70%, respectively, of the anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O. Agriculture is also the primary contributor of eutrophication of aquatic systems from nutrients that are runoff or leached from cropped fields into waterways. Regional and larger scale estimates of GHG emissions and NO3 leaching are usually based on IPCC emission factor methodology, which is associated with high uncertainty. Process based models, such as DAYCENT, are just beginning to be used for national inventories of GHG emissions. The methodology used to conduct DAYCENT global and regional scale simulations of three major crops (corn, soybean, wheat) under baseline and alternative management is described in detail by Ojima et al. in this session. We compared model generated baseline GHG emissions and N losses for irrigated and rainfed cropping with land use alternatives intended to reduce GHG emissions. Mitigation scenarios considered are: nitrification inhibitors, split fertilizer application, N fertilizer reduction, and no-till cultivation. Simulations suggest that use of nitrification inhibitors leads to the largest reduction in N losses (~10%) and conversion to no till can store C and further offset GHG emissions associated with agriculture. Reduced fertilizer resulted in lower N losses, but crop yields were also reduced. Use of nitrification inhibitors and split fertilizer application both led to increased (~6%) crop yields. Future simulations will explore interactions between different mitigation options.

  1. From global circulation to flood loss: Coupling models across the scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Guido; Gomez-Navarro, Juan Jose; Bozhinova, Denica; Zischg, Andreas; Raible, Christoph C.; Ole, Roessler; Martius, Olivia; Weingartner, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    The prediction and the prevention of flood losses requires an extensive understanding of underlying meteorological, hydrological, hydraulic and damage processes. Coupled models help to improve the understanding of such underlying processes and therefore contribute the understanding of flood risk. Using such a modelling approach to determine potentially flood-affected areas and damages requires a complex coupling between several models operating at different spatial and temporal scales. Although the isolated parts of the single modelling components are well established and commonly used in the literature, a full coupling including a mesoscale meteorological model driven by a global circulation one, a hydrologic model, a hydrodynamic model and a flood impact and loss model has not been reported so far. In the present study, we tackle the application of such a coupled model chain in terms of computational resources, scale effects, and model performance. From a technical point of view, results show the general applicability of such a coupled model, as well as good model performance. From a practical point of view, such an approach enables the prediction of flood-induced damages, although some future challenges have been identified.

  2. The Case for a Global Ban on Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph; Castleman, Barry; Frank, Arthur; Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Morris; Huff, James; Joshi, Tushar Kant; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lemen, Richard; Myers, Jonny; Soffritti, Morando; Soskolne, Colin L.; Takahashi, Ken; Teitelbaum, Daniel; Terracini, Benedetto; Watterson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Background All forms of asbestos are now banned in 52 countries. Safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with it. Nonetheless, many countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products, and in those that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called “controlled use” of chrysotile asbestos is often exempted from the ban. In fact, chrysotile has accounted for > 95% of all the asbestos used globally. Objective We examined and evaluated the literature used to support the exemption of chrysotile asbestos from the ban and how its exemption reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. Discussion All forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, are proven human carcinogens. All forms cause malignant mesothelioma and lung and laryngeal cancers, and may cause ovarian, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk. Illnesses and deaths from asbestos exposure are entirely preventable. Conclusions All countries of the world have an obligation to their citizens to join in the international endeavor to ban the mining, manufacture, and use of all forms of asbestos. An international ban is urgently needed. There is no medical or scientific basis to exempt chrysotile from the worldwide ban of asbestos. PMID:20601329

  3. BRAIN DRAIN IN THE GLOBALIZATION ERA: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA BĂLAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration is an old phenomenon in the history of humankind. However, the magnitude, complexity, and structure of migration flows in the global era are all unprecedented. According to the United Nations Report “Trends in International Migrant Stock: the 2015 Revision” at world level 244 million international migrants were recorded in 2015. With the increase in the number of migrants, the emigration of ‘high-skilled’ individuals is also growing. OECD and United Nation Statistics show that in the last decade the number of migrants with tertiary education increased by about 70%. Brain drain is also a well-known phenomenon. Highly educated individuals and scientists have travelled the world in all centuries in search of better study and research, and working conditions, and of new opportunities. Nowadays, in the era of globalisation and, implicitly, of swifter development of international markets, the emigration rate of high-skilled experts exceeds the total emigration rate, which shows the selectiveness of migration at educational level. The paper presents a brief analysis of the interdependencies between migration and globalisation and of the effects of globalisation on the migration of high-skilled individuals. The trends, structure, and volume of high-skilled labour force from Romania are analysed along with the effects generated by them.

  4. Large-scale global convection in the mantle beneath Australia from 55 Ma to now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The global-scale mantle convection cells in the asthenosphere are not geochemically homogeneous. The heterogeneity is most prominently reflected in the isotopic compositions (Pb-Sr-Nd) of the mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) that are direct partial melts from the underlying asthenosphere. Of particular relevance to Australia's geodynamic evolution from about 100 million years, are the distinctive geochemical signatures of the asthenosphere beneath the Pacific Ocean (Pacific MORB) and Indian Ocean (Indian MORB). Therefore, delineation of the boundary between the two distinct mantle reservoirs and any change in that boundary with time provide information about the patterns of global-scale asthenospheric mantle convection. This information has also allowed us to track large-scale mantle chemical reservoirs such as the distinctive Gondwana lithospheric mantle, and hence better understand the geodynamic evolution of the Australian continent from the time of Gondwana dispersal. Pb-Sr-Nd isotope data for Cenozoic basalts in eastern Australia (Zhang et al, 1999) indicate that Pacific-MORB type isotopic signatures characterise the lava-field basalts (55-14 Ma) in southeastern Australia, whereas Indian-MORB type isotopic signatures characterise younger basalts (6-0 Ma) from northeastern Australia. This discovery helps to constrain the changing locus of the major asthenospheric mantle convection cells represented by the Pacific and Indian MORB sources during and following the breakup of the eastern part of Gondwana, and locates, for the first time, the boundary of these convection cells beneath the Australian continent. This extends previous work in the SW Pacific back-arc basins (eg Hickey-Vargas et al., 1995) and the Southern Ocean (Lanyon et al., 1995) that indicates that the 1- and P-MORB mantle convection cells have been moving in opposite directions since the early Tertiary. These new data also indicate that the Indian-MORB source is a long-term asthenospheric

  5. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  6. Implementing subgrid-scale cloudiness into the Model for Prediction Across Scales-Atmosphere (MPAS-A) for next generation global air quality modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A next generation air quality modeling system is being developed at the U.S. EPA to enable seamless modeling of air quality from global to regional to (eventually) local scales. State of the science chemistry and aerosol modules from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) mo...

  7. Sustainable Land Use in Mountain Regions Under Global Change: Synthesis Across Scales and Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Huber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions provide essential ecosystem goods and services (EGS for both mountain dwellers and people living outside these areas. Global change endangers the capacity of mountain ecosystems to provide key services. The Mountland project focused on three case study regions in the Swiss Alps and aimed to propose land-use practices and alternative policy solutions to ensure the provision of key EGS under climate and land-use changes. We summarized and synthesized the results of the project and provide insights into the ecological, socioeconomic, and political processes relevant for analyzing global change impacts on a European mountain region. In Mountland, an integrative approach was applied, combining methods from economics and the political and natural sciences to analyze ecosystem functioning from a holistic human-environment system perspective. In general, surveys, experiments, and model results revealed that climate and socioeconomic changes are likely to increase the vulnerability of the EGS analyzed. We regard the following key characteristics of coupled human-environment systems as central to our case study areas in mountain regions: thresholds, heterogeneity, trade-offs, and feedback. Our results suggest that the institutional framework should be strengthened in a way that better addresses these characteristics, allowing for (1 more integrative approaches, (2 a more network-oriented management and steering of political processes that integrate local stakeholders, and (3 enhanced capacity building to decrease the identified vulnerability as central elements in the policy process. Further, to maintain and support the future provision of EGS in mountain regions, policy making should also focus on project-oriented, cross-sectoral policies and spatial planning as a coordination instrument for land use in general.

  8. Prospects for resilience and sustainability of urban socio-techno-ecological systems to evolving stressors at global, regional, and local scales (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization is occurring at an accelerating rate against a backdrop of the numerous other globally significant environmental changes that are the hallmark of the Anthropocene. Thus an understanding of the environmental impacts of urbanization must recognize the multiscalar context of other environmental changes. Cities are focal points of human population, production, and consumption, including the generation of waste and most of the critical emissions to the atmosphere. They are highly modified and dominated by built structure. They are generally depauperate of species and harbor their own microclimates and hot spots of pollutants. But they also are centers of human creative activities, and in that capacity may provide platforms for the transition to a more sustainable world. A view of the city, a complex social-technological-ecological system, as both driver and responder to these multiple stressors is key to developing appropriate conceptual frameworks for understanding urban ecosystem change. The convergence of global environmental change, including climate change, and worldwide urbanization presents numerous challenges for sustainability that are manifest at global, regional, and local scales. This presentation will explore the current reality and future prospects for resilience of cities and, more specifically, urban water systems, to extant and changing stressors at these three scales. At the global scale, challenges of supplying water for three billion new urban residents in the coming decades are explored through a geography of water availability, quality, and accessibility. At regional scales, I highlight differences in solutions to climate change-related challenges that derive from geophysical and socioecological gradients. And, at the local scale, blended technological and ecological solutions to the challenges of urban stormwater and the 'new normal' are discussed, based on a case study in an arid urban ecosystem. Urban resilience and sustainability

  9. The role of zonally asymmetric heating in the vertical and temporal structure of the global scale flow fields during FGGE SOP-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paegle, J.; Kalnay, E.; Baker, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    The global scale structure of atmospheric flow is best documented on time scales longer than a few days. Theoretical and observational studies of ultralong waves have emphasized forcing due to global scale variations of topography and surface heat flux, possibly interacting with baroclinically unstable or vertically refracting basic flows. Analyses of SOP-1 data in terms of global scale spherical harmonics is documented with emphasis upon weekly transitions.

  10. Global powertrains - the GM case; Globale Antriebssysteme - Die Strategie von GM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, R.J. [General Motors Powertrain Europe, Turin (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In today's environment the development of vehicles is confronted with very high customer expectations and legislative restrictions, which can only be fulfilled with a high technological effort and profound know how. These challenges are further increased due to the diversity of markets with regional preferences and increased cost and demand for energy. At the same time it is a principle for General Motors to offer our customers a sustainable and economical individual mobility. The worldwide development strategy of GM powertrain is following exactly this philosophy: efficient and and cost-effective technologies are being developed for gasoline and diesel engines in order to fulfill all of todays and all prognosed future requirements. Based on this GM has defined it's longterm strategy, the march to zero, which includes alternative propulsion systems with the ultimate goal of the neutral emission vehicle with ensured energy supply. With a unique worldwide development network GM is in an optimal position to take on this challenge. Already today GM is successfully using the synergies of competence centers all over the world for the global development strategy. Modern powertrains are based on a common structure but allow regional adaptation to all markets by using a modular system. This development philosophy is one of the cornerstones for General Motors position as the world's largest carmaker. (orig.)

  11. A Comparison of Change in the 0–10 Numeric Rating Scale to a Pain Relief Scale and Global Medication Performance Scale in a Short-term Clinical Trial of Breakthrough Pain Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, John T.; Polomano, Rosemary C.; Berlin, Jesse A.; Strom, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pain intensity is commonly reported using a 0–10 numeric rating scale in breakthrough pain clinical trials. Analysis of the change on the Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale as a proportion as most consistently correlated with clinically important differences reported on the Patient Global Impression of Change. The analysis of data using a different global outcome measures and the pain relief scale will extend our understanding of these measures. Use of the pain relief scale is also explored in this study Methods Data came from the open titration phase of a multiple crossover, randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate to immediate-release oral morphine sulfate for treatment of cancer-related breakthrough pain. Raw and percent changes in the pain intensity scores on 1,307 from 134 oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate-naive patients were compared to the clinically relevant secondary outcomes of the pain relief verbal response scale and the global medication performance. The changes in raw and percent change were assessed over time and compared to the ordinal pain relief verbal response scale and global medication performance scales. Results The p-value of the interaction between the raw pain intensity difference was significant but not for the percent pain intensity difference score over 4 15 minute time periods (p = 0.034 and p = 0.26 respectively), in comparison with the ordinal pain relief verbal response scale (p = 0.0048 and p = 0.36 respectively), and global medication performance categories (p = 0.048 and p = 0.45 respectively). Conclusion The change in pain intensity in breakthrough pain was more consistent over time and when compared to both the pain relief verbal response scale and global medication performance scale when the percent change is used rather than raw pain intensity difference. PMID:20463579

  12. Modeling the recovery and degradation of mangroves at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Fatoyinbo, T.; Lee, S. K.; Feliciano, E. A.; Trettin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Forest growth and reforestation rates are crucial information for sustainable forest management practices and decision-making for restoration projects. There has been a recent increase in mangrove blue carbon restoration projects because of their extremely high carbon density, globally can reach over 1000 Mg ha-1 of carbon. If ecosystem projects do plan to facilitate mangrove restoration or deter land cover changes as a climate change mitigation strategy or in other carbon inventory strategies, unbiased field inventories need to become the norm. It is known that mangrove carbon can be extremely high in certain geographic settings, but that is not the case for many other regions. Remotely sensed canopy height has recently been incorporated into mangrove field inventories which provides an unbiased, readily accessible, and spatially-explicit model that was used to stratify the inventory design into discrete height classes. Combining the forest canopy height distribution captured from space and the field inventory data, biomass and carbon density were determined for each height class. Here, we present mangrove vertical growth rates and global carbon stock changes modeled through the combination of remotely sensed land cover change and canopy height class models using Landsat-derived vegetation index anomalies and synthetic aperture radar interferometry, respectively. Average growth rates ( 1-1.5m yr-1) were determined for four mangrove forests in the Zambezi, Rufiji, Ganges, and Mekong Deltas. An average global net productivity (9-10 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) was then derived using the four sites which represent young, fast-growing mangrove forests. Global mangrove carbon change was calculated using the average productivity estimates and land cover change from 2000 to 2015. Losses were categorized based on canopy height derived biomass classes in 2000 using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, while gained carbon stocks were assessed by using the study-derived mean

  13. Global analysis of seagrass restoration: the importance of large-scale planting

    KAUST Repository

    van Katwijk, Marieke M.

    2015-10-28

    In coastal and estuarine systems, foundation species like seagrasses, mangroves, saltmarshes or corals provide important ecosystem services. Seagrasses are globally declining and their reintroduction has been shown to restore ecosystem functions. However, seagrass restoration is often challenging, given the dynamic and stressful environment that seagrasses often grow in. From our world-wide meta-analysis of seagrass restoration trials (1786 trials), we describe general features and best practice for seagrass restoration. We confirm that removal of threats is important prior to replanting. Reduced water quality (mainly eutrophication), and construction activities led to poorer restoration success than, for instance, dredging, local direct impact and natural causes. Proximity to and recovery of donor beds were positively correlated with trial performance. Planting techniques can influence restoration success. The meta-analysis shows that both trial survival and seagrass population growth rate in trials that survived are positively affected by the number of plants or seeds initially transplanted. This relationship between restoration scale and restoration success was not related to trial characteristics of the initial restoration. The majority of the seagrass restoration trials have been very small, which may explain the low overall trial survival rate (i.e. estimated 37%). Successful regrowth of the foundation seagrass species appears to require crossing a minimum threshold of reintroduced individuals. Our study provides the first global field evidence for the requirement of a critical mass for recovery, which may also hold for other foundation species showing strong positive feedback to a dynamic environment. Synthesis and applications. For effective restoration of seagrass foundation species in its typically dynamic, stressful environment, introduction of large numbers is seen to be beneficial and probably serves two purposes. First, a large-scale planting

  14. Benefits of economic criteria for water scarcity management under global changes: insights from a large-scale hydroeconomic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice; Nassopoulos, Hypatia

    2016-04-01

    Global changes are expected to exacerbate water scarcity issues in the Mediterranean region in the next decades. In this work, we investigate the impacts of reservoirs operation rules based on an economic criterion. We examine whether can they help reduce the costs of water scarcity, and whether they become more relevant under future climatic and socioeconomic conditions. We develop an original hydroeconomic model able to compare future water supply and demand on a large scale, while representing river basin heterogeneity. On the demand side, we focus on the two main sectors of water use: the irrigation and domestic sectors. Demands are projected in terms of both quantity and economic value. Irrigation requirements are computed for 12 types of crops, at the 0.5° spatial resolution, under future climatic conditions (A1B scenario). The computation of the economic benefits of irrigation water is based on a yield comparison approach between rainfed and irrigated crops. For the domestic sector, we project the combined effects of demographic growth, economic development and water cost evolution on future demands. The economic value of domestic water is defined as the economic surplus. On the supply side, we evaluate the impacts of climate change on water inflows to the reservoirs. Operating rules of the reservoirs are set up using a parameterisation-simulation-optimisation approach. The objective is to maximise water benefits. We introduce prudential parametric rules in order to take into account spatial and temporal trade-offs. The methodology is applied to Algeria at the 2050 horizon. Overall, our results show that the supply-demand imbalance and its costs will increase in most basins under future climatic and socioeconomic conditions. Our results suggest that the benefits of operating rules based on economic criteria are not unequivocally increased with global changes: in some basins the positive impact of economic prioritisation is higher under future conditions

  15. Improving Treatment Trial Outcomes for Rett Syndrome: the development of Rett-specific anchors for the Clinical Global Impression Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Neul, Jeff; Glaze, Daniel; Percy, Alan; Feyma, Tim; Beisang, Arthur; Dinh, Thuy; Suter, Bernhard; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Snape, Mike; Horrigan, Joseph; Jones, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder. While the clinical consequences of Rett syndrome are profound and life-long, currently no approved drug treatments are available specifically targeted to Rett symptoms. High quality outcome measures, specific to the core symptoms of a disorder are a critical component to well-designed clinical trials for individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. The Clinical Global Impression Scale is a measure of global clinical change wi...

  16. Optimal Stomatal Behaviour Around the World: Synthesis of a Global Stomatal Conductance Database and Scaling from Leaf to Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. S.; Medlyn, B. E.; Duursma, R.; Prentice, I. C.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Stomatal conductance (gs) is a key land surface attribute as it links transpiration, the dominant component of global land evapotranspiration and a key element of the global water cycle, and photosynthesis, the driving force of the global carbon cycle. Despite the pivotal role of gs in predictions of global water and carbon cycles, a global scale database and an associated globally applicable model of gs that allow predictions of stomatal behaviour are lacking. We present a unique database of globally distributed gs obtained in the field for a wide range of plant functional types (PFTs) and biomes. We employed a model of optimal stomatal conductance to assess differences in stomatal behaviour, and estimated the model slope coefficient, g1, which is directly related to the marginal carbon cost of water, for each dataset. We found that g1 varies considerably among PFTs, with evergreen savanna trees having the largest g1 (least conservative water use), followed by C3 grasses and crops, angiosperm trees, gymnosperm trees, and C4 grasses. Amongst angiosperm trees, species with higher wood density had a higher marginal carbon cost of water, as predicted by the theory underpinning the optimal stomatal model. There was an interactive effect between temperature and moisture availability on g1: for wet environments, g1 was largest in high temperature environments, indicated by high mean annual temperature during the period when temperature above 0oC (Tm), but it did not vary with Tm across dry environments. We examine whether these differences in leaf-scale behaviour are reflected in ecosystem-scale differences in water-use efficiency. These findings provide a robust theoretical framework for understanding and predicting the behaviour of stomatal conductance across biomes and across PFTs that can be applied to regional, continental and global-scale modelling of productivity and ecohydrological processes in a future changing climate.

  17. Community engagement in global health research: case studies from the developing world—the Zomba District, Malawi case study

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Emma R. M. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    Community engagement influences the success of research. Investigators conducting international research necessitate an understanding of effective practices in community engagement. This case study examines the practice of community engagement in Zomba District, Malawi as part of a larger multiple case studies design with the objective of elucidating global practices of community engagement. Poverty and disease are widespread in Malawi. Dignitas International, an academic NGO, implemented a c...

  18. The Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) in clinical practice--substance and reliability as judged by intraclass correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrborg, J; Larsen, F W; Nielsen, S

    2000-01-01

    Studies on the inter-rater reliability on the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) and the Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD) involving different subgroups of 145 outpatients from 4 to 16 years of age showed fair to substantial intraclass correlations of 0.59 to 0.90. Raters...... of different training levels participated. Interrater reliability was dependent on number of ratings per rater, training, available data sources and experience. A more detailed description of anchor points resulted in higher inter-rater agreement by psychiatrists training in child and adolescent psychiatry...

  19. Building essential biodiversity variables (EBVs) of species distribution and abundance at a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, W Daniel; Ahumada, Jorge A; Bowser, Anne; Fernandez, Miguel; Fernández, Néstor; García, Enrique Alonso; Guralnick, Robert P; Isaac, Nick J B; Kelling, Steve; Los, Wouter; McRae, Louise; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Obst, Matthias; Santamaria, Monica; Skidmore, Andrew K; Williams, Kristen J; Agosti, Donat; Amariles, Daniel; Arvanitidis, Christos; Bastin, Lucy; De Leo, Francesca; Egloff, Willi; Elith, Jane; Hobern, Donald; Martin, David; Pereira, Henrique M; Pesole, Graziano; Peterseil, Johannes; Saarenmaa, Hannu; Schigel, Dmitry; Schmeller, Dirk S; Segata, Nicola; Turak, Eren; Uhlir, Paul F; Wee, Brian; Hardisty, Alex R

    2018-02-01

    Much biodiversity data is collected worldwide, but it remains challenging to assemble the scattered knowledge for assessing biodiversity status and trends. The concept of Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) was introduced to structure biodiversity monitoring globally, and to harmonize and standardize biodiversity data from disparate sources to capture a minimum set of critical variables required to study, report and manage biodiversity change. Here, we assess the challenges of a 'Big Data' approach to building global EBV data products across taxa and spatiotemporal scales, focusing on species distribution and abundance. The majority of currently available data on species distributions derives from incidentally reported observations or from surveys where presence-only or presence-absence data are sampled repeatedly with standardized protocols. Most abundance data come from opportunistic population counts or from population time series using standardized protocols (e.g. repeated surveys of the same population from single or multiple sites). Enormous complexity exists in integrating these heterogeneous, multi-source data sets across space, time, taxa and different sampling methods. Integration of such data into global EBV data products requires correcting biases introduced by imperfect detection and varying sampling effort, dealing with different spatial resolution and extents, harmonizing measurement units from different data sources or sampling methods, applying statistical tools and models for spatial inter- or extrapolation, and quantifying sources of uncertainty and errors in data and models. To support the development of EBVs by the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON), we identify 11 key workflow steps that will operationalize the process of building EBV data products within and across research infrastructures worldwide. These workflow steps take multiple sequential activities into account, including identification and

  20. Chapter 6. Scaling Up Solutions to State, National and Global Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kammen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scaling-up solutions require learning and adapting lessons between locations and at different scales. To accomplish this, common metrics are vital to building a shared language. For California, this has meant careful financial, cradle-to-grave life-cycle assessment methods leading to carbon accounting in many avenues of government (via the Low Carbon Fuel Standard or the Cap and Trade program. These methods themselves interact, such as the use of carbon accounting for the resources needed to manage water and other key resources; the use of criteria air pollution monitoring to identify environmental injustices; and the use of carbon market revenues to address these inequalities, through investment in best available abatement technologies (BACT and in job creation in disadvantaged communities anticipated in the emerging clean energy sector.  Creating interdisciplinary partnerships across the UC Campuses and the National Laboratories to innovate science and technology is critical to scalable carbon neutrality solutions. As an example, we can build coordinated research and development programs across UC and California, with strong partnerships with the Federal government to coordinate and “multiply” resources that accelerate development and deployment. These partnerships should be strongly goal-focused, i.e., they are created to solve specific, large problems, to enable quantitatively measurable outcomes within energy generation, efficiency and CO2 abatement categories. Intersectoral partnerships should be fostered across campuses, laboratories, with state, federal and multi-lateral organizations funding to develop technologies and deploy solutions at scale. Integrated partnerships with industry are required to influence markets, deploy solutions, and create new industries and jobs.  Beyond California, we need to establish consortia with industry and foundations to deploy solutions at the regional, state, national, and international scale to

  1. Global climate change - a feasibility perspective of its effect on human health at a local scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Bernardi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available There are two responses to global climate change. First, mitigation, which actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester or store carbon in the short-term, and make development choices that will lead to low emissions in the long-term. Second, adaptation, which involves adjustments in natural or human systems and behaviours that reduce the risks posed by climate change to people’s lives and livelihoods. While the two are conceptually distinct, in practice they are very much interdependent, and both are equally urgent from a healthy population perspective. To define the policies to mitigate and to adapt to global climate change, data and information at all scales are the basic requirement for both developed and developing countries. However, as compared to mitigation, adaptation is an immediate concern for low-income countries and for small islands states, where the reduction of the emissions from greenhouse gases is not among their priorities. Adaptation is also highly location specific and the required ground data to assess the impacts of climate change on human health are not available. Climate data at high spatial resolution can be derived by various downscaling methods using historical and real-time meteorological observations but, particularly in low-income countries, the outputs are limited by the lack of ground data at the local level. In many of these countries, a negative trend in the number of meteorological stations as compared as to before 2000 is evident, while remotelysensed imagery becomes more and more available at high spatial and temporal resolution. The final consequence is that climate change policy options in the developing world are greatly jeopardized.

  2. First Applications of the New Parallel Krylov Solver for MODFLOW on a National and Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaik, J.; Hughes, J. D.; Sutanudjaja, E.; van Walsum, P.

    2016-12-01

    Integrated high-resolution hydrologic models are increasingly being used for evaluating water management measures at field scale. Their drawbacks are large memory requirements and long run times. Examples of such models are The Netherlands Hydrological Instrument (NHI) model and the PCRaster Global Water Balance (PCR-GLOBWB) model. Typical simulation periods are 30-100 years with daily timesteps. The NHI model predicts water demands in periods of drought, supporting operational and long-term water-supply decisions. The NHI is a state-of-the-art coupling of several models: a 7-layer MODFLOW groundwater model ( 6.5M 250m cells), a MetaSWAP model for the unsaturated zone (Richards emulator of 0.5M cells), and a surface water model (MOZART-DM). The PCR-GLOBWB model provides a grid-based representation of global terrestrial hydrology and this work uses the version that includes a 2-layer MODFLOW groundwater model ( 4.5M 10km cells). The Parallel Krylov Solver (PKS) speeds up computation by both distributed memory parallelization (Message Passing Interface) and shared memory parallelization (Open Multi-Processing). PKS includes conjugate gradient, bi-conjugate gradient stabilized, and generalized minimal residual linear accelerators that use an overlapping additive Schwarz domain decomposition preconditioner. PKS can be used for both structured and unstructured grids and has been fully integrated in MODFLOW-USG using METIS partitioning and in iMODFLOW using RCB partitioning. iMODFLOW is an accelerated version of MODFLOW-2005 that is implicitly and online coupled to MetaSWAP. Results for benchmarks carried out on the Cartesius Dutch supercomputer (https://userinfo.surfsara.nl/systems/cartesius) for the PCRGLOB-WB model and on a 2x16 core Windows machine for the NHI model show speedups up to 10-20 and 5-10, respectively.

  3. Biocrust ecology: Unifying micro- and macro-scales to confront global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrenberg, Scott; Reed, Sasha C.

    2017-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are communities of microbes, lichens and bryophytes living at the soil surface in drylands (Fig. 1; Belnap et al., 2016). Biocrusts occur on all continents and can comprise a majority of cover in some systems (Belnap et al., 2016). While species diversity and distributions have long been a research focus, interest in controls on community composition and cover has expanded as biocrusts are increasingly recognized for their roles in ecosystem functioning (Deane-Coe and Stanton, 2017). For example, biocrust organisms can stabilize soils (Belnap et al., 2016; Faist et al., 2017), fix atmospheric carbon (C) (Sancho et al., 2016), and serve as the foremost source of ‘new’ soil nitrogen (N) in drylands, via N2 fixation (Barger et al., 2016) These contributions to gross primary production and soil fertility could be quite large, as high-end estimates suggest biocrusts and similar communities of bryophytes and lichens might account for 10% of terrestrial C- and 50% of N-fixation globally (Elbert et al., 2012). Yet verifying these and other biocrust roles in ecosystem functioning is complicated by limited knowledge of biocrust cover and composition across the vast dryland biome (Ferrenberg et al., 2017).It was against this backdrop that ‘Biocrust3: the 3rd International workshop on biological soil crusts’ was held in Moab, UT, USA, on 26-30 September 2016. The workshop brought together over 50 scientists from 21 countries and six continents, and included numerous biocrust science pioneers (Fig. 2). The meeting was notable for its cross-scale focus, discussion of novel molecular and imaging techniques, and sessions on mapping and restoring biocrusts in a changing world. Here, we synthesize a central theme that emerged from Biocrust3, namely the potential for combining cutting edge tools with studies focused on organismal traits, ecosystem functions, and global change biology to advance the frontier of biocrust ecology.

  4. Sustainable global energy development: The case of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    . Even more expensive advanced clean coal combustion technologies could noticeably displace gas-fired combined cycle plants in regions with 'reasonably cheap gas prices' (EU) at regimes higher than 6500 h/year and even 4500 h/year. The worldwide replacement of old coal power plants by advanced coal combustion technologies would reduce world CO 2 emissions by 7 - 8 %. For the next decade or more, advanced clean coal combustion may well be the most effective single technology option to combat climate change, bridging the time for coal sequestration to gain maturity. Carbon sequestration in integrated multi-product chemical refineries - the next step - and carbon disposal are the subject of intense research. Against these realities and perspectives, coal's image remained poor. The global coal and associated industries would be well advised to join forces in a proactive campaign highlighting the potential of sustainable development from coal. Acceptance by the public and more balanced policies are at that price. Coal is not part of the problem of sustainability and energy poverty, but part of the solution. (author)

  5. Adaption of Talent Management Scale into Turkish: Sinop University Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Elife Dogan; Serin, Huseyin; Karakus, Ozge; Ergene, Ozkan; Corbaci, E. Cihat; Kilic, Nayil

    2017-01-01

    As a result of globalization, talented employees have been needed in the workplace anymore. With being hired of talented employees, new understanding of management has appeared and talent management has gained importance due to this new understanding. Talent management is a kind of management understanding according to which employees feel…

  6. Two bite mark cases with inadequate scale references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, M L

    1985-07-01

    Most literature addressing comparisons between epidermal bite marks and the perpetrator's bite pattern mandates fastidious coordination between the size of the compared reproductions. While ideal, this is not possible in every case and inability to control this variable in selected cases may not necessarily invalidate the comparison. The first case involves a known perpetrator. All photographic measurements were recorded with acceptable techniques to discover a serious discrepancy in arch size. The second case was degraded by the absence of a ruler in a tangentially made photograph of a bite mark. In both cases, the weight of the conclusions were lessened by these problems but the impartial handling of the evidence and explanation of discrepancies offered credibility to the analyses. Both cases illustrate that a technical infraction in processing and recording bite marks, though serious, need not automatically preempt the analysis.

  7. Fine-scale structure of the mid-mantle characterised by global stacks of PP precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentham, H. L. M.; Rost, S.; Thorne, M. S.

    2017-08-01

    Subduction zones are likely a major source of compositional heterogeneities in the mantle, which may preserve a record of the subduction history and mantle convection processes. The fine-scale structure associated with mantle heterogeneities can be studied using the scattered seismic wavefield that arrives as coda to or as energy preceding many body wave arrivals. In this study we analyse precursors to PP by creating stacks recorded at globally distributed stations. We create stacks aligned on the PP arrival in 5° distance bins (with range 70-120°) from 600 earthquakes recorded at 193 stations stacking a total of 7320 seismic records. As the energy trailing the direct P arrival, the P coda, interferes with the PP precursors, we suppress the P coda by subtracting a best fitting exponential curve to this energy. The resultant stacks show that PP precursors related to scattering from heterogeneities in the mantle are present for all distances. Lateral variations are explored by producing two regional stacks across the Atlantic and Pacific hemispheres, but we find only negligible differences in the precursory signature between these two regions. The similarity of these two regions suggests that well mixed subducted material can survive at upper and mid-mantle depth. To describe the scattered wavefield in the mantle, we compare the global stacks to synthetic seismograms generated using a Monte Carlo phonon scattering technique. We propose a best-fitting layered heterogeneity model, BRT2017, characterised by a three layer mantle with a background heterogeneity strength (ɛ = 0.8%) and a depth-interval of increased heterogeneity strength (ɛ = 1%) between 1000 km and 1800 km. The scalelength of heterogeneity is found to be 8 km throughout the mantle. Since mantle heterogeneity of 8 km scale may be linked to subducted oceanic crust, the detection of increased heterogeneity at mid-mantle depths could be associated with stalled slabs due to increases in viscosity

  8. The thermal environment of the human being on the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendritzky, Gerd; Tinz, Birger

    2009-11-11

    The close relationship between human health, performance, well-being and the thermal environment is obvious. Nevertheless, most studies of climate and climate change impacts show amazing shortcomings in the assessment of the environment. Populations living in different climates have different susceptibilities, due to socio-economic reasons, and different customary behavioural adaptations. The global distribution of risks of hazardous thermal exposure has not been analysed before. To produce maps of the baseline and future bioclimate that allows a direct comparison of the differences in the vulnerability of populations to thermal stress across the world. The required climatological data fields are obtained from climate simulations with the global General Circulation Model ECHAM4 in T106-resolution. For the thermo-physiologically relevant assessment of these climate data a complete heat budget model of the human being, the 'Perceived Temperature' procedure has been applied which already comprises adaptation by clothing to a certain degree. Short-term physiological acclimatisation is considered via Health Related Assessment of the Thermal Environment. The global maps 1971-1980 (control run, assumed as baseline climate) show a pattern of thermal stress intensities as frequencies of heat. The heat load for people living in warm-humid climates is the highest. Climate change will lead to clear differences in health-related thermal stress between baseline climate and the future bioclimate 2041-2050 based on the 'business-as-usual' greenhouse gas scenario IS92a. The majority of the world's population will be faced with more frequent and more intense heat strain in spite of an assumed level of acclimatisation. Further adaptation measures are crucial in order to reduce the vulnerability of the populations. This bioclimatology analysis provides a tool for various questions in climate and climate change impact research. Considerations of regional or local scale require climate

  9. Considering environmental water demands in global-scale water stress assessments: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doell, P.; Shmaktin, V.; Revenga, C.

    2003-04-01

    Freshwater ecosystems need certain water flow regimes to sustain their animal and plant communities. Thus, there is not only a human demand for water (i.e. for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes) but also a demand by freshwater ecosystems, here called environmental water demand. In order to achieve a sustainable development of river basins, both human and environmental water demands need to be taken into account in water management. For a comparative global-scale analysis of freshwater scarcity, it is therefore useful to compute river- basin specific budgets which contain the following terrestrial water flows (or rather flow components): 1) total renewable water resources (runoff), 2) human water withdrawals (and consumptive water uses) and 3) environmental water demands. In a pilot study, the global water availability and use model WaterGAP 2 (spatial resolution 0.5 degree) was used to derive such budgets for all river basins of the worlds. Its sectoral water use modules estimate human water withdrawals and consumptive water uses, while its hydrological module WGHM computes monthly values of surface runoff, groundwater recharge and river discharge. WGHM calculates both natural and actual discharge by simulating the reduction of river discharge by human water consumption. It is tuned against observed discharge at 724 gauging stations (representing about 50% of the global land area) to achieve a good simulation of the long-term average river discharge. Validation efforts have shown than WGHM can satisfactorily simulate the 90% reliable monthly discharge Q90 of river basins larger than 20,000 km2. Based on these capabilities of WaterGAP 2, a first estimate of basin-specific annual environmental water demands was derived as the sum of a low flow and a high flow requirement. Drawing on experience from South Africa, Q90 was assumed to represent the low flow that the ecosystems can tolerate, as it is the flow value that is not reached in 1 out of 10 months

  10. CASES ON GLOBAL E-LEARNING PRACTICES:Successes and Pitfalls

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz Akbulut

    2007-01-01

    Cases on Global E-Learning Practices: Successes and Pitfalls” look into the global practices of e-learning which has assumed a considerable role in the education sector recently. It is edited by Ramesh C. Sharma and Sanjaya Mishra from Indira Gandhi National Open University in New Delhi, India. It is published by Information Science Publishing, which is an imprint of Idea Group, an international publishing company specializing in research publications in the fields of technology, management ...

  11. Can we assess intra-basin tradeoffs using approaches derived from Global Hydrological Modeling? Case studies from Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaad, K.; Vollmer, D.; Regan, H.; Souter, N. J.; Andelman, S.; Chen, X.; Yanjun, D.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in GHMs, LSMs and related River-routing algorithms provide a consistent and coherent approach to link global hydrological processes and remotely-sensed satellite data to regional-scales. While progress has been made in characterizing regulating mechanisms on the rivers and LULC changes' impacts to basin hydrology, gaps remain in making these global tools relevant to local basin management. Here we show how adapting the approaches developed for the global models while allowing local input on regulating mechanism/land-cover changes, can work around the constraint of gaps in local data availability and technical capability, leading to basin-relevant insights in the context of integrated water resource management. Within the case study sites of Dongjiang (China) and Lower Mekong, a semi-distributed `network of network' framework for assessing impacts of tradeoffs within a basin is developed, composed of (a) a simple hydrological and routing model using HydroBASIN[1] sub-basin network as underlying grid; with for each sub-basin, (b) a "relations" network for derivation of ecosystem services, based on hydrologic and ecosystem processes as well as local demand. With this framework, we validate the impact of the local inputs by using the evaluation approach proposed by [2], based on ability of the model to represent the observed covariance structures between forcings and outflow. We then apply this semi-distributed framework to explore potential tradeoffs using development scenarios (e.g., urban expansion, water reallocation). Advances in the ability to swiftly link comprehensive global-scale hydrological information to local-scale issues may improve our capability to anticipate and respond to freshwater resource availability and management challenges. [1] Lehner, B., & Grill, G. (2013). Hydrological Processes, 27(15), 2171-2186. [2] Vogel, R. M., & Sankarasubramanian, A. (2003). Water Resources Research, 39(10).

  12. LGBT world championships: sexualized ghettos in global scale? Competições esportivas mundiais LGBT: guetos sexualizados em escala global?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Xavier de Camargo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ghettos are marginal territories, in which ethnic, religious, social and sexual minorities were encapsulated and segregated throughout History. Crossed by flows and tensions on movement in the global landscape, such spaces should be reanalyzed under a global perspective. Aiming to reflect on marginal territories of gender linked to LGBT sports events, this article has tried to re-think the concept of the ghetto from the "Chicago School", and analyze it according to new lenses, applied to two global and specific LGBT world championships (Gay Games and World OutGames. It was noticed that the occurrence of them and the expectations around "possibilities of ejaculation" of bodies, genders, sexualities, and desires, connected to the sports' world itself, open up the perspective that such events will perform a kind of "sexualized ghettos", i.e., territorialized spaces from sexual desires' practices, in the logic of a global circulation of desires, bodies and capitals.Os guetos são espaços circunscritos e marginais nos quais, ao longo da história, minorias religiosas, sociais, étnicas e sexuais foram encapsuladas e segregadas. Atravessados por fluxos e tensões em movimento do global landscape, tais territórios devem ser revisitados sob a ótica da globalização. Com o propósito de analisar territorialidades marginais de gênero atreladas a eventos esportivos LGBT, este artigo buscou ressemantizar o conceito de gueto da "Escola de Chicago" e repensá-lo segundo novas perspectivas analíticas, aplicadas a duas competições esportivas mundiais (Gay Games e World OutGames voltadas para o público LGBT. Percebeu-se que a ocorrência dessas competições e as expectativas em torno de "capitais ejaculantes" de corpos, sexos, desejos e sexualidades vinculados ao esporte abrem a perspectiva de que tais torneios performatizem "guetos sexualizados", isto é, espaços territorializados de práticas itinerantes de desejos, na lógica de uma circulação em

  13. A multicenter examination and strategic revisions of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joseph F; Piacentini, John; Storch, Eric A; Murphy, Tanya K; Ricketts, Emily J; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John W; Peterson, Alan L; Wilhelm, Sabine; Lewin, Adam B; McCracken, James T; Leckman, James F; Scahill, Lawrence

    2018-04-13

    To examine the internal consistency and distribution of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) scores to inform modification of the measure. This cross-sectional study included 617 participants with a tic disorder (516 children and 101 adults), who completed an age-appropriate diagnostic interview and the YGTSS to evaluate tic symptom severity. The distributions of scores on YGTSS dimensions were evaluated for normality and skewness. For dimensions that were skewed across motor and phonic tics, a modified Delphi consensus process was used to revise selected anchor points. Children and adults had similar clinical characteristics, including tic symptom severity. All participants were examined together. Strong internal consistency was identified for the YGTSS Motor Tic score (α = 0.80), YGTSS Phonic Tic score (α = 0.87), and YGTSS Total Tic score (α = 0.82). The YGTSS Total Tic and Impairment scores exhibited relatively normal distributions. Several subscales and individual item scales departed from a normal distribution. Higher scores were more often used on the Motor Tic Number, Frequency, and Intensity dimensions and the Phonic Tic Frequency dimension. By contrast, lower scores were more often used on Motor Tic Complexity and Interference, and Phonic Tic Number, Intensity, Complexity, and Interference. The YGTSS exhibits good internal consistency across children and adults. The parallel findings across Motor and Phonic Frequency, Complexity, and Interference dimensions prompted minor revisions to the anchor point description to promote use of the full range of scores in each dimension. Specific minor revisions to the YGTSS Phonic Tic Symptom Checklist were also proposed. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Along the Rainfall-Runoff Chain: From Scaling of Greatest Point Rainfall to Global Change Attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraedrich, K.

    2014-12-01

    Processes along the continental rainfall-runoff chain cover a wide range of time and space scales which are presented here combining observations (ranging from minutes to decades) and minimalist concepts. (i) Rainfall, which can be simulated by a censored first-order autoregressive process (vertical moisture fluxes), exhibits 1/f-spectra if presented as binary events (tropics), while extrema world wide increase with duration according to Jennings' scaling law. (ii) Runoff volatility (Yangtze) shows data collapse which, linked to an intra-annual 1/f-spectrum, is represented by a single function not unlike physical systems at criticality and the short and long return times of extremes are Weibull-distributed. Atmospheric and soil moisture variabilities are also discussed. (iii) Soil moisture (in a bucket), whose variability is interpreted by a biased coinflip Ansatz for rainfall events, adds an equation of state to energy and water flux balances comprising Budyko's frame work for quasi-stationary watershed analysis. Eco-hydrologic state space presentations in terms of surface flux ratios of energy excess (loss by sensible heat over supply by net radiation) versus water excess (loss by discharge over gain by precipitation) allow attributions of state change to external (or climate) and internal (or anthropogenic) causes. Including the vegetation-greenness index (NDVI) as an active tracer extends the eco-hydrologic state space analysis to supplement the common geographical presentations. Two examples demonstrate the approach combining ERA and MODIS data sets: (a) global geobotanic classification by combining first and second moments of the dryness ratio (net radiation over precipitation) and (b) regional attributions (Tibetan Plateau) of vegetation changes.

  15. Development of the Global Disability Scale (Glo.Di.S): preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Lekka, Eirini; Kouidi, Evangelia; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Deligiannis, Asterios; Maglaveras, Nickolaos

    2012-05-17

    The assessment of functioning and disability is an important part of the clinical evaluation, since it measures disease burden and reflects the effectiveness of therapeutic planning and interventions. The aim of the current study was to develop such a self-report instrument on the basis of a review of the literature, and compatible with the WHO approach. The review of the literature led to the development of the Global Disability Scale (Glo.Di.S) with 25 items assessing different aspects of disability. The study sample included 728 persons from vulnerable populations (homeless, jobless, very low income, single parent families etc.; (29.12% males and 70.88% females; aged 55.96 ± 15.22 years). The protocol included also the STAI and the CES-D. The statistical analysis included factor analysis item analysis and ANCOVA. The factor analysis revealed the presence of 4 factors explaining 71% of total variance (Everyday functioning, Social and interpersonal functioning, Severity and Mental disability). Chronbach's alpha for the whole scale was 0.95 and for subscales were 0.74-0.94. The results of the current study suggest that the Glo.Di.S. has the potential to serve as a reliable and valid tool for assessing functioning and disability. Further research is needed to prove that it could be useful across countries, populations and diseases, and whether it provides data that are culturally meaningful and comparable. It can be used in surveys and in clinical research settings and it can generate information of use in evaluating health needs and the effectiveness of interventions to reduce disability and improve health.

  16. Development of the Global Disability Scale (Glo.Di.S: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fountoulakis Konstantinos N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of functioning and disability is an important part of the clinical evaluation, since it measures disease burden and reflects the effectiveness of therapeutic planning and interventions. The aim of the current study was to develop such a self-report instrument on the basis of a review of the literature, and compatible with the WHO approach. Material and methods The review of the literature led to the development of the Global Disability Scale (Glo.Di.S with 25 items assessing different aspects of disability. The study sample included 728 persons from vulnerable populations (homeless, jobless, very low income, single parent families etc.; (29.12% males and 70.88% females; aged 55.96 ± 15.22 years. The protocol included also the STAI and the CES-D. The statistical analysis included factor analysis item analysis and ANCOVA. Results The factor analysis revealed the presence of 4 factors explaining 71% of total variance (Everyday functioning, Social and interpersonal functioning, Severity and Mental disability. Chronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was 0.95 and for subscales were 0.74–0.94. Discussion The results of the current study suggest that the Glo.Di.S. has the potential to serve as a reliable and valid tool for assessing functioning and disability. Further research is needed to prove that it could be useful across countries, populations and diseases, and whether it provides data that are culturally meaningful and comparable. It can be used in surveys and in clinical research settings and it can generate information of use in evaluating health needs and the effectiveness of interventions to reduce disability and improve health.

  17. The "first" case of cholera in Haiti: lessons for global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Louise C; Walton, David A

    2012-01-01

    Cholera is an acute watery diarrheal disease caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae. The disease has a high fatality rate when untreated and outbreaks of cholera have been increasing globally in the past decade, most recently in Haiti. We present the case of a 28-year-old Haitian male with a history of severe untreated mental health disorder that developed acute fatal watery diarrhea in mid-October 2010 in central Haiti after drinking from the local river. We believe he is the first or among the first cases of cholera in Haiti during the current epidemic. By reviewing his case, we extracted lessons for global health on the importance of mental health for overall health, the globalization of diseases in small communities, and the importance of a comprehensive approach to the health of communities when planning services in resource-poor settings.

  18. The “First” Case of Cholera in Haiti: Lessons for Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Louise C.; Walton, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Cholera is an acute watery diarrheal disease caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae. The disease has a high fatality rate when untreated and outbreaks of cholera have been increasing globally in the past decade, most recently in Haiti. We present the case of a 28-year-old Haitian male with a history of severe untreated mental health disorder that developed acute fatal watery diarrhea in mid-October 2010 in central Haiti after drinking from the local river. We believe he is the first or among the first cases of cholera in Haiti during the current epidemic. By reviewing his case, we extracted lessons for global health on the importance of mental health for overall health, the globalization of diseases in small communities, and the importance of a comprehensive approach to the health of communities when planning services in resource-poor settings. PMID:22232448

  19. Emerging global epidemiology of measles and public health response to confirmed case in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ananda Sankar; Bandy, Utpala

    2013-02-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral disease and rapid identification and control of cases/outbreaks are important global health priorities. Measles was declared eliminated from the United States in March 2000. However, importations from endemic countries continued through out the last decade and in 2011, the United States reported its highest number of cases in 15 years. With a global snapshot of current measles epidemiology and the persistent risk of transnational spread based on population movement as the backdrop, this article describes the rare event of a measles case identification in the state of Rhode Island and the corresponding public health response. As the global effort for measles elimination continues to make significant progress, sensitive public health surveillance systems and strong routine immunization programs will be important to ensure we maintain local and regional control.

  20. Decision making in Global Product Development: Case studies from Danish industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Erik Stefan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Globalisation leads engineering firms to replace traditional co-located development with global distributed development activities. They make decisions regarding global product development; often with limited experience and information available. Previous research points towards a need for better...... understanding and support of decisions made in global product development. Through case studies, this paper explores what information is needed for specific decision types. Findings show that decision making is often not a well-structured process, but also give an understanding of which assessments are needed...

  1. Transient global amnesia after cerebral angiography still occurs: Case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss-Skiftesvik, Jon; Snoer, Agneta Henriette; Wagner, Aase

    2014-01-01

    Transient global amnesia is considered a very rare complication of diagnostic cerebral angiography, and has only been reported in a limited number of case reports more than 15 years ago. We describe a patient experiencing transient global amnesia following cerebral digital subtraction angiography....... While the condition by definition is self-limiting, its differential diagnoses may cause severe morbidity and/or mortality if left untreated. It is therefore important to build and maintain awareness of transient global amnesia as a possible complication of cerebral angiography....

  2. Farmer responses to multiple stresses in the face of global change: Assessing five case studies to enhance adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Feola, G.; Lerner, A. M.; Jain, M.; Montefrio, M.

    2013-12-01

    The global challenge of sustaining agricultural livelihoods and yields in the face of growing populations and increasing climate change is the topic of intense research. The role of on-the-ground decision-making by individual farmers actually producing food, fuel, and fiber is often studied in individual cases to determine its environmental, economic, and social effects. However, there are few efforts to link across studies in a way that provides opportunities to better understand empirical farmer behavior, design effective policies, and be able to aggregate from case studies to a broader scale. Here we synthesize existing literature to identify four general factors affecting farmer decision-making: local technical and socio-cultural contexts; actors and institutions involved in decision-making; multiple stressors at broader scales; and the temporal gradient of decision-making. We use these factors to compare five cases that illustrate agricultural decision-making and its impacts: cotton and castor farming in Gujarat, India; swidden cultivation of upland rice in the Philippines; potato cultivation in Andean Colombia; winegrowing in Northern California; and maize production in peri-urban central Mexico. These cases span a geographic and economic range of production systems, but we find that we are able to make valid comparisons and draw lessons common across all cases by using the four factors as an organizing principle. We also find that our understanding of why farmers make the decisions they do changes if we neglect to examine even one of the four general factors guiding decision-making. This suggests that these four factors are important to understanding farmer decision-making, and can be used to guide the design and interpretation of future studies, as well as be the subject of further research in and of themselves to promote an agricultural system that is resilient to climate and other global environmental changes.

  3. Diagnostic tools for evaluating quasi-horizontal transport in global-scale chemistry models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Huikyo; Youn, Daeok; Patten, Kenneth O.; Olsen, Seth C.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    2012-10-01

    The upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) plays an important role in climate and atmospheric chemistry. Despite its importance on the point of causing deep intrusions of tropics originated air into the midlatitudes, the quasi-horizontal transport process in the UTLS, represented by global chemistry-transport models (CTMs) or chemistry-climate models (CCMs), cannot easily be diagnosed with conventional analyses on isobaric surfaces. We use improved diagnostic tools to better evaluate CTMs and CCMs relative to satellite observations in the region of UTLS. Using the Hellinger distance, vertical profiles of probability density functions (PDFs) of chemical tracers simulated by the Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers 3.1 (MOZART-3.1) are quantitatively compared with satellite data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument in the tropopause relative altitude coordinate to characterize features of tracer distributions near the tropopause. Overall, the comparison of PDFs between MLS and MOZART-3.1 did not satisfy the same population assumption. Conditional PDFs are used to understand the meteorological differences between global climate models and the real atmosphere and the conditional PDFs between MOZART-3.1 and MLS showed better agreement compared to the original PDFs. The low static stability during high tropopause heights at midlatitudes suggests that the variation of tropopause height is related to transport processes from the tropics to midlatitudes. MOZART-3.1 with the GEOS4 GCM winds reproduces episodes of the tropical air intrusions. However, our diagnostic analyses show that the GEOS4 GCM did not properly reproduce the high tropopause cases at midlatitudes especially in spring.

  4. Scaling up towards international targets for AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria: contribution of global fund-supported programs in 2011-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Katz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The paper projects the contribution to 2011-2015 international targets of three major pandemics by programs in 140 countries funded by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the largest external financier of tuberculosis and malaria programs and a major external funder of HIV programs in low and middle income countries. DESIGN: Estimates, using past trends, for the period 2011-2015 of the number of persons receiving antiretroviral (ARV treatment, tuberculosis case detection using the internationally approved DOTS strategy, and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs to be delivered by programs in low and middle income countries supported by the Global Fund compared to international targets established by UNAIDS, Stop TB Partnership, Roll Back Malaria Partnership and the World Health Organisation. RESULTS: Global Fund-supported programs are projected to provide ARV treatment to 5.5-5.8 million people, providing 30%-31% of the 2015 international target. Investments in tuberculosis and malaria control will enable reaching in 2015 60%-63% of the international target for tuberculosis case detection and 30%-35% of the ITN distribution target in sub-Saharan Africa. CONCLUSION: Global Fund investments will substantially contribute to the achievement by 2015 of international targets for HIV, TB and malaria. However, additional large scale international and domestic financing is needed if these targets are to be reached by 2015.

  5. Genetic variability of the stable fly assessed on a global scale using amplified fragment length polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeland, Kathleen M; Skoda, Steven R; Foster, John E

    2016-10-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is a blood-feeding, economically important pest of animals and humans worldwide. Improved management strategies are essential and their development would benefit from studies on genetic diversity of stable flies. Especially if done on a global scale, such research could generate information necessary for the development and application of more efficient control methods. Herein we report on a genetic study of stable flies using amplified fragment length polymorphism, with samples of 10-40 individuals acquired from a total of 25 locations in the Nearctic, Neotropic, Palearctic, Afrotropic and Australasian biogeographical regions. We hypothesized that genetic differentiation would exist across geographical barriers. Although FST (0.33) was moderately high, the GST (0.05; representing genetic diversity between individuals) was very low; Nm values (representing gene flow) were high (9.36). The mismatch distribution and tests of neutrality suggested population expansion, with no genetic differentiation between locations. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) results showed the majority of genetic diversity was within groups. The mantel test showed no correlation between geographic and genetic distance; this strongly supports the AMOVA results. These results suggest that stable flies did not show genetic differentiation but are panmictic, with no evidence of isolation by distance or across geographical barriers. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Ecosystem services and biogeochemical cycles on a global scale: valuation of water, carbon and nitrogen processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Marcos D.B.; Ortega, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are provided by healthy ecosystems and are fundamental to support human life. However, natural systems have been degraded all over the world and the process of degradation is partially attributed to the lack of knowledge regarding the economic benefits associated with ES, which usually are not captured in the market. To valuate ES without using conventional approaches, such as the human's willingness-to-pay for ecosystem goods and services, this paper uses a different method based on Energy Systems Theory to estimate prices for biogeochemical flows that affect ecosystem services by considering their emergy content converted to equivalent monetary terms. Ecosystem services related to water, carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical flows were assessed since they are connected to a range of final ecosystem services including climate regulation, hydrological regulation, food production, soil formation and others. Results in this paper indicate that aquifer recharge, groundwater flow, carbon dioxide sequestration, methane emission, biological nitrogen fixation, nitrous oxide emission and nitrogen leaching/runoff are the most critical biogeochemical flows in terrestrial systems. Moreover, monetary values related to biogeochemical flows on a global scale could provide important information for policymakers concerned with payment mechanisms for ecosystem services and costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. HIV scale-up in Mozambique: Exceptionalism, normalisation and global health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høg, Erling

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale introduction of HIV and AIDS services in Mozambique from 2000 onwards occurred in the context of deep political commitment to sovereign nation-building and an important transition in the nation's health system. Simultaneously, the international community encountered a willing state partner that recognised the need to take action against the HIV epidemic. This article examines two critical policy shifts: sustained international funding and public health system integration (the move from parallel to integrated HIV services). The Mozambican government struggles to support its national health system against privatisation, NGO competition and internal brain drain. This is a sovereignty issue. However, the dominant discourse on self-determination shows a contradictory twist: it is part of the political rhetoric to keep the sovereignty discourse alive, while the real challenge is coordination, not partnerships. Nevertheless, we need more anthropological studies to understand the political implications of global health funding and governance. Other studies need to examine the consequences of public health system integration for the quality of access to health care. PMID:24499102

  8. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD): Science Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.; McClintock, W. E.; Eastes, R.; Anderson, D. N.; Andersson, L.; Burns, A. G.; Codrescu, M.; Daniell, R. E.; England, S.; Eparvier, F. G.; Evans, J. S.; Krywonos, A.; Lumpe, J. D.; Richmond, A. D.; Rusch, D. W.; Siegmund, O.; Woods, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    The Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) is a NASA mission of opportunity that will image the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere from geostationary orbit. GOLD will investigate how the thermosphere-ionosphere (T-I) system responds to geomagnetic storms, solar radiation, and upward propagating tides and how the structure of the equatorial ionosphere influences the formation and evolution of equatorial plasma density irregularities. GOLD consists of a pair of identical imaging spectrographs that will measure airglow emissions at far-ultraviolet wavelengths from 132 to 162 nm. On the disk, temperature and composition will be determined during the day using emissions from molecular nitrogen Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) band and atomic oxygen 135.6 nm, and electron density will be derived at night from 135.6 nm emission. On the limb, exospheric temperature will be derived from LBH emission profiles, and molecular oxygen density will be measured using stellar occultations. This presentation describes the GOLD mission science implementation including the as-built instrument performance and the planned observing scenario. It also describes the results of simulations performed by the GOLD team to validate that the measured instrument performance and observing plan will return adequate data to address the science objectives of the mission.

  9. Global change impacts on large-scale biogeographic patterns of marine organisms on Atlantic oceanic islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P; Cordeiro, Ricardo; Madeira, Patrícia; Silva, Luís; Medeiros, António; Rebelo, Ana C; Melo, Carlos; Neto, Ana I; Haroun, Ricardo; Monteiro, António; Rijsdijk, Kenneth; Johnson, Markes E

    2018-01-01

    Past climate changes provide important clues for advancement of studies on current global change biology. We have tested large-scale biogeographic patterns through four marine groups from twelve Atlantic Ocean archipelagos and searched for patterns between species richness/endemism and littoral area, age, isolation, latitude and mean annual sea-surface temperatures. Species richness is strongly correlated with littoral area. Two reinforcing effects take place during glacial episodes: i) species richness is expected to decrease (in comparison with interglacial periods) due to the local disappearance of sandy/muddy-associated species; ii) because littoral area is minimal during glacial episodes, area per se induces a decrease on species richness (by extirpation/extinction of marine species) as well as affecting speciation rates. Maximum speciation rates are expected to occur during the interglacial periods, whereas immigration rates are expected to be higher at the LGM. Finally, sea-level changes are a paramount factor influencing marine biodiversity of animals and plants living on oceanic islands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tara Oceans' approach and new challenges in studying the ocean microbiome at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, L. P.; Sunagawa, S.; Chaffron, S.; Bowler, C.; Winker, P.; Karsenti, E.; Raes, J.; Acinas, S. G.; Bork, P.

    2016-02-01

    Drawing an ecosystem-wide picture of community structure, functional diversity and ecological drivers of the ocean microbiome has been a grand challenge. This has been primarily due to the lack of a systematically collected set of samples with associated environmental information at global scale. To address this limitation, Tara Oceans has so far collected more than 35,000 samples for genomic, morphological and environmental analyses from all major oceanic regions. Using an eco-systems biology approach, we analyzed 7.2 terabases of metagenomic data from 243 water samples that were collected at multiple depths to determine the main stratifying factors and environmental drivers of ocean microbial community structure and function. To this end, we constructed and annotated an ocean microbial reference gene catalog with >40 million non-redundant, mostly novel sequences from viruses, prokaryotes and picoeukaryotes. A focus on 139 prokaryote-enriched samples revealed microbiota to be primarily stratified into epipelagic and mesopelagic communities. For epipelagic communities, we disentangled co-correlations of environmental parameters and identified microbial communities composition to be mainly driven by temperature rather than geography. To resolve this overall pattern from community to species-level, we reconstructed clusters of core genes of dominant ocean microbial species and investigate their biogeography based on metagenomic profiling of single nucleotide polymorphisms. The integration of metatranscriptomic data is adding an additional layer of information to study their activity as a function of physicochemical differences of their environment.

  11. A Globally Stable Lyapunov Pointing and Rate Controller for the Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission (MMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neerav

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission (MMS) is scheduled to launch in late 2014. Its primary goal is to discover the fundamental plasma physics processes of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. Each of the four MMS spacecraft is spin-stabilized at a nominal rate of 3 RPM. Traditional spin-stabilized spacecraft have used a number of separate modes to control nutation, spin rate, and precession. To reduce the number of modes and simplify operations, the Delta-H control mode is designed to accomplish nutation control, spin rate control, and precession control simultaneously. A nonlinear design technique, Lyapunov's method, is used to design the Delta-H control mode. A global spin rate controller selected as the baseline controller for MMS, proved to be insufficient due to an ambiguity in the attitude. Lyapunov's design method was used to solve this ambiguity, resulting in a controller that meets the design goals. Simulation results show the advantage of the pointing and rate controller for maneuvers larger than 90 deg and provide insight into the performance of this controller.

  12. Nanoparticles of volcanic ash as a carrier for toxic elements on the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolin, Mikhail S; Fedotov, Petr S; Malik, Natalia A; Karandashev, Vasily K

    2018-06-01

    At present, there is concern about engineered nanoparticles in the environment, whereas natural nanoparticles (NPs) and their impact are often neglected. In our paper, we demonstrate the important role of nanoparticles of volcanic ash in transport of toxic elements on a global scale. A single volcanic eruption can eject millions of tons of ash. NPs of volcanic ash reach the upper troposphere and the stratosphere and may "travel" around the world for years affecting human health, environment, and even climate. So far, there is a gap in exposure assessment of volcanic ash NPs since their chemical composition remains largely unknown. Here we show for the first time that volcanic ash NPs can serve as an important carrier for potentially toxic elements. The concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd, Ag, Sn, Se, Te, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi in volcanic ash NPs (volcanoes from different regions of the world (Kamchatka, Far East of Russia and Andes, Chile). The work opens a new door into studies on biogeochemical impact of volcanic ash. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Criteria for a sustainable use of bioenergy on a global scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbach, Horst; Giegrich, Juergen; Reinhardt, Guido; Schmitz, Jutta [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Sayer, Uwe; Gretz, Marco; Seizinger, Elmar [FSC Arbeitsgruppe Deutschland, Freiburg (Germany); Lanje, Kerstin [Germanwatch (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    The German Biokraftstoffquotengesetz, the EU Biofuel Directive and other policy making initiatives lead to promote the production and use of bioenergy, liquid biofuel for transportation in particular. Such an increase requires a reliable verification on compliance with sustainability principles on a global scale. Domestic biofuels (e.g. RME) have to meet the same standards as palm oil or ethanol from sugarcane imported from tropical regions and vice verse. As a first step the German government has passed the Draft Biomass Sustainability Regulation in December 2007 hat die Bundesregierung. This research project supported UBA and BMU to prepare that regulation. The overall goal was to examine the applicability of exis The analysis of existing certification systems featured number of good practice examples, e.g. FSC, SAN, RSPO.ting certification systems in terms of sustainability approval for biomass and to propose a set of criteria. But in fact none of the existing systems addresses all sustainability issues raised by biomass production and use. Selection of the proposed set of criteria has taken into account the current international state of discussion. Just to name above others: Minimum target of GHG saving; avoidance of losses of HNV areas an losses of Biodiversity; minimizing the risk of water scarcity; involvement of stakeholders into decision making processes; respecting international labour standards. Within this research project the GHG methodology and the default values implemented in the Draft Biomass Sustainability Regulation have been elaborated. (orig.)

  14. A global-scale investigation of trends in annual maximum streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hong X.; Westra, Seth; Leonard, Michael

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the presence of trends in annual maximum daily streamflow data from the Global Runoff Data Centre database, which holds records of 9213 stations across the globe. The records were divided into three reference datasets representing different compromises between spatial coverage and minimum record length, followed by further filtering based on continent, Köppen-Weiger climate classification, presence of dams, forest cover changes and catchment size. Trends were evaluated using the Mann-Kendall nonparametric trend test at the 10% significance level, combined with a field significance test. The analysis found substantial differences between reference datasets in terms of the specific stations that exhibited significant increasing or decreasing trends, showing the need for careful construction of statistical methods. The results were more consistent at the continental scale, with decreasing trends for a large number of stations in western North America and the data-covered regions of Australia, and increasing trends in parts of Europe, eastern North America, parts of South America and southern Africa. Interestingly, neither the presence of dams nor changes in forest cover had a large effect on the trend results, but the catchment size was important, as catchments exhibiting increasing (decreasing) trends tended to be smaller (larger). Finally, there were more stations with significant decreasing trends than significant increasing trends across all the datasets analysed, indicating that limited evidence exists for the hypothesis that flood hazard is increasing when averaged across the data-covered regions of the globe.

  15. GEM-AQ/EC, an on-line global multi-scale chemical weather modelling system: model development and evaluation of global aerosol climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Gong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A global air quality modeling system GEM-AQ/EC was developed by implementing tropospheric chemistry and aerosol processes on-line into the Global Environmental Multiscale weather prediction model – GEM. Due to the multi-scale features of the GEM, the integrated model, GEM-AQ/EC, is able to investigate chemical weather at scales from global to urban domains. The current chemical mechanism is comprised of 50 gas-phase species, 116 chemical and 19 photolysis reactions, and is complemented by a sectional aerosol module CAM (The Canadian Aerosol Module with 5 aerosols types: sulphate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea-salt and soil dust. Monthly emission inventories of black carbon and organic carbon from boreal and temperate vegetation fires were assembled using the most reliable areas burned datasets by countries, from statistical databases and derived from remote sensing products of 1995–2004. The model was run for ten years from from 1995–2004 with re-analyzed meteorology on a global uniform 1° × 1° horizontal resolution domain and 28 hybrid levels extending up to 10 hPa. The simulating results were compared with various observations including surface network around the globe and satellite data. Regional features of global aerosols are reasonably captured including emission, surface concentrations and aerosol optical depth. For various types of aerosols, satisfactory correlations were achieved between modeled and observed with some degree of systematic bias possibly due to large uncertainties in the emissions used in this study. A global distribution of natural aerosol contributions to the total aerosols is obtained and compared with observations.

  16. A case study of global health at the university: implications for research and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Pinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global health is increasingly a major focus of institutions in high-income countries. However, little work has been done to date to study the inner workings of global health at the university level. Academics may have competing objectives, with few mechanisms to coordinate efforts and pool resources. Objective: To conduct a case study of global health at Canada's largest health sciences university and to examine how its internal organization influences research and action. Design: We drew on existing inventories, annual reports, and websites to create an institutional map, identifying centers and departments using the terms ‘global health’ or ‘international health’ to describe their activities. We compiled a list of academics who self-identified as working in global or international health. We purposively sampled persons in leadership positions as key informants. One investigator carried out confidential, semi-structured interviews with 20 key informants. Interview notes were returned to participants for verification and then analyzed thematically by pairs of coders. Synthesis was conducted jointly. Results: More than 100 academics were identified as working in global health, situated in numerous institutions, centers, and departments. Global health academics interviewed shared a common sense of what global health means and the values that underpin such work. Most academics interviewed expressed frustration at the existing fragmentation and the lack of strategic direction, financial support, and recognition from the university. This hampered collaborative work and projects to tackle global health problems. Conclusions: The University of Toronto is not exceptional in facing such challenges, and our findings align with existing literature that describes factors that inhibit collaboration in global health work at universities. Global health academics based at universities may work in institutional siloes and this limits both

  17. Using R for Global Optimization of a Fully-distributed Hydrologic Model at Continental Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Bigiarini, M.; Zajac, Z.; Salamon, P.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays hydrologic model simulations are widely used to better understand hydrologic processes and to predict extreme events such as floods and droughts. In particular, the spatially distributed LISFLOOD model is currently used for flood forecasting at Pan-European scale, within the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). Several model parameters can not be directly measured, and they need to be estimated through calibration, in order to constrain simulated discharges to their observed counterparts. In this work we describe how the free software 'R' has been used as a single environment to pre-process hydro-meteorological data, to carry out global optimization, and to post-process calibration results in Europe. Historical daily discharge records were pre-processed for 4062 stream gauges, with different amount and distribution of data in each one of them. The hydroTSM, raster and sp R packages were used to select ca. 700 stations with an adequate spatio-temporal coverage. Selected stations span a wide range of hydro-climatic characteristics, from arid and ET-dominated watersheds in the Iberian Peninsula to snow-dominated watersheds in Scandinavia. Nine parameters were selected to be calibrated based on previous expert knowledge. Customized R scripts were used to extract observed time series for each catchment and to prepare the input files required to fully set up the calibration thereof. The hydroPSO package was then used to carry out a single-objective global optimization on each selected catchment, by using the Standard Particle Swarm 2011 (SPSO-2011) algorithm. Among the many goodness-of-fit measures available in the hydroGOF package, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency was used to drive the optimization. User-defined functions were developed for reading model outputs and passing them to the calibration engine. The long computational time required to finish the calibration at continental scale was partially alleviated by using 4 multi-core machines (with both GNU

  18. Evaluating the Long-term Water Cycle Trends at a Global-scale using Satellite and Assimilation Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Lakshmi, V.

    2017-12-01

    Global-scale soil moisture and rainfall products retrieved from remotely sensed and assimilation datasets provide an effective way to monitor near surface soil moisture content and precipitation with sub-daily temporal resolution. In the present study, we employed the concept of the stored precipitation fraction Fp(f) in order to examine the long-term water cycle trends at a global-scale. The analysis was done for Fp(f) trends with the various geophysical aspects such as climate zone, land use classifications, amount of vegetation, and soil properties. Furthermore, we compared a global-scale Fp(f) using different microwave-based satellite soil moisture datasets. The Fp(f) is calculated by utilized surface soil moisture dataset from Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity, Advanced Scatterometer, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2, and precipitation information from Global Precipitation Measurement Mission and Global Land Data Assimilation System. Different results from microwave-based soil moisture dataset showed discordant results particularly over arid and highly vegetated regions. The results of this study provide us new insights of the long-term water cycle trends over different land surface areas. Thereby also highlighting the advantages of the recently available GPM and SMAP datasets for the uses in various hydrometeorological applications.

  19. Relevance of multiple spatial scales in habitat models: A case study with amphibians and grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmoos, Michael; Henle, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Habitat models for animal species are important tools in conservation planning. We assessed the need to consider several scales in a case study for three amphibian and two grasshopper species in the post-mining landscapes near Leipzig (Germany). The two species groups were selected because habitat analyses for grasshoppers are usually conducted on one scale only whereas amphibians are thought to depend on more than one spatial scale. First, we analysed how the preference to single habitat variables changed across nested scales. Most environmental variables were only significant for a habitat model on one or two scales, with the smallest scale being particularly important. On larger scales, other variables became significant, which cannot be recognized on lower scales. Similar preferences across scales occurred in only 13 out of 79 cases and in 3 out of 79 cases the preference and avoidance for the same variable were even reversed among scales. Second, we developed habitat models by using a logistic regression on every scale and for all combinations of scales and analysed how the quality of habitat models changed with the scales considered. To achieve a sufficient accuracy of the habitat models with a minimum number of variables, at least two scales were required for all species except for Bufo viridis, for which a single scale, the microscale, was sufficient. Only for the European tree frog ( Hyla arborea), at least three scales were required. The results indicate that the quality of habitat models increases with the number of surveyed variables and with the number of scales, but costs increase too. Searching for simplifications in multi-scaled habitat models, we suggest that 2 or 3 scales should be a suitable trade-off, when attempting to define a suitable microscale.

  20. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Assessment of global-scale model performance for global and regional ozone distributions, variability, and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Young

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR is to provide the research community with an up-to-date scientific assessment of tropospheric ozone, from the surface to the tropopause. While a suite of observations provides significant information on the spatial and temporal distribution of tropospheric ozone, observational gaps make it necessary to use global atmospheric chemistry models to synthesize our understanding of the processes and variables that control tropospheric ozone abundance and its variability. Models facilitate the interpretation of the observations and allow us to make projections of future tropospheric ozone and trace gas distributions for different anthropogenic or natural perturbations. This paper assesses the skill of current-generation global atmospheric chemistry models in simulating the observed present-day tropospheric ozone distribution, variability, and trends. Drawing upon the results of recent international multi-model intercomparisons and using a range of model evaluation techniques, we demonstrate that global chemistry models are broadly skillful in capturing the spatio-temporal variations of tropospheric ozone over the seasonal cycle, for extreme pollution episodes, and changes over interannual to decadal periods. However, models are consistently biased high in the northern hemisphere and biased low in the southern hemisphere, throughout the depth of the troposphere, and are unable to replicate particular metrics that define the longer term trends in tropospheric ozone as derived from some background sites. When the models compare unfavorably against observations, we discuss the potential causes of model biases and propose directions for future developments, including improved evaluations that may be able to better diagnose the root cause of the model-observation disparity. Overall, model results should be approached critically, including determining whether the model performance is acceptable for

  1. High-Resolution Global Modeling of the Effects of Subgrid-Scale Clouds and Turbulence on Precipitating Cloud Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogenschutz, Peter [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Moeng, Chin-Hoh [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The PI’s at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Chin-Hoh Moeng and Peter Bogenschutz, have primarily focused their time on the implementation of the Simplified-Higher Order Turbulence Closure (SHOC; Bogenschutz and Krueger 2013) to the Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) global model and testing of SHOC on deep convective cloud regimes.

  2. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90......-income countries is inadequate, where a very large burden of stroke occurs. Accordingly, a similar epidemiological study is required for stroke, to inform effective population-based strategies to reduce the risk of stroke. Methods: INTERSTROKE is an international, multicenter case-control study. Cases are patients...... years). A questionnaire (cases and controls) is used to acquire information on known and proposed risk factors for stroke. Cardiovascular (e.g. blood pressure) and anthropometric (e.g. waist-to-hip ratio) measurements are obtained at the time of interview. Nonfasting blood samples and random urine...

  3. Revisiting the contemporary sea-level budget on global and regional scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietbroek, Roelof; Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther; Kusche, Jürgen; Schröter, Jens; Dahle, Christoph

    2016-02-09

    Dividing the sea-level budget into contributions from ice sheets and glaciers, the water cycle, steric expansion, and crustal movement is challenging, especially on regional scales. Here, Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity observations and sea-level anomalies from altimetry are used in a joint inversion, ensuring a consistent decomposition of the global and regional sea-level rise budget. Over the years 2002-2014, we find a global mean steric trend of 1.38 ± 0.16 mm/y, compared with a total trend of 2.74 ± 0.58 mm/y. This is significantly larger than steric trends derived from in situ temperature/salinity profiles and models which range from 0.66 ± 0.2 to 0.94 ± 0.1 mm/y. Mass contributions from ice sheets and glaciers (1.37 ± 0.09 mm/y, accelerating with 0.03 ± 0.02 mm/y(2)) are offset by a negative hydrological component (-0.29 ± 0.26 mm/y). The combined mass rate (1.08 ± 0.3 mm/y) is smaller than previous GRACE estimates (up to 2 mm/y), but it is consistent with the sum of individual contributions (ice sheets, glaciers, and hydrology) found in literature. The altimetric sea-level budget is closed by coestimating a remaining component of 0.22 ± 0.26 mm/y. Well above average sea-level rise is found regionally near the Philippines (14.7 ± 4.39 mm/y) and Indonesia (8.3 ± 4.7 mm/y) which is dominated by steric components (11.2 ± 3.58 mm/y and 6.4 ± 3.18 mm/y, respectively). In contrast, in the central and Eastern part of the Pacific, negative steric trends (down to -2.8 ± 1.53 mm/y) are detected. Significant regional components are found, up to 5.3 ± 2.6 mm/y in the northwest Atlantic, which are likely due to ocean bottom pressure variations.

  4. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  5. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  6. Globalization of the pharmaceutical industry and the growing dependency of developing countries: the case of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, Semih; Güldal, Dilek

    2008-01-01

    In developing countries, the effect of globalization on the pharmaceutical sector has resulted in a decrease in exportation and domestic production, accompanied by an increase in importation of pharmaceuticals and a rise in prices and expenditures. As an example of a developing country, Turkey has been facing the long-standing and increasing pressure of global regulations placed on its pharmaceutical sector. This has led to an increasing dependency on multinational companies and a gradual deterioration of an already weakened domestic pharmaceutical sector. This case study of Turkey offers points to consider in the world of increasing globalization, as it offers lessons on ways of examining the effects of globalization on the pharmaceutical industry of developing countries.

  7. Global Sensitivity Analysis for Large-scale Socio-hydrological Models using the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y.; Garcia-Cabrejo, O.; Cai, X.; Valocchi, A. J.; Dupont, B.

    2014-12-01

    In the context of coupled human and natural system (CHNS), incorporating human factors into water resource management provides us with the opportunity to understand the interactions between human and environmental systems. A multi-agent system (MAS) model is designed to couple with the physically-based Republican River Compact Administration (RRCA) groundwater model, in an attempt to understand the declining water table and base flow in the heavily irrigated Republican River basin. For MAS modelling, we defined five behavioral parameters (κ_pr, ν_pr, κ_prep, ν_prep and λ) to characterize the agent's pumping behavior given the uncertainties of the future crop prices and precipitation. κ and ν describe agent's beliefs in their prior knowledge of the mean and variance of crop prices (κ_pr, ν_pr) and precipitation (κ_prep, ν_prep), and λ is used to describe the agent's attitude towards the fluctuation of crop profits. Notice that these human behavioral parameters as inputs to the MAS model are highly uncertain and even not measurable. Thus, we estimate the influences of these behavioral parameters on the coupled models using Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA). In this paper, we address two main challenges arising from GSA with such a large-scale socio-hydrological model by using Hadoop-based Cloud Computing techniques and Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE) based variance decomposition approach. As a result, 1,000 scenarios of the coupled models are completed within two hours with the Hadoop framework, rather than about 28days if we run those scenarios sequentially. Based on the model results, GSA using PCE is able to measure the impacts of the spatial and temporal variations of these behavioral parameters on crop profits and water table, and thus identifies two influential parameters, κ_pr and λ. The major contribution of this work is a methodological framework for the application of GSA in large-scale socio-hydrological models. This framework attempts to

  8. A global scale picture of ionospheric peak electron density changes during geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vickal V.; Parkinson, Murray L.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in ionospheric plasma densities can affect society more than ever because of our increasing reliance on communication, surveillance, navigation, and timing technology. Models struggle to predict changes in ionospheric densities at nearly all temporal and spatial scales, especially during geomagnetic storms. Here we combine a 50 year (1965-2015) geomagnetic disturbance storm time (Dst) index with plasma density measurements from a worldwide network of 132 vertical incidence ionosondes to develop a picture of global scale changes in peak plasma density due to geomagnetic storms. Vertical incidence ionosondes provide measurements of the critical frequency of the ionospheric F2 layer (foF2), a direct measure of the peak electron density (NmF2) of the ionosphere. By dissecting the NmF2 perturbations with respect to the local time at storm onset, season, and storm intensity, it is found that (i) the storm-associated depletions (negative storm effects) and enhancements (positive storm effects) are driven by different but related physical mechanisms, and (ii) the depletion mechanism tends to dominate over the enhancement mechanism. The negative storm effects, which are detrimental to HF radio links, are found to start immediately after geomagnetic storm onset in the nightside high-latitude ionosphere. The depletions in the dayside high-latitude ionosphere are delayed by a few hours. The equatorward expansion of negative storm effects is found to be regulated by storm intensity (farthest equatorward and deepest during intense storms), season (largest in summer), and time of day (generally deeper on the nightside). In contrast, positive storm effects typically occur on the dayside midlatitude and low-latitude ionospheric regions when the storms are in the main phase, regardless of the season. Closer to the magnetic equator, moderate density enhancements last up to 40 h during the recovery phase of equinox storms, regardless of the local time. Strikingly, high

  9. Research applications of night-time aerial photography, from local to global scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, J.; Sadler, J.

    2012-12-01

    Artificial lighting of the earth's surface is changing at a global scale, with numerous social, economic and environmental implications. In many regions, the extent, brightness and spectral range of lighting is increasing, reflecting economic and technological development, population growth and urbanization. Its benefits include improving the perception of neighbourhood safety and increasing people's options for when activities can take place. Impacts range from the disruption of sleep patterns by a single street lamp to obscured views of the night sky for tens of kilometers surrounding an urban area. There is therefore a need to secure baseline maps of artificial lighting, and to detect changes in their extent and quality over time. Considerable success has been achieved in generating global lighting datasets from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) data, which have been used to support a broad range of research and policy applications. However, their coarse spatial and spectral resolution and difficulties in radiance calibration have been recognised as barriers to some potential applications. We present the first multi-spectral radiance calibrated lighting data for cities at a fine spatial resolution (10cm). We then illustrate how these data can be effective for exploring relationships between lighting and urban form, and that they can support the radiance calibration of lighting datasets with much greater spatial extents. Color night photography was collected for two major English cities - Birmingham and London. Ground photometry and radiometry surveys were undertaken, permitting the reclassification of the images to represent incident lux and the identification and classification of individual lamps. Total illuminated area and lamp density both correlated positively with percentage built surface cover, although the strength of these relationships differed between cities. This suggests that artificial lighting may

  10. Global Education and the Cooperation of NGOs and Schools: A German Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmüller, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing pressure but also an increase of possibilities for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to cooperate with schools in the field of global education. However, especially in cases of more continuous forms of cooperation, difficulties in process management are noted and the intended cooperation impacts often…

  11. Legal Frontiers in the Global Dissemination of Technology and Knowledge: Three Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    2008-01-01

    This article explores a few alternatives to the traditional legal and economic theories regarding the problem of global dissemination of knowledge and technology to developing countries. In particular, it examines three cases in which the classical notion of intellectual property rights seems...

  12. The Limits of Multistakeholder Governance: The Case of the Global Partnership for Education and Private Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashy, Francine

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates collective decision making within a multistakeholder partnership through a case study of the Global Partnership for Education (GPE). Analyzed through the theoretical framework of sociological institutionalism, this study applies the issue of private schooling as a lens to understand policy-related decision making between…

  13. Academic Integrity, Remix Culture, Globalization: A Canadian Case Study of Student and Faculty Perceptions of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Tokaryk, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a case study at a Canadian university that used a combination of surveys and focus groups to explore faculty members' and students' perceptions of plagiarism. The research suggests that the globalization of education and remix culture have contributed to competing and contradictory understandings of plagiarism…

  14. Multi-scale Evaluation of a Real Time Multi-satellite Precipitation Forced Global Hydrological Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Hong, Y.; Gao, H.; Xue, X.; Gourley, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    A Global Hydrological Modeling System (GHMS), with its core part of a physical based distributed hydrological model called Coupled Routing and Excess STorage (CREST), has been established and applied for real time global flood monitoring thus providing early warning for decision makers and stakeholders. The updated Version 7 Near Real Time TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TRMM-RT) with the potential to apply for real time flood prediction without gauge adjustment especially beneficial to those regions sparsely covered by gauge networks, was used to force the CREST model with the spatial resolution of 1/8 degree from 50N to 50S quasi-globally (http://eos.ou.edu) for a retrospective period (2002-2012). The simulated hydrological variables (e.g. runoff depth and streamflow) were compared with Global Runoff Data Center (GRDC) observations in terms of gridded global runoff climatology (mm/yr), the selected basins based annual mean and seasonality of streamflow prediction, daily and monthly scale based streamflow prediction skills over different continents, etc. At global scale, the TRMM RT derived gridded global runoff climatology (mm/yr) and model simulated annual streamflow mean over selected basins are in general agreement with GRDC observation, though with performance variation over different continents (e.g. Africa shows relatively poorer performance due to the sparsely in-situ networks for TMPA RT algorithm development). The results also indicate that the modeling performance is better with a larger basin size and a location near the equator. Given the global availability of satellite-based precipitation in near real-time, this study demonstrates the opportunities and challenges that exist for the real time flood prediction on basis of GHMS, which is particularly useful for the vast ungauged regions of the globe.

  15. Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 From Regional to Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Harrison, F. Wallace; Nehrir, Amin; Browell, Edward; Dobler, Jeremy; Campbell, Joel; Meadows, Byron; Obland, Michael; Ismail, Syed; Kooi, Susan; hide

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is a critical forcing for the Earth's climate and the knowledge on its distributions and variations influences predictions of the Earth's future climate. Large uncertainties in the predictions persist due to limited observations. This study uses the airborne Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IMCW) lidar developed at NASA Langley Research Center to measure regional atmospheric CO2 spatio-temporal variations. Further lidar development and demonstration will provide the capability of global atmospheric CO2 estimations from space, which will significantly advances our knowledge on atmospheric CO2 and reduce the uncertainties in the predictions of future climate. In this presentation, atmospheric CO2 column measurements from airborne flight campaigns and lidar system simulations for space missions will be discussed. A measurement precision of approx.0.3 ppmv for a 10-s average over desert and vegetated surfaces has been achieved. Data analysis also shows that airborne lidar CO2 column measurements over these surfaces agree well with in-situ measurements. Even when thin cirrus clouds present, consistent CO2 column measurements between clear and thin cirrus cloudy skies are obtained. Airborne flight campaigns have demonstrated that precise atmospheric column CO2 values can be measured from current IM-CW lidar systems, which will lead to use this airborne technique in monitoring CO2 sinks and sources in regional and continental scales as proposed by the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport â€" America project. Furthermore, analyses of space CO2 measurements shows that applying the current IM-CW lidar technology and approach to space, the CO2 science goals of space missions will be achieved, and uncertainties in CO2 distributions and variations will be reduced.

  16. Quantifying invertebrate resistance to floods: a global-scale meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Laura E; Lytle, David A

    2012-12-01

    Floods are a key component of the ecology and management of riverine ecosystems around the globe, but it is not clear whether floods have predictable effects on organisms that can allow us to generalize across regions and continents. To address this, we conducted a global-scale meta-analysis to investigate effects of natural and managed floods on invertebrate resistance, the ability of invertebrates to survive flood events. We considered 994 studies for inclusion in the analysis, and after evaluation based on a priori criteria, narrowed our analysis to 41 studies spanning six of the seven continents. We used the natural-log-ratio of invertebrate abundance before and within 10 days after flood events because this measure of effect size can be directly converted to estimates of percent survival. We conducted categorical and continuous analyses that examined the contribution of environmental and study design variables to effect size heterogeneity, and examined differences in effect size among taxonomic groups. We found that invertebrate abundance was lowered by at least one-half after flood events. While natural vs. managed floods were similar in their effect, effect size differed among habitat and substrate types, with pools, sand, and boulders experiencing the strongest effect. Although sample sizes were not sufficient to examine all taxonomic groups, floods had a significant, negative effect on densities of Coleoptera, Eumalacostraca, Annelida, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. Results from this study provide guidance for river flow regime prescriptions that will be applicable across continents and climate types, as well as baseline expectations for future empirical studies of freshwater disturbance.

  17. Global scale DAYCENT model analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation strategies for cropped soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, Stephen J.; Ojima, Dennis S.; Parton, William J.; Stehfest, Elke; Heistemann, Maik; DeAngelo, Benjamin; Rose, Steven

    2009-05-01

    Conversion of native vegetation to cropland and intensification of agriculture typically result in increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (mainly N 2O and CH 4) and more NO 3 leached below the root zone and into waterways. Agricultural soils are often a source but can also be a sink of CO 2. Regional and larger scale estimates of GHG emissions are usually obtained using IPCC emission factor methodology, which is associated with high uncertainty. To more realistically represent GHG emissions we used the DAYCENT biogeochemical model for non-rice major crop types (corn, wheat, soybean). IPCC methodology estimates N losses from croplands based solely on N inputs. In contrast, DAYCENT accounts for soil class, daily weather, historical vegetation cover, and land management practices such as crop type, fertilizer additions, and cultivation events. Global datasets of weather, soils, native vegetation, and cropping fractions were mapped to a 1.9° × 1.9° resolution. Non-spatial data (e.g., rates and dates of fertilizer applications) were assumed to be identical within crop types across regions. We compared model generated baseline GHG emissions and N losses for irrigated and rainfed cropping with land management alternatives intended to mitigate GHG emissions. Reduced fertilizer resulted in lower N losses, but crop yields were reduced by a similar proportion. Use of nitrification inhibitors and split fertilizer applications both led to increased (~ 6%) crop yields but the inhibitor led to a larger reduction in N losses (~ 10%). No-till cultivation, which led to C storage, combined with nitrification inhibitors, resulted in reduced GHG emissions of ~ 50% and increased crop yields of ~ 7%.

  18. FREE GLOBAL DSM ASSESSMENT ON LARGE SCALE AREAS EXPLOITING THE POTENTIALITIES OF THE INNOVATIVE GOOGLE EARTH ENGINE PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nascetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The high-performance cloud-computing platform Google Earth Engine has been developed for global-scale analysis based on the Earth observation data. In particular, in this work, the geometric accuracy of the two most used nearly-global free DSMs (SRTM and ASTER has been evaluated on the territories of four American States (Colorado, Michigan, Nevada, Utah and one Italian Region (Trentino Alto- Adige, Northern Italy exploiting the potentiality of this platform. These are large areas characterized by different terrain morphology, land covers and slopes. The assessment has been performed using two different reference DSMs: the USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED and a LiDAR acquisition. The DSMs accuracy has been evaluated through computation of standard statistic parameters, both at global scale (considering the whole State/Region and in function of the terrain morphology using several slope classes. The geometric accuracy in terms of Standard deviation and NMAD, for SRTM range from 2-3 meters in the first slope class to about 45 meters in the last one, whereas for ASTER, the values range from 5-6 to 30 meters. In general, the performed analysis shows a better accuracy for the SRTM in the flat areas whereas the ASTER GDEM is more reliable in the steep areas, where the slopes increase. These preliminary results highlight the GEE potentialities to perform DSM assessment on a global scale.

  19. Free Global Dsm Assessment on Large Scale Areas Exploiting the Potentialities of the Innovative Google Earth Engine Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascetti, A.; Di Rita, M.; Ravanelli, R.; Amicuzi, M.; Esposito, S.; Crespi, M.

    2017-05-01

    The high-performance cloud-computing platform Google Earth Engine has been developed for global-scale analysis based on the Earth observation data. In particular, in this work, the geometric accuracy of the two most used nearly-global free DSMs (SRTM and ASTER) has been evaluated on the territories of four American States (Colorado, Michigan, Nevada, Utah) and one Italian Region (Trentino Alto- Adige, Northern Italy) exploiting the potentiality of this platform. These are large areas characterized by different terrain morphology, land covers and slopes. The assessment has been performed using two different reference DSMs: the USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) and a LiDAR acquisition. The DSMs accuracy has been evaluated through computation of standard statistic parameters, both at global scale (considering the whole State/Region) and in function of the terrain morphology using several slope classes. The geometric accuracy in terms of Standard deviation and NMAD, for SRTM range from 2-3 meters in the first slope class to about 45 meters in the last one, whereas for ASTER, the values range from 5-6 to 30 meters. In general, the performed analysis shows a better accuracy for the SRTM in the flat areas whereas the ASTER GDEM is more reliable in the steep areas, where the slopes increase. These preliminary results highlight the GEE potentialities to perform DSM assessment on a global scale.

  20. Modifying a dynamic global vegetation model for simulating large spatial scale land surface water balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based data, such as vegetation type and fractional vegetation cover, are widely used in hydrologic models to prescribe the vegetation state in a study region. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM simulate land surface hydrology. Incorporation of satellite-based data into a DGVM may enhance a model's ability to simulate land surface hydrology by reducing the task of model parameterization and providing distributed information on land characteristics. The objectives of this study are to (i modify a DGVM for simulating land surface water balances; (ii evaluate the modified model in simulating actual evapotranspiration (ET, soil moisture, and surface runoff at regional or watershed scales; and (iii gain insight into the ability of both the original and modified model to simulate large spatial scale land surface hydrology. To achieve these objectives, we introduce the "LPJ-hydrology" (LH model which incorporates satellite-based data into the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ DGVM. To evaluate the model we ran LH using historical (1981–2006 climate data and satellite-based land covers at 2.5 arc-min grid cells for the conterminous US and for the entire world using coarser climate and land cover data. We evaluated the simulated ET, soil moisture, and surface runoff using a set of observed or simulated data at different spatial scales. Our results demonstrate that spatial patterns of LH-simulated annual ET and surface runoff are in accordance with previously published data for the US; LH-modeled monthly stream flow for 12 major rivers in the US was consistent with observed values respectively during the years 1981–2006 (R2 > 0.46, p < 0.01; Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient > 0.52. The modeled mean annual discharges for 10 major rivers worldwide also agreed well (differences < 15% with observed values for these rivers. Compared to a degree-day method for snowmelt computation, the addition of the solar radiation effect on snowmelt

  1. Fine-Scale Microclimatic Variation Can Shape the Responses of Organisms to Global Change in Both Natural and Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincebourde, Sylvain; Murdock, Courtney C; Vickers, Mathew; Sears, Michael W

    2016-07-01

    When predicting the response of organisms to global change, models use measures of climate at a coarse resolution from general circulation models or from downscaled regional models. Organisms, however, do not experience climate at such large scales. The climate heterogeneity over a landscape and how much of that landscape an organism can sample will determine ultimately the microclimates experienced by organisms. This past few decades has seen an important increase in the number of studies reporting microclimatic patterns at small scales. This synthesis intends to unify studies reporting microclimatic heterogeneity (mostly temperature) at various spatial scales, to infer any emerging trends, and to discuss the causes and consequences of such heterogeneity for organismal performance and with respect to changing land use patterns and climate. First, we identify the environmental drivers of heterogeneity across the various spatial scales that are pertinent to ectotherms. The thermal heterogeneity at the local and micro-scales is mostly generated by the architecture or the geometrical features of the microhabitat. Then, the thermal heterogeneity experienced by individuals is modulated by behavior. Second, we survey the literature to quantify thermal heterogeneity from the micro-scale up to the scale of a landscape in natural habitats. Despite difficulties in compiling studies that differ much in their design and aims, we found that there is as much thermal heterogeneity across micro-, local and landscape scales, and that the temperature range is large in general (>9 °C on average, and up to 26 °C). Third, we examine the extent to which urban habitats can be used to infer the microclimatic patterns of the future. Urban areas generate globally drier and warmer microclimatic patterns and recent evidence suggest that thermal traits of ectotherms are adapted to them. Fourth, we explore the interplay between microclimate heterogeneity and the behavioral thermoregulatory

  2. Global Scale Attribution of Anthropogenic and Natural Dust Sources and their Emission Rates Based on MODIS Deep Blue Aerosol Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginoux, Paul; Prospero, Joseph M.; Gill, Thomas E.; Hsu, N. Christina; Zhao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the global dust cycle is limited by a dearth of information about dust sources, especially small-scale features which could account for a large fraction of global emissions. Here we present a global-scale high-resolution (0.1 deg) mapping of sources based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue estimates of dust optical depth in conjunction with other data sets including land use. We ascribe dust sources to natural and anthropogenic (primarily agricultural) origins, calculate their respective contributions to emissions, and extensively compare these products against literature. Natural dust sources globally account for 75% of emissions; anthropogenic sources account for 25%. North Africa accounts for 55% of global dust emissions with only 8% being anthropogenic, mostly from the Sahel. Elsewhere, anthropogenic dust emissions can be much higher (75% in Australia). Hydrologic dust sources (e.g., ephemeral water bodies) account for 31% worldwide; 15% of them are natural while 85% are anthropogenic. Globally, 20% of emissions are from vegetated surfaces, primarily desert shrublands and agricultural lands. Since anthropogenic dust sources are associated with land use and ephemeral water bodies, both in turn linked to the hydrological cycle, their emissions are affected by climate variability. Such changes in dust emissions can impact climate, air quality, and human health. Improved dust emission estimates will require a better mapping of threshold wind velocities, vegetation dynamics, and surface conditions (soil moisture and land use) especially in the sensitive regions identified here, as well as improved ability to address small-scale convective processes producing dust via cold pool (haboob) events frequent in monsoon regimes.

  3. Scales of renewability exemplified by a case study of three Danish pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Christina; Østergård, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Environmental indicators are increasingly defined and applied to estimate the human impact on nature and to evaluate human resource use. When considering the environmental impact of food production systems, there is a need to include the impact on different spatial scales. At present, emergy...... assessments do not, in general, consider global versus local origin of purchased goods. To provide a more detailed picture of how production systems perform with respect to different spatial scales, we expand the renewability concept with a set of indicators that categorise purchased goods according...... (C)) exemplifies the use of this set of indicators. The results show that at the on-site scale the pig production systems had about the same fraction of renewable inputs of less than 0.5%. However, when the renewability fraction of inputs was accounted for at the global scale, the two organic systems...

  4. The recent hiatus in global warming of the land surface: Scale-dependent breakpoint occurrences in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Lingxiao; Shen, Zehao; Piao, Shilong

    2015-08-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of the recent land warming hiatus have seldom been explored, despite their importance for understanding the mechanisms underlying the phenomenon. In this study, we applied piecewise linear regression to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of the breakpoint time of warming over 40 years (1974-2013). Our results showed that at the global scale, mean annual temperature (MAT) over the land increased significantly until 2005 and that the warming trend then stalled. However, the breakpoint time of the warming varied greatly among different seasons and continents. We found no statistically significant breakpoint in MAT over the Northern Hemisphere, but MAT over the Southern Hemisphere showed a significant breakpoint (P < 0.001) in 1979. At the seasonal scale, only the winter season (December-January-February) showed a statistically significant breakpoint in global land temperature. The other seasons showed continuous increasing temperature during the whole study period. Our study examined the recent global warming hiatus on the land surface using an area-weighted summary of a scale-dependent phenomenon with substantial spatiotemporal heterogeneity and revealed the winter cooling in the Northern Hemisphere low-middle latitudes in 1999-2008 as the major contributor to the global warming hiatus on land surface in 2005. This result highlights the importance of using a statistical method to identify the timing of climate phase change. A better understanding of the processes behind the spatiotemporal patterns of local-scale breakpoint occurrences in land surface temperature would shed new light on the mechanisms of the recent global warming hiatus.

  5. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA....... It thus explores the systems of reason that educational comparative practices carry through time; focusing on the way configurations are reproduced and transformed, forming the pre-school child as a central curricular variable....

  6. Monitoring global change with phenology: The case of the spring green wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark D.

    1994-03-01

    The centuries-old practice of recording plant and animal events that take place at specific times each year (phenology) should play an important role in monitoring mid-latitude global changes. At least three problems related to the detection of biosphere changes could be investigated using this information. Firstly, the technique can be generalized from the local to global scale. Secondly, an integrated approach could be developed to represent biome diversity effectively. Lastly, physical mechanisms responsible for the events can be deduced in order to incorporate the phenological information into global-scale models, and detect changes in related environmental factors. With these goals in mind, regional phenological data collection networks were initiated in eastern North America during the early 1960s, using cloned lilacs and several species of honeysuckle. This paper reviews research projects which address the problems outlined above, using first leaf data (associated with spring green-up or “green wave” in mid-latitudes) gathered from these networks. The results of such studies in North America have demonstrated the potential of phenology as an efficient monitor of global change throughout mid-latitude regions. Future research efforts will concentrate on the development of a coordinated strategy to link phenological information from satellites, indicator plants (such as the lilac), and representative species from each biome.

  7. Using Case Studies to Teach About Global Issues, Bali: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, James M.

    1974-01-01

    The South Pacific island of Bali is used as a case study of overpopulation and food shortage. A brief description of the resources, the typical lifestyle of the Balinese farmer, and possible teaching techniques are given. (DE)

  8. Contemporary large-scale international design competitions1 in China. A case study of Baietan, Guangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of contemporary design competitions has been increasingly recognized in fast-growing China in the course of World Trade Organization (WTO integration and globalization. However, scientific and systematic analysis is rare on how international design competitions are introduced, and how they interact and transplant in the Chinese context. The well-known Chinese-Western culture gap and complicated social and political background make this topic more challenging. Herein, the authors focus on how the international design competitions were “translated” into both international and local perspectives with a compara­tive analysis on development of international design competitions between the Chinese and the Finnish model. To fully exemplify the design-completion procedure and the different roles of Chinese stakeholders and their perspectives on design competitions, the authors study the Baietan case, which was chosen due to its specific relationship with the city’s strategic plan, its representativeness in using international design competitions in connection to large-scale urban projects in China and its public access to the relevant documentation. The preliminary findings suggest that Chinese-style design competitions, acting as ‘designed trading zones’, with less-defined competition rules compared to the Finnish model, may foster the settings of local transformation in adopting international urban planning and design knowledge. However, an integrated approach is required to address subsequent implementation.

  9. The Emergence of `Power with': The Case of a Born Global Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Panteli, Niki

    Thanks to the advancement of Information and Communications Technologies, the past decade has seen the rise of Born Global organizations (Rennie, 1993; Oviatt and McDougall, 1994; Karra and Philips, 2004; Zahra, 2005). Broadly defined as ‘business organizations that, right from inception, seek to derive significant competitive advantages from the use of resources and the sales of outputs in multiple countries’ (Oviatt and McDougall, 1994: 49), Born Global organizations are small, young, and internationally dispersed. While sharing the characteristics of ‘smallness’ and ‘newness’ of Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), Born Global organizations also bear ‘foreignness’, similar to that of Multinational Corporations (Zahra, 2005). Born Globals therefore need to strike a balance between ‘global reach’ and ‘local touch’ as in Multinational Corporations (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1989); yet they have to do so with scare resources and organizational uncertainty similar to SMEs, and with ‘lean’ and ‘mean’ communications afforded by ICT (e.g. Sproull and Kiesler, 1986). This study is an initial attempt to untangle the combined challenges in Born Globals’ innovative way of management. Through a longitudinal case study, we aim to explore the issue of power in a Born Global’s endeavour to manage its global knowledge via technology mediation.

  10. Methodology for locale-scale monitoring for the PROTHEGO project: the Choirokoitia case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Agapiou, Athos; Cuca, Branka; Danezis, Chris; Cigna, Francesca; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2016-10-01

    PROTHEGO (PROTection of European Cultural HEritage from GeO-hazards) is a collaborative research project funded in the framework of the Joint Programming Initiative on Cultural Heritage and Global Change (JPICH) - Heritage Plus in 2015-2018 (www.prothego.eu). PROTHEGO aims to make an innovative contribution towards the analysis of geohazards in areas of cultural heritage, and uses novel space technology based on radar interferometry (InSAR) to retrieve information on ground stability and motion in the 400+ UNESCO's World Heritage List monuments and sites of Europe. InSAR can be used to measure micro-movements to identify geo-hazards. In order to verify the InSAR image data, field and close range measurements are necessary. This paper presents the methodology for local-scale monitoring of the Choirokoitia study site in Cyprus, inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List, and part of the demonstration sites of PROTHEGO. Various field and remote sensing methods will be exploited for the local-scale monitoring, static GNSS, total station, leveling, laser scanning and UAV and compared with the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry results. The in-situ measurements will be taken systematically in order to document any changes and geo-hazards that affect standing archaeological remains. In addition, ground truth from in-situ visits will provide feedback related to the classification results of urban expansion and land use change maps. Available archival and current optical satellite images will be used to calibrate and identify the level of risk at the Cyprus case study site. The ground based geotechnical monitoring will be compared and validated with InSAR data to evaluate cultural heritage sites deformation trend and to understand its behaviour over the last two decades.

  11. Scaling Environment Justice: The Case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Brenda L. [Wilfrid Launer Univ., Brantford (Canada); Kuhn, Richard G. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2006-09-15

    The growing body of literature associated with environmental justice documents the extent to which poor, peripheral or minority regions are often burdened with contamination or the siting of new noxious, unwanted facilities. More recently. environmental justice studies have also begun to explore the processes and societal structures that contribute to (in)justice. The environmental justice perspective asserts that instances of local contamination or the siting of noxious facilities in disempowered neighbourhoods are not only problems for those most affected by the facility; such situations are also instances of broader concerns about fairness and equity. At the grass-roots level. in marginalised spaces, residents may adopt the environmental justice frame as a strategy to gain recognition of their 'local' problem by regional. national or global actors. In this paper we problemise this environmental justice perspective, particularly as it relates to the issue of spatial and temporal scale. We utilise the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). the military transuranic nuclear waste disposal facility located in Carlsbad, New Mexico as an example where the environmental justice perspective was not (for the most part) invoked by local residents. Since it was mostly members of civil society groups and state and federal elected officials, most living four hours away who questioned the safety and viability of the facility, while local leaders actively lobbied to bring the facility to Carlsbad, this raises questions regarding 1) what counts as marginalised space and who gets to speak for those spaces, 2) who decides what can be defined as an environmental justice issue, and 3) at what spatial and temporal scale should justice be defined. Following a further elaboration of the conceptual ideas that underpin this discussion, in the subsequent section we present the WlPP case study.

  12. Scaling Environment Justice: The Case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Brenda L.; Kuhn, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The growing body of literature associated with environmental justice documents the extent to which poor, peripheral or minority regions are often burdened with contamination or the siting of new noxious, unwanted facilities. More recently. environmental justice studies have also begun to explore the processes and societal structures that contribute to (in)justice. The environmental justice perspective asserts that instances of local contamination or the siting of noxious facilities in disempowered neighbourhoods are not only problems for those most affected by the facility; such situations are also instances of broader concerns about fairness and equity. At the grass-roots level. in marginalised spaces, residents may adopt the environmental justice frame as a strategy to gain recognition of their 'local' problem by regional. national or global actors. In this paper we problemise this environmental justice perspective, particularly as it relates to the issue of spatial and temporal scale. We utilise the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). the military transuranic nuclear waste disposal facility located in Carlsbad, New Mexico as an example where the environmental justice perspective was not (for the most part) invoked by local residents. Since it was mostly members of civil society groups and state and federal elected officials, most living four hours away who questioned the safety and viability of the facility, while local leaders actively lobbied to bring the facility to Carlsbad, this raises questions regarding 1) what counts as marginalised space and who gets to speak for those spaces, 2) who decides what can be defined as an environmental justice issue, and 3) at what spatial and temporal scale should justice be defined. Following a further elaboration of the conceptual ideas that underpin this discussion, in the subsequent section we present the WlPP case study

  13. Combining local scaling and global methods to detect soil pore space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sotoca, Juan Jose; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Grau, Juan B.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2017-04-01

    The characterization of the spatial distribution of soil pore structures is essential to obtain different parameters that will influence in several models related to water flow and/or microbial growth processes. The first step in pore structure characterization is obtaining soil images that best approximate reality. Over the last decade, major technological advances in X-ray computed tomography (CT) have allowed for the investigation and reconstruction of natural porous media architectures at very fine scales. The subsequent step is delimiting the pore structure (pore space) from the CT soil images applying a thresholding. Many times we could find CT-scan images that show low contrast at the solid-void interface that difficult this step. Different delimitation methods can result in different spatial distributions of pores influencing the parameters used in the models. Recently, new local segmentation method using local greyscale value (GV) concentration variabilities, based on fractal concepts, has been presented. This method creates singularity maps to measure the GV concentration at each point. The C-A method was combined with the singularity map approach (Singularity-CA method) to define local thresholds that can be applied to binarize CT images. Comparing this method with classical methods, such as Otsu and Maximum Entropy, we observed that more pores can be detected mainly due to its ability to amplify anomalous concentrations. However, it delineated many small pores that were incorrect. In this work, we present an improve version of Singularity-CA method that avoid this problem basically combining it with the global classical methods. References Martín-Sotoca, J.J., A. Saa-Requejo, J.B. Grau, A.M. Tarquis. New segmentation method based on fractal properties using singularity maps. Geoderma, 287, 40-53, 2017. Martín-Sotoca, J.J, A. Saa-Requejo, J.B. Grau, A.M. Tarquis. Local 3D segmentation of soil pore space based on fractal properties using singularity

  14. Global Scale Exploration Seismics: Mapping Mantle Discontinuities with Inverse Scattering Methods and Millions of Seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hilst, R. D.; de Hoop, M. V.; Shim, S. H.; Shang, X.; Wang, P.; Cao, Q.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past three decades, tremendous progress has been made with the mapping of mantle heterogeneity and with the understanding of these structures in terms of, for instance, the evolution of Earth's crust, continental lithosphere, and thermo-chemical mantle convection. Converted wave imaging (e.g., receiver functions) and reflection seismology (e.g. SS stacks) have helped constrain interfaces in crust and mantle; surface wave dispersion (from earthquake or ambient noise signals) characterizes wavespeed variations in continental and oceanic lithosphere, and body wave and multi-mode surface wave data have been used to map trajectories of mantle convection and delineate mantle regions of anomalous elastic properties. Collectively, these studies have revealed substantial ocean-continent differences and suggest that convective flow is strongly influenced by but permitted to cross the upper mantle transition zone. Many questions have remained unanswered, however, and further advances in understanding require more accurate depictions of Earth's heterogeneity at a wider range of length scales. To meet this challenge we need new observations—more, better, and different types of data—and methods that help us extract and interpret more information from the rapidly growing volumes of broadband data. The huge data volumes and the desire to extract more signal from them means that we have to go beyond 'business as usual' (that is, simplified theory, manual inspection of seismograms, …). Indeed, it inspires the development of automated full wave methods, both for tomographic delineation of smooth wavespeed variations and the imaging (for instance through inverse scattering) of medium contrasts. Adjoint tomography and reverse time migration, which are closely related wave equation methods, have begun to revolutionize seismic inversion of global and regional waveform data. In this presentation we will illustrate this development - and its promise - drawing from our work

  15. Spatial heterogeneity and sensitivity analysis of crop virtual water content at a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, Marta; Tamea, Stefania; D'Odorico, Paolo; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the green and blue virtual water content (VWC) of four staple crops (i.e., wheat, rice, maize, and soybean) is quantified at a high resolution scale, for the period 1996-2005, and a sensitivity analysis is performed for model parameters. In each grid cell, the crop VWC is obtained by the ratio between the total crop evapotranspiration over the growing season and the crop actual yield. The evapotranspiration is determined with a daily soil water balance that takes into account crop and soil properties, production conditions, and climate. The actual yield is estimated using country-based values provided by the FAOSTAT database multiplied by a coefficient adjusting for the spatial variability within countries. The model improves on previous works by using the newest available data and including multi-cropping practices in the evaluation. The overall water use (blue+green) for the global production of the four grains investigated is 2673 km3/yr. Food production almost entirely depends on green water (>90%), but, when applied, irrigation makes production more water efficient, thus requiring lower VWC. The spatial variability of the virtual water content is partly driven by the yield pattern with an average correlation coefficient of 0.83, and partly by reference evapotranspiration with correlation coefficient of 0.27. Wheat shows the highest spatial variability since it is grown under a wide range of climatic conditions, soil properties, and agricultural practices. The sensitivity analysis is performed to understand how uncertainties in input data propagate and impact the virtual water content accounting. In each cell fixed changes are introduced to one input parameters at a time, and a sensitivity index, SI, is determined as the ratio between the variation of VWC referred to its baseline value and the variation of the input parameter with respect to its reference value. VWC is found to be most sensitive to planting date (PD), followed by the length of

  16. The UNH Earth Systems Observatory: A Regional Application in Support of GEOSS Global-Scale Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Braswell, B.; Fekete, B.; Glidden, S.; Hartmann, H.; Magill, A.; Prusevich, A.; Wollheim, W.; Blaha, D.; Justice, D.; Hurtt, G.; Jacobs, J.; Ollinger, S.; McDowell, W.; Rock, B.; Rubin, F.; Schloss, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Northeast corridor of the US is emblematic of the many changes taking place across the nation's and indeed the world's watersheds. Because ecosystem and watershed change occurs over many scales and is so multifaceted, transferring scientific knowledge to applications as diverse as remediation of local ground water pollution, setting State-wide best practices for non-point source pollution control, enforcing regional carbon sequestration treaties, or creating public/private partnerships for protecting ecosystem services requires a new generation of integrative environmental surveillance systems, information technology, and information transfer to the user community. Geographically complex ecosystem interactions justify moving toward more integrative, regionally-based management strategies to deal with issues affecting land, inland waterways, and coastal waterways. A unified perspective that considers the full continuum of processes which link atmospheric forcings, terrestrial responses, watershed exports along drainage networks, and the final delivery to the coastal zone, nearshore, and off shore waters is required to adequately support the management challenge. A recent inventory of NOAA-supported environmental surveillance systems, IT resources, new sensor technologies, and management-relevant decision support systems shows the community poised to formulate an integrated and operational picture of the environment of New England. This paper presents the conceptual framework and early products of the newly-created UNH Earth Systems Observatory. The goal of the UNH Observatory is to serve as a regionally-focused yet nationally-prominent platform for observation-based, integrative science and management of the New England/Gulf of Maine's land, air, and ocean environmental systems. Development of the UNH Observatory is being guided by the principles set forth under the Global Earth Observation System of Systems and is cast as an end-to-end prototype for GEOSS

  17. Revealing the Eruptive History of Volcanoes from Massive Cross-Correlation of Seismic Signal at Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, A.; Gaillard, P.; Grenouille, A.; Bui-Quang, P.; Guilhem, A.; Bobrov, D.; Kitov, I. O.; Rozhkov, M.

    2015-12-01

    We propose here a massive cross-correlation technique applied to seismic events located around volcanoes and recorded at teleseismic distance. Multichannel cross-correlations are performed between 2002 to 2012 using seismic templates occurring at the time of moderate to large volcanic eruptions. The volcanic periods are reported from the Global Volcanism Program database while the waveform data are obtained from the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The temporal distribution of new seismic events, built from the association of teleseismic detections reveals acceleration patterns, which are highly correlated to the past eruptive activities. These newly detected events are relocated using Bayesian approach and leads to preliminary interpretation of the volcanic plumbing system. Two examples are presented. First, the large 2008 eruption (Volcanic Explosivity Index, VEI4) of Kasatochi (Aleutian Islands, 52.10°N/175.31°W) is used to demonstrate that only few seismic templates (~3) help to reveal the time scale of the eruption. Results are compared to hydroacoustic signal, which is highly correlated to the distribution of new seismic events prior and during eruption. We also show that after the peaked seismic activity (i.e., ~ 100 seismic events in 1 hour) the infrasound signal starts and signs the volcanic plume activity. The second case example reveals with success seven past volcanic eruptions of lower magnitude (VEI1 to VEI2) of the Karangetang volcano (Siau Island in Indonesia, 2.46°N/125.24°E). We show the potential of this method to detect volcanic eruptions in isolated areas. This is of special interest especially when there is no volcano observatory to monitor the volcanic activity, or when the last eruptive period is unknown.

  18. Building Global Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas; Buchem, Ilona; Camacho, Mar; Cronin, Catherine; Gordon, Averill; Keegan, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC) for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning…

  19. Unsupervised Video Shot Detection Using Clustering Ensemble with a Color Global Scale-Invariant Feature Transform Descriptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchou Chang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT transforms a grayscale image into scale-invariant coordinates of local features that are invariant to image scale, rotation, and changing viewpoints. Because of its scale-invariant properties, SIFT has been successfully used for object recognition and content-based image retrieval. The biggest drawback of SIFT is that it uses only grayscale information and misses important visual information regarding color. In this paper, we present the development of a novel color feature extraction algorithm that addresses this problem, and we also propose a new clustering strategy using clustering ensembles for video shot detection. Based on Fibonacci lattice-quantization, we develop a novel color global scale-invariant feature transform (CGSIFT for better description of color contents in video frames for video shot detection. CGSIFT first quantizes a color image, representing it with a small number of color indices, and then uses SIFT to extract features from the quantized color index image. We also develop a new space description method using small image regions to represent global color features as the second step of CGSIFT. Clustering ensembles focusing on knowledge reuse are then applied to obtain better clustering results than using single clustering methods for video shot detection. Evaluation of the proposed feature extraction algorithm and the new clustering strategy using clustering ensembles reveals very promising results for video shot detection.

  20. Unsupervised Video Shot Detection Using Clustering Ensemble with a Color Global Scale-Invariant Feature Transform Descriptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT transforms a grayscale image into scale-invariant coordinates of local features that are invariant to image scale, rotation, and changing viewpoints. Because of its scale-invariant properties, SIFT has been successfully used for object recognition and content-based image retrieval. The biggest drawback of SIFT is that it uses only grayscale information and misses important visual information regarding color. In this paper, we present the development of a novel color feature extraction algorithm that addresses this problem, and we also propose a new clustering strategy using clustering ensembles for video shot detection. Based on Fibonacci lattice-quantization, we develop a novel color global scale-invariant feature transform (CGSIFT for better description of color contents in video frames for video shot detection. CGSIFT first quantizes a color image, representing it with a small number of color indices, and then uses SIFT to extract features from the quantized color index image. We also develop a new space description method using small image regions to represent global color features as the second step of CGSIFT. Clustering ensembles focusing on knowledge reuse are then applied to obtain better clustering results than using single clustering methods for video shot detection. Evaluation of the proposed feature extraction algorithm and the new clustering strategy using clustering ensembles reveals very promising results for video shot detection.

  1. Management of small-scale fisheries in developing countries : The case of Elephant Marsh in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosamu, I.B.M.

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands provide many ecosystem goods and services which include fish production. The sustainability of small-scale fisheries (SSF) has received considerable attention in recent years because fish is one of the major sources of animal protein to a considerable fraction of the global population which

  2. Estimating unbiased economies of scale of HIV prevention projects: a case study of Avahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Aurélia; Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Blanc, Elodie; Le Nestour, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Governments and donors are investing considerable resources on HIV prevention in order to scale up these services rapidly. Given the current economic climate, providers of HIV prevention services increasingly need to demonstrate that these investments offer good 'value for money'. One of the primary routes to achieve efficiency is to take advantage of economies of scale (a reduction in the average cost of a health service as provision scales-up), yet empirical evidence on economies of scale is scarce. Methodologically, the estimation of economies of scale is hampered by several statistical issues preventing causal inference and thus making the estimation of economies of scale complex. In order to estimate unbiased economies of scale when scaling up HIV prevention services, we apply our analysis to one of the few HIV prevention programmes globally delivered at a large scale: the Indian Avahan initiative. We costed the project by collecting data from the 138 Avahan NGOs and the supporting partners in the first four years of its scale-up, between 2004 and 2007. We develop a parsimonious empirical model and apply a system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and fixed-effects Instrumental Variable (IV) estimators to estimate unbiased economies of scale. At the programme level, we find that, after controlling for the endogeneity of scale, the scale-up of Avahan has generated high economies of scale. Our findings suggest that average cost reductions per person reached are achievable when scaling-up HIV prevention in low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Building essential biodiversity variables (EBVs) of species distribution and abundance at a global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissling, W.D.; Ahumada, J.A.; Bowser, A.; Fernandez, M.; Fernández, N.; Garcia, E.A.; Guralnick, R.P.; Isaac, N.J.B.; Kelling, S.; Los, W.; McRae, L.; Mihoub, J.-B.; Obst, M.; Santamaria, M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Williams, K.J.; Agosti, D.; Amariles, D.; Arvanitidis, C.; Bastin, L.; De Leo, F.; Egloff, W.; Elith, J.; Hobern, D.; Martin, D.; Pereira, H.M.; Pesole, G.; Peterseil, J.; Saarenmaa, H.; Schigel, D.; Schmeller, D.S.; Segata, N.; Turak, E.; Uhlir, P.F.; Wee, B.; Hardisty, A.R.

    2018-01-01

    Much biodiversity data is collected worldwide, but it remains challenging to assemble the scattered knowledge for assessing biodiversity status and trends. The concept of Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) was introduced to structure biodiversity monitoring globally, and to harmonize and

  4. Increasing human pressure on freshwater resources threatens sustainability at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, A.; Ceola, S.; Laio, F.

    2017-12-01

    Freshwater resources overexploitation and climate change are major threats to global sustainability and development in the XXI century, but nevertheless a global assessment of water threats evolution in time is still lacking. Here we demonstrate that nightlights are a good proxy for human pressure and investigate how it evolved from 1992 to 2013 in 2'148 major river basins. Globally, we find that human pressure positively evolved in the study period (1.8% increase per year as a global average), threatening future sustainability worldwide. The most critical conditions for sustainability are found within the equatorial area, showing markedly positive human pressure yearly trends (3.5% ± 2.2%). The results highlight that water threats are spreading worldwide and call for an urgent strategy to mitigate water overexploitation and related hazards to ecosystems and human security.

  5. Integrating Mycorrhizas Into Global Scale Models : A Journey Toward Relevance in the Earth's Climate System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brzostek, E. R.; Rebel, K. T.; Smith, K.R.; Phillips, R.P.

    2017-01-01

    Associations between plants and mycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in nature and are among the most important trophic interactions affecting ecosystem services and global change. Despite their evolutionary history and current ecological importance, mycorrhizal dynamics have rarely been included in the

  6. Glocalized Manufacturing – Local Supply Chains on a Global Scale and Changeable Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne

    The characteristics of manufacturing are changing. An analysis to indentify future Western European manufacturing challenges illustrated several important issues. Among them: global fragmentation of production and increase in back-shoring, increased individualization, the increasing effect...

  7. The terrestrial carbon cycle on the regional and global scale : modeling, uncertainties and policy relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, van J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Contains the chapters: The importance of three centuries of climate and land-use change for the global and regional terrestrial carbon cycle; and The terrestrial C cycle and its role in the climate change policy

  8. Assessing attainable intensification of global pasture systems at the 5 min x 5 min scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, J. J.; Lynd, L. R.; Allee, A.; Campbell, E. E.; Herrero, M.; Jaiswal, D.; Mueller, N. D.; Lamparelli, R.; Soares, J.

    2017-12-01

    Two-thirds of the world's agricultural land consist of pastures grazed by livestock. We use a recently published global dataset with information on feed consumption, animal stocks and productivity to analyze the intensification potential of pasture (grazing only) based production of meat and milk. Here we show that global output from pastures occupied by livestock circa 2000 could increase more than five-fold by simply raising their performance to the maximum achieved, climate-adjusted levels observed globally. The largest increases are in South America and sub Saharan Africa, where pasture systems are also more economically important. Furthermore, 40% of the land classified as pasture in the year 2000 had no animals on it. While pastureland currently contributes only a small fraction of total meat and milk production globally, such increases potentially offer an important new degree of freedom in addressing the challenge of sustainable stewardship of the earth's land resources.

  9. Food System Sustainability across Scales: A Proposed Local-To-Global Approach to Community Planning and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesel Carlsson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in food systems sustainability is growing, but progress toward them is slow. This research focuses on three interrelated challenges that hinder progress. First, prevailing visions lack a concrete definition of sustainability. Second, global level conceptions fail to guide responses at the local level. Third, these deficiencies may lead to conflicting initiatives for addressing sustainable food systems at the community level that slow collective progress. The purpose of this article is to (1 describe the development of a framework for assessing food system sustainability which accommodates local-level measurement in the context of broader national and global scale measures; and (2 to propose a process that supports community determinacy over localized progress toward sustainable food systems. Using a modified Delphi Inquiry process, we engaged a diverse, global panel of experts in describing “success” with respect to sustainable food systems, today’s reality, and identifying key indicators for tracking progress towards success. They were asked to consider scale during the process in order to explore locally relevant themes. Data were analyzed using the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD to facilitate a comprehensive and systematic exploration of key themes and indicators. Key results include a framework of indicator themes that are anchored in a concrete definition of sustainability, stable at national and global scales while remaining flexible at the local scale to accommodate contextual needs. We also propose a process for facilitating community-level planning for food system sustainability that utilizes this indicator framework. The proposed process is based on insights from the research results, as well as from previous research and experience applying the FSSD at a community level; it bears promise for future work to support communities to determine their own pathways, while contributing to a more

  10. Sources of global warming of the upper ocean on decadal period scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Warren B.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies find global climate variability in the upper ocean and lower atmosphere during the twentieth century dominated by quasi-biennial, interannual, quasi-decadal and interdecadal signals. The quasi-decadal signal in upper ocean temperature undergoes global warming/cooling of ???0.1??C, similar to that occuring with the interannual signal (i.e., El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation), both signals dominated by global warming/cooling in the tropics. From the National Centers for Environmental Prediction troposphere reanalysis and Scripps Institution of Oceanography upper ocean temperature reanalysis we examine the quasi-decadal global tropical diabetic heat storage (DHS) budget from 1975 to 2000. We find the anomalous DHS warming tendency of 0.3-0.9 W m-2 driven principally by a downward global tropical latent-plus-sensible heat flux anomaly into the ocean, overwhelming the tendency by weaker upward shortwave-minus-longwave heat flux anomaly to drive an anomalous DHS cooling tendency. During the peak quasi-decadal warming the estimated dissipation of DHS anomaly of 0.2-0.5 W m-2 into the deep ocean and a similar loss to the overlying atmosphere through air-sea heat flux anomaly are balanced by a decrease in the net poleward Ekman heat advection out of the tropics of 0.4-0.7 W m-2. This scenario is nearly the opposite of that accounting for global tropical warming during the El Nin??o. These diagnostics confirm that even though the global quasi-decadal signal is phase-locked to the 11-year signal in the Sun's surface radiative forcing of ???0.1 W m-2, the anomalous global tropical DHS tendency cannot be driven by it directly.

  11. A global-scale dispersion analysis of iodine-129 from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Masato; Suzuki, Takashi; Nagai, Haruyasu; Togawa, Orihiko

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional global chemical transport model, MOZART-2, is applied to investigate the global-sale dispersion of Iodine-129 from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The concentration and deposition of 129 I obtained by MOZART-2 are dispersed all over the Northern Hemisphere. The emission of 129 I to the atmosphere is thus important in considering the transport of 129 I to remote sites. (author)

  12. Mapping the climatic suitable habitat of oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) for introduction and cultivation at a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqing; Du, Sheng; Wen, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    Oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis) is an important afforestation and ornamental tree species, which is native in eastern Asian. Therefore, a global suitable habitat map for oriental arborvitae is urgently needed for global promotion and cultivation. Here, the potential habitat and climatic requirements of oriental arborvitae at global scale were simulated using herbariums data and 13 thermal-moisture variables as input data for maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). The simulation performance of MaxEnt is evaluated by ten-fold cross-validation and a jackknife procedure. Results show that the potential habitat and climate envelop of oriental arborvitae can be successfully simulated by MaxEnt at global scale, with a mean test AUC value of 0.93 and mean training AUC value of 0.95. Thermal factors play more important roles than moisture factors in controlling the distribution boundary of oriental arborvitae’s potential ranges. There are about 50 countries suitable for introduction and cultivation of oriental arborvitae with an area of 2.0 × 107 km2, which occupied 13.8% of land area on the earth. This unique study will provide valuable information and insights needed to identify new regions with climatically suitable habitats for cultivation and introduction of oriental arborvitae around the world. PMID:27443221

  13. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.

    2012-10-04

    Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric pro- files. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air–water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies.

  14. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Laruelle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems. Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation and 149 sub-units (COSCATs. Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air–water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies.

  15. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.

    2013-05-29

    Past characterizations of the land-ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air-water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies. © 2013 Author(s).

  16. Rationale and design of INTERSTROKE: a global case-control study of risk factors for stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Diener, C

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is a major global health problem. It is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability. INTERHEART, a global case-control study of acute myocardial infarction in 52 countries (29,972 participants), identified nine modifiable risk factors that accounted for >90......% of population-attributable risk. However, traditional risk factors (e.g. hypertension, cholesterol) appear to exert contrasting risks for stroke compared with coronary heart disease, and the etiology of stroke is far more heterogeneous. In addition, our knowledge of risk factors for stroke in low...... years). A questionnaire (cases and controls) is used to acquire information on known and proposed risk factors for stroke. Cardiovascular (e.g. blood pressure) and anthropometric (e.g. waist-to-hip ratio) measurements are obtained at the time of interview. Nonfasting blood samples and random urine...

  17. Combining global and multi-scale features in a description of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Ukhorskiy

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The solar wind-magnetosphere coupling during substorms exhibits dynamical features in a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The goal of our work is to combine the global and multi-scale description of magnetospheric dynamics in a unified data-derived model. For this purpose we use deterministic methods of nonlinear dynamics, together with a probabilistic approach of statistical physics. In this paper we discuss the mathematical aspects of such a combined analysis. In particular we introduce a new method of embedding analysis based on the notion of a mean-field dimension. For a given level of averaging in the system the mean-filed dimension determines the minimum dimension of the embedding space in which the averaged dynamical system approximates the actual dynamics with the given accuracy. This new technique is first tested on a number of well-known autonomous and open dynamical systems with and without noise contamination. Then, the dimension analysis is carried out for the correlated solar wind-magnetosphere database using vBS time series as the input and AL index as the output of the system. It is found that the minimum embedding dimension of vBS - AL time series is a function of the level of ensemble averaging and the specified accuracy of the method. To extract the global component from the observed time series the ensemble averaging is carried out over the range of scales populated by a high dimensional multi-scale constituent. The wider the range of scales which are smoothed away, the smaller the mean-field dimension of the system. The method also yields a probability density function in the reconstructed phase space which provides the basis for the probabilistic modeling of the multi-scale dynamical features, and is also used to visualize the global portion of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. The structure of its input-output phase portrait reveals the existence of two energy levels in the system with non

  18. Combining global and multi-scale features in a description of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Ukhorskiy

    Full Text Available The solar wind-magnetosphere coupling during substorms exhibits dynamical features in a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The goal of our work is to combine the global and multi-scale description of magnetospheric dynamics in a unified data-derived model. For this purpose we use deterministic methods of nonlinear dynamics, together with a probabilistic approach of statistical physics. In this paper we discuss the mathematical aspects of such a combined analysis. In particular we introduce a new method of embedding analysis based on the notion of a mean-field dimension. For a given level of averaging in the system the mean-filed dimension determines the minimum dimension of the embedding space in which the averaged dynamical system approximates the actual dynamics with the given accuracy. This new technique is first tested on a number of well-known autonomous and open dynamical systems with and without noise contamination. Then, the dimension analysis is carried out for the correlated solar wind-magnetosphere database using vBS time series as the input and AL index as the output of the system. It is found that the minimum embedding dimension of vBS - AL time series is a function of the level of ensemble averaging and the specified accuracy of the method. To extract the global component from the observed time series the ensemble averaging is carried out over the range of scales populated by a high dimensional multi-scale constituent. The wider the range of scales which are smoothed away, the smaller the mean-field dimension of the system. The method also yields a probability density function in the reconstructed phase space which provides the basis for the probabilistic modeling of the multi-scale dynamical features, and is also used to visualize the global portion of the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. The structure of its input-output phase portrait reveals the existence of two energy

  19. Spatiotemporal models of global soil organic carbon stock to support land degradation assessments at regional and global scales: limitations, challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengl, Tomislav; Heuvelink, Gerard; Sanderman, Jonathan; MacMillan, Robert

    2017-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in fitting and applying spatiotemporal models that can be used to assess and monitor soil organic carbon stocks (SOCS), for example, in support of the '4 pourmille' initiative aiming at soil carbon sequestration towards climate change adaptation and mitigation and UN's Land Degradation Neutrality indicators and similar degradation assessment projects at regional and global scales. The land cover mapping community has already produced several spatiotemporal data sets with global coverage and at relatively fine resolution e.g. USGS MODIS land cover annual maps for period 2000-2014; European Space Agency land cover maps at 300 m resolution for the year 2000, 2005 and 2010; Chinese GlobeLand30 dataset available for years 2000 and 2010; Columbia University's WRI GlobalForestWatch with deforestation maps at 30 m resolution for the period 2000-2016 (Hansen et al. 2013). These data sets can be used for land degradation assessment and scenario testing at global and regional scales (Wei et al 2014). Currently, however, no compatible global spatiotemporal data sets exist on status of soil quality and/or soil health (Powlson et al. 2013). This paper describes an initial effort to devise and evaluate a procedure for mapping spatio-temporal changes in SOC stocks using a complete stack of soil forming factors (climate, relief, land cover, land use, lithology and living organisms) represented mainly through remote sensing based time series of Earth images. For model building we used some 75,000 geo-referenced soil profiles and a stacks space-time covariates (land cover, land use, biomass, climate) at two standard resolutions: (1) 10 km resolution with data available for period 1920-2014 and (2) 1000 m resolution with data available for period 2000-2014. The initial results show that, although it is technically feasible to produce space time estimates of SOCS that demonstrate the procedure, the estimates are relatively uncertain (<45% of variation

  20. ALTER-GLOBALISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN MIGRATION CONDITIONS. THE CASE OF AN EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Alina HALLER

    2017-01-01

    Globalisation is a process that brings advantages and disadvantages to all states, regardless of their stage of development. The relative deprivation, especially the financial one, of the developing countries is a reason of frustration, which motivates the emigration decision; hence our orientation to alter-globalism. In this paper, I intend to highlight by means of analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, and statistic data, the causes and types of migration in Romania’s case, one of the m...

  1. Advancement of Global-scale River Hydrodynamics Modelling and Its Potential Applications to Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, D.

    2015-12-01

    Global river routine models have been developed for representing freshwater discharge from land to ocean in Earth System Models. At the beginning, global river models had simulated river discharge along a prescribed river network map by using a linear-reservoir assumption. Recently, in parallel with advancement of remote sensing and computational powers, many advanced global river models have started to represent floodplain inundation assuming sub-grid floodplain topography. Some of them further pursue physically-appropriate representation of river and floodplain dynamics, and succeeded to utilize "hydrodynamic flow equations" to realistically simulate channel/floodplain and upstream/downstream interactions. State-of-the-art global river hydrodynamic models can well reproduce flood stage (e.g. inundated areas and water levels) in addition to river discharge. Flood stage simulation by global river models can be potentially coupled with land surface processes in Earth System Models. For example, evaporation from inundated water area is not negligible for land-atmosphere interactions in arid areas (such as the Niger River). Surface water level and ground water level are correlated each other in flat topography, and this interaction could dominate wetting and drying of many small lakes in flatland and could also affect biogeochemical processes in these lakes. These land/surface water interactions had not been implemented in Earth System Models but they have potential impact on the global climate and carbon cycle. In the AGU presentation, recent advancements of global river hydrodynamic modelling, including super-high resolution river topography datasets, will be introduces. The potential applications of river and surface water modules within Earth System Models will be also discussed.

  2. Downscaling global precipitation for local applications - a case for the Rhine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; van Verseveld, Willem; Schellekens, Jaap

    2017-04-01

    Within the EU FP7 project eartH2Observe a global Water Resources Re-analysis (WRR) is being developed. This re-analysis consists of meteorological and hydrological water balance variables with global coverage, spanning the period 1979-2014 at 0.25 degrees resolution (Schellekens et al., 2016). The dataset can be of special interest in regions with limited in-situ data availability, yet for local scale analysis particularly in mountainous regions, a resolution of 0.25 degrees may be too coarse and downscaling the data to a higher resolution may be required. A downscaling toolbox has been made that includes spatial downscaling of precipitation based on the global WorldClim dataset that is available at 1 km resolution as a monthly climatology (Hijmans et al., 2005). The input of the down-scaling tool are either the global eartH2Observe WRR1 and WRR2 datasets based on the WFDEI correction methodology (Weedon et al., 2014) or the global Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP) dataset (Beck et al., 2016). Here we present a validation of the datasets over the Rhine catchment by means of a distributed hydrological model (wflow, Schellekens et al., 2014) using a number of precipitation scenarios. (1) We start by running the model using the local reference dataset derived by spatial interpolation of gauge observations. Furthermore we use (2) the MSWEP dataset at the native 0.25-degree resolution followed by (3) MSWEP downscaled with the WorldClim dataset and final (4) MSWEP downscaled with the local reference dataset. The validation will be based on comparison of the modeled river discharges as well as rainfall statistics. We expect that down-scaling the MSWEP dataset with the WorldClim data to higher resolution will increase its performance. To test the performance of the down-scaling routine we have added a run with MSWEP data down-scaled with the local dataset and compare this with the run based on the local dataset itself. - Beck, H. E. et al., 2016. MSWEP

  3. Optimal Estimation of Sulfuryl Fluoride Emissions on Regional and Global Scales Using Advanced 3D Inverse Modeling and AGAGE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressent, A.; Muhle, J.; Rigby, M. L.; Lunt, M. F.; Ganesan, A.; Prinn, R. G.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, P.; Weiss, R. F.; Harth, C. M.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Park, S.; Li, S.; Yao, B.; Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Maione, M.; Arduini, I.; Lunder, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    Sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) is used increasingly as a fumigant to replace methyl bromide (CH3Br), which was regulated under the Montreal Protocol (1986). Mühle et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2009) showed that SO2F2 had been accumulating in the global atmosphere with a growth rate of 5±1% per year from 1978 to 2007. They also determined, using the 2D AGAGE box model, that SO2F2 has a total atmospheric lifetime of 36±11 years mainly driven by the oceanic uptake. In addition, the global warming potential of SO2F2 has been estimated to be ≈4780 for a 100-year time horizon (Papadimitriou et al., J. Phys. Chem., 2008), which is similar to the CFC-11 (CCl3F) GWP. Thus it is a potent greenhouse gas and its emissions are expected to continue to increase in the future. Here we report the first estimations of the SO2F2 emissions and its ocean sink from January 2006 to the end of 2015 on both the global scale using a 3D Eulerian chemical transport model (MOZART-4) solving a Main Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion, and on the regional scale using a 3D Lagrangian dispersion model (NAME) via the reversible-jump trans-dimensional MCMC approach (Lunt et al., Geosci. Model Dev., 2016). The mole fractions calculated on the global scale are used as boundary conditions for emission calculations over the NAME regions in North America, Europe, East Asia and Australia. For this 10-year inversion we use observations from the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) starting with six stations in 2006, which are La Jolla (California), Mace Head (Ireland), Cape Grim (Australia), Ragged Point (Barbados), Trinidad Head (California) and Cape Matatula (Samoa). We then add observations from Gosan (South Korea) in 2007, Jungfraujoch (Switzerland) in 2008, Shandiangzi (China) and Ny-Alesund (Norway) in 2010, and Monte Cimone (Italy) in 2011, reducing the uncertainty associated with the regions located close to these stations. Results are compared to (i) the total global SO2F2 emissions

  4. High Resolution Global Climate Modeling with GEOS-5: Intense Precipitation, Convection and Tropical Cyclones on Seasonal Time-Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, WilliamM.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the World Modeling Summit for Climate Prediction concluded that "climate modeling will need-and is ready-to move to fundamentally new high-resolution approaches to capitalize on the seamlessness of the weather-climate continuum." Following from this, experimentation with very high-resolution global climate modeling has gained enhanced priority within many modeling groups and agencies. The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System model (GEOS-5) has been enhanced to provide a capability for the execution at the finest horizontal resolutions POS,SIOle with a global climate model today. Using this high-resolution, non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5, we have developed a unique capability to explore the intersection of weather and climate within a seamless prediction system. Week-long weather experiments, to mUltiyear climate simulations at global resolutions ranging from 3.5- to 14-km have demonstrated the predictability of extreme events including severe storms along frontal systems, extra-tropical storms, and tropical cyclones. The primary benefits of high resolution global models will likely be in the tropics, with better predictions of the genesis stages of tropical cyclones and of the internal structure of their mature stages. Using satellite data we assess the accuracy of GEOS-5 in representing extreme weather phenomena, and their interaction within the global climate on seasonal time-scales. The impacts of convective parameterization and the frequency of coupling between the moist physics and dynamics are explored in terms of precipitation intensity and the representation of deep convection. We will also describe the seasonal variability of global tropical cyclone activity within a global climate model capable of representing the most intense category 5 hurricanes.

  5. Thermal Tides During the 2001 Martian Global-Scale Dust Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzewich, Scott D.; Wilson, R. John; McConnochie, Timothy H.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Bandfield, Donald J.; Smith, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The 2001 (Mars Year 25) global dust storm radically altered the dynamics of the Martian atmosphere. Using observations from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer onboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft and Mars WRF general circulation model simulations, we examine the changes to thermal tides and planetary waves caused by the storm. We find that the extratropical diurnal migrating tide is dramatically enhanced during the storm, particularly in the southern hemisphere, reaching amplitudes of more than 20 K. The tropical diurnal migrating tide is weakened to almost undetectable levels. The diurnal Kelvin waves are also significantly weakened, particularly during the period of global expansion at Ls=200deg-210deg. In contrast, the westward propagating diurnal wavenumber 2 tide strengthens to 4-8 K at altitudes above 30km. The wavenumber 1 stationary wave reaches amplitudes of 10-12 K at 50deg-70degN, far larger than is typically seen during this time of year. The phase of this stationary wave and the enhancement of the diurnal wavenumber 2 tide appear to be responses to the high-altitude westward propagating equatorial wavenumber 1 structure in dust mixing ratio observed during the storm in previous works. This work provides a global picture of dust storm wave dynamics that reveals the coupling between the tropics and high-latitude wave responses. We conclude that the zonal distribution of thermotidal forcing from atmospheric aerosol concentration is as important to understanding the atmospheric wave response as the total global mean aerosol optical depth.

  6. Selecting quantitative water management measures at the river basin scale in a global change context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Caballero, Yvan; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    One of the main challenges in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the European Union is the definition of programme of measures to reach the good status of the European water bodies. In areas where water scarcity is an issue, one of these challenges is the selection of water conservation and capacity expansion measures to ensure minimum environmental in-stream flow requirements. At the same time, the WFD calls for the use of economic analysis to identify the most cost-effective combination of measures at the river basin scale to achieve its objective. With this respect, hydro-economic river basin models, by integrating economics, environmental and hydrological aspects at the river basin scale in a consistent framework, represent a promising approach. This article presents a least-cost river basin optimization model (LCRBOM) that selects the combination of quantitative water management measures to meet environmental flows for future scenarios of agricultural and urban demand taken into account the impact of the climate change. The model has been implemented in a case study on a Mediterranean basin in the south of France, the Orb River basin. The water basin has been identified as in need for quantitative water management measures in order to reach the good status of its water bodies. The LCRBOM has been developed using GAMS, applying Mixed Integer Linear Programming. It is run to select the set of measures that minimizes the total annualized cost of the applied measures, while meeting the demands and minimum in-stream flow constraints. For the economic analysis, the programme of measures is composed of water conservation measures on agricultural and urban water demands. It compares them with measures mobilizing new water resources coming from groundwater, inter-basin transfers and improvement in reservoir operating rules. The total annual cost of each measure is calculated for each demand unit considering operation, maintenance and

  7. The role of zonally asymmetric heating in the vertical and temporal structure of the global scale flow fields during FGGE SOP-1. [First Global Atmospheric Research Program Global Experiment (FGGE); Special Observing Period (SOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paegle, J.; Kalnay-Rivas, E.; Baker, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    By examining the vertical structure of the low order spherical harmonics of the divergence and vorticity fields, the relative contribution of tropical and monsoonal circulations upon the global wind fields was estimated. This indicates that the overall flow over North America and the Pacific between January and February is quite distinct both in the lower and upper troposphere. In these longitudes there is a stronger tropical overturning and subtropical jet stream in January than February. The divergent flow reversed between 850 and 200 mb. Poleward rotational flow at upper levels is associated with an equatorward rotational flow at low levels. This suggests that the monsoon and other tropical circulations project more amplitude upon low order (global scale) representations of the flow than do the typical midlatitude circulations and that their structures show conspicuous changes on a time scale of a week or less.

  8. UNBALANCED SCALES OF GLOBAL CAPITALISM: ANALYZING TEMPORARY FOREIGN WORKER PROGRAMS IN CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Callon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available his article analyzes several characteristics of two of Canada’s Temporary Foreign Worker Programs (TFWPs: The Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program (SAWP and the Live-in Caregiver Program (LCP. First, I consider the social and economic contexts in which these programs have emerged. Second, I discuss how these programs maintain racial and gendered hierarchies. Third, I problematize the relationship TFWPs have with citizenship status, as well as critique TFWPs as a long-term solution to Canadian labour shortages. Last, I discuss the potential benefits of these TFWPs and suggest alternatives and potential improvements to the programs. Using a Marxist framework, this analysis situates Canada’s TFWPs within the broader political economy and argues that global capitalism and the state interact to serve the people and economies of the Global North at the expense of migrant workers from the Global South.

  9. GlobeLand30 as an alternative fine-scale global land cover map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokar Arsanjani, Jamal; Tayyebi, A.; Vaz, E.

    2016-01-01

    Global land cover maps are a vital source for mapping our globe into a set of thematic types. They have been extensively used as a basis layer for a large number of applications including ecosystem services, environmental planning, climate change, hydrological processes and policy making. While...... regional land cover maps for some areas such as Europe and North America has been greatly developed and very few temporal datasets exist, lack of such data for some regions specifically developing countries is evident. Although it seems global land cover maps such as MODIS could be a solution for mapping...... these regions, their coarse spatial resolution e.g., 500 m as well as their accuracy are very challenging. Recently, GlobeLand30 a global land cover with a relatively fine resolution at 30 m extracted from Landsat images has been released, which seems to be a potential dataset for mapping areas with limited...

  10. [Equity in global health as a challenge for applied ethics. The case of child mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razum, Oliver

    2008-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities within German society affect the health and thereby the lives of the population: those who are least well-off have the highest risk of illness and premature death. However, the dimension of socioeconomic and health inequalities in Germany is small when compared to that between low- and high-income countries. I here use the example of child mortality, which varies by a factor of almost 100 (Sierra Leone vs. Iceland), to illustrate global inequalities in health. Low-income countries tend to be more affected by child mortality, but not all such countries have equally high rates. Effective interventions to reduce child mortality exist and many are affordable, but they are not being implemented at a sufficient scale. Global inequality in child mortality thus constitutes an inequity. Ethical considerations play a central role when decisions are taken on what control measures are legitimate, and whether the high-income societies have an obligation to intervene. Do the citizens of rich nations carry a moral responsibility for the global inequality in child mortality and for taking appropriate action? Or is it primarily a responsibility of the families and the governments in countries with high child mortality? Should a reduction of the (comparatively small) inequalities in Germany be given priority over reducing global inequalities? I approach these questions from an intuitive, moral position and move towards a critically-reflexive position.

  11. AgMIP 1.5°C Assessment: Mitigation and Adaptation at Coordinated Global and Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2016-12-01

    The AgMIP 1.5°C Coordinated Global and Regional Integrated Assessments of Climate Change and Food Security (AgMIP 1.5 CGRA) is linking site-based crop and livestock models with similar models run on global grids, and then links these biophysical components with economics models and nutrition metrics at regional and global scales. The AgMIP 1.5 CGRA assessment brings together experts in climate, crop, livestock, economics, nutrition, and food security to define the 1.5°C Protocols and guide the process throughout the assessment. Scenarios are designed to consistently combine elements of intertwined storylines of future society including socioeconomic development (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways), greenhouse gas concentrations (Representative Concentration Pathways), and specific pathways of agricultural sector development (Representative Agricultural Pathways). Shared Climate Policy Assumptions will be extended to provide additional agricultural detail on mitigation and adaptation strategies. The multi-model, multi-disciplinary, multi-scale integrated assessment framework is using scenarios of economic development, adaptation, mitigation, food policy, and food security. These coordinated assessments are grounded in the expertise of AgMIP partners around the world, leading to more consistent results and messages for stakeholders, policymakers, and the scientific community. The early inclusion of nutrition and food security experts has helped to ensure that assessment outputs include important metrics upon which investment and policy decisions may be based. The CGRA builds upon existing AgMIP research groups (e.g., the AgMIP Wheat Team and the AgMIP Global Gridded Crop Modeling Initiative; GGCMI) and regional programs (e.g., AgMIP Regional Teams in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia), with new protocols for cross-scale and cross-disciplinary linkages to ensure the propagation of expert judgment and consistent assumptions.

  12. WaterWorld, a spatial hydrological model applied at scales from local to global: key challenges to local application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sophia; Mulligan, Mark

    2017-04-01

    WaterWorld is a widely used spatial hydrological policy support system. The last user census indicates regular use by 1029 institutions across 141 countries. A key feature of WaterWorld since 2001 is that it comes pre-loaded with all of the required data for simulation anywhere in the world at a 1km or 1 ha resolution. This means that it can be easily used, without specialist technical ability, to examine baseline hydrology and the impacts of scenarios for change or management interventions to support policy formulation, hence its labelling as a policy support system. WaterWorld is parameterised by an extensive global gridded database of more than 600 variables, developed from many sources, since 1998, the so-called simTerra database. All of these data are available globally at 1km resolution and some variables (terrain, land cover, urban areas, water bodies) are available globally at 1ha resolution. If users have access to better data than is pre-loaded, they can upload their own data. WaterWorld is generally applied at the national or basin scale at 1km resolution, or locally (for areas of maps to run including monthly climate data, land cover and use, terrain, population, water bodies and more. Whilst publically-available terrain and land cover data are now well developed for local scale application, climate and land use data remain a challenge, with most global products being available at 1km or 10km resolution or worse, which is rather coarse for local application. As part of the EartH2Observe project we have used WFDEI (WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim data) at 1km resolution to provide an alternative input to WaterWorld's preloaded climate data. Here we examine the impacts of that on key hydrological outputs: water balance, water quality and outline the remaining challenges of using datasets like these for local scale application.

  13. Deriving Scaling Factors Using a Global Hydrological Model to Restore GRACE Total Water Storage Changes for China's Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Di; Yang, Yuting; Yoshihide, Wada; Hong, Yang; Liang, Wei; Chen, Yaning; Yong, Bin; Hou, Aizhong; Wei, Jiangfeng; Chen, Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study used a global hydrological model (GHM), PCR-GLOBWB, which simulates surface water storage changes, natural and human induced groundwater storage changes, and the interactions between surface water and subsurface water, to generate scaling factors by mimicking low-pass filtering of GRACE signals. Signal losses in GRACE data were subsequently restored by the scaling factors from PCR-GLOBWB. Results indicate greater spatial heterogeneity in scaling factor from PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0 than that from GLDAS-1 Noah due to comprehensive simulation of surface and subsurface water storage changes for PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0. Filtered GRACE total water storage (TWS) changes applied with PCR-GLOBWB scaling factors show closer agreement with water budget estimates of TWS changes than those with scaling factors from other land surface models (LSMs) in China's Yangtze River basin. Results of this study develop a further understanding of the behavior of scaling factors from different LSMs or GHMs over hydrologically complex basins, and could be valuable in providing more accurate TWS changes for hydrological applications (e.g., monitoring drought and groundwater storage depletion) over regions where human-induced interactions between surface water and subsurface water are intensive.

  14. Global direct pressures on biodiversity by large-scale metal mining: Spatial distribution and implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía, Diego I; Bringezu, Stefan; Schaldach, Rüdiger

    2016-09-15

    Biodiversity loss is widely recognized as a serious global environmental change process. While large-scale metal mining activities do not belong to the top drivers of such change, these operations exert or may intensify pressures on biodiversity by adversely changing habitats, directly and indirectly, at local and regional scales. So far, analyses of global spatial dynamics of mining and its burden on biodiversity focused on the overlap between mines and protected areas or areas of high value for conservation. However, it is less clear how operating metal mines are globally exerting pressure on zones of different biodiversity richness; a similar gap exists for unmined but known mineral deposits. By using vascular plants' diversity as a proxy to quantify overall biodiversity, this study provides a first examination of the global spatial distribution of mines and deposits for five key metals across different biodiversity zones. The results indicate that mines and deposits are not randomly distributed, but concentrated within intermediate and high diversity zones, especially bauxite and silver. In contrast, iron, gold, and copper mines and deposits are closer to a more proportional distribution while showing a high concentration in the intermediate biodiversity zone. Considering the five metals together, 63% and 61% of available mines and deposits, respectively, are located in intermediate diversity zones, comprising 52% of the global land terrestrial surface. 23% of mines and 20% of ore deposits are located in areas of high plant diversity, covering 17% of the land. 13% of mines and 19% of deposits are in areas of low plant diversity, comprising 31% of the land surface. Thus, there seems to be potential for opening new mines in areas of low biodiversity in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantifying nutrient cycling and retention in coastal waters at the global scale. Geologica Ultraiectina (312)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laruelle, G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal waters extend from the mouths of rivers to the edge of the continental shelves, forming the transition zone between land and ocean. This highly dynamic narrow ribbon of coastal ecosystems is of major ecological and economical interest. It also plays a key role in global ocean biogeochemistry

  16. Plant diversity increases with the strength of negative density dependence at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. LaManna; Scott A. Mangan; Alfonso Alonso; Norman A. Bourg; Warren Y. Brockelman; Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin; Li-Wan Chang; Jyh-Min Chiang; George B. Chuyong; Keith Clay; Richard Condit; Susan Cordell; Stuart J. Davies; Tucker J. Furniss; Christian P. Giardina; I. A. U. Nimal Gunatilleke; C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke; Fangliang He; Robert W. Howe; Stephen P. Hubbell; Chang-Fu Hsieh; Faith M. Inman-Narahari; David Janík; Daniel J. Johnson; David Kenfack; Lisa Korte; Kamil Král; Andrew J. Larson; James A. Lutz; Sean M. McMahon; William J. McShea; Hervé R. Memiaghe; Anuttara Nathalang; Vojtech Novotny; Perry S. Ong; David A. Orwig; Rebecca Ostertag; Geoffrey G. Parker; Richard P. Phillips; Lawren Sack; I-Fang Sun; J. Sebastián Tello; Duncan W. Thomas; Benjamin L. Turner; Dilys M. Vela Díaz; Tomáš Vrška; George D. Weiblen; Amy Wolf; Sandra Yap; Jonathan A. Myers

    2017-01-01

    Theory predicts that higher biodiversity in the tropics is maintained by specialized interactions among plants and their natural enemies that result in conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD). By using more than 3000 species and nearly 2.4 million trees across 24 forest plots worldwide, we show that global patterns in tree species diversity reflect not only...

  17. Magnitude and variability of land evaporation and its components at the global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miralles, D.G.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Gash, J.H.C.; Holmes, T.R.H.; Dolman, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    A process-based methodology is applied to estimate land-surface evaporation from multi-satellite information. GLEAM (Global Land-surface Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology) combines a wide range of remotely-sensed observations to derive daily actual evaporation and its different components. Soil

  18. Global connectivity and cross-scale interactions create uncertainty for Blue Growth of Arctic fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niiranen, S.; Richter, A.; Blenckner, T.; Stige, L.C.; Valman, M.; Eikeset, A.M.

    2018-01-01

    The Arctic faces high expectations of Blue Growth due to future projections of easier access and increased biological productivity. These expectations are, however, often based on global and regional climate change projections and largely ignore the complexity of social-ecological interactions

  19. Global stabilisation of large-scale hydraulic networks with quantised and positive proportional controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    is extended by showing that an attractor set with a global basin of attraction exists for arbitrary values of positive control gains, given that the upper level of the quantiser is properly designed. Furthermore, the proof is given for general monotone quantisation maps. Since the basin of attraction...

  20. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of mercury world-wide are presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  1. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacyna, J. M.; Travnikov, O.; De Simone, F.; Hedgecock, I. M.; Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, E. G.; Steenhuisen, F.; Pirrone, N.; Munthe, J.; Kindbom, K.

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the

  2. Design and implementation of multichannel global active structural acoustic control for a device casing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Krzysztof; Wrona, Stanislaw; Pawelczyk, Marek

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the idea and discussion on implementation of multichannel global active noise control systems. As a test plant an active casing is used. It has been developed by the authors to reduce device noise directly at the source by controlling vibration of its casing. To provide global acoustic effect in the whole environment, where the device operates, it requires a number of secondary sources and sensors for each casing wall, thus making the whole active control structure complicated, i.e. with a large number of interacting channels. The paper discloses all details concerning hardware setup and efficient implementation of control algorithms for the multichannel case. A new formulation is presented to introduce the distributed version of the Switched-error Filtered-reference Least Mean Squares (FXLMS) algorithm together with adaptation rate enhancement. The convergence rate of the proposed algorithm is compared with original Multiple-error FXLMS. A number of hints followed from many years of authors' experience on microprocessor control systems design and signal processing algorithms optimization are presented. They can be used for various active control and signal processing applications, both for academic research and commercialization.

  3. UNESCO Global Geoparks, Geotourism and Communication of the Earth Sciences: A Case Study in the Chablais UNESCO Global Geopark, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Catherine Justice

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The last twenty years have seen considerable developments in geotourism, a form of sustainable tourism. This has been also a period of significant development for UNESCO Global Geoparks (UGGps, on one hand with the creation of the International Geoscience and Geoparks Programme, and the other, in the number and diversity of UGGps recognised across the world. Geoparks have particular characteristics, such as a spatial engagement across an area, as well as the long-term commitment associated with this type of label. UGGps take a broad approach to geotourism, and seek to engage with all demographics, including “unsuspecting” geotourists. This is particularly relevant when considering that the Geopark profile has evolved since the introduction of the UNESCO label, and that a number UGGps are pre-existing tourist destinations and have diverse economies and strong growth. UGGps draw on professional, multidisciplinary teams that combine scientific knowledge, science communication, and outreach events to achieve effective heritage transmission through actions that target schools, the local population, and the general public. These are not traditional structures and do not have behavioural constraints imposed on them as experienced by some educational structures or museums. The present case study is an example of the type of innovation seen in UGGps, whereby novel solutions are employed in order to touch as wide a public as possible. The action presented is a winter outreach event for the general public in the Chablais UNESCO Global Geopark (France, that was developed in partnership with the Portes du Soleil association of 12 ski resorts. This consisted of an orienteering/treasure hunt game across one of the world’s largest ski domains, that included panels with anecdotes presenting different aspects of the Chablais geoheritage. It demonstrates that it is possible to engage with a sporting public that is seeking experiences and is not expecting to

  4. Determination of global ice loads on the ship using the measured full-scale motion data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Man Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full-scale data were acquired while the ARAON rammed old ice floes in the high Arctic. Estimated ice impact forces for two representative events showed 7–15 MN when ship operated in heavy ice conditions.

  5. The problem of epistemic jurisdiction in global governance: The case of sustainability standards for biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winickoff, David E; Mondou, Matthieu

    2017-02-01

    While there is ample scholarly work on regulatory science within the state, or single-sited global institutions, there is less on its operation within complex modes of global governance that are decentered, overlapping, multi-sectorial and multi-leveled. Using a co-productionist framework, this study identifies 'epistemic jurisdiction' - the power to produce or warrant technical knowledge for a given political community, topical arena or geographical territory - as a central problem for regulatory science in complex governance. We explore these dynamics in the arena of global sustainability standards for biofuels. We select three institutional fora as sites of inquiry: the European Union's Renewable Energy Directive, the Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials, and the International Organization for Standardization. These cases allow us to analyze how the co-production of sustainability science responds to problems of epistemic jurisdiction in the global regulatory order. First, different problems of epistemic jurisdiction beset different standard-setting bodies, and these problems shape both the content of regulatory science and the procedures designed to make it authoritative. Second, in order to produce global regulatory science, technical bodies must manage an array of conflicting imperatives - including scientific virtue, due process and the need to recruit adoptees to perpetuate the standard. At different levels of governance, standard drafters struggle to balance loyalties to country, to company or constituency and to the larger project of internationalization. Confronted with these sometimes conflicting pressures, actors across the standards system quite self-consciously maneuver to build or retain authority for their forum through a combination of scientific adjustment and political negotiation. Third, the evidentiary demands of regulatory science in global administrative spaces are deeply affected by 1) a market for standards, in which firms and states can

  6. Oceanic primary production 2. Estimation at global scale from satellite (coastal zone color scanner) chlorophyll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, David; André, Jean-Michel; Morel, André

    A fast method has been proposed [Antoine and Morel, this issue] to compute the oceanic primary production from the upper ocean chlorophyll-like pigment concentration, as it can be routinely detected by a spaceborne ocean color sensor. This method is applied here to the monthly global maps of the photosynthetic pigments that were derived from the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) data archive [Feldman et al., 1989]. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) field is computed from the astronomical constant and by using an atmospheric model, thereafter combined with averaged cloud information, derived from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). The aim is to assess the seasonal evolution, as well as the spatial distribution of the photosynthetic carbon fixation within the world ocean and for a ``climatological year,'' to the extent that both the chlorophyll information and the cloud coverage statistics actually are averages obtained over several years. The computed global annual production actually ranges between 36.5 and 45.6 Gt C yr-1 according to the assumption which is made (0.8 or 1) about the ratio of active-to-total pigments (recall that chlorophyll and pheopigments are not radiometrically resolved by CZCS). The relative contributions to the global productivity of the various oceans and zonal belts are examined. By considering the hypotheses needed in such computations, the nature of the data used as inputs, and the results of the sensitivity studies, the global numbers have to be cautiously considered. Improving the reliability of the primary production estimates implies (1) new global data sets allowing a higher temporal resolution and a better coverage, (2) progress in the knowledge of physiological responses of phytoplankton and therefore refinements of the time and space dependent parameterizations of these responses.

  7. Global-scale patterns in anthropogenic Pb contamination reconstructed from natural archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Samuel K; Rashid, Shaqer; Stromsoe, Nicola

    2016-06-01

    During the past two centuries metal loads in the Earth's atmosphere and ecosystems have increased significantly over pre-industrial levels. This has been associated with deleterious effects to ecosystem processes and human health. The magnitude of this toxic metal burden, as well as the spatial and temporal patterns of metal enrichment, is recorded in sedimentary archives across the globe. This paper presents a compilation of selected Pb contamination records from lakes (n = 10), peat mires (n = 10) and ice fields (n = 7) from Europe, North and South America, Asia, Australia and the Northern and Southern Hemisphere polar regions. These records quantify changes in Pb enrichment in remote from source environments. The presence of anthropogenic Pb in the environment has a long history, extending as far back as the early to mid-Holocene in North America, Europe and East Asia. However, results show that Pb contamination in the Earth's environment became globally ubiquitous at the beginning of the Second Industrial Revolution (c.1850-1890 CE), after which the magnitude of Pb contamination increased significantly. This date therefore serves as an effective global marker for the onset of the Anthropocene. Current global average Pb enrichment rates are between 6 and 35 times background, however Pb contamination loads are spatially variable. For example, they are >100 times background in Europe and North America and 5-15 times background in Antarctica. Despite a recent decline in Pb loads in some regions, most notably Europe and North America, anthropogenic Pb remains highly enriched and universally present in global ecosystems, while concentrations are increasing in some regions (Australia, Asia and parts of South America and Antarctica). There is, however, a paucity of Pb enrichment records outside of Europe, which limits assessments of global contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The nonstationary impact of local temperature changes and ENSO on extreme precipitation at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiaohong; Miao, Chiyuan; Qiao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Qingyun

    2017-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and local temperature are important drivers of extreme precipitation. Understanding the impact of ENSO and temperature on the risk of extreme precipitation over global land will provide a foundation for risk assessment and climate-adaptive design of infrastructure in a changing climate. In this study, nonstationary generalized extreme value distributions were used to model extreme precipitation over global land for the period 1979-2015, with ENSO indicator and temperature as covariates. Risk factors were estimated to quantify the contrast between the influence of different ENSO phases and temperature. The results show that extreme precipitation is dominated by ENSO over 22% of global land and by temperature over 26% of global land. With a warming climate, the risk of high-intensity daily extreme precipitation increases at high latitudes but decreases in tropical regions. For ENSO, large parts of North America, southern South America, and southeastern and northeastern China are shown to suffer greater risk in El Niño years, with more than double the chance of intense extreme precipitation in El Niño years compared with La Niña years. Moreover, regions with more intense precipitation are more sensitive to ENSO. Global climate models were used to investigate the changing relationship between extreme precipitation and the covariates. The risk of extreme, high-intensity precipitation increases across high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere but decreases in middle and lower latitudes under a warming climate scenario, and will likely trigger increases in severe flooding and droughts across the globe. However, there is some uncertainties associated with the influence of ENSO on predictions of future extreme precipitation, with the spatial extent and risk varying among the different models.

  9. Perspectives on Ocean Ridge Basalts from the Segment to the Global Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the influences on ridge basalt chemistry, through analysis of their major and trace element and isotopic composition at scales ranging from individual ridge segments to the entire length of the ridge system. Local-scale studies of basalts along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge shed light on crustal accretion at slow-spreading ridges, and on the nature of plume-ridge interaction in this region. We show that segments must have multiple supplies of magma delivered along their length, ...

  10. When Is a New Scale not a New Scale? The Case of the Bergen Shopping Addiction Scale and the Compulsive Online Shopping Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Mark D.; Andreassen, Cecilie S.; Pallesen, St?le; Bilder, Robert M.; Torsheim, Torbj?rn; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Manchiraju et al. (International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1–15, 2016) published the Compulsive Online Shopping Scale (COSS) in the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (IJMHA). To develop their measure of compulsive online shopping, Manchiraju and colleagues adapted items from the seven-item Bergen Shopping Addiction Scale (BSAS) and its' original 28-item item pool. Manchiraju et al. did not add or remove any of the original seven items, and did not substantiall...

  11. Recent US Case of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease-Global Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Atul; Fischer, Michael; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Parker, Alicia; Ram, Aarthi; Soto, Claudio; Concha-Marambio, Luis; Cohen, Yvonne; Belay, Ermias D; Maddox, Ryan A; Mead, Simon; Goodman, Clay; Kass, Joseph S; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Hussein, Haitham M

    2015-05-01

    Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a rare, fatal prion disease resulting from transmission to humans of the infectious agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. We describe the clinical presentation of a recent case of vCJD in the United States and provide an update on diagnostic testing. The location of this patient's exposure is less clear than those in the 3 previously reported US cases, but strong evidence indicates that exposure to contaminated beef occurred outside the United States more than a decade before illness onset. This case exemplifies the persistent risk for vCJD acquired in unsuspected geographic locations and highlights the need for continued global surveillance and awareness to prevent further dissemination of vCJD.

  12. Globalization of healthcare: case management in a 21st-century world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Kathy; Beichl, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This article explains the current state of the global healthcare market with respect to international medical travel (medical tourism) and worldwide provider sourcing. Emphasis is placed on the traditional twin pillars of oversight: program accreditation and branding affiliation. These are discussed for their main strength, which is their ability to operate at a system-strata level. This strength also represents a primary weakness from the international patient's perspective, which is the functional gap between systemic oversight and bedside surveillance. International case management (ICM) is identified as the right conduit of patient-level service delivery that fills the gap between system and bedside. The ICM professional is introduced and defined as the provider of patient-centered quality and safety improvements, who coordinates and collaborates using international network connections and culture-sensitive in-country communication skills. The article's information is useful for healthcare practitioners who want to learn about the global medical marketplace. Practitioners who are preparing to or who already have business enterprises associated with the global healthcare market will also find the information helpful. Explanations and content are useful to case management generalists, specialists, and business developers. The content is intended for uptake by interested parties within and outside the healthcare practice arena. All research and syntheses were executed by the authors. Sources included business correspondences, medical tourism literature, corporate Internet profiles, news releases, and healthcare industry investigative and monitoring agencies. Clinical competencies stem from the international practice experiences of one author (K. Craig). International health insurance, economics, and financing expertise stems from other author (L. Beichl). This article launches the platform for development of checklists, tools, and guidelines for international case

  13. The need for theory evaluation in global citizenship programmes: The case of the GCSA programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodier, Sarah; Field, Carren; Goodman, Suki

    2018-02-01

    Many education programmes lack a documented programme theory. This is a problem for programme planners and evaluators as the ability to measure programme success is grounded in the plausibility of the programme's underlying causal logic. Where the programme theory has not been documented, conducting a theory evaluation offers a foundational evaluation step as it gives an indication of whether the theory behind a programme is sound. This paper presents a case of a theory evaluation of a Global Citizenship programme at a top-ranking university in South Africa, subsequently called the GCSA Programme. This evaluation highlights the need for documented programme theory in global citizenship-type programmes for future programme development. An articulated programme theory produced for the GCSA Programme, analysed against the available social science literature, indicated it is comparable to other such programmes in terms of its overarching framework. What the research found is that most other global citizenship programmes do not have an articulated programme theory. These programmes also do not explicitly link their specific activities to their intended outcomes, making demonstrating impact impossible. In conclusion, we argue that taking a theory-based approach can strengthen and enable outcome evaluations in global citizenship programmes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Sustainable Development Strategy for the Global City: A Case Study of Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Global cities, the command and control centres of the integrated world economy, are facing a sustainability paradox of greater global competition and greater environmental pressure. This study explores the policy approaches to the sustainability paradox by integrating environmental sustainability and economic competitiveness into the development strategy for “the global city”, based on a case study of Sydney. Dissecting Sustainable Sydney 2030, the strategy to guide the City’s development in the early 21st century, reveals the approaches used to achieve the integration. The approaches include green economy, sustainable redevelopment, integrated transport and connectivity, development of attractive public space, urban design for sustainable and good-looking urban form, marketisation of sustainability for a competitive edge, and a relational planning approach. Altogether they target mutually supportive benefits of environmental sustainability and economic competitiveness. The findings point out new directions for the City’s strategic development, and suggest a useful reference for counterpart global cities to address the common sustainability paradox.

  15. Achieving public and global health competencies: A teaching case study of Botswana's cervical cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okatch, Harriet; Sowicz, Timothy Joseph; Teng, Helen; Ramogola-Masire, Doreen; Buttenheim, Alison M

    2018-02-09

    To design and implement a case study on the cervical cancer screening program in Botswana to teach public and global health competencies to undergraduate nursing students. The case study was developed following a review of the literature on the epidemiology and health policies of cervical cancer in Botswana, and an interview with an obstetrician/gynecologist engaged in both clinical practice and research in Botswana. The case study has been implemented over seven semesters to students enrolled in the Nursing in the Community course at the University of Pennsylvania. Approximately 75-100 students are enrolled each semester. Student's perceptions of epidemiologic skills gained and group functioning. Students responded to an open-ended question about lessons learned and offered suggestions to improve the learning experience. Faculty assessment of student deliverables demonstrated that students achieved the learning objectives and mastered necessary competencies. More than 70% (n = 69) of the students indicated that they acquired relevant skills at greater than a satisfactory level. Generally, students had great experiences working in groups measured across five dimensions: engagement/contribution, creativity/resilience, on task/works independently, social interaction/communication, and preparedness. However, isolated cases of poor group functioning were reported for engagement/contribution, and creativity/resilience. The case study, which has been revised with respect to length, content and group processes, has been valuable in educating undergraduate nursing students in a more engaging way that mimics real life public health nursing scenarios. Students achieved both public and global health competencies through participation in the case study. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Amnésia Global Transitória: Relato de Caso/ Transitory Global Amnesia: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpio Antônio Cornehl da Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A amnésia global transitória (AGT consiste na ocorrência de sintomas como perda da memória e perda da orientação temporal e/ou espacial, de caráter temporário, e cuja causa não está associada às condições neurológicas mais comuns e clássicas, como epilepsia ou acidente vascular cerebral (AVC. Os maiores fatores de risco conhecidos para a AGT são a idade, geralmente ocorrendo em maiores de 50 anos, a ocorrência de episódios de estresse ou esforço físico antes do evento, sendo comum ocorrer em pessoas com antecedentes de enxaqueca. Casuística: Neste trabalho foi relatado o caso de um paciente de 61 anos, do sexo masculino, com história de amnésia com duração de um período de 5 horas. O mesmo foi submetido ao exame de ressonância magnética no dia seguinte que não evidenciou alterações; devido à suspeita de AGT, um novo exame de RM foi realizado três dias depois, demonstrando pequena área de alteração de sinal no hipocampo direito. Discussão: Os testes diagnósticos a serem realizados incluem exames para investigar um possível AVC ou episódio epiléptico. Além disso, é importante a investigação de fatores psicossomáticos e pesquisa de transtornos psiquiátricos associados, bastante relacionados à ocorrência de AGT. Conclusão: Atualmente, ainda há estudos sobre esta patologia, principalmente em relação a sua causa subjacente, levantando-se a hipótese de que seja um sintoma comum a diversas doenças e não uma patologia em si, tornando de suma importância os exames complementares de imagem no seu diagnóstico. Introduction: Transient global amnesia (TGA is the occurrence of symptoms such as loss of memory and orientation to time and/or space, with a temporary character, and whose cause is not linked to the most common classic and neurological conditions, such as epilepsy or stroke. The major known risk factors for TGA are age, usually occurring in greater than 50 year-old people the

  17. N IMPLEMENTATION TOWARDS THE EVALUATION OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE IN TURKISH INSURANCE SECTOR AT GLOBAL CRISIS SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcan CAGIL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises have to develop themselves permanently and to conduct performance analysis to maintain their presence. Although world-wide recognised performance measurement models are being implemented, preference of the best method for the enterprise with regards models in question is significant for reflecting the true financial performance of organisation. The purpose of this study is to examine performance measurement which have a rather significant place for measuring the competitive power of insurance companies in present-day financial sector. In this context, the effects of the last global crisis is taken up with an implementation on the non-life insurance sector which has been widely influenced by the crisis. This study comprises the analysis of 25 non-life insurance companies in Turkish insurance sector within the period of 2003-2008 as the financial performance of the companies during the global crisis are investigated through CRR oriented DEA technique.

  18. Monetary Regimes and Policy on a Global Scale: The Oeuvre of Michael D. Bordo

    OpenAIRE

    Rockoff, Hugh; White, Eugene N.

    2012-01-01

    Michael D. Bordo has helped to define the modern field of monetary history, drawing from it important policy lessons for current practitioners. For his seventieth year, we survey his contributions to our understanding of the Great Depression, money and the economy in historical perspective, exchange rate regimes including the gold standard, Bretton Woods, and the European Monetary Union, globalization, financial crises, the Canadian monetary experience, and historical guidance for monetary p...

  19. The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, J.; Evans, J. S.; Fnais, M.; Giannadaki, D.; Pozzer, A.

    2015-09-01

    Assessment of the global burden of disease is based on epidemiological cohort studies that connect premature mortality to a wide range of causes, including the long-term health impacts of ozone and fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5). It has proved difficult to quantify premature mortality related to air pollution, notably in regions where air quality is not monitored, and also because the toxicity of particles from various sources may vary. Here we use a global atmospheric chemistry model to investigate the link between premature mortality and seven emission source categories in urban and rural environments. In accord with the global burden of disease for 2010 (ref. 5), we calculate that outdoor air pollution, mostly by PM2.5, leads to 3.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.61-4.81) million premature deaths per year worldwide, predominantly in Asia. We primarily assume that all particles are equally toxic, but also include a sensitivity study that accounts for differential toxicity. We find that emissions from residential energy use such as heating and cooking, prevalent in India and China, have the largest impact on premature mortality globally, being even more dominant if carbonaceous particles are assumed to be most toxic. Whereas in much of the USA and in a few other countries emissions from traffic and power generation are important, in eastern USA, Europe, Russia and East Asia agricultural emissions make the largest relative contribution to PM2.5, with the estimate of overall health impact depending on assumptions regarding particle toxicity. Model projections based on a business-as-usual emission scenario indicate that the contribution of outdoor air pollution to premature mortality could double by 2050.

  20. Air Quality Forecasts Using the NASA GEOS Model: A Unified Tool from Local to Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowland, E. Emma; Keller, Christoph; Nielsen, J. Eric; Orbe, Clara; Ott, Lesley; Pawson, Steven; Saunders, Emily; Duncan, Bryan; Cook, Melanie; Liu, Junhua; hide

    2017-01-01

    We provide an introduction to a new high-resolution (0.25 degree) global composition forecast produced by NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation office. The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model has been expanded to provide global near-real-time forecasts of atmospheric composition at a horizontal resolution of 0.25 degrees (approximately 25 km). Previously, this combination of detailed chemistry and resolution was only provided by regional models. This system combines the operational GEOS-5 weather forecasting model with the state-of-the-science GEOS-Chem chemistry module (version 11) to provide detailed chemical analysis of a wide range of air pollutants such as ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The resolution of the forecasts is the highest resolution compared to current, publically-available global composition forecasts. Evaluation and validation of modeled trace gases and aerosols compared to surface and satellite observations will be presented for constituents relative to health air quality standards. Comparisons of modeled trace gases and aerosols against satellite observations show that the model produces realistic concentrations of atmospheric constituents in the free troposphere. Model comparisons against surface observations highlight the model's capability to capture the diurnal variability of air pollutants under a variety of meteorological conditions. The GEOS-5 composition forecasting system offers a new tool for scientists and the public health community, and is being developed jointly with several government and non-profit partners. Potential applications include air quality warnings, flight campaign planning and exposure studies using the archived analysis fields.

  1. Global civil society initiative to create a large-scale, unarmed peaceforce

    OpenAIRE

    Carriere, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Peer reviewed The notion of peacekeeping usually conjures up images of UN- sponsored Blue Helmets or other armed military or police forces deployed in areas of violent conflict in poor countries. But unarmed peacekeeping, by civilian members of global non-governmental organizations who employ proven strategies, is a valuable, cost-effective complement (or an alternative) to the currently dominant approach of armed peacekeeping. Unarmed civilian peacekeepers offer services of protective acc...

  2. Global Civil Registration and Vital Statistics : A Scaling Up Investment Plan 2015-2024

    OpenAIRE

    World Health Organization; World Bank

    2014-01-01

    The UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), WHO, and the World Bank co-hosted a global consultative meeting on Civil Registration And Vital Statistics (CRVS) in Addis Ababa on April 28-29, 2014 to discuss and obtain input on a draft investment plan. Civil registration is the act of recording and documenting of vital events in a person s life (including birth, marriage, divorce, adoption...

  3. The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, J; Evans, J S; Fnais, M; Giannadaki, D; Pozzer, A

    2015-09-17

    Assessment of the global burden of disease is based on epidemiological cohort studies that connect premature mortality to a wide range of causes, including the long-term health impacts of ozone and fine particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5). It has proved difficult to quantify premature mortality related to air pollution, notably in regions where air quality is not monitored, and also because the toxicity of particles from various sources may vary. Here we use a global atmospheric chemistry model to investigate the link between premature mortality and seven emission source categories in urban and rural environments. In accord with the global burden of disease for 2010 (ref. 5), we calculate that outdoor air pollution, mostly by PM2.5, leads to 3.3 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.61-4.81) million premature deaths per year worldwide, predominantly in Asia. We primarily assume that all particles are equally toxic, but also include a sensitivity study that accounts for differential toxicity. We find that emissions from residential energy use such as heating and cooking, prevalent in India and China, have the largest impact on premature mortality globally, being even more dominant if carbonaceous particles are assumed to be most toxic. Whereas in much of the USA and in a few other countries emissions from traffic and power generation are important, in eastern USA, Europe, Russia and East Asia agricultural emissions make the largest relative contribution to PM2.5, with the estimate of overall health impact depending on assumptions regarding particle toxicity. Model projections based on a business-as-usual emission scenario indicate that the contribution of outdoor air pollution to premature mortality could double by 2050.

  4. Global-scale river flood vulnerability in the last 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, Masahiro; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Ikeuchi, Hiroaki

    2016-10-01

    The impacts of flooding are expected to rise due to population increases, economic growth and climate change. Hence, understanding the physical and spatiotemporal characteristics of risk drivers (hazard, exposure and vulnerability) is required to develop effective flood mitigation measures. Here, the long-term trend in flood vulnerability was analysed globally, calculated from the ratio of the reported flood loss or damage to the modelled flood exposure using a global river and inundation model. A previous study showed decreasing global flood vulnerability over a shorter period using different disaster data. The long-term analysis demonstrated for the first time that flood vulnerability to economic losses in upper-middle, lower-middle and low-income countries shows an inverted U-shape, as a result of the balance between economic growth and various historical socioeconomic efforts to reduce damage, leading to non-significant upward or downward trends. We also show that the flood-exposed population is affected by historical changes in population distribution, with changes in flood vulnerability of up to 48.9%. Both increasing and decreasing trends in flood vulnerability were observed in different countries, implying that population growth scenarios considering spatial distribution changes could affect flood risk projections.

  5. Corneal ulcer due to a rare coelomycetes fungusChaetomium strumarium: Case report and global review ofChaetomiumkeratomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mamatha; Venugopal, Ramya; Prakash, Peralam Yegneswaran; Kamath, Yogish Subraya

    2017-09-01

    We present a rare case of corneal ulcer caused by a species of a coelomycetes fungus, Chaetomium strumarium. This fungal genus is a rare causative agent of keratomycosis, with only a handful of cases reported. The clinical presentation, investigative techniques, and preliminary management of our patient are reported. The cases reported in global literature are also summarized in a tabular form in the discussion.

  6. Management of small-scale fisheries in developing countries: The case of Elephant Marsh in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Kosamu, I.B.M.

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands provide many ecosystem goods and services which include fish production. The sustainability of small-scale fisheries (SSF) has received considerable attention in recent years because fish is one of the major sources of animal protein to a considerable fraction of the global population which is estimated to increase to about 9.5 billion by 2050. Most of this attention has evolved around the pressures to which SSF are increasingly subjected, emanating particularly from population growt...

  7. A One-Dimensional Global-Scaling Erosive Burning Model Informed by Blowing Wall Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbey, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    A derivation of turbulent flow parameters, combined with data from erosive burning test motors and blowing wall tests results in erosive burning model candidates useful in one-dimensional internal ballistics analysis capable of scaling across wide ranges of motor size. The real-time burn rate data comes from three test campaigns of subscale segmented solid rocket motors tested at two facilities. The flow theory admits the important effect of the blowing wall on the turbulent friction coefficient by using blowing wall data to determine the blowing wall friction coefficient. The erosive burning behavior of full-scale motors is now predicted more closely than with other recent models.

  8. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  9. Climate change, livelihoods and the multiple determinants of water adequacy: two approaches at regional to global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Tabea; Reusser, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Inadequate access to water is already a problem in many regions of the world and processes of global change are expected to further exacerbate the situation. Many aspects determine the adequacy of water resources: beside actual physical water stress, where the resource itself is limited, economic and social water stress can be experienced if access to resource is limited by inadequate infrastructure, political or financial constraints. To assess the adequacy of water availability for human use, integrated approaches are needed that allow to view the multiple determinants in conjunction and provide sound results as a basis for informed decisions. This contribution proposes two parts of an integrated approach to look at the multiple dimensions of water scarcity at regional to global scale. These were developed in a joint project with the German Development Agency (GIZ). It first outlines the AHEAD approach to measure Adequate Human livelihood conditions for wEll-being And Development, implemented at global scale and at national resolution. This first approach allows viewing impacts of climate change, e.g. changes in water availability, within the wider context of AHEAD conditions. A specific focus lies on the uncertainties in projections of climate change and future water availability. As adequate water access is not determined by water availability alone, in a second step we develop an approach to assess the water requirements for different sectors in more detail, including aspects of quantity, quality as well as access, in an integrated way. This more detailed approach is exemplified at region-scale in Indonesia and South Africa. Our results show that in many regions of the world, water scarcity is a limitation to AHEAD conditions in many countries, regardless of differing modelling output. The more detailed assessments highlight the relevance of additional aspects to assess the adequacy of water for human use, showing that in many regions, quality and

  10. Global-scale assessment and combination of SMAP with ASCAT (active) and AMSR2 (passive) soil moisture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunglok; Parinussa, Robert; Konings, Alexandra G.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Cosh, Michael H.; Lakshmi, Venkat; Zohaib, Muhammad; Choi, Minha

    2018-01-01

    Global-scale surface soil moisture (SSM) products retrieved from active and passive microwave remote sensing provide an effective method for monitoring near-real-time SSM content with nearly daily temporal resolution. In the present study, we first inter-compared global-scale error patterns and combined the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) SSM products using a triple collocation (TC) analysis and the maximized Pearson correlation coefficient (R) method from April 2015 to December 2016. The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and global in situ observations were utilized to investigate and to compare the quality of satellite-based SSM products. The average R-values of SMAP, ASCAT, and AMSR2 were 0.74, 0.64, and 0.65 when they compared with in situ networks, respectively. The ubRMSD values were (0.0411, 0.0625, and 0.0708) m3 m- 3; and the bias values were (- 0.0460, 0.0010, and 0.0418) m3 m- 3 for SMAP, ASCAT, and AMSR2, respectively. The highest average R-values from SMAP against the in situ results are very encouraging; only SMAP showed higher R-values than GLDAS in several in situ networks with low ubRMSD (0.0438 m3 m- 3). Overall, SMAP showed a dry bias (- 0.0460 m3 m- 3) and AMSR2 had a wet bias (0.0418 m3 m- 3); while ASCAT showed the least bias (0.0010 m3 m- 3) among all the products. Each product was evaluated using TC metrics with respect to the different ranges of vegetation optical depth (VOD). Under vegetation scarce conditions (VOD 0.40) ASCAT showed comparatively better performance than did the other products. Using the maximized R method, SMAP, ASCAT, and AMSR2 products were combined one by one using the GLDAS dataset for reference SSM values. When the satellite products were combined, R-values of the combined products were improved or degraded depending on the VOD ranges produced, when compared with the results from the original products alone. The

  11. PROMIS GH (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Global Health) Scale in Stroke: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzan, Irene L; Lapin, Brittany

    2018-01-01

    The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement recently included the 10-item PROMIS GH (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Global Health) scale as part of their recommended Standard Set of Stroke Outcome Measures. Before collection of PROMIS GH is broadly implemented, it is necessary to assess its performance in the stroke population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of PROMIS GH in patients with ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. PROMIS GH and 6 PROMIS domain scales measuring same/similar constructs were electronically collected on 1102 patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes at various stages of recovery from their stroke who were seen in a cerebrovascular clinic from October 12, 2015, through June 2, 2017. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to evaluate the adequacy of 2-factor structure of component scores. Test-retest reliability and convergent validity of PROMIS GH items and component scores were assessed. Discriminant validity and responsiveness were compared between PROMIS GH and PROMIS domain scales measuring the same or related constructs. Analyses were repeated stratified by stroke subtype and modified Rankin Scale score component scores (root mean square error of approximation, 0.11). Convergent validity was good with significant correlations between all PROMIS GH items and PROMIS domain scales ( P component scores across modified Rankin Scale levels. Good responsiveness (effect size, >0.5) was demonstrated for 8 of the 10 PROMIS GH items. Reliability and validity remained consistent across stroke subtype and disability level (modified Rankin Scale, <2 versus ≥2). PROMIS GH exhibits acceptable performance in patients with stroke. Our findings support International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement recommendation to use PROMIS GH as part of the standard set of outcome measures in stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Uniformly rotating neutron stars in the global and local charge neutrality cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belvedere, Riccardo, E-mail: riccardo.belvedere@icra.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Universita' di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara (Italy); Boshkayev, Kuantay, E-mail: kuantay@icra.it [Physical–Technical Faculty, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Al-Farabi ave. 71, 050040 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Rueda, Jorge A., E-mail: jorge.rueda@icra.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Universita' di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara (Italy); Ruffini, Remo, E-mail: ruffini@icra.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Universita' di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara (Italy); ICRANet, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 28 Av. de Valrose, 06103 Nice Cedex 2 (France)

    2014-01-15

    In our previous treatment of neutron stars, we have developed the model fulfilling global and not local charge neutrality. In order to implement such a model, we have shown the essential role by the Thomas–Fermi equations, duly generalized to the case of electromagnetic field equations in a general relativistic framework, forming a coupled system of equations that we have denominated Einstein–Maxwell–Thomas–Fermi (EMTF) equations. From the microphysical point of view, the weak interactions are accounted for by requesting the β stability of the system, and the strong interactions by using the σ–ω–ρ nuclear model, where σ, ω and ρ are the mediator massive vector mesons. Here we examine the equilibrium configurations of slowly rotating neutron stars by using the Hartle formalism in the case of the EMTF equations indicated above. We integrate these equations of equilibrium for different central densities ρ{sub c} and circular angular velocities Ω and compute the mass M, polar R{sub p} and equatorial R{sub eq} radii, angular momentum J, eccentricity ϵ, moment of inertia I, as well as quadrupole moment Q of the configurations. Both the Keplerian mass-shedding limit and the axisymmetric secular instability are used to construct the new mass–radius relation. We compute the maximum and minimum masses and rotation frequencies of neutron stars. We compare and contrast all the results for the global and local charge neutrality cases.

  13. Energy Provider: Delivered Energy Efficiency: A global stock-taking based on case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    In 2011 the IEA and the Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP) took on a work programme focused on the role of energy providers in delivering energy efficiency to end-users. This work was part of the IEA’s contribution to the PEPDEE Task Group, which falls under the umbrella of the International Partnership on Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC). In addition to organizing regional dialogues between governments, regulators, and energy providers, the PEPDEE work stream conducted global stock-takings of regulatory mechanisms adopted by governments to obligate or encourage energy providers to delivery energy savings and the energy savings activities of energy providers. For its part the IEA conducted a global review of energy provider-delivered energy savings programmes. The IEA reached out to energy providers to identify the energy savings activities they engaged in. Some 250 energy saving activities were considered, and 41 detailed case studies spanning 18 countries were developed. Geographic balance was a major consideration, and much effort was expended identifying energy provider-delivered energy savings case studies from around the world. Taken together these case studies represent over USD 1 billion in annual spending, or about 8% of estimated energy provider spending on energy efficiency.

  14. Bridging scales through multiscale modeling: A case study on Protein Kinase A

    OpenAIRE

    Sophia P Hirakis; Britton Warren Boras; Lane W Votapka; Robert Dean Malmstrom; Robert Dean Malmstrom; Andrew D McCulloch; Andrew D McCulloch; Andrew D McCulloch; Rommie E Amaro; Rommie E Amaro

    2015-01-01

    The goal of multiscale modeling in biology is to use structurally based physico-chemical models to integrate across temporal and spatial scales of biology and thereby improve mechanistic understanding of, for example, how a single mutation can alter organism-scale phenotypes. This approach may also inform therapeutic strategies or identify candidate drug targets that might otherwise have been overlooked. However, in many cases, it remains unclear how best to synthesize information obtained fr...

  15. Understanding primary school science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge: The case of teaching global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chordnork, Boonliang; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This aim of this research was to investigate primary school science teachers understanding and teaching practice as well as the influence on teaching and learning a topic like global warming. The participants were four primary science teachers, who were not graduated in science education. Methodology was the case study method, which was under the qualitative research regarded from interpretive paradigm. Data were collected by openended questionnaire, semi-structure interview, and document colleting. The questionnaire examined teachers' background, teachers' understanding of problems and threats of science teaching, desiring of d