Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Masset, Gabriel; Charles, Veronique Rheiner; Hoover, Cassandra; Chesneau-Guillemont, Caroline; Leroy, Fabienne; Lehmann, Undine; Spieldenner, Jörg; Tee, E-Siong; Gibney, Mike; Drewnowski, Adam
To describe the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling System (NNPS) developed to guide the reformulation of Nestlé products, and the results of its application in the USA and France. The NNPS is a category-specific system that calculates nutrient targets per serving as consumed, based on age-adjusted dietary guidelines. Products are aggregated into 32 food categories. The NNPS ensures that excessive amounts of nutrients to limit cannot be compensated for by adding nutrients to encourage. A study was conducted to measure changes in nutrient profiles of the most widely purchased Nestlé products from eight food categories (n = 99) in the USA and France. A comparison was made between the 2009-2010 and 2014-2015 products. The application of the NNPS between 2009-2010 and 2014-2015 was associated with an overall downwards trend for all nutrients to limit. Sodium and total sugars contents were reduced by up to 22 and 31 %, respectively. Saturated Fatty Acids and total fat reductions were less homogeneous across categories, with children products having larger reductions. Energy per serving was reduced by portfolio; its application was associated with improved nutrient density in eight major food categories in the USA and France. Confirmatory analyses are needed in other countries and food categories; the impact of such a large-scale reformulation on dietary intake and health remains to be investigated.
Kroeze, C.; Bouwman, L.; Seitzinger, S.
We describe how global models can be used to analyze past and future trends in nutrient export from watersheds and how such models can be used to analyze causes and effects of coastal eutrophication. Future nutrient inputs to coastal waters may be higher than today, and nutrient ratios may depart fr
Global Electricity Company Profiles examines the operations and strategies of 60 of the leading electricity companies in the world. Through its analysis of the key players, the report provides a comprehensive review of the current state of the global electricity industry. Using electricity sales as its criteria, the most successful companies are compared in terms of their national, regional and global importance. Global Electricity Company Profiles provides an outline of each company, its structure and operations, as well as key financial data. The detailed performance benchmarking and review of expectations for future development for each individual company provide a wealth of invaluable strategic information not available elsewhere. (author)
Atanasova, Lea; Druzhinina, Irina S.
Conidial fungi or molds and mildews are widely used in modern biotechnology as producers of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites, industrially important enzymes, chemicals and food. They are also important pathogens of animals including humans and agricultural crops. These various applications and extremely versatile natural phenotypes have led to the constantly growing list of complete genomes which are now available. Functional genomics and proteomics widely exploit the genomic information to study the cell-wide impact of altered genes on the phenotype of an organism and its function. This allows for global analysis of the information flow from DNA to RNA to protein, but it is usually not sufficient for the description of the global phenotype of an organism. More recently, Phenotype MicroArray (PM) technology has been introduced as a tool to characterize the metabolism of a (wild) fungal strain or a mutant. In this article, we review the background of PM applications for fungi and the methodic requirements to obtain reliable results. We also report examples of the versatility of this tool. PMID:20205302
Janssen, B.H.; Oenema, O.
This paper briefly discusses global human requirements of protein nitrogen (N) from crops and animals, and then estimates the need for fertilizer N as a function of N use efficiency, and the recycling of N from animal manure and sewage wastes. These estimates are based on various assumptions and
Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor
Nutrient profiling of foods, described as the science of ranking foods based on their nutrient content, is fast becoming the basis for regulating nutrition labels, health claims, and marketing and advertising to children. A number of nutrient profile models have now been developed by research scientists, regulatory agencies, and by the food industry. Whereas some of these models have focused on nutrients to limit, others have emphasized nutrients known to be beneficial to health, or some combination of both. Although nutrient profile models are often tailored to specific goals, the development process ought to follow the same science-driven rules. These include the selection of index nutrients and reference amounts, the development of an appropriate algorithm for calculating nutrient density, and the validation of the chosen nutrient profile model against healthy diets. It is extremely important that nutrient profiles be validated rather than merely compared to prevailing public opinion. Regulatory agencies should act only when they are satisfied that the scientific process has been followed, that the algorithms are transparent, and that the profile model has been validated with respect to objective measures of a healthy diet.
Maillot, Matthieu; Darmon, Nicole; Darmon, Michel; Lafay, Lionel; Drewnowski, Adam
Consumers wishing to replace some of the foods in their diets with more nutrient-dense options need to be able to identify such foods on the basis of nutrient profiling. The present study used nutrient profiling to rank 7 major food groups and 25 subgroups in terms of their contribution to dietary energy, diet quality, and diet cost for 1332 adult participants in the French National INCA1 Study. Nutrient profiles were based on the presence of 23 qualifying nutrients, expressed as the percentage of nutrient adequacy per 8 MJ, and 3 negative or disqualifying nutrients, expressed as the percentage of the maximal recommended values for saturated fatty acids, added sugar, and sodium per 1.4 kg. Calculated cost of energy (euro/8 MJ) was based on the mean retail price of 619 foods in the nutrient composition database. The meat and the fruit and vegetables food groups had the highest nutritional quality but were associated with highest energy costs. Sweets and salted snacks had the lowest nutritional quality but were also one of the least expensive sources of dietary energy. Starches and grains were unique because they were low in disqualifying nutrients yet provided low-cost dietary energy. Within each major food group, some subgroups had a higher nutritient-to-price ratio than others. However, the fact that food groups with the more favorable nutrient profiles were also associated with higher energy costs suggests that the present structure of food prices may be a barrier to the adoption of food-based dietary guidelines, at least by low-income households.
Moore, Berrien, III; Gildea, Patricia; Vorosmarty, Charles; Mellilo, Jerry M.; Peterson, Bruce J.
The global biogeochemical model presented has two primary objectives. First, it characterizes natural elemental cycles and their linkages for the four elements significant to Earth's biota: C, N, S, and P. Second, it describes changes in these cycles due to human activity. Global nutrient cycles were studied within the drainage basins of several major world rivers on each continent. The initial study region was the Mississippi drainage basin, concentrating on carbon and nitrogen. The model first establishes the nutrient budgets of the undisturbed ecosystems in a study region. It then uses a data set of land use histories for that region to document the changes in these budgets due to land uses. Nutrient movement was followed over time (1800 to 1980) for 30 ecosystems and 10 land use categories. A geographically referenced ecological information system (GREIS) was developed to manage the digital global data bases of 0.5 x 0.5 grid cells needed to run the model: potential vegetation, drainage basins, precipitation, runoff, contemporary land cover, and FAO soil maps of the world. The results show the contributions of land use categories to river nutrient loads on a continental scale; shifts in nutrient cycling patterns from closed, steady state systems to mobile transient or open, steady state systems; soil organic matter depletion patterns in U.S. agricultural lands; changing nutrient ratios due to land use changes; and the effect of using heavy fertilizer on aquatic systems.
Albrethsen, Jakob; Agner, Jeppe; Piersma, Sander R
In order to successfully enter the latent stage, Mycobacterium tuberculosis must adapt to conditions such as nutrient limitation and hypoxia. In vitro models that mimic latent infection are valuable tools for describing the changes in metabolism that occur when the bacterium exists in a non......-growing form. We used two complementary proteomic approaches, label-free LC-MS/MS analysis and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, to determine the proteome profile of extracellular proteins from M. tuberculosis cultured under nutrient starvation. Through the label-free LC-MS/MS analysis......, significant differences in the overall metabolism during nutrient starvation were detected. Notably, members of the toxin-antitoxin systems were present in larger quantities in nutrient-starved cultures, supporting a role for these global modules as M. tuberculosis switches its metabolism into dormancy...
Fink, Gabriel; Reder, Klara; Malsy, Marcus; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina
Lakes are essential resources of drinking water for a large part of mankind. Even so, most of the industrial and domestic waste water is discharged - often untreated - into rivers and streams that are finally the tributaries of these important freshwater bodies. Additionally, diffuse nutrient sources such as fertilizer and atmospheric deposition exacerbate existing algal blooms and low oxygen concentrations in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. In this tense atmosphere of competing water uses, it is necessary to analyze all sources of pollution as well as their total contributions in order to protect these water bodies against deterioration. Finally, this is a general and urgently needed basis for developing recommendations for involved stakeholders and decision makers. Therefore, the project eartH2Observe, initiated and financed by the European Commission, creates the necessary and underlying quantitative and qualitative hydrological and water use data. In this context, information for global as well as for regional water resource assessments is being prepared based on new earth observations and an ensemble of global hydrological models. As a member of this ensemble, WaterGAP3 provides global estimates of lake water quality relevant parameters on a 5 arc minutes grid, namely total phosphorus and total nitrogen. These nutrient loads to lakes from different sources such as industrial fertilizer, organic fertilizer, domestic loads, atmospheric deposition, and urban surface runoff are estimated for the period 1990 to 2010 in a monthly time step. Whereas nutrient loads and their changes into numerous lakes worldwide are calculated, a special focus is set on nutrient loads into the large and shallow Lake Peipus, which is located between Estonia and Russia and subject to blooms of harmful cyanobacteria. We present estimates, trends, as well as sources of present nutrient loads (TN and TP) to the world's largest lakes with detailed insights to the Lake Peipus situation
Smith, Matthew R; Micha, Renata; Golden, Christopher D; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Myers, Samuel S
Insufficient data exist for accurate estimation of global nutrient supplies. Commonly used global datasets contain key weaknesses: 1) data with global coverage, such as the FAO food balance sheets, lack specific information about many individual foods and no information on micronutrient supplies nor heterogeneity among subnational populations, while 2) household surveys provide a closer approximation of consumption, but are often not nationally representative, do not commonly capture many foods consumed outside of the home, and only provide adequate information for a few select populations. Here, we attempt to improve upon these datasets by constructing a new model--the Global Expanded Nutrient Supply (GENuS) model--to estimate nutrient availabilities for 23 individual nutrients across 225 food categories for thirty-four age-sex groups in nearly all countries. Furthermore, the model provides historical trends in dietary nutritional supplies at the national level using data from 1961-2011. We determine supplies of edible food by expanding the food balance sheet data using FAO production and trade data to increase food supply estimates from 98 to 221 food groups, and then estimate the proportion of major cereals being processed to flours to increase to 225. Next, we estimate intake among twenty-six demographic groups (ages 20+, both sexes) in each country by using data taken from the Global Dietary Database, which uses nationally representative surveys to relate national averages of food consumption to individual age and sex-groups; for children and adolescents where GDD data does not yet exist, average calorie-adjusted amounts are assumed. Finally, we match food supplies with nutrient densities from regional food composition tables to estimate nutrient supplies, running Monte Carlo simulations to find the range of potential nutrient supplies provided by the diet. To validate our new method, we compare the GENuS estimates of nutrient supplies against independent
Matthew R Smith
Full Text Available Insufficient data exist for accurate estimation of global nutrient supplies. Commonly used global datasets contain key weaknesses: 1 data with global coverage, such as the FAO food balance sheets, lack specific information about many individual foods and no information on micronutrient supplies nor heterogeneity among subnational populations, while 2 household surveys provide a closer approximation of consumption, but are often not nationally representative, do not commonly capture many foods consumed outside of the home, and only provide adequate information for a few select populations. Here, we attempt to improve upon these datasets by constructing a new model--the Global Expanded Nutrient Supply (GENuS model--to estimate nutrient availabilities for 23 individual nutrients across 225 food categories for thirty-four age-sex groups in nearly all countries. Furthermore, the model provides historical trends in dietary nutritional supplies at the national level using data from 1961-2011. We determine supplies of edible food by expanding the food balance sheet data using FAO production and trade data to increase food supply estimates from 98 to 221 food groups, and then estimate the proportion of major cereals being processed to flours to increase to 225. Next, we estimate intake among twenty-six demographic groups (ages 20+, both sexes in each country by using data taken from the Global Dietary Database, which uses nationally representative surveys to relate national averages of food consumption to individual age and sex-groups; for children and adolescents where GDD data does not yet exist, average calorie-adjusted amounts are assumed. Finally, we match food supplies with nutrient densities from regional food composition tables to estimate nutrient supplies, running Monte Carlo simulations to find the range of potential nutrient supplies provided by the diet. To validate our new method, we compare the GENuS estimates of nutrient supplies against
Rizzo, Nico S; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Sabate, Joan; Fraser, Gary E
Differences in nutrient profiles between vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns reflect nutritional differences that can contribute to the development of disease. Our aim was to compare nutrient intakes between dietary patterns characterized by consumption or exclusion of meat and dairy products. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 71,751 subjects (mean age=59 years) from the Adventist Health Study 2. Data were collected between 2002 and 2007. Participants completed a 204-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns compared were nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian, and strict vegetarian. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze differences in nutrient intakes by dietary patterns and was adjusted for age, sex, and race. Body mass index and other relevant demographic data were reported and compared by dietary pattern using χ(2) tests and analysis of variance. Many nutrient intakes varied significantly between dietary patterns. Nonvegetarians had the lowest intakes of plant proteins, fiber, beta carotene, and magnesium compared with those following vegetarian dietary patterns, and the highest intakes of saturated, trans, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic fatty acids. The lower tails of some nutrient distributions in strict vegetarians suggested inadequate intakes by a portion of the subjects. Energy intake was similar among dietary patterns at close to 2,000 kcal/day, with the exception of semi-vegetarians, who had an intake of 1,707 kcal/day. Mean body mass index was highest in nonvegetarians (mean=28.7 [standard deviation=6.4]) and lowest in strict vegetarians (mean=24.0 [standard deviation=4.8]). Nutrient profiles varied markedly among dietary patterns that were defined by meat and dairy intakes. These differences are of interest in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available More than two decades after the beginning of the financial revolution globalization of capital flows still attracts considerable attention, from both practitioners and academics. The aim of this paper is to contribute to understanding of some aspects of the global capital scene, as well as to emphasize certain developments which might illustrate its changing profile. Several fundamental perspectives profile the global capital market. A quantitative review provides a sense of sheer volumes, trends, origins and destinations of capital flows; an assessment of the global capital market’s degree of integration follows. The emergence of new (types of actors is another important aspect of the global processes, while illustrations of new market products and emerging segments may add new perspectives on the profile of the global capital market. Finally, the paper concludes with a brief overview of digitalization of the financial supply chain.
Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter; Kaur, Asha
This paper gives a definition of 'nutrient profiling' and outlines the scope 'marketing of foods to children' and it's 'regulation' for the purposes of the paper. It then points out that nutrient profiling has many other purposes besides the regulation of marketing of foods to children. It briefly outlines the ideal process for developing a nutrient profile model and summarises how nutrient profiling models have been validated to date. It discusses how existing nutrient profiling models for the purpose of regulating the marketing of foods to children can be compared and it concludes that nutrient profiling has much potential but that there are several obstacles to overcome before an ideal model for regulating the marketing of foods can be agreed.
Papagno, Andrea; Anderson, Darwin; Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)
The BOREAS TE-1 team collected various data to characterize the soil-plant systems in the BOREAS SSA. Particular emphasis was placed on nutrient biochemistry, the stores and transfers of organic carbon, and how the characteristics were related to measured methane fluxes. The overall traniect in the Prince Albert National Park (Saskatchewan, Canada) included the major plant communities and related soils that occurred in that section of the boreal forest. Soil physical, chemical, and biological measurements along the transect were used to characterize the static environment, which allowed them to be related to methane fluxes. Chamber techniques were used to provide a measure of methane production/uptake. Chamber measurements coupled with flask sampling were used to determine the seasonality of methane fluxes. This particular data set contains soil profile measurements of various nutrients at the SSA-Fen site. The data were collected from 23-May to 21-Oct- 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).
Colak, Nesrin; Torun, Hülya; Gruz, Jiri; Strnad, Miroslav; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet
Phenolics and nutrient profiles of bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) collected from high mountain pastures in northeast Anatolia (Turkey) were examined for the first time in this study. The major soluble sugar identified in the berry was fructose, following by glucose, and the main organic acid identified was citric acid, followed by malic acid. Eleven phenolic acids and 17 anthocyanin 3-glycosides were identified and quantified. Caffeic acid in the free and glycoside forms and syringic acid in the ester form were the major phenolic acids, and the major individual anthocyanin present in the berry was malvidin 3-glucoside (24%). The highest total phenolics and anthocyanin contents were obtained from the anthocyanin fraction in conjunction with the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the polyphenolic and aqueous fractions, FRAP, ORAC and DPPH, in that order. Our findings can be used to compare bog bilberry with other Vaccinium berries and to help clarify the relative potential health benefits of different berries.
Strykowski, Gabriel; Cordua, Knud Skou; Forsberg, René
topography. This paper reports on the second experiment in which a continuous marine gravity profile along the ship’s route was measured. The focus of the paper is on the practical aspects of such large scale world wide operation and on the challenges of the data processing. Furthermore, the processed free......-air gravity values are compared to 3 global models: EGM96, EGM08 and DNSC08. Even though the along-track resolution of marine data is higher than the resolution in any global gravity model (which influences the direct comparison of the collected marine data to the model) the statistics for the residual free......-air gravity anomalies show, that EGM08 and DNSC08 are better models than EGM96 for all Galathea-3 legs. Some areas along the ships route are quite challenging for modellers....
Strykowski, Gabriel; Cordua, Knud Skou; Forsberg, René
-air gravity values are compared to 3 global models: EGM96, EGM08 and DNSC08. Even though the along-track resolution of marine data is higher than the resolution in any global gravity model (which influences the direct comparison of the collected marine data to the model) the statistics for the residual free......-air gravity anomalies show, that EGM08 and DNSC08 are better models than EGM96 for all Galathea-3 legs. Some areas along the ships route are quite challenging for modellers....... topography. This paper reports on the second experiment in which a continuous marine gravity profile along the ship’s route was measured. The focus of the paper is on the practical aspects of such large scale world wide operation and on the challenges of the data processing. Furthermore, the processed free...
Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Tajur Rahman
.... The current study was carried out to see the effect of geographical locations on the nutrient composition, mineral contents, phytochemical profile and free radical scavenging activity of Morus nigra fruit...
Frank, Gail C.
The nutrient profile provided by the Dennison Inventory of Nutritional Experiences (DINE) for microcomputers was compared with two research-oriented mainframe computer systems to evaluate the DINE system's accuracy. Results are discussed. (DF)
This thesis presents four examples of global models developed as part of the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE). They describe different components of global biogeochemical cycles of the nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and silicon (Si), with a focus on approaches to
England, Jennifer C; Perchuk, Barrett S; Laub, Michael T; Gober, James W
In a developmental strategy designed to efficiently exploit and colonize sparse oligotrophic environments, Caulobacter crescentus cells divide asymmetrically, yielding a motile swarmer cell and a sessile stalked cell. After a relatively fixed time period under typical culture conditions, the swarmer cell differentiates into a replicative stalked cell. Since differentiation into the stalked cell type is irreversible, it is likely that environmental factors such as the availability of essential nutrients would influence the timing of the decision to abandon motility and adopt a sessile lifestyle. We measured two different parameters in nutrient-limited chemostat cultures, biomass concentration and the ratio of nonstalked to stalked cells, over a range of flow rates and found that nitrogen limitation significantly extended the swarmer cell life span. The transcriptional profiling experiments described here generate the first comprehensive picture of the global regulatory strategies used by an oligotroph when confronted with an environment where key macronutrients are sparse. The pattern of regulated gene expression in nitrogen- and carbon-limited cells shares some features in common with most copiotrophic organisms, but critical differences suggest that Caulobacter, and perhaps other oligotrophs, have evolved regulatory strategies to deal distinctly with their natural environments. We hypothesize that nitrogen limitation extends the swarmer cell lifetime by delaying the onset of a sequence of differentiation events, which when initiated by the correct combination of external environmental cues, sets the swarmer cell on a path to differentiate into a stalked cell within a fixed time period.
Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Matthiesen, Rune
DNA-based technologies such as RNAi, chemical-genetic profiling, or gene expression profiling by DNA microarrays combined with other biochemical methods are established strategies for surveying drug mechanisms. Such approaches can provide mechanistic information on how drugs act and affect cellular pathways. By studying how cancer cells compensate for the drug treatment, novel targets used in a combined treatment can be designed. Furthermore, toxicity effects on cells not targeted can be obtained on a molecular level. For example, drug companies are particularly interested in studying the molecular side effects of drugs in the liver. In addition, experiments with the purpose of elucidating liver toxicity can be studied using samples obtained from animal models exposed to different concentrations of a drug over time. More recently considerable advances in mass spectrometry (MS) technologies and bioinformatics tools allows informative global drug profiling experiments to be performed at a cost comparable to other large-scale technologies such as DNA-based technologies. Moreover, MS-based proteomics provides an additional layer of information on the dynamic regulation of proteins translation and particularly protein degradation. MS-based proteomics approaches combined with other biochemical methods delivers information on regulatory networks, signaling cascades, and metabolic pathways upon drug treatment. Furthermore, MS-based proteomics can provide additional information on single amino acid polymorphisms, protein isoform distribution, posttranslational modifications, and subcellular localization. In this chapter, we will share our experience using MS based proteomics as a pharmacoproteomics strategy to characterize drug mechanisms of action in single drug therapy or in multidrug combination. Finally, the emergence of integrated proteogenomics analysis, such as "The Cancer Genome Atlas" program, opened interesting perspectives to extend this approach to drug target
Vermeulen, L.C.; Hofstra, N.; Kroeze, C.; Medema, G.J.
Waterborne pathogens cause health problems worldwide. A global waterborne pathogen model could provide valuable new insights for data-sparse regions, by identifying pathogen hotspots and evaluating global change and risk management scenarios. Global waterborne pathogen modelling is not as advanced a
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) develops and maintains a global ocean temperature and salinity resource with data that are both up-to-date...
Clerfeuille, E; Vieux, F; Lluch, A; Darmon, N; Rolf-Pedersen, N
Nutrient profiling classifies individual food products according to their nutrient content. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), validation is a key step in the development of a nutrient profiling system. The aim was to assess the construct validity of five European nutrient profiling systems (Choices, Keyhole, (AFSSA), European Commission (EC) system and FoodProfiler). Construct validity was assessed for each of the five-selected nutrient profiling systems by testing whether healthy foods (that is, identified as eligible by the system) make healthy diets, and unhealthy foods (that is, non-eligible) make unhealthy diets, using diet modeling. The AFSSA, EC and FoodProfiler systems were identified as valid, but differences in their levels of permissiveness suggested some misclassified food products. The two other systems failed the construct validity assessment. Among these three systems, the EC system is the less demanding in terms of nutritional information, it would, therefore, be the easiest to implement for regulating nutrition and health claims in Europe.
Ostertag, Rebecca; DiManno, Nicole
Examining foliar nutrient concentrations after fertilization provides an alternative method for detecting nutrient limitation of ecosystems, which is logistically simpler to measure than biomass change. We present a meta-analysis of response ratios of foliar nitrogen and phosphorus (RRN, RRP) after addition of fertilizer of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), or the two elements in combination, in relation to climate, ecosystem type, life form, family, and methodological factors. Results support other meta-analyses using biomass, and demonstrate there is strong evidence for nutrient limitation in natural communities. However, because N fertilization experiments greatly outnumber P fertilization trials, it is difficult to discern the absolute importance of N vs. P vs. co-limitation across ecosystems. Despite these caveats, it is striking that results did not follow "conventional wisdom" that temperate ecosystems are N-limited and tropical ones are P-limited. In addition, the use of ratios of N-to-P rather than response ratios also are a useful index of nutrient limitation, but due to large overlap in values, there are unlikely to be universal cutoff values for delimiting N vs. P limitation. Differences in RRN and RRP were most significant across ecosystem types, plant families, life forms, and between competitive environments, but not across climatic variables.
Full Text Available Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZyme families, encoded by human gut microflora, play a crucial role in breakdown of complex dietary carbohydrates into components that can be absorbed by our intestinal epithelium. Since nutritional wellbeing of an individual is dependent on the nutrient harvesting capability of the gut microbiome, it is important to understand how CAZyme repertoire in the gut is influenced by factors like age, geography and food habits.This study reports a comprehensive in-silico analysis of CAZyme profiles in the gut microbiomes of 448 individuals belonging to different geographies, using similarity searches of the corresponding gut metagenomic contigs against the carbohydrate active enzymes database. The study identifies a core group of 89 CAZyme families that are present across 85% of the gut microbiomes. The study detects several geography/age-specific trends in gut CAZyme repertoires of the individuals. Notably, a group of CAZymes having a positive correlation with BMI has been identified. Further this group of BMI-associated CAZymes is observed to be specifically abundant in the Firmicutes phyla. One of the major findings from this study is identification of three distinct groups of individuals, referred to as 'CAZotypes', having similar CAZyme profiles. Distinct taxonomic drivers for these CAZotypes as well as the probable dietary basis for such trends have also been elucidated. The results of this study provide a global view of CAZyme profiles across individuals of various geographies and age-groups. These results reiterate the need of a more precise understanding of the role of carbohydrate active enzymes in human nutrition.
Kanakidou, Maria; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Daskalakis, Nikos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nenes, Athanasios
Atmospheric deposition of trace constituents, both of natural and anthropogenic origin, can act as a nutrient source into the open ocean and affect marine ecosystem functioning and subsequently the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the global ocean. Dust is known as a major source of nutrients (Fe and P) into the atmosphere, but only a fraction of these nutrients is released in soluble form that can be assimilated by the ecosystems. Dust is also known to enhance N deposition by interacting with anthropogenic pollutants and neutralisation of part of the acidity of the atmosphere by crustal alkaline species. These nutrients have also primary anthropogenic sources including combustion emissions. The global atmospheric N , Fe  and P  cycles have been parameterized in the global 3-D chemical transport model TM4-ECPL, accounting for inorganic and organic forms of these nutrients, for all natural and anthropogenic sources of these nutrients including biomass burning, as well as for the link between the soluble forms of Fe and P atmospheric deposition and atmospheric acidity. The impact of atmospheric acidity on nutrient solubility has been parameterised based on experimental findings and the model results have been evaluated by extensive comparison with available observations. In the present study we isolate the significant impact of biomass burning emissions on these nutrients deposition by comparing global simulations that consider or neglect biomass burning emissions. The investigated impact integrates changes in the emissions of the nutrients as well as in atmospheric oxidants and acidity and thus in atmospheric processing and secondary sources of these nutrients. The results are presented and thoroughly discussed. References  Kanakidou M, S. Myriokefalitakis, N. Daskalakis, G. Fanourgakis, A. Nenes, A. Baker, K. Tsigaridis, N. Mihalopoulos, Past, Present and Future Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (JAS-D-15
C. Y. Bernard
Full Text Available Continental shelf seas are known to support a large fraction of the global primary production. Yet, they are mostly ignored or neglected in global biogeochemical models. A number of processes that control the transfer of dissolved nutrients from rivers to the open ocean remain poorly understood. This applies in particular to dissolved silica which drives the growth of diatoms that form a large part of the phytoplankton biomass and are thus an important contributor to export production of carbon.
Here, the representation of the biogeochemical cycling along continents is improved by coupling a high resolution database of riverine fluxes of nutrients to the global biogeochemical ocean general circulation model HAMOCC5-OM. Focusing on silicon (Si, but including the whole suite of nutrients – carbon (C, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P in various forms – inputs are implemented in the model at coastal coupling points using the COSCAT global database of 156 mega-river-ensemble catchments from Meybeck et al. (2006. The catchments connect to the ocean through coastal segments according to three sets of criteria: natural limits, continental shelf topography, and geophysical dynamics.
According to the model the largest effects on nutrient concentrations occur in hot spots such as the Amazon plume, the Arctic – with high nutrient inputs in relation to its total volume, and areas that encounter the largest increase in human activity, e.g., Southern Asia.
C. Y. Bernard
Full Text Available Continental shelf seas are known to support a large fraction of the global primary production. Yet, continental shelf areas are mostly ignored or neglected in global biogeochemical models. A number of processes that control the transfer of dissolved nutrients from river to the open ocean remain poorly understood. This applies in particular to dissolved silica which drives the growth of diatoms that form a large part of the phytoplankton biomass and are thus an important contributor to export production of carbon.
Here, the representation of the biogeochemical state along continents is improved by coupling a high resolution database of riverine fluxes of nutrients to the global biogeochemical ocean general circulation model MPI-OM/HAMOCC5. Focusing on silicon (Si, but including the whole suite of nutrients – carbon (C, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P in various forms – inputs are implemented in the model at coastal coupling points using the COSCAT global database of 156 mega-river-ensemble catchments from Meybeck et al. (2006. The catchments connect to the ocean through coastal segments according to three sets of criteria: natural limits, continental shelf topography, and geophysical dynamics.
According to the model the largest effects on nutrient concentrations occur in hot spots such as the Amazon plume, the Arctic – with high nutrient inputs in relation to its total volume, and areas that encounter the largest increase in human activity, e.g., Southern Asia.
Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Watson, Wendy L
To determine whether the ratings from the Australian front-of-pack labelling scheme, Health Star Rating (HSR), and the ability to carry health claims using the Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (NPSC) for core dairy products promote foods consistent with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. The Australian nutrient profiling model used for assessing eligibility for health claims was compared with the nutrient profiling model underpinning the HSR system to determine their agreement when assessing dairy products. Agreement between the extent to which products met nutrient profiling criteria and scored three stars or over using the HSR calculator was determined using Cohen's kappa tests. The four largest supermarket chains in Sydney, Australia. All available products in the milk, hard cheese, soft cheese and yoghurt categories (n 1363) were surveyed in March-May 2014. Nutrition composition and ingredients lists were recorded for each product. There was 'good' agreement between NPSC and HSR overall (κ=0·78; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·81; Psystems appeared be consistent with the Australian Dietary Guidelines for dairy products, with lower-fat products rating higher.
Reed, Daniel C.; Harrison, John A.
Recent decades have witnessed an exponential spread of low-oxygen regions in the coastal ocean due at least in-part to enhanced terrestrial nutrient inputs. As oxygen deprivation is a major stressor on marine ecosystems, there is a great need to quantitatively link shifts in nutrient loading with changes in oxygen concentrations. To this end, we have developed and here describe, evaluate, and apply the Coastal Ocean Oxygen Linked to Benthic Exchange And Nutrient Supply (COOLBEANS) model, a first-of-its-kind, spatially explicit (with 152 coastal segments) model, global model of coastal oxygen and nutrient dynamics. In COOLBEANS, benthic oxygen demand (BOD) is calculated using empirical models for aerobic respiration, iron reduction, and sulfate reduction, while oxygen supply is represented by a simple parameterization of exchange between surface and bottom waters. A nutrient cycling component translates shifts in riverine nutrient inputs into changes in organic matter delivery to sediments and, ultimately, oxygen uptake. Modeled BOD reproduces observations reasonably well (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.71), and estimates of exchange between surface and bottom waters correlate with stratification. The model examines sensitivity of bottom water oxygen to changes in nutrient inputs and vertical exchange between surface and bottom waters, highlighting the importance of this vertical exchange in defining the susceptibility of a system to oxygen depletion. These sensitivities along with estimated maximum hypoxic areas that are supported by present day nutrient loads are consistent with existing hypoxic regions. Sensitivities are put into context by applying historic changes in nitrogen loading observed in the Gulf of Mexico to the global coastal ocean, demonstrating that such loads would drive many systems anoxic or even sulfidic.
Kanakidou, Maria; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Daskalakis, Nikos; Theodosi, Christina; Nenes, Athanassios; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Mihalopoulos, Nikos
Atmospheric deposition of trace constituents, both of natural and anthropogenic origin, can act as a nutrient source into the open ocean and affect marine ecosystem functioning and subsequently the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the global ocean. Dust is known as a major source of nutrients (Fe and P) into the atmosphere, but only a fraction of these nutrients is released in soluble form that can be assimilated by the ecosystems. Dust is also known to enhance N deposition by interacting with anthropogenic pollutants and neutralisation of part of the acidity of the atmosphere by crustal alkaline species. The link between the soluble iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) atmospheric deposition and atmospheric acidity, as well as anthropogenic sources, is investigated. The global atmospheric Fe, P and N cycle are parameterized in the global 3-D chemical transport model TM4-ECPL. Both primary emissions of total and soluble Fe and P associated with dust and combustion processes are taken into account, as well as inorganic and organic N emissions. The impact of atmospheric acidity on nutrient solubility is parameterised based on experimental findings. The model results are evaluated by comparison with available observations. The impact of air-quality changes on soluble nutrient deposition is studied by performing sensitivity simulations using preindustrial, present and future emission scenarios. The response of the chemical composition of nutrient-containing aerosols to environmental changes is demonstrated and quantified. This work has been supported by ARISTEIA - PANOPLY grant co-financed by European Union (ESF) and Greek national funds NSRF.
Haroun, Dalia; Wood, Lesley; Harper, Clare; Nelson, Michael
Following concerns about the nutritional content of school lunches and the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in the UK, changes to the standards of school meals were made. From September 2008, all primary schools in England were required, by law, to be fully compliant with the new food-based standards (FBS) and nutrient-based standards (NBS) for school lunches. The aim of the present survey was to evaluate the introduction of the NBS for school lunches on the nutritional profile of food and drink items provided by schools and chosen by pupils at lunchtime. A nationally representative sample of 6696 pupils from 136 primary schools in England aged 3-12 years and having school lunches was recruited. Data were collected on lunchtime food and drink provision at each school and on pupil food and drink choices at lunchtime. Caterers also provided planned menus, recipes and other cooking information. Compliance with both the FBS and NBS was then assessed. Results show that even when the FBS was met, many schools did not provide a school lunch that met the NBS as well. The average school lunch eaten was significantly lower in fat, saturated fat and Na in schools that met both the FBS and NBS for school lunches compared with schools that met only the FBS. Change in school lunch policy has contributed to improvements in pupils' choices and the nutritional profile of foods selected at lunchtime.
Bosch, Guido; Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A; Hendriks, Wouter H
Domestic dogs diverged from grey wolves between 13,000 and 17,000 years ago when food waste from human settlements provided a new niche. Compared to the carnivorous cat, modern-day dogs differ in several digestive and metabolic traits that appear to be more associated with omnivorous such as man, pigs and rats. This has led to the classification of dogs as omnivores, but the origin of these 'omnivorous' traits has, hitherto, been left unexplained. We discuss the foraging ecology of wild wolves and calculate the nutrient profiles of fifty diets reported in the literature. Data on the feeding ecology of wolves indicate that wolves are true carnivores consuming a negligible amount of vegetal matter. Wolves can experience prolonged times of famine during low prey availability while, after a successful hunt, the intake of foods and nutrients can be excessive. As a result of a 'feast and famine' lifestyle, wolves need to cope with a highly variable nutrient intake requiring an adaptable metabolism, which is still functional in our modern-day dogs. The nutritive characteristics of commercial foods differ in several aspects from the dog's closest free-living ancestor in terms of dietary nutrient profile and this may pose physiological and metabolic challenges. The present study provides new insights into dog nutrition and contributes to the ongoing optimisation of foods for pet dogs.
Full Text Available Memasuki era tahun 2006 sebagai era pemulihan struktur kehidupan ekonomi setelah sekian tahun dilanda krisis ekonomi dan adanya kenaikan BBM. Namun kenyataan yang ada asumsi pertumbuhan ekonomi sebesar 6 % tampaknya masih terlalu berat. Sumber pendapatan negara dari sektor non pajak masih kecil, kita lebih pas sebagai negara pengimpor dari pada pengekspor. Kita lebih banyak bertindak sebagai tujuan pasar dari pada produsen atau suplier barang. Kenyataan ini tidak bisa kita pungkiri sebagai akibat dari berlakunya pasar global. Kita lebih banyak terlena dan terlalu puas dengan kondisi produk yang dihasilkan, tanpa berpikir panjang bahwa sautu saat nanti ada produk barang yang sama bahkan lebih bagus dengan harga lebih murah. Kondisi inilah yang memaksa kita untuk mereviu kembali strategi pemasaran internasional kita, apakah sudah menyesuaikan dan menjawab tantangan global. Tampaknya masih banyak kebijakan-kebijakan yang harus diambil dalam hal ini terutama bagaimana kita mempunyai daya saing tinggi dengan mempunyai produk unggulan dimasing-masing otonomi daerah. Salah satu bentuk riilnya yaitu dengan menelusuri tiga macam strategic resources . Pertama kita harus membenahi aspek tangible resources yang meliputi : karyawan atau SDM, pelanggan, kapasitas, dana dan produk. Kedua menyangkut tentang intangible resources yang meliputi : ketrampilan karyawan, mutu pelanggan, efisiensi biaya produksi dan mutu produk. Ketiga aspek very intangible resources yang meliputi : moral karywan, reputasi dimata pelanggan dan reputasi dimata investor. Selain cara ini bisa juga dengan model “Satu Kabupaten Satu Kompetensi Inti” (Saka-Sakti dimana model ini sejalan dengan kebijakan otonomi daerah, saka yang berarti tiang atau tonggak dan sakti yang berarti keampuhan, kekuatan atau ilmu. Jadi tonggak keampuhan atau tonggak kekuatan andalan yang dimiliki oleh setiap kabupaten di Indonesia guna membangun kompetensi inti agar bisa bersaing di pasar global.
Artigas, Joan; García-Berthou, Emili; Bauer, Delia E.; Castro, Maria I.; Cochero, Joaquín; Colautti, Darío C.; Cortelezzi, Agustina; Donato, John C.; Elosegi, Arturo; Feijoó, Claudia; Giorgi, Adonis; Gómez, Nora; Leggieri, Leonardo; Muñoz, Isabel; Rodrigues-Capítulo, Alberto; Romaní, Anna M.; Sabater, Sergi
We assessed the effects of nutrient enrichment on three stream ecosystems running through distinct biomes (Mediterranean, Pampean and Andean). We increased the concentrations of N and P in the stream water 1.6-4-fold following a before-after control-impact paired series (BACIPS) design in each stream, and evaluated changes in the biomass of bacteria, primary producers, invertebrates and fish in the enriched (E) versus control (C) reaches after nutrient addition through a predictive-BACIPS approach. The treatment produced variable biomass responses (2-77% of explained variance) among biological communities and streams. The greatest biomass response was observed for algae in the Andean stream (77% of the variance), although fish also showed important biomass responses (about 9-48%). The strongest biomass response to enrichment (77% in all biological compartments) was found in the Andean stream. The magnitude and seasonality of biomass responses to enrichment were highly site specific, often depending on the basal nutrient concentration and on windows of ecological opportunity (periods when environmental constraints other than nutrients do not limit biomass growth). The Pampean stream, with high basal nutrient concentrations, showed a weak response to enrichment (except for invertebrates), whereas the greater responses of Andean stream communities were presumably favored by wider windows of ecological opportunity in comparison to those from the Mediterranean stream. Despite variation among sites, enrichment globally stimulated the algal-based food webs (algae and invertebrate grazers) but not the detritus-based food webs (bacteria and invertebrate shredders). This study shows that nutrient enrichment tends to globally enhance the biomass of stream biological assemblages, but that its magnitude and extent within the food web are complex and are strongly determined by environmental factors and ecosystem structure.
Full Text Available The dynamic behaviors in a chemostat model with delayed nutrient recycling and periodically pulsed input are studied. By introducing new analysis technique, the sufficient and necessary conditions on the permanence and extinction of the microorganisms are obtained. Furthermore, by using the Liapunov function method, the sufficient condition on the global attractivity of the model is established. Finally, an example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the results in this paper.
Shen, Ya-zhen; Du, Chang-wen; Zhou, Jian-min; Wang, Huo-yan; Chen, Xiao-qin
The acrylate-like materials were used to develop the polymer coated controlled release fertilizer, the nutrients release profiles were determined, meanwhile the Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectra of the coatings were recorded and characterized; GRNN model was used to predict the nutrients release profiles using the principal components of the mid-infrared photoacoustic spectra as input. Results showed that the GRNN model could fast and effectively predict the nutrient release profiles, and the predicted calibration coefficients were more than 0.93; on the whole, the prediction errors (RMSE) were influenced by the profiling depth of the spectra, the average prediction error was 10.28%, and the spectra from the surface depth resulted in a lowest prediction error with 7.14%. Therefore, coupled with GRNN modeling, Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy can be used as an alternative new technique in the fast and accurate prediction of nutrient release from polymer coated fertilizer.
This thesis presents four examples of global models developed as part of the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE). They describe different components of global biogeochemical cycles of the nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and silicon (Si), with a focus on approaches to ana
Leaf trait response to nutrients and herbivore exclusion across a globally replicated grassland experiment Jennifer Firn1, James McGree2, Eric Lind3, Elizabeth Borer3, Eric Seabloom3, Lauren Sullivan3, Kimberly Lapierre4 and the Nutrient Network 1Queensland University of Technology (QUT), School of Earth, Environmental and Biological Sciences, Science and Engineering Faculty, Brisbane, QLD, 4001 Australia 2Queensland University of Technology (QUT), School of Mathematical Sciences, Science and Engineering Faculty, Brisbane, QLD, 4001 Australia 3Universtiy of Minnesota, Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, 1479 Gortner Avenue, 140 Gortner Laboratory, St. Paul, MN 55108 USA 4Department of integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Functional trait research has developed with the aim of finding general patterns in how the function of plant assemblages changes with respect to different land-uses. Most studies have compared sites within and across regions with variations in land-use history, but not necessarily with standardized treatments in an experimental framework. The trends that have emerged from this research is that characteristics of leaf traits such as specific leaf area (SLA) correlate with carbon acquisition strategies known to influence ecosystem functioning. SLA has been found to represent a plant's investment in growing light-capturing area per dry mass content. Species with a relatively high SLA tend to have a higher rate of return on the resources invested into making tissue (cheaper leaves in terms of energy and resources needed to produce them) when compared to species with a lower SLA (more expensive leaves to produce). Few studies have examined quantitatively measured traits in an experimental framework. The Nutrient Network experiment, globally distributed experiment, presents a unique opportunity to examine the response of functional traits across grassland ecosystems characterised by a diverse range of
Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E; Mills, J.A.N.; Pellikaan, W.F.; López, S.; Bannink, A; France, J.
Current feed evaluation systems for dairy cattle aim to match nutrient requirements with nutrient intake at pre-defined production levels. These systems were not developed to address, and are not suitable to predict, the responses to dietary changes in terms of production level and product composition, excretion of nutrients to the environment, and nutrition related disorders. The change from a requirement to a response system to meet the needs of various stakeholders requires prediction of t...
Pan Jianming; Zhou Huaiyang; Liu Xiaoya; Hu Chuanyu; Dong Lixian; Zhang Mei
The profiles of nutrient salts in the interstitial water of sediment were analyzed in the Zhujiang Estuary in the summer of 1999, and based on the profiles of content and characteristic of nutrients, the relationship between nutrients in the interstitial water and organic matter decomposition in sediment was discussed. The results showed that ammonium with high content was the main existence form of nutrients in the interstital water of sediment, and the organic matter decomposition was completed in anaerobic condition. The increase of ammonium content in the bottom water resulted from the decomposition of organic matter and release of metabolic production, and the ammonium bottom flux was an important resource for nutrients geochemistry in the Zhujiang Estuary.
Maillot, Matthieu; Ferguson, Elaine L; Drewnowski, Adam; Darmon, Nicole
Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient content. They may help identify foods with a good nutritional quality for their price. This hypothesis was tested using diet modeling with linear programming. Analyses were undertaken using food intake data from the nationally representative French INCA (enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires) survey and its associated food composition and price database. For each food, a nutrient profile score was defined as the ratio between the previously published nutrient density score (NDS) and the limited nutrient score (LIM); a nutritional quality for price indicator was developed and calculated from the relationship between its NDS:LIM and energy cost (in euro/100 kcal). We developed linear programming models to design diets that fulfilled increasing levels of nutritional constraints at a minimal cost. The median NDS:LIM values of foods selected in modeled diets increased as the levels of nutritional constraints increased (P = 0.005). In addition, the proportion of foods with a good nutritional quality for price indicator was higher (P quality for their price. Linear programming is a useful tool for testing nutrient profiling systems and validating the concept of nutrient profiling.
Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.; Mills, J.A.N.; Pellikaan, W.F.; López, S.; Bannink, A.; France, J.
Current feed evaluation systems for dairy cattle aim to match nutrient requirements with nutrient intake at pre-defined production levels. These systems were not developed to address, and are not suitable to predict, the responses to dietary changes in terms of production level and product compositi
has been still unclear how different of the intestinal function in CKD. In this study, we demonstrated the microarray analysis of global gene expression in intestine of adenine-induced CKD rat. DNA microarray analysis using Affymextrix rat gene chip revealed that CKD caused great changes in gene expression in the rat duodenum: about 400 genes exhibited more than a two-fold change in expression level. Gene ontology analysis showed that a global regulation of genes by CKD involved in iron ion binding, alcoholic, organic acid and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, we found markedly changes of a number of intestinal transporters gene expression related to iron metabolism. These results suggest that CKD may alter some nutrient metabolism in the small intestine by modifying the expression of specific genes. The intestinal transcriptome database of CKD might be useful to develop the novel drugs or functional foods for CKD patients.
Long, An; Zhang, Jiang; Yang, Lin-Tong; Ye, Xin; Lai, Ning-Wei; Tan, Ling-Ling; Lin, Dan; Chen, Li-Song
Seedlings of “Xuegan” (Citrus sinensis) and “Sour pummelo” (Citrus grandis) were irrigated daily with a nutrient solution at a pH of 2.5, 3, 4, 5, or 6 for 9 months. Thereafter, the following responses were investigated: seedling growth; root, stem, and leaf concentrations of nutrient elements; leaf gas exchange, pigment concentration, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity and chlorophyll a fluorescence; relative water content, total soluble protein level, H2O2 production and electrolyte leakage in roots and leaves. This was done (a) to determine how low pH affects photosynthesis, related physiological parameters, and mineral nutrient profiles; and (b) to understand the mechanisms by which low pH may cause a decrease in leaf CO2 assimilation. The pH 2.5 greatly inhibited seedling growth, and many physiological parameters were altered only at pH 2.5; pH 3 slightly inhibited seedling growth; pH 4 had almost no influence on seedling growth; and seedling growth and many physiological parameters reached their maximum at pH 5. No seedlings died at any given pH. These results demonstrate that citrus survival is insensitive to low pH. H+-toxicity may directly damage citrus roots, thus affecting the uptake of mineral nutrients and water. H+-toxicity and a decreased uptake of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium) and water were likely responsible for the low pH-induced inhibition of growth. Leaf CO2 assimilation was inhibited only at pH 2.5. The combinations of an impaired photosynthetic electron transport chain, increased production of reactive oxygen species, and decreased uptake of nutrients and water might account for the pH 2.5-induced decrease in CO2 assimilation. Mottled bleached leaves only occurred in the pH 2.5-treated C. grandis seedlings. Furthermore, the pH 2.5-induced alterations of leaf CO2 assimilation, water-use efficiency, chlorophylls, polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients and
Plantinga, Esther A; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, Wouter H
Cats are strict carnivores and in the wild rely on a diet solely based on animal tissues to meet their specific and unique nutritional requirements. Although the feeding ecology of cats in the wild has been well documented in the literature, there is no information on the precise nutrient profile to which the cat's metabolism has adapted. The present study aimed to derive the dietary nutrient profile of free-living cats. Studies reporting the feeding habits of cats in the wild were reviewed and data on the nutrient composition of the consumed prey items obtained from the literature. Fifty-five studies reported feeding strategy data of cats in the wild. After specific exclusion criteria, twenty-seven studies were used to derive thirty individual dietary nutrient profiles. The results show that feral cats are obligatory carnivores, with their daily energy intake from crude protein being 52 %, from crude fat 46 % and from N-free extract only 2 %. Minerals and trace elements are consumed in relatively high concentrations compared with recommended allowances determined using empirical methods. The calculated nutrient profile may be considered the nutrient intake to which the cat's metabolic system has adapted. The present study provides insight into the nutritive, as well as possible non-nutritive aspects of a natural diet of whole prey for cats and provides novel ways to further improve feline diets to increase health and longevity.
Tysmans, D.J.J.; Löhr, A.J.; Kroeze, C.; Ivens, W.P.M.F.; Wijnen, van T.K.
Nutrient export by rivers may cause coastal eutrophication. Some river basins, however, export more nutrients than others. We model the Basin-Wide Nutrient Export (BWNE) Index, defined as nutrient export by rivers as percentage of external nutrient inputs in the basins. We present results for rivers
Full Text Available The relationships between diet and metabolites as well as element profiles in healthy centenarians are important but remain inconclusive. Therefore, to test the interesting hypothesis that there would be distinctive features of metabolites and element profiles in healthy centenarians, and that these would be associated with nutrient intake; the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, total bile acids and ammonia in feces, phenol, p-cresol, uric acid, urea, creatinine and ammonia in urine, and element profiles in fingernails were determined in 90 healthy elderly people, including centenarians from Bama county (China—a famous longevous region—and elderly people aged 80–99 from the longevous region and a non-longevous region. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis was used for pattern recognition. As a result, the centenarians showed a distinct metabolic pattern. Seven characteristic components closely related to the centenarians were identified, including acetic acid, total SCFA, Mn, Co, propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid. Their concentrations were significantly higher in the centenarians group (p < 0.05. Additionally, the dietary fiber intake was positively associated with butyric acid contents in feces (r = 0.896, p < 0.01, and negatively associated with phenol in urine (r = −0.326, p < 0.01. The results suggest that the specific metabolic pattern of centenarians may have an important and positive influence on the formation of the longevity phenomenon. Elevated dietary fiber intake should be a path toward health and longevity.
Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Tajur Rahman
Recent worldwide inclination for the consumption of natural compounds has extremely augmented the significance of persistent quality of plant materials. Consequently, there is an escalating scientific concern in the impact of geographical distributions of the plants on their chemical constituents, physical characteristics and biological activities. The current study was carried out to see the effect of geographical locations on the nutrient composition, mineral contents, phytochemical profile and free radical scavenging activity of Morus nigra fruit. The samples were collected from five different locations of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, which included districts of D. I. Khan, Karak, Peshawar, Swabi and Swat. The results revealed the considerable impact of geographical locations on the levels of proximate nutrient and selected minerals. Likewise, the concentrations of phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin and alkaloidal contents varied significantly (p<0.05) with respect to their geographical distributions. The physicochemical characteristic, extraction yields and DPPH scavenging activity of the samples also showed strong link with the sites of their cultivation. The data suggest that geographical distributions affect the levels of phytochemicals and conversely their biological activities. These variations must be taken into consideration while utilizing raw plant materials for industrial applications and traditional therapies.
Jenkin, Gabrielle; Wilson, Nick; Hermanson, Nicole
To evaluate the feasibility of the UK Nutrient Profile (NP) model for identifying 'unhealthy' food advertisements using a case study of New Zealand television advertisements. Four weeks of weekday television from 15.30 hours to 18.30 hours was videotaped from a state-owned (free-to-air) television channel popular with children. Food advertisements were identified and their nutritional information collected in accordance with the requirements of the NP model. Nutrient information was obtained from a variety of sources including food labels, company websites and a national nutritional database. From the 60 h sample of weekday afternoon television, there were 1893 advertisements, of which 483 were for food products or retailers. After applying the NP model, 66 % of these were classified as advertising high-fat, high-salt and high-sugar (HFSS) foods; 28 % were classified as advertising non-HFSS foods; and the remaining 2 % were unclassifiable. More than half (53 %) of the HFSS food advertisements were for 'mixed meal' items promoted by major fast-food franchises. The advertising of non-HFSS food was sparse, covering a narrow range of food groups, with no advertisements for fresh fruit or vegetables. Despite the NP model having some design limitations in classifying real-world televised food advertisements, it was easily applied to this sample and could clearly identify HFSS products. Policy makers who do not wish to completely restrict food advertising to children outright should consider using this NP model for regulating food advertising.
Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge
Nutrient profiling systems are powerful tools for public health initiatives, as they aim at categorising foods according to their nutritional quality. The British Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been validated in a British food database, but the application of the model in other contexts has not yet been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the application of the British FSA score in a French food composition database. Foods from the French NutriNet-Santé study food composition table were categorised according to their FSA score using the Office of Communication (OfCom) cut-off value ('healthier' ≤ 4 for foods and ≤ 1 for beverages; 'less healthy' >4 for foods and >1 for beverages) and distribution cut-offs (quintiles for foods, quartiles for beverages). Foods were also categorised according to the food groups used for the French Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS) recommendations. Foods were weighted according to their relative consumption in a sample drawn from the NutriNet-Santé study (n 4225), representative of the French population. Classification of foods according to the OfCom cut-offs was consistent with food groups described in the PNNS: 97·8 % of fruit and vegetables, 90·4 % of cereals and potatoes and only 3·8 % of sugary snacks were considered as 'healthier'. Moreover, variability in the FSA score allowed for a discrimination between subcategories in the same food group, confirming the possibility of using the FSA score as a multiple category system, for example as a basis for front-of-pack nutrition labelling. Application of the FSA score in the French context would adequately complement current public health recommendations.
Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.
Cats are strict carnivores and in the wild rely on a diet solely based on animal tissues to meet their specific and unique nutritional requirements. Although the feeding ecology of cats in the wild has been well documented in the literature, there is no information on the precise nutrient profile to
Gregg, Watson W.; Busalacchi, Antonio (Technical Monitor)
A coupled ocean general circulation, biogeochemical, and radiative model was constructed to evaluate and understand the nature of seasonal variability of chlorophyll and nutrients in the global oceans. Biogeochemical processes in the model are determined from the influences of circulation and turbulence dynamics, irradiance availability. and the interactions among three functional phytoplankton groups (diatoms. chlorophytes, and picoplankton) and three nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, and silicate). Basin scale (greater than 1000 km) model chlorophyll results are in overall agreement with CZCS pigments in many global regions. Seasonal variability observed in the CZCS is also represented in the model. Synoptic scale (100-1000 km) comparisons of imagery are generally in conformance although occasional departures are apparent. Model nitrate distributions agree with in situ data, including seasonal dynamics, except for the equatorial Atlantic. The overall agreement of the model with satellite and in situ data sources indicates that the model dynamics offer a reasonably realistic simulation of phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics on synoptic scales. This is especially true given that initial conditions are homogenous chlorophyll fields. The success of the model in producing a reasonable representation of chlorophyll and nutrient distributions and seasonal variability in the global oceans is attributed to the application of a generalized, processes-driven approach as opposed to regional parameterization and the existence of multiple phytoplankton groups with different physiological and physical properties. These factors enable the model to simultaneously represent many aspects of the great diversity of physical, biological, chemical, and radiative environments encountered in the global oceans.
Cools, An; Maes, Dominiek; Du Laing, Gijs; Janssens, Geert P J
The present study assessed the effect of silo emptying and feed transport by conveyor systems on particle size and nutrient content of the feed delivered to the pigs. Experiment 1 sampled feed from four feeders along the conveyor system of two barns. Samples were taken immediately after filling the feed silo (Begin) and when the silo was almost empty (End). In Experiment 2, three barns with drag-type conveyors, three with auger-type conveyors and two with spiral-type conveyors were sampled. Along the different conveyors, samples at 10, 20, 50 and 85 m distance from the feed silo were taken from the feeders. In each barn, sampling was repeated for two subsequent batches of feed delivered. In all samples, particle size profile was determined and nutrient content was analysed. In Experiment 2, mineral content was also determined. In Experiment 1, the size of the different particle fractions decreased from Begin to End. An interaction (p conveyor type was detected for the 10% smallest particles. In Experiment 2, an effect of sampling time on the 10% largest particles was detected (p < 0.05). The effect of sampling time on several nutrients was observed in Experiments 1 and 2, but the affected nutrients differed between both experiments. Results implied that it was mainly emptying of the silo that affected mash particle size profile and nutrient content. The potential impact of these changes on pig performance requires further investigation.
Frosini, Silvia; Lardicci, Claudio; Balestri, Elena
Coastal dune plants are subjected to natural multiple stresses and vulnerable to global change. Some changes associated with global change could interact in their effects on vegetation. As vegetation plays a fundamental role in building and stabilizing dune systems, effective coastal habitat management requires a better understanding of the combined effects of such changes on plant populations. A manipulative experiment was conducted along a Mediterranean dune system to examine the individual and combined effects of increased sediment accretion (burial) and nitrogen enrichment associated with predicted global change on the performance of young clones of Sporobolus virginicus, a widespread dune stabilizing species. Increased burial severity resulted in the production of taller but thinner shoots, while nutrient enrichment stimulated rhizome production. Nutrient enrichment increased total plant biomass up to moderate burial levels (50% of plant height), but it had not effect at the highest burial level (100% of plant height). The effects of such factors on total biomass, shoot biomass and branching were influenced by spatial variation in natural factors at the scale of hundreds of metres. These results indicate that the effects of burial and nutrient enrichment on plant performance were not independent. Their combined effects may not be predicted by knowing the individual effects, at least under the study conditions. Under global change scenarios, increased nutrient input could alleviate nutrient stress in S. virginicus, enhancing clonal expansion and productivity, but this benefit could be offset by increased sand accretion levels equal or exceeding 100% of plant height. Depletion of stored reserves for emerging from sand could increase plant vulnerability to other stresses in the long-term. The results emphasize the need to incorporate statistical designs for detecting non-independent effects of multiple changes and adequate spatial replication in future works to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaucher disease is caused by defective glucocerebrosidase activity and the consequent accumulation of glucosylceramide. The pathogenic pathways resulting from lipid laden macrophages (Gaucher cells in visceral organs and their abnormal functions are obscure. Results To elucidate this pathogenic pathway, developmental global gene expression analyses were conducted in distinct Gba1 point-mutated mice (V394L/V394L and D409 V/null. About 0.9 to 3% of genes had altered expression patterns (≥ ± 1.8 fold change, representing several categories, but particularly macrophage activation and immune response genes. Time course analyses (12 to 28 wk of INFγ-regulated pro-inflammatory (13 and IL-4-regulated anti-inflammatory (11 cytokine/mediator networks showed tissue differential profiles in the lung and liver of the Gba1 mutant mice, implying that the lipid-storage macrophages were not functionally inert. The time course alterations of the INFγ and IL-4 pathways were similar, but varied in degree in these tissues and with the Gba1 mutation. Conclusions Biochemical and pathological analyses demonstrated direct relationships between the degree of tissue glucosylceramides and the gene expression profile alterations. These analyses implicate IFNγ-regulated pro-inflammatory and IL-4-regulated anti-inflammatory networks in differential disease progression with implications for understanding the Gaucher disease course and pathophysiology.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A microorganism is able to adapt to changes in its physicochemical or nutritional environment and this is crucial for its survival. The yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has developed mechanisms to respond to such environmental changes in a rapid and effective manner; such responses may demand a widespread re-programming of gene activity. The dynamics of the re-organization of the cellular activities of S. cerevisiae in response to the sudden and transient removal of either carbon or nitrogen limitation has been studied by following both the short- and long-term changes in yeast's transcriptomic profiles. Results The study, which spans timescales from seconds to hours, has revealed the hierarchy of metabolic and genetic regulatory switches that allow yeast to adapt to, and recover from, a pulse of a previously limiting nutrient. At the transcriptome level, a glucose impulse evoked significant changes in the expression of genes concerned with glycolysis, carboxylic acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and nucleic acid and sulphur metabolism. In ammonium-limited cultures, an ammonium impulse resulted in the significant changes in the expression of genes involved in nitrogen metabolism and ion transport. Although both perturbations evoked significant changes in the expression of genes involved in the machinery and process of protein synthesis, the transcriptomic response was delayed and less complex in the case of an ammonium impulse. Analysis of the regulatory events by two different system-level, network-based approaches provided further information about dynamic organization of yeast cells as a response to a nutritional change. Conclusions The study provided important information on the temporal organization of transcriptomic organization and underlying regulatory events as a response to both carbon and nitrogen impulse. It has also revealed the importance of a long-term dynamic analysis of the response to the
Trichophyton rubrum (T.rubrum) is one of the most common human fungal pathogens that cause chronic infections of the skin and nails. To identify antifungal responsive genes, cDNA microarray analysis was performed for T. rubrum to reveal global transcriptional profiles of drug-specific responses to 5-Flucytosine (5-FC). cDNA microarray was constructed from the T. rubrum expressed sequence tag (ESTs) database, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5-FC was determined, and microarray hybridization and data analysis were applied. The expression pattern of 7 genes observed by microarray was confirmed by the quantitative real-time reverser transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data analysis indicated that a total of 474 genes were found differentially expressed, 196 showed an increase in expression and 278 showed a decrease in expression. Marked down-regulation of genes involved in nucleotide metabolism (such as CDC21), transcription (such as E2F1), and RNA processing (such as SGN1, RIM4 and NOP1) was observed. Other genes involved in signal transduction, chaperones, inorganic ion transport, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, amino acid transport, lipid transport and potential drug resistance mechanism were also affected by 5-FC. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR of the selected genes confirmed the reliability of the microarray results. This is the first analysis of transcriptional profiles in response to 5-FC for T. rubrum. The findings may be valuable for the identification of genes involved in mechanisms of action and mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance of 5-FC.
Tian, H.; Lu, C.
In addition to enhance agricultural productivity, synthetic nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) fertilizer application in croplands dramatically altered global nutrient budget, water quality, greenhouse gas balance, and their feedbacks to the climate system. However, due to the lack of geospatial fertilizer input data, current Earth system/land surface modeling studies have to ignore or use over-simplified data (e.g., static, spatially uniform fertilizer use) to characterize agricultural N and P input over decadal or century-long period. In this study, we therefore develop a global time-series gridded data of annual synthetic N and P fertilizer use rate in croplands, matched with HYDE 3,2 historical land use maps, at a resolution of 0.5º latitude by longitude during 1900-2013. Our data indicate N and P fertilizer use rates increased by approximately 8 times and 3 times, respectively, since the year 1961, when IFA (International Fertilizer Industry Association) and FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) survey of country-level fertilizer input were available. Considering cropland expansion, increase of total fertilizer consumption amount is even larger. Hotspots of agricultural N fertilizer use shifted from the U.S. and Western Europe in the 1960s to East Asia in the early 21st century. P fertilizer input show the similar pattern with additional hotspot in Brazil. We find a global increase of fertilizer N/P ratio by 0.8 g N/g P per decade (p< 0.05) during 1961-2013, which may have important global implication of human impacts on agroecosystem functions in the long run. Our data can serve as one of critical input drivers for regional and global assessment on agricultural productivity, crop yield, agriculture-derived greenhouse gas balance, global nutrient budget, land-to-aquatic nutrient loss, and ecosystem feedback to the climate system.
Gregg, Watson W.
A coupled general ocean circulation, biogeochemical, and radiative model was constructed to evaluate and understand the nature of seasonal variability of chlorophyll and nutrients in the global oceans. The model is driven by climatological meteorological conditions, cloud cover, and sea surface temperature. Biogeochemical processes in the model are determined from the influences of circulation and turbulence dynamics, irradiance availability, and the interactions among three functional phytoplankton groups (diatoms, chorophytes, and picoplankton) and three nutrient groups (nitrate, ammonium, and silicate). Phytoplankton groups are initialized as homogeneous fields horizontally and vertically, and allowed to distribute themselves according to the prevailing conditions. Basin-scale model chlorophyll results are in very good agreement with CZCS pigments in virtually every global region. Seasonal variability observed in the CZCS is also well represented in the model. Synoptic scale (100-1000 km) comparisons of imagery are also in good conformance, although occasional departures are apparent. Agreement of nitrate distributions with in situ data is even better, including seasonal dynamics, except for the equatorial Atlantic. The good agreement of the model with satellite and in situ data sources indicates that the model dynamics realistically simulate phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics on synoptic scales. This is especially true given that initial conditions are homogenous chlorophyll fields. The success of the model in producing a reasonable representation of chlorophyll and nutrient distributions and seasonal variability in the global oceans is attributed to the application of a generalized, processes-driven approach as opposed to regional parameterization, and the existence of multiple phytoplankton groups with different physiological and physical properties. These factors enable the model to simultaneously represent the great diversity of physical, biological
Full Text Available Primary mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC diseases are heterogeneous in etiology and manifestations but collectively impair cellular energy metabolism. Mechanism(s by which RC dysfunction causes global cellular sequelae are poorly understood. To identify a common cellular response to RC disease, integrated gene, pathway, and systems biology analyses were performed in human primary RC disease skeletal muscle and fibroblast transcriptomes. Significant changes were evident in muscle across diverse RC complex and genetic etiologies that were consistent with prior reports in other primary RC disease models and involved dysregulation of genes involved in RNA processing, protein translation, transport, and degradation, and muscle structure. Global transcriptional and post-transcriptional dysregulation was also found to occur in a highly tissue-specific fashion. In particular, RC disease muscle had decreased transcription of cytosolic ribosomal proteins suggestive of reduced anabolic processes, increased transcription of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, shorter 5'-UTRs that likely improve translational efficiency, and stabilization of 3'-UTRs containing AU-rich elements. RC disease fibroblasts showed a strikingly similar pattern of global transcriptome dysregulation in a reverse direction. In parallel with these transcriptional effects, RC disease dysregulated the integrated nutrient-sensing signaling network involving FOXO, PPAR, sirtuins, AMPK, and mTORC1, which collectively sense nutrient availability and regulate cellular growth. Altered activities of central nodes in the nutrient-sensing signaling network were validated by phosphokinase immunoblot analysis in RC inhibited cells. Remarkably, treating RC mutant fibroblasts with nicotinic acid to enhance sirtuin and PPAR activity also normalized mTORC1 and AMPK signaling, restored NADH/NAD(+ redox balance, and improved cellular respiratory capacity. These data specifically highlight a common
Zhang, Zhe; Tsukikawa, Mai; Peng, Min; Polyak, Erzsebet; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Ostrovsky, Julian; McCormack, Shana; Place, Emily; Clarke, Colleen; Reiner, Gail; McCormick, Elizabeth; Rappaport, Eric; Haas, Richard; Baur, Joseph A.; Falk, Marni J.
Primary mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) diseases are heterogeneous in etiology and manifestations but collectively impair cellular energy metabolism. Mechanism(s) by which RC dysfunction causes global cellular sequelae are poorly understood. To identify a common cellular response to RC disease, integrated gene, pathway, and systems biology analyses were performed in human primary RC disease skeletal muscle and fibroblast transcriptomes. Significant changes were evident in muscle across diverse RC complex and genetic etiologies that were consistent with prior reports in other primary RC disease models and involved dysregulation of genes involved in RNA processing, protein translation, transport, and degradation, and muscle structure. Global transcriptional and post-transcriptional dysregulation was also found to occur in a highly tissue-specific fashion. In particular, RC disease muscle had decreased transcription of cytosolic ribosomal proteins suggestive of reduced anabolic processes, increased transcription of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, shorter 5′-UTRs that likely improve translational efficiency, and stabilization of 3′-UTRs containing AU-rich elements. RC disease fibroblasts showed a strikingly similar pattern of global transcriptome dysregulation in a reverse direction. In parallel with these transcriptional effects, RC disease dysregulated the integrated nutrient-sensing signaling network involving FOXO, PPAR, sirtuins, AMPK, and mTORC1, which collectively sense nutrient availability and regulate cellular growth. Altered activities of central nodes in the nutrient-sensing signaling network were validated by phosphokinase immunoblot analysis in RC inhibited cells. Remarkably, treating RC mutant fibroblasts with nicotinic acid to enhance sirtuin and PPAR activity also normalized mTORC1 and AMPK signaling, restored NADH/NAD+ redox balance, and improved cellular respiratory capacity. These data specifically highlight a common pathogenesis
Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an optimal way to treat organic waste matter, resulting in biogas and residue. Utilization of the residue as a crop fertilizer should enhance crop yield and soil fertility, promoting closure of the global energy and nutrient cycles. Consequently, the requirement for production of inorganic fertilizers will decrease, in turn saving significant amounts of energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, and indirectly leading to global economic benefits. However, application of this residue to agricultural land requires careful monitoring to detect amendments in soil quality at the early stages.
Full Text Available The importance of including directional and spectral light in simulations of ocean radiative transfer was investigated using a coupled biogeochemical-circulation-radiative model of the global oceans. The effort focused on phytoplankton abundances, nutrient concentrations and net primary production.The importance was approached by sequentially removing directional (i.e., direct vs. diffuse and spectral irradiance and comparing results of the above variables to a fully directionally and spectrally-resolved model.In each case the total irradiance was kept constant; it was only the pathways and spectral nature that were changed.Assuming all irradiance was diffuse had negligible effect on global ocean primary production. Global nitrate and total chlorophyll concentrations declined by about 20% each. The largest changes occurred in the tropics and sub-tropics rather than the high latitudes, where most of the irradiance is already diffuse. Disregarding spectral irradiance had effects that depended upon the choice of attenuation wavelength. The wavelength closest to the spectrally-resolved model, 500nm, produced lower nitrate (19% and chlorophyll (8% and higher primary production (2% than the spectral model. Phytoplankton relative abundances were very sensitive to the choice of non-spectral wavelength transmittance. The combined effects of neglecting both directional and spectral irradiance exacerbated the differences, despite using attenuation at 500nm. Global nitrate decreased 33% and chlorophyll decreased 24%. Changes in phytoplankton community structure were considerable, representing a change from chlorophytes to cyanobacteria and coccolithophores. This suggested a shift in community function, from light-limitation to nutrient limitation: lower demands for nutrients from cyanobacteria and coccolithophores favored them over the more nutrient-demanding chlorophytes. Although diatoms have the highest nutrient demands in the model, their relative
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, pressure, and nutrients data were collected using bottle in the South Atlantic Ocean from 24 November 1987 to 12 March 1989. Data were collected...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the COLUMBUS ISELIN in the Indian Ocean. Data were collected from 26 February 1979 to...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and other data were collected using CTD from the HELGA and other platforms in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 28...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profiles of temperature, salinity, and dissolved inorganic nutrients measurements collected using bottle in the Atlantic Ocean from the VNIRO institute...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients and temperature profile data were collected using bottle casts from the FIOLENT and other platforms in the Black Sea. Data were collected from 05 May 1955...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the ORION and EASTWARD in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 19...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and meteorological data were collected using bottle and MBT casts from the A.I. VOEIKOV in the Pacific Ocean. Data were collected...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and Chemical Oceanographic Time Series (Line-P) containing profiles for Nutrients, temperature, salinity near Ocean Station PAPA (50 deg N;145 deg W)....
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Southern Oceans from the POLAR DUKE. Data were collected from 02 January 1990 to 05...
Beets, Michael W; Turner-McGrievy, Brie; Weaver, R Glenn; Huberty, Jennifer; Moore, Justin B; Ward, Dianne S; Freedman, Darcy A
Widely adopted nutrition policies for afterschool programs (ASPs) focus on serving a fruit/vegetable daily and eliminating sugar-sweetened foods/beverages. The impact of these policies on the nutrient profile of snacks served is unclear. Evaluate changes in macro/micronutrient content of snacks served in ASPs. A 1-year group randomized controlled trial was conducted in 20 ASPs serving over 1700 elementary-age children. Intervention ASPs received a multistep adaptive framework intervention. Direct observation of snack served was collected and nutrient information determined using the USDA Nutrient Database, standardized to nutrients/100 kcal. By post-assessment, intervention ASPs reduced total kcal/snack served by 66 kcal (95CI -114 to -19 kcal) compared to control ASPs. Total fiber (+1.7 g/100 kcal), protein (+1.4 g/100 kcal), polyunsaturated fat (+1.2 g/100 kcal), phosphorous (+49.0 mg/100 kcal), potassium (+201.8 mg/100 kcal), and vitamin K (+21.5 μg/100 kcal) increased in intervention ASPs, while added sugars decreased (-5.0 g/100 kcal). Nutrition policies can lead to modest daily caloric reductions and improve select macro/micronutrients in snacks served. Long-term, these nutritional changes may contribute to healthy dietary habits.
Seitzinger, S.P; Mayorga, E; Bouwman, A.F; Kroeze, C; Beusen, A.H.W; Billen, G; cht, van, G; Dumont, E.L; Fekete, B.M; Garnier, J; Harrison, J
...) and four future scenarios were analyzed. Differences among the scenarios for nutrient management in agriculture were a key factor affecting the magnitude and direction of change of future DIN river export...
Vanni, Michael J; McIntyre, Peter B
The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) and ecological stoichiometry (ES) are both prominent frameworks for understanding energy and nutrient budgets of organisms. We tested their separate and joint power to predict nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion rates of ectothermic aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate animals (10,534 observations worldwide). MTE variables (body size, temperature) performed better than ES variables (trophic guild, vertebrate classification, body N:P) in predicting excretion rates, but the best models included variables from both frameworks. Size scaling coefficients were significantly lower than predicted by MTE (<0.75), were lower for P than N, and varied greatly among species. Contrary to expectations under ES, vertebrates excreted both N and P at higher rates than invertebrates despite having more nutrient-rich bodies, and primary consumers excreted as much nutrients as carnivores despite having nutrient-poor diets. Accounting for body N:P hardly improved upon predictions from treating vertebrate classification categorically. We conclude that basic data on body size, water temperature, trophic guild, and vertebrate classification are sufficient to make general estimates of nutrient excretion rates for any animal taxon or aquatic ecosystem. Nonetheless, dramatic interspecific variation in size-scaling coefficients and counter-intuitive patterns with respect to diet and body composition underscore the need for field data on consumption and egestion rates. Together, MTE and ES provide a powerful conceptual basis for interpreting and predicting nutrient recycling rates of aquatic animals worldwide. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.
Seitzinger, S.P.; Harrison, J.A.; Dumont, E.L.; Beusen, A.H.W.; Bouwman, A.F.
An overview of the first spatially explicit, multielement (N, P, and C), multiform (dissolved inorganic: DIN, DIP; dissolved organic: DOC, DON, DOP; and particulate: POC, PN, PP) predictive model system of river nutrient export from watersheds (Global Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS)) is prese
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrient data from NOAA'S Global Change Expedition in July-September 1988 was submitted by Dr. Dennis W. Frazel of RSMAS (University of Miami). The expedition was...
Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun
In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality.
Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer; Cussler, Ellen
Currently, little is known about the home food environment. This cross-sectional study was designed to describe the food sources of calories and key nutrients in the households of 100 families with at least one child aged 12 years or younger and compare nutrient availability to recommended levels. Participating households were food secure, ate dinner at home at least three times weekly, had parents who were married or living as domestic partners and not employed in a health-related profession, and resided in New Jersey. Researchers visited each household once during 2006/2007 to inventory all foods except alcoholic beverages, commercial baby food, infant formula, pet foods, refrigerated leftovers, foods of minimal nutrient and calorie content, condiments typically consumed in small quantities per eating occasion, and bulk supplies of staples. Inventories were taken using commercial diet analysis software customized to use barcode scanners for foods with standard barcodes and keyword searches for foods lacking barcodes. Protein, carbohydrate, and fat in the households supplied an average of approximately 15%, 57%, and 29% of calories, respectively. Saturated fat and total sugar accounted for an average of approximately 10% and 20%, respectively, of calories. Mean nutrient adequacy ratio for nutrients recommended to be maximized (ie, vitamins A and C, protein, dietary fiber, iron, calcium) was less than optimal, and mean ratio for those recommended to be minimized (ie, total fat, cholesterol, sodium, and sugar) exceeded recommendations. Categorization by food group revealed that the greatest availability of calories, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, total sugar, sodium, and iron was from grains. The greatest availability of total fat, cholesterol, and protein was from meat/protein foods. Dairy products contained the greatest quantities of saturated fat and calcium. This study expands the limited research on the home food supply and provides insights that may have
Full Text Available The increased deposition of nutrients from the atmosphere has contributed to widespread changes in heathland ecosystems throughout Europe. Management measures, as a prescribed burning, are nowadays considered a tool with which to mitigate impacts of atmospheric nutrient loads by reducing nutrient stores in the above-ground biomass and soils. In this study we want to determine if prescribed burning is an adequate tool to maintain low nutrient levels (mainly nitrogen in heathlands in the Cantabrian Mountain which are affected by atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Three heathlands sites dominated by Calluna vulgaris were selected. In June 2005, three plots (20 x 20 m per site were established. One of them was used as a control, the second was burned and the third was burned plus fertilized with ammonium nitrate (56 kg N ha–1 yr–1 to simulated atmospheric deposition. Our results show that prescribed burning resulted in an important decrease in nitrogen and an increase in phosphorous immediately after burning. Five years later, nitrogen recovered around 80% in the burning + fertilized plot, 40% in burned plot and 77% in control plot. However, an important decreased in phosphorous were detected mainly in burning + fertilized plot (63% and burning plot (34%, while losses were lower in control plots (13%. These results suggest that heaths managed by prescribed burning will accumulate nitrogen in the long term which will affect to the surviving of this type of heathlands.
Abshire, J. B.; Guzewich, S. D.; Smith, M. D.; Riris, H.; Sun, X.; Gentry, B. M.; Yu, A.; Allan, G. R.
The Mars Exploration Analysis Group's Next Orbiter Science Analysis Group (NEXSAG) has recently identified atmospheric wind measurements as one of 5 top compelling science objectives for a future Mars orbiter. To date, only isolated lander observations of martian winds exist. Winds are the key variable to understand atmospheric transport and answer fundamental questions about the three primary cycles of the martian climate: CO2, H2O, and dust. However, the direct lack of observations and imprecise and indirect inferences from temperature observations leave many basic questions about the atmospheric circulation unanswered. In addition to addressing high priority science questions, direct wind observations from orbit would help validate 3D general circulation models (GCMs) while also providing key input to atmospheric reanalyses. The dust and CO2 cycles on Mars are partially coupled and their influences on the atmospheric circulation modify the global wind field. Dust absorbs solar infrared radiation and its variable spatial distribution forces changes in the atmospheric temperature and wind fields. Thus it is important to simultaneously measure the height-resolved wind and dust profiles. MARLI provides a unique capability to observe these variables continuously, day and night, from orbit.
Subastri, Ariraman; Ramamurthy, Chitteti; Suyavaran, Arumugam; Mareeswaran, Ramachandran; Mandal, Priyanka; Rellegadla, Sandeep; Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy
Porridge (koozh) is one of the traditional foods made from Eleusine coracana L. grains (Finger millet). It is a soft food prepared from processed (germinated & fermented) finger millet flour (FMF). However, in the modern world of fast food, koozh is usually prepared from non-processed (non-germinated & non-fermented) FMF. Hence, present study was undertaken to evaluate the macro and micro nutrient contents in koozh prepared from germinated (fermented & non-fermented) and non-germinated (fermented & non-fermented) FMF. Highest protein, carbohydrate and glycoprotein contents were found in koozh prepared from germinated & non-fermented FMF. The free amino acid contents are higher in germinated & fermented condition when compare to other preparations. No significant change was observed in the calorific value of all preparations. There is no statistical difference in macro-nutrients & micro-nutrients minerals such as calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorous and zinc among all the preparations. However, copper content is higher in non-germinated condition, whereas selenium, silicon and sulphur are higher in germinated FMF when compared to others. Significant level of total phenol, total flavonoid and free radical scavenging activity was observed in all preparations, which increased further during fermentation. The present observations, lead us to conclude that koozh prepared from germinated & non-fermented FMF contains higher level of carbohydrate, protein and glycoprotein, however germinated & fermented koozh has increased aminoacids, phytochemicals and free radical scavenging activity. Hence it is suggested that the consumption of koozh made from germinated & fermented FMF may provide easily digestible and energetic nutrients for healthier life.
Cross, Alison; Perakis, Steven S.
Old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest provide a unique opportunity to examine tree species – soil relationships in ecosystems that have developed without significant human disturbance. We characterized foliage, forest floor, and mineral soil nutrients associated with four canopy tree species (Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh)) in eight old-growth forests of the Oregon Coast Range. The greatest forest floor accumulations of C, N, P, Ca, Mg, and K occurred under Douglas-fir, primarily due to greater forest floor mass. In mineral soil, western hemlock exhibited significantly lower Ca concentration and sum of cations (Ca + Mg + K) than bigleaf maple, with intermediate values for Douglas-fir and western redcedar. Bigleaf maple explained most species-based differences in foliar nutrients, displaying high concentrations of N, P, Ca, Mg, and K. Foliar P and N:P variations largely reflected soil P variation across sites. The four tree species that we examined exhibited a number of individualistic effects on soil nutrient levels that contribute to biogeochemical heterogeneity in these ecosystems. Where fire suppression and long-term succession favor dominance by highly shade-tolerant western hemlock, our results suggest a potential for declines in both soil Ca availability and soil biogeochemical heterogeneity in old-growth forests.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This set of CD-ROMs contains global ocean temperature and salinity profiles derived from NODC archive data files. It includes oceanographic station (bottle) data,...
Boy, Jens; Godoy, Roberto; Dechene, Annika; Shibistova, Olga; Amir, Hamid; Iskandar, Issi; Fogliano, Bruno; Boy, Diana; McCulloch, Robert; Andrino, Alberto; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Marin, Cesar; Sauheitl, Leopold; Dultz, Stefan; Mikutta, Robert; Guggenberger, Georg
A substantial contribution of biogenic weathering in ecosystem nutrition, especially by symbiotic microorganisms, has often been proposed, but large-scale in vivo studies are still missing. Here we compare a set of ecosystems spanning from the Antarctic to tropical forests for their potential biogenic weathering and its drivers. To address biogenic weathering rates, we installed mineral mesocosms only accessible for bacteria and fungi for up to 4 years, which contained freshly broken and defined nutrient-baring minerals in soil A horizons of ecosystems along a gradient of soil development differing in climate and plant species communities. Alterations of the buried minerals were analyzed by grid-intersection, confocal lascer scanning microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the surface and on thin sections. On selected sites, carbon fluxes were tracked by 13C labeling, and microbial community was identified by DNA sequencing. In young ecosystems (protosoils) biogenic weathering is almost absent and starts after first carbon accumulation by aeolian (later litter) inputs and is mainly performed by bacteria. With ongoing soil development and appearance of symbiotic (mycorrhized) plants, nutrient availability in soil increasingly drove biogenic weathering, and fungi became the far more important players than bacteria. We found a close relation between fungal biogenic weathering and available potassium across all 16 forested sites in the study, regardless of the dominant mycorrhiza type (AM or EM), climate, and plant-species composition. We conclude that nutrient limitations at ecosystem scale are generally counteracted by adapted fungal biogenic weathering. The close relation between fungal weathering and plant-available nutrients over a large range of severely contrasting ecosystems points towards a direct energetic support of these weathering processes by the photoautotrophic community, making biogenic weathering a
Riina A Kekkonen; Marko Sysi-Aho; Tuulikki Sepp(a)nen-Laakso; Ilkka Julkunen; Heikki Vapaatalo; Matej Ore(s)i(c); Riitta Korpela
AIM:To investigate the effect of three weeks' intervention with a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) bacteria on global serum lipidomic profiles and evaluate whether the changes in inflammatory variables (CRP,TNF-α and IL-6) are reflected in the global lipidomic profiles of healthy adults.METHODS:We performed UPLC/MS-based global lipidomic platform analysis of serum samples (n = 26)in a substudy of a randomised,double-blind,placebocontrolled 3-wk clinical intervention trial investigating the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in healthy adults.RESULTS:A total of 407 lipids were identified,corresponding to 13 different lipid classes.Serum samples showed decreases in the levels of lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoGPCho),sphingomyelins (SM) and several glycerophosphatidylcholines (GPCho),while triacylglycerols (TAG) were mainly increased in the probiotic LGG group during the intervention.Among the inflammatory variables,IL-6 was moderately associated by changes in global lipidomic profiles,with the top-ranked lipid associated with IL-6 being the proinflammatory LysoGPCho (20:4).There was a weak association between the lipidomic profiles and the two other inflammatory markers,TNF-α and CRP.CONCLUSION:This was the first study to investigate the effects of probiotic intervention on global lipidomic profiles in humans.There are indications that probiotic LGG intervention may lead to changes in serum global lipid profiles,as reflected in decreased GPCho,LysoGPCho and SM as well as mainly increased TAG.
Laat, A.T.J.de; Landgraf, J.; Aben, I.; Hasekamp, O.; Bregman, B.
This paper presents a validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone (O3) profiles which are used to evaluate stratospheric transport in the chemistry transport model (CTM) Tracer Model version 5 (TM5) using a linearized stratospheric O3 chemistry scheme. A comparison of GOME O3 profi
Resovsky, Joseph; Trampert, Jeannot; Hilst, R.D. van der
The radial attenuation profile of the Earth is needed to account for dispersion effects when interpreting seismic velocities and can provide important constraints on composition. To date, most radial Q models have been produced using traditional damped inversions of free oscillation and surface wave
Full Text Available Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury is a dynamic process consisting of two stages: ischemia and reperfusion, and triggers a cascade of physiological and biochemical events. Given the important role of microRNAs in regulating gene expression, we analyzed gene expression changes in mouse livers at sham control, ischemia stage, and reperfusion stage. We generated global expression profiles of microRNA and mRNA genes in mouse livers subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury at the three stages, respectively. Comparison analysis showed that reperfusion injury had a distinct expression profile whereas the ischemia sample and the sham control were clustered together. Consistently, there are 69 differentially expressed microRNAs between the reperfusion sample and the sham control whereas 28 differentially expressed microRNAs between the ischemia sample and the sham control. We further identified two modes of microRNA expression changes in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Functional analysis of both the differentially expressed microRNAs in the two modes and their target mRNAs revealed that ischemia injury impaired mitochondrial function, nutrient consumption, and metabolism process. In contrast, reperfusion injury led to severe tissue inflammation that is predominantly an innate-immune response in the ischemia-reperfusion process. Our staged analysis of gene expression profiles provides new insights into regulatory mechanisms of microRNAs in mouse hepatic IR injury.
de Carvalho, Gabriel Gustinelli Arantes; Moros, Javier; Santos, Dário; Krug, Francisco José; Laserna, J Javier
Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (fs-LIBS) has been used for the first time for quantitative determination of nutrients in plant materials from different crops. A highly heterogeneous population of 31 samples, previously analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, covering a wide range of matrices was interrogated. To tackle the analysis, laser-induced plasmas under argon atmosphere of pellets prepared from sieved cryogenically ground leaves were studied. Predictive functions based on univariate and multivariate modeling of optical emissions associated to macro- (Ca, Mg, and P) and micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) were designed. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to select representative calibration (n(cal)=17) and validation (n(val)=14) datasets. The predictive performance of calibration functions over fs-LIBS data was compared with that attained on spectral information from nanosecond LIBS (ns-LIBS) operating at different wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm, and 266 nm). Findings established higher accuracy and less uncertainty on mass fractions quantification from fs-LIBS, whatever the modeling approach. Quality coefficients below 20% for the accuracy error on mass fractions' prediction in unknown samples, and residual predictive deviations in general above 5, were obtained. In contrast, only multivariate modeling satisfactorily handled the non-linear variations of emissions in ns-LIBS, leading to 2-fold decrease in the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of Ca, Mg, P, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in comparison with the univariate approach. But still, an averaged quality coefficient about 35% and residual predictive deviations below 3 were found. Similar predictive capabilities were observed when changing the laser wavelength. Although predicted values by ns-LIBS multivariate modeling exhibit better agreement with reference mass fractions as compared to univariate functions, fs-LIBS conducts better quantification of
Ezeronye, O U
The nutrient utilization pattern of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from palm wine was studied using tropical fruits as substrate. Starter cultures were prepared by growing 15-18 h old stock cultures of the yeast in successively larger bottles containing pasteurized fruit must. Microvinification, substrate utilization and assay of yeast activity were performed. Soluble solute (SS) content of the juices ranged from 10-18 Brix. Pinapple must had the highest SS content (18 Brix) while pawpaw had a low SS value of 10 Brix. These SS values were low compared to that of grape juice. The wines produced from the fruit must had percentage alcohol levels ranging from 10.6 to 12.6. Volatile activity ranged from 0.25 to 0.32 while crude protein values ranged from 0.58 to 0.68%. Palm wine yeast and all the other yeast strains fermented and utilized the fruit must for growth with specific growth rates ranging from 0.18 to 0.22. Sugar loss in Brix was gradual for all the fruit musts from 20.0-24.0 Brix to a range of 4.8 to 6.0 Brix. Pineapple was highly preferred for tropical wine making. Mango, cashew and pawpaw had equal ranking for commercial scale fermentation though more sugar will be needed to ameliorate cashew and pawpaw than mango juice. Palm wine yeast (OW-11) compared favourably with the other wine yeasts (CBS 8066 and ATCC 4126) both in nutrient utilization pattern and growth performance. A high degree of adaptability was observed in palm wine yeast recommands it for industrial wine production.
Brian E Sansbury
Full Text Available An increase in calorie consumption is associated with the recent rise in obesity prevalence. However, our current understanding of the effects of nutrient excess on major metabolic pathways appears insufficient to develop safe and effective metabolic interventions to prevent obesity. Hence, we sought to identify systemic metabolic changes caused by nutrient excess and to determine how endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS—which has anti-obesogenic properties—affects systemic metabolism by measuring plasma metabolites. Wild-type (WT and eNOS transgenic (eNOS-TG mice were placed on low fat or high fat diets for six weeks, and plasma metabolites were measured using an unbiased metabolomic approach. High fat feeding in WT mice led to significant increases in fat mass, which was associated with significantly lower plasma levels of 1,5-anhydroglucitol, lysophospholipids, 3-dehydrocarnitine, and bile acids, as well as branched chain amino acids (BCAAs and their metabolites. Plasma levels of several lipids including sphingomyelins, stearoylcarnitine, dihomo-linoleate and metabolites associated with oxidative stress were increased by high fat diet. In comparison with low fat-fed WT mice, eNOS-TG mice showed lower levels of several free fatty acids, but in contrast, the levels of bile acids, amino acids, and BCAA catabolites were increased. When placed on a high fat diet, eNOS overexpressing mice showed remarkably higher levels of plasma bile acids and elevated levels of plasma BCAAs and their catabolites compared with WT mice. Treatment with GW4064, an inhibitor of bile acid synthesis, decreased plasma bile acid levels but was not sufficient to reverse the anti-obesogenic effects of eNOS overexpression. These findings reveal unique metabolic changes in response to high fat diet and eNOS overexpression and suggest that the anti-obesity effects of eNOS are likely independent of changes in the bile acid pool.
Full Text Available A total of 140 weaning pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc, BW = 6.47±0.86 kg were used in a 5-wk growth trail to determine the effects of phytoncide supplementation on growth performance, nutrient apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD, blood profiles, diarrhea scores and fecal microflora shedding. Pigs were assigned randomly by BW into 5 treatments, dietary treatments were: i NC, basal diet; ii PC, NC+0.05% tylosin; iii EO, NC+0.1% essential oil; iv PP, NC+0.2% PP (phytoncide with 2% citric acid, and v PA, NC+0.2% PA (phytoncide. Each treatment had 7 replicate pens with 4 pigs per pen. All pigs were housed in pens with a self-feeder and nipple drinker to allow ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experimental period. During 0 to 2 wks, supplementation with essential oil and PA decreased (p0.05 was observed in diarrhea scores among treatments. In conclusion, phytoncide can elevate feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, and improve the fecal Lactobacillus counts in weaning pigs. Our results indicated that the phytoncide could be used as a good antibiotics alternative in weaning pigs.
Fiorentini, Giovani; Carvalho, Isabela P C; Messana, Juliana D; Canesin, Roberta C; Castagnino, Pablo S; Lage, Josiane F; Arcuri, Pedro B; Berchielli, Telma T
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of lipid sources with different fatty acid profiles on nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation. Ten rumen and duodenal fistulated Nellore steers (268 body weight±27 kg) were distributed in a duplicated 5×5 Latin square. Dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF; Lactoplus), and whole soybeans (WS). The roughage feed was corn silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The higher intake of DM and organic matter (OM) (p0.05), such as the molar percentage of acetate, propionate, butyrate and the acetate:propionate ratio. Treatments PO, LO and with WS decreased by around 50% the concentration of protozoa (ptype of protection (PF and WS) decreased the effects of lipid on ruminal fermentation and presented similar outflow of benefit UFA as LO.
Teng, Ying [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Lab. of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Environmetnal Futures Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences; Xu, Zhihong; Reverchon, Frederique [Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Environmetnal Futures Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences; Luo, Yongming [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Lab. of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation
Global climate change (GCC), especially global warming, has affected the material cycling (e.g., carbon, nutrients, and organic chemicals) and the energy flows of terrestrial ecosystems. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were regarded as anthropogenic organic carbon (OC) source, and be coupled with the natural carbon (C) and nutrient biogeochemical cycling in ecosystems. The objective of this work was to review the current literature and explore potential coupling processes and mechanisms between POPs and biogeochemical cycles of C and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems induced by global warming. Global warming has caused many physical, chemical, and biological changes in terrestrial ecosystems. POPs environmental fate in these ecosystems is controlled mainly by temperature and biogeochemical processes. Global warming may accelerate the re-emissions and redistribution of POPs among environmental compartments via soil-air exchange. Soil-air exchange is a key process controlling the fate and transportation of POPs and terrestrial ecosystem C at regional and global scales. Soil respiration is one of the largest terrestrial C flux induced by microbe and plant metabolism, which can affect POPs biotransformation in terrestrial ecosystems. Carbon flow through food web structure also may have important consequences for the biomagnification of POPs in the ecosystems and further lead to biodiversity loss induced by climate change and POPs pollution stress. Moreover, the integrated techniques and biological adaptation strategy help to fully explore the coupling mechanisms, functioning and trends of POPs and C and nutrient biogeochemical cycling processes in terrestrial ecosystems. There is increasing evidence that the environmental fate of POPs has been linked with biogeochemical cycles of C and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems under GCC. However, the relationships between POPs and the biogeochemical cycles of C and nutrients are still not well understood. Further
Muibat Olabisi Bello
Full Text Available Croton zambesicus leaves and seeds were investigated for nutrient contents and fatty acids of their oils. Proximate analysis showed that the leaves and seeds contained (g/100 g moisture (7.88, 7.94; crude protein (13.13, 9.64; crude fibre (16.63, 15.45, crude fat (15.42, 26.73; ash (9.28, 4.15 and carbohydrate (55.35, 67.09, respectively. The seed contained higher level of potassium (2.2 g/100 g; iron (467.53 mg/100 g and strontium (869.27 mg/100 g while the leaf contained higher level of calcium (3.04 g/100 g. The leaves and seeds oils have iodine value above 100 mg/g oil and peroxide value below 10 Meq/kg. Palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acids were higher in concentrations in both the leaves and seeds oil among the saturated, mono unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids detected. The oils contained more polyunsaturated than saturated fatty acids. Both parts could be explored as food supplements.
Combet, Emilie; Vlassopoulos, Antonis; Mölenberg, Famke; Gressier, Mathilde; Privet, Lisa; Wratten, Craig; Sharif, Sahar; Vieux, Florent; Lehmann, Undine; Masset, Gabriel
Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient composition, with applications in multiple aspects of food policy. We tested the capacity of a category-specific model developed for product reformulation to improve the average nutrient content of foods, using five national food composition datasets (UK, US, China, Brazil, France). Products (n = 7183) were split into 35 categories based on the Nestlé Nutritional Profiling Systems (NNPS) and were then classified as NNPS 'Pass' if all nutrient targets were met (energy (E), total fat (TF), saturated fat (SFA), sodium (Na), added sugars (AS), protein, calcium). In a modelling scenario, all NNPS Fail products were 'reformulated' to meet NNPS standards. Overall, a third (36%) of all products achieved the NNPS standard/pass (inter-country and inter-category range: 32%-40%; 5%-72%, respectively), with most products requiring reformulation in two or more nutrients. The most common nutrients to require reformulation were SFA (22%-44%) and TF (23%-42%). Modelled compliance with NNPS standards could reduce the average content of SFA, Na and AS (10%, 8% and 6%, respectively) at the food supply level. Despite the good potential to stimulate reformulation across the five countries, the study highlights the need for better data quality and granularity of food composition databases.
Full Text Available The authors in this paper aim to identify the growth of literature on Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs. The research publications on IPRs were downloaded from the Scopus online citation database and the authors found that there were 1,513,138 records contributed globally over a period of 10 years from 2005 to 2014. The distribution of publications based on the year, country, and document type were studied. Relative growth rate (RGR of the publications and doubling time (Td were calculated. Most productive organizations, source titles, and the productive authors on IPR research were studied. Most cited articles in the study area were identified. The results show that a number of publications under the subjects Medicine and Engineering were produced. The developed countries are very active in IPR research and producing publications. It is found that one institution which holds the sixth place among the top 10 most productive institutions belongs to Brazil, a developing country. Two developing countries such as China and India hold second and tenth positions respectively in the top 10 countries contributing literature on IPRs.
Tetens, Inge; Oberdörfer, R.; Madsen, C.;
The background of the workshop was the proposed EU legislation to regulate nutrition and health claims for foods in Europe. This regulation will require the development of a science-based nutrient profiling system in order to determine which foods or categories of foods will be permitted to make ...
Full Text Available The effects of an exogenous emulsifier, glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate, on performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens were assessed. The emulsifier was added to the diet at dose rates of 0 (control, 1 (E1 and 2 (E2 % of added fat (saturated palm oil. Live weight gain (<.07 and feed conversion ratio (<.05 in 39 days were higher in the E1 dietary group. Gain: ME intake and gain: protein intake during the grower phase improved quadratically (<.05. Gross carcass traits were not affected. Body fat content and fat accretion increased (<.05 and liver fat content decreased (<.05 linearly with the level of emulsifier in diet. Fat excretion decreased (<.001 leading to increased ileal fat digestibility (<.06 in the E1 group (quadratic response. Metabolizable intake of N (<.1 and fat (<.05 increased quadratically due to supplementation of emulsifier in diet. Metabolism of trace elements and serum lipid profiles were not affected. The study revealed that supplementation of exogenous emulsifiers in diets containing moderate quantities of added vegetable fats may substantially improve broiler performance.
Lu, Chaoqun; Tian, Hanqin
In addition to enhancing agricultural productivity, synthetic nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) fertilizer application in croplands dramatically alters global nutrient budget, water quality, greenhouse gas balance, and their feedback to the climate system. However, due to the lack of geospatial fertilizer input data, current Earth system and land surface modeling studies have to ignore or use oversimplified data (e.g., static, spatially uniform fertilizer use) to characterize agricultural N and P input over decadal or century-long periods. In this study, we therefore develop global time series gridded data of annual synthetic N and P fertilizer use rate in agricultural lands, matched with HYDE 3.2 historical land use maps, at a resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° latitude-longitude during 1961-2013. Our data indicate N and P fertilizer use rates on per unit cropland area increased by approximately 8 times and 3 times, respectively, since the year 1961 when IFA (International Fertilizer Industry Association) and FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) surveys of country-level fertilizer input became available. Considering cropland expansion, the increase in total fertilizer consumption is even larger. Hotspots of agricultural N fertilizer application shifted from the US and western Europe in the 1960s to eastern Asia in the early 21st century. P fertilizer input shows a similar pattern with an additional current hotspot in Brazil. We found a global increase in fertilizer N / P ratio by 0.8 g N g-1 P per decade (p doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.863323.
Blanchard, Claire; Shilton, Trevor; Bull, Fiona
Physical inactivity has been recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the leading causes of death due to non-communicable disease (NCD), worldwide. The benefits of action over inactivity can cut across health, environment, transportation, sport, culture and the economy. Despite the evidence, the policies and strategies to increase population-wide participation in physical activity receive insufficient priority from across high, middle and low-income countries; where physical inactivity is a rapidly-emerging issue. There is an increased need for all countries to invest in policies, strategies and supportive environments that inform, motivate and support individuals and communities to be active in ways that are safe, accessible and enjoyable. This commentary presents some recent efforts towards physical activity promotion globally, led by the Global Advocacy for Physical Activity (GAPA). It provides an overview of the background and history of GAPA; describes GAPA and the council's key achievements and milestones; places physical activity promotion within the global NCD agenda; presents GAPA flagships; and reflects on the lessons learned, ingredients for success and the major challenges that remain. The commentary documents insights into the effectiveness and challenges faced by a small non-governmental organisation (NGO) in mounting global advocacy. These lessons may be transferrable to other areas of health promotion advocacy.
Zhai, W; Bennett, L W; Gerard, P D; Pulikanti, R; Peebles, E D
Effects of the in ovo injection of commercial diluent supplemented with dextrin or with dextrin in combination with various other carbohydrates on the somatic characteristics and liver nutrient profiles of Ross × Ross 708 broiler embryos and chicks were investigated. Results include information concerning the gluconeogenic energy status of the liver before and after hatch. Eggs containing live embryos were injected in the amnion on d 18 of incubation using an automated multiple-egg injector for the delivery of the following carbohydrates dissolved in 0.4 mL of commercial diluent: 1) 6.25% glucose and 18.75% dextrin; 2) 6.25% sucrose and 18.75% dextrin; 3) 6.25% maltose and 18.75% dextrin; and 4) 25% dextrin. Also, a noninjected control and a 0.4-mL diluent-injected control were included. Body weight relative to set egg weight on d 19 of incubation (E19) was increased by the injection of all carbohydrate solutions, and on the day of hatch was increased by the injection of diluent, sucrose and dextrin, and maltose and dextrin solutions. Hatchability of the fertilized eggs, residual yolk sac weight, and liver weight were not affected by any injection treatment; however, as compared with the 0.4 mL diluent-injected group, all of the supplementary carbohydrates, except for the glucose and dextrin combination group, increased liver glycogen and glucose concentrations on E19. Furthermore, all carbohydrates, except for the 25% dextrin treatment, decreased liver fat concentration on E19. From E19 to the day of hatch, liver glycogen concentrations dropped dramatically from an average of 3.2 to 0.6%. Despite treatment differences observed on E19 for liver glycogen, glucose, and fat concentrations, these differences were lost by the day of hatch. Nevertheless, liver glycogen and glucose concentrations were positively correlated on the day of hatch. In conclusion, the in ovo injection of various supplemental carbohydrates dissolved in 0.4 mL of commercial diluent altered the
Jin, X H; Heo, P S; Hong, J S; Kim, N J; Kim, Y Y
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight) were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day) were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01), average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.01). During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08). In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01), ADFI (p<0.05) and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07) during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05). In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05) and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03) were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs' diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses.
Abeysekara, Saman; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Yu, Peiqiang
The objectives of this study were (i) to determine lipid related molecular structures components (functional groups) in feed combination of cereal grain (barley, Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) based dried distillers grain solubles (wheat DDGSs) from bioethanol processing at five different combination ratios using univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses with infrared Fourier transform molecular spectroscopy, and (ii) to correlate lipid-related molecular-functional structure spectral profile to nutrient profiles. The spectral intensity of (i) CH3 asymmetric, CH2 asymmetric, CH3 symmetric and CH2 symmetric groups, (ii) unsaturation (Cdbnd C) group, and (iii) carbonyl ester (Cdbnd O) group were determined. Spectral differences of functional groups were detected by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA). The results showed that the combination treatments significantly inflicted modifications (P spectroscopy. These changes were associated with nutrient profiles and functionality.
Mackenthun, E; Coenen, M; Vervuert, I
Supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) in horses may have some potential to modify microbial populations and thereby improve fibre digestibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SC on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, with a special focus on fibre digestion in healthy horses. The fermentation profile of microbial populations was another focus of interest. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to three groups. The basal diet consisted of cracked corn (2 g starch/kg body weight [BW]) and hay (1.2 kg/100 kg BW). During adaptation (3 weeks) and the total faecal collection period (5 days), cracked corn was fed once daily either as control (0 g SC) or supplemented with 1 or 3 g SC (1 g SC = 2 × 10(10) colony-forming units [cfu]). There was a 4-week wash-out period between the different SC regimes. Faeces were sampled by rectal collection for the analysis of pH, nitrogen, lactic acid, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and SC. In faeces, mean SC cfu was significantly lower than the quantity supplemented: 0 g SC, no detection; 1 g SC, 1.1 × 10(6) cfu; 3 g SC, 3.6 × 10(6) cfu. Apparent total tract digestibility of crude fibre varied approximately 40% without any treatment-related effects. Short-chain fatty acids, lactic acids and pH in faeces were not significantly affected by SC supplementation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation was not associated with any changes in the fermentation profiles, and fibre digestion accordingly remained unchanged in intact and healthy horses. Taking into account that fibre digestion remained unchanged and recovery rate of SC in faeces was mariginal, colonization and proliferation of SC in the healthy equine intestinal tract seems to be unlikely.
Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: The present study was a 2×3 factorial arrangement of two levels of selenomethionine (0 and 0.3 ppm and three levels of omega-3 fatty acid (0, 0.5 and 1%. Day-old Vencobb broiler chicks (n=180, were randomly assigned in six treatment groups. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Treatment groups followed of: Group I was a control. Group II, III, IV, V and VI were supplemented with 0 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid, 0 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid and 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, respectively. Linseed oil was used as a source of omega-3 fatty acid while sel-plex is used for selenomethionine supplementation. Results: Significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for serum zinc and iron concentration whereas, it was non-significant for serum calcium and copper. Significantly (p<0.05 increased concentration of selenium, zinc, iron and phosphorus was observed in birds fed 0.3 ppm selenomethionine whereas, significantly (p<0.05 increased zinc and iron was observed in birds fed 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was significant (p<0.05 interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for calcium and phosphorus retention percentage. The maximum retention of calcium and phosphorus was recorded in birds supplemented with 0.3 ppm selenomethionine in combination with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was marked interaction between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for hemoglobin (Hb, total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count and platelets (p<0.05 however, it was non-significant for mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb, MCH concentration
Tanzer, Matthew M; Arst, Herbert N; Skalchunes, Amy R; Coffin, Marie; Darveaux, Blaise A; Heiniger, Ryan W; Shuster, Jeffrey R
We describe a method for gene function discovery and chemical mode-of-action analysis via nutrient utilization using a high throughput Nutritional Profiling platform suitable for filamentous microorganisms. We have optimized the growth conditions for each fungal species to produce reproducible optical density growth measurements in microtiter plates. We validated the Nutritional Profiling platform using a nitrogen source utilization assay to analyze 21 Aspergillus nidulans strains with mutations in the master nitrogen regulatory gene, areA. Analysis of these data accurately reproduced expected results and provided new data to demonstrate that this platform is suitable for fine level phenotyping of filamentous fungi. Next, we analyzed the differential responses of two fungal species to a glutamine synthetase inhibitor, illustrating chemical mode-of-action analysis. Finally, a comparative phenotypic study was performed to characterize carbon catabolite repression in four fungal species using a carbon source utilization assay. The results demonstrate differentiation between two Aspergillus species and two diverse plant pathogens and provide a wealth of new data on fungal nutrient utilization. Thus, these assays can be used for gene function and chemical mode-of-action analysis at the whole organism level as well as interspecies comparisons in a variety of filamentous fungi. Additionally, because uniform distribution of growth within wells is maintained, comparisons between yeast and filamentous forms of a single organism can be performed.
Cooper, S L; Pelly, F E; Lowe, J B
Nutrient profiling models classify the healthiness of foods based on their nutritional composition and provide the science that underlies nutrition signposting schemes. The two objectives were to examine the construct validity of the Health Star Rating (HSR) system by determining its diagnostic accuracy and to detect the optimal HSR cutoff points to define healthiness in packaged dairy foods. We hypothesised that ultra-processed dairy, defined by NOVA, would have less stars (less healthy) and non-ultra-processed dairy would have more stars (more healthy). The diagnostic accuracy of the HSR system used for 621 dairy foods for sale in an Australian regional supermarket was investigated. The healthiness of packaged dairy was measured using the NOVA food classification system. The dairy beverages model was found to discriminate between healthy and less healthy dairy beverages as classified by NOVA (AUC: 0.653; 95% CI: 0.556-0.750; P=0.005). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for dairy beverages demonstrated that the optimal cutoff point corresponded to a rating of four stars. There was no discrimination power when using the HSR for predicting the health value of yoghurt and other dairy, or cheeses. At the optimal cutoff point of four stars the HSR has a high sensitivity but a low specificity to correctly classify healthy packaged dairy beverages, as defined by NOVA. We provide evidence to support the construct validity of the HSR model for dairy beverages, but not for the models used for yoghurts and other dairy products, or cheeses.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 15 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2017.23.
Tae Hee Han
Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to evaluate various wheat supplementation levels on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility, and pork quality in growing-finishing pigs. Methods A total of 120 growing pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc, with an average 27.75± 1.319 kg body weight, were used in growth trial. Pigs were allotted into each treatment by body weight and sex in 4 replicates with 6 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Four-phase feeding programs were used in this experiment. The treatments included the following: i corn-soybean meal (SBM – based diet (CON, ii corn-SBM – based diet+15% of wheat (W15, iii corn-SBM – based diet+30% of wheat (W30, iv corn-SBM – based diet+45% of wheat (W45, and 5 corn-SBM–based diet+60% of wheat (W60. Results There was no significant difference in growth performance among the dietary treatments. However, the gain-to-feed (G:F ratio tended to increase (quadratic, p<0.08 when the pigs were fed a higher wheat diet during the finishing period. The digestibility of crude ash and fat tended to decrease as the wheat supplementation level increased (p<0.08. The proximate analysis of the longissimus muscle was not affected by the dietary level of wheat. The crude ash content in pork was decreased linearly as the wheat supplementation level increased (p = 0.05. There was no significant difference in the pH level, shear force, water holding capacity, and cooking loss of the pork. In pork and fat, L*, a*, and b* values were not significantly different among dietary treatments. Conclusion Wheat can be supplemented up to 60% in a growing-finishing pig without detrimental effects on growth and pork quality. The G:F ratio tended to improve in the finishing period by wheat inclusion.
Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Mackenzie, Tara; Vandevijvere, Stefanie
Promotion of unhealthy foods and drinks is a significant, modifiable risk factor for child obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases. We compared three accepted nutrient profiling systems: the Health Star Rating (HSR), the Ministry of Health Food and Beverage Classification System (FBCS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe Nutrient Profiling Model, to identify the best system to protect New Zealand children from exposure to the marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages. 13,066 packaged foods from the 2014 New Zealand Nutritrack database were classified as 'restricted' or 'not restricted' as per the WHO model; 'everyday/sometimes' or 'occasional' as per the FBCS model; and '3.5 stars, were determined. Under any of the three nutrient profiling systems, approximately one-third (29-39%) of New Zealand packaged foods would be permitted to be marketed to children. The WHO Model would permit marketing of 29% of products; the HSR system would permit 36%; and the FBCS system would permit 39%. The WHO Model restricts marketing of unhealthy foods more effectively than the other two systems. The HSR and FBCS systems would permit marketing of a number of food products of concern, particularly high-sugar breakfast cereals, fruit juices and ready meals. The WHO Regional Office for Europe Nutrient Profiling Model should underpin the Advertising Standards Authority revised Children's Code for Advertising Food. The effectiveness of the new Code in reducing New Zealand children's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods and drinks should be subject to evaluation by an independent body.
Bennet, Sean M P; Polster, Annikka; Törnblom, Hans; Isaksson, Stefan; Capronnier, Sandrine; Tessier, Aurore; Le Nevé, Boris; Simrén, Magnus; Öhman, Lena
Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have an altered cytokine profile, although it is unclear whether cytokines are linked with symptom severity. We aimed to determine whether global serum and mucosal cytokine profiles differ between IBS patients and healthy subjects and whether cytokines are associated with IBS symptoms. Serum from 144 IBS patients and 42 healthy subjects was analyzed for cytokine levels of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17A, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by MSD MULTI-ARRAY. In total, 109 IBS and 36 healthy sigmoid colon biopsies were analyzed for mRNA expression of IL-8, IL-10, TNF, and FOXP3 by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Multivariate discrimination analysis evaluated global cytokine profiles. Rectal sensitivity, oroanal transit time, and psychological and gastrointestinal symptom severity were also assessed. Global cytokine profiles of IBS patients and healthy subjects overlapped, but cytokine levels varied more in IBS patients. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 tended to be increased and levels of IFN-γ tended to be decreased in IBS patients. Mucosal mRNA expression of IL-10 and FOXP3 tended to be decreased in IBS patients. Within both the full study cohort and IBS patients alone, serum level of TNF was associated with looser stool pattern, while subjects with more widespread somatic symptoms had increased serum levels of IL-6. Although neither IBS bowel habit subgroups nor patients with possible post-infectious IBS were associated with distinct cytokine profiles, a small cluster of IBS patients with comparatively elevated immune markers was identified. Global cytokine profiles did not discriminate IBS patients from healthy subjects, but cytokine profiles were more varied among IBS patients than among healthy subjects, and a small subgroup of patients with enhanced immune activity was identified. Also, association of inflammatory cytokines with some
Wu, Lin; Feng, Xiao-Tao; Hu, Yue-Qiang; Tang, Nong; Zhao, Qing-Shan; Li, Tian-Wei; Li, Hai-Yuan; Wang, Qing-Bi; Bi, Xin-Ya; Cai, Xin-Kun
Vascular dementia (VD) has been one of the most serious public health problems worldwide. It is well known that cerebral hypoperfusion is the key pathophysiological basis of VD, but it remains unclear how global genes in hippocampus respond to cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. In this study, we aimed to reveal the global gene expression profile in the hippocampus of VD using a rat model. VD was induced by repeated occlusion of common carotid arteries followed by reperfusion. The rats with VD were characterized by deficit of memory and cognitive function and by the histopathological changes in the hippocampus, such as a reduction in the number and the size of neurons accompanied by an increase in intercellular space. Microarray analysis of global genes displayed up-regulation of 7 probesets with genes with fold change more than 1.5 (P Ontology (GO) and pathway analysis showed that the up-regulated genes are mainly involved in oxygen binding and transport, autoimmune response and inflammation, and that the down-regulated genes are related to glucose metabolism, autoimmune response and inflammation, and other biological process, related to memory and cognitive function. Thus, the abnormally expressed genes are closely related to oxygen transport, glucose metabolism, and autoimmune response. The current findings display global gene expression profile of the hippocampus in a rat model of VD, providing new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of VD.
Kumari, Asha; Parida, Asish K.; Rangani, Jaykumar; Panda, Ashok
Salvadora persica is a medicinally important plant mainly used in oral hygiene. However, little attention has been given towards the nutritional prominence of this plant. This study encloses the proximate and mineral nutrient contents, amino acid composition, metabolite profiling and antioxidant potential of S. persica fruit. The ripen fruit contained substantial amount of sugars, mineral nutrients, carotenoids, polyphenols and flavonoids. The metabolic profiling of the fruit extract by GC-MS revealed a total of 22 metabolites comprising of sugars, sugar alcohols, organic acids, organic base, and aromatic silica compound. The identified metabolites have been previously reported to have potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-hyperglycemic, and antitumor properties. The GC-MS analysis indicated high glucose and glucopyranose (247.62 and 42.90 mg g-1 FW respectively) contents in fruit of S. persica. The fruit extract demonstrated a significantly higher antioxidant and ROS scavenging properties along with high contents of mineral nutrients and essential amino acids. HPLC analysis revealed presence of essential and non-essential amino acid required for healthy body metabolism. The cysteine was found to be in highest amount (733.69 mg 100 g-1 DW) among all amino acids quantified. Specifically, compared to similar medicinal plants, previously reported as a source of non-conventional food and with some of the commercially important fruits, S. persica fruit appears to be a potential source of essential mineral nutrients, amino acids, vitamins (ascorbic acid and carotenoid) and pharmaceutically important metabolites contributing towards fulfilling the recommended daily requirement of these for a healthy human being. This is the first report establishing importance of S. persica fruit as nutraceuticals. The data presented here proposed that fruit of S. persica may be used as functional food or reinvigorating ingredient for processed food to reduce deficiency of nutrients
Donnenfeld, Mathilde; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Latino-Martel, Paule; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde
The Food Standards Agency Nutrient Profiling System (FSA-NPS) constitutes the basis for the Five-Colour Nutrition Label suggested in France to be put on the front-of-pack of food products. At the individual level, a dietary index (FSA-NPS DI) has been derived and validated and corresponds to a weighted mean of all FSA-NPS scores of foods usually consumed by the individual, reflecting the nutritional quality of his/her diet. Our aim was to investigate the association between the FSA-NPS DI and cancer risk in a large cohort. This prospective study included 6435 participants to the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants cohort (1994-2007) who completed at least six 24 h dietary records during the first 2 years of follow-up. FSA-NPS DI was computed for each subject (higher values representing lower nutritional quality of the diet). After a median follow-up of 12·6 years, 453 incident cancers were diagnosed. Associations were characterised by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. The FSA-NPS DI was directly associated with overall cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR)for a 1-point increment=1·08 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·15), P trend=0·02; HRQ5 v. Q1=1·34 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·81), P trend=0·03). This association tended to be more specifically observed in subjects with moderate energy intake (≤median, HRfor a 1-point increment=1·10 (95 % CI 1·01-1·20), P trend=0·03). No association was observed in subjects with higher energy intake (P trend=0·3). Results were not statistically significant for breast and prostate cancer risks. For the first time, this study investigated the prospective association between the FSA-NPS individual score and cancer risk. The results suggest that unhealthy food choices may be associated with a 34 % increase in overall cancer risk, supporting the public health relevance of developing front-of-pack nutrition labels based on this score.
Adriouch, Solia; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Méjean, Caroline; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Donnenfeld, Mathilde; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Menai, Mehdi; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold K
Public health strategies are essential to guide consumers' choices and produce a substantial population impact on cardiovascular disease risk prevention through nutrition. Our aim was to investigate the prospective association between the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system dietary index (FSA-NPS DI) and cardiovascular disease risk. The FSA-NPS has been proposed to serve as a basis for a five-colour nutrition label suggested in France to be put on the front of pack of food products. A total of 6515 participants to the SU.VI.MAX cohort (1994-2007), who completed at least six 24-hour dietary records during the first two years of the study, were followed for a median of 12.4 years (25th-75th percentiles: 11.0-12.6). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to characterise the associations between FSA-NPS DI (continuous and sex-specific quartiles) and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Interactions with individual characteristics were tested; 181 major cardiovascular events were reported (59 myocardial infarctions, 43 strokes, 79 anginas). A higher FSA-NPS DI, characterising poorer food choices, was associated with an overall increase in cardiovascular disease risk (HRfor a 1-point increment = 1.14 (1.03-1.27); HRQ4vs.Q1 = 1.61 (1.05-2.47), Ptrend Q4-Q1 = 0.03). This association tended to be stronger in smokers (HRfor a 1-point increment = 1.39 (1.11-1.73); Pinteraction = 0.01) and those less physically active (HRfor a 1-point increment = 1.26 (1.08-1.46); Pinteraction = 0.04). Our results suggest that poorer food choices, as reflected by a higher FSA-NPS DI, may be associated with a significant increase in cardiovascular risk, especially in at-risk individuals (smokers and physically inactive persons). This score could be a useful tool for public health prevention strategies. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00272428. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.
Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens. A total of 960 Lohmann laying hens aged 53 weeks were enrolled, under 4 different treatment diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg essential oils (Enviva EO, Dupont Nutrition Biosciences ApS, Denmark, respectively. Each treatment was replicated 8 times with 30 birds each. Birds were fed dietary treatment diets for 12 weeks (54 to 65 weeks. For data recording and analysis, a 12-week period was divided into 3 periods of 4 weeks' duration each: period 1 (54 to 57 weeks, period 2 (58 to 61 weeks, and period 3 (62 to 65 weeks. For the diet supplemented with Enviva EO, hen-day egg production and the feed conversion ratio (FCR were significantly improved (P < 0.05 at weeks 58 to 61, and the eggshell thickness was significantly increased (P < 0.05 at week 65. However, egg production, egg weight, feed intake, FCR and other egg quality parameters (albumen height, Haugh unit, egg yolk color and eggshell strength were not affected by the dietary treatment. In addition, compared with the control diet, protein digestibility in the 100 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment group was significantly increased (P < 0.05, and fat digestibility in the 100 and 150 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.05, but Enviva EO had no effect on energy apparent digestibility. Saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA gradually decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased with Enviva EO supplementation, but the difference was not significant. The data suggested that the supplementation of essential oils (Enviva EO in laying hen diet did not show a significant positive effect on performance and yolk fatty acid composition but it tended to increase eggshell thickness and protein digestibility, especially at the dose of 50 mg/kg.
Temperature profile and nutrients data collected using bottle casts from the POLAR DUKE and NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from 10 November 1997 to 12 December 1997 (NODC Accession 0000898)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from the POLAR DUKE and NATHANIEL B. PALMER. Data were...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from the POLAR DUKE. Data were collected from 13...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from POLAR DUKE. Data were collected from 06 September...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle and CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from HESPERIDES. Data were collected from 11 February...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle and CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from HESPERIDES. Data were collected from 15 February...
Nutrients profile data from various projects collected by the R/V ALPHA HELIX, THOMAS WASHINGTON and THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Northeast Pacific and Bering Sea from 12 August 1980 to 17 July 1987 (NODC Accession 0000269)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients profile data were collected from the R/V ALPHA HELIX, THOMAS WASHINGTON, and THOMAS G. THOMPSON from August 12, 1980 to July 17, 1987. Data were submitted...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Profile nutrients and other data were collected from the R/V ALPHA HELIX from August 16, 1983 to July 30, 1989. Data were submitted by University of Alaska -...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, species identification, and other data were collected using net and bottle casts from the RYOFU MARU in the Northwest Pacific Ocean....
Temperature, salinity, and nutrient profiles, wave, and meteorological data from three cruises in the Northwest Pacific, the Southwest Pacific, and the Philippine Sea from 1965-11-30 to 1980-08-11 (NODC Accession 0000122)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, meteorological, and nutrient profiles data were collected using bottle casts from the OSHORO MARU and RYOFU MARU in Philippines Sea and Pacific Ocean...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from the POLAR DUKE. Data were collected from 05...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from the NATHANIEL B. PALMER. Data were collected from...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle and CTD casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from the GARCIA DEL CID. Data were collected from 10...
Oceanographic profile chemical, nutrient, and physical data from CTD and bottle casts aboard the R/V Aegaeo in the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas from February 9, 1995 to February 10, 1995 (NODC Accession 0084544)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0084544 includes oceanographic profile chemical, nutrient, and physical data collected aboard the AEGAEO in the Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean Sea...
Temperature, salinity, and nutrients profiles from bottle and CTD casts from a world-wide distribution from the OCEANIA and other platforms from 01 January 1928 to 31 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000204)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, and nutrients profiles were collected from bottle and CTD casts from the OCEANIA from 01 January 1928 to 31 December 1999. Data were collected...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from the NATHANIEL B. PALMER. Data were collected from...
Temperature profile and nutrients data collected using bottle casts from the POLAR DUKE and NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from 08 April 1997 to 05 May 1997 (NODC Accession 0000897)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from the POLAR DUKE and NATHANIEL B. PALMER. Data were...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle and CTD casts in the Mediterranean Sea from the GARCIA DEL CID. Data were collected from 02...
Temperature profile and nutrients data collected using bottle casts from the POLAR DUKE AND NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from 12 January 1997 to 09 February 1997 (NODC Accession 0000896)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from the POLAR DUKE and NATHANIEL B. PALMER. Data were...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in the Ross Sea and Southern Oceans from POLAR DUKE. Data were collected from 08 October...
El-Deftar, Moteaa M; Robertson, James; Foster, Simon; Lennard, Chris
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging atomic emission based solid sampling technique that has many potential forensic applications. In this study, the analytical performance of LIBS, as well as that of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF), was evaluated for the ability to conduct elemental analyses on Cannabis plant material, with a specific investigation of the possible links between hydroponic nutrients and elemental profiles from associated plant material. No such study has been previously published in the literature. Good correlation among the four techniques was observed when the concentrations or peak areas of the elements of interest were monitored. For Cannabis samples collected at the same growth time, the elemental profiles could be related to the use of particular commercial nutrients. In addition, the study demonstrated that ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS and LIBS are suitable techniques for the comparison of Cannabis samples from different sources, with high discriminating powers being achieved. On the other hand, μXRF method was not suitable for the discrimination of Cannabis samples originating from different growth nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Early development in humans is characterised by low and variable embryonic viability, reflected in low fecundity and high rates of miscarriage, relative to other mammals. Data from assisted reproduction programmes provides additional evidence that this is largely mediated at the level of embryonic competence and is highly heterogeneous among embryos. Understanding the basis of this heterogeneity has important implications in a number of areas including: the regulation of early human development, disorders of pregnancy, assisted reproduction programmes, the long term health of children which may be programmed in early development, and the molecular basis of pluripotency in human stem cell populations. We have therefore investigated global gene expression profiles using polyAPCR amplification and microarray technology applied to individual human oocytes and 4-cell and blastocyst stage embryos. In order to explore the basis of any variability in detail, each developmental stage is replicated in triplicate. Our data show that although transcript profiles are highly stage-specific, within each stage they are relatively variable. We describe expression of a number of gene families and pathways including apoptosis, cell cycle and amino acid metabolism, which are variably expressed and may be reflective of embryonic developmental competence. Overall, our data suggest that heterogeneity in human embryo developmental competence is reflected in global transcript profiles, and that the vast majority of existing human embryo gene expression data based on pooled oocytes and embryos need to be reinterpreted.
Full Text Available The interplay between the Apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and its host has been largely studied. However, molecular changes at the metabolic level in the host central nervous system and pathogenesis-associated metabolites during brain infection are largely unexplored. We used a global metabolomics strategy to identify differentially regulated metabolites and affected metabolic pathways in BALB/c mice during infection with T. gondii Pru strain at 7, 14 and 21 days post-infection (DPI. The non-targeted Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS metabolomics analysis detected approximately 2,755 retention time-exact mass pairs, of which more than 60 had significantly differential profiles at different stages of infection. These include amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and vitamins. The biological significance of these metabolites is discussed. Principal Component Analysis and Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis showed the metabolites' profile to change over time with the most significant changes occurring at 14 DPI. Correlated metabolic pathway imbalances were observed in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, energetic metabolism and fatty acid oxidation. Eight metabolites correlated with the physical recovery from infection-caused illness were identified. These findings indicate that global metabolomics adopted in this study is a sensitive approach for detecting metabolic alterations in T. gondii-infected mice and generated a comparative metabolic profile of brain tissue distinguishing infected from non-infected host.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The hierarchical clustering tree (HCT with a dendrogram 1 and the singular value decomposition (SVD with a dimension-reduced representative map 2 are popular methods for two-way sorting the gene-by-array matrix map employed in gene expression profiling. While HCT dendrograms tend to optimize local coherent clustering patterns, SVD leading eigenvectors usually identify better global grouping and transitional structures. Results This study proposes a flipping mechanism for a conventional agglomerative HCT using a rank-two ellipse (R2E, an improved SVD algorithm for sorting purpose seriation by Chen 3 as an external reference. While HCTs always produce permutations with good local behaviour, the rank-two ellipse seriation gives the best global grouping patterns and smooth transitional trends. The resulting algorithm automatically integrates the desirable properties of each method so that users have access to a clustering and visualization environment for gene expression profiles that preserves coherent local clusters and identifies global grouping trends. Conclusion We demonstrate, through four examples, that the proposed method not only possesses better numerical and statistical properties, it also provides more meaningful biomedical insights than other sorting algorithms. We suggest that sorted proximity matrices for genes and arrays, in addition to the gene-by-array expression matrix, can greatly aid in the search for comprehensive understanding of gene expression structures. Software for the proposed methods can be obtained at http://gap.stat.sinica.edu.tw/Software/GAP.
Graly, Joseph A.; Bierman, Paul R.; Reusser, Lucas J.; Pavich, Milan J.
In order to assess current understanding of meteoric 10Be dynamics and distribution in terrestrial soils, we assembled a database of all published meteoric 10Be soil depth profiles, including 104 profiles from 27 studies in globally diverse locations, collectively containing 679 individual measurements. This allows for the systematic comparison of meteoric 10Be concentration to other soil characteristics and the comparison of profile depth distributions between geologic settings. Percent clay, 9Be, and dithionite-citrate extracted Al positively correlate to meteoric 10Be in more than half of the soils where they were measured, but the lack of significant correlation in other soils suggests that no one soil factor controls meteoric 10Be distribution with depth. Dithionite-citrate extracted Fe and cation exchange capacity are only weakly correlated to meteoric 10Be. Percent organic carbon and pH are not significantly related to meteoric 10Be concentration when all data are complied. The compilation shows that meteoric 10Be concentration is seldom uniform with depth in a soil profile. In young or rapidly eroding soils, maximum meteoric 10Be concentrations are typically found in the uppermost 20 cm. In older, more slowly eroding soils, the highest meteoric 10Be concentrations are found at depth, usually between 50 and 200 cm. We find that the highest measured meteoric 10Be concentration in a soil profile is an important metric, as both the value and the depth of the maximum meteoric 10Be concentration correlate with the total measured meteoric 10Be inventory of the soil profile. In order to refine the use of meteoric 10Be as an estimator of soil erosion rate, we compare near-surface meteoric 10Be concentrations to total meteoric 10Be soil inventories. These trends are used to calibrate models of meteoric 10Be loss by soil erosion. Erosion rates calculated using this method vary based on the assumed depth and timing of erosional events and on the reference data selected.
Graly, Joseph A.; Bierman, Paul R.; Reusser, Lucas J.; Pavich, Milan J.
In order to assess current understanding of meteoric 10Be dynamics and distribution in terrestrial soils, we assembled a database of all published meteoric 10Be soil depth profiles, including 104 profiles from 27 studies in globally diverse locations, collectively containing 679 individual measurements. This allows for the systematic comparison of meteoric 10Be concentration to other soil characteristics and the comparison of profile depth distributions between geologic settings. Percent clay, 9Be, and dithionite-citrate extracted Al positively correlate to meteoric 10Be in more than half of the soils where they were measured, but the lack of significant correlation in other soils suggests that no one soil factor controls meteoric 10Be distribution with depth. Dithionite-citrate extracted Fe and cation exchange capacity are only weakly correlated to meteoric 10Be. Percent organic carbon and pH are not significantly related to meteoric 10Be concentration when all data are complied.The compilation shows that meteoric 10Be concentration is seldom uniform with depth in a soil profile. In young or rapidly eroding soils, maximum meteoric 10Be concentrations are typically found in the uppermost 20 cm. In older, more slowly eroding soils, the highest meteoric 10Be concentrations are found at depth, usually between 50 and 200 cm. We find that the highest measured meteoric 10Be concentration in a soil profile is an important metric, as both the value and the depth of the maximum meteoric 10Be concentration correlate with the total measured meteoric 10Be inventory of the soil profile.In order to refine the use of meteoric 10Be as an estimator of soil erosion rate, we compare near-surface meteoric 10Be concentrations to total meteoric 10Be soil inventories. These trends are used to calibrate models of meteoric 10Be loss by soil erosion. Erosion rates calculated using this method vary based on the assumed depth and timing of erosional events and on the reference data selected.
Xiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Lei; Wang, Yinsheng
Kinases are among the most intensively pursued enzyme superfamilies as targets for anti-cancer drugs. Large data sets on inhibitor potency and selectivity for more than 400 human kinases became available recently, offering the opportunity to design rationally novel kinase-based anti-cancer therapies. However, the expression levels and activities of kinases are highly heterogeneous among different types of cancer and even among different stages of the same cancer. The lack of effective strategy for profiling the global kinome hampers the development of kinase-targeted cancer chemotherapy. Here, we introduced a novel global kinome profiling method, based on our recently developed isotope-coded ATP-affinity probe and a targeted proteomic method using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM), for assessing simultaneously the expression of more than 300 kinases in human cells and tissues. This MRM-based assay displayed much better sensitivity, reproducibility, and accuracy than the discovery-based shotgun proteomic method. Approximately 250 kinases could be routinely detected in the lysate of a single cell line. Additionally, the incorporation of iRT into MRM kinome library rendered our MRM kinome assay easily transferrable across different instrument platforms and laboratories. We further employed this approach for profiling kinase expression in two melanoma cell lines, which revealed substantial kinome reprogramming during cancer progression and demonstrated an excellent correlation between the anti-proliferative effects of kinase inhibitors and the expression levels of their target kinases. Therefore, this facile and accurate kinome profiling assay, together with the kinome-inhibitor interaction map, could provide invaluable knowledge to predict the effectiveness of kinase inhibitor drugs and offer the opportunity for individualized cancer chemotherapy.
Cseke, Leland [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)
This project addresses the need to develop system-scale models at the symbiotic interface between ectomycorrhizal fungi (Laccaria bicolor) and tree species (Populus tremuloides) in response to environmental nutrient availability / biochemistry. Using our now well-established laboratory Laccaria x poplar system, we address the hypothesis that essential regulatory and metabolic mechanisms can be inferred from genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic-level changes that occur in response to environmental nutrient availability. The project addresses this hypothesis by applying state-of-the-art protein-level analytic approaches to fill the gap in our understanding of how mycorrhizal regulatory and metabolic processes at the transcript-level translate to nutrient uptake, carbon management and ultimate net primary productivity of plants. In most cases, these techniques were not previously optimized for poplar trees or Laccaria. Thus, one of the major contributions of this project has been to provide avenues for new research in these species by overcoming the pitfalls that had previously prevented the use of techniques such as ChIP-Seq and SWATH-proteomics. Since it is the proteins that sense and interact with the environment, participate in signal cascades, activate and regulate gene expression, perform the activities of metabolism and ultimately sequester carbon and generate biomass, an understanding of protein activities during symbiosis-linked nutrient uptake is critical to any systems-level approach that links metabolic processes to the environment. This project uses a team of experts at The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to address the above hypothesis using a multiple "omics" approach that combines gene and protein expression as well as protein modifications, and biochemical analyses (performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)) in poplar trees under mycorrhizal and
Fardet, Anthony; Méjean, Caroline; Labouré, Hélène; Andreeva, Valentina A; Feron, Gilles
Food processing impacts both food structure and nutritional density. The effect of food structure on satiety and glycemic potentials is well recognized. However, the association between processing, satiety and glycemic potentials and nutrient profiles has not been much studied, especially in the diets of the elderly. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring relations between the level of food processing, consumption and nutrient profiles and satiety and glycemic potentials among 6686 French elderly people (≥65 years). Dietary assessment was realized through a web-based 24 h dietary record tool. Among a total of 2688 foods, 280 generic foods were aggregated based on a consumption threshold of at least 5% by the population. The satiety potential was calculated using the Fullness Factor equation, and the glycemic potential using the glycemic index and the glucose glycemic equivalent. Foods and dishes were ranked according to an adapted international NOVA classification as raw/minimally-processed (G1), processed (G2) and ultra-processed (G3). ANOVA and correlation analyses showed that the more food is processed, the lower its satiety potential and nutrient density and the higher its glycemic impact, especially when comparing G1 and G3. Besides, the foods consumed in the greatest quantity daily tend to be the most satiating, and ultra-processed foods were among the less frequently consumed both in terms of percentage and daily quantity (around two-fold difference between minimally- and ultra-processed foods). In conclusion, because it is partly related to health food potential, the degree of processing, especially for ultra-processed products, should be taken into consideration more when evaluating consumption profiles of different populations.
Kim, Sooah; Kim, Jungyeon; Song, Ju Hwan; Jung, Young Hoon; Choi, Il-Sup; Choi, Wonja; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho; Kim, Kyoung Heon
Ethanol, the major fermentation product of yeast, is a stress factor in yeast. We previously constructed an ethanol-tolerant mutant yeast iETS3 by using the global transcriptional machinery engineering. However, the ethanol-tolerance mechanism has not been systematically investigated. In this study, global metabolite profiling was carried out, mainly by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF MS), to investigate the mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in iETS3. A total of 108 intracellular metabolites were identified by GC/TOF MS and high performance liquid chromatography, and these metabolites were mostly intermediates of the central carbon metabolism. The metabolite profiles of iETS3 and BY4741, cultured with or without ethanol, were significantly different based on principal component and hierarchical clustering analyses. Our metabolomic analyses identified the compositional changes in cell membranes and the activation of glutamate metabolism and the trehalose synthetic pathway as the possible mechanisms for the ethanol tolerance. These metabolic traits can be considered possible targets for further improvement of ethanol tolerance in the mutant. For example, the KGD1 deletion mutant, with up-regulated glutamate metabolism, showed increased tolerance to ethanol. This study has demonstrated that metabolomics can be a useful tool for strain improvement and phenotypic analysis of microorganisms under stress. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Miran A Jaffa
Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN, the leading cause of end-stage renal failure, is clinically manifested by albuminuria and a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate. The risk factors and mechanisms that contribute to the development and progression of DN are still incompletely defined. To address the involvement of bradykinin B(2-receptors (B(2R in DN, we used a genome wide approach to study the effects of diabetes on differential renal gene expression profile in wild type and B(2R knockout (B(2R(-/- mice. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin and plasma glucose levels and albumin excretion rate (AER were measured at predetermined times throughout the 23 week study period. Longitudinal analysis of AER indicated that diabetic B(2R(-/-D null mice had a significantly decreased AER levels compared to wild type B(2R(+/+D mice (P = 0.0005. Results from the global microarray study comparing gene expression profiles among four groups of mice respectively: (B(2R(+/+C, B(2R(+/+D, B(2R(-/-C and B(2R(-/-D highlighted the role of several altered pathological pathways in response to disruption of B(2R and to the diabetic state that included: endothelial injury, oxidative stress, insulin and lipid metabolism and inflammatory process with a marked alteration in the pro-apoptotic genes. The findings of the present study provide a global genomics view of biomarkers that highlight the mechanisms and putative pathways involved in DN.
Full Text Available A technique of temperature modulation-SDP (specified detection point on MOS gas sensors was designed and tested on their sensing performance to such complex mixture, soil gaseous compound. And a self-made e-nose was built to capture and analyze the gaseous profile from sampling headspace of two soils (sandy loam and sand with the addition of nutrient at different dose (without, normal, and high addition. It comprises (a 6 MOS gas sensors which were driven wirelessly on a certain modulation through (b a PSoC CY8C28445-24PVXI-based interface and (c the Principal Component Analysis (PCA and neural network (NN as pattern recognition tools. The gaseous compounds are accumulated in a static headspace with thermostatting and stirring under controlled condition to optimize equilibration and gases concentration as well. The patterns are trained by backpropagation algorithm which employs a log-sigmoid function and updates the weights using search-then-converge schedule. PCA results indicate that the sensor array used is able to differentiate the soil type clearly and may provide a discrimination as a response to presence/level of the nutrients addition in soil. Additionally, the PCA enhances the classification performance of NN to discriminate among the predescribed nutrient additions.
Characterisation of nutrient profile of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), and purple corn (Zea mays L.) consumed in the North of Argentina: proximates, minerals and trace elements.
Nascimento, Ana Cláudia; Mota, Carla; Coelho, Inês; Gueifão, Sandra; Santos, Mariana; Matos, Ana Sofia; Gimenez, Alejandra; Lobo, Manuel; Samman, Norma; Castanheira, Isabel
Quinoa, amaranth and purple corn are Andean cereals largely consumed in North of Argentina. Nutrient analysis with the purpose of inclusion in the Argentinean FCDB and e-search EuroFIR has become urgent matter. In this work proximate and mineral profile of Andean cereals cultivated in the North of Argentina were determined and compared with rice. Proximate analysis showed that Andean cereals have similar profile but significantly higher (pquinoa content could contribute up to 55% of consumers DRI. Andean cereals and rice are poor sources of potassium. To guarantee the interchange of data among users and producers of FCDB component values were obtained in compliance with EuroFIR guidelines for compilation process. Present work provides necessary information to FCDB users who wish to have access to food reference analytical parameters.
Ritchie, Alistair; Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon
The Oceania node of the GlobalSoilMap.net consortium has defined GSMML, a profile of the Observations and Measurements (O&M) Geography Markup Language (GML) application schema, to support the delivery of project data using Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Services (WFS). This paper describes GSMML, and the results of initial testing, and proposes linkages to other OGC service types and soil data exchange standards. GlobalSoilMap.net will create a global soil dataset providing predictions for twelve agreed soil properties within a three-dimensional grid. The grid consists of 'Spatial Entities' spaced at 3 arc second intervals and extending to a depth of 2 meters with ten physical soil property predictions made at six predefined depth intervals. In addition, two properties predicting the depth of the profile are made for each Spatial Entity. Each prediction must include: an estimate of its uncertainty; its age and that of the source data; and a description of the process used to generate the value. The approach taken in GSMML is to map the GlobalSoilMap.net requirements on to classes within the O&M Observation and Sampling Features packages. The GlobalSoilMap.net Spatial Entities represent a sampling regime across the earth's terrestrial surface and are modelled as nested O&M 'SF_SpatialSamplingFeatures'. The property predictions are related 'OM_Observation' instances that carry the result, age properties, estimation process, and uncertainty. GSMML defines two concrete classes ('GSM_PrimarySpatialEntity' and 'GSM_SecondarySpatialEntity') with no properties of their own that specialize the SF_SpatialSamplingFeature. Uncertainty is encoded by adopting the UncertML profile of O&M. The schema is accompanied by a set of conformance classes to constrain content, and Semantic Web vocabularies that define the observed properties. Test GSMML services show that a WFS can only reliably support the provision of comprehensive data for requests returning a few hundred
Saura C. Sahu
Full Text Available Extensive consumer exposure to food- and cosmetics-related consumer products containing nanosilver is of public safety concern. Therefore, there is a need for suitable in vitro models and sensitive predictive rapid screening methods to assess their toxicity. Toxicogenomic profile showing subtle changes in gene expressions following nanosilver exposure is a sensitive toxicological endpoint for this purpose. We evaluated the Caco2 cells and global gene expression profiles as tools for predictive rapid toxicity screening of nanosilver. We evaluated and compared the gene expression profiles of Caco-2 cells exposed to 20 nm and 50 nm nanosilver at a concentration 2.5 μg/ml. The global gene expression analysis of Caco2 cells exposed to 20 nm nanosilver showed that a total of 93 genes were altered at 4 h exposure, out of which 90 genes were up-regulated and 3 genes were down-regulated. The 24 h exposure of 20 nm silver altered 15 genes in Caco2 cells, out of which 14 were up-regulated and one was down-regulated. The most pronounced changes in gene expression were detected at 4 h. The greater size (50 nm nanosilver at 4 h exposure altered more genes by more different pathways than the smaller (20 nm one. Metallothioneins and heat shock proteins were highly up-regulated as a result of exposure to both the nanosilvers. The cellular pathways affected by the nanosilver exposure is likely to lead to increased toxicity. The results of our study presented here suggest that the toxicogenomic characterization of Caco2 cells is a valuable in vitro tool for assessing toxicity of nanomaterials such as nanosilver.
Fu, Haiyan; Meadows, Aaron S; Pineda, Ricardo J; Mohney, Robert P; Stirdivant, Steve; McCarty, Douglas M
The monogenic defects in specific lysosomal enzymes in mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) III lead to lysosomal storage of glycosaminoglycans and complex CNS and somatic pathology, for which the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, serum samples from patients with MPS IIIA (age 2-9 yr) and MPS IIIB (2-13 yr) and healthy controls (age 2-9 yr) were assayed by global metabolomics profiling of 658 metabolites using mass spectrometry. Significant alterations were detected in 423 metabolites in all MPS III patients, of which 366 (86.5%) decreased and 57 (13.5%) increased. Similar profiles were observed when analyzing data from MPS IIIA and MPS IIIB samples separately, with only limited age variations in 36 metabolites. The observed metabolic disturbances in MPS III patients involve virtually all major pathways of amino acid (101/150), peptide (17/21), carbohydrate (19/23), lipid (221/325), nucleotide (15/25), energy (8/9), vitamins and co-factors (8/21), and xenobiotics (34/84) metabolism. Notably, detected serum metabolite decreases involved all key amino acids, all major neurotransmitter pathways, and broad neuroprotective compounds. The elevated metabolites are predominantly lipid derivatives, and also include cysteine metabolites and a fibrinogen peptide fragment, consistent with the status of oxidative stress and inflammation in MPS III. This study demonstrates that the lysosomal glycosaminoglycans storage triggers profound metabolic disturbances in patients with MPS III disorders, leading to severe functional depression of virtually all metabolic pathways, which emerge early during the disease progression. Serum global metabolomics profiling may provide an important and minimally invasive tool for better understanding the disease mechanisms and identification of potential biomarkers for MPS III.
Theodore R Sana
Full Text Available Malaria is a global infectious disease that threatens the lives of millions of people. Transcriptomics, proteomics and functional genomics studies, as well as sequencing of the Plasmodium falciparum and Homo sapiens genomes, have shed new light on this host-parasite relationship. Recent advances in accurate mass measurement mass spectrometry, sophisticated data analysis software, and availability of biological pathway databases, have converged to facilitate our global, untargeted biochemical profiling study of in vitro P. falciparum-infected (IRBC and uninfected (NRBC erythrocytes. In order to expand the number of detectable metabolites, several key analytical steps in our workflows were optimized. Untargeted and targeted data mining resulted in detection of over one thousand features or chemical entities. Untargeted features were annotated via matching to the METLIN metabolite database. For targeted data mining, we queried the data using a compound database derived from a metabolic reconstruction of the P. falciparum genome. In total, over one hundred and fifty differential annotated metabolites were observed. To corroborate the representation of known biochemical pathways from our data, an inferential pathway analysis strategy was used to map annotated metabolites onto the BioCyc pathway collection. This hypothesis-generating approach resulted in over-representation of many metabolites onto several IRBC pathways, most prominently glycolysis. In addition, components of the "branched" TCA cycle, partial urea cycle, and nucleotide, amino acid, chorismate, sphingolipid and fatty acid metabolism were found to be altered in IRBCs. Interestingly, we detected and confirmed elevated levels for cyclic ADP ribose and phosphoribosyl AMP in IRBCs, a novel observation. These metabolites may play a role in regulating the release of intracellular Ca(2+ during P. falciparum infection. Our results support a strategy of global metabolite profiling by untargeted
Significant Findings: Seasonal Distributions of Global Ocean Chlorophyll and Nutrients With a Coupled Ocean General Circulation, Biogeochemical, and Radiative Model. 2; Comparisons With Satellite and In Situ Data
Gregg, Watson W.; Busalacchi, Antonio (Technical Monitor)
A coupled ocean general circulation, biogeochemical, and radiative model was constructed to evaluate and understand the nature of seasonal variability of chlorophyll and nutrients in the global oceans. Biogeochemical processes in the model were determined from the influences of circulation and turbulence dynamics, irradiance availability, and the interactions among three functional phytoplankton groups (diatoms, chlorophytes, and picoplankton) and three nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, and silicate). Basin scale (>1000 km) model chlorophyll seasonal distributions were statistically positively correlated with CZCS chlorophyll in 10 of 12 major oceanographic regions, and with SeaWiFS in all 12. Notable disparities in magnitudes occurred, however, in the tropical Pacific, the spring/summer bloom in the Antarctic, autumn in the northern high latitudes, and during the southwest monsoon in the North Indian Ocean. Synoptic scale (100-1000 km) comparisons of satellite and in situ data exhibited broad agreement, although occasional departures were apparent. Model nitrate distributions agreed with in situ data, including seasonal dynamics, except for the equatorial Atlantic. The overall agreement of the model with satellite and in situ data sources indicated that the model dynamics offer a reasonably realistic simulation of phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics on basin and synoptic scales.
Kanshin, Evgeny; Giguere, Sebastien; Cheng, Jing; Tyers, Michael D; Thibault, Pierre
Mass spectrometry allows quantification of tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites from minute amounts of cellular material. Despite this wealth of information, our understanding of phosphorylation-based signaling is limited, in part because it is not possible to deconvolute substrate phosphorylation that is directly mediated by a particular kinase versus phosphorylation that is mediated by downstream kinases. Here, we describe a framework for assignment of direct in-vivo kinase substrates using a combination of selective chemical inhibition, quantitative phosphoproteomics, and machine learning techniques. Our workflow allows classification of phosphorylation events following inhibition of an analog-sensitive kinase into kinase-independent effects of the inhibitor, direct effects on cognate substrates and indirect effects mediated by downstream kinases or phosphatases. We applied this method to identify many direct targets of Cdc28 and Snf1 kinases in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae. Global phosphoproteome analysis of acute time-series demonstrated that dephosphorylation of direct kinase substrates occurs more rapidly compared to indirect substrates, both after inhibitor treatment and under a physiological nutrient shift in wild-type cells. Mutagenesis experiments revealed a high proportion of functionally relevant phosphorylation sites on Snf1 targets. For example, Snf1 itself was inhibited through autophosphorylation on S391 and new phosphosites were discovered that modulate the activity of the Reg1 regulatory subunit of the Glc7 phosphatase and the Gal83 β-subunit of SNF1 complex. This methodology applies to any kinase for which a functional analog sensitive version can be constructed to facilitate the dissection of the global phosphorylation network.
Tam, Shirley; de Borja, Richard; Tsao, Ming-Sound; McPherson, John D
miRNAs are a class of regulatory molecules involved in a wide range of cellular functions, including growth, development and apoptosis. Given their widespread roles in biological processes, understanding their patterns of expression in normal and diseased states will provide insights into the consequences of aberrant expression. As such, global miRNA expression profiling of human malignancies is gaining popularity in both basic and clinically driven research. However, to date, the majority of such analyses have used microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR. With the introduction of digital count technologies, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) and the NanoString nCounter System, we have at our disposal many more options. To make effective use of these different platforms, the strengths and pitfalls of several miRNA profiling technologies were assessed, including a microarray platform, NGS technologies and the NanoString nCounter System. Overall, NGS had the greatest detection sensitivity, largest dynamic range of detection and highest accuracy in differential expression analysis when compared with gold-standard quantitative real-time PCR. Its technical reproducibility was high, with intrasample correlations of at least 0.95 in all cases. Furthermore, miRNA analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue was also evaluated. Expression profiles between paired frozen and FFPE samples were similar, with Spearman's ρ>0.93. These results show the superior sensitivity, accuracy and robustness of NGS for the comprehensive profiling of miRNAs in both frozen and FFPE tissues.
Joseph M. Craine; Andrew J. Elmore; Marcos P. M. Aidar; Mercedes Bustamante; Todd E. Dawson; Erik A. Hobbie; Ansgar Kahmen; Michelle C. Mack; Kendra K. McLauchlan; Anders Michelsen; Gabriela . Nardoto; Linda H. Pardo; Josep Penuelas; Peter B. Reich; Edward A.G. Schuur; William D. Stock; Pamela H. Templer; Ross A. Virginia; Jeffrey M. Welker; Ian J. Wright
Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios, foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11 000 plants worldwide. Global-scale comparisons of other components of the N cycle...
Xu, Xiu Qin; Soo, Set Yen; Sun, William; Zweigerdt, Robert
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC), with their ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in culture, hold great potential for cell replacement therapies and provide an in vitro model of human heart development. A genomewide characterization of the molecular phenotype of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes is important for their envisioned applications. We have employed a lineage selection strategy to generate a pure population of cardiomyocytes (>99%) from transgenic hESC lines. Global gene expression profiling showed that these cardiomyocytes are distinct from pluripotent and differentiated hESC cultures. Pure cardiomyocytes displayed similarities with heart tissue, but in many aspects presented an individual transcriptome pattern. A subset of 1,311 cardiac-enriched transcripts was identified, which were significantly overpresented (p human heart development.
Korras Carraca, Marios Bruno; Pappas, Vasilios; Matsoukas, Christos; Hatzianastassiou, Nikolaos; Vardavas, Ilias
Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can cause climate change through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. In general, aerosols cause cooling of the surface and the planet, while they warm the atmosphere due to scattering and absorption of incoming solar radiation. The importance of vertically resolved direct radiative effect (DRE) and heating/cooling effects of aerosols is strong, while large uncertainties still lie with their magnitudes. In order to be able to quantify them throughout the atmosphere, a detailed vertical profile of the aerosol effect is required. Such data were made available recently by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite. CALIOP is the first polarization lidar to fly in space and has been acquiring unique data on aerosols and clouds since June 2006. The aim of this study is to investigate both the vertically resolved geographic and seasonal variation of the DRE due to aerosols. The vertical profile of DRE under all-sky and clear-sky conditions is computed using the deterministic spectral radiative transfer model FORTH. From the DRE, the effect on atmospheric heating/cooling rate profiles due to aerosols can also be derived. We use CALIOP Level 2-Version 3 Layer aerosol optical depth data as input to our radiation transfer model, for a period of 3 complete years (2007-2009). These data are provided on a 5 km horizontal resolution and in up to 8 vertical layers and have been regridded on our model horizontal and vertical resolutions. We use cloud data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), while the aerosol asymmetry factor and single scattering albedo are taken from the Global Aerosol Data Set (GADS). The model computations are performed on a monthly, 2.5°× 2.5° resolution on global scale, at 40
Gentry, B. M.; Atlas, R.; Baker, W.; Emmitt, G. D.; Hardesty, R. M.; Kakar, R. K.; Kavaya, M. J.; Mango, S.; Miller, K.; Riishojgaard, L. P.
The wind field plays a unique dynamical role in forcing the mass field to adjust to it at all scales in the tropics, and at small scales in the extra-tropics. Because of this unique role, knowledge of the wind field is required to accurately specify the global initial conditions for numerical weather forecasting. In addition to improving numerical weather prediction, there is also a need for improved accuracy of wind fields to assess long term sensitivity of the general circulation to climate change and to improve horizontal and vertical transport estimates of important atmospheric constituents. In spite of the significance, the 3-D structure of the wind field remains largely unobserved on a global scale. A new satellite mission to accurately measure the global wind field would fill this important gap in the Global Observing System. Space-based Doppler wind lidar has been identified as the key technology necessary to meet the global wind profiling requirement. The 2007 NRC Decadal Survey for Earth Science lists a Global Tropospheric 3-D Wind mission as one of the 15 priority missions recommended for NASA in the next decade. The NRC survey recommended a two phase approach to achieving an operational global wind measurement capability. The first recommended step is for NASA to develop the technology and fly a pre-operational mission to demonstrate the technology and measurement concept and establish the performance standards for an operational wind mission. Phase two would be to develop and fly an operational wind system in the 2025 timeframe. The technology approach recommended is a hybrid Doppler wind lidar (HDWL). The HDWL takes advantage of the complementary capabilities of two Doppler lidar technologies, a coherent Doppler lidar sensing winds from the aerosol backscattered laser signal at a wavelength of 2 microns and a direct detection Doppler lidar sensing winds from the molecular backscattered laser signal at 355 nm. The direct detection Doppler system
Dhawi, Faten; Datta, Rupali; Ramakrishna, Wusirika
The main challenge for plants growing in nutrient poor, contaminated soil is biomass reduction, nutrient deficiency and presence of heavy metals. Our aim is to overcome these challenges using different microbial combinations in mining-impacted soil and focus on their physiological and biochemical impacts on a model plant system, which has multiple applications. In the current study, sorghum BTx623 seedlings grown in mining-impacted soil in greenhouse were subjected to plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB or B) alone, PGPB with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (My), My alone and control group with no treatment. Root biomass and uptake of most of the elements showed significant increase in all treatment groups in comparison with control. Mycorrhiza group showed the best effect followed by My + B and B groups for uptake of majority of the elements by roots. On the contrary, biomass of both shoot and root was more influenced by B treatment than My + B and My treatments. Metabolomics identified compounds whose levels changed in roots of treatment groups significantly in comparison to control. Upregulation of stearic acid, sorbitol, sebacic acid and ferulic acid correlated positively with biomass and uptake of almost all elements. Two biochemical pathways, fatty acid biosynthesis and galactose metabolism, were regulated in all treatment groups. Three common pathways were upregulated only in My and My + B groups. Our results suggest that PGPB enhanced metabolic activities which resulted in increase in element uptake and sorghum root biomass whether accompanied with mycorrhiza or used solely.
Willmann, Stefanie J; Mueller, Nikola S; Engert, Silvia; Sterr, Michael; Burtscher, Ingo; Raducanu, Aurelia; Irmler, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; Sass, Steffen; Theis, Fabian J; Lickert, Heiko
Pancreas organogenesis is a highly dynamic process where neighboring tissue interactions lead to dynamic changes in gene regulatory networks that orchestrate endocrine, exocrine, and ductal lineage formation. To understand the spatio-temporal regulatory logic we have used the Forkhead transcription factor Foxa2-Venus fusion (FVF) knock-in reporter mouse to separate the FVF(+) pancreatic epithelium from the FVF(−) surrounding tissue (mesenchyme, neurons, blood, and blood vessels) to perform a genome-wide mRNA expression profiling at embryonic days (E) 12.5-15.5. Annotating genes and molecular processes suggest that FVF marks endoderm-derived multipotent epithelial progenitors at several lineage restriction steps, when the bulk of endocrine, exocrine and ductal cells are formed during the secondary transition. In the pancreatic epithelial compartment, we identified most known endocrine and exocrine lineage determining factors and diabetes-associated genes, but also unknown genes with spatio-temporal regulated pancreatic expression. In the non-endoderm-derived compartment, we identified many well-described regulatory genes that are not yet functionally annotated in pancreas development, emphasizing that neighboring tissue interactions are still ill defined. Pancreatic expression of over 635 genes was analyzed with them RNA in situ hybridization Genepaint public database. This validated the quality of the profiling data set and identified hundreds of genes with spatially restricted expression patterns in the pancreas. Some of these genes are also targeted by pancreatic transcription factors and show active chromatin marks in human islets of Langerhans. Thus, with the highest spatio-temporal resolution of a global gene expression profile during the secondary transition, our study enables to shed light on neighboring tissue interactions, developmental timing and diabetes gene regulation.
Yeshitla, Samrawit A.; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Kidane, Yared H.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.; Meyers, Valerie E.; Zhang, Ye
The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, potential reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% respirable very fine dust (less than 3 micrometers). The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle and outpost would inevitably be contaminated with lunar dust that could pose a health risk. The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in lung tissues of rats exposed to lunar dust particles. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 mg/m3 of lunar dust. Animals were euthanized at 1 day and 13 weeks after the last inhalation exposure. After being lavaged, lung tissue from each animal was collected and total RNA was isolated. Four samples of each dose group were analyzed using Agilent Rat GE v3 microarray to profile global gene expression of 44K transcripts. After background subtraction, normalization, and log transformation, t tests were used to compare the mean expression levels of each exposed group to the control group. Correction for multiple testing was made using the method of Benjamini, Krieger, and Yekuteli (1) to control the false discovery rate. Genes with significant changes of at least 1.75 fold were identified as genes of interest. Both low and high doses of lunar dust caused dramatic, dose-dependent global gene expression changes in the lung tissues. However, the responses of lung tissue to low dose lunar dust are distinguished from those of high doses, especially those associated with 61mg/m3 dust exposure. The data were further integrated into the Ingenuity system to analyze the gene ontology (GO), pathway distribution and putative upstream regulators and gene targets. Multiple pathways, functions, and upstream regulators have been identified in response to lunar dust induced damage in the lung tissue.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adequate foetal growth is primarily determined by nutrient availability, which is dependent on placental nutrient transport and foetal metabolism. We have used (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy to probe the metabolic adaptations associated with premature birth. METHODOLOGY: The metabolic profile in (1H NMR spectra of plasma taken immediately after birth from umbilical vein, umbilical artery and maternal blood were recorded for mothers delivering very-low-birth-weight (VLBW or normo-ponderal full-term (FT neonates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clear distinctions between maternal and cord plasma of all samples were observed by principal component analysis (PCA. Levels of amino acids, glucose, and albumin-lysyl in cord plasma exceeded those in maternal plasma, whereas lipoproteins (notably low-density lipoprotein (LDL and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL and lipid levels were lower in cord plasma from both VLBW and FT neonates. The metabolic signature of mothers delivering VLBW infants included decreased levels of acetate and increased levels of lipids, pyruvate, glutamine, valine and threonine. Decreased levels of lipoproteins glucose, pyruvate and albumin-lysyl and increased levels of glutamine were characteristic of cord blood (both arterial and venous from VLBW infants, along with a decrease in levels of several amino acids in arterial cord blood. CONCLUSION: These results show that, because of its characteristics and simple non-invasive mode of collection, cord plasma is particularly suited for metabolomic analysis even in VLBW infants and provides new insights into the materno-foetal nutrient exchange in preterm infants.
NareshKumar, R. [Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Nagendran, R. [Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India)
Studies were carried out to assess changes in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in soil during bioleaching of heavy metals from soil contaminated by tannery effluents. Indigenous sulfur oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans isolated from the contaminated soil were used for bioremediation. Solubilization efficiency of chromium, cadmium, copper and zinc from soil was 88, 93, 92 and 97%, respectively. However, loss of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from the soil was 30, 70 and 68%, respectively. These findings indicate that despite its high potential for removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils, bioleaching results in undesirable dissolution/loss of essential plant nutrients. This aspect warrants urgent attention and detailed studies to evaluate the appropriateness of the technique for field application.
NareshKumar, R; Nagendran, R
Studies were carried out to assess changes in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in soil during bioleaching of heavy metals from soil contaminated by tannery effluents. Indigenous sulfur oxidizing bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans isolated from the contaminated soil were used for bioremediation. Solubilization efficiency of chromium, cadmium, copper and zinc from soil was 88, 93, 92 and 97%, respectively. However, loss of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from the soil was 30, 70 and 68%, respectively. These findings indicate that despite its high potential for removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils, bioleaching results in undesirable dissolution/loss of essential plant nutrients. This aspect warrants urgent attention and detailed studies to evaluate the appropriateness of the technique for field application.
Full Text Available The ability of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans to resist oxidative stress is one of its most important virulence related traits. To cope with the deleterious effect of cellular damage caused by the oxidative burst inside the macrophages, C. neoformans has developed multilayered redundant molecular responses to neutralize the stress, to repair the damage and to eventually grow inside the hostile environment of the phagosome. We used microarray analysis of cells treated with hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 at multiple time points in a nutrient defined medium to identify a transcriptional signature associated with oxidative stress. We discovered that the composition of the medium in which fungal cells were grown and treated had a profound effect on their capacity to degrade exogenous H(2O(2. We determined the kinetics of H(2O(2 breakdown by growing yeast cells under different conditions and accordingly selected an appropriate media composition and range of time points for isolating RNA for hybridization. Microarray analysis revealed a robust transient transcriptional response and the intensity of the global response was consistent with the kinetics of H(2O(2 breakdown by treated cells. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes related to oxidation-reduction, metabolic process and protein catabolic processes identified potential roles of mitochondrial function and protein ubiquitination in oxidative stress resistance. Interestingly, the metabolic pathway adaptation of C. neoformans to H(2O(2 treatment was remarkably distinct from the response of other fungal organisms to oxidative stress. We also identified the induction of an antifungal drug resistance response upon the treatment of C. neoformans with H(2O(2. These results highlight the complexity of the oxidative stress response and offer possible new avenues for improving our understanding of mechanisms of oxidative stress resistance in C. neoformans.
Craine, J M; Elmore, A J; Aidar, M P M;
Ratios of nitrogen (N) isotopes in leaves could elucidate underlying patterns of N cycling across ecological gradients. To better understand global-scale patterns of N cycling, we compiled data on foliar N isotope ratios (d15N), foliar N concentrations, mycorrhizal type and climate for over 11...... foliar phosphorus (P) concentrations. Together, these results suggest that warm, dry ecosystems have the highest N availability, while plants with high N concentrations, on average, occupy sites with higher N availability than plants with low N concentrations. Global-scale comparisons of other components...
Wicks, Mariaan; Wright, Hattie; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss
The WHO has called for governments to improve children's food environment by implementing restrictions on the marketing of 'unhealthy' foods to children. Nutrient profiling (NP) models are used to define 'unhealthy' foods and support child-directed food marketing regulations. The aim of the present study was to assess the suitability of the South African NP model (SANPM), developed and validated for health claim regulations, for child-directed food marketing regulations. The SANPM was compared with four NP models specifically developed for such regulations. A representative list of 197 foods was compiled by including all foods advertised on South African free-to-air television channels in 2014 and foods commonly consumed by South African children. The nutritional information of the foods was sourced from food packaging, company websites and a food composition table. Each individual food was classified by each of the five NP models. The percentage of foods that would be allowed according to the different NP models ranged from 6 to 45 %; the models also varied considerably with regard to the type of foods allowed for marketing to children. The majority of the pairwise comparisons between the NP models yielded κ statistics >0·4, indicating a moderate agreement between the models. An almost perfect pairwise agreement (κ=0·948) existed between the SANPM and the UK Food Standards Agency model (United Kingdom Office of Communication nutrient profiling model), a model extensively tested and validated for such regulations. The SANPM is considered appropriate for child-directed food marketing regulations in South Africa.
Nandy, Subir Kumar; Jouhten, Paula; Nielsen, Jens
proteins. Despite the value of BioGRID for studying protein-protein interactions, there is a need for manual curation of these interactions in order to remove false positives. RESULTS: Here we describe an annotated reconstruction of the protein-protein interactions around four key nutrient......-sensing and metabolic regulatory signal transduction pathways (STP) operating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reconstructed STP network includes a full protein-protein interaction network including the key nodes Snf1, Tor1, Hog1 and Pka1. The network includes a total of 623 structural open reading frames (ORFs......) and for all the interactions between them (edges). The annotated information is readily available utilizing the functionalities of network modelling tools such as Cytoscape and CellDesigner. CONCLUSIONS: The reported fully annotated interaction model serves as a platform for integrated systems biology studies...
Bartosiewicz, Maciej; Laurion, Isabelle; Clayer, François; Maranger, Roxane
Increasing air temperatures may result in stronger lake stratification, potentially altering nutrient and biogenic gas cycling. We assessed the impact of climate forcing by comparing the influence of stratification on oxygen, nutrients, and global-warming potential (GWP) of greenhouse gases (the sum of CH4, CO2, and N2O in CO2 equivalents) emitted from a shallow productive lake during an average versus a heat-wave year. Strong stratification during the heat wave was accompanied by an algal bloom and chemically enhanced carbon uptake. Solar energy trapped at the surface created a colder, isolated hypolimnion, resulting in lower ebullition and overall lower GWP during the hotter-than-average year. Furthermore, the dominant CH4 emission pathway shifted from ebullition to diffusion, with CH4 being produced at surprisingly high rates from sediments (1.2-4.1 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Accumulated gases trapped in the hypolimnion during the heat wave resulted in a peak efflux to the atmosphere during fall overturn when 70% of total emissions were released, with littoral zones acting as a hot spot. The impact of climate warming on the GWP of shallow lakes is a more complex interplay of phytoplankton dynamics, emission pathways, thermal structure, and chemical conditions, as well as seasonal and spatial variability, than previously reported.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is the most important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC but the role of liver disease aetiology in cancer development remains under-explored. We investigated global gene expression profiles from HCC arising in different liver diseases to test whether HCC development is driven by expression of common or different genes, which could provide new diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Global gene expression profiling was performed for 4 normal (control livers as well as 8 background liver and 7 HCC from 3 patients with hereditary haemochromatosis (HH undergoing surgery. In order to investigate different disease phenotypes causing HCC, the data were compared with public microarray repositories for gene expression in normal liver, hepatitis C virus (HCV cirrhosis, HCV-related HCC (HCV-HCC, hepatitis B virus (HBV cirrhosis and HBV-related HCC (HBV-HCC. Principal component analysis and differential gene expression analysis were carried out using R Bioconductor. Liver disease-specific and shared gene lists were created and genes identified as highly expressed in hereditary haemochromatosis HCC (HH-HCC were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Selected genes were investigated further using immunohistochemistry in 86 HCC arising in liver disorders with varied aetiology. Using a 2-fold cut-off, 9 genes were highly expressed in all HCC, 11 in HH-HCC, 270 in HBV-HCC and 9 in HCV-HCC. Six genes identified by microarray as highly expressed in HH-HCC were confirmed by RT qPCR. Serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1 mRNA was very highly expressed in HH-HCC (median fold change 2291, p = 0.0072 and was detected by immunohistochemistry in 91% of HH-HCC, 0% of HH-related cirrhotic or dysplastic nodules and 79% of mixed-aetiology HCC. CONCLUSION: HCC, arising from diverse backgrounds, uniformly over-express a small set of genes. SPINK1, a secretory trypsin inhibitor
Krolewski, Richard C; Packard, Adam; Schwob, James E
Ongoing, lifelong neurogenesis maintains the neuronal population of the olfactory epithelium in the face of piecemeal neuronal turnover and restores it following wholesale loss. The molecular phenotypes corresponding to different stages along the progression from multipotent globose basal cell (GBC) progenitor to differentiated olfactory sensory neuron are poorly characterized. We used the transgenic expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and cell surface markers to FACS-isolate ΔSox2-eGFP(+) GBCs, Neurog1-eGFP(+) GBCs and immature neurons, and ΔOMP-eGFP(+) mature neurons from normal adult mice. In addition, the latter two populations were also collected 3 weeks after olfactory bulb ablation, a lesion that results in persistently elevated neurogenesis. Global profiling of mRNA from the populations indicates that all stages of neurogenesis share a cohort of >2,100 genes that are upregulated compared to sustentacular cells. A further cohort of >1,200 genes are specifically upregulated in GBCs as compared to sustentacular cells and differentiated neurons. The increased rate of neurogenesis caused by olfactory bulbectomy had little effect on the transcriptional profile of the Neurog1-eGFP(+) population. In contrast, the abbreviated lifespan of ΔOMP-eGFP(+) neurons born in the absence of the bulb correlated with substantial differences in gene expression as compared to the mature neurons of the normal epithelium. Detailed examination of the specific genes upregulated in the different progenitor populations revealed that the chromatin modifying complex proteins LSD1 and coREST were expressed sequentially in upstream ΔSox2-eGFP(+) GBCs and Neurog1-eGFP(+) GBCs/immature neurons. The expression patterns of these proteins are dynamically regulated after activation of the epithelium by methyl bromide lesion.
Soundararajan, Ramani; Stearns, Timothy M.; Czachor, Alexander; Fukumoto, Jutaro; Turn, Christina; Westermann-Clark, Emma; Breitzig, Mason; Tan, Lee; Lockey, Richard F.; King, Benjamin L.; Kolliputi, Narasaiah
Objective Recent studies implicate cardiolipin oxidation in several age-related diseases. Atp8b1 encoding Type 4 P-type ATPases is a cardiolipin transporter. Mutation in Atp8b1 gene or inflammation of the lungs impairs the capacity of Atp8b1 to clear cardiolipin from lung fluid. However, the link between Atp8b1 mutation and age-related gene alteration is unknown. Therefore, we investigated how Atp8b1 mutation alters age-related genes. Methods We performed Affymetrix gene profiling of lungs isolated from young (7-9 wks, n=6) and aged (14 months, 14 M, n=6) C57BL/6 and Atp8b1 mutant mice. In addition, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was performed. Differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results Global transcriptome analysis revealed 532 differentially expressed genes in Atp8b1 lungs, 157 differentially expressed genes in C57BL/6 lungs, and 37 overlapping genes. IPA of age-related genes in Atp8b1 lungs showed enrichment of Xenobiotic metabolism and Nrf2-mediated signaling pathways. The increase in Adamts2 and Mmp13 transcripts in aged Atp8b1 lungs was validated by qRT-PCR. Similarly, the decrease in Col1a1 and increase in Cxcr6 transcripts was confirmed in both Atp8b1 mutant and C57BL/6 lungs. Conclusion Based on transcriptome profiling, our study indicates that Atp8b1 mutant mice may be susceptible to age-related lung diseases. PMID:27689529
Butte, Nancy F; Liu, Yan; Zakeri, Issa F; Mohney, Robert P; Mehta, Nitesh; Voruganti, V Saroja; Göring, Harald; Cole, Shelley A; Comuzzie, Anthony G
Background: Metabolomics may unravel important biological pathways involved in the pathophysiology of childhood obesity. Objectives: We aimed to 1) identify metabolites that differ significantly between nonobese and obese Hispanic children; 2) collapse metabolites into principal components (PCs) associated with obesity and metabolic risk, specifically hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperleptinemia, and hyperuricemia; and 3) identify metabolites associated with energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Design: This trial was a cross-sectional observational study of metabolomics by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analyses performed on fasting plasma samples from 353 nonobese and 450 obese Hispanic children. Results: Branched-chained amino acids (BCAAs) (Leu, Ile, and Val) and their catabolites, propionylcarnitine and butyrylcarnitine, were significantly elevated in obese children. Strikingly lower lysolipids and dicarboxylated fatty acids were seen in obese children. Steroid derivatives were markedly higher in obese children as were markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. PC6 (BCAAs and aromatic AAs) and PC10 (asparagine, glycine, and serine) made the largest contributions to body mass index, and PC10 and PC12 (acylcarnitines) made the largest contributions to adiposity. Metabolic risk factors and total energy expenditure were associated with PC6, PC9 (AA and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites), and PC10. Fat oxidation was inversely related to PC8 (lysolipids) and positively related to PC16 (acylcarnitines). Conclusions: Global metabolomic profiling in nonobese and obese children replicates the increased BCAA and acylcarnitine catabolism and changes in nucleotides, lysolipids, and inflammation markers seen in obese adults; however, a strong signature of reduced fatty acid catabolism and increased steroid derivatives may be unique to obese children. Metabolic
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is an oilseed plant species with high potential utility as a biofuel. Furthermore, following recent sequencing of its genome and the availability of expressed sequence tag (EST libraries, it is a valuable model plant for studying carbon assimilation in endosperms of oilseed plants. There have been several transcriptomic analyses of developing physic nut seeds using ESTs, but they have provided limited information on the accumulation of stored resources in the seeds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied next-generation Illumina sequencing technology to analyze global gene expression profiles of developing physic nut seeds 14, 19, 25, 29, 35, 41, and 45 days after pollination (DAP. The acquired profiles reveal the key genes, and their expression timeframes, involved in major metabolic processes including: carbon flow, starch metabolism, and synthesis of storage lipids and proteins in the developing seeds. The main period of storage reserves synthesis in the seeds appears to be 29-41 DAP, and the fatty acid composition of the developing seeds is consistent with relative expression levels of different isoforms of acyl-ACP thioesterase and fatty acid desaturase genes. Several transcription factor genes whose expression coincides with storage reserve deposition correspond to those known to regulate the process in Arabidopsis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results will facilitate searches for genes that influence de novo lipid synthesis, accumulation and their regulatory networks in developing physic nut seeds, and other oil seeds. Thus, they will be helpful in attempts to modify these plants for efficient biofuel production.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Jatropha curcas L., also called the Physic nut, is an oil-rich shrub with multiple uses, including biodiesel production, and is currently exploited as a renewable energy resource in many countries. Nevertheless, because of its origin from the tropical MidAmerican zone, J. curcas confers an inherent but undesirable characteristic (low cold resistance that may seriously restrict its large-scale popularization. This adaptive flaw can be genetically improved by elucidating the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to cold temperatures. The newly developed Illumina Hiseq™ 2000 RNA-seq and Digital Gene Expression (DGE are deep high-throughput approaches for gene expression analysis at the transcriptome level, using which we carefully investigated the gene expression profiles in response to cold stress to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of cold response in J. curcas. RESULTS: In total, 45,251 unigenes were obtained by assembly of clean data generated by RNA-seq analysis of the J. curcas transcriptome. A total of 33,363 and 912 complete or partial coding sequences (CDSs were determined by protein database alignments and ESTScan prediction, respectively. Among these unigenes, more than 41.52% were involved in approximately 128 known metabolic or signaling pathways, and 4,185 were possibly associated with cold resistance. DGE analysis was used to assess the changes in gene expression when exposed to cold condition (12°C for 12, 24, and 48 h. The results showed that 3,178 genes were significantly upregulated and 1,244 were downregulated under cold stress. These genes were then functionally annotated based on the transcriptome data from RNA-seq analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a global view of transcriptome response and gene expression profiling of J. curcas in response to cold stress. The results can help improve our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant cold resistance and favor the screening of
Vynne, Nikolaj Grønnegaard; Månsson, Maria; Nielsen, Kristian Fog
One hundred one antibacterial Pseudoalteromonas strains that inhibited growth of a Vibrio anguillarum test strain were collected on a global research cruise (Galathea 3), and 51 of the strains repeatedly demonstrated antibacterial activity. Here, we profile secondary metabolites of these strains ...
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of pediatric lower respiratory tract infections and has a high impact on pediatric emergency department utilization. Variation in host response may influence the pathogenesis and disease severity. We evaluated global gene expression profiles to be...
Baars, H.; Kanitz, T.; Engelmann, R.; Althausen, D.; Heese, B.; Komppula, M.; Preißler, J.; Tesche, M.; Ansmann, A.; Wandinger, U.; Lim, J.-H.; Ahn, J. Y.; Stachlewska, I. S.; Amiridis, V.; Marinou, E.; Seifert, P.; Hofer, J.; Skupin, A.; Schneider, F.; Bohlmann, S.; Foth, A.; Bley, S.; Pfüller, A.; Giannakaki, E.; Lihavainen, H.; Viisanen, Y.; Hooda, R. K.; Pereira, S.; Bortoli, D.; Wagner, F.; Mattis, I.; Janicka, L.; Markowicz, K. M.; Achtert, P.; Artaxo, P.; Pauliquevis, T.; Souza, R. A. F.; Sharma, V. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Beukes, J. P.; Sun, J. Y.; Rohwer, E. G.; Deng, R.; Mamouri, R. E.; Zamorano, F.
A global vertically resolved aerosol data set covering more than 10 years of observations at more than 20 measurement sites distributed from 63° N to 52° S and 72° W to 124° E has been achieved within the Raman and polarization lidar network PollyNET. This network consists of portable, remote-controlled multiwavelength-polarization-Raman lidars (Polly) for automated and continuous 24/7 observations of clouds and aerosols. PollyNET is an independent, voluntary, and scientific network. All Polly lidars feature a standardized instrument design and apply unified calibration, quality control, and data analysis. The observations are processed in near-real time without manual intervention, and are presented online at tropos.de"target="_blank">http://polly.tropos.de. The paper gives an overview of the observations on four continents and two research vessels obtained with eight Polly systems. The specific aerosol types at these locations (mineral dust, smoke, dust-smoke and other dusty mixtures, urban haze, and volcanic ash) are identified by their Ångström exponent, lidar ratio, and depolarization ratio. The vertical aerosol distribution at the PollyNET locations is discussed on the basis of more than 55 000 automatically retrieved 30 min particle backscatter coefficient profiles at 532 nm. A seasonal analysis of measurements at selected sites revealed typical and extraordinary aerosol conditions as well as seasonal differences. These studies show the potential of PollyNET to support the establishment of a global aerosol climatology that covers the entire troposphere.
Full Text Available A global vertically resolved aerosol data set covering more than 10 years of observations at more than 20 measurement sites distributed from 63° N to 52° S and 72° W to 124° E has been achieved within the Raman and polarization lidar network PollyNET. This network consists of portable, remote-controlled multiwavelength-polarization-Raman lidars (Polly for automated and continuous 24/7 observations of clouds and aerosols. PollyNET is an independent, voluntary, and scientific network. All Polly lidars feature a standardized instrument design and apply unified calibration, quality control, and data analysis. The observations are processed in near-real time without manual intervention, and are presented online at http://polly.tropos.de. The paper gives an overview of the observations on four continents and two research vessels obtained with eight Polly systems. The specific aerosol types at these locations (mineral dust, smoke, dust-smoke and other dusty mixtures, urban haze, and volcanic ash are identified by their Ångström exponent, lidar ratio, and depolarization ratio. The vertical aerosol distribution at the PollyNET locations is discussed on the basis of more than 55 000 automatically retrieved 30 min particle backscatter coefficient profiles at 532 nm. A seasonal analysis of measurements at selected sites revealed typical and extraordinary aerosol conditions as well as seasonal differences. These studies show the potential of PollyNET to support the establishment of a global aerosol climatology that covers the entire troposphere.
Atanasova, Lea; Druzhinina, Irina S
.... They are also important pathogens of animals including humans and agricultural crops. These various applications and extremely versatile natural phenotypes have led to the constantly growing list of complete genomes which are now available...
Lenka, Sangeeta; Lenka, Narendra Kumar; Singh, Amar Bahadur; Singh, B; Raghuwanshi, Jyothi
Soil nutrient management is a key component contributing to the greenhouse gas (GHG) flux and mitigation potential of agricultural production systems. However, the effect of soil nutrient management practices on GHG flux and global warming potential (GWP) is less understood in agricultural soils of India. The present study was conducted to compare three nutrient management systems practiced for nine consecutive years in a soybean-wheat cropping system in the Vertisols of India, in terms of GHG flux and GWP. The treatments were composed of 100% organic (ONM), 100% inorganic (NPK), and integrated nutrient management (INM) with 50% organic + 50% inorganic inputs. The gas samples for GHGs (CO2, CH4, and N2O) were collected by static chamber method at about 15-day interval during 2012-13 growing season. The change in soil organic carbon (SOC) content was estimated in terms of the changes in SOC stock in the 0-15 cm soil over the 9-year period covering 2004 to 2013. There was a net uptake of CH4 in all the treatments in both soybean and wheat crop seasons. The cumulative N2O and CO2 emissions were in the order of INM > ONM > NPK with significant difference between treatments (p < 0.05) in both the crop seasons. The annual GWP, expressed in terms of CH4 and N2O emission, also followed the same trend and was estimated to be 1126, 1002, and 896 kg CO2 eq ha(-1) year(-1) under INM, ONM, and NPK treatments, respectively. However, the change in SOC stock was significantly higher under ONM (1250 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) followed by INM (417 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) and least under NPK (198 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) treatment. The wheat equivalent yield was similar under ONM and INM treatments and was significantly lower under NPK treatment. Thus, the GWP per unit grain yield was lower under ONM followed by NPK and INM treatments and varied from 250, 261, and 307 kg CO2 eq Mg(-1) grain yield under ONM, NPK, and INM treatments, respectively.
Subrahmanyam, K. V.; Kumar, K. K.
The vertical profiles of humidity measured by SAPHIR (Sondeur Atmospherique du Profil d' Humidité Intropicale par Radiométrie) on-board Megha-Tropiques satellite are validated using Atmosphere Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and ground based radiosonde observations during July-September 2012. SAPHIR provides humidity profiles at six pressure layers viz., 1000-850 (level 1), 850-700 (level 2), 700-550 (level 3), 550-400 (level 4) 400-250 (level 5) and 250-100(level 6) hPa. Segregated AIRS observations over land and oceanic regions are used to assess the performance of SAPHIR quantitatively. The regression analysis over oceanic region (125° W-180° W; 30° S-30° N) reveal that the SAPHIR measurements agrees very well with the AIRS measurements at levels 3, 4, 5 and 6 with correlation coefficients 0.79, 0.88, 0.87 and 0.78 respectively. However, at level 6 SAPHIR seems to be systematically underestimating the AIRS measurements. At level 2, the agreement is reasonably good with correlation coefficient of 0.52 and at level 1 the agreement is very poor with correlation coefficient 0.17. The regression analysis over land region (10° W-30° E; 8° N-30° N) revealed an excellent correlation between AIRS and SAPHIR at all the six levels with 0.80, 0.78, 0.84, 0.84, 0.86 and 0.65 respectively. However, again at levels 5 and 6, SAPHIR seems to be underestimating the AIRS measurements. After carrying out the quantitative comparison between SAPHIR and AIRS separately over land and ocean, the ground based global radiosonde network observations of humidity profiles over three distinct geographical locations (East Asia, tropical belt of South and North America and South Pacific) are then used to further validate the SAPHIR observations as AIRS has its own limitations. The SAPHIR observations within a radius of 50 km around the radiosonde stations are averaged and then the regression analysis is carried out at the first five levels of SAPHIR. The comparison is not carried out at sixth
Alshammari, Eyad; Suneetha, Epuru; Adnan, Mohd; Khan, Saif; Alazzeh, Awfa
Hail region of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has the highest adult obesity rates in the entire kingdom and limited information is available about the prevalence and patterns of growth markers. Therefore, it is important to monitor the growth trends to implement effective public health preventive strategies for the region. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of growth profile patterns (stunting, wasting, underweight, and overweight) and its associations with nutrient intake and dietary patterns among children and adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted involving 1420 children and adolescents (2-18 years), selected using a multistage stratified random-sampling technique representing both female and male schools from Hail region, KSA. Growth profile z-scores were generated using 2006 and 2007 WHO growth standards. The overall prevalence of 4.73% moderate and 1.54% severe underweight; 6.65% moderate and 2.59% severe stunting; 6.34% moderate and 2.55% severe wasting was present in the study population. Stunting decreased as age progressed with concurrent increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. There was a significantly higher prevalence of overweight (18.55% versus 23.05%; P < 0.001) and obesity (8.7% versus 13.85%; P < 0.001) in adolescents than in school-age children with higher prevalence in females as compared to males. Both stunted and overweight/obesity groups had significantly lower mean intakes for critical micronutrients necessary for growth as compared to normal children.
Singh, Surender; Pathak, A. K.; Sharma, R. K.; Khan, Muzaffer
Aim: The aim was to assess the effect of multi nutrient block (MNB) supplementation with and without tanniferous leaf meal mixture on feed intake, hematological profile, immune response, and body weight changes of goats that were experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Materials and Methods: Total 12 adult male goats of similar age and body weight (26.49±0.87) were allocated in 3 groups in completely randomized design. MNB supplemented in first two groups i.e. in T1 (no infection) and T2 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat) group, while, MNB-condensed tannin (CT) supplemented in T3 (H. contortus infection @ 1500 L3/goat + CT source). All goats were fed concentrate mixture @ 100 g/day/goat, ad lib wheat straw and MNB or MNB-CT to meet their requirement for maintenance. Body weights were recorded and blood and fecal samples were collected at 0 day and thereafter at 15 days intervals for a period of 75 days for the assessment of body weight changes, hematological profile and H. contortus loads. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) response were assessed at the end of feeding trial. Results: Mean hemoglobin and packed cell volume (PCV) levels were found to be highest (pgoats in face of parasitic challenge. PMID:27047137
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are recently discovered small non-coding RNAs and can serve as serum biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognoses. Lack of reliable serum miRNA endogenous references for normalization in miRNA gene expression makes single miRNA assays inaccurate. Using TaqMan® real-time PCR miRNA arrays with a global gene expression normalization strategy, we have analyzed serum miRNA expression profiles of 20 female mice of NOD/ShiLtJ (n = 8, NOR/LtJ (n = 6, and C57BL/6J (n = 6 at different ages and disease conditions. We identified five miRNAs, miR-146a, miR-16, miR-195, miR-30e and miR-744, to be stably expressed in all strains, which could serve as mouse serum miRNA endogenous references for single assay experiments.
Calderon, C; Zucht, H D; Kuhn, A; Wozniacka, A; Szepietowski, J C; Nyberg, F; Weichenthal, M; Piantone, A; Budde, P
Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune skin disease in which abnormal photosensitivity is an important pathogenetic factor but is difficult to predict, creating a challenge in determining treatment efficacy. Although photosensitivity in CLE patients may change over time, photoprovocation testing with ultraviolet (UV) A and UVB irradiation can be a helpful tool to explore differences between responders and nonresponders during photoprovocation. To identify biomarkers that could substitute for the clinical endpoint lesion development, we performed a global peptidomics profiling analysis of CLE subjects in a controlled photoprovocation study. Plasma and skin biopsy samples were collected before and after UV-irradiation from 13 healthy volunteers and 47 CLE subjects. Twenty-two of the 47 CLE subjects developed skin lesions. The samples were analyzed using a label-free quantitative peptidomics workflow combined with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. The primary finding was identification of a specific plasma peptide signature separating responders versus nonresponders at baseline. The peptide signature consisted of beta 2-microglobulin (B2MG), human beta-defensin-1, and peptides derived from CD99, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, and immunoglobulin kappa light chains. In skin, elevated B2MG levels correlated with lesion formation. Our results show that the peptidome is a rich source of potential biomarkers for predicting photosensitivity in CLE.
Balvinder S. Vig
Full Text Available The expression levels of genes involved in drug and nutrient absorption were evaluated in the Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK in vitro drug absorption model. MDCK cells were grown on plastic surfaces (for 3 days or on Transwell® membranes (for 3, 5, 7, and 9 days. The expression profile of genes including ABC transporters, SLC transporters, and cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes was determined using the Affymetrix® Canine GeneChip®. Expression of genes whose probe sets passed a stringent confirmation process was examined. Expression of a few transporter (MDR1, PEPT1 and PEPT2 genes in MDCK cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. The overall gene expression profile was strongly influenced by the type of support the cells were grown on. After 3 days of growth, expression of 28% of the genes was statistically different (1.5-fold cutoff, p < 0.05 between the cells grown on plastic and Transwell® membranes. When cells were differentiated on Transwell® membranes, large changes in gene expression profile were observed during the early stages, which then stabilized after 5–7 days. Only a small number of genes encoding drug absorption related SLC, ABC, and CYP were detected in MDCK cells, and most of them exhibited low hybridization signals. Results from this study provide valuable reference information on endogenous gene expression in MDCK cells that could assist in design of drug-transporter and/or drug-enzyme interaction studies, and help interpret the contributions of various transporters and metabolic enzymes in studies with MDCK cells.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and nutrient profile data were collected using bottle casts from the R/V ALPHA HELIX in the Gulf of Alaska from April 6, 1989 to April 11, 1989. Data were...
Phillips, Peter W B
For almost a generation now, scientists and policy makers have enthusiastically advanced genetically modified (GM) crops as a solution to both global food security and, specifically, the micronutrient needs of the hidden hungry. While genetic modification offers the prospect of overcoming technological barriers to food security, the gap between the vision and reality remains large. This chapter examines the impact of GM crops at three levels. Undoubtedly, at the micro level, bio-fortification offers a real opportunity to enhance the availability of micronutrients. However, the inexorable 'research sieve' ruthlessly culls most technical candidates in the agri-food system. GM bio-fortified foods, such as Golden RiceTM, remain only a promise. At the meso level, GM crops have generated benefits for both producers and consumers who have adopted GM crops, but given that the technology has been differentially applied to maize, the average diet for the food insecure has become somewhat less balanced. Finally, while GM crops have increased yields and the global food supply, these have come at the cost of more complex and costly trade and market systems, which impair access and availability. In essence, while biotechnology offers some tantalizing technological prospects, the difficulties of getting the corresponding benefits to the most needy have dampened some of the enthusiasm.
Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P
Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p soya beans for EE (p soya beans grains increased linearly according to addition of whole raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected
Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Zavattaro, Laura; Grignani, Carlo; Baumgarten, Andreas; Spiegel, Heide
Soil characteristics, nutrients and microbial activity in the deeper soil layers are topics not of-ten covered in agricultural studies since the main interest lies within the most active topsoils and deep soils are more time-consuming to sample. Studies have shown that deep soil does matter, although biogeochemical cycles are not fully understood yet. The main aim of this study is to investigate the soil organic matter dynamics, nutrients and microbial community composition in the first meter of the soil profiles in the long-term maize cropping system ex-periment Tetto Frati, in the vicinity of the Po River in Northern Italy. The trial site lies on a deep, calcareous, free-draining soil with a loamy texture. The following treatments have been applied since 1992: 1) maize for silage with 250 kg mineral N ha-1 (crop residue removal, CRR), 2) maize for grain with 250 kg mineral N ha-1 (crop residue incorporation, CRI), 3) maize for silage with 250 kg bovine slurry N ha-1 (SLU), 4) maize for silage with 250 kg farm yard manure N ha-1 (FYM). Soil characteristics (pH, carbonate content, soil organic carbon (SOC), aggregate stability (WSA)), and nutrients (total nitrogen (Nt), CAL-extractable phos-phorous (P) and potassium (K), potential N mineralisation) were investigated. Bacteri-al community composition was investigated with Ion PGM high-throughput sequencing at the depth of 8000 sequences per sample. Soil pH was moderately alkaline in all soil samples, in-creasing with increasing soil depth, as the carbonate content increased. SOC was significantly higher in the treatments with organic amendments (CRI, SLU and FYM) compared to CRR in 0-25 cm (11.1, 11.6, 14.7 vs. 9.8 g kg-1, respectively), but not in the deeper soil. At 50-75 cm soil depth FYM treatment revealed higher WSA compared to CRR, as well as higher CAL-extractable K (25 and 15 mg kg-1, respectively) and potential N mineralisation (11.30 and 8.78 mg N kg-1 7d-1, respectively). At 75-100 cm soil depth, SLU and
Gormley, Matthew; Ona, Katherine; Kapidzic, Mirhan; Garrido-Gomez, Tamara; Zdravkovic, Tamara; Fisher, Susan J
The maternal signs of preeclampsia, which include the new onset of high blood pressure, can occur because of faulty placentation. We theorized that transcriptomic analyses of trophoblast subpopulations in situ would lend new insights into the role of these cells in preeclampsia pathogenesis. Our goal was to enrich syncytiotrophoblasts, invasive cytotrophoblasts, or endovascular cytotrophoblasts from the placentas of severe preeclampsia cases. Total RNA was subjected to global transcriptional profiling to identify RNAs that were misexpressed compared with controls. This was a cross-sectional analysis of placentas from women who had been diagnosed with severe preeclampsia. Gestational age-matched controls were placentas from women who had a preterm birth with no signs of infection. Laser microdissection enabled enrichment of syncytiotrophoblasts, invasive cytotrophoblasts, or endovascular cytotrophoblasts. After RNA isolation, a microarray approach was used for global transcriptional profiling. Immunolocalization identified changes in messenger RNA expression that carried over to the protein level. Differential expression of non-protein-coding RNAs was confirmed by in situ hybridization. A 2-way analysis of variance of non-coding RNA expression identified particular classes that distinguished trophoblasts in cases vs controls. Cajal body foci were visualized by coilin immunolocalization. Comparison of the trophoblast subtype data within each group (severe preeclampsia or noninfected preterm birth) identified many highly differentially expressed genes. They included molecules that are known to be expressed by each subpopulation, which is evidence that the method worked. Genes that were expressed differentially between the 2 groups, in a cell-type-specific manner, encoded a combination of molecules that previous studies associated with severe preeclampsia and those that were not known to be dysregulated in this pregnancy complication. Gene ontology analysis of the
Guo, Lan; Ganguly, Abantika; Sun, Lingling; Suo, Fang; Du, Li-Lin; Russell, Paul
Heavy metals and metalloids such as cadmium [Cd(II)] and arsenic [As(III)] are widespread environmental toxicants responsible for multiple adverse health effects in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying metal-induced cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis, as well as the detoxification and tolerance pathways, are incompletely understood. Here, we use global fitness profiling by barcode sequencing to quantitatively survey the Schizosaccharomyces pombe haploid deletome for genes that confer tolerance of cadmium or arsenic. We identified 106 genes required for cadmium resistance and 110 genes required for arsenic resistance, with a highly significant overlap of 36 genes. A subset of these 36 genes account for almost all proteins required for incorporating sulfur into the cysteine-rich glutathione and phytochelatin peptides that chelate cadmium and arsenic. A requirement for Mms19 is explained by its role in directing iron–sulfur cluster assembly into sulfite reductase as opposed to promoting DNA repair, as DNA damage response genes were not enriched among those required for cadmium or arsenic tolerance. Ubiquinone, siroheme, and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate biosynthesis were also identified as critical for Cd/As tolerance. Arsenic-specific pathways included prefoldin-mediated assembly of unfolded proteins and protein targeting to the peroxisome, whereas cadmium-specific pathways included plasma membrane and vacuolar transporters, as well as Spt–Ada–Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) transcriptional coactivator that controls expression of key genes required for cadmium tolerance. Notable differences are apparent with corresponding screens in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, underscoring the utility of analyzing toxic metal defense mechanisms in both organisms. PMID:27558664
Full Text Available Heavy metals and metalloids such as cadmium [Cd(II] and arsenic [As(III] are widespread environmental toxicants responsible for multiple adverse health effects in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying metal-induced cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis, as well as the detoxification and tolerance pathways, are incompletely understood. Here, we use global fitness profiling by barcode sequencing to quantitatively survey the Schizosaccharomyces pombe haploid deletome for genes that confer tolerance of cadmium or arsenic. We identified 106 genes required for cadmium resistance and 110 genes required for arsenic resistance, with a highly significant overlap of 36 genes. A subset of these 36 genes account for almost all proteins required for incorporating sulfur into the cysteine-rich glutathione and phytochelatin peptides that chelate cadmium and arsenic. A requirement for Mms19 is explained by its role in directing iron–sulfur cluster assembly into sulfite reductase as opposed to promoting DNA repair, as DNA damage response genes were not enriched among those required for cadmium or arsenic tolerance. Ubiquinone, siroheme, and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate biosynthesis were also identified as critical for Cd/As tolerance. Arsenic-specific pathways included prefoldin-mediated assembly of unfolded proteins and protein targeting to the peroxisome, whereas cadmium-specific pathways included plasma membrane and vacuolar transporters, as well as Spt–Ada–Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA transcriptional coactivator that controls expression of key genes required for cadmium tolerance. Notable differences are apparent with corresponding screens in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, underscoring the utility of analyzing toxic metal defense mechanisms in both organisms.
Stref, Martin; Lavalle, Julien
The interaction properties of cold dark matter (CDM) particle candidates, such as those of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), generically lead to the structuring of dark matter on scales much smaller than typical galaxies, potentially down to ˜10-10 M⊙ . This clustering translates into a very large population of subhalos in galaxies and affects the predictions for direct and indirect dark matter searches (gamma rays and antimatter cosmic rays). In this paper, we elaborate on previous analytic works to model the Galactic subhalo population, while keeping consistent with current observational dynamical constraints on the Milky Way. In particular, we propose a self-consistent method to account for tidal effects induced by both dark matter and baryons. Our model does not strongly rely on cosmological simulations, as they can hardly be fully matched to the real Milky Way, apart from setting the initial subhalo mass fraction. Still, it allows us to recover the main qualitative features of simulated systems. It can further be easily adapted to any change in the dynamical constraints, and can be used to make predictions or derive constraints on dark matter candidates from indirect or direct searches. We compute the annihilation boost factor, including the subhalo-halo cross product. We confirm that tidal effects induced by the baryonic components of the Galaxy play a very important role, resulting in a local average subhalo mass density ≲1 % of the total local dark matter mass density, while selecting the most concentrated objects and leading to interesting features in the overall annihilation profile in the case of a sharp subhalo mass function. Values of global annihilation boost factors range from ˜2 to ˜20 , while the local annihilation rate is about boosted half as much.
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that calcium stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae, challenged with immunosuppressant drugs FK506 and Cyclosporin A, responds with comprehensive gene expression changes and attenuation of the generalized calcium stress response. Here, we describe a global metabolomics workflow for investigating the utility of tracking corresponding phenotypic changes. This was achieved by efficiently analyzing relative abundance differences between intracellular metabolite pools from wild-type and calcium stressed cultures, with and without prior immunosuppressant drugs exposure. We used pathway database content from WikiPathways and YeastCyc to facilitate the projection of our metabolomics profiling results onto biological pathways. A key challenge was to increase the coverage of the detected metabolites. This was achieved by applying both reverse phase (RP and aqueous normal phase (ANP chromatographic separations, as well as electrospray ionization (ESI and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI sources for detection in both ion polarities. Unsupervised principle component analysis (PCA and ANOVA results revealed differentiation between wild-type controls, calcium stressed and immunosuppressant/calcium challenged cells. Untargeted data mining resulted in 247 differentially expressed, annotated metabolites, across at least one pair of conditions. A separate, targeted data mining strategy identified 187 differential, annotated metabolites. All annotated metabolites were subsequently mapped onto curated pathways from YeastCyc and WikiPathways for interactive pathway analysis and visualization. Dozens of pathways showed differential responses to stress conditions based on one or more matches to the list of annotated metabolites or to metabolites that had been identified further by MS/MS. The purine salvage, pantothenate and sulfur amino acid pathways were flagged as being enriched, which is consistent with previously published
Full Text Available The last 5500 years of climate change and environmental response in the northern Benguela Coastal Upwelling are reconstructed by means of three sediment cores from the inner shelf off central Namibia. The study is based on nutrient (δ15N, δ13C and productivity proxies (accumulation rates of total organic carbon; ARTOC. Reconstructed sea surface temperatures (alkenone-derived SST and temperatures at subsurface depths (Tδ18O; based on tests of planktonic foraminifers reflect the physical boundary conditions. The selection of proxy indicators proved a valuable basis for robust palaeo-climatic reconstructions, with the resolution ranging from multi-decadal (NAM1 over centennial (core 178 to millennial scale (core 226620. The northern Benguela experienced pronounced and rapid perturbation during the middle and late Holocene, and apparently, not all are purely local in character. In fact, numerous correlations with records from the adjacent South African subcontinent and the northern hemisphere testify to global climatic teleconnections. The Holocene Hypsithermal, for instance, is just as evident as the Little Ice Age (LIA and the Roman Warm Period. The marked SST-rise associated with the latter is substantiated by other marine and terrestrial data from the South African realm. The LIA (at least its early stages manifests itself in intensified winds and upwelling, which accords with increased rainfall receipts above the continental interior. It appears that climate signals are transferred both via the atmosphere and ocean. The combined analysis of SST and Tδ18O proved a useful tool in order to differentiate between both pathways. SSTs are primarily controlled by the intensity of atmospheric circulation features, reflecting changes of upwelling-favourable winds. Tδ18O records the temperature of the source water and often correlates with global ocean conveyor speed due to varying inputs of warm Agulhas Water. It seems as though conveyor slowdown or
Moore, C. Mark
The supply of a range of nutrient elements to surface waters is an important driver of oceanic production and the subsequent linked cycling of the nutrients and carbon. Relative deficiencies of different nutrients with respect to biological requirements, within both surface and internal water masses, can be both a key indicator and driver of the potential for these nutrients to become limiting for the production of new organic material in the upper ocean. The availability of high-quality, full-depth and global-scale datasets on the concentrations of a wide range of both macro- and micro-nutrients produced through the international GEOTRACES programme provides the potential for estimation of multi-element deficiencies at unprecedented scales. Resultant coherent large-scale patterns in diagnosed deficiency can be linked to the interacting physical-chemical-biological processes which drive upper ocean nutrient biogeochemistry. Calculations of ranked deficiencies across multiple elements further highlight important remaining uncertainties in the stoichiometric plasticity of nutrient ratios within oceanic microbial systems and caveats with regards to linkages to upper ocean nutrient limitation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.
This paper mainly talks about the currently hot topic-globalization. Firstly, it brings out the general trend about globalization and how to better understand its implication. Secondly, it largely focuses on how to deal with it properly, especially for international marketers. Then, facing with the overwhelming trend, it is time for us to think about seriously what has globalization brought to us. Last but not least, it summarized the author's personal view about the future of globalization and how should we go.
Drewnowski, Adam; Fulgoni, Victor L
Nutrient profiling is the technique of rating or classifying foods on the basis of their nutritional value. Foods that supply relatively more nutrients than calories are defined as nutrient dense. Nutrient profile models calculate the content of key nutrients per 100 g, 100 kcal, or per serving size of food. For maximum effectiveness, nutrient profile models need to be transparent, based on publicly accessible nutrient composition data, and validated against independent measures of a healthy diet. These rigorous scientific standards were applied to the development of the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) family of nutrient profile models. First, the NRF models included nutrients to encourage as well as nutrients to limit. Second, NRF model performance was repeatedly tested against the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), an independent measure of a healthy diet. HEI values were calculated for participants in the 1999-2002 NHANES. Models based on 100 kcal and serving sizes performed better than those based on 100 g. Formulas based on sums and means performed better than those based on ratios. The final NRF9.3 index was based on 9 beneficial nutrients (protein; fiber; vitamins A, C, and E; calcium; iron; potassium; and magnesium) and on 3 nutrients to limit (saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium). Higher NRF9.3 scores were associated with lower energy density and more nutrient-rich diets. The nutrient density of foods, paired with a comprehensive program of consumer education, can become the foundation of dietary recommendations and guidelines.
Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.
Schnackenberg, Laura K
Systems biology attempts to elucidate the complex interaction between genes, proteins and metabolites to provide a mechanistic understanding of cellular function and how this function is affected by disease processes, drug toxicity or drug efficacy effects. Global metabolic profiling is an important component of systems biology that can be applied in both preclinical and clinical settings for drug discovery and development, and to study disease mechanisms. The metabolic profile encodes the phenotype, which is composed of the genotype and environmental factors. The phenotypic profile can be used to make decisions about the best course of treatment for an individual patient. Understanding the combined effects of genetics and environment through a systems biology framework will enable the advancement of personalized medicine.
immersion. We demonstrated the suitability of zebrafish embryos as a model for in vivo host-pathogen based proteomic studies in P. aeruginosa. Our global proteomic profiling identifies novel molecular signatures that give systematic insight into zebrafish-Pseudomonas interaction.
Díaz-Pascual, Francisco; Ortíz-Severín, Javiera; Varas, Macarena A.; Allende, Miguel L.; Chávez, Francisco P.
demonstrated the suitability of zebrafish embryos as a model for in vivo host-pathogen based proteomic studies in P. aeruginosa. Our global proteomic profiling identifies novel molecular signatures that give systematic insight into zebrafish-Pseudomonas interaction. PMID:28791256
Full Text Available Atmospheric mineral dust particles exert significant direct radiative forcings and are important drivers of climate and climate change. We used the GEOS-Chem global three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM coupled with the Fu-Liou-Gu (FLG radiative transfer model (RTM to investigate the dust radiative forcing and heating rate based on different vertical profiles for April 2006. We attempt to actually quantify the sensitivities of radiative forcing to dust vertical profiles, especially the discrepancies between using realistic and climatological vertical profiles. In these calculations, dust emissions were constrained by observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD. The coupled calculations utilizing a more realistic dust vertical profile simulated by GEOS-Chem minimize the physical inconsistencies between 3-D CTM aerosol fields and the RTM. The use of GEOS-Chem simulated vertical profile of dust extinction, as opposed to the FLG prescribed vertical profile, leads to greater and more spatially heterogeneous changes in the estimated radiative forcing and heating rate produced by dust. Both changes can be attributed to a different vertical structure between dust and non-dust source regions. Values of the dust vertically resolved AOD per grid level (VRAOD are much larger in the middle troposphere, though smaller at the surface when the GEOS-Chem simulated vertical profile is used, which leads to a much stronger heating rate in the middle troposphere. Compared to the FLG vertical profile, the use of GEOS-Chem vertical profile reduces the solar radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere (TOA by approximately 0.2–0.25 W m−2 over the African and Asian dust source regions. While the Infrared (IR radiative forcing decreases 0.2 W m−2 over African dust belt, it increases 0.06 W m−2 over the Asian dust belt when the GEOS-Chem vertical profile is used. Differences in the solar radiative forcing at the surface between the use of the GEOS-Chem and
Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per
asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) E. coli strains 83972 and VR50 are significantly better biofilm formers in their natural growth medium, human urine, than the two uropathogenic E. coli isolates CFT073 and 536. We used DNA microarrays to monitor the expression profile during biofilm growth in urine of the two ABU...... strains 83972 and VR50. Significant differences in expression levels were seen between the biofilm expression profiles of the two strains with the corresponding planktonic expression profiles in morpholinepropanesulfonic acid minimal laboratory medium and human urine; 417 and 355 genes were up- and down...... versions of 83972 and VR50; all mutants showed reduced biofilm formation in urine by 18 to 43% compared with the wild type (P profile of strain 83972 in the human urinary tract partially overlaps with the biofilm expression profile....
Full Text Available A neural network-based method (CANYON: CArbonate system and Nutrients concentration from hYdrological properties and Oxygen using a Neural-network was developed to estimate water-column (i.e., from surface to 8,000 m depth biogeochemically relevant variables in the Global Ocean. These are the concentrations of three nutrients [nitrate (NO3−, phosphate (PO43−, and silicate (Si(OH4] and four carbonate system parameters [total alkalinity (AT, dissolved inorganic carbon (CT, pH (pHT, and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2], which are estimated from concurrent in situ measurements of temperature, salinity, hydrostatic pressure, and oxygen (O2 together with sampling latitude, longitude, and date. Seven neural-networks were developed using the GLODAPv2 database, which is largely representative of the diversity of open-ocean conditions, hence making CANYON potentially applicable to most oceanic environments. For each variable, CANYON was trained using 80 % randomly chosen data from the whole database (after eight 10° × 10° zones removed providing an “independent data-set” for additional validation, the remaining 20 % data were used for the neural-network test of validation. Overall, CANYON retrieved the variables with high accuracies (RMSE: 1.04 μmol kg−1 (NO3−, 0.074 μmol kg−1 (PO43−, 3.2 μmol kg−1 (Si(OH4, 0.020 (pHT, 9 μmol kg−1 (AT, 11 μmol kg−1 (CT and 7.6 % (pCO2 (30 μatm at 400 μatm. This was confirmed for the eight independent zones not included in the training process. CANYON was also applied to the Hawaiian Time Series site to produce a 22 years long simulated time series for the above seven variables. Comparison of modeled and measured data was also very satisfactory (RMSE in the order of magnitude of RMSE from validation test. CANYON is thus a promising method to derive distributions of key biogeochemical variables. It could be used for a variety of global and regional applications ranging from data quality control
Full Text Available Introduction Using agro-industrial by-products in ruminants feeding could help in semi arid climate condition throughout the year. Raisin by-product is produced in huge magnitude in Malayer city, Hamedan province. Local different raisin by-products which produced during machinery cleaning and sorting of sun dried treated grapevine cluster (Vitisvinifera L. cv. Sultana, are as:1 some outer layer of flesh and skin and pedicle of berries; 2 rejected raisins mostly un-ripped berries with their pedicles and 3 peduncles and rachises with their lateral branches of clusters. They may have suitable nutritive value in ruminants. However, their nutrient profile and availability and anti nutrient factors such as lignin and tannin should be considered. Alfalfa hay is usually the important forage used in dairy cow’s diet. However, it has lower fiber digestibility and higher ruminal crude protein degradability. Increasing alfalfa hay fiber digestibility and decreasing ruminal crude protein degradability can help its feeding value. Raisin by-product may help to achieve those in the case of alfalfa hay. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of raisin by-product in ruminant feeding compared with late flower alfalfa hay and consideration of its effect on in vitro fermentation of alfalfa hay. Material and methods Based on completely randomized block design, two original samples (two blocks for each of alfalfa hay and raisin by-product from local availabilities were collected. In first experiment, chemical and phenolic (total phenol and tannin composition analysis was measured by two replicates for each block according to AOAC methods. In second experiment, in situ ruminal degradation kinetics of alfalfa hay and raisin by-product was measured using two fistulated Mehraban rams. For ruminal incubation times of 0, 3, 6, 16, 36, and 72 h respectively 2, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 filled nylon bags used which randomly assigned in animals. In situ
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 10/11/2010 (NODC Accession 0067730)
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 06/08/2009 (NODC Accession 0054377)
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 12/13/2010 (NODC Accession 0069176)
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 10/19/2009 (NODC Accession 0058810)
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 10/06/2008 (NODC Accession 0046157)
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the month of June 2000 (NODC Accession 0000256)
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 03/29/2010 (NODC Accession 0062858)
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 12/11/2006 (NCEI Accession 0011381)
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 11/03/2008 (NODC Accession 0047057)
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 08/23/2010 (NODC Accession 0066655)
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 10/18/2010 (NODC Accession 0067963)
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 8/25/2008 (NCEI Accession 0044925)
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 02/14/2011 (NODC Accession 0070778)
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 07/07/2008 (NODC Accession 0043251)
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 02/22/2010 (NODC Accession 0062276)
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 01/17/2011 (NODC Accession 0070120)
Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 3/10/2008 (NCEI Accession 0039529)