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Sample records for global nmr declined

  1. The global financial crisis and neighborhood decline

    Zwiers, Merle; Bolt, Gideon; Van Ham, Maarten; Van Kempen, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood decline is a complex and multidimensional process. National and regional variations in economic and political structures (including varieties in national welfare state arrangements), combined with differences in neighborhood history, development, and population composition, make it

  2. Exploring the Global Decline of Music Education

    Aróstegui, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to explain the disjuncture between the decline of music education in schools and the importance music has in popular youth culture and in creativity within the new knowledge economy. The data discussed in this article have been derived from analyses of major documents on curriculum reform as well as e-mail responses from music…

  3. Fast mapping of global protein folding states by multivariate NMR:

    Malmendal, Anders; Underhaug, Jarl; Otzen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    To obtain insight into the functions of proteins and their specific roles, it is important to establish efficient procedures for exploring the states that encapsulate their conformational space. Global Protein folding State mapping by multivariate NMR (GPS NMR) is a powerful high-throughput method......-lactalbumin in the presence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, and compare these with other surfactants, acid, denaturants and heat....

  4. Globalization and the price decline of illicit drugs.

    Costa Storti, Cláudia; De Grauwe, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at understanding the mechanisms underlying the dramatic decline of the retail prices of major drugs like cocaine and heroin during the past two decades. It also aims at analysing the implications of this decline for drug policies. We use a theoretical model to identify the possible causes of this price decline. This allows us to formulate the hypothesis that the major driving force behind the price decline is a reduction of the intermediation margin (the difference between the retail and producer prices). We also develop the hypothesis that globalization has been an important factor behind the decline of the intermediation margin. We then analyse the statistical information to test these hypotheses. We find that the decline in the retail prices of drugs is related to the strong decline in the intermediation margin in the drug business, and that globalization is the main driving force behind this phenomenon. Globalization has done so by increasing the efficiency of the distribution of drugs, by reducing the risk premium involved in dealing with drugs, and by increasing the degree of competition in the drug markets. We conclude that the cocaine and heroin price declines were due to a sharp fall in the intermediation margin, which was probably influenced by globalization. This phenomenon might have a strong impact on the effectiveness of drug policies, increasing the relative effectiveness of policies aiming at reducing the demand of drugs.

  5. Global change and the decline of coral reefs

    Strasser, A.

    1999-01-01

    Ever since coral reefs exist, changing environmental conditions have periodically led to their decline. However, within the perspective of geological time-spans, corals have always managed to re-install themselves. Today, human activity has enhanced stress factors and added new ones that cause a rapid and (on the human time-scale) irreversible decline of many reef ecosystems. The reasons for the disturbance of these complex communities are multiple, but global warming is a k...

  6. Guiding automated NMR structure determination using a global optimization metric, the NMR DP score

    Huang, Yuanpeng Janet, E-mail: yphuang@cabm.rutgers.edu; Mao, Binchen; Xu, Fei; Montelione, Gaetano T., E-mail: gtm@rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, and Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (United States)

    2015-08-15

    ASDP is an automated NMR NOE assignment program. It uses a distinct bottom-up topology-constrained network anchoring approach for NOE interpretation, with 2D, 3D and/or 4D NOESY peak lists and resonance assignments as input, and generates unambiguous NOE constraints for iterative structure calculations. ASDP is designed to function interactively with various structure determination programs that use distance restraints to generate molecular models. In the CASD–NMR project, ASDP was tested and further developed using blinded NMR data, including resonance assignments, either raw or manually-curated (refined) NOESY peak list data, and in some cases {sup 15}N–{sup 1}H residual dipolar coupling data. In these blinded tests, in which the reference structure was not available until after structures were generated, the fully-automated ASDP program performed very well on all targets using both the raw and refined NOESY peak list data. Improvements of ASDP relative to its predecessor program for automated NOESY peak assignments, AutoStructure, were driven by challenges provided by these CASD–NMR data. These algorithmic improvements include (1) using a global metric of structural accuracy, the discriminating power score, for guiding model selection during the iterative NOE interpretation process, and (2) identifying incorrect NOESY cross peak assignments caused by errors in the NMR resonance assignment list. These improvements provide a more robust automated NOESY analysis program, ASDP, with the unique capability of being utilized with alternative structure generation and refinement programs including CYANA, CNS, and/or Rosetta.

  7. The cause of global amphibian declines: a developmental endocrinologist's perspective.

    Hayes, T B; Falso, P; Gallipeau, S; Stice, M

    2010-03-15

    Greater than 70% of the world's amphibian species are in decline. We propose that there is probably not a single cause for global amphibian declines and present a three-tiered hierarchical approach that addresses interactions among and between ultimate and proximate factors that contribute to amphibian declines. There are two immediate (proximate) causes of amphibian declines: death and decreased recruitment (reproductive failure). Although much attention has focused on death, few studies have addressed factors that contribute to declines as a result of failed recruitment. Further, a great deal of attention has focused on the role of pathogens in inducing diseases that cause death, but we suggest that pathogen success is profoundly affected by four other ultimate factors: atmospheric change, environmental pollutants, habitat modification and invasive species. Environmental pollutants arise as likely important factors in amphibian declines because they have realized potential to affect recruitment. Further, many studies have documented immunosuppressive effects of pesticides, suggesting a role for environmental contaminants in increased pathogen virulence and disease rates. Increased attention to recruitment and ultimate factors that interact with pathogens is important in addressing this global crisis.

  8. Global amphibian declines: perspectives from the United States and beyond

    Densmore, Christine L.; Cipriano, R.C.; Bruckner, A.W.; Shchelkunov, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    Over recent decades, amphibians have experienced population declines, extirpations and species-level extinctions at an alarming rate. Numerous potential etiologies for amphibian declines have been postulated including climate and habitat degradation. Other potential anthropogenic causes including overexploitation and the frequent introductions of invasive predatory species have also been blamed for amphibian declines. Still other underlying factors may include infectious diseases caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, pathogenic viruses (Ranavirus), and other agents. It is nearly certain that more than one etiology is to blame for the majority of the global amphibian declines, and that these causal factors include some combination of climatological or physical habitat destabilization and infectious disease, most notably chytridiomycosis. Scientific research efforts are aimed at elucidating these etiologies on local, regional, and global scales that we might better understand and counteract the driving forces behind amphibian declines. Conservation efforts as outlined in the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan of 2005 are also being made to curtail losses and prevent further extinctions wherever possible.

  9. Age-related decline in global form suppression

    Wiegand, Iris Michaela; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    . Selective attention, i.e., the ability to focus on relevant and ignore irrelevant information, declines with increasing age; however, how this deficit affects selection of global vs. local configurations remains unknown. On this background, the present study examined for age-related differences in a global...... differences in the subsequent (250–500 ms) posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) indicated that attentional resources were allocated faster to Kanisza, as compared to non-Kanisza, targets in both age groups, while the allocation of spatial attention seemed to be generally delayed in older relative...... to younger age. Our results suggest that the enhanced global-local asymmetry in the older age group originated from less effective suppression of global distracter forms on early processing stages – indicative of older observers having difficulties with disengaging from a global default selection mode...

  10. A human-driven decline in global burned area.

    Andela, N; Morton, D C; Giglio, L; Chen, Y; van der Werf, G R; Kasibhatla, P S; DeFries, R S; Collatz, G J; Hantson, S; Kloster, S; Bachelet, D; Forrest, M; Lasslop, G; Li, F; Mangeon, S; Melton, J R; Yue, C; Randerson, J T

    2017-06-30

    Fire is an essential Earth system process that alters ecosystem and atmospheric composition. Here we assessed long-term fire trends using multiple satellite data sets. We found that global burned area declined by 24.3 ± 8.8% over the past 18 years. The estimated decrease in burned area remained robust after adjusting for precipitation variability and was largest in savannas. Agricultural expansion and intensification were primary drivers of declining fire activity. Fewer and smaller fires reduced aerosol concentrations, modified vegetation structure, and increased the magnitude of the terrestrial carbon sink. Fire models were unable to reproduce the pattern and magnitude of observed declines, suggesting that they may overestimate fire emissions in future projections. Using economic and demographic variables, we developed a conceptual model for predicting fire in human-dominated landscapes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  11. Measuring the meltdown: drivers of global amphibian extinction and decline.

    Navjot S Sodhi

    Full Text Available Habitat loss, climate change, over-exploitation, disease and other factors have been hypothesised in the global decline of amphibian biodiversity. However, the relative importance of and synergies among different drivers are still poorly understood. We present the largest global analysis of roughly 45% of known amphibians (2,583 species to quantify the influences of life history, climate, human density and habitat loss on declines and extinction risk. Multi-model Bayesian inference reveals that large amphibian species with small geographic range and pronounced seasonality in temperature and precipitation are most likely to be Red-Listed by IUCN. Elevated habitat loss and human densities are also correlated with high threat risk. Range size, habitat loss and more extreme seasonality in precipitation contributed to decline risk in the 2,454 species that declined between 1980 and 2004, compared to species that were stable (n = 1,545 or had increased (n = 28. These empirical results show that amphibian species with restricted ranges should be urgently targeted for conservation.

  12. Measuring the meltdown: drivers of global amphibian extinction and decline.

    Sodhi, Navjot S; Bickford, David; Diesmos, Arvin C; Lee, Tien Ming; Koh, Lian Pin; Brook, Barry W; Sekercioglu, Cagan H; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2008-02-20

    Habitat loss, climate change, over-exploitation, disease and other factors have been hypothesised in the global decline of amphibian biodiversity. However, the relative importance of and synergies among different drivers are still poorly understood. We present the largest global analysis of roughly 45% of known amphibians (2,583 species) to quantify the influences of life history, climate, human density and habitat loss on declines and extinction risk. Multi-model Bayesian inference reveals that large amphibian species with small geographic range and pronounced seasonality in temperature and precipitation are most likely to be Red-Listed by IUCN. Elevated habitat loss and human densities are also correlated with high threat risk. Range size, habitat loss and more extreme seasonality in precipitation contributed to decline risk in the 2,454 species that declined between 1980 and 2004, compared to species that were stable (n = 1,545) or had increased (n = 28). These empirical results show that amphibian species with restricted ranges should be urgently targeted for conservation.

  13. A global analysis of NMR distance constraints from the PDB

    Vranken, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Information obtained from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments is encoded as a set of constraint lists when calculating three-dimensional structures for a protein. With the amount of constraint data from the world wide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) that is now available, it is possible to do a global, large-scale analysis using only information from the constraints, without taking the coordinate information into account. This article describes such an analysis of distance constraints from NOE data based on a set of 1834 NMR PDB entries containing 1909 protein chains. In order to best represent the quality and extent of the data that is currently deposited at the wwPDB, only the original data as deposited by the authors was used, and no attempt was made to 'clean up' and further interpret this information. Because the constraint lists provide a single set of data, and not an ensemble of structural solutions, they are easier to analyse and provide a reduced form of structural information that is relevant for NMR analysis only. The online resource resulting from this analysis makes it possible to check, for example, how often a particular contact occurs when assigning NOESY spectra, or to find out whether a particular sequence fragment is likely to be difficult to assign. In this respect it formalises information that scientists with experience in spectrum analysis are aware of but cannot necessarily quantify. The analysis described here illustrates the importance of depositing constraints (and all other possible NMR derived information) along with the structure coordinates, as this type of information can greatly assist the NMR community

  14. A human-driven decline in global burned area

    Andela, N.

    2017-12-01

    Fire regimes are changing rapidly across the globe, driven by human land management and climate. We assessed long-term trends in fire activity using multiple satellite data sets and developed a new global data set on individual fire dynamics to understand the implications of changing fire regimes. Despite warming climate, burned area declined across most of the tropics, contributing to a global decline in burned area of 24.3 ± 8.8% over the past 18 years. The estimated decrease in burned area was largest in savannas and grasslands, where agricultural expansion and intensification were primary drivers of declining fire activity. In tropical forests, frequent fires for deforestation and agricultural management yield a sharp rise in fire activity with the expansion of settled land uses, but the use of fire decreases with increasing investment in agricultural areas in both savanna and forested landscapes. Disparate patterns of recent socieconomic development resulted in contrasting fire trends between southern Africa (increase) and South America (decrease). A strong inverse relationship between burned area and economic development in savannas and grasslands suggests that despite potential increasing fire risk from climate change, ongoing socioeconomic development will likely sustain observed declines in fire in these ecosystems during coming decades. Fewer and smaller fires reduced aerosol concentrations, modified vegetation structure, and increased the magnitude of the terrestrial carbon sink. The spatiotemporal distribution of fire size, duration, speed and direction of spread provided new insights in continental scale differences in fire regimes driven by human and climatic factors. Understanding these dynamics over larger scales is critical to achieve a balance between conservation of fire-dependent ecosystems and increasing agricultural production to support growing populations that will require careful management of fire activity in human-dominated landscapes.

  15. Rising trade, declining stocks: The global gugul (Commiphora wightii) trade.

    Cunningham, A B; Brinckmann, J A; Kulloli, R N; Schippmann, U

    2018-05-07

    Commiphora wightii is exploited in India and Pakistan for an oleo-resin (gum guggul) traditionally used in Ayurvedic, Siddha and Unani medical systems. Processed C. wightii oleo-resin products are exported from India to 42 countries, including re-export to Pakistan, for anti-inflammatory use and as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-obesity treatment considered to lower cholesterol and lipid levels. The C. wightii export trade has particular relevance to the European Union because Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, and United Kingdom are importing countries. Demand and prices for C. wightii oleo-resin are increasing and wild stocks of C. wightii are in decline. The overexploitation of C. wightii after tapping for its commercially valuable oleo-resin is not a new problem, however, but one that has existed for over 50 years. Lopping and chopping trees to extract C. wightii oleo-resin has had a devastating impact on C. wightii populations since the 1960's. The aim of this study was to review the sustainability of the global trade in C. wightii oleo-resin. This included reviewing studies on resin tapping methods and the impacts of wild harvest on C. wightii populations in India and Pakistan. Firstly, we reviewed studies on impacts of C. wightii oleo-resin harvest and on the policy responses taken in relation to harvest and trade in C. wightii oleo-resin. Secondly, we reviewed studies on C. wightii cultivation. Thirdly, global trade data for C. wightii were analyzed. Destructive harvest to obtain the gum is the major threat facing this species. C. wightii populations are also fragmented by habitat loss through clearing for farming. Cutting and lopping in order to extract the medicinal gum are a major threat to C. wightii populations, as is poor recruitment due to grazing by livestock. As a result of over-exploitation, C. wightii oleo-resin production has declined in India. In Gujarat, a key production area, the decline over a 50-year period has

  16. NMR

    Kneeland, J.B.; Lee, B.C.P.; Whalen, J.P.; Knowles, R.J.R.; Cahill, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    Although still quite new, NMR imaging has already emerged as a safe, noninvasive, painless, and effective diagnostic modality requiring no ionizing radiation. Also, NMR appears already to have established itself as the method of choice for the examination of the brain spinal cord (excluding herniated disks). Another area in which NMR excels is in the examination of the pelvis. The use of surface coils offers the promise of visualizing structures with resolution unobtainable by any other means. In addition, NMR, with its superb visualization of vascular structures and potential ability to measure flow, may soon revolutionize the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Finally, NMR, through biochemically and physiologically based T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ indices or through spectroscopy, may provide a means of monitoring therapeutic response so as to permit tailoring of treatment to the individual patient. In short, NMR is today probably at the same stage as the x-ray was in Roentgen's day

  17. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-09

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species.

  18. The link between rapid enigmatic amphibian decline and the globally emerging chytrid fungus.

    Lötters, Stefan; Kielgast, Jos; Bielby, Jon; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Bosch, Jaime; Veith, Michael; Walker, Susan F; Fisher, Matthew C; Rödder, Dennis

    2009-09-01

    Amphibians are globally declining and approximately one-third of all species are threatened with extinction. Some of the most severe declines have occurred suddenly and for unknown reasons in apparently pristine habitats. It has been hypothesized that these "rapid enigmatic declines" are the result of a panzootic of the disease chytridiomycosis caused by globally emerging amphibian chytrid fungus. In a Species Distribution Model, we identified the potential distribution of this pathogen. Areas and species from which rapid enigmatic decline are known significantly overlap with those of highest environmental suitability to the chytrid fungus. We confirm the plausibility of a link between rapid enigmatic decline in worldwide amphibian species and epizootic chytridiomycosis.

  19. Family planning and fertility decline: a global overview.

    Tabah, L

    1977-01-01

    Family planning and development policy concerns are not incompatible. The emphasis on development policies at the 1974 World Population Conference at Bucharest did not mean that world governments had lost interest in the population and family planning issue. Although worldwide attitudes toward family planning have become more and more favorable, this has not yet meant great impact on world demographic trends. The "inertia factor," i.e., the effects of high birthrates in the previous generation, will camouflage declining birthrates for some time to come. The trend of fertility reduction which was perceptible only among small populations a few years ago is also becoming manifest in larger Third World countries. Mortality rate declines have slowed down but there is no rising mortality due to starvation in any country. At present, food demand exceeds availability for 80% of the Third World population. It is predicted that the food deficit will increase 70% by the year 2000.

  20. Habitat split and the global decline of amphibians.

    Becker, Carlos Guilherme; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista; Batista, Rômulo Fernandes; Prado, Paulo Inácio

    2007-12-14

    The worldwide decline in amphibians has been attributed to several causes, especially habitat loss and disease. We identified a further factor, namely "habitat split"-defined as human-induced disconnection between habitats used by different life history stages of a species-which forces forest-associated amphibians with aquatic larvae to make risky breeding migrations between suitable aquatic and terrestrial habitats. In the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, we found that habitat split negatively affects the richness of species with aquatic larvae but not the richness of species with terrestrial development (the latter can complete their life cycle inside forest remnants). This mechanism helps to explain why species with aquatic larvae have the highest incidence of population decline. These findings reinforce the need for the conservation and restoration of riparian vegetation.

  1. Dispositional Optimism and Terminal Decline in Global Quality of Life

    Zaslavsky, Oleg; Palgi, Yuval; Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Schnall, Eliezer; Woods, Nancy F.; Cochrane, Barbara B.; Garcia, Lorena; Hingle, Melanie; Post, Stephen; Seguin, Rebecca; Tindle, Hilary; Shrira, Amit

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether dispositional optimism relates to change in global quality of life (QOL) as a function of either chronological age or years to impending death. We used a sample of 2,096 deceased postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials who were enrolled in the 2005-2010 Extension Study and for whom at least 1…

  2. Targeting global conservation funding to limit immediate biodiversity declines.

    Waldron, Anthony; Mooers, Arne O; Miller, Daniel C; Nibbelink, Nate; Redding, David; Kuhn, Tyler S; Roberts, J Timmons; Gittleman, John L

    2013-07-16

    Inadequate funding levels are a major impediment to effective global biodiversity conservation and are likely associated with recent failures to meet United Nations biodiversity targets. Some countries are more severely underfunded than others and therefore represent urgent financial priorities. However, attempts to identify these highly underfunded countries have been hampered for decades by poor and incomplete data on actual spending, coupled with uncertainty and lack of consensus over the relative size of spending gaps. Here, we assemble a global database of annual conservation spending. We then develop a statistical model that explains 86% of variation in conservation expenditures, and use this to identify countries where funding is robustly below expected levels. The 40 most severely underfunded countries contain 32% of all threatened mammalian diversity and include neighbors in some of the world's most biodiversity-rich areas (Sundaland, Wallacea, and Near Oceania). However, very modest increases in international assistance would achieve a large improvement in the relative adequacy of global conservation finance. Our results could therefore be quickly applied to limit immediate biodiversity losses at relatively little cost.

  3. Factors driving the global decline of cycad diversity.

    Mankga, Ledile T; Yessoufou, Kowiyou

    2017-07-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that we are witnessing the sixth mass extinction period. Given the important goods and services biodiversity delivers to humans, there is a need for a continued commitment to investigate what pre-disposes some taxa to greater risk of extinction. Here, we investigate this question using a phylogenetic comparative method and fitting a cumulative link mixed effect model on biological, ecological and evolutionary data of cycads, the most threatened lineage in the plant kingdom. We identified nine groups of threats to cycads, with habitat loss, over-collection, fire and reproduction failure being the most prominent, but only four of these threats (habitat loss, over-collection, medicinal uses and reproduction failure) clustered on the cycad tree of life. This clustering suggests that closely related species may be exposed to similar threats, perhaps because of geographic regionalization of cycad genera. Nonetheless, the diversity of threats and several variables linked to the biology and ecology of cycads correlate with extinction risk (e.g. altitude, height, diameter, geographic range), and different variables seem to be linked to different IUCN status of cycads. Although their predictive power is generally extinction risk in cycads and, since most threats that we identified as drivers of extinction risk of cycads are anthropogenically mediated, we recommend stronger legislation to regulate human-cycad interactions and the commitment of all governments globally to implement this regulation.

  4. GLOBALIZATION AND THE DECLINE OF THE UNITED STATES ECONOMIC INSTRUMENT OF POWER

    2017-06-01

    of global trade relations. Whereas forty years ago, 90 percent of international trade consisted of mercantilist goods; today , 90 percent of... GLOBALIZATION AND THE DECLINE OF THE UNITED STATES ECONOMIC INSTRUMENT OF POWER BY MAJOR JOSH WATKINS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE...bachelor of business administration degree from Old Dominion University in 2001. He was commissioned through Officer Training School in 2002 and his

  5. Linking global climate and temperature variability to widespread amphibian declines putatively caused by disease.

    Rohr, Jason R; Raffel, Thomas R

    2010-05-04

    The role of global climate change in the decline of biodiversity and the emergence of infectious diseases remains controversial, and the effect of climatic variability, in particular, has largely been ignored. For instance, it was recently revealed that the proposed link between climate change and widespread amphibian declines, putatively caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), was tenuous because it was based on a temporally confounded correlation. Here we provide temporally unconfounded evidence that global El Niño climatic events drive widespread amphibian losses in genus Atelopus via increased regional temperature variability, which can reduce amphibian defenses against pathogens. Of 26 climate variables tested, only factors associated with temperature variability could account for the spatiotemporal patterns of declines thought to be associated with Bd. Climatic predictors of declines became significant only after controlling for a pattern consistent with epidemic spread (by temporally detrending the data). This presumed spread accounted for 59% of the temporal variation in amphibian losses, whereas El Niño accounted for 59% of the remaining variation. Hence, we could account for 83% of the variation in declines with these two variables alone. Given that global climate change seems to increase temperature variability, extreme climatic events, and the strength of Central Pacific El Niño episodes, climate change might exacerbate worldwide enigmatic declines of amphibians, presumably by increasing susceptibility to disease. These results suggest that changes to temperature variability associated with climate change might be as significant to biodiversity losses and disease emergence as changes to mean temperature.

  6. Declining global per capita agricultural production and warming oceans threaten food security

    Funk, Christopher C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that is grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be determined by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices and policies. This paper discusses several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14% between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21st century food availability in some countries by disrupting moisture transports and bringing down dry air over crop growing areas. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced rainfall during the main growing season along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, this study presents an analysis of emerging

  7. Declining Global Per Capita Agricultural Production and Warming Oceans Threaten Food Security

    Funk, Chris C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that was grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be controlled by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices, and policies. In this paper we discuss several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia, and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14 percent between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21 st century food availability by disrupting Indian Ocean moisture transports and tilting the 21 st century climate toward a more El Nino-like state. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced main growing season rainfall along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, we present an analysis of

  8. Analysis of neuron–astrocyte metabolic cooperation in the brain of db/db mice with cognitive decline using 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Zheng, Hong; Zheng, Yongquan; Wang, Dan; Cai, Aimin; Lin, Qiuting; Zhao, Liangcai; Chen, Minjiang; Deng, Mingjie; Ye, Xinjian; Gao, Hongchang

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes has been linked to cognitive impairment, but its potential metabolic mechanism is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore neuron–astrocyte metabolic cooperation in the brain of diabetic (db/db, BKS.Cg-m+/+ Leprdb/J) mice with cognitive decline using 13C NMR technique in combination with intravenous [2-13C]-acetate and [3-13C]-lactate infusions. We found that the 13C-enrichment from [2-13C]-acetate into tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, succinate, was significant...

  9. Analysis of neuron–astrocyte metabolic cooperation in the brain of db/db mice with cognitive decline using 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Zheng, Hong; Zheng, Yongquan; Wang, Dan; Cai, Aimin; Lin, Qiuting; Zhao, Liangcai; Chen, Minjiang; Deng, Mingjie; Ye, Xinjian

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes has been linked to cognitive impairment, but its potential metabolic mechanism is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore neuron–astrocyte metabolic cooperation in the brain of diabetic (db/db, BKS.Cg-m+/+ Leprdb/J) mice with cognitive decline using 13C NMR technique in combination with intravenous [2-13C]-acetate and [3-13C]-lactate infusions. We found that the 13C-enrichment from [2-13C]-acetate into tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, succinate, was significantly decreased in db/db mice with cognitive decline compared with wild-type (WT, C57BLKS/J) mice, while an opposite result was obtained after [3-13C]-lactate infusion. Relative to WT mice, db/db mice with cognitive decline had significantly lower 13C labeling percentages in neurotransmitters including glutamine, glutamate, and γ-aminobutyric acid after [2-13C]-acetate infusion. However, [3-13C]-lactate resulted in increased 13C-enrichments in neurotransmitters in db/db mice with cognitive decline. This may indicate that the disturbance of neurotransmitter metabolism occurred during the development of cognitive decline. In addition, a reduction in 13C-labeling of lactate and an increase in gluconeogenesis were found from both labeled infusions in db/db mice with cognitive decline. Therefore, our results suggest that the development of cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes may be implicated to an unbalanced metabolism in neuron–astrocyte cooperation and an enhancement of gluconeogenesis. PMID:26762505

  10. Analysis of neuron-astrocyte metabolic cooperation in the brain of db/db mice with cognitive decline using 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    Zheng, Hong; Zheng, Yongquan; Wang, Dan; Cai, Aimin; Lin, Qiuting; Zhao, Liangcai; Chen, Minjiang; Deng, Mingjie; Ye, Xinjian; Gao, Hongchang

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes has been linked to cognitive impairment, but its potential metabolic mechanism is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore neuron-astrocyte metabolic cooperation in the brain of diabetic (db/db, BKS.Cg-m +/+ Leprdb/J) mice with cognitive decline using 13 C NMR technique in combination with intravenous [2- 13 C]-acetate and [3- 13 C]-lactate infusions. We found that the 13 C-enrichment from [2- 13 C]-acetate into tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, succinate, was significantly decreased in db/db mice with cognitive decline compared with wild-type (WT, C57BLKS/J) mice, while an opposite result was obtained after [3- 13 C]-lactate infusion. Relative to WT mice, db/db mice with cognitive decline had significantly lower 13 C labeling percentages in neurotransmitters including glutamine, glutamate, and γ-aminobutyric acid after [2- 13 C]-acetate infusion. However, [3- 13 C]-lactate resulted in increased 13 C-enrichments in neurotransmitters in db/db mice with cognitive decline. This may indicate that the disturbance of neurotransmitter metabolism occurred during the development of cognitive decline. In addition, a reduction in 13 C-labeling of lactate and an increase in gluconeogenesis were found from both labeled infusions in db/db mice with cognitive decline. Therefore, our results suggest that the development of cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes may be implicated to an unbalanced metabolism in neuron-astrocyte cooperation and an enhancement of gluconeogenesis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Terrestrial pesticide exposure of amphibians: an underestimated cause of global decline?

    Brühl, Carsten A; Schmidt, Thomas; Pieper, Silvia; Alscher, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, a class of animals in global decline, are present in agricultural landscapes characterized by agrochemical inputs. Effects of pesticides on terrestrial life stages of amphibians such as juvenile and adult frogs, toads and newts are little understood and a specific risk assessment for pesticide exposure, mandatory for other vertebrate groups, is currently not conducted. We studied the effects of seven pesticide products on juvenile European common frogs (Rana temporaria) in an agricultural overspray scenario. Mortality ranged from 100% after one hour to 40% after seven days at the recommended label rate of currently registered products. The demonstrated toxicity is alarming and a large-scale negative effect of terrestrial pesticide exposure on amphibian populations seems likely. Terrestrial pesticide exposure might be underestimated as a driver of their decline calling for more attention in conservation efforts and the risk assessment procedures in place do not protect this vanishing animal group.

  12. (Mismanaging labour markets? The decline of the contemporary global labour market for British seafarers.

    S. Ruggunan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to investigate the ways in which states are still significant actors in creating and shaping the nature and characteristics of global labour markets. My argument is demonstrated through an empirical case study of the global labour market for British seafarers. Problem Investigated: The last 30 years has witnessed a decimation of the number of employed British seafarers, particularly at lower rank levels, such as ratings. I contend that despite Britain's long and rich maritime history, the British state has not acted meaningfully to reverse the decline of British seafarers. The lack of meaningful action I contend is an attempt to crew British owned ships with cheaper seafaring labour from Asia, particularly south east Asia. In so doing the British state has contributed to the decline of a once thriving labour market. There has simultaneously been an upsurge in the employment of seafarers of other nationalities, and thus the creation of new labour markets in countries such as the Philippines. This paper is an attempt to understand some of the factors responsible for the decline of the British labour market for seafarers. Methodology and Approach: This paper is the outcome of a larger qualitative study undertaken for my doctoral thesis in industrial sociology which examined the transformation of the global labour market for South African, Filipino and British seafarers. The methodology consists of in depth interviews with maritime officials and trade union leaders. These were conducted in person in London, United Kingdom between 2005 and 2008. These interviews are supported by extensive literature and documentary research, to validate, support and test claims made by my interviewees. Implications and Value of the Research: The theoretical contribution of this paper is to reinsert the state more critically into the literature on labour markets. Empirically, seafaring labour markets are largely ignored by the

  13. The global decline of cheetah Acinonyx jubatus and what it means for conservation.

    Durant, Sarah M; Mitchell, Nicholas; Groom, Rosemary; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Ipavec, Audrey; Jacobson, Andrew P; Woodroffe, Rosie; Böhm, Monika; Hunter, Luke T B; Becker, Matthew S; Broekhuis, Femke; Bashir, Sultana; Andresen, Leah; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Beddiaf, Mohammed; Belbachir, Farid; Belbachir-Bazi, Amel; Berbash, Ali; Brandao de Matos Machado, Iracelma; Breitenmoser, Christine; Chege, Monica; Cilliers, Deon; Davies-Mostert, Harriet; Dickman, Amy J; Ezekiel, Fabiano; Farhadinia, Mohammad S; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Horgan, Jane; de Iongh, Hans H; Jowkar, Houman; Klein, Rebecca; Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Marker, Laurie; Marnewick, Kelly; Melzheimer, Joerg; Merkle, Johnathan; M'soka, Jassiel; Msuha, Maurus; O'Neill, Helen; Parker, Megan; Purchase, Gianetta; Sahailou, Samaila; Saidu, Yohanna; Samna, Abdoulkarim; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Selebatso, Eda; Sogbohossou, Etotépé A; Soultan, Alaaeldin; Stone, Emma; van der Meer, Esther; van Vuuren, Rudie; Wykstra, Mary; Young-Overton, Kim

    2017-01-17

    Establishing and maintaining protected areas (PAs) are key tools for biodiversity conservation. However, this approach is insufficient for many species, particularly those that are wide-ranging and sparse. The cheetah Acinonyx jubatus exemplifies such a species and faces extreme challenges to its survival. Here, we show that the global population is estimated at ∼7,100 individuals and confined to 9% of its historical distributional range. However, the majority of current range (77%) occurs outside of PAs, where the species faces multiple threats. Scenario modeling shows that, where growth rates are suppressed outside PAs, extinction rates increase rapidly as the proportion of population protected declines. Sensitivity analysis shows that growth rates within PAs have to be high if they are to compensate for declines outside. Susceptibility of cheetah to rapid decline is evidenced by recent rapid contraction in range, supporting an uplisting of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List threat assessment to endangered. Our results are applicable to other protection-reliant species, which may be subject to systematic underestimation of threat when there is insufficient information outside PAs. Ultimately, conserving many of these species necessitates a paradigm shift in conservation toward a holistic approach that incentivizes protection and promotes sustainable human-wildlife coexistence across large multiple-use landscapes.

  14. Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply.

    Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus; Ciais, Philippe; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Sheffield, Justin; Goulden, Michael L; Bonan, Gordon; Cescatti, Alessandro; Chen, Jiquan; de Jeu, Richard; Dolman, A Johannes; Eugster, Werner; Gerten, Dieter; Gianelle, Damiano; Gobron, Nadine; Heinke, Jens; Kimball, John; Law, Beverly E; Montagnani, Leonardo; Mu, Qiaozhen; Mueller, Brigitte; Oleson, Keith; Papale, Dario; Richardson, Andrew D; Roupsard, Olivier; Running, Steve; Tomelleri, Enrico; Viovy, Nicolas; Weber, Ulrich; Williams, Christopher; Wood, Eric; Zaehle, Sönke; Zhang, Ke

    2010-10-21

    More than half of the solar energy absorbed by land surfaces is currently used to evaporate water. Climate change is expected to intensify the hydrological cycle and to alter evapotranspiration, with implications for ecosystem services and feedback to regional and global climate. Evapotranspiration changes may already be under way, but direct observational constraints are lacking at the global scale. Until such evidence is available, changes in the water cycle on land−a key diagnostic criterion of the effects of climate change and variability−remain uncertain. Here we provide a data-driven estimate of global land evapotranspiration from 1982 to 2008, compiled using a global monitoring network, meteorological and remote-sensing observations, and a machine-learning algorithm. In addition, we have assessed evapotranspiration variations over the same time period using an ensemble of process-based land-surface models. Our results suggest that global annual evapotranspiration increased on average by 7.1 ± 1.0 millimetres per year per decade from 1982 to 1997. After that, coincident with the last major El Niño event in 1998, the global evapotranspiration increase seems to have ceased until 2008. This change was driven primarily by moisture limitation in the Southern Hemisphere, particularly Africa and Australia. In these regions, microwave satellite observations indicate that soil moisture decreased from 1998 to 2008. Hence, increasing soil-moisture limitations on evapotranspiration largely explain the recent decline of the global land-evapotranspiration trend. Whether the changing behaviour of evapotranspiration is representative of natural climate variability or reflects a more permanent reorganization of the land water cycle is a key question for earth system science.

  15. Declining vulnerability to river floods and the global benefits of adaptation.

    Jongman, Brenden; Winsemius, Hessel C; Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van Aalst, Maarten K; Kron, Wolfgang; Ward, Philip J

    2015-05-05

    The global impacts of river floods are substantial and rising. Effective adaptation to the increasing risks requires an in-depth understanding of the physical and socioeconomic drivers of risk. Whereas the modeling of flood hazard and exposure has improved greatly, compelling evidence on spatiotemporal patterns in vulnerability of societies around the world is still lacking. Due to this knowledge gap, the effects of vulnerability on global flood risk are not fully understood, and future projections of fatalities and losses available today are based on simplistic assumptions or do not include vulnerability. We show for the first time (to our knowledge) that trends and fluctuations in vulnerability to river floods around the world can be estimated by dynamic high-resolution modeling of flood hazard and exposure. We find that rising per-capita income coincided with a global decline in vulnerability between 1980 and 2010, which is reflected in decreasing mortality and losses as a share of the people and gross domestic product exposed to inundation. The results also demonstrate that vulnerability levels in low- and high-income countries have been converging, due to a relatively strong trend of vulnerability reduction in developing countries. Finally, we present projections of flood losses and fatalities under 100 individual scenario and model combinations, and three possible global vulnerability scenarios. The projections emphasize that materialized flood risk largely results from human behavior and that future risk increases can be largely contained using effective disaster risk reduction strategies.

  16. Forest decline of the world: A linkage with air pollution and global ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... forests of Central Europe, Eastern North America and the Pacific ... permit the reader to have general idea about forest decline. DEFINITION OF FOREST DECLINE. Definition of forest decline is not founded on a universal.

  17. Long-term decline of global atmospheric ethane concentrations and implications for methane.

    Simpson, Isobel J; Sulbaek Andersen, Mads P; Meinardi, Simone; Bruhwiler, Lori; Blake, Nicola J; Helmig, Detlev; Rowland, F Sherwood; Blake, Donald R

    2012-08-23

    After methane, ethane is the most abundant hydrocarbon in the remote atmosphere. It is a precursor to tropospheric ozone and it influences the atmosphere's oxidative capacity through its reaction with the hydroxyl radical, ethane's primary atmospheric sink. Here we present the longest continuous record of global atmospheric ethane levels. We show that global ethane emission rates decreased from 14.3 to 11.3 teragrams per year, or by 21 per cent, from 1984 to 2010. We attribute this to decreasing fugitive emissions from ethane's fossil fuel source--most probably decreased venting and flaring of natural gas in oil fields--rather than a decline in its other major sources, biofuel use and biomass burning. Ethane's major emission sources are shared with methane, and recent studies have disagreed on whether reduced fossil fuel or microbial emissions have caused methane's atmospheric growth rate to slow. Our findings suggest that reduced fugitive fossil fuel emissions account for at least 10-21 teragrams per year (30-70 per cent) of the decrease in methane's global emissions, significantly contributing to methane's slowing atmospheric growth rate since the mid-1980s.

  18. Mapping Global Potential Risk of Mango Sudden Decline Disease Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata

    Oliveira, Leonardo S. S.; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Neven, Lisa G.; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    The Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), also referred to as Mango Wilt, is an important disease of mango in Brazil, Oman and Pakistan. This fungus is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing), by infected plant material, and the infested soils where it is able to survive for long periods. The best way to avoid losses due to MSD is to prevent its establishment in mango production areas. Our objectives in this study were to: (1) predict the global potential distribution of MSD, (2) identify the mango growing areas that are under potential risk of MSD establishment, and (3) identify climatic factors associated with MSD distribution. Occurrence records were collected from Brazil, Oman and Pakistan where the disease is currently known to occur in mango. We used the correlative maximum entropy based model (MaxEnt) algorithm to assess the global potential distribution of MSD. The MaxEnt model predicted suitable areas in countries where the disease does not already occur in mango, but where mango is grown. Among these areas are the largest mango producers in the world including India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and Mexico. The mean annual temperature, precipitation of coldest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of driest month variables contributed most to the potential distribution of MSD disease. The mango bark beetle vector is known to occur beyond the locations where MSD currently exists and where the model predicted suitable areas, thus showing a high likelihood for disease establishment in areas predicted by our model. Our study is the first to map the potential risk of MSD establishment on a global scale. This information can be used in designing strategies to prevent introduction and establishment of MSD disease, and in preparation of efficient pest risk assessments and monitoring programs. PMID:27415625

  19. Observed decrease in atmospheric mercury explained by global decline in anthropogenic emissions

    Yanxu Zhang,; Daniel J. Jacob,; Hannah M. Horowitz,; Long Chen,; Helen M. Amos,; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Franz Slemr,; Vincent L. St. Louis,; Elsie M. Sunderland,

    2015-01-01

    Observations of elemental mercury (Hg0) at sites in North America and Europe show large decreases (∼1–2% y−1) from 1990 to present. Observations in background northern hemisphere air, including Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) aircraft flights, show weaker decreases (inventories indicating flat or increasing emissions over that period. However, the inventories have three major flaws: (i) they do not account for the decline in atmospheric release of Hg from commercial products; (ii) they are biased in their estimate of artisanal and small-scale gold mining emissions; and (iii) they do not properly account for the change in Hg0/HgII speciation of emissions from coal-fired utilities after implementation of emission controls targeted at SO2 and NOx. We construct an improved global emission inventory for the period 1990 to 2010 accounting for the above factors and find a 20% decrease in total Hg emissions and a 30% decrease in anthropogenic Hg0 emissions, with much larger decreases in North America and Europe offsetting the effect of increasing emissions in Asia. Implementation of our inventory in a global 3D atmospheric Hg simulation [GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System-Chemistry)] coupled to land and ocean reservoirs reproduces the observed large-scale trends in atmospheric Hg0 concentrations and in HgII wet deposition. The large trends observed in North America and Europe reflect the phase-out of Hg from commercial products as well as the cobenefit from SO2 and NOx emission controls on coal-fired utilities.

  20. Globalization and Deindustrialization: Direct lnvestment and the Decline of Manufacturing Employment in 17 OECD Nations

    Arthur S. Aldersen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a fairly dramatic upswing in the level of foreign direct investment, a phenomenon which has played an integral part in a larger process of globalization. While sociologists have devoted a good deal of attention to the consequences of direct investment for the developing hosts of foreign direct investment, much less attention has been paid to the implications of direct investment for the advanced industrial societies. ln this paper, I focus on one of the more interesting links that has been drawn between direct investment and its effects: that between the outflowof direct investment - often cast as "capital flight" - and deindustrialization. To examine this link I employ a pooled time-series of cross-sections dataset which combines observations on 17 OECD nations across the 1967-1990 period (N=408 . Random effects regression models, which control for unmeasured country-specific effects, reveal strong support for arguments which link direct investment to the relative decline of the labor force in manufacturing in core societies. ln addition, results show that deindustriali zation across this period is largely explained by a model that combines classic generalizations of the process of economic development with an attention to a range of more immediate factors identified by contemporary students of deindustrialization.

  1. Thinking outside the mainstream; Canadian NGL plants face global competition and decline

    Jaremko, D.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of the natural gas liquids (NGL) market, and the future prospects of the Canadian NGL industry are discussed. In the short term, demand for NGLs like propane, ethane and condensate is up, the supply picture is good, and the profit margins for Canadian gas plants look positive. At the same time, staying competitive with oil-based naptha and global NGL imports is expected to become more difficult, and the longer term future is far from being without significant problems. Competition is likely to grow as the Canadian energy industry is increasingly looking to heavy oil and bitumen to meet coming energy demand needs; given that it takes about a thousand cubic feet of natural gas to produce each barrel of oil from the oilsands, serious impact on natural gas availability is inevitable, which in turn will affect the supply of NGLs. To reduce the pressure on natural gas, there is an urgent need to come up with other sources of heavy oil production; various options such as coal, nuclear power and even coal gasification are being investigated, albeit too slowly to arrest the decline of North American conventional gas production that started in 2001. Expert opinion is that the real hope for the NGL industry, as well as for the future of natural gas, is the stranded reserve in the Arctic which, however, is expected to flow soon from the Mackenzie Delta. While Arctic gas is expected to negate the impact of waterborne imports from other countries by the USA, the absence of overseas imports does not alter the fact that North America as a petrochemical manufacturer is no longer as competitive with other countries as it once was. The unpleasant reality is that new petrochemical plants are more likely to be built in the Far East and China, where both the feedstock as well as the labour, are much cheaper. 3 photos

  2. Physical Frailty Is Associated with Longitudinal Decline in Global Cognitive Function in Non-Demented Older Adults: A Prospective Study.

    Chen, S; Honda, T; Narazaki, K; Chen, T; Kishimoto, H; Haeuchi, Y; Kumagai, S

    2018-01-01

    To assess the relationship between physical frailty and subsequent decline in global cognitive function in the non-demented elderly. A prospective population-based study in a west Japanese suburban town, with two-year follow-up. Community-dwellers aged 65 and older without placement in long-term care, and not having a history of dementia, Parkinson's disease and depression at baseline, who participated in the cohort of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study and underwent follow-up assessments two years later (N = 1,045). Global cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Physical frailty was identified according to the following five components: weight loss, low grip strength, exhaustion, slow gait speed and low physical activities. Linear regression models were used to examine associations between baseline frailty status and the MoCA scores at follow-up. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of cognitive decline (defined as at least two points decrease of MoCA score) according to baseline frailty status. Seven hundred and eight non-demented older adults were included in the final analyses (mean age: 72.6 ± 5.5 years, male 40.3%); 5.8% were frail, and 40.8% were prefrail at baseline. One hundred and fifty nine (22.5%) participants experienced cognitive decline over two years. After adjustment for baseline MoCA scores and all confounders, being frail at baseline was significantly associated with a decline of 1.48 points (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.37 to -0.59) in MoCA scores, as compared with non-frailty. Frail persons were over two times more likely to experience cognitive decline (adjusted odds ratio 2.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 5.08), compared to non-frail persons. Physical frailty is associated with longitudinal decline in global cognitive function in the non-demented older adults over a period of two years. Physically frail older community-dwellers should be closely monitored for cognitive decline that can be

  3. Mapping global potential risk of mango sudden decline disease caused by fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata

    Mango Sudden Decline (MSD), sometimes referred to as mango wilt, is an important disease of mango caused by one of the most significant fungal species causing disease in woody plants, Ceratocystis fimbriata. This species is mainly disseminated by the mango bark beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Steb...

  4. Declining global warming effects on the phenology of spring leaf unfolding.

    Fu, Yongshuo H; Zhao, Hongfang; Piao, Shilong; Peaucelle, Marc; Peng, Shushi; Zhou, Guiyun; Ciais, Philippe; Huang, Mengtian; Menzel, Annette; Peñuelas, Josep; Song, Yang; Vitasse, Yann; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Janssens, Ivan A

    2015-10-01

    Earlier spring leaf unfolding is a frequently observed response of plants to climate warming. Many deciduous tree species require chilling for dormancy release, and warming-related reductions in chilling may counteract the advance of leaf unfolding in response to warming. Empirical evidence for this, however, is limited to saplings or twigs in climate-controlled chambers. Using long-term in situ observations of leaf unfolding for seven dominant European tree species at 1,245 sites, here we show that the apparent response of leaf unfolding to climate warming (ST, expressed in days advance of leaf unfolding per °C warming) has significantly decreased from 1980 to 2013 in all monitored tree species. Averaged across all species and sites, ST decreased by 40% from 4.0 ± 1.8 days °C(-1) during 1980-1994 to 2.3 ± 1.6 days °C(-1) during 1999-2013. The declining ST was also simulated by chilling-based phenology models, albeit with a weaker decline (24-30%) than observed in situ. The reduction in ST is likely to be partly attributable to reduced chilling. Nonetheless, other mechanisms may also have a role, such as 'photoperiod limitation' mechanisms that may become ultimately limiting when leaf unfolding dates occur too early in the season. Our results provide empirical evidence for a declining ST, but also suggest that the predicted strong winter warming in the future may further reduce ST and therefore result in a slowdown in the advance of tree spring phenology.

  5. The demography of words: The global decline in non-numeric fertility preferences, 1993-2011.

    Frye, Margaret; Bachan, Lauren

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines the decline in non-numeric responses to questions about fertility preferences among women in the developing world. These types of response-such as 'don't know' or 'it's up to God'-have often been interpreted through the lens of fertility transition theory as an indication that reproduction has not yet entered women's 'calculus of conscious choice'. However, this has yet to be investigated cross-nationally and over time. Using 19 years of data from 32 countries, we find that non-numeric fertility preferences decline most substantially in the early stages of a country's fertility transition. Using country-specific and multilevel models, we explore the individual- and contextual-level characteristics associated with women's likelihood of providing a non-numeric response to questions about their fertility preferences. Non-numeric fertility preferences are influenced by a host of social factors, with educational attainment and knowledge of contraception being the most robust and consistent predictors.

  6. Global climate change, war, and population decline in recent human history.

    Zhang, David D; Brecke, Peter; Lee, Harry F; He, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Jane

    2007-12-04

    Although scientists have warned of possible social perils resulting from climate change, the impacts of long-term climate change on social unrest and population collapse have not been quantitatively investigated. In this study, high-resolution paleo-climatic data have been used to explore at a macroscale the effects of climate change on the outbreak of war and population decline in the preindustrial era. We show that long-term fluctuations of war frequency and population changes followed the cycles of temperature change. Further analyses show that cooling impeded agricultural production, which brought about a series of serious social problems, including price inflation, then successively war outbreak, famine, and population decline successively. The findings suggest that worldwide and synchronistic war-peace, population, and price cycles in recent centuries have been driven mainly by long-term climate change. The findings also imply that social mechanisms that might mitigate the impact of climate change were not significantly effective during the study period. Climate change may thus have played a more important role and imposed a wider ranging effect on human civilization than has so far been suggested. Findings of this research may lend an additional dimension to the classic concepts of Malthusianism and Darwinism.

  7. War in the Era of Declining U.S. Global Hegemony

    Francis Shor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While Clausewitz’s perspective that ‘war is the continuation of politics by other means’ is widely quoted, the full implications of that perspective are rarely explored. What I propose to highlight in this essay is how the imperial political projects of the UnitedStates in the post-Vietnam era unleashed direct and indirect regional war strategies from Latin America to the Middle East. The essay will highlight, in particular, the wide variety of such strategies from covert intervention in Chile to proxy wars in Central America to military intervention in Iraq and Afghanistan. Attempting to re-assert its global hegemony after Vietnam, the U.S. became more committed to perpetrating war as an instrument of its global posture. Of course, relying on war strategies, whether through direct or indirect interventions, complicates, if not confounds, the imposition of global hegemony.

  8. Eye disease, the fertility decline, and the emergence of global income differences

    Andersen, Thomas B.; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    This research advances and empirically establishes the hypothesis that regional variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. By reducing work life expectancy, high historical eye disease incidence has served to diminish...... the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. As a consequence of a differential timing of the take-off to growth, prompted by differences in the inherent return to skill formation, global income disparities have emerged....

  9. Global host metabolic response to Plasmodium vivax infection: a 1H NMR based urinary metabonomic study

    Sengupta Arjun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malarial infection in the Indian subcontinent. This species of the parasite is generally believed to cause a relatively benign form of the disease. However, recent reports from different parts of the world indicate that vivax malaria can also have severe manifestation. Host response to the parasite invasion is thought to be an important factor in determining the severity of manifestation. In this paper, attempt was made to determine the host metabolic response associated with P. vivax infection by means of NMR spectroscopy-based metabonomic techniques in an attempt to better understand the disease pathology. Methods NMR spectroscopy of urine samples from P. vivax-infected patients, healthy individuals and non-malarial fever patients were carried out followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Two data analysis techniques were employed, namely, Principal Component Analysis [PCA] and Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structure Discriminant Analysis [OPLS-DA]. Several NMR signals from the urinary metabolites were further selected for univariate comparison among the classes. Results The urine metabolic profiles of P. vivax-infected patients were distinct from those of healthy individuals as well as of non-malarial fever patients. A highly predictive model was constructed from urine profile of malarial and non-malarial fever patients. Several metabolites were found to be varying significantly across these cohorts. Urinary ornithine seems to have the potential to be used as biomarkers of vivax malaria. An increasing trend in pipecolic acid was also observed. The results suggest impairment in the functioning of liver as well as impairment in urea cycle. Conclusions The results open up a possibility of non-invasive analysis and diagnosis of P. vivax using urine metabolic profile. Distinct variations in certain metabolites were recorded, and amongst these, ornithine may have the

  10. Globalization and sovereignty decline: Regionalization problem in Serbia within the actual geopolitical context

    Brdar Milan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article author is about to maintain that discussion on regionalization asks for contextualisation within the currents of actual geopolitics, on the one hand, and wider process of globalisation and unification, on the other. In keeping with this, author in the first part deals with globalizing integrative processes with special attention played to the problem of nation-state survival. Point of analysis is given in the ambivalence of sovereignty: the very concept becomes outdated on the local level, but by the same token it is fully affirmed on the global level. On the global level we are encountered with revival of the classical concept of sovereignty. Problem of regionalization, in the second part of the article, is reconsidered as a phenomenon that is taking place between those two currents. Author maintains two related theses. First, designs of the regionalization less dependent of the authority of given state for they fall under the jurisdiction of global superpower and becomes dependant of its geostrategic planes and political demands. Second, that main reasons for Democratic Opposition of Serbia to work in favor of regionalization as a synonym for democracy is in lack of solid democratic reform and need to entrench itself in the precomposed structure of social and economic power. In this context one could forsake that we in Serbia are confronted with bright prospects of democracy at the cost of the 'hollowing out' of the state as main guarantee of it.

  11. Beyond peak reservoir storage? A global estimate of declining water storage capacity in large reservoirs

    Wisser, D.; Frolking, S.; Hagen, Stephen; Bierkens, M.F.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794

    2013-01-01

    Water storage is an important way to cope with temporal variation in water supply anddemand. The storage capacity and the lifetime of water storage reservoirs can besignificantly reduced by the inflow of sediments. A global, spatially explicit assessment ofreservoir storage loss in conjunction with

  12. Global models underestimate large decadal declining and rising water storage trends relative to GRACE satellite data

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Zhang, Zizhan; Save, Himanshu; Sun, Alexander Y.; van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Wiese, David N.; Reedy, Robert C.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Döll, Petra; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2018-01-01

    Assessing reliability of global models is critical because of increasing reliance on these models to address past and projected future climate and human stresses on global water resources. Here, we evaluate model reliability based on a comprehensive comparison of decadal trends (2002–2014) in land water storage from seven global models (WGHM, PCR-GLOBWB, GLDAS NOAH, MOSAIC, VIC, CLM, and CLSM) to trends from three Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite solutions in 186 river basins (∼60% of global land area). Medians of modeled basin water storage trends greatly underestimate GRACE-derived large decreasing (≤−0.5 km3/y) and increasing (≥0.5 km3/y) trends. Decreasing trends from GRACE are mostly related to human use (irrigation) and climate variations, whereas increasing trends reflect climate variations. For example, in the Amazon, GRACE estimates a large increasing trend of ∼43 km3/y, whereas most models estimate decreasing trends (−71 to 11 km3/y). Land water storage trends, summed over all basins, are positive for GRACE (∼71–82 km3/y) but negative for models (−450 to −12 km3/y), contributing opposing trends to global mean sea level change. Impacts of climate forcing on decadal land water storage trends exceed those of modeled human intervention by about a factor of 2. The model-GRACE comparison highlights potential areas of future model development, particularly simulated water storage. The inability of models to capture large decadal water storage trends based on GRACE indicates that model projections of climate and human-induced water storage changes may be underestimated. PMID:29358394

  13. Global Metabolic Stress of Isoeffort Continuous and High Intensity Interval Aerobic Exercise: A Comparative 1H NMR Metabonomic Study.

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Sarivasiliou, Haralambos; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Baskakis, Constantinos; Dipla, Konstantina; Theodoridis, Georgios A

    2016-12-02

    The overall metabolic/energetic stress that occurs during an acute bout of exercise is proposed to be the main driving force for long-term training adaptations. Continuous and high-intensity interval exercise protocols (HIIE) are currently prescribed to acquire the muscular and metabolic benefits of aerobic training. We applied 1 H NMR-based metabonomics to compare the overall metabolic perturbation and activation of individual bioenergetic pathways of three popular aerobic exercises matched for effort/strain. Nine men performed continuous, long-interval (3 min), and short-interval (30 s) bouts of exercise under isoeffort conditions. Blood was collected before and after exercise. The multivariate PCA and OPLS-DA models showed a distinct separation of pre- and postexercise samples in three protocols. The two models did not discriminate the postexercise overall metabolic profiles of the three exercise types. Analysis focused on muscle bioenergetic pathways revealed an extensive upregulation of carbohydrate-lipid metabolism and the TCA cycle in all three protocols; there were only a few differences among protocols in the postexercise abundance of molecules when long-interval bouts were performed. In conclusion, continuous and HIIE exercise protocols, when performed with similar effort/strain, induce comparable global metabolic response/stress despite their marked differences in work-bout intensities. This study highlights the importance of NMR metabonomics in comprehensive monitoring of metabolic consequences of exercise training in the blood of athletes and exercising individuals.

  14. Global decline in suitable habitat for Angiostrongylus ( = Parastrongylus cantonensis: the role of climate change.

    Emily M York

    Full Text Available Climate change is implicated in the alteration of the ranges of species worldwide. Such shifts in species distributions may introduce parasites/pathogens, hosts, and vectors associated with disease to new areas. The parasite Angiostrongylus ( = Parastrongylus cantonensis is an invasive species that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans and neurological abnormalities in domestic/wild animals. Although native to southeastern Asia, A. cantonensis has now been reported from more than 30 countries worldwide. Given the health risks, it is important to describe areas with potentially favorable climate for the establishment of A. cantonensis, as well as areas where this pathogen might become established in the future. We used the program Maxent to develop an ecological niche model for A. cantonensis based on 86 localities obtained from published literature. We then modeled areas of potential A. cantonensis distribution as well as areas projected to have suitable climatic conditions under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP scenarios by the 2050s and the 2070s. The best model contained three bioclimatic variables: mean diurnal temperature range, minimum temperature of coldest month and precipitation of warmest quarter. Potentially suitable habitat for A. cantonensis was located worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions. Under all climate change RCP scenarios, the center of the projected distribution shifted away from the equator at a rate of 68-152 km per decade. However, the extent of areas with highly suitable habitat (>50% declined by 10.66-15.66% by the 2050s and 13.11-16.11% by the 2070s. These results conflict with previous studies, which have generally found that the prevalence of tropical pathogens will increase during the 21st century. Moreover, it is likely that A. cantonensis will continue to expand its current range in the near future due to introductions and host expansion, whereas climate change will reduce the total

  15. Global decline in suitable habitat for Angiostrongylus ( = Parastrongylus) cantonensis: the role of climate change.

    York, Emily M; Butler, Christopher J; Lord, Wayne D

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is implicated in the alteration of the ranges of species worldwide. Such shifts in species distributions may introduce parasites/pathogens, hosts, and vectors associated with disease to new areas. The parasite Angiostrongylus ( = Parastrongylus) cantonensis is an invasive species that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans and neurological abnormalities in domestic/wild animals. Although native to southeastern Asia, A. cantonensis has now been reported from more than 30 countries worldwide. Given the health risks, it is important to describe areas with potentially favorable climate for the establishment of A. cantonensis, as well as areas where this pathogen might become established in the future. We used the program Maxent to develop an ecological niche model for A. cantonensis based on 86 localities obtained from published literature. We then modeled areas of potential A. cantonensis distribution as well as areas projected to have suitable climatic conditions under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios by the 2050s and the 2070s. The best model contained three bioclimatic variables: mean diurnal temperature range, minimum temperature of coldest month and precipitation of warmest quarter. Potentially suitable habitat for A. cantonensis was located worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions. Under all climate change RCP scenarios, the center of the projected distribution shifted away from the equator at a rate of 68-152 km per decade. However, the extent of areas with highly suitable habitat (>50%) declined by 10.66-15.66% by the 2050s and 13.11-16.11% by the 2070s. These results conflict with previous studies, which have generally found that the prevalence of tropical pathogens will increase during the 21st century. Moreover, it is likely that A. cantonensis will continue to expand its current range in the near future due to introductions and host expansion, whereas climate change will reduce the total geographic area of

  16. Observed decrease in atmospheric mercury explained by global decline in anthropogenic emissions

    Yanxu Zhang,; Daniel J. Jacob,; Hannah M. Horowitz,; Long Chen,; Helen M. Amos,; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Franz Slemr,; Vincent L. St. Louis,; Elsie M. Sunderland,

    2015-01-01

    Observations of elemental mercury (Hg0) at sites in North America and Europe show large decreases (∼1–2% y−1) from 1990 to present. Observations in background northern hemisphere air, including Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) aircraft flights, show weaker decreases (Asia. Implementation of our inventory in a global 3D atmospheric Hg simulation [GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System-Chemistry)] coupled to land and ocean reservoirs reproduces the observed large-scale trends in atmospheric Hg0 concentrations and in HgII wet deposition. The large trends observed in North America and Europe reflect the phase-out of Hg from commercial products as well as the cobenefit from SO2 and NOx emission controls on coal-fired utilities.

  17. [Association between the decline in global fertility rate and the incorporation of women to the workforce].

    Stefanelli, María de Los Ángeles; Valenzuela, María Teresa; Cárcamo, Marcela; Urquidi, Cinthya; Cavada, Gabriel; San Martín P, Pamela

    2016-05-01

    The global fertility rate (GFR) is defined as the mean number of children that a woman could have in a hypothetical cohort, not exposed to death during the fertile period. GFR has fallen from 3.4 to 1.9 children per women in the period 1970-2010. To explore the relationship between the fall in GFR and the incorporation of women to work in the period 1960-2011. Data from the National Statistics Institute was used. GRF was calculated using specific fertility rates for each year considering women aged 15 to 49 years. Work rates were obtained from yearly vital statistics reports. Between 1960 and 2011, GRF decreased from 5.5 to 1.9 in Chile. The first inflection occurred in 1970. In the same period, female workforce increased from 22.4 to 40.2%. To motivate the participation of female work-force without decrease the GRF allowing population replacement, it is suggested the need to create new public policies with benefits and support from the state.

  18. Globalization of the cashmere market and the decline of large mammals in central Asia.

    Berger, Joel; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Mishra, Charudutt

    2013-08-01

    As drivers of terrestrial ecosystems, humans have replaced large carnivores in most areas, and human influence not only exerts striking ecological pressures on biodiversity at local scales but also has indirect effects in distant corners of the world. We suggest that the multibillion dollar cashmere industry creates economic motivations that link western fashion preferences for cashmere to land use in Central Asia. This penchant for stylish clothing, in turn, encourages herders to increase livestock production which affects persistence of over 6 endangered large mammals in these remote, arid ecosystems. We hypothesized that global trade in cashmere has strong negative effects on native large mammals of deserts and grassland where cashmere-producing goats are raised. We used time series data, ecological snapshots of the biomass of native and domestic ungulates, and ecologically and behaviorally based fieldwork to test our hypothesis. In Mongolia increases in domestic goat production were associated with a 3-fold increase in local profits for herders coexisting with endangered saiga (Saiga tatarica).That increasing domestic grazing pressure carries fitness consequences was inferred on the basis of an approximately 4-fold difference in juvenile recruitment among blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)in trans-Himalayan India. Across 7 study areas in Mongolia, India, and China's Tibetan Plateau, native ungulate biomass is now degradation and decreased capacity for the persistence of native species, including at least 8 Asian endemic species: saiga, chiru (Pantholops hodgsoni), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), snow leopard(Panthera uncia), khulan(Equus hemionus), kiang (E. kiang), takhi (E. przewalski), and wild yak (Bos mutus). Our results suggest striking yet indirect and unintended actions that link trophic-level effects to markets induced by the trade for cashmere. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Action of iloprost and PGE1 on global ischemic and reperfused myocardium: a 31P-NMR-study.

    Pissarek, M; Gründer, W; Keller, T; Goos, H; Mest, H J; Krause, E G

    1988-01-01

    The influence of iloprost, PGE1 and of the combined application of iloprost and PGE1 on high energy phosphate contents was investigated in isolated rat hearts perfused aerob at 37 degrees C in Langendorff mode. Changes in creatine phosphate, ATP and inorganic phosphate were registered during 20 minutes of global ischemia and 56 minutes of reperfusion with 31P-NMR-spectroscopic methods starting drug application prior to ischemia simultaneously with onset of heart perfusion. Most effective in preservation of high energy phosphates was the combined application of PGE1 and iloprost resulting in a creatine phosphate/inorganic phosphate ratio of 103.2 +/- 30.9% of pre-ischemia values compared to 52.5 +/- 6.1% in control group without drug application 0-5 minutes after onset of reperfusion, 148.8 +/- 24.8% vs 78.8 +/- 15.2% at 6-11 minutes of reperfusion and 116.6 +/- 16% vs 68.9 +/- 12.7% at 12-17 minutes of reperfusion. The same trend was observed employing ATP/inorganic phosphate ratio. The improved energy state in reperfused hearts following application of PGE1 and iloprost in combination is presumed to be supported by a reduction of the loss of high energy phosphates (HEP) during global ischemia and by a cytoprotective effect of iloprost immediately after starting reperfusion.

  20. Longstanding Hyperthyroidism Is Associated with Normal or Enhanced Intrinsic Cardiomyocyte Function despite Decline in Global Cardiac Function

    Redetzke, Rebecca A.; Gerdes, A. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a pivotal role in cardiac homeostasis. TH imbalances alter cardiac performance and ultimately cause cardiac dysfunction. Although short-term hyperthyroidism typically leads to heightened left ventricular (LV) contractility and improved hemodynamic parameters, chronic hyperthyroidism is associated with deleterious cardiac consequences including increased risk of arrhythmia, impaired cardiac reserve and exercise capacity, myocardial remodeling, and occasionally heart failure. To evaluate the long-term consequences of chronic hyperthyroidism on LV remodeling and function, we examined LV isolated myocyte function, chamber function, and whole tissue remodeling in a hamster model. Three-month-old F1b hamsters were randomized to control or 10 months TH treatment (0.1% grade I desiccated TH). LV chamber remodeling and function was assessed by echocardiography at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 months of treatment. After 10 months, terminal cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and LV hemodynamics. Hyperthyroid hamsters exhibited significant cardiac hypertrophy and deleterious cardiac remodeling characterized by myocyte lengthening, chamber dilatation, decreased relative wall thickness, increased wall stress, and increased LV interstitial fibrotic deposition. Importantly, hyperthyroid hamsters demonstrated significant LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Despite the aforementioned remodeling and global cardiac decline, individual isolated cardiac myocytes from chronically hyperthyroid hamsters had enhanced function when compared with myocytes from untreated age-matched controls. Thus, it appears that long-term hyperthyroidism may impair global LV function, at least in part by increasing interstitial ventricular fibrosis, in spite of normal or enhanced intrinsic cardiomyocyte function. PMID:23056390

  1. Longstanding hyperthyroidism is associated with normal or enhanced intrinsic cardiomyocyte function despite decline in global cardiac function.

    Nathan Y Weltman

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (THs play a pivotal role in cardiac homeostasis. TH imbalances alter cardiac performance and ultimately cause cardiac dysfunction. Although short-term hyperthyroidism typically leads to heightened left ventricular (LV contractility and improved hemodynamic parameters, chronic hyperthyroidism is associated with deleterious cardiac consequences including increased risk of arrhythmia, impaired cardiac reserve and exercise capacity, myocardial remodeling, and occasionally heart failure. To evaluate the long-term consequences of chronic hyperthyroidism on LV remodeling and function, we examined LV isolated myocyte function, chamber function, and whole tissue remodeling in a hamster model. Three-month-old F1b hamsters were randomized to control or 10 months TH treatment (0.1% grade I desiccated TH. LV chamber remodeling and function was assessed by echocardiography at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 months of treatment. After 10 months, terminal cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and LV hemodynamics. Hyperthyroid hamsters exhibited significant cardiac hypertrophy and deleterious cardiac remodeling characterized by myocyte lengthening, chamber dilatation, decreased relative wall thickness, increased wall stress, and increased LV interstitial fibrotic deposition. Importantly, hyperthyroid hamsters demonstrated significant LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Despite the aforementioned remodeling and global cardiac decline, individual isolated cardiac myocytes from chronically hyperthyroid hamsters had enhanced function when compared with myocytes from untreated age-matched controls. Thus, it appears that long-term hyperthyroidism may impair global LV function, at least in part by increasing interstitial ventricular fibrosis, in spite of normal or enhanced intrinsic cardiomyocyte function.

  2. The cerebroprotective effect of dextromethorphan assessed by 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy during global forebrain ischemia in the rat

    Tulleken, C.A.F.; Rijen, P.C. van; Berkelbach van der Sprenkel, J.W.; Verheul, H.B.; Echteld, C.J.A. van; Balasz, R.; Lewis, P.

    1991-01-01

    Global forebrain ischemia was induced in the rat model by occlusion of both carotid arteries and subsequent lowering of the blood pressure. After 30 minutes of ischemia reperfusion was established. Using 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy tissue pH values, lactate production, cellular energy index and N-acetyl-aspartate content were determined. The survival rates and histological damage were counted. (author)

  3. Examining the association between late-life leisure activity participation and global cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly Chinese in Hong Kong.

    Leung, Grace Tak Yu; Fung, Ada Wai Tung; Tam, Cindy Woon Chi; Lui, Victor Wing Cheong; Chiu, Helen Fung Kum; Chan, Wai Man; Lam, Linda Chiu Wa

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between late-life leisure activity participation and global cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly Chinese in Hong Kong. Five hundred and five participants, not clinically demented at the baseline, were analysed in the follow-up study of a population-based community survey among Hong Kong Chinese aged 60 and over. Information regarding leisure activity participation, global cognitive function and important sociodemographic variables was collected. Late life leisure activity profiles were classified into intellectual, social, physical and recreational categories, and were measured by total hours per week, total frequency and total number of subtypes. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between leisure activity participation at the baseline and the incidence of global cognitive decline at the 22-month follow-up. The incidence of global cognitive decline was defined as a one-point drop in z-score of the Cantonese version of the mini-mental state examination (CMMSE). At the follow-up, a higher level of participation in intellectual activities was significantly associated with a lower incidence of global cognitive decline as measured by both the total hours per week (multivariate-adjusted OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-0.99, p=0.003)), and the total number of subtypes (multivariate-adjusted OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.58-0.95, p=0.018)). A higher level of late-life intellectual activity participation was associated with less global cognitive decline among community-dwelling elderly Chinese in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Local and global influences on population declines of coastal waders: Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima numbers in the Moray Firth, Scotland

    Summers, Ron W.; Foster, Simon; Swann, Bob; Etheridge, Brian

    2012-05-01

    Declines in numbers by several wader species in Britain have been linked to climate change, but the mechanism for the declines has rarely been explored. Britain lies at the northern end of the East Atlantic Flyway, and supports 1.3 million out of the Flyway's 8.5 million coastal waders (Charadrii) in winter and the Purple Sandpiper is one of the species whose numbers have declined. Here, we examine the dynamics of the decline as observed in the Moray Firth, northeast Scotland, investigating whether the decline was due to poorer apparent survival (return rate) or poorer recruitment of young birds. The maximum number in the Moray Firth declined from 860 in 1987/88 to 236 in 2006/07, with some increase during winters 2007/08 and 2008/09. At the three main high-tide roosts (Balintore, Lossiemouth and Buckie) the maximum combined number declined from 574 to 90. Changes in survival and recruitment (percentage of first-year birds) were examined at these roosts from captured samples, which were ringed and recaptured. There were no significant changes between winters in survival rates, nor were there differences between the survival rates of age groups (first-year and adult) or bill size groups, which represented birds of different sex and breeding origin. Annual survival estimates for the three roosts ranged from 72 to 77%. The percentage of first-year birds varied among roosts and years; the lowest values were during the late 1980s/early 1990s and early 2000s. A free-running population model incorporating varying percentages of first-year birds and constant mortality for each roost provided a plausible explanation for the decline. Although modelled numbers followed the observed pattern, a discrepancy in one year was carried forward in subsequent years, so that the fit with the observed numbers was parallel rather than similar. However, it seems that the decline in numbers was largely due to poorer recruitment. We discuss whether breeding success had declined, whether the

  5. The End of Work: The Decline of the Global Labor Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era.

    Rifkin, Jeremy

    This book explores the global economic and social changes that will likely occur as continued technological advancements (especially in the field of computer science) reduce the number of workers needed to produce the goods and services needed by the global population. The book is divided into five sections. Section 1 presents an overview of the…

  6. A more randomly organized grey matter network is associated with deteriorating language and global cognition in individuals with subjective cognitive decline.

    Verfaillie, Sander C J; Slot, Rosalinde E R; Dicks, Ellen; Prins, Niels D; Overbeek, Jozefien M; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Tijms, Betty M

    2018-03-30

    Grey matter network disruptions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with worse cognitive impairment cross-sectionally. Our aim was to investigate whether indications of a more random network organization are associated with longitudinal decline in specific cognitive functions in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD). We included 231 individuals with SCD who had annually repeated neuropsychological assessment (3 ± 1 years; n = 646 neuropsychological investigations) available from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (54% male, age: 63 ± 9, MMSE: 28 ± 2). Single-subject grey matter networks were extracted from baseline 3D-T1 MRI scans and we computed basic network (size, degree, connectivity density) and higher-order (path length, clustering, betweenness centrality, normalized path length [lambda] and normalized clustering [gamma]) parameters at whole brain and/or regional levels. We tested associations of network parameters with baseline and annual cognition (memory, attention, executive functioning, language composite scores, and global cognition [all domains with MMSE]) using linear mixed models, adjusted for age, sex, education, scanner and total gray matter volume. Lower network size was associated with steeper decline in language (β ± SE = 0.12 ± 0.05, p organized grey matter network was associated with a steeper decline of cognitive functioning, possibly indicating the start of cognitive impairment. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Declination Calculator

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  8. Peak oil demand: the role of fuel efficiency and alternative fuels in a global oil production decline.

    Brandt, Adam R; Millard-Ball, Adam; Ganser, Matthew; Gorelick, Steven M

    2013-07-16

    Some argue that peak conventional oil production is imminent due to physical resource scarcity. We examine the alternative possibility of reduced oil use due to improved efficiency and oil substitution. Our model uses historical relationships to project future demand for (a) transport services, (b) all liquid fuels, and (c) substitution with alternative energy carriers, including electricity. Results show great increases in passenger and freight transport activity, but less reliance on oil. Demand for liquids inputs to refineries declines significantly after 2070. By 2100 transport energy demand rises >1000% in Asia, while flattening in North America (+23%) and Europe (-20%). Conventional oil demand declines after 2035, and cumulative oil production is 1900 Gbbl from 2010 to 2100 (close to the U.S. Geological Survey median estimate of remaining oil, which only includes projected discoveries through 2025). These results suggest that effort is better spent to determine and influence the trajectory of oil substitution and efficiency improvement rather than to focus on oil resource scarcity. The results also imply that policy makers should not rely on liquid fossil fuel scarcity to constrain damage from climate change. However, there is an unpredictable range of emissions impacts depending on which mix of substitutes for conventional oil gains dominance-oil sands, electricity, coal-to-liquids, or others.

  9. Profiling the metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins in plasma of female rats using (1) H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS global metabolomics approaches.

    Liu, Haiyan; Garrett, Timothy J; Tayyari, Fariba; Gu, Liwei

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to investigate the metabolome changes in female rats gavaged with partially purified cranberry procyanidins (PPCP) using (1) H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS metabolomics approaches, and to identify the contributing metabolites. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and administered PPCP or partially purified apple procyanidins (PPAP) for three times using a 250 mg extracts/kg body weight dose. Plasma was collected 6 h after the last gavage and analyzed using (1) H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS. No metabolome difference was observed using (1) H NMR metabolomics approach. However, LC-HRMS metabolomics data show that metabolome in the plasma of female rats administered PPCP differed from those gavaged with PPAP. Eleven metabolites were tentatively identified from a total of 36 discriminant metabolic features based on accurate masses and/or product ion spectra. PPCP caused a greater increase of exogenous metabolites including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, phenol, phenol-sulphate, catechol sulphate, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylvaleric acid, and 4'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-3'-O-beta-glucuronide in rat plasma. Furthermore, the plasma level of O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-O-glucuronide, 4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxyphenyl)-valeric acid-O-sulphate, 5-(hydroxyphenyl)-ϒ-valerolactone-O-sulphate, 4-hydroxydiphenylamine, and peonidin-3-O-hexose were higher in female rats administered with PPAP. The metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins were revealed using an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS global metabolomics approach. Exogenous and microbial metabolites were the major identified discriminate biomarkers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Profiling the Metabolome Changes Caused by Cranberry Procyanidins in Plasma of Female Rats using 1H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS Global Metabolomics Approaches

    Liu, Haiyan; Garrett, Timothy J.; Tayyari, Fariba; Gu, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    Scope The objective was to investigate the metabolome changes in female rats gavaged with partially purified cranberry procyanidins (PPCP) using 1H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS metabolomics approaches, and to identify the contributing metabolites. Methods and results Twenty four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups and administered PPCP or partially purified apple procyanidins (PPAP) for 3 times using a 250 mg extracts/kg body weight dose. Plasma were collected six hours after the last gavage and analyzed using 1H NMR and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS. No metabolome difference was observed using 1H NMR metabolomics approach. However, LC-HRMS metabolomics data show that metabolome in plasma of female rats administered PPCP differed from those gavaged with PPAP. Eleven metabolites were tentatively identified from a total of 36 discriminant metabolic features based on accurate masses and/or product ion spectra. PPCP caused a greater increase of exogenous metabolites including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, phenol, phenol-sulfate, catechol sulphate, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylvaleric acid, and 4′-O-methyl-(−)-epicatechin-3′-O-beta-glucuronide in rat plasma. Furthermore, the plasma level of O-methyl-(−)-epicatechin-O-glucuronide, 4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxyphenyl)-valeric acid-O-sulphate, 5-(hydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone-O-sulphate, 4-hydroxydiphenylamine, and peonidin-3-O-hexose were higher in female rats administered with PPAP. Conclusion The metabolome changes caused by cranberry procyanidins were revealed using an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS global metabolomics approach. Exogenous and microbial metabolites were the major identified discriminate biomarkers. PMID:26264887

  11. 1H NMR studies of plastocyanin from Scenedesmus obliquus: Complete sequence-specific assignment, secondary structure analysis, and global fold

    Moore, J.M.; Chazin, W.J.; Wright, P.E.; Powls, R.

    1988-01-01

    Two-dimensional 1 H NMR methods have been used to make sequence-specific resonance assignments for the 97 amino acid residues of the plastocyanin from the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Assignments were obtained for all backbone protons and the majority of the side-chain protons. Spin system identification relied heavily on the observation of relayed connectivities to the backbone amide proton. Sequence-specific assignments were made by using the sequential assignment procedure. During this process, an extra valine residue was identified that had not been detected in the original amino acid sequence. Elements of regular secondary structure were identified from characteristic NOE connectivities between backbone protons, coupling constant values, and the observation of slowly exchanging amide protons. The protein in solution contains eight β-strands, one short segment of helix, five reverse turns, and five loops. The β-strands may be arranged into two βsheets on the basis of extensive cross-strand NOE connectivities. The chain-folding topology determined from the NMR experiments is that of a Greek key β-barrel and is similar to that observed for French bean plastocyanin in solution and poplar plastocyanin in the crystalline state. While the overall structures are similar, several differences in local structure between the S. obliquus and higher plant plastocyanins have been identified

  12. Increased evapotranspiration demand in a Mediterranean climate might cause a decline in fungal yields under global warming.

    Ágreda, Teresa; Águeda, Beatriz; Olano, José M; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Fernández-Toirán, Marina

    2015-09-01

    Wild fungi play a critical role in forest ecosystems, and its recollection is a relevant economic activity. Understanding fungal response to climate is necessary in order to predict future fungal production in Mediterranean forests under climate change scenarios. We used a 15-year data set to model the relationship between climate and epigeous fungal abundance and productivity, for mycorrhizal and saprotrophic guilds in a Mediterranean pine forest. The obtained models were used to predict fungal productivity for the 2021-2080 period by means of regional climate change models. Simple models based on early spring temperature and summer-autumn rainfall could provide accurate estimates for fungal abundance and productivity. Models including rainfall and climatic water balance showed similar results and explanatory power for the analyzed 15-year period. However, their predictions for the 2021-2080 period diverged. Rainfall-based models predicted a maintenance of fungal yield, whereas water balance-based models predicted a steady decrease of fungal productivity under a global warming scenario. Under Mediterranean conditions fungi responded to weather conditions in two distinct periods: early spring and late summer-autumn, suggesting a bimodal pattern of growth. Saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi showed differences in the climatic control. Increased atmospheric evaporative demand due to global warming might lead to a drop in fungal yields during the 21st century. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. From traditional resource to global commodities: - A comparison of Rhodiola species using NMR spectroscopy - metabolomics and HPTLC

    Anthony Booker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fast developing international trade of products based on traditional knowledge and their value chains has become an important aspect of the ethnopharmacological debate. The structure and diversity of value chains and their impact on the phytochemical composition of herbal medicinal products has been overlooked in the debate about quality problems in transnational trade. Different government policies and regulations governing trade in herbal medicinal products impact on such value chains. Medicinal Rhodiola species, including Rhodiola rosea L. and Rhodiola crenulata (Hook.f. & Thomson H.Ohba, have been used widely in Europe and Asia as traditional herbal medicines with numerous claims for their therapeutic effects. Faced with resource depletion and environment destruction, R. rosea and R. crenulata are becoming endangered, making them more economically valuable to collectors and middlemen, and also increasing the risk of adulteration and low quality. We compare the phytochemical differences among Rhodiola raw materials available on the market to provide a practical method for Rhodiola authentication and the detection of potential adulterant compounds. Samples were collected from Europe and Asia and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis software and high performance thin layer chromatography techniques were used to analyse the samples. A method was developed to quantify the amount of adulterant species contained within mixtures. We compared the phytochemical composition of collected Rhodiola samples to authenticated samples. Rosavin and rosarin were mainly present in R. rosea whereas crenulatin was only present in R. crenulata. 30% of the Rhodiola samples purchased from the Chinese market were adulterated by other Rhodiola spp. Moreover, 7 % of the raw-material samples were not labelled satifactorily. The utilisation of both 1H-NMR and HPTLC methods provided an integrated analysis of the phytochemical

  14. From Traditional Resource to Global Commodities:-A Comparison of Rhodiola Species Using NMR Spectroscopy-Metabolomics and HPTLC.

    Booker, Anthony; Zhai, Lixiang; Gkouva, Christina; Li, Shuyuan; Heinrich, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The fast developing international trade of products based on traditional knowledge and their value chains has become an important aspect of the ethnopharmacological debate. The structure and diversity of value chains and their impact on the phytochemical composition of herbal medicinal products, as well as the underlying government policies and regulations, have been overlooked in the debate about quality problems in transnational trade. Rhodiola species, including Rhodiola rosea L. and Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. & Thomson) H. Ohba, are used as traditional herbal medicines. Faced with resource depletion and environment destruction, R. rosea and R. crenulata are becoming endangered, making them more economically valuable to collectors and middlemen, and also increasing the risk of adulteration and low quality. Rhodiola products have been subject to adulteration and we recently assessed 39 commercial products for their composition and quality. However, the range of Rhodiola species potentially implicated has not been assessed. Also, the ability of selected analytical techniques in differentiating these species is not known yet. Using a strategy previously developed by our group, we compare the phytochemical differences among Rhodiola raw materials available on the market to provide a practical method for the identification of different Rhodiola species from Europe and Asia and the detection of potential adulterants. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis software and high performance thin layer chromatography techniques were used to analyse the samples. Rosavin and rosarin were mainly present in R. rosea but also in Rosea sachalinensis Borris. 30% of the Rhodiola samples purchased from the Chinese market were adulterated by other Rhodiola spp. The utilization of a combined platform based on (1)H-NMR and HPTLC methods resulted in an integrated analysis of different Rhodiola species. We identified adulteration at the earliest stage

  15. From Traditional Resource to Global Commodities:—A Comparison of Rhodiola Species Using NMR Spectroscopy—Metabolomics and HPTLC

    Booker, Anthony; Zhai, Lixiang; Gkouva, Christina; Li, Shuyuan; Heinrich, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The fast developing international trade of products based on traditional knowledge and their value chains has become an important aspect of the ethnopharmacological debate. The structure and diversity of value chains and their impact on the phytochemical composition of herbal medicinal products, as well as the underlying government policies and regulations, have been overlooked in the debate about quality problems in transnational trade. Rhodiola species, including Rhodiola rosea L. and Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. & Thomson) H. Ohba, are used as traditional herbal medicines. Faced with resource depletion and environment destruction, R. rosea and R. crenulata are becoming endangered, making them more economically valuable to collectors and middlemen, and also increasing the risk of adulteration and low quality. Rhodiola products have been subject to adulteration and we recently assessed 39 commercial products for their composition and quality. However, the range of Rhodiola species potentially implicated has not been assessed. Also, the ability of selected analytical techniques in differentiating these species is not known yet. Using a strategy previously developed by our group, we compare the phytochemical differences among Rhodiola raw materials available on the market to provide a practical method for the identification of different Rhodiola species from Europe and Asia and the detection of potential adulterants. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis software and high performance thin layer chromatography techniques were used to analyse the samples. Rosavin and rosarin were mainly present in R. rosea but also in Rosea sachalinensis Borris. 30% of the Rhodiola samples purchased from the Chinese market were adulterated by other Rhodiola spp. The utilization of a combined platform based on 1H-NMR and HPTLC methods resulted in an integrated analysis of different Rhodiola species. We identified adulteration at the earliest stage

  16. NMR imaging

    Andrew, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    Since hydrogen is the most abundant element in all living organisms, proton NMR lends itself well as a method of investigation in biology and medicine. NMR imaging has some special advantages as a diagnostic tool: no ionizing radiation is used, it is noninvasive; it provides a safer means of imaging than the use of x-rays, gamma rays, positrons, or heavy ions. In contrast with ultrasound, the radiation penetrates the bony structures without attenuation. In additional to morphological information, NMR imaging provides additional diagnostic insights through relaxation parameters, which are not available from other imaging methods. In the decade since the first primitive NMR images were obtained, the quality of images now obtained approaches those from CT x-ray scanners. Prototype instruments are being constructed for clinical evaluation and the first whole-body scanners are beginning to appear on the market at costs comparable to CT scanners. Primary differences in equipment for conventional NMR and NMR imaging are the much larger aperture magnets that are required for the examination of human subjects and the addition of coils to generate field gradients and facilities for manipulating the gradients. Early results from clinical trials in many parts of the world are encouraging, and in a few years, the usefuleness of this modality of medical imaging to the medical profession in diagnosis and treatment of disease will be defined. 10 figures

  17. Compact NMR

    Bluemich, Bernhard; Haber-Pohlmeier, Sabina; Zia, Wasif [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMC)

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most popular method for chemists to analyze molecular structures, while Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for medical doctors that provides high-contrast images of biological tissue. In both applications, the sample (or patient) is positioned inside a large, superconducting magnet to magnetize the atomic nuclei. Interrogating radio-frequency pulses result in frequency spectra that provide the chemist with molecular information, the medical doctor with anatomic images, and materials scientist with NMR relaxation parameters. Recent advances in magnet technology have led to a variety of small permanent magnets to allow compact and low-cost instruments. The goal of this book is to provide an introduction to the practical use of compact NMR at a level nearly as basic as the operation of a smart phone.

  18. NMR imaging

    Ouchi, Toshihiro; Steiner, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Three epidermoid and two dermoid tumours, pathologically proven, were examined by NMR and CT scans. Although most brain tumours have a low signal with a long T 1 , a dermoid cyst and one of the two components of the other dermoid tumour had a high signal and therefore a short T 1 . All three epidermoid tumours had a low signal and a long T 1 . Because of the high level contrast between some of the tumours and cerebrospinal fluid, NMR is helpful to detect the lesion. Neither of the liquid fluid levels in the tumour cysts or floating fat in the subarachnoid space was recognized in one patients, but the fine leakage of the content from the epidermoid cyst into the lateral ventricle was detected on a saturation recovery 1000 image in one case. (author)

  19. NMR spectroscopy

    Gruenert, J.

    1989-01-01

    The book reviews the applications of NMR-spectroscopy in medicine and biology. The first chapter of about 40 pages summarizes the history of development and explains the chemical and physical fundamentals of this new and non-invasive method in an easily comprehensible manner. The other chapters summarize diagnostic results obtained with this method in organs and tissues, so that the reader will find a systematic overview of the available findings obtained in the various organ systems. It must be noted, however, that ongoing research work and new insight quite naturally will necessitate corrections to be done, as is the case here with some biochemical interpretations which would need adjustment to latest research results. NMR-spectroscopy is able to measure very fine energy differences on the molecular level, and thus offers insight into metabolic processes, with the advantage that there is no need of applying ionizing radiation in order to qualitatively or quantitatively analyse the metabolic processes in the various organ systems. (orig./DG) With 40 figs., 4 tabs [de

  20. Who fears and who welcomes population decline?

    Hendrik P. Van Dalen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available European countries are experiencing population decline and the tacit assumption in most analyses is that the decline may have detrimental welfare effects. In this paper we use a survey among the population in the Netherlands to discover whether population decline is always met with fear. A number of results stand out: population size preferences differ by geographic proximity: at a global level the majority of respondents favors a (global population decline, but closer to home one supports a stationary population. Population decline is clearly not always met with fear: 31 percent would like the population to decline at the national level and they generally perceive decline to be accompanied by immaterial welfare gains (improvement environment as well as material welfare losses (tax increases, economic stagnation. In addition to these driving forces it appears that the attitude towards immigrants is a very strong determinant at all geographical levels: immigrants seem to be a stronger fear factor than population decline.

  1. Are snake populations in widespread decline?

    Reading, C. J.; Luiselli, L. M.; Akani, G. C.; Bonnet, X.; Amori, G.; Ballouard, J. M.; Filippi, E.; Naulleau, G.; Pearson, D.; Rugiero, L.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term studies have revealed population declines in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. In birds, and particularly amphibians, these declines are a global phenomenon whose causes are often unclear. Among reptiles, snakes are top predators and therefore a decline in their numbers may have serious consequences for the functioning of many ecosystems. Our results show that, of 17 snake populations (eight species) from the UK, France, Italy, Nigeria and Australia, 11 have declined ...

  2. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  3. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  4. MAS NMR of HIV-1 protein assemblies

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Quinn, Caitlin M.; Lu, Manman; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-04-01

    The negative global impact of the AIDS pandemic is well known. In this perspective article, the utility of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy to answer pressing questions related to the structure and dynamics of HIV-1 protein assemblies is examined. In recent years, MAS NMR has undergone major technological developments enabling studies of large viral assemblies. We discuss some of these evolving methods and technologies and provide a perspective on the current state of MAS NMR as applied to the investigations into structure and dynamics of HIV-1 assemblies of CA capsid protein and of Gag maturation intermediates.

  5. NMR of lignins

    John Ralph; Larry L. Landucci

    2010-01-01

    This chapter will consider the basic aspects and findings of several forms of NMR spectroscopy, including separate discussions of proton, carbon, heteronuclear, and multidimensional NMR. Enhanced focus will be on 13C NMR, because of its qualitative and quantitative importance, followed by NMR’s contributions to our understanding of lignin...

  6. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  7. Lung function decline in COPD

    Tantucci C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Claudio Tantucci, Denise ModinaUnit of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: The landmark study of Fletcher and Peto on the natural history of tobacco smoke-related chronic airflow obstruction suggested that decline in the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is slow at the beginning, becoming faster with more advanced disease. The present authors reviewed spirometric data of COPD patients included in the placebo arms of recent clinical trials to assess the lung function decline of each stage, defined according to the severity of airflow obstruction as proposed by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines. In large COPD populations the mean rate of FEV1 decline in GOLD stages II and III is between 47 and 79 mL/year and 56 and 59 mL/year, respectively, and lower than 35 mL/year in GOLD stage IV. Few data on FEV1 decline are available for GOLD stage I. Hence, the loss of lung function, assessed as expiratory airflow reduction, seems more accelerated and therefore more relevant in the initial phases of COPD. To have an impact on the natural history of COPD, it is logical to look at the effects of treatment in the earlier stages.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, decline, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, FEV1

  8. NMR-CT scanner

    Kose, Katsumi; Sato, Kozo; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Sato, Masataka.

    1983-01-01

    A brief explanation is made on the imaging methods for a practical diagnostic NMR-CT scanner : A whole-body NMR-CT scanner utilizing a resistive magnet has been developed by Toshiba in cooperation with the Institute for Solid State Physics, the University of Tokyo. Typical NMR-CT images of volunteers and patients obtained in the clinical experiments using this device are presented. Detailed specifications are also shown about the practical NMR-CTs which are to be put on the market after obtaining the government approval. (author)

  9. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  10. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  11. NMR imaging and pharmaceutical sciences

    Beall, P.T.; Good, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    Described is the technique of NMR-imaging in diagnostic medicine. Proton and phosphorus NMR in diagnosis of abnormal tissue pathology. Discussed is the value of NMR to the pharmaceutical sciences. NMR may play an important role in monitoring the response of tissues to drugs, determining the localization of drugs, performing real time pharmacokinetics and testing the use of NMR contrast pharmaceuticals

  12. Are snake populations in widespread decline?

    Reading, C J; Luiselli, L M; Akani, G C; Bonnet, X; Amori, G; Ballouard, J M; Filippi, E; Naulleau, G; Pearson, D; Rugiero, L

    2010-12-23

    Long-term studies have revealed population declines in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. In birds, and particularly amphibians, these declines are a global phenomenon whose causes are often unclear. Among reptiles, snakes are top predators and therefore a decline in their numbers may have serious consequences for the functioning of many ecosystems. Our results show that, of 17 snake populations (eight species) from the UK, France, Italy, Nigeria and Australia, 11 have declined sharply over the same relatively short period of time with five remaining stable and one showing signs of a marginal increase. Although the causes of these declines are currently unknown, we suspect that they are multi-faceted (such as habitat quality deterioration, prey availability), and with a common cause, e.g. global climate change, at their root.

  13. Lectures on pulsed NMR

    Pines, A.

    1988-08-01

    These lectures discuss some recent developments in pulsed NMR, emphasizing fundamental principles with selected illustrative applications. Major topics covered include multiple-quantum spectroscopy, spin decoupling, the interaction of spins with a quantized field, adiabatic rapid passage, spin temperature and statistics of cross-polarization, coherent averaging, and zero field NMR. 32 refs., 56 figs

  14. Lectures on pulsed NMR

    Pines, A.

    1986-09-01

    These lectures discuss some recent developments in pulsed NMR, emphasizing fundamental principles with selected illustrative applications. Major topics covered include multiple-quantum spectroscopy, spin decoupling, the interaction of spins with a quantized field, adiabatic rapid passage, spin temperature and statistics of cross-polarization, coherent averaging, and zero field NMR. 55 figs

  15. Decline traffic information system

    Du Plessis, K [Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC), Sydney (Australia)

    2007-09-06

    BHP Billion (BHPB) Cannington has experienced problems in regards to their traffic flow in the decline at the mine. The problems related to reports on near misses of vehicles moving towards each other in the decline. The decline is also to narrow for trucks to pass each other and the operators need to be aware of oncoming traffic in the decline to ensure they could take early evasive steps to ensure the rules of right of way in the decline are adhered to. BHPB Cannington requested CSC to conduct a problem analysis and to provide a solutions proposal to Cannington. The solution was put forward as an augmentation of their current safety procedures used with in the decline. During this phase of the project CSC developed a solutions architecture which involved the use of Active (Radio Frequency Identification) RFID tagging which will enable vehicle movement tracking on a real time basis after which the appropriate traffic movement can be relayed to the operators in the decline. The primary objective of the DTIS is to provide accurate information of traffic movement in the decline and present that information to the operators of the decline IN THE DECLINE upon which they would make their decisions. (orig.)

  16. What Makes Clusters Decline?

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark. The longit...... but being quick to withdraw in times of crisis....

  17. Functional studies using NMR

    McCready, V.R.; Leach, M.O.; Sutton; Ell, P.

    1986-01-01

    The object of this book is to discuss and evaluate an area of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance which to date has been less emphasized than it might be, namely the use of NMR for functional studies. The book commences with a discussion of the areas in which the NMR techniques might be needed due to deficiencies in other techniques. The physics of NMR especially relating to functional measurement are then explained. Technical factors in producing functional images are discussed and the use of paramagnetic substances for carrying out flow studies are detailed. Particular attention is paid to specific studies in the various organs. The book ends with a survey of imaging in each organ and the relation of NMR images to other techniques such as ultrasound, nuclear medicine and X-rays

  18. Functional studies using NMR

    McCready, V.R.; Leach, M.; Ell, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is based on a series of lectures delivered at a one-day teaching symposium on functional and metabolic aspects of NMR measurements held at the Middlesex Hospital Medical School on 1st September 1985 as a part of the European Nuclear Medicine Society Congress. Currently the major emphasis in medical NMR in vivo is on its potential to image and display abnormalities in conventional radiological images, providing increased contrast between normal and abnormal tissue, improved definition of vasculature, and possibly an increased potential for differential diagnosis. Although these areas are undeniably of major importance, it is probable that NMR will continue to complement conventional measurement methods. The major potential benefits to be derived from in vivo NMR measurements are likely to arise from its use as an instrument for functional and metabolic studies in both clinical research and in the everyday management of patients. It is to this area that this volume is directed

  19. NMR of unfolded proteins

    Unknown

    2005-01-03

    Jan 3, 2005 ... covering all the systems, so far discovered.5,7,8,12. With the increasing ... Structural investigations on proteins by NMR are, currently ... rapid analysis of unfolded proteins. ...... and hence help in design of drugs against them.

  20. Theory of NMR probe design

    Schnall, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The NMR probe is the intrinsic part of the NMR system which allows transmission of a stimulus to a sample and the reception of a resulting signal from a sample. NMR probes are used in both imaging and spectroscopy. Optimal probe design is important to the production of adequate signal/moise. It is important for anyone using NMR techniques to understand how NMR probes work and how to optimize probe design

  1. ROBUST DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS

    Sutawanir Darwis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical decline curve analysis of oil production data gives reasonable answer in hyperbolic type curves situations; however the methodology has limitations in fitting real historical production data in present of unusual observations due to the effect of the treatment to the well in order to increase production capacity. The development ofrobust least squares offers new possibilities in better fitting production data using declinecurve analysis by down weighting the unusual observations. This paper proposes a robustleast squares fitting lmRobMM approach to estimate the decline rate of daily production data and compares the results with reservoir simulation results. For case study, we usethe oil production data at TBA Field West Java. The results demonstrated that theapproach is suitable for decline curve fitting and offers a new insight in decline curve analysis in the present of unusual observations.

  2. US Historic Declination Calculator

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This programs derives a table of secular change in magnetic declination for a specified point in the conterminous United States. It utilizes the USD polynomial and...

  3. Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide.

    Stuart, Simon N; Chanson, Janice S; Cox, Neil A; Young, Bruce E; Rodrigues, Ana S L; Fischman, Debra L; Waller, Robert W

    2004-12-03

    The first global assessment of amphibians provides new context for the well-publicized phenomenon of amphibian declines. Amphibians are more threatened and are declining more rapidly than either birds or mammals. Although many declines are due to habitat loss and overutilization, other, unidentified processes threaten 48% of rapidly declining species and are driving species most quickly to extinction. Declines are nonrandom in terms of species' ecological preferences, geographic ranges, and taxonomic associations and are most prevalent among Neotropical montane, stream-associated species. The lack of conservation remedies for these poorly understood declines means that hundreds of amphibian species now face extinction.

  4. Microprocessorized NMR measurement

    Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    An MC68000 CAMAC microprocessor system for fast and accurate NMR signal measurement will be presented. A stand-alone CAMAC microprocessor system (MC68000 STAC) with a special purpose interface sweeps a digital frequency synthesizer and digitizes the NMR signal with a 16-bit ADC of 17 μs conversion time. It averages the NMR signal data over many sweeps and then transfers it through CAMAC to a computer for calculation of the signal parameters. The computer has full software control over the timing and sweep settings of this signal averager, and thus allows optimization of noise suppression. Several of these processor systems can be installed in the same crate for parallel processing, and the flexibility of the STAC also allows easy adaptation to other applications such as transient recording or phase-sensitive detection. (orig.)

  5. Fourier transform NMR

    Hallenga, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of Fourier transformation one of the many precious legacies of the French mathematician Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, essential for understanding the link between continuous-wave (CW) and Fourier transform (FT) NMR. Although in modern FT NMR the methods used to obtain a frequency spectrum from the time-domain signal may vary greatly, from the efficient Cooley-Tukey algorithm to very elaborate iterative least-square methods based other maximum entropy method or on linear prediction, the principles for Fourier transformation are unchanged and give invaluable insight into the interconnection of many pairs of physical entities called Fourier pairs

  6. Forest decline through radioactivity

    Reichelt, G.; Kollert, R.

    1985-01-01

    Is more serious damage of forest observed in the vicinity of nuclear reactors. How are those decline patterns to be explained. Does the combined effect of radioactivity and different air pollutants (such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, oxidants etc.) have an influence in the decline of the forest. In what way do synergisms, i.e. mutually enhanced effects, participate. How does natural and artificial radioactivity affect the chemistry of air in the polluted atmosphere. What does this mean for the extension of nuclear energy, especially for the reprocessing plant planned. Damage in the forests near nuclear and industrial plants was mapped and the resulting hypotheses on possible emittors were statistically verified. Quantitative calculations as to the connection between nuclear energy and forest decline were carried through: they demand action. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark, 1963......-2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing...... in new resources to the cluster but being quick to withdraw in times of crisis....

  8. International symposium on NMR spectroscopy

    The publication consists of 32 papers and presentations from the field of NMR spectroscopy applications submitted to the International Symposium on NMR Spectroscopy held at Smolenice between 29 Sep and 3 Oct, 1980. (B.S.)

  9. Decline and conservation of bumble bees.

    Goulson, D; Lye, G C; Darvill, B

    2008-01-01

    Declines in bumble bee species in the past 60 years are well documented in Europe, where they are driven primarily by habitat loss and declines in floral abundance and diversity resulting from agricultural intensification. Impacts of habitat degradation and fragmentation are likely to be compounded by the social nature of bumble bees and their largely monogamous breeding system, which renders their effective population size low. Hence, populations are susceptible to stochastic extinction events and inbreeding. In North America, catastrophic declines of some bumble bee species since the 1990s are probably attributable to the accidental introduction of a nonnative parasite from Europe, a result of global trade in domesticated bumble bee colonies used for pollination of greenhouse crops. Given the importance of bumble bees as pollinators of crops and wildflowers, steps must be taken to prevent further declines. Suggested measures include tight regulation of commercial bumble bee use and targeted use of environmentally comparable schemes to enhance floristic diversity in agricultural landscapes.

  10. Understanding Amphibian Declines Through Geographic Approaches

    Gallant, Alisa

    2006-01-01

    Growing concern over worldwide amphibian declines warrants serious examination. Amphibians are important to the proper functioning of ecosystems and provide many direct benefits to humans in the form of pest and disease control, pharmaceutical compounds, and even food. Amphibians have permeable skin and rely on both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems during different seasons and stages of their lives. Their association with these ecosystems renders them likely to serve as sensitive indicators of environmental change. While much research on amphibian declines has centered on mysterious causes, or on causes that directly affect humans (global warming, chemical pollution, ultraviolet-B radiation), most declines are the result of habitat loss and habitat alteration. Improving our ability to characterize, model, and monitor the interactions between environmental variables and amphibian habitats is key to addressing amphibian conservation. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) to address issues surrounding amphibian declines.

  11. Single-sided NMR

    Casanova, Federico; Blümich, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Single-Sided NMR describes the design of the first functioning single-sided tomograph, the related measurement methods, and a number of applications. One of the key advantages to this method is the speed at which the images are obtained.

  12. Autonomous driving in NMR.

    Perez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The automatic analysis of NMR data has been a much-desired endeavour for the last six decades, as it is the case with any other analytical technique. This need for automation has only grown as advances in hardware; pulse sequences and automation have opened new research areas to NMR and increased the throughput of data. Full automatic analysis is a worthy, albeit hard, challenge, but in a world of artificial intelligence, instant communication and big data, it seems that this particular fight is happening with only one technique at a time (let this be NMR, MS, IR, UV or any other), when the reality of most laboratories is that there are several types of analytical instrumentation present. Data aggregation, verification and elucidation by using complementary techniques (e.g. MS and NMR) is a desirable outcome to pursue, although a time-consuming one if performed manually; hence, the use of automation to perform the heavy lifting for users is required to make the approach attractive for scientists. Many of the decisions and workflows that could be implemented under automation will depend on the two-way communication with databases that understand analytical data, because it is desirable not only to query these databases but also to grow them in as much of an automatic manner as possible. How these databases are designed, set up and the data inside classified will determine what workflows can be implemented. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Decline and infiltrated lung

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Arboleda Casas, Felipe; Duarte, Monica; Triana Harker, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the decline and infiltrated lung in a patient of 45 years, with diagnosis of arthritis rheumatoid from the 43 years, asymptomatic, without treatment, married, of the 15 to the 35 years of 3 to 10 cigarettes daily, she refers of 7 months of evolution episodes of moderate dyspnoea with exercises and dry cough with occasional mucous expectoration between others

  14. NMR for chemists and biologists

    Carbajo, Rodrigo J

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a concise introduction to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance or NMR. It presents the basic foundations of NMR in a non-mathematical way and provides an overview of both recent and important biological applications of NMR.

  15. NMR, water and plants

    As, H. van.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of a non-destructive pulsed proton NMR method mainly to measure water transport in the xylem vessels of plant stems and in some model systems. The results are equally well applicable to liquid flow in other biological objects than plants, e.g. flow of blood and other body fluids in human and animals. The method is based on a pulse sequence of equidistant π pulses in combination with a linear magnetic field gradient. (Auth.)

  16. AMPHIBIAN DECLINE, ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND LOCAL POPULATION ADAPTATION

    Amphibian population declines have been noted on both local and global scales. Causes for these declines are unknown although many hypotheses have been offered. In areas adjacent to human development, loss of habitat is a fairly well accepted cause. However in isolated, seemingl...

  17. Economic reasons behind the decline of the Ottoman empire

    Duranoglu, Erkut; Okutucu, Guzide

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the economic reasons of the decline and fall of the Ottoman Empire. On the contrary to the previous researches, by undertaking both global and domestic developments, the paper examines the decline of the empire from an economical point of perspective. Although international developments such as industrialization in European countries, pressure on the Ottomans in terms of integrating with the world economy, global economic factors like depressions and war...

  18. Magic Angle Spinning NMR Metabolomics

    Zhi Hu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive, quantitative, reproducible, untargeted and unbiased method that requires no or minimal sample preparation, and is one of the leading analytical tools for metabonomics research [1-3]. The easy quantification and the no need of prior knowledge about compounds present in a sample associated with NMR are advantageous over other techniques [1,4]. 1H NMR is especially attractive because protons are present in virtually all metabolites and its NMR sensitivity is high, enabling the simultaneous identification and monitoring of a wide range of low molecular weight metabolites.

  19. NMR in clinical practice

    Smith, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The development of NMR for clinical use has been complicated by a number of controversies, the largest of these being the question of what is the optimum field strength for proton imaging. Many workers believe that diagnostically useful images can only be produced at high field strength (i.e. 0.5 - 2.0 T), where in fact diagnostically useful images are made using field strengths of as low as 0.02 T. Because the method is more complex than X-ray CT, which relies on the measurement of only one parameter, tissue density, many new users have difficulty in selecting the correct imaging pulse sequence to provide the most useful image for diagnosis. NMR imaging pulse sequence may be selected to produce images of the proton density, T/sub 1/ or T/sub 2/ signals, or combinations of them. When this facility is used, images which are T/sub 1/ or T/sub 2/ weighted can be selected. Inversion-recovery sequences are more appropriate for imaging the abdomen where by selecting a short TR interval the signal from subcutaneous fat, which is the major cause of image artefact in abdominal imaging, is suppressed thereby improving image quality. The use of surface receiver coils, which are applied closely to the area of the body being examined is becoming more widespread and is of particular value when examining the orbits, facial structures, neck, breast, spine and limbs. The use of these coils together with a discussion of patient selection for NMR imaging, image interpretation and data storage follow

  20. Mangrove forest decline

    Malik, Abdul; Mertz, Ole; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests in the tropics and subtropics grow in saline sediments in coastal and estuarine environments. Preservation of mangrove forests is important for many reasons, including the prevention of coastal erosion and seawater intrusion; the provision of spawning, nursery, and feeding grounds...... of diverse marine biota; and for direct use (such as firewood, charcoal, and construction material)—all of which benefit the sustainability of local communities. However, for many mangrove areas of the world, unsustainable resource utilization and the profit orientation of communities have often led to rapid...... and severe mangrove loss with serious consequences. The mangrove forests of the Takalar District, South Sulawesi, are studied here as a case area that has suffered from degradation and declining spatial extent during recent decades. On the basis of a post-classification comparison of change detection from...

  1. Phosphorus NMR of isolated perfused morris hepatomas

    Graham, R.A.; Meyer, R.A.; Brown, T.R.; Sauer, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors are developing techniques for the study of perfused solid tumors by NMR. Tissue-isolated solid hepatomas were grown to 1-2 cm diameter as described previously. The arterial supply was isolated and the tumors perfused (0.5 - 1.0 ml/min) in vitro at 25 C with a 15% suspension of red blood cells in Krebs-Henseliet solution. 31 P-NMR spectra were acquired at 162 MHz in a specially-designed NMR probe using a solenoidal coil. Intracellular pH (monitored from the chemical shift of inorganic phosphate) and ATP levels were stable for up to 6 hrs during perfusion. During 30 min of global ischemia, ATP decreased by 75% and pH fell from 7.0 to 6.7. These changes were reversed by 1 hr reperfusion. In addition to ATP and phosphate, the spectra included a large resonance due to phosphomonoesters, as well as peaks consistent with glycerylphosphocholine, glyceryl-phosphoethanolamine, phosphocreatine, NAD, and UDPG. However, the most novel feature of the spectra was the presence of an unidentified peak in the phosphonate region (+ 16.9 ppm). The peak was not present in spectra of muscle, liver, brain, kidney, or fat tissues excised from the same animals. They are presently attempting to identify the compound that gives rise to this peak and to establish its metabolic origin

  2. NMR spectroscopy and drug development

    Craik, D.; Munro, S.

    1990-01-01

    The use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for structural and conformational studies on drug molecules, the three-dimensional investigation of proteins structure and their interactions with ligands are discussed. In-vivo NMR studies of the effects of drugs on metabolism in perfused organs and whole animals are also briefly presented. 5 refs., ills

  3. NMR in pulsed magnetic field

    Abou-Hamad, Edy; Bontemps, P.; Rikken, Geert L J A

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in pulsed magnetic fields up to 30.4 T focused on 1H and 93Nb nuclei are reported. Here we discuss the advantage and limitation of pulsed field NMR and why this technique is able to become a promising research tool. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  4. NMR imaging of osteoarticular pathology

    Frocrain, L.; Duvauferrier, R.; Gagey, N.

    1987-01-01

    NMR imaging is assuming an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of osteo-articular disorders. Semiological descriptions of the mean pathological disorders of the locomotor system are presented. Some investigation strategies are proposed to compare NMR imaging with other imaging techniques in various pathological states [fr

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) tomography

    Skalpe, I.O.

    1984-01-01

    A brief survey of the working principle of the NMR technique in diagnostical medicine is given. Its clinical usefulness for locating tumors, diagnosing various other diseases, such as some mental illnesses and multiple sclerosis, and its possibilities for studying biochemical processes in vivo are mentioned. The price of NMR image scanners and the problems of the strong magnetic field around the machines are mentioned

  6. NMR imaging studies of coal

    Ma, Z.R.; Zhang, P.Z.; Ding, G.L.; Li, L.Y.; Ye, C.H. [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    The permeation transportation and swelling behavior of solvents into coal are investigated by NMR imaging using pyridine-d{sub 5} and acetone-d{sub 6}. Images of coal swollen with deuterated solvents illuminate proton distributions of mobile phases within the coal macromolecular networks. More information about the chemical and physical structure of coal can be obtained using NMR imaging techniques.

  7. NMR in pulsed magnetic field

    Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in pulsed magnetic fields up to 30.4 T focused on 1H and 93Nb nuclei are reported. Here we discuss the advantage and limitation of pulsed field NMR and why this technique is able to become a promising research tool. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Structural Biology: Practical NMR Applications

    Teng, Quincy

    2005-01-01

    This textbook begins with an overview of NMR development and applications in biological systems. It describes recent developments in instrument hardware and methodology. Chapters highlight the scope and limitation of NMR methods. While detailed math and quantum mechanics dealing with NMR theory have been addressed in several well-known NMR volumes, chapter two of this volume illustrates the fundamental principles and concepts of NMR spectroscopy in a more descriptive manner. Topics such as instrument setup, data acquisition, and data processing using a variety of offline software are discussed. Chapters further discuss several routine stategies for preparing samples, especially for macromolecules and complexes. The target market for such a volume includes researchers in the field of biochemistry, chemistry, structural biology and biophysics.

  9. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy

    Rule, Gordon S

    2006-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful technique to study the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy is a comprehensive textbook that guides the reader from a basic understanding of the phenomenological properties of magnetic resonance to the application and interpretation of modern multi-dimensional NMR experiments on 15N/13C-labeled proteins. Beginning with elementary quantum mechanics, a set of practical rules is presented and used to describe many commonly employed multi-dimensional, multi-nuclear NMR pulse sequences. A modular analysis of NMR pulse sequence building blocks also provides a basis for understanding and developing novel pulse programs. This text not only covers topics from chemical shift assignment to protein structure refinement, as well as the analysis of protein dynamics and chemical kinetics, but also provides a practical guide to many aspects of modern spectrometer hardware, sample preparation, experimental set-up, and data pr...

  10. Global Inequality

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...... and unabated. Like these ‘absolute’ measures, our ‘centrist’ inequality indicators, the Krtscha measure and an intermediate Gini, also register a pronounced increase in global inequality, albeit, in the case of the latter, with a decline during 2005 to 2010. A critical question posed by our findings is whether...

  11. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  12. nmr spectroscopic study and dft calculations of giao nmr shieldings

    Preferred Customer

    3Department of Physics, Arts and Science Faculty, Dumlupinar University, Kütahya, ... 1H, 13C NMR chemical shifts and 1JCH coupling constants of .... then estimated using the corresponding TMS shieldings calculated in advance at the same.

  13. NMR-based milk metabolomics

    Sundekilde, Ulrik; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2013-01-01

    and processing capabilities of bovine milk is closely associated to milk composition. Metabolomics is ideal in the study of the low-molecular-weight compounds in milk, and this review focuses on the recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics trends in milk research, including applications linking...... compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics applications elucidating how the differential regulated genes affects milk composition are also reported. This review will highlight the recent advances in NMR-based metabolomics on milk, as well as give a brief summary of when NMR spectroscopy can be useful for gaining...

  14. Annual reports on NMR spectroscopy

    Webb, Graham A; McCarthy, M J

    1995-01-01

    Over recent years, no other technique has grown to such importance as that of NMR spectroscopy. It is used in all branches of science where precise structural determination is required and where the nature of interactions and reactions in solution is being studied. Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy has established itself as a means for the specialist and non-specialist alike to become familiar with new applications of the technique in all branches of chemistry, including biochemistry, and pharmaceutics. This volume focuses on theoretical aspects of NMR nuclear shielding and on applications of

  15. Historical amphibian declines and extinctions in Brazil linked to chytridiomycosis.

    Carvalho, Tamilie; Becker, C Guilherme; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2017-02-08

    The recent increase in emerging fungal diseases is causing unprecedented threats to biodiversity. The origin of spread of the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ( Bd ) is a matter of continued debate. To date, the historical amphibian declines in Brazil could not be attributed to chytridiomycosis; the high diversity of hosts coupled with the presence of several Bd lineages predating the reported declines raised the hypothesis that a hypervirulent Bd genotype spread from Brazil to other continents causing the recent global amphibian crisis. We tested for a spatio-temporal overlap between Bd and areas of historical amphibian population declines and extinctions in Brazil. A spatio-temporal convergence between Bd and declines would support the hypothesis that Brazilian amphibians were not adapted to Bd prior to the reported declines, thus weakening the hypothesis that Brazil was the global origin of Bd emergence. Alternatively, a lack of spatio-temporal association between Bd and frog declines would indicate an evolution of host resistance in Brazilian frogs predating Bd 's global emergence , further supporting Brazil as the potential origin of the Bd panzootic. Here, we Bd -screened over 30 000 museum-preserved tadpoles collected in Brazil between 1930 and 2015 and overlaid spatio-temporal Bd data with areas of historical amphibian declines. We detected an increase in the proportion of Bd -infected tadpoles during the peak of amphibian declines (1979-1987). We also found that clusters of Bd -positive samples spatio-temporally overlapped with most records of amphibian declines in Brazil's Atlantic Forest. Our findings indicate that Brazil is post epizootic for chytridiomycosis and provide another piece to the puzzle to explain the origin of Bd globally. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Historical amphibian declines and extinctions in Brazil linked to chytridiomycosis

    Carvalho, Tamilie; Becker, C. Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    The recent increase in emerging fungal diseases is causing unprecedented threats to biodiversity. The origin of spread of the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a matter of continued debate. To date, the historical amphibian declines in Brazil could not be attributed to chytridiomycosis; the high diversity of hosts coupled with the presence of several Bd lineages predating the reported declines raised the hypothesis that a hypervirulent Bd genotype spread from Brazil to other continents causing the recent global amphibian crisis. We tested for a spatio-temporal overlap between Bd and areas of historical amphibian population declines and extinctions in Brazil. A spatio-temporal convergence between Bd and declines would support the hypothesis that Brazilian amphibians were not adapted to Bd prior to the reported declines, thus weakening the hypothesis that Brazil was the global origin of Bd emergence. Alternatively, a lack of spatio-temporal association between Bd and frog declines would indicate an evolution of host resistance in Brazilian frogs predating Bd's global emergence, further supporting Brazil as the potential origin of the Bd panzootic. Here, we Bd-screened over 30 000 museum-preserved tadpoles collected in Brazil between 1930 and 2015 and overlaid spatio-temporal Bd data with areas of historical amphibian declines. We detected an increase in the proportion of Bd-infected tadpoles during the peak of amphibian declines (1979–1987). We also found that clusters of Bd-positive samples spatio-temporally overlapped with most records of amphibian declines in Brazil's Atlantic Forest. Our findings indicate that Brazil is post epizootic for chytridiomycosis and provide another piece to the puzzle to explain the origin of Bd globally. PMID:28179514

  17. β-NMR sample optimization

    Zakoucka, Eva

    2013-01-01

    During my summer student programme I was working on sample optimization for a new β-NMR project at the ISOLDE facility. The β-NMR technique is well-established in solid-state physics and just recently it is being introduced for applications in biochemistry and life sciences. The β-NMR collaboration will be applying for beam time to the INTC committee in September for three nuclei: Cu, Zn and Mg. Sample optimization for Mg was already performed last year during the summer student programme. Therefore sample optimization for Cu and Zn had to be completed as well for the project proposal. My part in the project was to perform thorough literature research on techniques studying Cu and Zn complexes in native conditions, search for relevant binding candidates for Cu and Zn applicable for ß-NMR and eventually evaluate selected binding candidates using UV-VIS spectrometry.

  18. NMR Studies of Polymer Nanocomposites

    Greenbaum, Steve

    2001-01-01

    .... The primary tool is pulsed field gradient NMR. A static field gradient method was developed which makes possible variable pressure diffusion measurement, and the application to the important fuel cell membrane NAFION constitute the first results...

  19. Integrative NMR for biomolecular research

    Lee, Woonghee; Cornilescu, Gabriel; Dashti, Hesam; Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Tonelli, Marco; Westler, William M.; Butcher, Samuel E.; Henzler-Wildman, Katherine A.; Markley, John L.

    2016-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful technique for determining structural and functional features of biomolecules in physiological solution as well as for observing their intermolecular interactions in real-time. However, complex steps associated with its practice have made the approach daunting for non-specialists. We introduce an NMR platform that makes biomolecular NMR spectroscopy much more accessible by integrating tools, databases, web services, and video tutorials that can be launched by simple installation of NMRFAM software packages or using a cross-platform virtual machine that can be run on any standard laptop or desktop computer. The software package can be downloaded freely from the NMRFAM software download page ( http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/download-packages.html http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/download_packages.html ), and detailed instructions are available from the Integrative NMR Video Tutorial page ( http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/integrative.html http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/integrative.html ).

  20. Integrative NMR for biomolecular research

    Lee, Woonghee, E-mail: whlee@nmrfam.wisc.edu; Cornilescu, Gabriel; Dashti, Hesam; Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Tonelli, Marco; Westler, William M.; Butcher, Samuel E.; Henzler-Wildman, Katherine A.; Markley, John L., E-mail: markley@nmrfam.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, National Magnetic Resonance Facility at Madison and Biochemistry Department (United States)

    2016-04-15

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful technique for determining structural and functional features of biomolecules in physiological solution as well as for observing their intermolecular interactions in real-time. However, complex steps associated with its practice have made the approach daunting for non-specialists. We introduce an NMR platform that makes biomolecular NMR spectroscopy much more accessible by integrating tools, databases, web services, and video tutorials that can be launched by simple installation of NMRFAM software packages or using a cross-platform virtual machine that can be run on any standard laptop or desktop computer. The software package can be downloaded freely from the NMRFAM software download page ( http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/download-packages.html http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/download{sub p}ackages.html ), and detailed instructions are available from the Integrative NMR Video Tutorial page ( http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/integrative.html http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/integrative.html ).

  1. Interpretations of NMR images

    Shi, J.Z.; McFarland, W.D.; Chen, S.S.; Sadhu, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Two color display schemes are generally considered in medical images: pseudo-color and color composite. Psuedo-color technique maps the intensity means of a single monochrome image into a three dimensional color space, the gray level is thus replaced by the assigned color. Such a psuedo-color assignment is somewhat arbitrary but may be advantageous if the monochrome image is composed of simple intensity patterns. A good example of psuedo-color application is in nuclear medicine: The change of gray levels can be simply determined and the isocounts from two regions with different surroundings can be readily recognized. However, the use of psuedo-color in CT or MR imaging is controversial because it does not give additional information and may exaggerate insignificant gray scale differences. The color composite technique maps three parametric image data into a three dimensional color space, and thus three monochrome images are merged to form a single color image. The color composite technique increases the number of ways information can be displayed and provides both quantitative and qualitative data about the object or event represented. This paper describes the application of color composite in NMR images

  2. Mobility decline in old age

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna Regina; Rantanen, Taina

    2013-01-01

    Mobility is important for community independence. With increasing age, underlying pathologies, genetic vulnerabilities, physiological and sensory impairments, and environmental barriers increase the risk for mobility decline. Understanding how mobility declines is paramount to finding ways...... to promote mobility in old age....

  3. Additional pest surveyed: hickory decline

    Jennifer Juzwik; Ji-Hyun. Park

    2011-01-01

    A five year investigation of the cause of rapid crown decline and mortality of bitternut hickory was concluded in September 2011. Results of a series of related studies found that multiple cankers and xylem (the water conducting tissue) dysfunction caused by Ceratocystis smalleyi are correlated with rapid crown decline typical of a limited vascular...

  4. NMR characterization of thin films

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  5. NMR imaging of cerebral infarction

    Takusagawa, Yoshihiko; Yamaoka, Naoki; Doi, Kazuaki; Okada, Keisei

    1987-01-01

    One hundred and five patients with cerebral infarction were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) CT (resistive type of magnet with strength of 0.1 tesla) and X-ray CT. Pulse sequences used saturation recovery (Tr = 600 mSec), Inversion recovery (Tr = 500 mSec, Td = 300 mSec) and spin echo (Tr = 1500 mSec, Te = 40, 80, 120, 160 mSec). Fifteen cases were examined by NMR-CT within 24 hours from onset. Proton NMR imaging could not detect cerebral ischemia as early as 2 hours after onset, but except could detect the lesions in Se image the area of cerebral infarct 3 hours after onset. After 5 hours from onset image changes in SE were evident and corresponded to the area of cerebral infarct, but image changes in IR could not fully delineate the infarcted area. NMR images of 41 year-old woman with cerebral embolism by MCA trunck occlusion associated with mitral stenosis were presented, and NMR-CT was examined 10 hours, 9th and 43th days after episode of MCA occlusion. Sixty patents (64 times) with lacunar infarction were studied by NMR-CT and X-ray CT. The inversion recovery images were used mainly for detection of lesions and comparison with X-ray CT. In 160 lesions which were detected by NMR-CT or X-ray CT, could 156 lesions be detected by NMR-CT and 78 lesions by X-ray CT. Inversion recovery images were more useful for detection of lacunes than X-ray CT. Calculated T1 and T2 values prolonged with time course from onset. (author)

  6. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping 129 Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the 131 Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen

  7. NMR characterization of thin films

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  8. Medical applications of NMR imaging and NMR spectroscopy with stable isotopes. Summary

    Matwiyoff, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of NMR imaging and NMR spectroscopy are summarized. For the most part examples from the March 1983 Puerto Rico symposium are used to illustrate the utility of NMR in medicine. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Medical applications of NMR imaging and NMR spectroscopy with stable isotopes. Summary

    Matwiyoff, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of NMR imaging and NMR spectroscopy are summarized. For the most part examples from the March 1983 Puerto Rico symposium are used to illustrate the utility of NMR in medicine. 18 refs., 5 figs

  10. Using Africa's protected area network to estimate the global population of a threatened and declining species: a case study of the Critically Endangered White-headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis.

    Murn, Campbell; Mundy, Peter; Virani, Munir Z; Borello, Wendy D; Holloway, Graham J; Thiollay, Jean-Marc

    2016-02-01

    The White-headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis (WhV) is uncommon and largely restricted to protected areas across its range in sub-Saharan Africa. We used the World Database on Protected Areas to identify protected areas (PAs) likely to contain White-headed Vultures. Vulture occurrence on road transects in Southern, East, and West Africa was adjusted to nests per km(2) using data from areas with known numbers of nests and corresponding road transect data. Nest density was used to calculate the number of WhV nests within identified PAs and from there extrapolated to estimate the global population. Across a fragmented range, 400 PAs are estimated to contain 1893 WhV nests. Eastern Africa is estimated to contain 721 nests, Central Africa 548 nests, Southern Africa 468 nests, and West Africa 156 nests. Including immature and nonbreeding birds, and accounting for data deficient PAs, the estimated global population is 5475 - 5493 birds. The identified distribution highlights are alarming: over 78% (n = 313) of identified PAs contain fewer than five nests. A further 17% (n = 68) of PAs contain 5 - 20 nests and 4% (n = 14) of identified PAs are estimated to contain >20 nests. Just 1% (n = 5) of PAs are estimated to contain >40 nests; none is located in West Africa. Whilst ranging behavior of WhVs is currently unknown, 35% of PAs large enough to hold >20 nests are isolated by more than 100 km from other PAs. Spatially discrete and unpredictable mortality events such as poisoning pose major threats to small localized vulture populations and will accelerate ongoing local extinctions. Apart from reducing the threat of poisoning events, conservation actions promoting linkages between protected areas should be pursued. Identifying potential areas for assisted re-establishment via translocation offers the potential to expand the range of this species and alleviate risk.

  11. Cognitive decline affects diabetic women

    Perzyński Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: DM provokes peripheral complications and changes in central nervous system. Central changes in the course of diabetes mellitus (DM include changes in brain tissue structure, electrophysiological abnormalities but also disturbances in neurotransmission leading to cognitive decline.

  12. 1H-NMR METABONOMICS ANALYSIS OF SERA DIFFERENTIATES BETWEEN MAMMARY TUMOR-BEARING MICE AND HEALTHY CONTROLS

    Global analysis of 1H-NMR spectra of serum is an appealing approach for the rapid detection of cancer. To evaluate the usefulness of this method in distinguishing between mammary tumor-bearing mice and healthy controls, we conducted 1H-NMR metabonomic analyses on serum samples ob...

  13. Carbon-13 NMR of flavinoids

    Agrawal, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    The present book has been written with the objective of introducing the organic chemists with the conceptual and experimental basis required for interpretation of 13 C NMR spectra of a flavonoid and to a discussion of general usefulness of the technique in solving flavonoid structural problem. After a brief general introduction to the essential aspects of flavonoids and 13 C NMR spectroscopy, considerable emphasis has been placed in chapter 2 on the various experimental methods and the interpretation of spectral details which enable individual resonance lines to be associated with the appropriate carbons in a molecule. The whole bulk of the literature, published on 13 C NMR of flavonoids in the major journals upto 1986 alongwith some recent references of 1987 has been classified in several categories such as: flavonoids, isflavonoids, other flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides, chalconoids and flavanoids. Each category constitutes a chapter. Finally the last chapter is devoted largely to a discussion for the differentiation of various categories and subcategories of flavonoids and for the establishment of aromatic substitution pattern in these compounds. It should be emphasized that the book is a data book and only concerned with the actual analysis of 13 C NMR spectra, thus a reasonable familiarity with basic instrumentation of 13 C NMR and general pattern of nuclear chemical shifts has been assumed. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  14. NMR investigation of coal extracts

    Lang, I; Sebor, G [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Hornicky Ustav; Sebor, G Jr; Hajek, M; Mostecky, J [Vysoka Skola Chemicko-Technologicka, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-07-01

    Proton NMR spectroscopy was used for the evaluation of 10% coal extract solutions in deuterated pyridine. Four types of Czechoslovak coal were analyzed. Agreement was found between the aromaticity of coal extracts calculated from /sup 1/H NMR data using Brown's method and Ladner's and Williams' method and the characterization of an average molecule of the coal extract by the number of non-bridge carbon atoms of aromatic rings, by the overall number of aromatic ring carbon atoms and the number of aromatic rings, determined by the Williams and Ferris methods. The methods for calculating carbon distribution from /sup 1/H NMR data, however, contain some constants theoretically estimated or experimentally found using the method which still remain to be verified.

  15. Two-dimensional NMR spectrometry

    Farrar, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series. In part one (ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, May 15) the authors discussed one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and some relatively advanced nuclear spin gymnastics experiments that provide a capability for selective sensitivity enhancements. In this article and overview and some applications of two-dimensional NMR experiments are presented. These powerful experiments are important complements to the one-dimensional experiments. As in the more sophisticated one-dimensional experiments, the two-dimensional experiments involve three distinct time periods: a preparation period, t 0 ; an evolution period, t 1 ; and a detection period, t 2

  16. Solid state NMR of materials

    Taylor, Sharon A; Ferguson, David B; Haw, James F [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-31

    In situ NMR experiments are studied, including probe of several structures such as the structures of the organic adsorbates, Broensted acid sites, other nuclei associated with active sites, and other framework sites. The authors report that in the absence of high concentrations of paramagnetic sites or metal particles, high resolution MAS spectra are relatively easy to obtain and interpret. It is also concluded that NMR can measure spatial distributions and rates of diffusion; and are able to characterize equilibrium structures and the frequencies and amplitudes of molecular motion

  17. Mapping of unfolding states of integral helical membrane proteins by GPS-NMR and scattering techniques

    Calcutta, Antonello; Jessen, Christian M; Behrens, Manja Annette

    2012-01-01

    induced by unfolding of an integral membrane protein, namely TFE-induced unfolding of KcsA solubilized by the n-dodecyl ß-d-maltoside (DDM) surfactant is investigated by the recently introduced GPS-NMR (Global Protein folding State mapping by multivariate NMR) (Malmendal et al., PlosONE 5, e10262 (2010......)) along with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). GPS-NMR is used as a tool for fast analysis of the protein unfolding processes upon external perturbation, and DLS and SAXS are used for further structural characterization of the unfolding states. The combination allows...

  18. Push-through Direction Injectin NMR Automation

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) are the two major spectroscopic techniques successfully used in metabolomics studies. The non-invasive, quantitative and reproducible characteristics make NMR spectroscopy an excellent technique for detection of endogeno...

  19. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-07-01

    monitoring of drugs in the eye. HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy proved to be a suitable tool for investigating metabolites in the lens and cornea. Long-term steroid treatment and exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation, known risk factors for cataract development, induced profound metabolic changes in the lens. The major changes were depletion of osmolytes as taurine and inositols as well as significant loss of glutathione. Glutathione has been shown to decline in most cataracts. Unlike the induced lenticular opacities, metabolic changes did not follow any UVB dose-response relationship 7 days post exposure. UVB exposure also caused considerable metabolic alterations in the cornea, with depletion of ascorbate and osmolytes. As an antioxidant, ascorbate is important for ocular UV-protection. Steroid treatment prior to UVB exposure reinforced metabolic changes in the anterior segment of the eye. In the present studies, HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy was implemented for investigating intact tissue samples from the cornea and lens. Moreover a basis was introduced to apply these methods for analysis of corneal and lenticular sections. This is a promising technique for research on eye diseases, enabling metabolic asymmetry within the tissues to be taken into account. (Author)

  20. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-01-01

    monitoring of drugs in the eye. HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy proved to be a suitable tool for investigating metabolites in the lens and cornea. Long-term steroid treatment and exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation, known risk factors for cataract development, induced profound metabolic changes in the lens. The major changes were depletion of osmolytes as taurine and inositols as well as significant loss of glutathione. Glutathione has been shown to decline in most cataracts. Unlike the induced lenticular opacities, metabolic changes did not follow any UVB dose-response relationship 7 days post exposure. UVB exposure also caused considerable metabolic alterations in the cornea, with depletion of ascorbate and osmolytes. As an antioxidant, ascorbate is important for ocular UV-protection. Steroid treatment prior to UVB exposure reinforced metabolic changes in the anterior segment of the eye. In the present studies, HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy was implemented for investigating intact tissue samples from the cornea and lens. Moreover a basis was introduced to apply these methods for analysis of corneal and lenticular sections. This is a promising technique for research on eye diseases, enabling metabolic asymmetry within the tissues to be taken into account. (Author)

  1. With Prudhoe Bay in decline

    Davis, J.M.; Pollock, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Almost every day, it seems, someone is mentioning Prudhoe Bay---its development activities, the direction of its oil production, and more recently its decline rate. Almost as frequently, someone is mentioning the number of companies abandoning exploration in Alaska. The state faces a double-edged dilemma: decline of its most important oil field and a diminished effort to find a replacement for the lost production. ARCO has seen the Prudhoe Bay decline coming for some time and has been planning for it. We have reduced staff, and ARCO and BP Exploration are finding cost-effective ways to work more closely together through such vehicles as shared services. At the same time, ARCO is continuing its high level of Alaskan exploration. This article will assess the future of Prudhoe Bay from a technical perspective, review ARCO's exploration plans for Alaska, and suggest what the state can do to encourage other companies to invest in this crucial producing region and exploratory frontier

  2. Fourier transform n.m.r. spectroscopy

    Shaw, D.

    1976-01-01

    This book is orientated to techniques rather than applications. The basic theory of n.m.r. is dealt with in a unified approach to the Fourier theory. The middle section of the book concentrates on the practical aspects of Fourier n.m.r., both instrumental and experimental. The final chapters briefly cover general application of n.m.r., but concentrate strongly on those areas where Fourier n.m.r. can give information which is not available by conventional techniques

  3. NMR investigations of molecular dynamics

    Palmer, Arthur

    2011-03-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful experimental approach for characterizing protein conformational dynamics on multiple time scales. The insights obtained from NMR studies are complemented and by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which provide full atomistic details of protein dynamics. Homologous mesophilic (E. coli) and thermophilic (T. thermophilus) ribonuclease H (RNase H) enzymes serve to illustrate how changes in protein sequence and structure that affect conformational dynamic processes can be monitored and characterized by joint analysis of NMR spectroscopy and MD simulations. A Gly residue inserted within a putative hinge between helices B and C is conserved among thermophilic RNases H, but absent in mesophilic RNases H. Experimental spin relaxation measurements show that the dynamic properties of T. thermophilus RNase H are recapitulated in E. coli RNase H by insertion of a Gly residue between helices B and C. Additional specific intramolecular interactions that modulate backbone and sidechain dynamical properties of the Gly-rich loop and of the conserved Trp residue flanking the Gly insertion site have been identified using MD simulations and subsequently confirmed by NMR spin relaxation measurements. These results emphasize the importance of hydrogen bonds and local steric interactions in restricting conformational fluctuations, and the absence of such interactions in allowing conformational adaptation to substrate binding.

  4. PSYCHE Pure Shift NMR Spectroscopy.

    Foroozandeh, Mohammadali; Morris, Gareth; Nilsson, Mathias

    2018-03-13

    Broadband homodecoupling techniques in NMR, also known as "pure shift" methods, aim to enhance spectral resolution by suppressing the effects of homonuclear coupling interactions to turn multiplet signals into singlets. Such techniques typically work by selecting a subset of "active" nuclear spins to observe, and selectively inverting the remaining, "passive", spins to reverse the effects of coupling. Pure Shift Yielded by Chirp Excitation (PSYCHE) is one such method; it is relatively recent, but has already been successfully implemented in a range of different NMR experiments. Paradoxically, PSYCHE is one of the trickiest of pure shift NMR techniques to understand but one of the easiest to use. Here we offer some insights into theoretical and practical aspects of the method, and into the effects and importance of the experimental parameters. Some recent improvements that enhance the spectral purity of PSYCHE spectra will be presented, and some experimental frameworks including examples in 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, for the implementation of PSYCHE will be introduced. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. NMR-CT in muscular disorders

    Matsumura, Kiichiro; Nakano, Imaharu; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Nobuo; Tateno, Yukio.

    1986-01-01

    Proton NMR-CT (magnetic field strength 0.1 Tesla, resonant frequency 4.5 MHz) was performed in 15 normal (NC) and 20 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) males. The age ranged from 3 to 47 years for the NC males, and 1 to 14 years for the DMD males. In the DMD group there were one subclinical stage, 4 stage 1, 6 stage 2, 4 stage 3, and 5 stage 5 or higher patients. T 1 (longitudinal relaxation) images were obtained for three slices at the buttock, midthigh, and calf levels. The T 1 values were measured for the medial portion of the gluteus maximus, the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps femoris, the adductors, the sartorius, the gracilis, and the gastrocnemius muscles. Bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from Fullerton's equation based on the fast diffusion model. The following results were obtained: (1) In the NC group, muscle T 1 values declined gradually with maturation under the age of 10, and became constant beyond that. The average T 1 value was 280 ms for the age group between 3 and 6 years, 270 ms for 7 and 10 years, and 260 ms for those older than 10 years. (2) Muscle BWF increased with maturation in the NC group. (3) In the DMD group, T 1 values were initially higher than normal (300 ms), declined rapidly with the progress of the disease, and reached the same low level as the subcutaneous fat (190 ms). (4) This decrease of T 1 value in DMD was not uniform for all muscles, being most prominent in the gluteus maximus and least so in the sartorius and gracilis. (5) In the early stages of DMD, the BWF was lower than normal. (J.P.N.)

  6. Global Inequality

    Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975–2010 using data from the most recent version of the World Income Inequality Database (WIID). The picture that emerges using ‘absolute,’ and even ‘centrist’ measures of inequality, is very different from the results obtained...... by centrist measures such as the Krtscha, could return to 1975 levels, at today's domestic and global per capita income levels, but this would require quite dramatic structural reforms to reduce domestic inequality levels in most countries....... using standard ‘relative’ inequality measures such as the Gini coefficient or Coefficient of Variation. Relative global inequality has declined substantially over the decades. In contrast, ‘absolute’ inequality, as captured by the Standard Deviation and Absolute Gini, has increased considerably...

  7. Strong families and declining fertility

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  8. French Wines on the Decline?:

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    French wines, differentiated by geographic origin, served for many decades as a basis for the French success in the British wine market. However in the early 1990s, market share began to decline. This article explores the values that market participants placed on labelling information on French...

  9. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  10. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    Becker, Edwin D

    1999-01-01

    High Resolution NMR provides a broad treatment of the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as it is used in the chemical sciences. It is written at an "intermediate" level, with mathematics used to augment, rather than replace, clear verbal descriptions of the phenomena. The book is intended to allow a graduate student, advanced undergraduate, or researcher to understand NMR at a fundamental level, and to see illustrations of the applications of NMR to the determination of the structure of small organic molecules and macromolecules, including proteins. Emphasis is on the study of NMR in liquids, but the treatment also includes high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. Careful attention is given to developing and interrelating four approaches - steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The presentation is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintan...

  11. PVT Degradation Studies: NMR Analysis

    Cho, Herman M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-06

    Under certain environmental conditions, polyvinyl toluene (PVT) plastic scintillator has been observed to undergo internal fogging. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to elucidate the state of water inside the PVT. The deuterium NMR results show that water absorbed by PVT under warm, humid conditions enters several distinct environments, and when the PVT is transferred from incubation to ambient temperature and humidity the water is lost on a time scale of a few hours from these samples. Most of the deuterium NMR peaks can be assigned to bulk liquid water, but almost 35% of the detected signal intensity is contained in a resonance that resembles spectra of water contained in nanometer-scale pores in mesoporous carbon.

  12. NMR imaging of human atherosclerosis

    Toussaint, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of atherosclerosis can no longer be evaluated with morphological parameters only. A description of atherosclerotic plaque composition is necessary to study the mechanisms of plaque rupture, which depends on collagenous cap and lipid core thicknesses. NMR, as a biochemical imaging technique, allows visualization of these components using T1 contrast (mobile lipids), T2 contrast (cap vs. core), spin density (calcifications), diffusion imaging, 1H and 13C spectroscopy. Today, these imaging sequences allow to study in vitro the effects of interventional techniques such as angioplasty or atherectomy. Clinical investigations begin, which will attempt to develop in vivo microscopy and test the ability of NMR to predict plaque rupture. (author). 13 refs., 7 figs

  13. Potential roles of Labyrinthula spp. in global seagrass population declines

    Sullivan, B.K.; Sherman, T.D.; Damare, V.S.; Lilje, O.; Gleason, F.H.

    are able to cause ecologically significant diseases of protists, plants and animals. Here, the pathosystem model is applied to host–parasite relationships in seagrass ecosystems. Known physical and biological stressors of seagrass are reviewed. Finally, we...

  14. Global population decline of the Great Slaty Woodpecker (Mulleripicus pulverulentus)

    Lammertink, M.; Prawiradilaga, D.M.; Setiorini, U.; Zaw Naing, T.; Duckworth, J.W.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Great Slaty Woodpecker (Mulleripicus pulverulentus) of South and Southeast Asia, the third largest woodpecker species in the world, is currently in the IUCN Red List category of Least Concern. This woodpecker appears associated with old-growth forests, and the rapid reductions in forest cover

  15. Factors driving the global decline of cycad diversity

    Mankga, Ledile T.; Yessoufou, Kowiyou

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence indicates that we are witnessing the sixth mass extinction period. Given the important goods and services biodiversity delivers to humans, there is a need for a continued commitment to investigate what pre-disposes some taxa to greater risk of extinction. Here, we investigate this question using a phylogenetic comparative method and fitting a cumulative link mixed effect model on biological, ecological and evolutionary data of cycads, the most threatened lineage in ...

  16. Comment on "Habitat split and the global decline of amphibians".

    Cannatella, David C

    2008-05-16

    Becker et al. (Reports, 14 December 2007, p. 1775) reported that forest amphibians with terrestrial development are less susceptible to the effects of habitat degradation than those with aquatic larvae. However, analysis with more appropriate statistical methods suggests there is no evidence for a difference between aquatic-reproducing and terrestrial-reproducing species.

  17. Amphibian and reptile declines over 35 years at La Selva, Costa Rica.

    Whitfield, Steven M; Bell, Kristen E; Philippi, Thomas; Sasa, Mahmood; Bolaños, Federico; Chaves, Gerardo; Savage, Jay M; Donnelly, Maureen A

    2007-05-15

    Amphibians stand at the forefront of a global biodiversity crisis. More than one-third of amphibian species are globally threatened, and over 120 species have likely suffered global extinction since 1980. Most alarmingly, many rapid declines and extinctions are occurring in pristine sites lacking obvious adverse effects of human activities. The causes of these "enigmatic" declines remain highly contested. Still, lack of long-term data on amphibian populations severely limits our understanding of the distribution of amphibian declines, and therefore the ultimate causes of these declines. Here, we identify a systematic community-wide decline in populations of terrestrial amphibians at La Selva Biological Station, a protected old-growth lowland rainforest in lower Central America. We use data collected over 35 years to show that population density of all species of terrestrial amphibians has declined by approximately 75% since 1970, and we show identical trends for all species of common reptiles. The trends we identify are neither consistent with recent emergence of chytridiomycosis nor the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis, two leading putative causes of enigmatic amphibian declines. Instead, our data suggest that declines are due to climate-driven reductions in the quantity of standing leaf litter, a critical microhabitat for amphibians and reptiles in this assemblage. Our results raise further concerns about the global persistence of amphibian populations by identifying widespread declines in species and habitats that are not currently recognized as susceptible to such risks.

  18. High resolution NMR in zeolites

    Diaz, Anix [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Analisis y Evalucion

    1992-12-31

    In this work {sup 29} Si and {sup 27} Al NMR spectroscopy was used to study various types of zeolites. The corresponding spectra were used to measure the Si/Al ratios, to follow chemical modifications induced by acid and hydrothermal treatments, to determine non-equivalent crystallographic sites in highly dealuminated mordenites, and to detect modifications of faujasites due to the insertion of titanium atoms in the lattice. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. High resolution NMR in zeolites

    Diaz, Anix

    1991-01-01

    In this work 29 Si and 27 Al NMR spectroscopy was used to study various types of zeolites. The corresponding spectra were used to measure the Si/Al ratios, to follow chemical modifications induced by acid and hydrothermal treatments, to determine non-equivalent crystallographic sites in highly dealuminated mordenites, and to detect modifications of faujasites due to the insertion of titanium atoms in the lattice. (author)

  20. Energy consumption declined in 1993

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    On presenting the energy consumption figures for 1993 the Minister for Economic Affairs of Baden-Wuerttemberg Dieter Spoeri (SPD) spoke of the eternal task of saving energy. In his view the slight decline in energy consumption from 1992 to 1993 should not be interpreted as a greater willingness to save energy; its main cause is rather to be seen in the course of the economy. According to estimations, total energy consumption fell 0.5% and electricity consumption 1.0% from 1992 to 1993. The economy on the other hand, still a decisive factor in energy consumption, is estimated to have declined 3% during that period. In the ten years from 1983 to 1993 total energy consumption in the Land rose an average annual 1.8% while electricity consumption kept astride with the economy with an average annual rise 2.7%, he said. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Cardiovascular Prevention of Cognitive Decline

    Jean-Jacques Monsuez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Midlife cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia, and an unhealthy lifestyle, have been linked to subsequent incidence, delay of onset, and progression rate of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Conversely, optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors prevents and slows down age-related cognitive disorders. The impact of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive outcome in patients with hypertension was assessed in large trials which demonstrated a reduction in progression of MRI white matter hyperintensities, in cognitive decline and in incidence of dementia. Large-scale database correlated statin use and reduction in the incidence of dementia, mainly in patients with documented atherosclerosis, but clinical trials failed to reach similar conclusions. Whether a multitargeted intervention would substantially improve protection, quality of life, and reduce medical cost expenditures in patients with lower risk profile has not been ascertained. This would require appropriately designed trials targeting large populations and focusing on cognitive decline as a primary outcome endpoint.

  2. Are our forests declining. Why

    Leygonie, R.

    1991-01-01

    This article first presents the historical background of recent events popularized under the names: acid rains, forests declines. The first major crisis was soil and lake acidifications in Scandinavian countries, then a fast forest decay, first in Germany, in the early eighties, then in a number of European countries, including France. These phenomena were attributed to atmospheric pollutions, essentially acidic pollution. The consequences were drastic legislations in Germany, then the European Directive on large combustion plants (November 1988). Another consequence was the UNECE Convention on long range transport of pollutants (1979). Observations in the field on tree declines (loss of needles or leaves, abnormal yellowings, soil studies, etc.) and laboratory experiments showed that causes are very complex, involving the low quality of soils, abnormal droughts, presence of pollutants in atmosphere, mainly ozone [fr

  3. Cognitive decline in Parkinson disease

    Aarsland, Dag; Creese, Byron; Politis, Marios; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; ffytche, Dominic H.; Weintraub, Daniel; Ballard, Clive

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a frequent problem encountered in advanced stages of Parkinson disease (PD). In recent years, research has focused on the pre-dementia stages of cognitive impairment in PD, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Several longitudinal studies have shown that MCI is a harbinger of dementia in PD, although the course is variable, and stabilization of cognition — or even reversal to normal cognition — is not uncommon. In addition to limbic and cortical spread of Lewy pathology, several other mechanisms are likely to contribute to cognitive decline in PD, and a variety of biomarker studies, some using novel structural and functional imaging techniques, have documented in vivo brain changes associated with cognitive impairment. The evidence consistently suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid-β42, a marker of comorbid Alzheimer disease (AD), predict future cognitive decline and dementia in PD. Emerging genetic evidence indicates that in addition to the APOE*ε4 allele (an established risk factor for AD), GBA mutations and SCNA mutations and triplications are associated with cognitive decline in PD, whereas the findings are mixed for MAPT polymorphisms. Cognitive enhancing medications have some effect in PD dementia, but no convincing evidence that progression from MCI to dementia can be delayed or prevented is available, although cognitive training has shown promising results. PMID:28257128

  4. Advanced NMR technology for bioscience and biotechnology

    Hammel, P.C.; Hernandez, G.; Trewhella, J.; Unkefer, C.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Boumenthal, D.K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (US); Kennedy, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US); Moore, G.J. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (US)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). NMR plays critical roles in bioscience and biotechnology in both imaging and structure determination. NMR is limited, however, by the inherent low sensitivity of the NMR experiment and the demands for spectral resolution required to study biomolecules. The authors addressed both of these issues by working on the development of NMR force microscopy for molecular imaging, and high field NMR with isotope labeling to overcome limitations in the size of biomolecules that can be studied using NMR. A novel rf coil design for NMR force microscopy was developed that increases the limits of sensitivity in magnetic resonance detection for imaging, and the authors demonstrated sub-surface spatial imaging capabilities. The authors also made advances in the miniaturization of two critical NMR force microscope components. They completed high field NMR and isotope labeling studies of a muscle protein complex which is responsible for regulating muscle contraction and is too large for study using conventional NMR approaches.

  5. Solid-state NMR of inorganic semiconductors.

    Yesinowski, James P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of inorganic semiconductors by solid-state NMR vary widely in terms of the nature of the samples investigated, the techniques employed to observe the NMR signal, and the types of information obtained. Compared with the NMR of diamagnetic non-semiconducting substances, important differences often result from the presence of electron or hole carriers that are the hallmark of semiconductors, and whose theoretical interpretation can be involved. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on the topic for the non-expert by providing: (1) a basic introduction to semiconductor physical concepts relevant to NMR, including common crystal structures and the various methods of making samples; (2) discussions of the NMR spin Hamiltonian, details of some of the NMR techniques and strategies used to make measurements and theoretically predict NMR parameters, and examples of how each of the terms in the Hamiltonian has provided useful information in bulk semiconductors; (3) a discussion of the additional considerations needed to interpret the NMR of nanoscale semiconductors, with selected examples. The area of semiconductor NMR is being revitalized by this interest in nanoscale semiconductors, the great improvements in NMR detection sensitivity and resolution that have occurred, and the current interest in optical pumping and spintronics-related studies. Promising directions for future research will be noted throughout.

  6. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of physiological fluids: from metabolism to physiology

    Vion-Dury, J.; Nicoli, F.; Torri, G.; Torri, J.; Kriat, M.; Sciaky, M.; Davin, A.; Viout, P.; Confort-Gouny, S.; Cozzone, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    High resolution NMR spectroscopy of physiological fluids provides quantitative, qualitative and dynamic information on the metabolic status of the interstitial and plasma compartments under a variety of pathophysiological conditions. The simultaneous detection and quantitation by NMR spectroscopy of numerous compounds of the intermediary metabolism offers a new insight in the understanding of the 'milieu interieur'.NMR spectroscopy of physiological fluids offers a unique way to define and monitor the global metabolic homeostasis in humans. The development of this analytical approach is still limited by the scarcity of pluridisciplinary teams able to fully exploit the wealth of information present on the NMR spectrum of a fluid. While application in pharmacology and toxicology is already established, the main areas of current development are cancer, hereditary metabolic disorders, organ transplantation and neurological diseases

  7. Teaching NMR spectra analysis with nmr.cheminfo.org.

    Patiny, Luc; Bolaños, Alejandro; Castillo, Andrés M; Bernal, Andrés; Wist, Julien

    2018-06-01

    Teaching spectra analysis and structure elucidation requires students to get trained on real problems. This involves solving exercises of increasing complexity and when necessary using computational tools. Although desktop software packages exist for this purpose, nmr.cheminfo.org platform offers students an online alternative. It provides a set of exercises and tools to help solving them. Only a small number of exercises are currently available, but contributors are invited to submit new ones and suggest new types of problems. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Dynamic pulsed-field-gradient NMR

    Sørland, Geir Humborstad

    2014-01-01

    Dealing with the basics, theory and applications of dynamic pulsed-field-gradient NMR NMR (PFG NMR), this book describes the essential theory behind diffusion in heterogeneous media that can be combined with NMR measurements to extract important information of the system being investigated. This information could be the surface to volume ratio, droplet size distribution in emulsions, brine profiles, fat content in food stuff, permeability/connectivity in porous materials and medical applications currently being developed. Besides theory and applications it will provide the readers with background knowledge on the experimental set-ups, and most important, deal with the pitfalls that are numerously present in work with PFG-NMR. How to analyze the NMR data and some important basic knowledge on the hardware will be explained, too.

  9. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  10. An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment

    Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping

    2011-01-01

    A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this article will enable instructors to use inversion recovery as a laboratory activity in applied NMR classes and provide research students with a conveni...

  11. Mechanisms of Age-Related Decline in Memory Search across the Adult Life Span

    Hills, Thomas T.; Mata, Rui; Wilke, Andreas; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    Three alternative mechanisms for age-related decline in memory search have been proposed, which result from either reduced processing speed (global slowing hypothesis), overpersistence on categories (cluster-switching hypothesis), or the inability to maintain focus on local cues related to a decline in working memory (cue-maintenance hypothesis).…

  12. NMR in structure-based drug design.

    Carneiro, Marta G; Ab, Eiso; Theisgen, Stephan; Siegal, Gregg

    2017-11-08

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful technique that can provide valuable structural information for drug discovery endeavors. Here, we discuss the strengths (and limitations) of NMR applications to structure-based drug discovery, highlighting the different levels of resolution and throughput obtainable. Additionally, the emerging field of paramagnetic NMR in drug discovery and recent developments in approaches to speed up and automate protein-observed NMR data collection and analysis are discussed. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. NMR spectroscopy using liquid crystal solvents

    Emsley, JW

    2013-01-01

    NMR Spectroscopy using Liquid Crystal Solvents covers the importance of using a liquid crystal solvent in NMR to derive nuclear dipolar spin-spin coupling constants. This book is composed of ten chapters, and begins with a brief description of the features and benefits of liquid crystal in NMR spectroscopic analysis. The succeeding chapters deal with the mode of operation of nuclear spin Hamiltonian for partially oriented molecules and the analysis of NMR spectra of partially oriented molecules, as well as the determination of rigid molecule structure. These topics are followed by discussions

  14. Solution NMR structure determination of proteins revisited

    Billeter, Martin; Wagner, Gerhard; Wuethrich, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    This 'Perspective' bears on the present state of protein structure determination by NMR in solution. The focus is on a comparison of the infrastructure available for NMR structure determination when compared to protein crystal structure determination by X-ray diffraction. The main conclusion emerges that the unique potential of NMR to generate high resolution data also on dynamics, interactions and conformational equilibria has contributed to a lack of standard procedures for structure determination which would be readily amenable to improved efficiency by automation. To spark renewed discussion on the topic of NMR structure determination of proteins, procedural steps with high potential for improvement are identified

  15. NMR studies of isotopically labeled RNA

    Pardi, A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    In summary, the ability to generate NMR quantities of {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C-labeled RNAs has led to the development of heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR techniques for simplifying the resonance assignment and structure determination of RNAs. These methods for synthesizing isotopically labeled RNAs are only several years old, and thus there are still relatively few applications of heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR techniques to RNA. However, given the critical role that RNAs play in cellular function, one can expect to see an increasing number of NMR structural studies of biologically active RNAs.

  16. Ligand-receptor Interactions by NMR Spectroscopy

    Novak. P.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Today NMR spectroscopy is a method of choice for elucidation of interactions between biomolecules and the potential ligands. Knowledge on these interactions is an essential prerequisite for the rational drug design. The most important contribution of NMR to drug design a few years ago was the 3D structure determination of proteins. Besides delivering the 3D structures of the free proteins as a raw material for the modeling studies on ligand binding, NMR can directly yield valuable experimental data on the biologically important protein-ligand complexes. In addition to X-ray diffraction, NMR spectroscopy can provide information on the internal protein dynamics ordynamics of intermolecular interactions. Changes in NMR parameters allow us to detect ("SAR by NMR" and quantitatively determine binding affinities (titration, diffusion NMR experiments, etc. of potential ligands. Also, it is possible to determine the binding site and conformations of ligands, receptors and receptor-ligand complexes with the help of NMR methods such as tr-NOESY. Epitopes or functional groups responsible for binding of ligands to the receptor can be identified by employing STD or WaterLOGSY experiments. In this review are described some of the most frequent NMR methods for the characterization of the interactions between biomolecules and ligands, together with their advantages and disadvantages.

  17. Late life leisure activities and risk of cognitive decline.

    Wang, Hui-Xin; Jin, Yinlong; Hendrie, Hugh C; Liang, Chaoke; Yang, Lili; Cheng, Yibin; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Ma, Feng; Hall, Kathleen S; Murrell, Jill R; Li, Ping; Bian, Jianchao; Pei, Jin-Jing; Gao, Sujuan

    2013-02-01

    Studies concerning the effect of different types of leisure activities on various cognitive domains are limited. This study tests the hypothesis that mental, physical, and social activities have a domain-specific protection against cognitive decline. A cohort of a geographically defined population in China was examined in 2003-2005 and followed for an average of 2.4 years. Leisure activities were assessed in 1,463 adults aged 65 years and older without cognitive or physical impairment at baseline, and their cognitive performances were tested at baseline and follow-up examinations. High level of mental activity was related to less decline in global cognition (β = -.23, p Leisure activities in old age may protect against cognitive decline for both women and men, and different types of activities seem to benefit different cognitive domains.

  18. NMR characterization of pituitary tumors

    Osbakken, M.; Gonzales, J.; Page, R.

    1984-01-01

    Twelve patients (5 male, 7 female, mean age 37.9 +- 20) with pituitary tumors were extensively evaluated with NMR imaging using a 1.5K gauss resistive magnet. Saturation recovery (SR), inversion recovery (IR) and spin echo (SE) pulse sequences were used for qualitative characterization of the lesions. T/sub 1/ calculations were also performed for brain and pituitary. Tumor histology and endocrine status were correlated with NMR data. All tumors were large with suprasellar extension (6 with prolactin secretion, 6 without). Pituitary T/sub 1/'s ranged from .2 to .64, the mean T/sub 1/ being longer than that of brain (Brain = .4 +- .04; Pit = .48 +- .14). 3 patients with histological evidence of homogeneous adenomas had long T/sub 1/'s (0.58 +- .05). 3 patients with evidence of recent or old hemorhage into the pituitary had much shorter T/sub 1/'s (0.29 +- .12). There was no relationship between prolactin secretion and T/sub 1/. Qualitative T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ information can be obtained by using a combination of SR, IR, and SE images. Using this method in the patients, homogeneous adenomas had similar T/sub 1/'s and longer T/sub 2/'s compared to the brain, while patients with bleeds had shorter T/sub 1/'s and T/sub 2/'s. Image T/sub 1/ characteristics correlated well with the calculated T/sub 1/ values. The range of T/sub 1/ (and potentially T/sub 2/) values which occur in apparently similar lesions are most likely due to anatomical and pathophysiological variations in these lesions. It may be ultimately possible to separate different types of pathological processes based on NMR image T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ characteristics after careful comparative studies of NMR and histological data are completed. The combination of calculated T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ with image T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ information may also be useful in further characterization of lesions

  19. Short recovery time NMR probe

    Ramia, M.E.; Martin, C.A.; Jeandrevin, S.

    2011-01-01

    A NMR probe for low frequency and short recovery time is presented in this work. The probe contains the tuning circuit, diode expanders and quarter wavelength networks to protect the receiver from both the amplifier noise and the coil ringing following the transmitter power pulse. It also possesses a coil damper which is activated by of non active components. The probe performance shows a recovery time of about of 15μs a sensitive Q factor reduction and an increase of the signal to noise ratio of about 68% during the reception at a work frequency of 2 MHz. (author)

  20. Performance of the WeNMR CS-Rosetta3 web server in CASD-NMR

    Van Der Schot, Gijs; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J

    We present here the performance of the WeNMR CS-Rosetta3 web server in CASD-NMR, the critical assessment of automated structure determination by NMR. The CS-Rosetta server uses only chemical shifts for structure prediction, in combination, when available, with a post-scoring procedure based on

  1. Comparison of NMR and crystal structures for the proteins TM1112 and TM1367

    Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Serrano, Pedro; Pedrini, Bill; Jaudzems, Kristaps; Geralt, Michael; Horst, Reto; Herrmann, Torsten; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A.; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    determination by NMR and by X-ray diffraction, respectively. The results thus obtained show that NMR structure calculations with the new automated UNIO software used by the JCSG compare favorably with those from a more labor-intensive and time-intensive interactive procedure. An intriguing observation is that the ‘bundles’ of two TM1112 or three TM1367 molecules in the asymmetric unit of the crystal structures mimic the behavior of the bundles of 20 conformers used to represent the NMR solution structures when comparing global r.m.s.d. values calculated either for the polypeptide backbone, the core residues with solvent accessibility below 15% or all heavy atoms

  2. 1H-NMR urinalysis

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Shuichi

    1988-01-01

    In an effort to examine the usefulness of 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) urinalysis in the diagnosis of congenital metabolic disorders, 70 kinds of urinary metabolites were analysed in relation to the diagnosis of inborn errors of amino acid and organic acid disorders. Homogated decoupling (HMG) method failed to analyze six metabolites within the undetectable range. When non-decoupling method (NON), in which the materials are dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, was used, the identification of signals became possible. The combination of HMG and NON methods was, therefore, considered to identify all of the metabolites. When the urine samples, which were obtained from patients with hyperglycerolemia, hyperornithinemia, glutaric acidemia type II, or glycerol kinase deficiency, were analysed by using both HMG and NON methods, abnormally increased urinary metabolites were detected. 1 H-NMR urinalysis, if used in the combination of HMG and NON methods, may allow simultanenous screening of inborn errors of metabolism of amino acid and organic acid disorders. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  4. Altered Reproductive Function and Amphibian Declines

    Gallipeau, Sherrie

    2014-01-01

    Agrochemical exposure is one of the factors that contributes to worldwide amphibian declines. Most studies that examine agrochemicals and amphibian declines focus on toxicity. However, declines are more likely caused by the sub-lethal effects of agrochemical exposure. Past emphases on the lethal effects of agrochemical exposure have overshadowed the contribution of decreased recruitment in amphibian declines. Additionally, studies that examine agrochemicals and reproductive function tend to f...

  5. Rapid decline of the volcanically threatened Montserrat oriole.

    Geoff M. Hilton; Phil W. Atkinson; Gerard A.L. Gray; Wayne J. Arendt; David W. Gibbons

    2003-01-01

    Prior to 1995, the Montserrat oriole (Icterus oberi) was confined to ca. 30 km2 of hill forest on the Lesser Antillean island of Montserrat, but was not listed as globally threatened. Since then, the eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano has destroyed more than half of the species’ range. Recent intensive monitoring has indicated that the species has also declined...

  6. Cued memory decline in biomarker-defined preclinical Alzheimer disease.

    Papp, Kathryn V; Rentz, Dorene M; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Schultz, Aaron P; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Quiroz, Yakeel; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A

    2017-04-11

    To determine whether a decline in cued recall is observable in the preclinical stage of Alzheimer disease (AD) in clinically normal older adults with elevated β-amyloid (Aβ) burden on PET imaging. Clinically normal older adults underwent baseline neuroimaging (PET to assess Aβ +/- status and MRI) and annual neuropsychological testing. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relative risk of cued memory decline (drop of 1, 2, 3, or 4 points on the total score of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test) in relation to neuroimaging measures, functional status, age, sex, and education. A total of 276 older adults (Clinical Dementia Rating = 0, mean Mini-Mental State Examination score = 29 ± 1.06) were followed up for a mean of 3.6 ± 1.2 years. Despite the infrequency of cued memory decline (only 19% of participants scored ≤46/48 in total recall by year 3), Aβ + participants were 3.55 times (95% confidence interval = 1.77-7.12) more likely to exhibit decline in total recall (≤46/48) compared with their Aβ - peers. Furthermore, Aβ + participants who scored ≤46/48 had smaller hippocampal volumes ( t = 3.37, p = 0.001) and evidence of early functional decline, i.e., greater risk of progression to global Clinical Dementia Rating of 0.5 (χ 2 = 14.30, p recall. Cued memory decline in healthy older adults may be particularly indicative of Aβ-related decline during the preclinical stage of AD and useful for identifying Aβ + clinically normal individuals at greatest risk of short-term clinical progression. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Novel Method of Production Decline Analysis

    Xie, Shan; Lan, Yifei; He, Lei; Jiao, Yang; Wu, Yong

    2018-02-01

    ARPS decline curves is the most commonly used in oil and gas field due to its minimal data requirements and ease application. And prediction of production decline which is based on ARPS analysis rely on known decline type. However, when coefficient index are very approximate under different decline type, it is difficult to directly recognize decline trend of matched curves. Due to difficulties above, based on simulation results of multi-factor response experiments, a new dynamic decline prediction model is introduced with using multiple linear regression of influence factors. First of all, according to study of effect factors of production decline, interaction experimental schemes are designed. Based on simulated results, annual decline rate is predicted by decline model. Moreover, the new method is applied in A gas filed of Ordos Basin as example to illustrate reliability. The result commit that the new model can directly predict decline tendency without needing recognize decline style. From arithmetic aspect, it also take advantage of high veracity. Finally, the new method improves the evaluation method of gas well production decline in low permeability gas reservoir, which also provides technical support for further understanding of tight gas field development laws.

  8. Early history of NMR at Los Alamos

    Jackson, J.A.

    1985-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has developed into an important research tool in chemistry. More recently, NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy promise to produce a revolution in medicine and biochemistry. Early experiments at Los Alamos led to DOE programs involving stable isotopes of importance to biology and to medicine. These events are briefly recounted. 2 refs

  9. Characterization of natural bentonite by NMR

    Leite, Sidnei Q.M.; Dieguez, Lidia C.; Menezes, Sonia M.C.; San Gil, Rosane A.S.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state NMR as well as several other instrumental chemical analysis techniques were used in order to characterize two natural occurring bentonite. The methodology is described. The NMR spectra, together with the other used techniques suggest that the observed differences are due to iron inclusions in tetrahedral and octahedral sites

  10. Using Cloud Storage for NMR Data Distribution

    Soulsby, David

    2012-01-01

    An approach using Google Groups as method for distributing student-acquired NMR data has been implemented. We describe how to configure NMR spectrometer software so that data is uploaded to a laboratory section specific Google Group, thereby removing bottlenecks associated with printing and processing at the spectrometer workstation. Outside of…

  11. Quartz Crystal Temperature Sensor for MAS NMR

    Simon, Gerald

    1997-10-01

    Quartz crystal temperature sensors (QCTS) were tested for the first time as wireless thermometers in NMR MAS rotors utilizing the NMR RF technique itself for exiting and receiving electro-mechanical quartz resonances. This new tool in MAS NMR has a high sensitivity, linearity, and precision. When compared to the frequently used calibration of the variable temperature in the NMR system by a solid state NMR chemical shift thermometer (CST), such as lead nitrate, QCTS shows a number of advantages. It is an inert thermometer in close contact with solid samples operating parallel to the NMR experiment. QCTS can be manufactured for any frequency to be near a NMR frequency of interest (typically 1 to 2 MHz below or above). Due to the strong response of the crystal, signal detection is possible without changing the tuning of the MAS probe. The NMR signal is not influenced due to the relative sharp crystal resonance, restricted excitation by finite pulses, high probeQvalues, and commonly used audio filters. The quadratic dependence of the temperature increase on spinning speed is the same for the QCTS and for the CST lead nitrate and is discussed in terms of frictional heat in accordance with the literature about lead nitrate and with the results of a simple rotor speed jump experiment with differently radial located lead nitrate in the rotor.

  12. NMR studies of the structure of glasses

    Bray, P.J.; Gravina, S.J.; Stallworth, P.E.; Szu, S.P.; Jianhui Zhong

    1988-01-01

    Earlier continuous wave (CW) NMR studies of chemical bonding and structure in glasses are summarized. Examples are given of this use of the quadrupolar interaction and chemical shift to obtain structural information. New NMR data and analyses are presented for alkali borate and gallate glasses. Extensions to other elements (e.g. molybdenum, lanthanum) are suggested. 44 refs. (author)

  13. An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment

    Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping

    2011-01-01

    A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this…

  14. Selective sensitivity enhancement in FT-NMR

    Farrar, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    In this article the basic two-spin nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiment and the new sensitivity enhancement experiments are reviewed. In part two of this two-part series an overview of two-dimensional NMR experiments will be presented. Part two will appear in the June 1 issue of Analytical Chemistry

  15. 2D NMR studies of biomolecules

    Lamerichs, R.M.J.N.

    1989-01-01

    The work described in this thesis comprises two related subjects. The first part describes methods to derive high-resolution structures of proteins in solution using two-dimensional (2-D) NMR. The second part describes 2-D NMR studies on the interaction between proteins and DNA. (author). 261 refs.; 52 figs.; 23 tabs

  16. Synthesis and NMR Elucidation of Novel Pentacycloundecane ...

    Herein we report the synthesis and NMR elucidation of five novel pentacycloundecane (PCU)-derived short peptides as potential HIV protease inhibitors. 1H and 13C spectral analysis show major overlapping of methine resonance of the PCU 'cage' thereby making it extremely difficult to assign the NMR signals. Attachment ...

  17. Development and applications of quantitative NMR spectroscopy

    Yamazaki, Taichi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, quantitative NMR spectroscopy has attracted attention as an analytical method which can easily secure traceability to SI unit system, and discussions about its accuracy and inaccuracy are also started. This paper focuses on the literatures on the advancement of quantitative NMR spectroscopy reported between 2009 and 2016, and introduces both NMR measurement conditions and actual analysis cases in quantitative NMR. The quantitative NMR spectroscopy using an internal reference method enables accurate quantitative analysis with a quick and versatile way in general, and it is possible to obtain the precision sufficiently applicable to the evaluation of pure substances and standard solutions. Since the external reference method can easily prevent contamination to samples and the collection of samples, there are many reported cases related to the quantitative analysis of biologically related samples and highly scarce natural products in which NMR spectra are complicated. In the precision of quantitative NMR spectroscopy, the internal reference method is superior. As the quantitative NMR spectroscopy widely spreads, discussions are also progressing on how to utilize this analytical method as the official methods in various countries around the world. In Japan, this method is listed in the Pharmacopoeia and Japanese Standard of Food Additives, and it is also used as the official method for purity evaluation. In the future, this method will be expected to spread as the general-purpose analysis method that can ensure traceability to SI unit system. (A.O.)

  18. NMR imaging of soft tissue tumors

    Laval-Jeantet, M.; Tobolsk, F.; Delepine, N.; Delepine, G.; Roger, B.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary findings on NMR imaging of 30 soft tissue tumors demonstrated the indispensable value of this examination (particularly when a surface antenna is used) for preoperative investigation and diagnosis of tumoral recurrence when compared with other radiologic techniques. The possible potential of NMR imaging for characterization of tissues, apart from lipoma or liposarcoma, cannot be evaluated at the present time [fr

  19. Systematic comparison of crystal and NMR protein structures deposited in the protein data bank.

    Sikic, Kresimir; Tomic, Sanja; Carugo, Oliviero

    2010-09-03

    Nearly all the macromolecular three-dimensional structures deposited in Protein Data Bank were determined by either crystallographic (X-ray) or Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods. This paper reports a systematic comparison of the crystallographic and NMR results deposited in the files of the Protein Data Bank, in order to find out to which extent these information can be aggregated in bioinformatics. A non-redundant data set containing 109 NMR - X-ray structure pairs of nearly identical proteins was derived from the Protein Data Bank. A series of comparisons were performed by focusing the attention towards both global features and local details. It was observed that: (1) the RMDS values between NMR and crystal structures range from about 1.5 Å to about 2.5 Å; (2) the correlation between conformational deviations and residue type reveals that hydrophobic amino acids are more similar in crystal and NMR structures than hydrophilic amino acids; (3) the correlation between solvent accessibility of the residues and their conformational variability in solid state and in solution is relatively modest (correlation coefficient = 0.462); (4) beta strands on average match better between NMR and crystal structures than helices and loops; (5) conformational differences between loops are independent of crystal packing interactions in the solid state; (6) very seldom, side chains buried in the protein interior are observed to adopt different orientations in the solid state and in solution.

  20. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy of biological systems

    Beckmann, Nicolau

    1995-01-01

    This book is intended to provide an in-depth understanding of 13C NMR as a tool in biological research. 13C NMR has provided unique information concerning complex biological systems, from proteins and nucleic acids to animals and humans. The subjects addressed include multidimensional heteronuclear techniques for structural studies of molecules in the liquid and solid states, the investigation of interactions in model membranes, the elucidation of metabolic pathwaysin vitro and in vivo on animals, and noninvasive metabolic studies performed on humans. The book is a unique mix of NMR methods and biological applications which makes it a convenient reference for those interested in research in this interdisciplinary area of physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine.Key Features* An interdisciplinary text with emphasis on both 13C NMR methodology and the relevant biological and biomedical issues* State-of-the-art 13C NMR techniques are described; Whenever possible, their advantages over other approaches are empha...

  1. Neotropical Amphibian Declines Affect Stream Ecosystem Properties

    Connelly, S.; Pringle, C. M.; Bixby, R. J.; Whiles, M. R.; Lips, K. R.; Brenes, R.; Colon-Gaud, J. C.; Kilham, S.; Hunte-Brown, M.

    2005-05-01

    Global declines of amphibians are well documented, yet effects of these dramatic losses on ecosystem structure and function are poorly understood. As part of a larger collaborative project, we compared two upland Panamanian streams. Both streams are biologically and geologically similar; however, one stream (Fortuna) has recently experienced almost complete extirpation of stream-dwelling frogs, while the other (Cope) still has intact populations. We experimentally excluded tadpoles from localized areas in each stream. We then compared chlorophyll a, algal community composition, ash-free dry mass (AFDM), inorganic matter, and insect assemblages in control and exclusion areas. Additionally, we sampled the natural substrate of both streams monthly for chlorophyll a, algal community composition, AFDM, and inorganic matter. At Cope, chlorophyll a, AFDM, and inorganic matter were greater in areas where tadpoles were excluded than in their presence. Numbers of dominant algal species (e.g., Nupela praecipua and Eunotia siolii) were greater in the exclusion versus control treatments. Monthly sampling of natural substrate indicated higher chlorophyll a and AFDM at Cope compared to Fortuna. Our data suggest that stream-dwelling anuran larvae have significant impacts on algal communities. These results also have implications for predicting the relevance of short-term experimental manipulations to long-term, whole-stream processes.

  2. US forest products in the global economy

    Dave N Wear; Jeff Prestemon; Michaela O. Foster

    2015-01-01

    The United States’ shares of global industrial roundwood production and derivative products have declined precipitously since the 1990s. We evaluate the extent of these declines compared with those of major producing countries from 1961 to 2013. We find that the US global share of industrial roundwood peaked at 28% in 1999 but by 2013 was at 17%, with the decline...

  3. Evaluating the links between climate, disease spread, and amphibian declines.

    Rohr, Jason R; Raffel, Thomas R; Romansic, John M; McCallum, Hamish; Hudson, Peter J

    2008-11-11

    Human alteration of the environment has arguably propelled the Earth into its sixth mass extinction event and amphibians, the most threatened of all vertebrate taxa, are at the forefront. Many of the worldwide amphibian declines have been caused by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and two contrasting hypotheses have been proposed to explain these declines. Positive correlations between global warming and Bd-related declines sparked the chytrid-thermal-optimum hypothesis, which proposes that global warming increased cloud cover in warm years that drove the convergence of daytime and nighttime temperatures toward the thermal optimum for Bd growth. In contrast, the spatiotemporal-spread hypothesis states that Bd-related declines are caused by the introduction and spread of Bd, independent of climate change. We provide a rigorous test of these hypotheses by evaluating (i) whether cloud cover, temperature convergence, and predicted temperature-dependent Bd growth are significant positive predictors of amphibian extinctions in the genus Atelopus and (ii) whether spatial structure in the timing of these extinctions can be detected without making assumptions about the location, timing, or number of Bd emergences. We show that there is spatial structure to the timing of Atelopus spp. extinctions but that the cause of this structure remains equivocal, emphasizing the need for further molecular characterization of Bd. We also show that the reported positive multi-decade correlation between Atelopus spp. extinctions and mean tropical air temperature in the previous year is indeed robust, but the evidence that it is causal is weak because numerous other variables, including regional banana and beer production, were better predictors of these extinctions. Finally, almost all of our findings were opposite to the predictions of the chytrid-thermal-optimum hypothesis. Although climate change is likely to play an important role in worldwide amphibian declines

  4. Toxic actions of dinoseb in medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos as determined by in vivo 31P NMR, HPLC-UV and 1H NMR metabolomics.

    Viant, Mark R; Pincetich, Christopher A; Hinton, David E; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2006-03-10

    Changes in metabolism of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos exposed to dinoseb (2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol), a substituted dinitrophenol herbicide, were determined by in vivo (31)P NMR, high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV, and (1)H NMR metabolomics. ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) metabolism were characterized within intact embryos by in vivo (31)P NMR; concentrations of ATP, GTP, ADP, GDP, AMP and PCr were determined by HPLC-UV; and changes in numerous polar metabolites were characterized by (1)H NMR-based metabolomics. Rangefinding exposures determined two sublethal doses of dinoseb, 50 and 75 ppb, in which embryos survived from 1-day post fertilization (DPF) through the duration of embryogenesis. In vivo (31)P NMR data were acquired from 900 embryos in 0, 50, and 75 ppb dinoseb at 14, 62, and 110 h (n = 6 groups) after initiation of exposure. After 110 h, embryos were observed for normal development and hatching success, then either preserved in 10% formalin for growth analysis or flash frozen and extracted for HPLC-UV and (1)H NMR analysis. Dinoseb exposure at both concentrations resulted in significant declines in [ATP] and [PCr] at 110 h as measured by in vivo (31)P NMR (p fashion. Metabolic effects measured by in vivo (31)P NMR showed a significant increase in orthophosphate levels (P(i); p < 0.05), and significant decreases in [ATP], [PCr] and the PCr/P(i) ratio (p < 0.05). Metabolomics revealed a dose-response relationship between dinoseb and endogenous metabolite changes, with both dinoseb concentrations producing significantly different metabolic profiles from controls (p < 0.05). Metabolic changes included decreased concentrations of ATP, PCr, alanine and tyrosine, and increased concentrations of lactate with medaka embryotoxicity. This study demonstrated that medaka embryos respond to dinoseb with significant changes in metabolism, reduced growth and heart rates, and increased abnormal development and post-exposure mortality. All

  5. Global engineering

    Plass, L.

    2001-01-01

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  6. An introduction to biological NMR spectroscopy

    Marion, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for biologists interested in the structure, dynamics, and interactions of biological macromolecules. This review aims at presenting in an accessible manner the requirements and limitations of this technique. As an introduction, the history of NMR will highlight how the method evolved from physics to chemistry and finally to biology over several decades. We then introduce the NMR spectral parameters used in structural biology, namely the chemical shift, the J-coupling, nuclear Overhauser effects, and residual dipolar couplings. Resonance assignment, the required step for any further NMR study, bears a resemblance to jigsaw puzzle strategy. The NMR spectral parameters are then converted into angle and distances and used as input using restrained molecular dynamics to compute a bundle of structures. When interpreting a NMR-derived structure, the biologist has to judge its quality on the basis of the statistics provided. When the 3D structure is a priori known by other means, the molecular interaction with a partner can be mapped by NMR: information on the binding interface as well as on kinetic and thermodynamic constants can be gathered. NMR is suitable to monitor, over a wide range of frequencies, protein fluctuations that play a crucial role in their biological function. In the last section of this review, intrinsically disordered proteins, which have escaped the attention of classical structural biology, are discussed in the perspective of NMR, one of the rare available techniques able to describe structural ensembles. This Tutorial is part of the International Proteomics Tutorial Programme (IPTP 16 MCP). (authors)

  7. NMR imaging of the brain: initial impressions

    Spencer, D.H.; Bydder, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    An NMR imaging system designed and built by Thorn-EMI Ltd was installed at Hammersmith Hospital in March 1981. In the first year of operation 180 patients and 40 volunteers have had cranial examinations and initial impressions bases on this experience are presented. Patients with a wide variety of neurological diseases have been studied to provide a basis for diagnostic interpretation, to define distinctive features, and to evaluate different types of scanning sequences. NMR imaging appears to be of considerable value in neurological diagnosis and has a number of advantages over CT. The detailed evaluation of NMR imaging will require much more work but the initial results are very promising

  8. Oriented solid-state NMR spectrosocpy

    Bertelsen, Kresten

    This thesis is concerned with driving forward oriented solid-state NMR spectroscopy as a viable technique for studying peptides in membrane bilayers. I will show that structural heterogeneity is an intrinsic part of the peptide/lipid system and that NMR can be used to characterize static...... and dynamic structural features of the peptides and its local surroundings. In fact one need to take into account the dynamical features of the system in order to correctly predict the structure from oriented solid-state NMR spectra.      ...

  9. NMR reaction monitoring in flow synthesis

    M. Victoria Gomez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the use of flow chemistry with in-line and on-line analysis by NMR are presented. The use of macro- and microreactors, coupled with standard and custom made NMR probes involving microcoils, incorporated into high resolution and benchtop NMR instruments is reviewed. Some recent selected applications have been collected, including synthetic applications, the determination of the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters and reaction optimization, even in single experiments and on the μL scale. Finally, software that allows automatic reaction monitoring and optimization is discussed.

  10. NMR reaction monitoring in flow synthesis.

    Gomez, M Victoria; de la Hoz, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in the use of flow chemistry with in-line and on-line analysis by NMR are presented. The use of macro- and microreactors, coupled with standard and custom made NMR probes involving microcoils, incorporated into high resolution and benchtop NMR instruments is reviewed. Some recent selected applications have been collected, including synthetic applications, the determination of the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters and reaction optimization, even in single experiments and on the μL scale. Finally, software that allows automatic reaction monitoring and optimization is discussed.

  11. Introduction to some basic aspects of NMR

    Goldman, M.

    1992-01-01

    The principal interactions are reviewed that are experienced by nuclear spins making magnetic resonance feasible and which disturb it in a way that gives access to the properties of bulk matter. The interactions leading to NMR include Zeeman interaction, dipole-dipole interactions, and exchange interactions. Spin-lattice relaxation relevant to NMR is revisited next. It is followed by an overview of spin temperature. Finally, the care of periodic Hamiltonian is discussed in detail as another contribution to NMR. (R.P.) 48 refs., 12 figs

  12. NMR study of LaPb2

    Ueda, K.; Kohara, T.; Yamada, Y.

    1995-01-01

    La and Pb NMR signals were observed in LaPb 2 with a superconducting transition temperature of about 7 K. The width of the Pb NMR spectrum with an asymmetric line shape was rather narrower than those of Er-, Gd- and Ho-Pb 2 . The spin-lattice relaxation time of Pb nuclei was twice longer than that of Pb metal. La NMR spectrum had satellites due to the electric quadrupole interaction. These results show that each local environment at La or Pb site in LaPb 2 compound is uniquely determined, compared with those in randomly substituted alloys. ((orig.))

  13. Graphical programming for pulse automated NMR experiments

    Belmonte, S.B.; Oliveira, I.S.; Guimaraes, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a software program designed to control a broadband pulse Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometer used in zero-field NMR studies of magnetic metals. The software is written in the graphical language LabVIEW. This type of programming allows modifications and the inclusion of new routines to be easily made by the non-specialist, without changing the basic structure of the program. The program corrects for differences in the gain of the two acquisition channels [U (phase) and V (quadrature)], and automatic baseline subtraction. We present examples of measurements of NMR spectra, spin-echo decay (T 2 ), and quadrupolar oscillations, performed in magnetic intermetallic compounds. (author)

  14. The characterisation of polymers using pulsed NMR

    Charlesby, A.

    1983-01-01

    Broad line pulsed NMR is applied to obtain information on radiation-induced polymer changes and other aspects of polymer science based on the interpretation of spin-spin relaxation curves. Calculations are made to determine the molecular weight, the crosslink density of simple, low molecular weight, flexible polymers. For higher molecular weight polymers, a conclusion can be drawn on the concentrations of entangled and crosslinked units by means of pulsed NMR. Some typical applications of the technique are illustrated by the examples of polyethylenes, rubbers, filled polymeric systems and aqueous polyethylene oxide solutions. The morphology of polymers can be followed by pulsed NMR. (V.N.)

  15. NMR data-driven structure determination using NMR-I-TASSER in the CASD-NMR experiment

    Jang, Richard [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Software Engineering (China); Wang, Yan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Life Science and Technology (China); Xue, Zhidong, E-mail: zdxue@hust.edu.cn [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Software Engineering (China); Zhang, Yang, E-mail: zhng@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics (United States)

    2015-08-15

    NMR-I-TASSER, an adaption of the I-TASSER algorithm combining NMR data for protein structure determination, recently joined the second round of the CASD-NMR experiment. Unlike many molecular dynamics-based methods, NMR-I-TASSER takes a molecular replacement-like approach to the problem by first threading the target through the PDB to identify structural templates which are then used for iterative NOE assignments and fragment structure assembly refinements. The employment of multiple templates allows NMR-I-TASSER to sample different topologies while convergence to a single structure is not required. Retroactive and blind tests of the CASD-NMR targets from Rounds 1 and 2 demonstrate that even without using NOE peak lists I-TASSER can generate correct structure topology with 15 of 20 targets having a TM-score above 0.5. With the addition of NOE-based distance restraints, NMR-I-TASSER significantly improved the I-TASSER models with all models having the TM-score above 0.5. The average RMSD was reduced from 5.29 to 2.14 Å in Round 1 and 3.18 to 1.71 Å in Round 2. There is no obvious difference in the modeling results with using raw and refined peak lists, indicating robustness of the pipeline to the NOE assignment errors. Overall, despite the low-resolution modeling the current NMR-I-TASSER pipeline provides a coarse-grained structure folding approach complementary to traditional molecular dynamics simulations, which can produce fast near-native frameworks for atomic-level structural refinement.

  16. NMR mechanisms in gel dosimetry

    Schreiner, L J

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance was critical to the development of gel dosimetry, as it established the potential for three dimensional dosimetry with chemical dosimeter systems through magnetic resonance imaging [1]. In the last two decades MRI has served as the gold standard for imaging, while NMR relaxometry has played an important role in the development and understanding of the behaviour of new gel dosimetry systems. Therefore, an appreciation of the relaxation mechanisms determining the NMR behaviour of irradiated gel dosimeters is important for a full comprehension of a considerable component of the literature on gel dosimetry. A number of excellent papers have presented this important theory, this brief review will highlight some of the salient points made previously [1-5]. The spin relaxation of gel dosimeters (which determines the dose dependence in most conventional MR imaging) is determined principally by the protons on water molecules in the system. These water protons exist in different environments, or groups (see Figure 1): on bulk water, on water hydrating the chemical species that are being modified under irradiation, and on water hydrating the gel matrix used to spatially stabilize the dosimeter (e.g., gelatin, agarose, etc). The spin relaxation depends on the inherent relaxation rate of each spin group, that is, on the relaxation rate which would be observed for the specific group if it were isolated. Also, the different water environments are not isolated from each other, and the observed relaxation rate also depends on the rate of exchange of magnetization between the groups, and on the fraction of protons in each group. In fact, the water exchanges quickly between the environments, so that relaxation is in what is usually termed the fast exchange regime. In the limit of fast exchange, the relaxation of the water protons is well characterized by a single exponential and hence by a single apparent relaxation rate. In irradiated gel dosimeters this

  17. Agrochemicals increase trematode infections in a declining amphibian species.

    Rohr, Jason R; Schotthoefer, Anna M; Raffel, Thomas R; Carrick, Hunter J; Halstead, Neal; Hoverman, Jason T; Johnson, Catherine M; Johnson, Lucinda B; Lieske, Camilla; Piwoni, Marvin D; Schoff, Patrick K; Beasley, Val R

    2008-10-30

    Global amphibian declines have often been attributed to disease, but ignorance of the relative importance and mode of action of potential drivers of infection has made it difficult to develop effective remediation. In a field study, here we show that the widely used herbicide, atrazine, was the best predictor (out of more than 240 plausible candidates) of the abundance of larval trematodes (parasitic flatworms) in the declining northern leopard frog Rana pipiens. The effects of atrazine were consistent across trematode taxa. The combination of atrazine and phosphate--principal agrochemicals in global corn and sorghum production--accounted for 74% of the variation in the abundance of these often debilitating larval trematodes (atrazine alone accounted for 51%). Analysis of field data supported a causal mechanism whereby both agrochemicals increase exposure and susceptibility to larval trematodes by augmenting snail intermediate hosts and suppressing amphibian immunity. A mesocosm experiment demonstrated that, relative to control tanks, atrazine tanks had immunosuppressed tadpoles, had significantly more attached algae and snails, and had tadpoles with elevated trematode loads, further supporting a causal relationship between atrazine and elevated trematode infections in amphibians. These results raise concerns about the role of atrazine and phosphate in amphibian declines, and illustrate the value of quantifying the relative importance of several possible drivers of disease risk while determining the mechanisms by which they facilitate disease emergence.

  18. Structural investigations of substituted indolizine derivatives by NMR studies

    Furdui, Bianca; Dinica, Rodica; Demeunynck, Martine; Druta, Ioan

    2008-01-01

    Owing to the increasing importance of indolizine heterocycles in the field of biology and pharmacology we have synthesized and investigated the obtained heterocycles by NMR techniques. In order to investigate the substituent effects on the spectroscopic properties, a series of indolizine derivatives were studied by 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR and 2D NMR (GCOSY, GHMBC and GHMQC spectra). (authors)

  19. NMR in the SPINE Structural Proteomics project.

    Ab, E; Atkinson, A R; Banci, L; Bertini, I; Ciofi-Baffoni, S; Brunner, K; Diercks, T; Dötsch, V; Engelke, F; Folkers, G E; Griesinger, C; Gronwald, W; Günther, U; Habeck, M; de Jong, R N; Kalbitzer, H R; Kieffer, B; Leeflang, B R; Loss, S; Luchinat, C; Marquardsen, T; Moskau, D; Neidig, K P; Nilges, M; Piccioli, M; Pierattelli, R; Rieping, W; Schippmann, T; Schwalbe, H; Travé, G; Trenner, J; Wöhnert, J; Zweckstetter, M; Kaptein, R

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes the developments, role and contributions of the NMR spectroscopy groups in the Structural Proteomics In Europe (SPINE) consortium. Focusing on the development of high-throughput (HTP) pipelines for NMR structure determinations of proteins, all aspects from sample preparation, data acquisition, data processing, data analysis to structure determination have been improved with respect to sensitivity, automation, speed, robustness and validation. Specific highlights are protonless (13)C-direct detection methods and inferential structure determinations (ISD). In addition to technological improvements, these methods have been applied to deliver over 60 NMR structures of proteins, among which are five that failed to crystallize. The inclusion of NMR spectroscopy in structural proteomics pipelines improves the success rate for protein structure determinations.

  20. NMR study of Albemoschus esculentus characterization

    Bathista, A.L.B.S; Silva, E.O.; Nogueira, Jose de S.; Tavares, M.I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The investigation of the main compounds presented in the Albemoschus esculentus has been carried out employing nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), using solution and solid state NMR when it one was necessary. The evaluation of NMR data allowed us to characterize the main type of components presented in this kind of sample. It was necessary to use a total information from solid state NMR and also the solution response. From these information we could get that four main components were presented in this sample. One in the shell, that is cellulose, another one between the shell and seeds that is a polysaccharide and in the seed two components were found one is a starch and the second one is an oil, a triacylglycerol. These components are responsible by its physical chemistry properties. (author)

  1. Bayesian Peak Picking for NMR Spectra

    Cheng, Yichen

    2014-02-01

    Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method.

  2. NMR and optical studies of piezoelectric polymers

    Schmidt, V.H.; Tuthill, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    Progress is reported in several areas dealing with piezoelectric (electroactive) polymers (mostly vinylidene fluoride, trifluoroethylene, copolymers, PVF 2 ) and liquid crystals. Optical studies, neutron scattering, NMR, thermal, theory and modeling were done

  3. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    Becker, Edwin D

    2012-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications discusses the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance and how this concept is used in the chemical sciences. This book is written at an intermediate level, with mathematics used to augment verbal descriptions of the phenomena. This text pays attention to developing and interrelating four approaches - the steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The style of this book is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintance with the general principles of quantum mechanics, but no extensive background in quantum theory or proficiency in mathematics is required. This book begins with a description of the basic physics, together with a brief account of the historical development of the field. It looks at the study of NMR in liquids, including high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. This book is intended to assis...

  4. NMR studies of cerebral metabolism in vivo

    Prichard, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The nature and extent of the potential synergism between PET and NMR methods is not yet well appreciated in the biomedical community. The long-range interest of medical neurobiology will be well served by efforts of PET and NMR scientists to follow each others' work so that opportunities for productive interchange can be efficiently exploited. Appreciation of the synergism by the rest of the biomedical community will follow naturally. PET is said by the people doing it to be still in its infancy, for they are more concerned with advancing their discipline than with admiring its already impressive achievements. On the scale of the same developmental metaphor, many NMR methods for studying the living human brain are still in utero. The best way to provide the reader a sense of the current status and future course of NMR research in medical neurobiology is by discussion of published in vivo studies. Such a discussion, adapted from another article is what follows

  5. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR: Strucure Determination of Biomolecules in Solution. Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 995-1002 ...

  6. NMR spectroscopy of coal pyrolysis products

    Polonov, V.M.; Kalabin, G.A.; Kushnarev, D.F.; Shevchenko, G.G.

    1985-12-01

    The authors consider the scope for using H 1 and C 13 NMR spectroscopy to describe the products from coal pyrolysis and hydrogenization. The accuracy of the structural information provided by the best NMR methods is also considered. The stuctural parameters derived from H 1 and C 13 NMR spectra are presented. Results demonstrate the high accuracy and sensitivity of the structural information provided by H 1 AND C 13 NMR spectra for coal products. There are substantial structural differences between the soluble products from medium-temperature coking of Cheremkhov coal and high-speed pyrolysis of Kan-Acha coal, and also differences in behavior during hydrogenation. These differences are related to the structure of the organic matter in the initial coal and to differences in the pyrolysis mechanisms.

  7. NMR study of hydride systems

    Peretz, M.

    1980-02-01

    The hydrides of thorium (ThH 2 , Th 4 H 15 and Th 4 D 15 ) and the intermetallic compound system (Zr(Vsub(1-x)Cosub(x)) 2 and its hydrides were investigated using the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. From the results for the thorium hydride samples it was concluded that the density of states at the Fermi level n(Esub(f)) is higher in Th 4 H 15 than in ThH 2 ; there is an indirect reaction between the protons and the d electrons belonging to the Th atoms in Th 4 H 15 ; n(E) has a sharp structure near Esub(f). It was also found that the hydrogen diffusion mechanism changes with temperature. From the results for the intermetallic compound system conclusions were drawn concerning variations in the electronic structure, which explain the behavior of the system. In hydrogen diffusion studies in several samples it was found that Co atoms slow the diffusion rate. Quadrupole spectra obtained at low temperatures show that the H atoms preferably occupy tetrahedral sites formed by three V atoms and one Z atom. (H.K.)

  8. Frontiers of NMR in Molecular Biology

    NONE

    1999-08-25

    NMR spectroscopy is expanding the horizons of structural biology by determining the structures and describing the dynamics of blobular proteins in aqueous solution, as well as other classes of proteins including membrane proteins and the polypeptides that form the aggregates diagnostic of prion and amyloid diseases. Significant results are also emerging on DNA and RNA oligomers and their complexes with proteins. This meeting focused attention on key structural questions emanating from molecular biology and how NMR spectroscopy can be used to answer them.

  9. NMR studies of multiphase flows II

    Altobelli, S.A.; Caprihan, A.; Fukushima, E. [Lovelace Institutes, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    NMR techniques for measurements of spatial distribution of material phase, velocity and velocity fluctuation are being developed and refined. Versions of these techniques which provide time average liquid fraction and fluid phase velocity have been applied to several concentrated suspension systems which will not be discussed extensively here. Technical developments required to further extend the use of NMR to the multi-phase flow arena and to provide measurements of previously unobtainable parameters are the focus of this report.

  10. observed by high pressure NMR and NQR

    Akogun, Hyogo 678-1297, Japan. ∗. Email: kohara@sci.himeji tech.ac.jp. Abstract. NMR and NQR studies on two interesting systems (URu2Si2, CeTIn5) were performed under high pressure. (1) URu2Si2: In the pressure range 3.0 to 8.3 kbar, we have observed new 29Si. NMR signals arising from the antiferromagnetic ...

  11. NMRbox: A Resource for Biomolecular NMR Computation.

    Maciejewski, Mark W; Schuyler, Adam D; Gryk, Michael R; Moraru, Ion I; Romero, Pedro R; Ulrich, Eldon L; Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Livny, Miron; Delaglio, Frank; Hoch, Jeffrey C

    2017-04-25

    Advances in computation have been enabling many recent advances in biomolecular applications of NMR. Due to the wide diversity of applications of NMR, the number and variety of software packages for processing and analyzing NMR data is quite large, with labs relying on dozens, if not hundreds of software packages. Discovery, acquisition, installation, and maintenance of all these packages is a burdensome task. Because the majority of software packages originate in academic labs, persistence of the software is compromised when developers graduate, funding ceases, or investigators turn to other projects. To simplify access to and use of biomolecular NMR software, foster persistence, and enhance reproducibility of computational workflows, we have developed NMRbox, a shared resource for NMR software and computation. NMRbox employs virtualization to provide a comprehensive software environment preconfigured with hundreds of software packages, available as a downloadable virtual machine or as a Platform-as-a-Service supported by a dedicated compute cloud. Ongoing development includes a metadata harvester to regularize, annotate, and preserve workflows and facilitate and enhance data depositions to BioMagResBank, and tools for Bayesian inference to enhance the robustness and extensibility of computational analyses. In addition to facilitating use and preservation of the rich and dynamic software environment for biomolecular NMR, NMRbox fosters the development and deployment of a new class of metasoftware packages. NMRbox is freely available to not-for-profit users. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. All rights reserved.

  12. A microscale protein NMR sample screening pipeline

    Rossi, Paolo; Swapna, G. V. T.; Huang, Yuanpeng J.; Aramini, James M. [State University of New Jersey, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers (United States); Anklin, Clemens [Bruker Biospin Corporation (United States); Conover, Kenith; Hamilton, Keith; Xiao, Rong; Acton, Thomas B.; Ertekin, Asli; Everett, John K.; Montelione, Gaetano T., E-mail: guy@cabm.rutgers.ed [State University of New Jersey, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers (United States)

    2010-01-15

    As part of efforts to develop improved methods for NMR protein sample preparation and structure determination, the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG) has implemented an NMR screening pipeline for protein target selection, construct optimization, and buffer optimization, incorporating efficient microscale NMR screening of proteins using a micro-cryoprobe. The process is feasible because the newest generation probe requires only small amounts of protein, typically 30-200 {mu}g in 8-35 {mu}l volume. Extensive automation has been made possible by the combination of database tools, mechanization of key process steps, and the use of a micro-cryoprobe that gives excellent data while requiring little optimization and manual setup. In this perspective, we describe the overall process used by the NESG for screening NMR samples as part of a sample optimization process, assessing optimal construct design and solution conditions, as well as for determining protein rotational correlation times in order to assess protein oligomerization states. Database infrastructure has been developed to allow for flexible implementation of new screening protocols and harvesting of the resulting output. The NESG micro NMR screening pipeline has also been used for detergent screening of membrane proteins. Descriptions of the individual steps in the NESG NMR sample design, production, and screening pipeline are presented in the format of a standard operating procedure.

  13. O-17 NMR measurement of water

    Fukazawa, Nobuyuki

    1990-01-01

    Recently, attention has been paid to the various treatment of water and the utilization of water by magnetic treatment, electric field treatment and so on. It has been said that by these treatments, the change in the properties of water arises. The state of this treated water cannot be explained by the properties of water from conventional physical and chemical standpoints. In addition, the method of measurement of whether the change arose or not is not yet determined. It is necessary to establish the method of measurement for the basic state of water. In this study, O-17 NMR which observes the state of water directly at molecular or atomic level was investigated as the method of measuring water. The measurement of O-17 NMR was carried out with a JNR 90Q FT NMR of Fourier transformation type of JEOL Ltd. The experimental method and the results are reported. The result of measurement of the O-17 NMR spectrum for distilled ion exchange water is shown. It is know that it has very wide line width as compared with the NMR spectra of protons and C-13. The relative sensitivity of O-17 observation is about 1/100,000 of that of protons. As to the information on the state of water obtained by O-17 NMR, there are chemical shift and line width. As temperature rose, the line width showed decrease, which seemed to be related to the decrease of hydrogen combination. (K.I.)

  14. Progress, decline, and the public uptake of climate science.

    Rudiak-Gould, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Previous research has sought to explain public perception of climate change science in terms of individuals' "prior commitment" to such ideological stances as just-world belief, system justification, and liberalism/conservatism. One type of prior commitment that has received little formal attention in the literature is narratives of the moral trajectory of society. A theory of climate science uptake based on beliefs in societal progress or decline is more easily portable to non-Western settings; in a case study of global warming attitudes in the Marshall Islands, trajectory narratives indeed account for public belief, concern, blame, and response more aptly than existing theories, and accord well with qualitative analysis of Marshallese climate change discourse. In Western settings, progress/decline narratives may explain much of the variation in climate change attitudes previously accounted for by other ideological variables, promising a more penetrating explanation for the divergence of climate change attitudes within and between societies.

  15. Identifying species conservation strategies to reduce disease-associated declines

    Gerber, Brian D.; Converse, Sarah J.; Muths, Erin L.; Crockett, Harry J.; Mosher, Brittany A.; Bailey, Larissa L.

    2018-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a salient threat to many animal taxa, causing local and global extinctions, altering communities and ecosystem function. The EID chytridiomycosis is a prominent driver of amphibian declines, which is caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). To guide conservation policy, we developed a predictive decision-analytic model that combines empirical knowledge of host-pathogen metapopulation dynamics with expert judgment regarding effects of management actions, to select from potential conservation strategies. We apply our approach to a boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) and Bd system, identifying optimal strategies that balance tradeoffs in maximizing toad population persistence and landscape-level distribution, while considering costs. The most robust strategy is expected to reduce the decline of toad breeding sites from 53% to 21% over 50 years. Our findings are incorporated into management policy to guide conservation planning. Our online modeling application provides a template for managers of other systems challenged by EIDs.

  16. Basics of spectroscopic instruments. Hardware of NMR spectrometer

    Sato, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    NMR is a powerful tool for structure analysis of small molecules, natural products, biological macromolecules, synthesized polymers, samples from material science and so on. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is applicable to plants and animals Because most of NMR experiments can be done by an automation mode, one can forget hardware of NMR spectrometers. It would be good to understand features and performance of NMR spectrometers. Here I present hardware of a modern NMR spectrometer which is fully equipped with digital technology. (author)

  17. 33S NMR cryogenic probe for taurine detection

    Hobo, Fumio; Takahashi, Masato; Maeda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    With the goal of a S33 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe applicable to in vivo NMR on taurine-biological samples, we have developed the S33 NMR cryogenic probe, which is applicable to taurine solutions. The NMR sensitivity gain relative to a conventional broadband probe is as large as 3.5. This work suggests that improvements in the preamplifier could allow NMR measurements on 100 μM taurine solutions, which is the level of sensitivity necessary for biological samples.

  18. Petrophysical properties of greensand as predicted from NMR measurements

    Hossain, Zakir; Grattoni, Carlos A.; Solymar, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a useful tool in reservoir evaluation. The objective of this study is to predict petrophysical properties from NMR T2 distributions. A series of laboratory experiments including core analysis, capillary pressure measurements, NMR T2 measurements...... with macro-pores. Permeability may be predicted from NMR by using Kozeny's equation when surface relaxivity is known. Capillary pressure drainage curves may be predicted from NMR T2 distribution when pore size distribution within a sample is homogeneous....

  19. NIDI scenario. Strong population decline in China

    de Beer, J.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    United Nations projections assume that by the end of this century one third of the world population will live in India, China or Nigeria. While population growth in India will slow down and the population size of China will decline, population growth in Nigeria will accelerate. A new NIDI scenario projects less population growth in Nigeria and sharp population decline in China.

  20. An NMR log echo data de-noising method based on the wavelet packet threshold algorithm

    Meng, Xiangning; Xie, Ranhong; Li, Changxi; Hu, Falong; Li, Chaoliu; Zhou, Cancan

    2015-01-01

    To improve the de-noising effects of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log echo data, this paper applies the wavelet packet threshold algorithm to the data. The principle of the algorithm is elaborated in detail. By comparing the properties of a series of wavelet packet bases and the relevance between them and the NMR log echo train signal, ‘sym7’ is found to be the optimal wavelet packet basis of the wavelet packet threshold algorithm to de-noise the NMR log echo train signal. A new method is presented to determine the optimal wavelet packet decomposition scale; this is within the scope of its maximum, using the modulus maxima and the Shannon entropy minimum standards to determine the global and local optimal wavelet packet decomposition scales, respectively. The results of applying the method to the simulated and actual NMR log echo data indicate that compared with the wavelet threshold algorithm, the wavelet packet threshold algorithm, which shows higher decomposition accuracy and better de-noising effect, is much more suitable for de-noising low SNR–NMR log echo data. (paper)

  1. History of Tree Growth Declines Recorded in Old Trees at Two Sacred Sites in Northern China.

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Qi-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Old forests are an important component in sacred sites, yet they are at risk of growth decline from ongoing global warming and increased human activities. Growth decline, characterized by chronic loss of tree vigor, is not a recent phenomenon. Knowledge of past occurrence of declines is useful for preparing conservation plans because it helps understand if present day forests are outside the natural range of variation in tree health. We report a dendroecological study of growth decline events in the past two centuries at two sacred sites, Hengshan and Wutaishan, in Shanxi province of northern China. Tree rings collected at both sites show distinct periods of declining growth evident as narrow rings. These occurred in the 1830s in both sites, in the 1920s in Wutaishan and in the 2000s in Hengshan. By comparing the pattern of grow declines at the two sites, we hypothesize that resistance of tree growth to external disturbances is forest size dependent, and increased human activity might be a factor additional to climatic droughts in causing the recent strong growth decline at Hengshan Park. Despite these past declines, the forests at both sites have high resilience to disturbances as evidenced by the ability of trees to recover their growth rates to levels comparable to the pre-decline period. Managers should consider reducing fragmentation and restoring natural habitat of old forests, especially in areas on dry sites.

  2. History of Tree Growth Declines Recorded in Old Trees at Two Sacred Sites in Northern China

    Yan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Old forests are an important component in sacred sites, yet they are at risk of growth decline from ongoing global warming and increased human activities. Growth decline, characterized by chronic loss of tree vigor, is not a recent phenomenon. Knowledge of past occurrence of declines is useful for preparing conservation plans because it helps understand if present day forests are outside the natural range of variation in tree health. We report a dendroecological study of growth decline events in the past two centuries at two sacred sites, Hengshan and Wutaishan, in Shanxi province of northern China. Tree rings collected at both sites show distinct periods of declining growth evident as narrow rings. These occurred in the 1830s in both sites, in the 1920s in Wutaishan and in the 2000s in Hengshan. By comparing the pattern of grow declines at the two sites, we hypothesize that resistance of tree growth to external disturbances is forest size dependent, and increased human activity might be a factor additional to climatic droughts in causing the recent strong growth decline at Hengshan Park. Despite these past declines, the forests at both sites have high resilience to disturbances as evidenced by the ability of trees to recover their growth rates to levels comparable to the pre-decline period. Managers should consider reducing fragmentation and restoring natural habitat of old forests, especially in areas on dry sites.

  3. IR and NMR spectroscopic correlation of enterobactin by DFT

    Moreno, M.; Zacarias, A.; Porzel, A.; Velasquez, L.; Gonzalez, G.; Alegría-Arcos, M.; Gonzalez-Nilo, F.; Gross, E. K. U.

    2018-06-01

    Emerging and re-emerging epidemic diseases pose an ongoing threat to global health. Currently, Enterobactin and Enterobactin derivatives have gained interest, owing to their potential application in the pharmaceutical field. As it is known [J. Am. Chem. Soc (1979) 101, 20, 6097-6104], Enterobactin (H6EB) is an efficient iron carrier synthesized and secreted by many microbial species. In order to facilitate the elucidation of enterobactin and its analogues, here we propose the creation of a H6EB standard set using Density Functional Theory Infrared (IR) and NMR spectra. We used two exchange-correlation (xc) functionals (PBE including long-range corrections sbnd LC-PBEsbnd and mPW1), 2 basis sets (QZVP and 6-31G(d)) and 2 grids (fine and ultrafine) for most of the H6EB structures dependent of dihedral angles. The results show a significant difference between the Osbnd H and Nsbnd H bands, while the Cdbnd O amide and Osbnd (Cdbnd O)sbnd IR bands are often found on top of each other. The NMR DFT calculations show a strong dependence on the xc functional, basis set, and grid used for the H6EB structure. Calculated 1H and 13C NMR spectra enable the effect of the solvent to be understood in the context of the experimental measurements. The good agreement between the experimental and the calculated spectra using LC-PBE/QZVP and ultrafine grid suggest the possibility of the systems reported here to be considered as a standard set. The dependence of electrostatic potential and frontier orbitals with the catecholamide dihedral angles of H6EB is described. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of the flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of H6EB is also reported of manner to enrich the knowledge about its reactivity.

  4. Continuous Flow 1H and 13C NMR Spectroscopy in Microfluidic Stripline NMR Chips

    Oosthoek-de Vries, Anna Jo; Bart, Jacob; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Janssen, Johannes W.G.; van Bentum, Jan (P.J.M.); Gardeniers, Han J.G.E.; Kentgens, Arno P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidic stripline NMR technology not only allows for NMR experiments to be performed on small sample volumes in the submicroliter range, but also experiments can easily be performed in continuous flow because of the stripline's favorable geometry. In this study we demonstrate the possibility of

  5. Performance of the WeNMR CS-Rosetta3 web server in CASD-NMR.

    van der Schot, Gijs; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J

    2015-08-01

    We present here the performance of the WeNMR CS-Rosetta3 web server in CASD-NMR, the critical assessment of automated structure determination by NMR. The CS-Rosetta server uses only chemical shifts for structure prediction, in combination, when available, with a post-scoring procedure based on unassigned NOE lists (Huang et al. in J Am Chem Soc 127:1665-1674, 2005b, doi: 10.1021/ja047109h). We compare the original submissions using a previous version of the server based on Rosetta version 2.6 with recalculated targets using the new R3FP fragment picker for fragment selection and implementing a new annotation of prediction reliability (van der Schot et al. in J Biomol NMR 57:27-35, 2013, doi: 10.1007/s10858-013-9762-6), both implemented in the CS-Rosetta3 WeNMR server. In this second round of CASD-NMR, the WeNMR CS-Rosetta server has demonstrated a much better performance than in the first round since only converged targets were submitted. Further, recalculation of all CASD-NMR targets using the new version of the server demonstrates that our new annotation of prediction quality is giving reliable results. Predictions annotated as weak are often found to provide useful models, but only for a fraction of the sequence, and should therefore only be used with caution.

  6. Use of NMR and NMR Prediction Software to Identify Components in Red Bull Energy Drinks

    Simpson, Andre J.; Shirzadi, Azadeh; Burrow, Timothy E.; Dicks, Andrew P.; Lefebvre, Brent; Corrin, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory experiment designed as part of an upper-level undergraduate analytical chemistry course is described. Students investigate two popular soft drinks (Red Bull Energy Drink and sugar-free Red Bull Energy Drink) by NMR spectroscopy. With assistance of modern NMR prediction software they identify and quantify major components in each…

  7. New methods for the correction of 31P NMR spectra in in vivo NMR spectroscopy

    Starcuk, Z.; Bartusek, K.; Starcuk, Z. jr.

    1994-01-01

    The new methods for the correction of 31 P NMR spectra in vivo NMR spectroscopy have been performed. A method for the baseline correction of the spectra which represents a combination of time-domain and frequency-domain has been discussed.The method is very fast and efficient for minimization of base line artifacts of biological tissues impact

  8. Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines

    Evan H. Campbell Grant; David A. W. Miller; Benedikt R. Schmidt; Michael J. Adams; Staci M. Amburgey; Thierry Chambert; Sam S. Cruickshank; Robert N. Fisher; David M. Green; Blake R. Hossack; Pieter T. J. Johnson; Maxwell B. Joseph; Tracy A. G. Rittenhouse; Maureen E. Ryan; J. Hardin Waddle; Susan C. Walls; Larissa L. Bailey; Gary M. Fellers; Thomas A. Gorman; Andrew M. Ray; David S. Pilliod; Steven J. Price; Daniel Saenz; Walt Sadinski; Erin Muths

    2016-01-01

    Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a “smoking gun” was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors...

  9. Parallels in amphibian and bat declines from pathogenic fungi.

    Eskew, Evan A; Todd, Brian D

    2013-03-01

    Pathogenic fungi have substantial effects on global biodiversity, and 2 emerging pathogenic species-the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and the ascomycete Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats-are implicated in the widespread decline of their vertebrate hosts. We synthesized current knowledge for chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome regarding disease emergence, environmental reservoirs, life history characteristics of the host, and host-pathogen interactions. We found striking similarities between these aspects of chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome, and the research that we review and propose should help guide management of future emerging fungal diseases.

  10. Relaxation time T/sub 1/ and bound water fraction of muscle by NMR imager

    Fukuda, N.; Ikehira, H.; Yamane, T.; Tateno, Y.; Torii, S.; Matsumura, K.

    1986-05-01

    In order to establish the efficacy of NMR-CT in the diagnostic investigation of muscle disorders, proton NMR-CT imaging was performed and muscle longitudinal relaxation (T1) times were measured in 20 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and normal controls (NC). In addition, the bound water fraction (BWF) was calculated from the measured T1 value in appropriate cases. Results show that in DMD muscle T1 values were above normal in the early clinical stages, declined rapidly with progress of the disease, and reached the same low level as the subcutaneous fat. This decrease of T1 values was not uniform for all muscles, being most prominent in gluteus maximus and least in sartorius and gracilis. In NC muscle BWF increased with maturation under the age of 10 years, and became fixed beyond that. In the early stages of DMD, BWF was below normal.

  11. HPLC-NMR revisited: Using time-slice HPLC-SPE-NMR with database assisted dereplication

    Johansen, Kenneth; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Nyberg, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Time based trapping of chromatographically separated compounds on to solid-phase extraction cartridges (SPE) and subsequent elution to NMR-tubes was done to emulate the function of HPLC–NMR for dereplication purposes. Sufficient mass sensitivity was obtained by the use of a state-of-the-art HPLC......–SPE–NMR-system with a cryogenically cooled probe head, designed for 1.7 mm NMR-tubes. The resulting 1H NMR spectra (600 MHz) were evaluated against a database of previously acquired and prepared spectra. The in-house developed matching algorithm, based on partitioning of the spectra and allowing for changes in the chemical shifts......, is described and the code included as Supplementary Information. Two mixtures of natural products was used to test the approach; one extract of Carthamus oxyacantha (wild safflower) containing an array of spiro compounds and one extract of the endophytic fungus Penicillum namyslowski containing griseofulvin...

  12. Early-Transition Output Decline Revisited

    Crt Kostevc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the issue of aggregate output decline that took place in the early transition period. We propose an alternative explanation of output decline that is applicable to Central- and Eastern-European countries. In the first part of the paper we develop a simple dynamic general equilibrium model that builds on work by Gomulka and Lane (2001. In particular, we consider price liberalization, interpreted as elimination of distortionary taxation, as a trigger of the output decline. We show that price liberalization in interaction with heterogeneous adjustment costs and non-employment benefits lead to aggregate output decline and surge in wage inequality. While these patterns are consistent with actual dynamics in CEE countries, this model cannot generate output decline in all sectors. Instead sectors that were initially taxed even exhibit output growth. Thus, in the second part we consider an alternative general equilibrium model with only one production sector and two types of labor and distortion in a form of wage compression during the socialist era. The trigger for labor mobility and consequently output decline is wage liberalization. Assuming heterogeneity of workers in terms of adjustment costs and non-employment benefits can explain output decline in all industries.

  13. NMR techniques in the study of cardiovascular structure and functions

    Osbakken, M.; Haselgrove, J.

    1987-01-01

    The chapter titles of this book are: Introduction to NMR Techniques;Theory of NMR Probe Design;Overview of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Study the Cardiovascular System;Vascular Anatomy and Physiology Studied with NMR Techniques;Assessment of Myocardial Ischemia and Infarction by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging;The Use of MRI in Congenital Heart Disease;Cardiomyopathies and Myocarditis Studied with NMR Techniques;Determination of Myocardial Mechanical Function with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques;Determination of Flow Using NMR Techniques;The Use of Contrast Agents in Cardiac MRI;Can Cardiovascular Disease Be Effectively Evaluated with NMR Spectroscopy? NMR Studies of ATP Synthesis Reactions in the Isolated Heart;Studies of Intermediary Metabolism in the Heart by 13C NMR Spectroscopy;23Na and 39K NMR Spectroscopic Studies of the Intact Beating Heart;and Evaluation of Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure Using Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

  14. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of synthetic polymers in bulk

    Komorski, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of high-resolution NMR of solid polymers; High-resolution NMR of glassy amorphous polymers; Carbon-13 solid-state NMR of semicrystalline polymers; Conformational analysis of polymers of solid-state NMR; High-resolution NMR studies of oriented polymers; High-resolution solid-state NMR of protons in polymers; and Deuterium NMR of solid polymers. This work brings together the various approaches for high-resolution NMR studies of bulk polymers into one volume. Heavy emphasis is, of course, given to 13C NMR studies both above and below Tg. Standard high-power pulse and wide-line techniques are not covered

  15. Drivers and moderators of business decline

    Marius Pretorius

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Reports of business failure elicit various reactions, while research in this domain often appears to be limited by a lack of access to information about failure and by the negativity that surrounds it. Those who have experienced failure do not readily talk about it, or they disappear from the radar screen of researchers. Yet failure is preceded by decline which, when focused on strategically, can reduce eventual failures if early action is taken. The main purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework or typology of the drivers and moderators of business decline. Design/methodology/approach: After applying the "grounded theory" approach to the academic literature on decline and failure, a conceptual framework for the variables that drive and moderate business decline is proposed. Findings: The study proposes that decline has three core drivers, three peripheral drivers and four moderators. The core drivers identified are: resource munificence; leadership as origin; and causality (strategic versus operational origin of decline. The three peripheral drivers are: unique preconditions; continuous decisions impact; and extremes dichotomy. The study describes four moderators of the drivers: life cycle stage; stakeholder perspective; quantitative versus qualitative nature of signs and causes; and finally the age and size effects. Research limitations/implications: The proposed conceptual framework is based on literature only, although it has found support during discussions with practitioners. It is proposed to readers of this journal for scrutiny and validation. Practical implications: Strategists need to understand what drives decline in order to act timeously; practitioners who have an insight into the moderators with their impacts could make better decisions in response to decline in organisations and possibly avoid business failure. Originality/Value: Understanding business decline is still a huge theoretical challenge, which

  16. The decline of hysterectomy for benign disease.

    Horgan, R P

    2012-01-31

    Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynaecological surgical procedures performed but there appears to be a decline in the performance of this procedure in Ireland in recent times. We set out to establish the extent of the decline of hysterectomy and to explore possible explanations. Data for hysterectomy for benign disease from Ireland was obtained from the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry Scheme (HIPE) section of the Economic and Social Research Institute for the years 1999 to 2006. The total number of hysterectomies performed for benign disease showed a consistent decline during this time. There was a 36% reduction in the number of abdominal hysterectomy procedures performed.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR): principles and applications

    Quibilan, E.I.

    The basis for the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the ability of certain nuclei possessing both intrinsic angular momentum or ''spin'' I and magnetic moment to absorb electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency range. In principle, there are approximately 200 nuclei which may be investigated using the NMR technique. The NMR spectrum consists of intensity peaks along an axis calibrated in terms of the steady magnetic field or the frequency of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Analysis of the number, spacing, position and intensity of the lines in an NMR spectrum consists of intensity peaks along an axis calibrated in terms of the steady magnetic field or the frequency of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Analysis of the number, spacing, position and intensity of the lines in an NMR spectrum provides a variety of qualitative and quantitative analytical applications. The most obvious applications consist of the measurements of nuclear properties, such as spin number and nuclear magnetic moment. In liquids, the fine structure of resonance spectra provides a tool for chemical identification and molecular structure analysis. Other applications include the measurements of self-diffusion coefficients, magnetic fields and field homogeneity, inter-nuclear distances, and, in some cases, the water content of biological materials. (author)

  18. Sustained climate warming drives declining marine biological productivity

    Moore, J. Keith; Fu, Weiwei; Primeau, Francois; Britten, Gregory L.; Lindsay, Keith; Long, Matthew; Doney, Scott C.; Mahowald, Natalie; Hoffman, Forrest; Randerson, James T.

    2018-03-01

    Climate change projections to the year 2100 may miss physical-biogeochemical feedbacks that emerge later from the cumulative effects of climate warming. In a coupled climate simulation to the year 2300, the westerly winds strengthen and shift poleward, surface waters warm, and sea ice disappears, leading to intense nutrient trapping in the Southern Ocean. The trapping drives a global-scale nutrient redistribution, with net transfer to the deep ocean. Ensuing surface nutrient reductions north of 30°S drive steady declines in primary production and carbon export (decreases of 24 and 41%, respectively, by 2300). Potential fishery yields, constrained by lower–trophic-level productivity, decrease by more than 20% globally and by nearly 60% in the North Atlantic. Continued high levels of greenhouse gas emissions could suppress marine biological productivity for a millennium.

  19. Brain Metastases Treatment Worsens Cognitive Decline

    In some patients with cancer that has spread to the brain, whole brain radiation following radiosurgery causes more severe cognitive decline and does not improve survival compared with radiosurgery alone, a new study has found.

  20. Predictors of combined cognitive and physical decline

    Atkinson, H.H.; Cesari, M.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Fried, L.P.; Guralnik, J.M.; Williamson, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and correlates of combined declines in cognitive and physical performance. DESIGN: Cohort study of community-dwelling older women with moderate to severe disability. SETTING: The community surrounding Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the

  1. Is racial prejudice declining in Britain?

    Ford, Robert

    2008-12-01

    This article employs two previously neglected indicators of racial prejudice from the British Social Attitudes surveys to examine the social distribution of prejudices against black and Asian Britons. Three hypotheses are proposed and tested: that racial prejudice is declining in Britain; that this decline is principally generational in nature; and that greater prejudice is shown towards more culturally distinct Asian minorities than black minorities. Strong evidence is found for the first two hypotheses, with evidence of an overall decline in prejudice and of a sharp decline in prejudices among generations who have grown up since mass black and Asian immigration began in the 1950s. Little evidence is found for the third hypothesis: British reactions towards black and Asian minorities are broadly similar suggesting racial differences may still be the main factor prompting white hostility to British minorities.

  2. The Decline in America's Reputation: Why

    2008-01-01

    .... ( We are all Americans now. ) Since then, polls conducted by the U.S. Government and respected private firms have revealed a precipitous decline in favorability toward the United States and its foreign policy...

  3. The Management of Decline: An International Perspective.

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1984-01-01

    The responses of higher education institutions in the United States, England, Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, and the rest of Western Europe to declining enrollments, changing financial support, fiscal problems, and changes in the professoriate and academic careers are compared. (MSE)

  4. NMR Phase Noise in Bitter Magnets

    Sigmund, E. E.; Calder, E. S.; Thomas, G. W.; Mitrović, V. F.; Bachman, H. N.; Halperin, W. P.; Kuhns, P. L.; Reyes, A. P.

    2001-02-01

    We have studied the temporal instability of a high field resistive Bitter magnet through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This instability leads to transverse spin decoherence in repeated and accumulated NMR experiments as is normally performed during signal averaging. We demonstrate this effect via Hahn echo and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) transverse relaxation experiments in a 23-T resistive magnet. Quantitative analysis was found to be consistent with separate measurements of the magnetic field frequency fluctuation spectrum, as well as with independent NMR experiments performed in a magnetic field with a controlled instability. Finally, the CPMG sequence with short pulse delays is shown to be successful in recovering the intrinsic spin-spin relaxation even in the presence of magnetic field temporal instability.

  5. Remote tuning of NMR probe circuits.

    Kodibagkar, V D; Conradi, M S

    2000-05-01

    There are many circumstances in which the probe tuning adjustments cannot be located near the rf NMR coil. These may occur in high-temperature NMR, low-temperature NMR, and in the use of magnets with small diameter access bores. We address here circuitry for connecting a fixed-tuned probe circuit by a transmission line to a remotely located tuning network. In particular, the bandwidth over which the probe may be remotely tuned while keeping the losses in the transmission line acceptably low is considered. The results show that for all resonant circuit geometries (series, parallel, series-parallel), overcoupling of the line to the tuned circuit is key to obtaining a large tuning bandwidth. At equivalent extents of overcoupling, all resonant circuit geometries have nearly equal remote tuning bandwidths. Particularly for the case of low-loss transmission line, the tuning bandwidth can be many times the tuned circuit's bandwidth, f(o)/Q. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. Deuterium NMR, induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophases

    Alcantara, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were studied. Induced cholesteric lyomesophases based on potassium laurate (KL) system, with small amounts of cholesterol added, were studied by deuterium NMR and by polarizing microscopy. Order profiles obtained from deuterium NMR of KL perdenderated chains in both induced cholesteric and normal mesophases were compared. The intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were based on the amphiphile potassium N-lauroyl serinate (KLNS) in the resolved levo form. The study of the type I intrinsic cholesteric mesophase was made by optical microscopy under polarized light and the type II intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophase was characterized by deuterium NMR. The new texture was explained by the use of the theory of disclinations developed for thermotropic liquid crystals, specially for cholesteric type. (M.J.C.) [pt

  7. Determination of solid fat content by NMR

    Kawada, Tsukasa; Kato, Chihiro; Suzuki, Kazuaki

    1984-01-01

    To establish a standard method for determing solid fat content, the NMR method was tested at six laboratories and the results were examined for collaboration. Two types of instruments, pulse NMR and wide-line NMR were used. Standard deviation in results at six laboratories was less than 1.5 for the step wise method, but more than 1.5 for the rapid method. The standard deviation in results at a single laboratory was much less than either of these cases. No significant difference could be observed in the values obtained using both instruments. Solid fat content values measured for a mixture of fully hydrogenated rapeseed and rapeseed oil agreed well with the percentage of solid by weight. (author)

  8. Muscular pathology: echographic and NMR imaging aspects

    Pascal-Suisse, P.; Beaurain, P.; Mougniot, C.

    1995-01-01

    A comparison of echographic techniques and NMR imaging has been done for the diagnosis of muscular trauma and tumor pathologies. In traumatic pathology, the echographic analysis allows to determine the complete assessment of recent muscular injuries. NMR imaging can be used in granuloma or fibrous callosity appreciation and for the analysis of deep injury (muscles and muscles-tendon junctions) and of muscular aponeurosis. Echography must be used together with color coding Doppler technique in the diagnosis of tumor pathology and for the study of slow fluxes. The recently available energy Doppler technique seems to be powerful in the study of vascularization of small expansive formations, but their extension to adjacent bone or tissue can only be appreciated using NMR imaging. (J.S.)

  9. 31P NMR spectroscopy of tumors in the evaluation of response to therapy

    Sijens, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis the effects of different kinds of therapy on tumour metabolism were investigated by in vivo 31P NMR spectroscopy. From the first five chapters (laboratory-animal studies) it turns out that after radiotherapy as well as after hyperthermy or chemoterapy changes can be observed in the 31P NMR spectra of tumours. In a number of cases a durable decline occurred in the ratio of the high-energetic adenosinephosphate (ATP) and the low-energeic anorganic phosphate, cuased by the mortification of tumourcells. On the other hand, tumour regression after effective chemotherapy resulted in a growth of the ATP/Pi ratio. In one case a temporary drop occurred which could be related to a temporary decrease in tumour perfusion. In anoter case a temporary drop of the ATP/Pi ratio correlated with resistence against treatment with cis-diaminodichoroplatina. In contrast with the changes in ATP/Pi ratio, the changes, after (chemo)therapy, in tumour pH do not seem to be related with the respons of the tumour. The results of the laboratory-animal experiments indicate that in vivo 31P NMR spectroscopy could be applied in the clinic in order to establish betime the response of tumours on therapy. In ch. 6 initial experiences with clinical NMR spectroscopy of human breast cancer are described. The results indicate that by 31P NMR spectroscopy malignant breast tissues can be discerned from normal breast tissues, following radiotherapy and subsequent tumour regression, in the spectrum of the tumorous region an intense PCr signal developed which appeared to reflect a metabolic change in the tumous itself. 177 refs.; 27 figs.; 6 tabs

  10. Contact replacement for NMR resonance assignment.

    Xiong, Fei; Pandurangan, Gopal; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2008-07-01

    Complementing its traditional role in structural studies of proteins, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is playing an increasingly important role in functional studies. NMR dynamics experiments characterize motions involved in target recognition, ligand binding, etc., while NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments identify and localize protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. The key bottleneck in these studies is to determine the backbone resonance assignment, which allows spectral peaks to be mapped to specific atoms. This article develops a novel approach to address that bottleneck, exploiting an available X-ray structure or homology model to assign the entire backbone from a set of relatively fast and cheap NMR experiments. We formulate contact replacement for resonance assignment as the problem of computing correspondences between a contact graph representing the structure and an NMR graph representing the data; the NMR graph is a significantly corrupted, ambiguous version of the contact graph. We first show that by combining connectivity and amino acid type information, and exploiting the random structure of the noise, one can provably determine unique correspondences in polynomial time with high probability, even in the presence of significant noise (a constant number of noisy edges per vertex). We then detail an efficient randomized algorithm and show that, over a variety of experimental and synthetic datasets, it is robust to typical levels of structural variation (1-2 AA), noise (250-600%) and missings (10-40%). Our algorithm achieves very good overall assignment accuracy, above 80% in alpha-helices, 70% in beta-sheets and 60% in loop regions. Our contact replacement algorithm is implemented in platform-independent Python code. The software can be freely obtained for academic use by request from the authors.

  11. Prediction of peak overlap in NMR spectra

    Hefke, Frederik; Schmucki, Roland; Güntert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peak overlap is one of the major factors complicating the analysis of biomolecular NMR spectra. We present a general method for predicting the extent of peak overlap in multidimensional NMR spectra and its validation using both, experimental data sets and Monte Carlo simulation. The method is based on knowledge of the magnetization transfer pathways of the NMR experiments and chemical shift statistics from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank. Assuming a normal distribution with characteristic mean value and standard deviation for the chemical shift of each observable atom, an analytic expression was derived for the expected overlap probability of the cross peaks. The analytical approach was verified to agree with the average peak overlap in a large number of individual peak lists simulated using the same chemical shift statistics. The method was applied to eight proteins, including an intrinsically disordered one, for which the prediction results could be compared with the actual overlap based on the experimentally measured chemical shifts. The extent of overlap predicted using only statistical chemical shift information was in good agreement with the overlap that was observed when the measured shifts were used in the virtual spectrum, except for the intrinsically disordered protein. Since the spectral complexity of a protein NMR spectrum is a crucial factor for protein structure determination, analytical overlap prediction can be used to identify potentially difficult proteins before conducting NMR experiments. Overlap predictions can be tailored to particular classes of proteins by preparing statistics from corresponding protein databases. The method is also suitable for optimizing recording parameters and labeling schemes for NMR experiments and improving the reliability of automated spectra analysis and protein structure determination.

  12. Applications of NMR spectroscopy to xenobiotic metabolism

    Harris, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    Recent years have seen high field NMR spectrometers become commonplace in research laboratories. At the same time, major advances in methodology for structural analysis have occurred, particularly notable among these being the development of two-dimensional spectroscopic techniques. Many applications have been made of NMR spectroscopy in the study of xenobiotic metabolic processes. This deals with two specific applications which have been made in the author's laboratory and involve mechanistic studies of the reactions of the carcinogens ethylene dibromide and aflatoxin with DNA

  13. Tritiation methods and tritium NMR spectroscopy

    Jaiswal, D.K.; Morimoto, H.; Salijoughian, M.; Williams, P.G.

    1991-09-01

    We have used a simple process for the production of highly tritiated water and characterized the product species by 1 H and 3 H NMR spectroscopy. The water is readily manipulated and used in subsequent reactions either as T 2 O, CH 3 COOT or CF 3 COOT. Development of tritiated diimide has progressed to the point where cis-hydrogenated products at 1-20 Ci/mmole S.A. are possible. Tri-n-butyl tin tritide has been produced at >95% tritium content and well characterized by multinuclear NMR techniques. 27 refs., 3 figs

  14. Applications of NMR in biological metabolic research

    Nie Jiarui; Li Xiuqin; He Chunjian

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance has become a powerful means of studying biological metabolism in non-invasive and non-destructive way. Being used to study the metabolic processes of living system in normal physiological conditions as well as in molecular level, the method is better than other conventional approaches. Using important parameters such as NMR-chemical shifts, longitudinal relaxation time and transverse relaxation time, it is possible to probe the metabolic processes as well as conformation, concentration, transportation and distribution of reacting and resulting substances. The NMR spectroscopy of 1 H, 31 P and 13 C nuclei has already been widely used in metabolic researches

  15. Deuteron NMR and modelling in solid polymers

    Hirschinger, J.

    1992-01-01

    Deuteron NMR techniques are described and some recent applications to the study of rotational motions in solid polymers are reviewed. The information content and the domain of applicability of each technique are presented. Ultra-slow motions are studied in real time without any motional model consideration. For very fast motions, computer molecular dynamics simulations are shown to complement the NMR results. Experimental examples deal with the chain motion in the crystalline α-phase of poly(vinylidenefluoride) and nylon 6,6

  16. Programmable pulse series generator for NMR relaxometer

    Stolbunov, R.N.; Chichikov, S.A.; Lundin, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Paper describes a pulse series generator for NMR relaxometer. The operation mode is set on the basis of the PC program by the PCI bus in the internal memory. The design is based on two Altera Company MAX7000S and Cyclone family microcircuits using the Qartus II 4.0 software. The basic parameters are as follows: pulse minimum length - 50 ns, time resolution - 10 ns, pulse maximum number - 1024, number of controlled output channels - 8. The designed device as a part of the NMR hardware-software system enables to record, to process and to store the experiment results in the form of electronic document [ru

  17. NMR relaxation times of natural rubber latex

    Harun, S.; Aziz, H.; Basir, Z.

    1994-01-01

    NMR relaxation times T sub 1 and T sub 2 of natural rubber latex have been measured at 25 degree C on a pulsed NMR spectrometer. The work focuses on the variation of the relaxation times with the amount of water content from 0% to 50%. The water content was adjusted by centrifuging and removing a certain amount of water from the sample. The data were analysed using a biexponential fitting procedure which yields simultaneously either T sub 1a and T sub 1b or T sub 2a and T sub 2b. The amount of solid was compared with the known amount of dry rubber content

  18. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink.

    Brienen, R J W; Phillips, O L; Feldpausch, T R; Gloor, E; Baker, T R; Lloyd, J; Lopez-Gonzalez, G; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A; Malhi, Y; Lewis, S L; Vásquez Martinez, R; Alexiades, M; Álvarez Dávila, E; Alvarez-Loayza, P; Andrade, A; Aragão, L E O C; Araujo-Murakami, A; Arets, E J M M; Arroyo, L; Aymard C, G A; Bánki, O S; Baraloto, C; Barroso, J; Bonal, D; Boot, R G A; Camargo, J L C; Castilho, C V; Chama, V; Chao, K J; Chave, J; Comiskey, J A; Cornejo Valverde, F; da Costa, L; de Oliveira, E A; Di Fiore, A; Erwin, T L; Fauset, S; Forsthofer, M; Galbraith, D R; Grahame, E S; Groot, N; Hérault, B; Higuchi, N; Honorio Coronado, E N; Keeling, H; Killeen, T J; Laurance, W F; Laurance, S; Licona, J; Magnussen, W E; Marimon, B S; Marimon-Junior, B H; Mendoza, C; Neill, D A; Nogueira, E M; Núñez, P; Pallqui Camacho, N C; Parada, A; Pardo-Molina, G; Peacock, J; Peña-Claros, M; Pickavance, G C; Pitman, N C A; Poorter, L; Prieto, A; Quesada, C A; Ramírez, F; Ramírez-Angulo, H; Restrepo, Z; Roopsind, A; Rudas, A; Salomão, R P; Schwarz, M; Silva, N; Silva-Espejo, J E; Silveira, M; Stropp, J; Talbot, J; ter Steege, H; Teran-Aguilar, J; Terborgh, J; Thomas-Caesar, R; Toledo, M; Torello-Raventos, M; Umetsu, R K; van der Heijden, G M F; van der Hout, P; Guimarães Vieira, I C; Vieira, S A; Vilanova, E; Vos, V A; Zagt, R J

    2015-03-19

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics, particularly in the Amazon. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will evolve as climate and atmospheric composition continue to change. Here we analyse the historical evolution of the biomass dynamics of the Amazon rainforest over three decades using a distributed network of 321 plots. While this analysis confirms that Amazon forests have acted as a long-term net biomass sink, we find a long-term decreasing trend of carbon accumulation. Rates of net increase in above-ground biomass declined by one-third during the past decade compared to the 1990s. This is a consequence of growth rate increases levelling off recently, while biomass mortality persistently increased throughout, leading to a shortening of carbon residence times. Potential drivers for the mortality increase include greater climate variability, and feedbacks of faster growth on mortality, resulting in shortened tree longevity. The observed decline of the Amazon sink diverges markedly from the recent increase in terrestrial carbon uptake at the global scale, and is contrary to expectations based on models.

  19. Recommendations of the wwPDB NMR Validation Task Force

    Montelione, Gaetano T.; Nilges, Michael; Bax, Ad; Güntert, Peter; Herrmann, Torsten; Richardson, Jane S.; Schwieters, Charles; Vranken, Wim F.; Vuister, Geerten W.; Wishart, David S.; Berman, Helen M.; Kleywegt, Gerard J.; Markley, John L.

    2013-01-01

    As methods for analysis of biomolecular structure and dynamics using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) continue to advance, the resulting 3D structures, chemical shifts, and other NMR data are broadly impacting biology, chemistry, and medicine. Structure model assessment is a critical area of NMR methods development, and is an essential component of the process of making these structures accessible and useful to the wider scientific community. For these reasons, the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) has convened an NMR Validation Task Force (NMR-VTF) to work with the wwPDB partners in developing metrics and policies for biomolecular NMR data harvesting, structure representation, and structure quality assessment. This paper summarizes the recommendations of the NMR-VTF, and lays the groundwork for future work in developing standards and metrics for biomolecular NMR structure quality assessment. PMID:24010715

  20. Structural properties of carbon nanotubes derived from 13C NMR

    Abou-Hamad, E.; Babaa, M.-R.; Bouhrara, M.; Kim, Y.; Saih, Y.; Dennler, S.; Mauri, F.; Basset, Jean-Marie; Goze-Bac, C.; Wå gberg, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study on how structural properties of carbon nanotubes can be derived from 13C NMR investigations. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR experiments have been performed on single- and multiwalled

  1. nmrML: A Community Supported Open Data Standard for the Description, Storage, and Exchange of NMR Data.

    Schober, Daniel; Jacob, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cruz, Joseph A; Marcu, Ana; Grant, Jason R; Moing, Annick; Deborde, Catherine; de Figueiredo, Luis F; Haug, Kenneth; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Easton, John; Ebbels, Timothy M D; Hao, Jie; Ludwig, Christian; Günther, Ulrich L; Rosato, Antonio; Klein, Matthias S; Lewis, Ian A; Luchinat, Claudio; Jones, Andrew R; Grauslys, Arturas; Larralde, Martin; Yokochi, Masashi; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Porzel, Andrea; Griffin, Julian L; Viant, Mark R; Wishart, David S; Steinbeck, Christoph; Salek, Reza M; Neumann, Steffen

    2018-01-02

    NMR is a widely used analytical technique with a growing number of repositories available. As a result, demands for a vendor-agnostic, open data format for long-term archiving of NMR data have emerged with the aim to ease and encourage sharing, comparison, and reuse of NMR data. Here we present nmrML, an open XML-based exchange and storage format for NMR spectral data. The nmrML format is intended to be fully compatible with existing NMR data for chemical, biochemical, and metabolomics experiments. nmrML can capture raw NMR data, spectral data acquisition parameters, and where available spectral metadata, such as chemical structures associated with spectral assignments. The nmrML format is compatible with pure-compound NMR data for reference spectral libraries as well as NMR data from complex biomixtures, i.e., metabolomics experiments. To facilitate format conversions, we provide nmrML converters for Bruker, JEOL and Agilent/Varian vendor formats. In addition, easy-to-use Web-based spectral viewing, processing, and spectral assignment tools that read and write nmrML have been developed. Software libraries and Web services for data validation are available for tool developers and end-users. The nmrML format has already been adopted for capturing and disseminating NMR data for small molecules by several open source data processing tools and metabolomics reference spectral libraries, e.g., serving as storage format for the MetaboLights data repository. The nmrML open access data standard has been endorsed by the Metabolomics Standards Initiative (MSI), and we here encourage user participation and feedback to increase usability and make it a successful standard.

  2. Automated sequence-specific protein NMR assignment using the memetic algorithm MATCH

    Volk, Jochen; Herrmann, Torsten; Wuethrich, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    MATCH (Memetic Algorithm and Combinatorial Optimization Heuristics) is a new memetic algorithm for automated sequence-specific polypeptide backbone NMR assignment of proteins. MATCH employs local optimization for tracing partial sequence-specific assignments within a global, population-based search environment, where the simultaneous application of local and global optimization heuristics guarantees high efficiency and robustness. MATCH thus makes combined use of the two predominant concepts in use for automated NMR assignment of proteins. Dynamic transition and inherent mutation are new techniques that enable automatic adaptation to variable quality of the experimental input data. The concept of dynamic transition is incorporated in all major building blocks of the algorithm, where it enables switching between local and global optimization heuristics at any time during the assignment process. Inherent mutation restricts the intrinsically required randomness of the evolutionary algorithm to those regions of the conformation space that are compatible with the experimental input data. Using intact and artificially deteriorated APSY-NMR input data of proteins, MATCH performed sequence-specific resonance assignment with high efficiency and robustness

  3. Software Library for Bruker TopSpin NMR Data Files

    2016-10-14

    A software library for parsing and manipulating frequency-domain data files that have been processed using the Bruker TopSpin NMR software package. In the context of NMR, the term "processed" indicates that the end-user of the Bruker TopSpin NMR software package has (a) Fourier transformed the raw, time-domain data (the Free Induction Decay) into the frequency-domain and (b) has extracted the list of NMR peaks.

  4. NMR imaging of the cardiovascular system

    Canby, R.C.; Evanochko, W.T.; Pohost, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging permits high-resolution tomographic and three-dimensional images of the human body to be obtained without exposure to ionizing radiation. Such imaging not only yields anatomic resolution comparable to X-ray examinations but also provides a potential means to discriminate between healthy tissue and diseased tissue. This potential is based on certain NMR properties known as relaxation times, which determine, in part, the signal intensity in an image. These properties are related to such factors as the sizes and concentrations of proteins and mobile lipids and the compartmentalization of the protons of water. Although NMR imaging (also called magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) is becoming widely available for clinical use, application to the cardiovascular system, though promising, remains primarily a research tool. Gated proton NMR imaging can generate cardiac images with excellent morphologic detail and contrast; however, its ultimate importance as a cardiovascular diagnostic modality will depend on the development of several unique applications. These applications are discussed in this paper

  5. NMR imaging of the musculoskeletal system

    Naegele, M.; Lienemann, A.; Hahn, D.

    1988-01-01

    NMR imaging now allows in vivo imaging of soft tissue hitherto undetectable by non-invasive means. This opens up excellent perspectives with regard to the diagnosis and therapy of various diseases in the field of traumatology and oncology, of which examples are discussed in this paper. (orig.) [de

  6. Fourier transform zero field NMR and NQR

    Zax, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    In many systems the chemical shifts measured by traditional high resolution solid state NMR methods are insufficiently sensitive, or the information contained in the dipole-dipole couplings is more important. In these cases, Fourier transform zero field magnetic resonance may make an important contribution. Zero field NMR and NQR is the subject of this thesis. Chapter I presents the quantum mechanical background and notational formalism for what follows. Chapter II gives a brief review of high resolution magnetic resonance methods, with particular emphasis on techniques applicable to dipole-dipole and quadrupolar couplings. Level crossings between spin-1/2 and quadrupolar spins during demagnetization transfer polarization from high to low λ nuclei. This is the basis of very high sensitivity zero field NQR measurements by field cycling. Chapter III provides a formal presentation of the high resolution Fourier transform zero field NMR method. Theoretical signal functions are calculated for common spin systems, and examples of typical spectra are presented. Chapters IV and V review the experimental progress in zero field NMR of dipole-dipole coupled spin-1/2 nuclei and for quadrupolar spin systems. Variations of the simple experiment describe in earlier chapters that use pulsed dc fields are presented in Chapter VI

  7. NMR analog of Bell's inequalities violation test

    Souza, A M; Oliveira, I S; Sarthour, R S; Magalhaes, A; Teles, J; Azevedo, E R de; Bonagamba, T J

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analog of Bell's inequalities violation test for N qubits to be performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum computer. This can be used to simulate or predict the results for different Bell's inequality tests, with distinct configurations and a larger number of qubits. To demonstrate our scheme, we implemented a simulation of the violation of the Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt (CHSH) inequality using a two-qubit NMR system and compared the results to those of a photon experiment. The experimental results are well described by the quantum mechanics theory and a local realistic hidden variables model (LRHVM) that was specifically developed for NMR. That is why we refer to this experiment as a simulation of Bell's inequality violation. Our result shows explicitly how the two theories can be compatible with each other due to the detection loophole. In the last part of this work, we discuss the possibility of testing some fundamental features of quantum mechanics using NMR with highly polarized spins, where a strong discrepancy between quantum mechanics and hidden variables models can be expected

  8. NMR Analysis of Some Pentacycloundecanedione Derivatives

    NJD

    Although many authors have commented on the difficulty of ... coming these former difficulties. Cookson's dione 19,10 .... and 2.58 ppm) is the common factor and the positions of H-2. (2.94 ppm) .... Owing to advances in NMR technology, the.

  9. Proton NMR imaging in experimental ischemic infarction

    Buonanno, F.S.; Pykett, I.L.; Brady, T.J.; Vielma, J.; Burt, C.T.; Goldman, M.R.; Hinshaw, W.S.; Pohost, G.M.; Kistler, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) images depict the distribution and concentration of mobile protons modified by the relaxation times T1 and T2. Using the steady-state-free-precession (SSFP) technique, serial coronal images were obtained sequentially over time in laboratory animals with experimental ischemic infarction. Image changes were evident as early as 2 hours after carotid artery ligation, and corresponded to areas of ischemic infarction noted pathologically. Resulting SSFP images in experimental stroke are contrasted to inversion-recovery NMR images in an illustrative patient with established cerebral infarction. Bulk T1 and T2 measurements were made in vitro in three groups of gerbils: normal, those with clinical evidence of infarction, and those clinically normal after carotid ligature. Infarcted hemispheres had significantly prolonged T1 and T2 (1.47 +/- .12 sec, 76.0 +/- 9.0 msec, respectively) when compared to the contralateral hemisphere (T1 . 1.28 +/- .05 sec, T2 . 58.7 +/- 3.9 msec) or to the other two groups. These data suggest that changes in NMR parameters occur and can be detected by NMR imaging as early as two hours after carotid artery ligation

  10. Hyperpolarized NMR Probes for Biological Assays

    Sebastian Meier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the development of nuclear spin polarization enhanced (hyperpolarized molecular probes has opened up new opportunities for studying the inner workings of living cells in real time. The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ, introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and contrast against background signals using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. A variety of natural, derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular reaction progression, pathway kinetics, probe uptake and export, pH, redox state, reactive oxygen species, ion concentrations, drug efficacy or oncogenic signaling. These probes are readily used directly under natural conditions in biofluids and are often directly developed and optimized for cellular assays, thus leaving little doubt about their specificity and utility under biologically relevant conditions. Hyperpolarized molecular probes for biological NMR spectroscopy enable the unbiased detection of complex processes by virtue of the high spectral resolution, structural specificity and quantifiability of NMR signals. Here, we provide a survey of strategies used for the selection, design and use of hyperpolarized NMR probes in biological assays, and describe current limitations and developments.

  11. Structural Studies of Biological Solids Using NMR

    Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2011-03-01

    High-resolution structure and dynamics of biological molecules are important in understanding their function. While studies have been successful in solving the structures of water-soluble biomolecules, it has been proven difficult to determine the structures of membrane proteins and fibril systems. Recent studies have shown that solid-state NMR is a promising technique and could be highly valuable in studying such non-crystalline and non-soluble biosystems. I will present strategies to study the structures of such challenging systems and also about the applications of solid-state NMR to study the modes of membrane-peptide interactions for a better assessment of the prospects of antimicrobial peptides as substitutes to antibiotics in the control of human disease. Our studies on the mechanism of membrane disruption by LL-37 (a human antimicrobial peptide), analogs of the naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide magainin2 extracted from the skin of the African frog Xenopus Laevis, and pardaxin will be presented. Solid-state NMR experiments were used to determine the secondary structure, dynamics and topology of these peptides in lipid bilayers. Similarities and difference in the cell-lysing mechanism, and their dependence on the membrane composition, of these peptides will be discussed. Atomic-level resolution NMR structures of amyloidogenic proteins revealing the misfolding pathway and early intermediates that play key roles in amyloid toxicity will also be presented.

  12. Synthesis and NMR elucidation of novel pentacycloundecane ...

    NICO

    SYNTHESIS AND NMR ELUCIDATION OF NOVEL. PENTACYCLOUNDECANE DERIVED PEPTIDES. Rajshekhar Karpoormath, a. Oluseye K. Onajole, a. Thavendran Govender, b. Glenn E. M. Maguire, a and Hendrik G. Kruger a* a. School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4001, South Africa b. School of ...

  13. The bar coil for NMR tomograph

    Bogorodzki, P.; Piatkowski, A.; Wasielewski, J.

    1995-01-01

    The bar coil (bi-planar) for the NMR tomograph, designed for medical diagnostics, has been described. The tests of coil shown that it generates good homogenous magnetic field in a big volume what results in improving of the signal-to-noise ratio

  14. NMR characterization of polymers: Review and update

    NMR spectroscopy is a major technique for the characterization and analysis of polymers. A large number of methodologies have been developed in both the liquid and the solid state, and the literature has grown considerably (1-5). The field now covers a broad spectrum of activities, including polym...

  15. Some exercises in quantitative NMR imaging

    Bakker, C.J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The articles represented in this thesis result from a series of investigations that evaluate the potential of NMR imaging as a quantitative research tool. In the first article the possible use of proton spin-lattice relaxation time T 1 in tissue characterization, tumor recognition and monitoring tissue response to radiotherapy is explored. The next article addresses the question whether water proton spin-lattice relaxation curves of biological tissues are adequately described by a single time constant T 1 , and analyzes the implications of multi-exponentiality for quantitative NMR imaging. In the third article the use of NMR imaging as a quantitative research tool is discussed on the basis of phantom experiments. The fourth article describes a method which enables unambiguous retrieval of sign information in a set of magnetic resonance images of the inversion recovery type. The next article shows how this method can be adapted to allow accurate calculation of T 1 pictures on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The sixth article, finally, describes a simulation procedure which enables a straightforward determination of NMR imaging pulse sequence parameters for optimal tissue contrast. (orig.)

  16. Structures of Biomolecules by NMR Spectroscopy

    IAS Admin

    an edge over the X-ray method as it can be used to study biomolecules ... currently as an Associate. Professor. ... Such a wealth of data is made available to the NMR ... important step towards structural characterization of a biomolecule. Box 1.

  17. NMR blood vessel imaging method and apparatus

    Riederer, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    A high speed method of forming computed images of blood vessels based on measurements of characteristics of a body is described comprising the steps of: subjecting a predetermined body area containing blood vessels of interest to, successively, applications of a short repetition time (TR) NMR pulse sequence during the period of high blood velocity and then to corresponding applications during the period of low blood velocity for successive heart beat cycles; weighting the collected imaging data from each application of the NMR pulse sequence according to whether the data was acquired during the period of high blood velocity or a period of low blood velocity of the corresponding heart beat cycle; accumulating weighted imaging data from a plurality of NMR pulse sequences corresponding to high blood velocity periods and from a plurality of NMR pulse sequences corresponding to low blood velocity periods; subtracting the weighted imaging data corresponding to each specific phase encoding acquired during the high blood velocity periods from the weighted imaging data for the same phase encoding corresponding to low blood velocity periods in order to compute blood vessel imaging data; and forming an image of the blood vessels of interest from the blood vessel imaging data

  18. Periodontitis and Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Mark Ide

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is common in the elderly and may become more common in Alzheimer's disease because of a reduced ability to take care of oral hygiene as the disease progresses. Elevated antibodies to periodontal bacteria are associated with an increased systemic pro-inflammatory state. Elsewhere raised serum pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with an increased rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that periodontitis would be associated with increased dementia severity and a more rapid cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine if periodontitis in Alzheimer's disease is associated with both increased dementia severity and cognitive decline, and an increased systemic pro inflammatory state. In a six month observational cohort study 60 community dwelling participants with mild to moderate Alzheimer's Disease were cognitively assessed and a blood sample taken for systemic inflammatory markers. Dental health was assessed by a dental hygienist, blind to cognitive outcomes. All assessments were repeated at six months. The presence of periodontitis at baseline was not related to baseline cognitive state but was associated with a six fold increase in the rate of cognitive decline as assessed by the ADAS-cog over a six month follow up period. Periodontitis at baseline was associated with a relative increase in the pro-inflammatory state over the six month follow up period. Our data showed that periodontitis is associated with an increase in cognitive decline in Alzheimer's Disease, independent to baseline cognitive state, which may be mediated through effects on systemic inflammation.

  19. Recent Advances in Targeted and Untargeted Metabolomics by NMR and MS/NMR Methods

    Bingol, Kerem

    2018-04-18

    Metabolomics has made significant progress in multiple fronts in the last 18 months. This minireview aimed to give an overview of these advancements in the light of their contribution to targeted and untargeted metabolomics. New computational approaches have emerged to overcome manual absolute quantitation step of metabolites in 1D 1H NMR spectra. This provides more consistency between inter-laboratory comparisons. Integration of 2D NMR metabolomics databases under a unified web server allowed very accurate identification of the metabolites that have been catalogued in these databases. For the remaining uncatalogued and unknown metabolites, new cheminformatics approaches have been developed by combining NMR and mass spectrometry. These hybrid NMR/MS approaches accelerated the identification of unknowns in untargeted studies, and now they are allowing to profile ever larger number of metabolites in application studies.

  20. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy on complex biomolecules

    Renault, M.A.M.; Cukkemane, A.A.; Baldus, M.

    2010-01-01

    Biomolecular applications of NMR spectroscopy are often merely associated with soluble molecules or magnetic resonance imaging. However, since the late 1970s, solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy has demonstrated its ability to provide atomic-level insight into complex biomolecular systems ranging

  1. Polymeric proanthocyanidins 13C NMR studies of procyanidins

    Lawrence J. Porter; Roger H. Newman; Lai Yeap Foo; Herbert Wong; Richard W. Hemingway

    1982-01-01

    Proanthocyanidin polymers have been shown to consist entirely of flavan-3-ol units by a combination of techniques including 13C n.m.r. spectroscopy. The 13C n.m.r. spectra of the polymers and related molecules are now considered in more detail. Prior to this study UC n.m.r. data has been published of procyanidins and...

  2. Performance of the WeNMR CS-Rosetta3 web server in CASD-NMR

    Schot, Gijs van der [Uppsala University, Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (Sweden); Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J., E-mail: a.m.j.j.bonvin@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science – Chemistry, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    We present here the performance of the WeNMR CS-Rosetta3 web server in CASD-NMR, the critical assessment of automated structure determination by NMR. The CS-Rosetta server uses only chemical shifts for structure prediction, in combination, when available, with a post-scoring procedure based on unassigned NOE lists (Huang et al. in J Am Chem Soc 127:1665–1674, 2005b, doi: 10.1021/ja047109h 10.1021/ja047109h ). We compare the original submissions using a previous version of the server based on Rosetta version 2.6 with recalculated targets using the new R3FP fragment picker for fragment selection and implementing a new annotation of prediction reliability (van der Schot et al. in J Biomol NMR 57:27–35, 2013, doi: 10.1007/s10858-013-9762-6 10.1007/s10858-013-9762-6 ), both implemented in the CS-Rosetta3 WeNMR server. In this second round of CASD-NMR, the WeNMR CS-Rosetta server has demonstrated a much better performance than in the first round since only converged targets were submitted. Further, recalculation of all CASD-NMR targets using the new version of the server demonstrates that our new annotation of prediction quality is giving reliable results. Predictions annotated as weak are often found to provide useful models, but only for a fraction of the sequence, and should therefore only be used with caution.

  3. Performance of the WeNMR CS-Rosetta3 web server in CASD-NMR

    Schot, Gijs van der; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present here the performance of the WeNMR CS-Rosetta3 web server in CASD-NMR, the critical assessment of automated structure determination by NMR. The CS-Rosetta server uses only chemical shifts for structure prediction, in combination, when available, with a post-scoring procedure based on unassigned NOE lists (Huang et al. in J Am Chem Soc 127:1665–1674, 2005b, doi: 10.1021/ja047109h 10.1021/ja047109h ). We compare the original submissions using a previous version of the server based on Rosetta version 2.6 with recalculated targets using the new R3FP fragment picker for fragment selection and implementing a new annotation of prediction reliability (van der Schot et al. in J Biomol NMR 57:27–35, 2013, doi: 10.1007/s10858-013-9762-6 10.1007/s10858-013-9762-6 ), both implemented in the CS-Rosetta3 WeNMR server. In this second round of CASD-NMR, the WeNMR CS-Rosetta server has demonstrated a much better performance than in the first round since only converged targets were submitted. Further, recalculation of all CASD-NMR targets using the new version of the server demonstrates that our new annotation of prediction quality is giving reliable results. Predictions annotated as weak are often found to provide useful models, but only for a fraction of the sequence, and should therefore only be used with caution

  4. Kinship and the decline of fertility.

    Zhou, Y

    1996-01-01

    China's family planning and population control policies, together with the move toward a more market-oriented economy since the 1980s, have led to significant change in people's reproductive values and behavior and a substantial decline in fertility. Traditional kinship in China, its terminology, and the impact of fertility decline on kinship in China and Chinese society are discussed. The decline in fertility is affecting or will affect China's kinship system, the corresponding pattern of terminology, and the social structure. In the more market-oriented economy which has been developing in China, the simplification of the kinship system will help change the structure of Chinese society and weaken the traditional patriarchal culture. A more individualized, contractualized social structure and relationships will result.

  5. First NMR Experiments in the Hybrid, 40T and beyond: A challenge to traditional NMR instrumentation

    Reyes, Arneil P.

    2001-03-01

    The recent commissioning of the continuous 45T hybrid magnet at NHMFL has opened new horizon for science but carried with it new challenges that forced NMR spectroscopists to reevaluate the traditional approach to NMR instrumentation. Very recently, a world record frequency at 1.5GHz has been achieved, signaling the new era of NMR probe designs that may someday blur the distinction between the classic NMR and millimeter-wave spectroscopies. No longer can we ignore stray capacitances and exposed leads in the terrain where every millimeter of cable counts. The challenge brought about by ever increasing fields and consequently, frequency, requirements has stimulated ingenuity among scientists. This is eased by accelerated growth in RF communications and computing technologies that made available advanced devices with more speed, power, bandwidth, noise immunity, flexibility, and complexity in small space at very low costs. Utilization of these devices have been paramount consideration in cutting-edge designs at NHMFL for Condensed Matter NMR and will be described in this talk. I will also discuss a number of first >33T NMR experiments to date utilizing the strength of the field to expose, as well as to induce occurrence of, new physical phenomena in condensed matter and which resulted in better understanding of the physics of materials. This work has been a result of continuing collaboration with P. L Kuhns, W. G. Moulton, W. P. Halperin (NU), and W. G. Clark (UCLA). The NHMFL is supported through the National Science Foundation and the State of Florida.

  6. Idaho Power's reverses decline with employee increase

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Following several years of decline, the number of full-time Idaho Power employees increased to 1,528 at the end of 1989, up from 1,500 in 1988. The increase reversed a steady decline that began in 1984 when the company had a peak employment of 1,725. Last year's increase in the work force in part reflects recent additions in customers served and the electric demands of an expanding economy in the service area, as well as new regulatory requirements, the company said

  7. Direct 13C NMR Detection in HPLC Hyphenation Mode

    Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Johansen, Kenneth; Nyberg, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Solid phase extraction (SPE) was introduced as a crucial step in the HPLC-SPE-NMR technique to enable online analyte enrichment from which proton-detected NMR experiments on submicrogram amounts from complex mixtures were possible. However, the significance of direct-detected (13)C NMR experiments...... application of HPLC-SPE-NMR analysis using direct-detected (13)C NMR spectra. HPLC column loading, accumulative SPE trappings, and the effect of different elution solvents were evaluated and optimized. A column loading of approximately 600 mug of a prefractionated triterpenoid mixture, six trappings...

  8. Use of NMR as an online sensor in industrial processes

    Andrade, Fabiana Diuk de

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the most versatile analytical techniques for chemical, biochemical and medical applications. Despite this great success, NMR is seldom used as a tool in industrial applications. The first application of NMR in flowing samples was published in 1951. However, only in the last ten years Flow NMR has gained momentum and new and potential applications have been proposed. In this review we present the historical evolution of flow or online NMR spectroscopy and imaging, and current developments for use in the automation of industrial processes. (author)

  9. Why Employee Motivation Has Declined in America.

    Grant, Philip C.

    1982-01-01

    Examines possible reasons for declining employee motivation: greater instability and diversity of values; more guaranteed rewards; inability of rewards to satisfy emerging needs; disappearing work ethic; reduced costs of failure; rising income and progressive taxation; more group production and problem solving; decreased employee loyalty; less…

  10. Understanding spatial differentiation in urban decline levels

    Hoekveld, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The economic and demographic changes currently manifest in many Western cities—referred to as urban decline or urban shrinkage—are receiving increased attention in public and academic debates. Although the general processes driving these changes have been identified, such processes cannot explain

  11. Predicting flux decline of reverse osmosis membranes

    Schippers, J.C.; Hanemaayer, J.H.; Smolders, C.A.; Kostense, A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model predicting flux decline of reverse osmosis membranes due to colloidal fouling has been verified. This mathema- tical model is based on the theory of cake or gel filtration and the Modified Fouling Index (MFI). Research was conducted using artificial colloidal solutions and a

  12. NIDI scenario. Strong population decline in China

    de Beer, J.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    United Nations projections assume that by the end of this century one third of the world population will live in India, China or Nigeria. While population growth in India will slow down and the population size of China will decline, population growth in Nigeria will accelerate. A new NIDI scenario

  13. Disease management strategy for macadamia quick decline

    Trees infected with Macadamia Quick Decline (MQD) exhibit excessive sap bleeding from the trunk, frass from ambrosia beetle feeding, orange fruiting bodies of the fungus Nectria rugulosa and yellowing and browning of the leaves within the tree canopy. MQD threatens commercial and residential product...

  14. Declining national park visitation: An economic analysis

    Thomas H. Stevens; Thomas A. More; Marla. Markowski-Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Visitation to the major nature-based national parks has been declining. This paper specifies an econometric model that estimates the relative impact of consumer incomes, travel costs, entry fees and other factors on per capita attendance from 1993 to 2010. Results suggest that entrance fees have had a statistically significant but small impact on per capita attendance...

  15. Conflict Management in Declining School Districts.

    Boyd, William Lowe; Wheaton, Dennis R.

    1983-01-01

    Professional literature about managing conflicts associated with declining enrollments indicates the existing tension in this area. A research study shows that, while upper-middle class districts may succeed using a rational approach to decision making, lower class districts, for various reasons, may not. Special problems of urban districts are…

  16. Why Do Patients with COPD Decline Rehabilitation

    Mathar, Helle; Fastholm, Pernille; Hansen, Ida Rode

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This paper aimed to suggest possible answers to the question: Why do patients with COPD decline pulmonary rehabilitation (PR)? METHOD: The study is a metasynthesis inspired by Noblit of the existing qualitative research on the area. The data were collected during 2014. Six studies were found...

  17. The Decline of Literature: A Public Perspective

    Albalawi, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    After centuries of dominance, literature has not been in a robust health for the last few decades. Several scholars have addressed the decline of literature in a number of books and articles attributing it to institutional and economic reasons. However, a major factor has not been taken into account. It is the larger audience who receives and…

  18. Solid-state NMR basic principles and practice

    Apperley, David C; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has proved to be a uniquely powerful and versatile tool for analyzing and characterizing chemicals and materials of all kinds. This book focuses on the latest developments and applications for "solid-state" NMR, which has found new uses from archaeology to crystallography to biomaterials and pharmaceutical science research. The book will provide materials engineers, analytical chemists, and physicists, in and out of lab, a survey of the techniques and the essential tools of solid-state NMR, together with a practical guide on applications. In this concise introduction to the growing field of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy The reader will find: * Basic NMR concepts for solids, including guidance on the spin-1/2 nuclei concept * Coverage of the quantum mechanics aspects of solid state NMR and an introduction to the concept of quadrupolar nuclei * An understanding relaxation, exchange and quantitation in NMR * An analysis and interpretation of NMR data, with e...

  19. Declining Japanese Yen in the Changing International Monetary System

    Eiji Ogawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The US dollar has kept as a position of key currency in the global economy in the changing international monetary system where the euro was introduced to some states of the EU in 1999. It is an evidence of inertia of the US dollar as a key currency. Our previous study (Ogawa and Muto, 2017b conducted empirical analysis to investigate effects of several events on inertia of the US dollar. One of our findings was that the introduction of the euro increased utility of euro while utility of US dollar was kept unchanged. This paper examines the effects of the global financial crisis and the euro zone crisis as well as the introduction of the euro on the utility of the Japanese yen. The introduction of the euro significantly decreased the utility of the Japanese yen. It indicates that the introduction of the euro increased the utility of the euro while reducing the utility of the Japanese yen rather than the utility of the US dollar. The utility of the Japanese yen has significantly decreased while the global financial crisis and the euro zone crisis occurred. The Japanese yen has a declining trend in terms of its utility over time in the changing international monetary system.

  20. NMR shielding calculations across the periodic table: diamagnetic uranium compounds. 2. Ligand and metal NMR.

    Schreckenbach, Georg

    2002-12-16

    In this and a previous article (J. Phys. Chem. A 2000, 104, 8244), the range of application for relativistic density functional theory (DFT) is extended to the calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) shieldings and chemical shifts in diamagnetic actinide compounds. Two relativistic DFT methods are used, ZORA ("zeroth-order regular approximation") and the quasirelativistic (QR) method. In the given second paper, NMR shieldings and chemical shifts are calculated and discussed for a wide range of compounds. The molecules studied comprise uranyl complexes, [UO(2)L(n)](+/-)(q); UF(6); inorganic UF(6) derivatives, UF(6-n)Cl(n), n = 0-6; and organometallic UF(6) derivatives, UF(6-n)(OCH(3))(n), n = 0-5. Uranyl complexes include [UO(2)F(4)](2-), [UO(2)Cl(4)](2-), [UO(2)(OH)(4)](2-), [UO(2)(CO(3))(3)](4-), and [UO(2)(H(2)O)(5)](2+). For the ligand NMR, moderate (e.g., (19)F NMR chemical shifts in UF(6-n)Cl(n)) to excellent agreement [e.g., (19)F chemical shift tensor in UF(6) or (1)H NMR in UF(6-n)(OCH(3))(n)] has been found between theory and experiment. The methods have been used to calculate the experimentally unknown (235)U NMR chemical shifts. A large chemical shift range of at least 21,000 ppm has been predicted for the (235)U nucleus. ZORA spin-orbit appears to be the most accurate method for predicting actinide metal chemical shifts. Trends in the (235)U NMR chemical shifts of UF(6-n)L(n) molecules are analyzed and explained in terms of the calculated electronic structure. It is argued that the energy separation and interaction between occupied and virtual orbitals with f-character are the determining factors.

  1. Declining world fertility: trends, causes, implications.

    Tsui, A O; Bogue, D J

    1978-10-01

    This Bulletin examines the evidence that the world's fertility has declined in recent years, the factors that appear to have accounted for the decline, and the implications for fertility and population growth rates to the end of the century. On the basis of a compilation of estimates available for all nations of the world, the authors derive estimates which indicate that the world's total fertility rate dropped from 4.6 to 4.1 births per woman between 1968 and 1975, thanks largely to an earlier and more rapid and universal decline in the fertility of less developed countries (LDCs) than had been anticipated. Statistical analysis of available data suggests that the socioeconomic progress made by LDCs in this period was not great enough to account for more than a proportion of the fertility decline and that organized family planning programs were a major contributing factor. The authors' projections, which are compared to similar projections from the World Bank, the United Nations, and the U.S. Bureau of the Census, indicate that, by the year 2000, less than 1/5 of the world's population will be in the "red danger" circle of explosive population growth (2.1% or more annually); most LDCs will be in a phase of fertility decline; and many of them -- along with most now developed countries -- will be at or near replacement level of fertility. The authors warn that "our optimistic prediction is premised upon a big IF -- if (organized) family planning (in LDCs) continues. It remains imperative that all of the developed nations of the world continue their contribution to this program undiminished."

  2. 31P NMR characterization of graded traumatic brain injury in rats

    Vink, R.; McIntosh, T.K.; Yamakami, I.; Faden, A.I.

    1988-01-01

    Irreversible tissue injury following central nervous system trauma is believed to result from both mechanical disruption at the time of primary insult, and more delayed autodestructive processes. These delayed events are associated with various biochemical changes, including alterations in phosphate energy metabolism and intracellular pH. Using 31 P NMR, we have monitored the changes in phosphorus energy metabolism and intracellular pH in a single hemisphere of the rat brain over an 8-h period following graded, traumatic, fluid percussion-induced brain injury. Following trauma the ratio of phosphocreatine to inorganic phosphate (PCr/Pi) declined in each injury group. This decline was transitory with low injury (1.0 +/- 0.5 atm), biphasic with moderate (2.1 +/- 0.4 atm) and high (3.9 +/- 0.9 atm) injury, and sustained following severe injury (5.9 +/- 0.7 atm). The initial PCr/Pi decline in the moderate and high injury groups was associated with intracellular acidosis; however, the second decline occurred in the absence of any pH changes. Alterations in ATP occurred only in severely injured animals and such changes were associated with marked acidosis and 100% mortality rate. After 4h, the posttraumatic PCr/Pi ratio correlated linearly with the severity of injury. We suggest that a reduced posttraumatic PCr/Pi ratio may be indicative of altered mitochondrial energy production and may predict a reduced capacity of the cell to recover from traumatic injury

  3. DNA oligonucleotide conformations: high resolution NMR studies

    Mellema, J.-R.

    1984-01-01

    The present work describes a DNA double-helix model, which is well comparable with the models derived from fibre-diffraction studies. The model has a mononucleotide repeat with torsion angles in accordance with average geometries as derived from 1 H NMR studies. Special attention was paid to reduce the number of short H-H nonbonding contacts, which are abundantly present in the 'classical' fibre-diffraction models. Chapter 3 describes the first complete assignment of a 1 H NMR spectrum of a DNA tetramer, d(TAAT). Preliminary conformational data derived from the spectral parameters recorded at 27 0 C are given. A more detailed analysis employing temperature-dependence studies is given in Chapter 4. (Auth.)

  4. Some nitrogen-14 NMR studies in solids

    Pratum, T.K.

    1983-11-01

    The first order quadrupolar perturbation of the /sup 14/N NMR spectrum yields information regarding the static and dynamic properties of the surrounding electronic environment. Signal to noise problems caused by long /sup 14/N longitudinal relaxation times (T/sub 1/) and small equilibrium polarizations are reduced by rotating frame cross polarization (CP) experiments between /sup 14/N and /sup 1/H. Using quadrupolar echo and CP techniques, the /sup 14/N quadrupolar coupling constants (e/sup 2/qQ/h) and asymmetry parameters (eta) have been obtained for a variety of tetraalkylammonium compounds by observation of their quadrupolar powder patterns at various temperatures. For choline chloride and iodide the /sup 14/N NMR powder patterns exhibit the effects of anisotropic molecular motion, while choline bromide spectra show no such effects.

  5. Fully automated system for pulsed NMR measurements

    Cantor, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    A system is described which places many of the complex, tedious operations for pulsed NMR experiments under computer control. It automatically optimizes the experiment parameters of pulse length and phase, and precision, accuracy, and measurement speed are improved. The hardware interface between the computer and the NMR instrument is described. Design features, justification of the choices made between alternative design strategies, and details of the implementation of design goals are presented. Software features common to all the available experiments are discussed. Optimization of pulse lengths and phases is performed via a sequential search technique called Uniplex. Measurements of the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times and of diffusion constants are automatic. Options for expansion of the system are explored along with some of the limitations of the system

  6. Exploring the limits to spatially resolved NMR

    Gaedke, Achim; Nestle, Nikolaus [TU Darmstadt, Institute of Condensed Matter Physics (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Recent advances in MRI have demonstrated resolutions down to 1 {mu}m. Magnetic resonance force microscopy has the potential to reach sensitivity for single nuclear spins. Given these numbers, in vivo imaging of single cells or even biomacromolecules may seem possible. However, for in vivo applications, there are fundamental differences in the contrast mechanisms compared to MRI at macroscopic scales as the length scale of of molecular self-diffusion exceeds that of the spatial resolution on the NMR time scale. Those effects - which are fundamentally different from the echo attenuation in field gradient NMR - even may lead to general limitations on the spatial resolution achievable in aqueous systems with high water content. In our contribution, we explore those effects on a model system in a high-resolution stray-field imaging setup. In addition to experimental results, simulations based on the Bloch-Torrey equation are presented.

  7. Recent topics in NMR imaging and MRI

    Watanabe, Tokuko

    2002-01-01

    NMR and NMR imaging (MRI) are finding increasing use not only in the clinical and medical fields, but also in material, physicochemical, biological, geological, industrial and environmental applications. This short review is limited to two topics: new techniques and pulse sequences and their application to non-clinical fields that may have clinical application; and new trends in MR contrast agents. The former topic addresses pulse sequence and data analysis; dynamics such as diffusion, flow, velocity and velocimetry; chemometrics; pharmacological agents; and chemotherapy; the latter topic addresses contrast agents (CA) sensitive to biochemical activity; CA based on water exchange; molecular interactions and stability of CA; characteristics of emerging CA; superparamagnetic CA; and macromolecular CA. (author)

  8. Some nitrogen-14 NMR studies in solids

    Pratum, T.K.

    1983-11-01

    The first order quadrupolar perturbation of the 14 N NMR spectrum yields information regarding the static and dynamic properties of the surrounding electronic environment. Signal to noise problems caused by long 14 N longitudinal relaxation times (T 1 ) and small equilibrium polarizations are reduced by rotating frame cross polarization (CP) experiments between 14 N and 1 H. Using quadrupolar echo and CP techniques, the 14 N quadrupolar coupling constants (e 2 qQ/h) and asymmetry parameters (eta) have been obtained for a variety of tetraalkylammonium compounds by observation of their quadrupolar powder patterns at various temperatures. For choline chloride and iodide the 14 N NMR powder patterns exhibit the effects of anisotropic molecular motion, while choline bromide spectra show no such effects

  9. Widespread decline of Congo rainforest greenness in the past decade.

    Zhou, Liming; Tian, Yuhong; Myneni, Ranga B; Ciais, Philippe; Saatchi, Sassan; Liu, Yi Y; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Haishan; Vermote, Eric F; Song, Conghe; Hwang, Taehee

    2014-05-01

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of climate change, and are mainly constrained by rainfall patterns. The severe short-term droughts that occurred recently in Amazonia have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climatic disturbances. The central African rainforests, the second-largest on Earth, have experienced a long-term drying trend whose impacts on vegetation dynamics remain mostly unknown because in situ observations are very limited. The Congolese forest, with its drier conditions and higher percentage of semi-evergreen trees, may be more tolerant to short-term rainfall reduction than are wetter tropical forests, but for a long-term drought there may be critical thresholds of water availability below which higher-biomass, closed-canopy forests transition to more open, lower-biomass forests. Here we present observational evidence for a widespread decline in forest greenness over the past decade based on analyses of satellite data (optical, thermal, microwave and gravity) from several independent sensors over the Congo basin. This decline in vegetation greenness, particularly in the northern Congolese forest, is generally consistent with decreases in rainfall, terrestrial water storage, water content in aboveground woody and leaf biomass, and the canopy backscatter anomaly caused by changes in structure and moisture in upper forest layers. It is also consistent with increases in photosynthetically active radiation and land surface temperature. These multiple lines of evidence indicate that this large-scale vegetation browning, or loss of photosynthetic capacity, may be partially attributable to the long-term drying trend. Our results suggest that a continued gradual decline of photosynthetic capacity and moisture content driven by the persistent drying trend could alter the composition and structure of the Congolese forest to favour the spread of drought-tolerant species.

  10. NMR dispersion measurement of dynamic nuclear polarization

    Davies, K.; Cox, S.F.J.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of monitoring dynamic nuclear polarization from the NMR dispersive susceptibility is examined. Two prototype instruments are tested in a polarized proton target using organic target material. The more promising employs a tunnel diode oscillator, inside the target cavity, and should provide a precise polarization measurement working at a frequency far enough from the main resonance for the disturbance of the measured polarization to be negligible. Other existing methods for measuring target polarization are briefly reviewed. (author)

  11. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  12. NMR of 1,2-dioxiquinolines

    Figueroa Villar, Jose Daniel; Santos, N.L. dos

    1993-01-01

    Several derivates of quinoline are known for presenting pharmacological activity as antibiotics and anti-parasites, from which an important group are the antibiotics for the treatment of malaria and infections of the urinary tract. This work presents the structures and the NMR spectra of three new derivates of quinoline. These compounds are being tested as possible antibiotics for the treatment of urinary infections caused by Escherichia coli which are extremely resistant to other types of antibiotics

  13. 31-P NMR spectroscopy in radiotherapy

    Kiricuta, I.C.; Schmitt, W.G.H.; Beyer, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    Results suggest 31-P NMR spectroscopy to allow a discrimination between good and bad blood supply to the tumour owing to different metabolic behaviour and to furnish important information on tumour response to radiotherapy just a few hours after the application of a relatively low dose. Spectroscopy showed the radiation-sensitive tumour cells to behave relatively uniformly after radiotherapy suggesting this behaviour to be interpreted as therapeutical effectiveness. (orig./SHA) [de

  14. 3D Reconstruction of NMR Images

    Peter Izak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces experiment of 3D reconstruction NMR images scanned from magnetic resonance device. There are described methods which can be used for 3D reconstruction magnetic resonance images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on marching cubes algorithm. For this task was chosen sophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  15. Characterization of functional polymers by NMR

    Neto, Oscar H.S. A.S.; San Gil, Rosane A.S.; Nakayama, T.; Costa Neto, Claudio

    1993-01-01

    Several synthetic polymers are used in the chemical analysis of complexes mixtures aiming to extract certain specific functional groups for further identification. This work describes the utilization of NMR in the characterization of one of the above mentioned compounds which will be used as reagent for the synthesis of another compound of the same type, which will be further used in the chemical analysis of alcohols and phenols. The methodology is described. The results are described and discussed

  16. NMR characteristics of rat mammary tumors

    Osbakken, M.; Kreider, J.; Taczanowsky, P.

    1984-01-01

    12 rats were injected intradermally with 13762A rat mammary adenocarcinoma (1 x 10/sup 6/ cells). 3 rats died before completion of the study and 2 rat had tumor regression; the first 3 were excluded from data analysis. NMR imaging with a 1.5K gauss resistive magnet at 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after injection demonstrated increasing tumor mass. Saturation recovery (SR), inversion recovery (IR), and spin echo (SE) pulse sequence images and T/sub 1/ calculation were done for tumor characterization. (Tumor size was too small to identify at 2 weeks.) 3 rats were sacrificed after the last 3 imaging periods for histological studies, done to distinguish solid tumor mass from necrosis. Planimetry of tumor areas showed that as tumors grew in size, the ratio of necrotic area to area of solid tumor increased (week 3 = .3 +- .11; week 4 = .45 +- .07; week 5 = .51 +- 05); simultaneous calculated T/sub 1/ values also increased (week 3 = .35 +- .15; week 4 = .45 +- .06; week 5 = .42 +- 03). Qualitative NMR image T/sub 1/ values also increased as evidenced by progression of SR and IR tumor image intensity from very bright compared to the rest of the body at week 3 to less intense than other structures at week 5. These findings indicate that change in T/sub 1/ may be secondary to the pathophysiological change in the tumor (the increasing in necrosis, associated with increased free water). Thus, the range of T/sub 1/ values obtained in tumors in this study (and in previous studies) may be due to change in tumor physiology and anatomy. Careful correlation of histological with NMR data may allow ultimate use of NMR relaxation characteristics for determination of the physiological state of tumors

  17. 2D COSY sup 1 H NMR; A new tool for studying in sity brain metabolism in the living animal

    Barrere, B.; Peres, M.; Seulaz, J. (Universite Paris 7 (France). Laboratoire de Physiologie et Physiopathologie Cerebrovasculaire INSERM U 182 CNRS UA 641, Paris (France)); Gillet, B.; Mergui, S.; Beloeil, J.-C. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Chimie des Substances Naturelles)

    1990-05-21

    2D COSY {sup 1}H NMR with surface coil has been used to resolve and assign cerebral metabolites which had previously been detected but could not be resolved or assigned in situ in the living animal by conventional 1D {sup 1}H NMR. A wide range of cerebral metabolites, including alanine, N-acetyl asparate, asparate, choline derivatives, creatine/phosphocreatine pool, GABA, glucose, glutamate/glutamine pool, inositol, lactate and taurine were simultaneously resolved and assigned in situ in the whole animal using the 2D COSY correlation graphs. Global irreversible ischemia caused the appearance and the disappearance of cross-peaks in the 2D COSY {sup 1}H NMR map, corresponding to increases in alanine, GABA and lactate and glucose depletion. (author). 21 refs.; 3 figs.

  18. Backbone structure of Yersinia pestis Ail determined in micelles by NMR-restrained simulated annealing with implicit membrane solvation

    Marassi, Francesca M.; Ding, Yi; Schwieters, Charles D.; Tian, Ye; Yao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane protein Ail (attachment invasion locus) is a virulence factor of Yersinia pestis that mediates cell invasion, cell attachment and complement resistance. Here we describe its three-dimensional backbone structure determined in decyl-phosphocholine (DePC) micelles by NMR spectroscopy. The NMR structure was calculated using the membrane function of the implicit solvation potential, eefxPot, which we have developed to facilitate NMR structure calculations in a physically realistic environment. We show that the eefxPot force field guides the protein towards its native fold. The resulting structures provide information about the membrane-embedded global position of Ail, and have higher accuracy, higher precision and improved conformational properties, compared to the structures calculated with the standard repulsive potential

  19. 43Ca NMR in solid state

    Bellot, P.-V.; Trokiner, A.; Zhdanov, Yu.; Yakubovskii, A.

    1998-02-01

    In this paper we show that 43Ca is a suitable NMR probe to study the properties of high-Tc superconducting oxides. In the normal state, we report the temperature and doping dependencies of the spin susceptibility measured by 43Ca NMR. In the superconducting state and more exactly in the mixed state, by analysing 43Ca NMR linewidth, we have studied the magnetic induction distribution due to the presence of vortices and deduced λ, the penetration depth. Dans cet article, on montre que l'isotope 43 du calcium est une bonne sonde RMN pour l'étude des propriétés des oxydes supraconducteurs à haute température. Dans l'état normal, par la détermination du déplacement de la raie, en fonction de la température, on accède à la variation thermique de la susceptibilité de spin. Dans l'état supraconducteur et plus particulièrement dans l'état mixte, la largeur de raie RMN permet d'étudier la distribution d'induction magnétique due à la présence des vortex et de déterminer λ, la longueur de pénétration.

  20. Automatic maximum entropy spectral reconstruction in NMR

    Mobli, Mehdi; Maciejewski, Mark W.; Gryk, Michael R.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    Developments in superconducting magnets, cryogenic probes, isotope labeling strategies, and sophisticated pulse sequences together have enabled the application, in principle, of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to biomolecular systems approaching 1 megadalton. In practice, however, conventional approaches to NMR that utilize the fast Fourier transform, which require data collected at uniform time intervals, result in prohibitively lengthy data collection times in order to achieve the full resolution afforded by high field magnets. A variety of approaches that involve nonuniform sampling have been proposed, each utilizing a non-Fourier method of spectrum analysis. A very general non-Fourier method that is capable of utilizing data collected using any of the proposed nonuniform sampling strategies is maximum entropy reconstruction. A limiting factor in the adoption of maximum entropy reconstruction in NMR has been the need to specify non-intuitive parameters. Here we describe a fully automated system for maximum entropy reconstruction that requires no user-specified parameters. A web-accessible script generator provides the user interface to the system

  1. Solid state NMR study of cumbaru flour

    Nogueira, Jose S.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The polysaccharide obtained by seed of Dipteryx alata Vog, has been characterised by 13 C solid state, using the basic routine techniques, like MAS and CPMAS and by the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame parameter (T 1 H ρ). Knowing that the chemical structure and molecular dynamic are extremely necessary route to obtain information on the polysaccharides, this work contributes to the classification of the seed containing in the cumbaru fruit to get response on its application. To obtain the initial responses for our purposes some solid state NMR techniques were chosen. The CPMAS 13 C NMR spectrum of the polysaccharide was investigated to know if it has some crystallinity. The MAS 13 C NMR spectrum showed the presence of domains with distinct molecular mobility, because these domains will differ basically in the distribution size and chain packing. The variable contact time experiment was used to analyse the distribution form of 13 C decays, which give us more information about sample heterogeneity. The T 1 H ρHr values were obtained from the variable contact time and by delayed contact time experiment, because these parameter indicate the order of polysaccharides. From the values of this parameter, we found that this polysaccharide is completely non-ordered. (author)

  2. NMR measurement of bitumen at different temperatures.

    Yang, Zheng; Hirasaki, George J

    2008-06-01

    Heavy oil (bitumen) is characterized by its high viscosity and density, which is a major obstacle to both well logging and recovery. Due to the lost information of T2 relaxation time shorter than echo spacing (TE) and interference of water signal, estimation of heavy oil properties from NMR T2 measurements is usually problematic. In this work, a new method has been developed to overcome the echo spacing restriction of NMR spectrometer during the application to heavy oil (bitumen). A FID measurement supplemented the start of CPMG. Constrained by its initial magnetization (M0) estimated from the FID and assuming log normal distribution for bitumen, the corrected T2 relaxation time of bitumen sample can be obtained from the interpretation of CPMG data. This new method successfully overcomes the TE restriction of the NMR spectrometer and is nearly independent on the TE applied in the measurement. This method was applied to the measurement at elevated temperatures (8-90 degrees C). Due to the significant signal-loss within the dead time of FID, the directly extrapolated M0 of bitumen at relatively lower temperatures (viscosity, the extrapolated M0 of bitumen at over 60 degrees C can be reasonably assumed to be the real value. In this manner, based on the extrapolation at higher temperatures (> or = 60 degrees C), the M0 value of bitumen at lower temperatures (index (HI), fluid content and viscosity were evaluated by using corrected T2.

  3. Rhodopsin-lipid interactions studied by NMR.

    Soubias, Olivier; Gawrisch, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The biophysical properties of the lipid matrix are known to influence function of integral membrane proteins. We report on a sample preparation method for reconstitution of membrane proteins which uses porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) filters with 200-nm-wide pores of high density. The substrate permits formation of tubular, single membranes that line the inner surface of pores. One square centimeter of filter with a thickness of 60μm yields on the order of 500cm(2) of solid-supported single bilayer surface, sufficient for NMR studies. The tubular bilayers are free of detergent, fully hydrated, and accessible for ligands from one side of the membrane. The use of AAO filters greatly improves reproducibility of the reconstitution process such that the influence of protein on lipid order parameters can be studied with high resolution. As an example, results for the G protein-coupled receptor of class A, bovine rhodopsin, are shown. By (2)H NMR order parameter measurements, it is detected that rhodopsin insertion elastically deforms membranes near the protein. Furthermore, by (1)H saturation-transfer NMR under conditions of magic angle spinning, we demonstrate detection of preferences in interactions of rhodopsin with particular lipid species. It is assumed that function of integral membrane proteins depends on both protein-induced elastic deformations of the lipid matrix and preferences for interaction of the protein with particular lipid species in the first layer of lipids surrounding the protein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Principles of high resolution NMR in solids

    Mehring, Michael

    1983-01-01

    The field of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has developed at a fascinating pace during the last decade. It always has been an extremely valuable tool to the organic chemist by supplying molecular "finger print" spectra at the atomic level. Unfortunately the high resolution achievable in liquid solutions could not be obtained in solids and physicists and physical chemists had to live with unresolved lines open to a wealth of curve fitting procedures and a vast amount of speculations. High resolution NMR in solids seemed to be a paradoxon. Broad structure­ less lines are usually encountered when dealing with NMR in solids. Only with the recent advent of mUltiple pulse, magic angle, cross-polarization, two-dimen­ sional and multiple-quantum spectroscopy and other techniques during the last decade it became possible to resolve finer details of nuclear spin interactions in solids. I have felt that graduate students, researchers and others beginning to get involved with these techniques needed a book which trea...

  5. Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline

    Risø International Energy Conference 2009 took place 14 – 16 September 2009. The conference focused on: • Future global energy development options Scenario and policy issues • Measures to achieve CO2 emission peak in 2015 – 2020 and subsequent decline • Renewable energy supply technologies...... such as bioenergy, wind and solar • Centralized energy technologies such as clean coal technologies • Energy conversion, energy carriers and energy storage, including fuel cells and hydrogen technologies • Providing renewable energy for the transport sector • Systems aspects for the various regions throughout...... the world • End-use technologies, efficiency improvements in supply and end use • Energy savings The proceedings are prepared from papers presented at the conference and received with corrections, if any, until the final deadline on 3 August 2009....

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus having semitoroidal RF coil for use in topical NMR and NMR imaging

    Fukushima, E.; Assink, R.A.; Roeder, S.B.W.; Gibson, A.A.V.

    1984-01-01

    An improved nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) apparatus for use in topical magnetic resonance (TMR) spectroscopy and other remote sensing NMR applications includes a semitoroidal radio frequency (rf) coil. The semitoroidal rf coil produces an effective alternating magnetic field at a distance from the poles of the coil, to enable NMR measurements to be taken from selected regions inside an object, particularly human and other living subjects. The semitoroidal rf coil is relatively insensitive to magnetic interference from metallic objects located behind the coil, thereby rendering the coil particularly suited for use in both conventional and superconducting NMR magnets. The semitoroidal NMR coil can be constructed so that it emits little or no excess rf electric field associated with the rf magnetic field, thus avoiding adverse effects due to dielectric heating of the sample or to any other electric field interactions. The coil may be combined with a like orthogonal coil and suitably driven to provide a circularly polarised field; or it may be used in conjunction with a concentrically nested smaller semitoroidal coil to move the maximum field further from the coil assembly. (author)

  7. CcpNmr AnalysisAssign: a flexible platform for integrated NMR analysis

    Skinner, Simon P.; Fogh, Rasmus H. [University of Leicester, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Leicester Institute for Structural- and Chemical Biology (United Kingdom); Boucher, Wayne [University of Cambridge, Department of Biochemistry (United Kingdom); Ragan, Timothy J.; Mureddu, Luca G.; Vuister, Geerten W., E-mail: gv29@le.ac.uk [University of Leicester, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Leicester Institute for Structural- and Chemical Biology (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    NMR spectroscopy is an indispensably powerful technique for the analysis of biomolecules under ambient conditions, both for structural- and functional studies. However, in practice the complexity of the technique has often frustrated its application by non-specialists. In this paper, we present CcpNmr version-3, the latest software release from the Collaborative Computational Project for NMR, for all aspects of NMR data analysis, including liquid- and solid-state NMR data. This software has been designed to be simple, functional and flexible, and aims to ensure that routine tasks can be performed in a straightforward manner. We have designed the software according to modern software engineering principles and leveraged the capabilities of modern graphics libraries to simplify a variety of data analysis tasks. We describe the process of backbone assignment as an example of the flexibility and simplicity of implementing workflows, as well as the toolkit used to create the necessary graphics for this workflow. The package can be downloaded from www.ccpn.ac.uk/v3-software/downloads http://www.ccpn.ac.uk/v3-software/downloads and is freely available to all non-profit organisations.

  8. CcpNmr AnalysisAssign: a flexible platform for integrated NMR analysis

    Skinner, Simon P.; Fogh, Rasmus H.; Boucher, Wayne; Ragan, Timothy J.; Mureddu, Luca G.; Vuister, Geerten W.

    2016-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is an indispensably powerful technique for the analysis of biomolecules under ambient conditions, both for structural- and functional studies. However, in practice the complexity of the technique has often frustrated its application by non-specialists. In this paper, we present CcpNmr version-3, the latest software release from the Collaborative Computational Project for NMR, for all aspects of NMR data analysis, including liquid- and solid-state NMR data. This software has been designed to be simple, functional and flexible, and aims to ensure that routine tasks can be performed in a straightforward manner. We have designed the software according to modern software engineering principles and leveraged the capabilities of modern graphics libraries to simplify a variety of data analysis tasks. We describe the process of backbone assignment as an example of the flexibility and simplicity of implementing workflows, as well as the toolkit used to create the necessary graphics for this workflow. The package can be downloaded from www.ccpn.ac.uk/v3-software/downloads http://www.ccpn.ac.uk/v3-software/downloads and is freely available to all non-profit organisations.

  9. Sub-Clinical Cognitive Decline and Resting Cerebral Blood Flow in Middle Aged Men.

    Otto Mølby Henriksen

    Full Text Available Although dementia is associated with both global and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF changes, little is known about cerebral perfusion in the early pre-clinical stages of cognitive decline preceding overt cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of early sub-clinical cognitive decline with CBF.The study participants were recruited from a cohort of Danish men born in 1953. Based on a regression model we selected men who performed better (Group A, n = 94 and poorer (Group B, n = 95 on cognitive testing at age 57 than expected from testing at age 20. Participants underwent supplementary cognitive testing, blood sampling and MRI including measurements of regional and global CBF.Regional CBF was lower in group B than in group A in the posterior cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. The associations were attenuated when corrected for global atrophy, but remained significant in regions of interest based analysis adjusting for regional gray matter volume and vascular risk factors. No influence of group on global CBF was observed.We conclude that early sub-clinical cognitive decline is associated with reduced perfusion in the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus independently of regional atrophy and vascular risk factors, but cannot be statistically separated from an association with global atrophy.

  10. Longitudinal decline of driving safety in Parkinson disease.

    Uc, Ergun Y; Rizzo, Matthew; O'Shea, Amy M J; Anderson, Steven W; Dawson, Jeffrey D

    2017-11-07

    To longitudinally assess and predict on-road driving safety in Parkinson disease (PD). Drivers with PD (n = 67) and healthy controls (n = 110) drove a standardized route in an instrumented vehicle and were invited to return 2 years later. A professional driving expert reviewed drive data and videos to score safety errors. At baseline, drivers with PD performed worse on visual, cognitive, and motor tests, and committed more road safety errors compared to controls (median PD 38.0 vs controls 30.5; p < 0.001). A smaller proportion of drivers with PD returned for repeat testing (42.8% vs 62.7%; p < 0.01). At baseline, returnees with PD made fewer errors than nonreturnees with PD (median 34.5 vs 40.0; p < 0.05) and performed similar to control returnees (median 33). Baseline global cognitive performance of returnees with PD was better than that of nonreturnees with PD, but worse than for control returnees ( p < 0.05). After 2 years, returnees with PD showed greater cognitive decline and larger increase in error counts than control returnees (median increase PD 13.5 vs controls 3.0; p < 0.001). Driving error count increase in the returnees with PD was predicted by greater error count and worse visual acuity at baseline, and by greater interval worsening of global cognition, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale activities of daily living score, executive functions, visual processing speed, and attention. Despite drop out of the more impaired drivers within the PD cohort, returning drivers with PD, who drove like controls without PD at baseline, showed many more driving safety errors than controls after 2 years. Driving decline in PD was predicted by baseline driving performance and deterioration of cognitive, visual, and functional abnormalities on follow-up. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Anti-discrimination Philosophy and the Decline of Post-capitalist Democracies

    Dan Pavel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The author is trying to explain the contrasts existing between the expanding universe of anti-discrimination sanctions and the decline in legitimacy of democracy. The declining legitimacy affects both consolidated democracies, and newborn democracies. Inequality in the USA, but also at global level is illustrated with relevant statistics. The convergence between the crisis of democracy and the financial and economic global crisis is a major social and political threat. At the global level, after the Arab Spring, the third wave of democratization continued, while the quality of democracy substantially diminished. In the newborn Islamic democracies, discrimination against women, Christians, Jews, gay & lesbians, etc. continued, leading to arson, torture and killings.

  12. A structural homologue of colipase in black mamba venom revealed by NMR floating disulphide bridge analysis.

    Boisbouvier, J; Albrand, J P; Blackledge, M; Jaquinod, M; Schweitz, H; Lazdunski, M; Marion, D

    1998-01-01

    The solution structure of mamba intestinal toxin 1 (MIT1), isolated from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis venom, has been determined. This molecule is a cysteine-rich polypeptide exhibiting no recognised family membership. Resistance to MIT1 to classical specific endoproteases produced contradictory NMR and biochemical information concerning disulphide-bridge topology. We have used distance restraints allowing ambiguous partners between S atoms in combination with NMR-derived structural information, to correctly determine the disulphide-bridge topology. The resultant solution structure of MIT1, determined to a resolution of 0.5 A, reveals an unexpectedly similar global fold with respect to colipase, a protein involved in fatty acid digestion. Colipase exhibits an analogous resistance to endoprotease activity, indicating for the first time the possible topological origins of this biochemical property. The biochemical and structural homology permitted us to propose a mechanically related digestive function for MIT1 and provides novel information concerning snake venom protein evolution. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  13. An approach for high-throughput structure determination of proteins by NMR spectroscopy

    Medek, Ales; Olejniczak, Edward T.; Meadows, Robert P.; Fesik, Stephen W. [Abbott Laboratories, Pharmaceutical Discovery Division (United States)

    2000-11-15

    An approach is described for rapidly determining protein structures by NMR that utilizes proteins containing {sup 13}C-methyl labeled Val, Leu, and Ile ({delta}1) and protonated Phe and Tyr in a deuterated background. Using this strategy, the key NOEs that define the hydrophobic core and overall fold of the protein are easily obtained. NMR data are acquired using cryogenic probe technology which markedly reduces the spectrometer time needed for data acquisition. The approach is demonstrated by determining the overall fold of the antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-xL, from data collected in only 4 days. Refinement of the Bcl-xL structure to a backbone rmsd of 0.95 A was accomplished with data collected in an additional 3 days. A distance analysis of 180 different proteins and structure calculations using simulated data suggests that our method will allow the global folds of a wide variety of proteins to be determined.

  14. The decline of North American freshwater fishes

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Jelks, Howard L.; Burkhead, Noel M.

    2009-01-01

    North America has a broad array of freshwater ecosystems because of the continent's complex geography and geological history. Within a multitude of habitats—that include streams, large rivers, natural lakes, springs, and wetlands—rich assemblages of fishes reside, representing diverse taxonomic groups with unique ecological requirements. They face an unprecedented conservation crisis.1 In the last few decades, the proportion of inland fishes of North America, which are considered imperiled or extinct, increased from 20 to 40%.2 Although extinctions have occurred, many species and populations are declining in range size and abundance. The fish biota of the continent as a whole remains diverse; however, we can take action to stem any further declines.

  15. The Rise and Decline of Japanese Pacifism

    Yuan Cai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese pacifist constitution has been a symbol of Japan’s commitment to peace and more importantly its renunciation of wartime militarism. There has been strong support for its continuing existence amongst the Japanese populace despite persistent attempts by the Japanese government to amend it. However, the prevalent pacifist sentiment is showing signs of fading vitality in recent times. This article purports to examine the underlying forces that contributed to the development and the decline of Japanese pacifism. A host of domestic and international factors were responsible for the growth of pacifism and its subsequent decline, but only three important domestic factors will be examined in detail: the concept of victimhood in the development of pacifism and its implication for its continuing strength, the importance of peace education and the role played by the influential Japan’s Teachers’ Union on the formation of pacifist conscience and finally, the influence of leftist organisations on the organised peace movement.

  16. The rise (and decline?) of biotechnology.

    Kinch, Michael S

    2014-11-01

    Since the 1970s, biotechnology has been a key innovator in drug development. An analysis of FDA-approved therapeutics demonstrates pharmaceutical companies outpace biotechs in terms of new approvals but biotechnology companies are now responsible for earlier-stage activities (patents, INDs or clinical development). The number of biotechnology organizations that contributed to an FDA approval began declining in the 2000s and is at a level not seen since the 1980s. Whereas early biotechnology companies had a decade from first approval until acquisition, the average acquisition of a biotechnology company now occurs months before their first FDA approval. The number of hybrid organizations that arise when pharmaceutical companies acquire biotechnology is likewise declining, raising questions about the sustainability of biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional and cognitive decline in hospitalized elderly

    EUGÉNIA MENDES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim – Understand if functional and cognitive decline is accentuated during hospitalization in elderly patients. Method – It was design a descriptive and correlational study. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE were used. Results – Were evaluated at admission and discharge 51 elderly (75.53 ± 7.16 years, 53% women, admitted in an internal medicine unit with a length of stay of 14.27±6.45 days. For FIM and MMSE were found statistically significant differences with lower scores from admission to discharge. Negative correlations between age and length of stay and the scores of all measures were found. Except for the Cognitive FIM at admission, all elderly residents at home fared better than the institutionalized in all measures. Conclusions – The hospitalization contributes to a greater weakness/frailty of the elderly and is considered high risk for decline in physical fitness and cognitive function.

  18. Risks of rapid decline renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Yi-Jing; Sheen; Wayne; HH; Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Progressive rising population of diabetes and related nephropathy, namely, diabetic kidney disease and associated end stage renal disease has become a major global public health issue. Results of observational studies indicate that most diabetic kidney disease progresses over decades; however, certain diabetes patients display a rapid decline in renal function, which may lead to renal failure within months. Although the definition of rapid renal function decline remained speculative, in general,it is defined by the decrease of estimated glomerular filtration rate(e GFR) in absolute rate of loss or percent change. Based on the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2012 clinical practice guidelines, a rapid decline in renal function is defined as a sustained declinein e GFR of > 5 m L/min per 1.73 m2 per year. It has been reported that potential factors contributing to a rapid decline in renal function include ethnic/genetic and demographic causes, smoking habits, increased glycated hemoglobin levels, obesity, albuminuria, anemia, low serum magnesium levels, high serum phosphate levels, vitamin D deficiency, elevated systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity values, retinopathy, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. This article reviews current literatures in this area and provides insight on the early detection of diabetic subjects who are at risk of a rapid decline in renal function in order to develop a more aggressive approach to renal and cardiovascular protection.

  19. NMR structure of the protein NP-247299.1: comparison with the crystal structure

    Jaudzems, Kristaps; Geralt, Michael; Serrano, Pedro; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Horst, Reto; Pedrini, Bill; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A.; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of the NMR and crystal structures of a protein determined using largely automated methods has enabled the interpretation of local differences in the highly similar structures. These differences are found in segments of higher B values in the crystal and correlate with dynamic processes on the NMR chemical shift timescale observed in solution. The NMR structure of the protein NP-247299.1 in solution at 313 K has been determined and is compared with the X-ray crystal structure, which was also solved in the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG) at 100 K and at 1.7 Å resolution. Both structures were obtained using the current largely automated crystallographic and solution NMR methods used by the JCSG. This paper assesses the accuracy and precision of the results from these recently established automated approaches, aiming for quantitative statements about the location of structure variations that may arise from either one of the methods used or from the different environments in solution and in the crystal. To evaluate the possible impact of the different software used for the crystallographic and the NMR structure determinations and analysis, the concept is introduced of reference structures, which are computed using the NMR software with input of upper-limit distance constraints derived from the molecular models representing the results of the two structure determinations. The use of this new approach is explored to quantify global differences that arise from the different methods of structure determination and analysis versus those that represent interesting local variations or dynamics. The near-identity of the protein core in the NMR and crystal structures thus provided a basis for the identification of complementary information from the two different methods. It was thus observed that locally increased crystallographic B values correlate with dynamic structural polymorphisms in solution, including that the solution state of the protein involves

  20. Respiratory muscle decline in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Khirani, Sonia; Ramirez, Adriana; Aubertin, Guillaume; Boulé, Michèle; Chemouny, Chrystelle; Forin, Véronique; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2014-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) causes progressive respiratory muscle weakness. The aim of the study was to analyze the trend of a large number of respiratory parameters to gain further information on the course of the disease. Retrospective study. 48 boys with DMD, age range between 6 and 19 year old, who were followed in our multidisciplinary neuromuscular clinic between 2001 and 2011. Lung function, blood gases, respiratory mechanics, and muscle strength were measured during routine follow-up over a 10-year period. Only data from patients with at least two measurements were retained. The data of 28 patients were considered for analysis. Four parameters showed an important decline with age. Gastric pressure during cough (Pgas cough) was below normal in all patients with a mean decline of 5.7 ± 3.8 cmH2 O/year. Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP) tended to increase first followed by a rapid decline (mean decrease 4.8 ± 4.9 cmH2 O; 5.2 ± 4.4% predicted/year). Absolute forced vital capacity (FVC) values peaked around the age of 13-14 years and remained mainly over 1 L but predicted values showed a mean 4.1 ± 4.4% decline/year. Diaphragmatic tension-time index (TTdi) increased above normal values after the age of 14 years with a mean increase of 0.04 ± 0.04 point/year. This study confirms the previous findings that FVC and SNIP are among the most important parameters to monitor the evolution of DMD. Expiratory muscle strength, assessed by Pgas cough, and the endurance index, TTdi, which are reported for the first time in a large cohort, appeared to be informative too, even though measured through an invasive method. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Postcolonial Bombay : decline of a cosmopolitan city?

    McFarlane, C.

    2008-01-01

    Discussions of cosmopolitanism in Bombay often focus on the rubrics of communal tension, tolerance, and violence, and frequently report the decline of a once cosmopolitan city, especially as a result of the communal riots and bombings that occurred in the early 1990s. However, claims that the city has undergone a general social transformation since the 1990s need to be tempered by the multiple forms of cosmopolitan imaginations and practices that exist in the city. There is a wide variety ...

  2. Nuclear power : decline, prolongation or renewal?

    Goldberg, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In an international context still under the shock of Fukushima, and at a time when France is committed to an energy transition, the details of which still have to be decided, the future of nuclear power in the world is provoking intense and contradictory debate. What to expert: a decline, business as usual, or a renewal of the sector throughout its value chain? Some answers are to be found in an analysis by Colombus Consulting. (author)

  3. Lung function decline in bronchial asthma.

    Cibella, Fabio; Cuttitta, Giuseppina; Bellia, Vincenzo; Bucchieri, Salvatore; D'Anna, Silvestre; Guerrera, Daniela; Bonsignore, Giovanni

    2002-12-01

    We evaluated the longitudinal changes in lung function and the factors associated with FEV(1) changes over time in a sample of asthmatic subjects. FEV(1) measures were recorded every 3 months over a 5-year follow-up period. To compare all subjects independently of body size, FEV(1) values were normalized for the subject's height at the third power. We evaluated the possible effect of age, baseline FEV(1), disease duration, and FEV(1) variability on the rate of change of FEV(1). We studied 142 subjects with asthma diagnosed on the basis of validated clinical and functional criteria. FEV(1) showed a linear decay with aging in each subject. For a subject 1.65 m in height, the median overall FEV(1) decay was 40.9 mL/yr. FEV(1) decay slopes were significantly influenced by age and sex, being steeper in younger male subjects. A significant interaction was found between age and baseline FEV(1): the FEV(1) decay was significantly higher among younger asthmatics with a poorer baseline functional condition. A longer disease duration was associated with a lower FEV(1) slope. FEV(1) variability was strongly associated with an increased rate of FEV(1) decline. FEV(1) decline in patients with bronchial asthma is significantly influenced by baseline FEV(1), disease duration, and FEV(1) variability. Moreover, the rate of FEV(1) decline seems to increase in younger subjects only when the baseline function is poorer.

  4. Farmer's lung is now in decline.

    Arya, A

    2012-02-03

    Farmer\\'s lung incidence in Ireland was constant until 1996, even though hay making methods were revolutionised in late 1980\\'s. We undertook this study to find out the incidence of farmer\\'s lung in Ireland from 1982-2002 and its correlation with rainfall and the effect of changing farm practices. The primary cases of farmer\\'s lung were identified from Hospital in Patients Enquiry (HIPE) unit of the national Economic & Social Research Institute (ESRI) Dublin. Rainfall data were obtained from Met Eireann whereas population, hay production and silage production were obtained from the Central Statistics Office, Dublin. As the farming population is in decline, we used the annual working unit (AWU), which reflects the true population at risk. An AWU is the equivalent of 1800 hours per farm worker per year. The incidence rates were constant from 1982-1996, but from 1997-2002 a marked decline was observed. There was strong positive correlation with hay production (r = 0.81) and strong negative correlation with silage production (r = -0.82). This study indicates that the incidence of farmer\\'s lung is now in decline.

  5. Bulgaria: Ethnic differentials in rapidly declining fertility

    Dimiter Philipov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter provides a detailed description of the fertility changes in Bulgaria during recent decades and discusses possible reasons and consequences. It also gives an overview of the steps that the government has undertaken to offset the considerable decline in fertility. Before the fall of communism, fertility trends in Bulgaria were stable and characterized by a nearly universal entry into parenthood, dominance of a two-child family model, an early start and early end of childbearing, stable mean ages at entry into childbearing and marriage, and low percentages of non-marital births. During the 1990s and in the first years of the new century, we observe a marked, rapid change in fertility behaviour. Together with the severe decline in overall fertility rates, demographic data reveal a significant postponement of entry into motherhood and marriage, a decline of the two-child family model, and an emergence of new family forms. Most research attributes these changes to the particular political and social situation in Bulgaria since 1989.

  6. Earliest functional declines in Huntington disease

    Beglinger, Leigh J.; O'Rourke, Justin J.F.; Wang, Chiachi; Langbehn, Douglas R.; Duff, Kevin; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the gold standard for Huntington disease (HD) functional assessment, the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS), in a group of at-risk participants not yet diagnosed but who later phenoconverted to manifest HD. We also sought to determine which skill domains first weaken and the clinical correlates of declines. Using the UHDRS Total Functional Capacity (TFC) and Functional Assessment Scale (FAS), we examined participants from Huntington Study Group clinics who were not diagnosed at their baseline visit but were diagnosed at a later visit (N = 265). Occupational decline was the most common with 65.1% (TFC) and 55.6% (FAS) reporting some loss of ability to engage in their typical work. Inability to manage finances independently (TFC 49.2%, FAS 35.1%) and drive safely (FAS 33.5%) were also found. Functional decline was significantly predicted by motor, cognitive, and depressive symptoms. The UHDRS captured early functional losses in individuals with HD prior to formal diagnosis, however, fruitful areas for expanded assessment of early functional changes are performance at work, ability to manage finances, and driving. These are also important areas for clinical monitoring and treatment planning as up to 65% experienced loss in at least one area prior to diagnosis. PMID:20471695

  7. Insulin is Differentially Related to Cognitive Decline and Atrophy in Alzheimer’s Disease and Aging

    Burns, Jeffrey M.; Honea, Robyn A.; Vidoni, Eric D.; Hutfles, Lewis; Brooks, William M.; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship of insulin resistance with cognitive decline and brain atrophy over two years in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n=48) and nondemented controls (n=61). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were conducted at baseline to determine insulin area-under-the-curve (AUC). A standard battery of cognitive tasks and MRI were conducted at baseline and 2-year follow-up. In nondemented controls, higher baseline insulin AUC was associated with 2-year decline in global cognitive performance (beta=−0.36, p=0.005). In early AD, however, higher insulin AUC was associated with less decline in global cognitive performance (beta=0.26, p=0.06), slower global brain atrophy (beta=0.40, p=0.01) and less regional atrophy in the bilateral hippocampi and cingulate cortices. While insulin resistance is associated with cognitive decline in nondemented aging, higher peripheral insulin may have AD-specific benefits or insulin signaling may be affected by systemic physiologic changes associated with AD. PMID:21745566

  8. Knowns and unknowns in metabolomics identified by multidimensional NMR and hybrid MS/NMR methods

    Bingol, Kerem; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    Metabolomics continues to make rapid progress through the development of new and better methods and their applications to gain insight into the metabolism of a wide range of different biological systems from a systems biology perspective. Customization of NMR databases and search tools allows the faster and more accurate identification of known metabolites, whereas the identification of unknowns, without a need for extensive purification, requires new strategies to integrate NMR with mass spectrometry, cheminformatics, and computational methods. For some applications, the use of covalent and non-covalent attachments in the form of labeled tags or nanoparticles can significantly reduce the complexity of these tasks.

  9. Global warning, global warming

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  10. Direct Comparison of 19F qNMR and 1H qNMR by Characterizing Atorvastatin Calcium Content

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR is a powerful tool in measuring drug content because of its high speed, sensitivity, and precision. Most of the reports were based on proton qNMR (1H qNMR and only a few fluorine qNMR (19F qNMR were reported. No research has been conducted to directly compare the advantage and disadvantage between these two methods. In the present study, both 19F and 1H qNMR were performed to characterize the content of atorvastatin calcium with the same internal standard. Linearity, precision, and results from two methods were compared. Results showed that 19F qNMR has similar precision and sensitivity to 1H qNMR. Both methods generate similar results compared to mass balance method. Major advantage from 19F qNMR is that the analyte signal is with less or no interference from impurities. 19F qNMR is an excellent approach to quantify fluorine-containing analytes.

  11. Personality and Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: Data From a Longitudinal Sample and Meta-Analysis

    Terracciano, Antonio; Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Personality traits are associated with risk of dementia; less is known about their association with the trajectory of cognitive functioning. This research examines the association between the 5 major dimensions of personality and cognitive function and decline in older adulthood and includes a meta-analysis of published studies. Method: Personality traits, objective and subjective memory, and cognitive status were collected in a large national sample (N = 13,987) with a 4-year follow-up period. For each trait, the meta-analysis pooled results from up to 5 prospective studies to examine personality and change in global cognition. Results: Higher Neuroticism was associated with worse performance on all cognitive measures and greater decline in memory, whereas higher Conscientiousness and Openness were associated with better memory performance concurrently and less decline over time. All traits were associated with subjective memory. Higher Conscientiousness and lower Extraversion were associated with better cognitive status and less decline. Although modest, these associations were generally larger than that of hypertension, diabetes, history of psychological treatment, obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity. The meta-analysis supported the association between Neuroticism and Conscientiousness and cognitive decline. Discussion: Personality is associated with cognitive decline in older adults, with effects comparable to established clinical and lifestyle risk factors. PMID:25583598

  12. Demography, Growth, and Global Income Inequality

    Rougoor, Ward; Van Marrewijk, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Global income inequality has been declining for several decades. We argue that global income inequality will reach its lowest level around 2027 and then will rise again. This development is the result of both economic and demographic forces. By combining economic projections with demographic

  13. Trouble in the aquatic world: How wildlife professionals are battling amphibian declines

    Olson, Deanna H.; Chestnut, Tara E.

    2014-01-01

    A parasitic fungus, similar to the one that caused the extinction of numerous tropical frog and toad species, is killing salamanders in Europe. Scientists first identified the fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, in 2013 as the culprit behind the death of fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) in the Netherlands (Martel et al. 2013) and are now exploring its potential impact to other species. Although the fungus, which kills the amphibians by infecting their skin, has not yet spread to the United States, researchers believe it’s only a matter of time before it does and, when that happens, the impact on salamander populations could be devastating (Martel et al. 2014).Reports of worldwide declines of amphibians began a quarter of a century ago (Blaustein & Wake 1990). Globally, some amphibian population declines occurred in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and declining trends continued in North America (Houlahan et al. 2000). In the earlier years, population declines were attributed primarily to overharvest due to unregulated supply of species such as the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) for educational use (Dodd 2013). In later years, however, causes of declines were less evident. In 1989, herpetologists at the First World Congress of Herpetology traded alarming stories of losses across continents and in seemingly protected landscapes, making it clear that amphibian population declines were a “global phenomenon.” In response to these reports, in 1991, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) established the Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force to better understand the scale and scope of global amphibian declines. Unfortunately, the absence of long-term monitoring data and targeted studies made it difficult for the task force to compile information.Today, according to AmphibiaWeb.org, there are 7,342 amphibian species in the world — double the number since the first alerts of declines — making the situation

  14. Isotope labeling for NMR studies of macromolecular structure and interactions

    Wright, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    Implementation of biosynthetic methods for uniform or specific isotope labeling of proteins, coupled with the recent development of powerful heteronuclear multidimensional NMR methods, has led to a dramatic increase in the size and complexity of macromolecular systems that are now amenable to NMR structural analysis. In recent years, a new technology has emerged that combines uniform 13 C, 15 N labeling with heteronuclear multidimensional NMR methods to allow NMR structural studies of systems approaching 25 to 30 kDa in molecular weight. In addition, with the introduction of specific 13 C and 15 N labels into ligands, meaningful NMR studies of complexes of even higher molecular weight have become feasible. These advances usher in a new era in which the earlier, rather stringent molecular weight limitations have been greatly surpassed and NMR can begin to address many central biological problems that involve macromolecular structure, dynamics, and interactions

  15. 13C-NMR assignment, structure, and dynamics of deoxyoligonucleotides

    Zanatta, N.; Borer, P.N.; Levy, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    The unique spectral properties of 13 C-NMR for studying nucleic acids and some of the important features of 13 C-NMR in oligonucleotide studies are demostrated. The main difficulty in studying oligonucleotides by 13 C-NMR and recent improvements in NMR instrumentation and advances in oligonucleotide synthesis are presented. The high resolution 13 C-NMR spectra, T 1 relaxation times and NOEs were measured for duplex of the self-complementary oligo-DNAs: d(CG) 3 and d(GGTATACC) are studied. The target of this study is to developed a systematic 13 C-NMR spectral assignment and to investigate the structure and dynamics of these two sequences by this techniques. (M.J.C.) [pt

  16. A primer to nutritional metabolomics by NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Savorani, Francesco; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Mikkelsen, Mette Skau

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of using high throughput NMR metabolomics for nutritional studies with emphasis on the workflow and data analytical methods for generation of new knowledge. The paper describes one-by-one the major research activities in the interdisciplinary...... metabolomics platform and highlights the opportunities that NMR spectra can provide in future nutrition studies. Three areas are emphasized: (1) NMR as an unbiased and non-destructive platform for providing an overview of the metabolome under investigation, (2) NMR for providing versatile information and data...... structures for multivariate pattern recognition methods and (3) NMR for providing a unique fingerprint of the lipoprotein status of the subject. For the first time in history, by combining NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics we are able to perform inductive nutritional research as a complement to the deductive...

  17. Isotope labeling for NMR studies of macromolecular structure and interactions

    Wright, P.E. [Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Implementation of biosynthetic methods for uniform or specific isotope labeling of proteins, coupled with the recent development of powerful heteronuclear multidimensional NMR methods, has led to a dramatic increase in the size and complexity of macromolecular systems that are now amenable to NMR structural analysis. In recent years, a new technology has emerged that combines uniform {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N labeling with heteronuclear multidimensional NMR methods to allow NMR structural studies of systems approaching 25 to 30 kDa in molecular weight. In addition, with the introduction of specific {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N labels into ligands, meaningful NMR studies of complexes of even higher molecular weight have become feasible. These advances usher in a new era in which the earlier, rather stringent molecular weight limitations have been greatly surpassed and NMR can begin to address many central biological problems that involve macromolecular structure, dynamics, and interactions.

  18. NMR examinations of the facial skeleton. Pt. 1

    Grodd, W.; Lenz, M.; Baumann, R.; Schroth, G.

    1984-01-01

    The resolution of NMR and CT was compared using axial sections of the normal anatomic structures of the facial skeleton. Is was shown that NMR was superior in differentiating muscles, tonsils, mucosa, lymph nodes and blood vessels. The demonstration of bone and its differentiation from air-containing spaces is often difficult. Metallic, non-ferromagnetic dental fillings, which cause serious artefacts on CT, do not after NMR. (orig.) [de

  19. NMR as a probe metabolic disorders in disease and treatment

    Yushmanov, Victor E [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemical Physics

    1994-12-31

    The effects of malignant tumors, chemical and physical factors (toxic agents, ionizing radiation) as well as of their treatment on tissue metabolism were studied by NMR imaging. The importance of NMR is highlighted since it enables to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of diseases and therapeutic interventions, in addition to the analysis of metabolic disorders in human beings. Combined with the studies of experimental animal pathologies, may constitute a base for new types of NMR-diagnosis in vivo 10 refs.

  20. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

  1. Against Globalization

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  2. NMR-Fragment Based Virtual Screening: A Brief Overview.

    Singh, Meenakshi; Tam, Benjamin; Akabayov, Barak

    2018-01-25

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) using NMR has become a central approach over the last twenty years for development of small molecule inhibitors against biological macromolecules, to control a variety of cellular processes. Yet, several considerations should be taken into account for obtaining a therapeutically relevant agent. In this review, we aim to list the considerations that make NMR fragment screening a successful process for yielding potent inhibitors. Factors that may govern the competence of NMR in fragment based drug discovery are discussed, as well as later steps that involve optimization of hits obtained by NMR-FBDD.

  3. Optimization and practical implementation of ultrafast 2D NMR experiments

    Queiroz Junior, Luiz H. K., E-mail: professorkeng@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Giraudeau, Patrick [Universite de Nantes (France). CNRS, Chimie et Interdisciplinarite: Synthese, Analyse, Modelisation

    2013-09-01

    Ultrafast 2D NMR is a powerful methodology that allows recording of a 2D NMR spectrum in a fraction of second. However, due to the numerous non-conventional parameters involved in this methodology its implementation is no trivial task. Here, an optimized experimental protocol is carefully described to ensure efficient implementation of ultrafast NMR. The ultrafast spectra resulting from this implementation are presented based on the example of two widely used 2D NMR experiments, COSY and HSQC, obtained in 0.2 s and 41 s, respectively. (author)

  4. Straightforward and complete deposition of NMR data to the PDBe

    Penkett, Christopher J.; Ginkel, Glen van; Velankar, Sameer; Swaminathan, Jawahar; Ulrich, Eldon L.; Mading, Steve; Stevens, Tim J.; Fogh, Rasmus H.; Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Kleywegt, Gerard J.; Henrick, Kim; Vranken, Wim F.

    2010-01-01

    We present a suite of software for the complete and easy deposition of NMR data to the PDB and BMRB. This suite uses the CCPN framework and introduces a freely downloadable, graphical desktop application called CcpNmr Entry Completion Interface (ECI) for the secure editing of experimental information and associated datasets through the lifetime of an NMR project. CCPN projects can be created within the CcpNmr Analysis software or by importing existing NMR data files using the CcpNmr FormatConverter. After further data entry and checking with the ECI, the project can then be rapidly deposited to the PDBe using AutoDep, or exported as a complete deposition NMR-STAR file. In full CCPN projects created with ECI, it is straightforward to select chemical shift lists, restraint data sets, structural ensembles and all relevant associated experimental collection details, which all are or will become mandatory when depositing to the PDB. Instructions and download information for the ECI are available from the PDBe web site at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe/nmr/deposition/eci.htmlhttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe/nmr/deposition/eci.html.

  5. NMR-Fragment Based Virtual Screening: A Brief Overview

    Meenakshi Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD using NMR has become a central approach over the last twenty years for development of small molecule inhibitors against biological macromolecules, to control a variety of cellular processes. Yet, several considerations should be taken into account for obtaining a therapeutically relevant agent. In this review, we aim to list the considerations that make NMR fragment screening a successful process for yielding potent inhibitors. Factors that may govern the competence of NMR in fragment based drug discovery are discussed, as well as later steps that involve optimization of hits obtained by NMR-FBDD.

  6. NMR characteristics of low-grade glioma. Comparison with CT

    Asato, Reinin; Tokuriki, Yasuhiko; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Itoh, Harumi; Torizuka, Kanji; Ueda, Tohru; Yamashita, Junkoh; Handa, Hajime

    1985-08-01

    Sixteen low-grade gliomas were evaluated both with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and with computed tomography (CT). In 13 cases (81%), the NMR images were much better in tissue contrast than the contrast-enhanced CT images. The tumors were shown as well-circumscribed oval lesions in the NMR, though they appeared as ill-defined, irregular, low-attenuation areas in the CT. The extent of the lesion, which was supposed to represent the active tumor tissue, was greater in the NMR than in the CT, because NMR tissue parameters (T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/) are more sensitive to pathological changes in brain tissue than is the X-ray attenuation coefficient. Though, in an optic glioma and a brain-stem astrocytoma, the CT with contrast enhancement displayed the contour of the mass as well as did NMR, it was inferior to the NMR in showing the cephalocaudal extension of the tumors. Calcification does not give a proton NMR signal under the present measuring conditions; thus the calcified cystic wall of a hypothalamic astrocytoma was displayed only in the CT images. In conclusion, the NMR imaging was apparently superior to contrast-enhanced CT in demonstrating the lesions due to low-grade glioma.

  7. Vanadium NMR Chemical Shifts of (Imido)vanadium(V) Dichloride Complexes with Imidazolin-2-iminato and Imidazolidin-2-iminato Ligands: Cooperation with Quantum-Chemical Calculations and Multiple Linear Regression Analyses.

    Yi, Jun; Yang, Wenhong; Sun, Wen-Hua; Nomura, Kotohiro; Hada, Masahiko

    2017-11-30

    The NMR chemical shifts of vanadium ( 51 V) in (imido)vanadium(V) dichloride complexes with imidazolin-2-iminato and imidazolidin-2-iminato ligands were calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) method with GIAO. The calculated 51 V NMR chemical shifts were analyzed by the multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis (MLRA) method with a series of calculated molecular properties. Some of calculated NMR chemical shifts were incorrect using the optimized molecular geometries of the X-ray structures. After the global minimum geometries of all of the molecules were determined, the trend of the observed chemical shifts was well reproduced by the present DFT method. The MLRA method was performed to investigate the correlation between the 51 V NMR chemical shift and the natural charge, band energy gap, and Wiberg bond index of the V═N bond. The 51 V NMR chemical shifts obtained with the present MLR model were well reproduced with a correlation coefficient of 0.97.

  8. NMR studies of spin dynamics in cuprates

    Takigawa, M.; Mitzi, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report recent NMR results in cuprates. The oxygen Knight shift and the Cu nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in Bi 2.1 Sr 1.94 Ca 0.88 Cu 2.07 O 8+σ single crystals revealed a gapless superconducting state, which can be most naturally explained by a d-wave pairing state and the intrinsic disorder in this material. The Cu nuclear spin-spin relaxation rate in underdoped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.63 shows distinct temperature dependence from the spin-lattice relaxation rate, providing direct evidence for a pseudo spin-gap near the antiferromagnetic wave vector

  9. NMR studies of spin dynamics in cuprates

    Takigawa, M.; Mitzi, D. B.

    1994-04-01

    We report recent NMR results in cuprates. The oxygen Knight shift and the Cu nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in Bi2.1Sr1.94Ca0.88Cu2.07O8+δ single crystals revealed a gapless superconducting state, which can be most naturally explained by a d-wave pairing state and the intrinsic disorder in this material. The Cu nuclear spin-spin relaxation rate in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6.63 shows distinct temperature dependence from the spin-lattice relaxation rate, providing direct evidence for a pseudo spin-gap near the antiferromagnetic wave vector.

  10. NMR-tomography of the heart

    Weikl, A.; Bachmann, K.

    1987-01-01

    The NMR-tomography as a non-invasive imaging process is examined regarding to the value to answer clinical issues. This method allows an evaluation of qualitative, quantitative, morphological and functional parameters. The diagnostic use on the heart shows early myocardial changes, thrombosis, changes in the dynamics of the left ventricle (EDV, ESV, EF), the quantitative wall movement and the blood flow in a shunt defect. The placed value of echocardiography, myocardial scintigraphy and coronary angiography in the diagnosis of acquired valvular heart disease, myocardial perfusion and coronary heart disease is not lowered by the above mentioned method. (orig.) [de

  11. NMR-tomography of the heart

    Weikl, A.; Bachmann, K.

    1987-04-03

    The NMR-tomography as a non-invasive imaging process is examined regarding to the value to answer clinical issues. This method allows an evaluation of qualitative, quantitative, morphological and functional parameters. The diagnostic use on the heart shows early myocardial changes, thrombosis, changes in the dynamics of the left ventricle (EDV, ESV, EF), the quantitative wall movement and the blood flow in a shunt defect. The placed value of echocardiography, myocardial scintigraphy and coronary angiography in the diagnosis of acquired valvular heart disease, myocardial perfusion and coronary heart disease is not lowered by the above mentioned method.

  12. Structural study of pyrones by NMR

    Mandarino, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Extracts of two species of Aniba, designed Aniba-SA (light petroleum extract) and Aniba-SB (benzene extract), afforded by chromatographic fraccionation some compounds. The isolated compounds were identified using spectrometric data and C 13 -NMR coupled and decompled spectra of pyrones were registered. Measurement of the heteronuclear residual coupling by irradiation proton frequency off-resonance was used for distinguish C-5, C-7 and C-8 carbons of the pyrones SB-1, SB-3, SB-4 and SB-5. (M.J.C.) [pt

  13. Touch NMR: An NMR Data Processing Application for the iPad

    Li, Qiyue; Chen, Zhiwei; Yan, Zhiping; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has become one of the most powerful technologies to aid research in numerous scientific disciplines. With the development of consumer electronics, mobile devices have played increasingly important roles in our daily life. However, there is currently no application available for mobile devices able to…

  14. Extracting protein dynamics information from overlapped NMR signals using relaxation dispersion difference NMR spectroscopy.

    Konuma, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Erisa; Sugase, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    Protein dynamics plays important roles in many biological events, such as ligand binding and enzyme reactions. NMR is mostly used for investigating such protein dynamics in a site-specific manner. Recently, NMR has been actively applied to large proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins, which are attractive research targets. However, signal overlap, which is often observed for such proteins, hampers accurate analysis of NMR data. In this study, we have developed a new methodology called relaxation dispersion difference that can extract conformational exchange parameters from overlapped NMR signals measured using relaxation dispersion spectroscopy. In relaxation dispersion measurements, the signal intensities of fluctuating residues vary according to the Carr-Purcell-Meiboon-Gill pulsing interval, whereas those of non-fluctuating residues are constant. Therefore, subtraction of each relaxation dispersion spectrum from that with the highest signal intensities, measured at the shortest pulsing interval, leaves only the signals of the fluctuating residues. This is the principle of the relaxation dispersion difference method. This new method enabled us to extract exchange parameters from overlapped signals of heme oxygenase-1, which is a relatively large protein. The results indicate that the structural flexibility of a kink in the heme-binding site is important for efficient heme binding. Relaxation dispersion difference requires neither selectively labeled samples nor modification of pulse programs; thus it will have wide applications in protein dynamics analysis.

  15. Extracting protein dynamics information from overlapped NMR signals using relaxation dispersion difference NMR spectroscopy

    Konuma, Tsuyoshi [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Structural and Chemical Biology (United States); Harada, Erisa [Suntory Foundation for Life Sciences, Bioorganic Research Institute (Japan); Sugase, Kenji, E-mail: sugase@sunbor.or.jp, E-mail: sugase@moleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University, Department of Molecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Protein dynamics plays important roles in many biological events, such as ligand binding and enzyme reactions. NMR is mostly used for investigating such protein dynamics in a site-specific manner. Recently, NMR has been actively applied to large proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins, which are attractive research targets. However, signal overlap, which is often observed for such proteins, hampers accurate analysis of NMR data. In this study, we have developed a new methodology called relaxation dispersion difference that can extract conformational exchange parameters from overlapped NMR signals measured using relaxation dispersion spectroscopy. In relaxation dispersion measurements, the signal intensities of fluctuating residues vary according to the Carr-Purcell-Meiboon-Gill pulsing interval, whereas those of non-fluctuating residues are constant. Therefore, subtraction of each relaxation dispersion spectrum from that with the highest signal intensities, measured at the shortest pulsing interval, leaves only the signals of the fluctuating residues. This is the principle of the relaxation dispersion difference method. This new method enabled us to extract exchange parameters from overlapped signals of heme oxygenase-1, which is a relatively large protein. The results indicate that the structural flexibility of a kink in the heme-binding site is important for efficient heme binding. Relaxation dispersion difference requires neither selectively labeled samples nor modification of pulse programs; thus it will have wide applications in protein dynamics analysis.

  16. Proton NMR studies on Megaphaera elsdenii flavodoxin : structure elucidation by 2D-NMR and implications

    Mierlo, van C.

    1990-01-01

    1H NMR techniques have been applied for a thorough study of the uncrystallizable Megasphaera elsdenii flavodoxin in its three redox states. The aim of the research project described in this thesis was to obtain answers regarding questions

  17. Crystallographic and dynamic aspects of solid-state NMR calibration compounds: towards ab initio NMR crystallography

    Li, Xiaozhou; Tapmeyer, Lukas; Bolte, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The excellent results of dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations for static systems have been well established over the past decade. The introduction of dynamics into DFT-D calculations is a target, especially for the field of molecular NMR crystallography. Four 13C ss...

  18. Differentiated decline in Danish outskirt areas

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Andersson, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    The latest figures show that minor Danish villages and rural areas through the last 20 years have suffered from depopulation and economical decline, and it is a development that seems to accelerate. The negative consequences of this development are low house prizes, a higher unemployment rate than...... in Danish rural areas can be reverted and a general growth can be created. But it will argue that on a local level using a landscape orientated and cultural planning approach new cohesion on a spatial, architectonic as well as economic and cultural level can be created. Throughout the studies of the Village...

  19. Decline in male circumcision in South Korea.

    Kim, DaiSik; Koo, Sung-Ae; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2012-12-11

    To investigate the changing circumcision rate in South Korea in the last decade and to propose underlying causes for this change, in the context of the present fluctuating world-wide trends in circumcision. From 2009 to 2011, 3,296 South Korean males (or their parents) aged 0-64 years were asked about their circumcision status, their age at circumcision, and their information level regarding circumcision. We employed non-probability sampling considering the sensitive questions on the study theme. Currently the age-standardized circumcision rate for South Korean males aged 14-29 is found to be 75.8%. In an earlier study performed in 2002, the rate for the same age group was 86.3%. Of particular interest, males aged 14-16 show a circumcision rate of 56.4%, while the same age group 10 years ago displayed a much higher percentage, at 88.4%. In addition, the extraordinarily high circumcision rate of 95.2% found 10 years ago for the 17-19 age group is now reduced to 74.4%. Interestingly, of the circumcised males, the percentage circumcised in the last decade was only 25.2%; i.e., the majority of the currently circumcised males had undergone the operation prior to 2002, indicating that the actual change in the last decade is far greater. Consistent with this conjecture, the 2002 survey showed that the majority of circumcised males (75.7%) had undergone the operation in the decade prior to that point. Focusing on the flagship age group of 14-16, this drop suggests that, considering the population structure of Korean males, approximately one million fewer circumcision operations have been performed in the last decade relative to the case of non-decline. This decline is strongly correlated with the information available through internet, newspapers, lectures, books, and television: within the circumcised population, both the patients and their parents had less prior knowledge regarding circumcision, other than information obtained from person to person by oral communication

  20. Global Strategy

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  1. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Miller, Craig; Null, Sarah E.; Derose, R. Justin; Wilcock, Peter; Hahnenberger, Maura; Howe, Frank; Moore, Johnnie

    2017-11-01

    Many of the world's saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and levels. Quantifying the relative contributions of natural variability and human impacts to lake inflows is needed to preserve these lakes. With a credible water balance, causes of lake decline from water diversions or climate variability can be identified and the inflow needed to maintain lake health can be defined. Without a water balance, natural variability can be an excuse for inaction. Here we describe the decline of several of the world's large saline lakes and use a water balance for Great Salt Lake (USA) to demonstrate that consumptive water use rather than long-term climate change has greatly reduced its size. The inflow needed to maintain bird habitat, support lake-related industries and prevent dust storms that threaten human health and agriculture can be identified and provides the information to evaluate the difficult tradeoffs between direct benefits of consumptive water use and ecosystem services provided by saline lakes.

  2. The cultural evolution of fertility decline

    Colleran, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Cultural evolutionists have long been interested in the problem of why fertility declines as populations develop. By outlining plausible mechanistic links between individual decision-making, information flow in populations and competition between groups, models of cultural evolution offer a novel and powerful approach for integrating multiple levels of explanation of fertility transitions. However, only a modest number of models have been published. Their assumptions often differ from those in other evolutionary approaches to social behaviour, but their empirical predictions are often similar. Here I offer the first overview of cultural evolutionary research on demographic transition, critically compare it with approaches taken by other evolutionary researchers, identify gaps and overlaps, and highlight parallel debates in demography. I suggest that researchers divide their labour between three distinct phases of fertility decline—the origin, spread and maintenance of low fertility—each of which may be driven by different causal processes, at different scales, requiring different theoretical and empirical tools. A comparative, multi-level and mechanistic framework is essential for elucidating both the evolved aspects of our psychology that govern reproductive decision-making, and the social, ecological and cultural contingencies that precipitate and sustain fertility decline. PMID:27022079

  3. The impact of freedom on fertility decline.

    Campbell, Martha M; Prata, Ndola; Potts, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Although fertility decline often correlates with improvements in socioeconomic conditions, many demographers have found flaws in demographic transition theories that depend on changes in distal factors such as increased wealth or education. Human beings worldwide engage in sexual intercourse much more frequently than is needed to conceive the number of children they want, and for women who do not have access to the information and means they need to separate sex from childbearing, the default position is a large family. In many societies, male patriarchal drives to control female reproduction give rise to unnecessary medical rules constraining family planning (including safe abortion) or justifying child marriage. Widespread misinformation about contraception makes women afraid to adopt modern family planning. The barriers to family planning can be so deeply infused that for many women the idea of managing their fertility is not considered an option. Conversely, there is evidence that once family planning is introduced into a society, then it is normal consumer behaviour for individuals to welcome a new technology they had not wanted until it became realistically available. We contend that in societies free from child marriage, wherever women have access to a range of contraceptive methods, along with correct information and backed up by safe abortion, family size will always fall. Education and wealth can make the adoption of family planning easier, but they are not prerequisites for fertility decline. By contrast, access to family planning itself can accelerate economic development and the spread of education.

  4. The Decline of Traditional Banking Activities

    Gabriela Cornelia Piciu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The decline of traditional banking activities raise the issue of efficiency of financial stability, in terms ofquantitative and qualitative aspects – the increasing danger of banking failures as well as of susceptibility due toincreased propensity of banking institutions to assume additional to risks either in the form of riskier loans offer orengaging in other "non-traditional" financial activities which give a promise for greater profitability, but also higherrisks. Non-traditional activities of banking as financial products dealers (financial derivatives, generate an increasingrisks and vulnerabilities in the form of moral hazard issues. That is the reason why and these activities should beregulated as well as are the traditional activities. Challenges posed by the decline of traditional banking activities istwofold: the stability of the banking system must be maintained, while the banking system needs to be restructured toachieve financial stability in the long run. One possible way is an appropriate regulatory framework to encourage atransition period of changing the structure of banking activity(reduction of traditional activities and expanding nontraditional activities to enable banking institutions to perform a deep methodic analysis of non traditional activities,oriented to the financial banking efficiency.

  5. Phosphoproteomics analysis of postmortem porcine muscle with pH decline rate and time difference

    Huang, Honggang; Larsen, Martin R; Karlsson, Anders H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the protein phosphorylation in postmortem (PM) muscle and reveal the change during meat quality development. The gel-based phosphoproteomic analysis of PM porcine muscle was performed in three pig groups with different pH decline rates from PM 1h to 24 h....... The sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions were analyzed using gel electrophoresis in combination with a phosphoprotein specific staining. Globally, the group with fast pH decline rate had the highest phosphorylation level at PM 1 h, but lowest at PM 24 h, whereas the group with slow pH decline rate showed...... the reverse case. The phosphorylation level of 12 bands in sarcoplasmic fraction and 3 bands in myofibrillar fraction were significantly affected by the synergy effects of pH and time (p

  6. In vivo NMR spectroscopy of ripening avocado

    Bennett, A.B.; Smith, G.M.; Nichols, B.

    1987-01-01

    Ripening of avocado fruit is associated with a dramatic increase in respiration. Previous studies have indicated that the increase in respiration is brought about by activation of the glycolytic reaction catalyzing the conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The authors reinvestigated the proposed role of glycolytic regulation in the respiratory increase using in vivo 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using an external surface coil and analysis of phosphofructokinase (PFK), phosphofructophosphotransferase (PFP), and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (fru 2,6-P 2 ) levels in ripening avocado fruit. In vivo 31 P NMR spectroscopy revealed large increases in ATP levels accompanying the increase in respiration. Both glycolytic enzymes, PFK and PFP, were present in avocado fruit, with the latter activity being highly stimulated by fru 2,6-P 2 . Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels increased approximately 90% at the onset of ripening, indicating that the respiratory increase in ripening avocado may be regulated by the activation of PFP brought about by an increase in fru 2,6-P 2

  7. The D0 solenoid NMR magnetometer

    Sten Uldall Hansen; Terry Kiper; Tom Regan; John Lofgren

    2002-01-01

    A field monitoring system for the 2 Tesla Solenoid of the D0 detector is described. It is comprised of a very small NMR probe cabled to a DSP based signal processing board. The design magnetic field range is from 1.0 to 2.2 Tesla, corresponding to an RF frequency range of 42.57 to 93.67 MHz. The desired an accuracy is one part in 10 5 . To minimize material in the interaction region of the D0 detector, the overall thickness of the NMR probe is 4 mm, including its mounting plate, and its width is 10 mm. To minimize cable mass, 4mm diameter IMR-100A cables are used for transmitting the RF signals from a nearby patch panel 25 meters to each of four probes mounted within the bore of the solenoid. RG213U cables 45 meters long are used to send the RF from the movable counting house to the patch panel. With this setup, the detector signal voltage at the moving counting room is in the range of 250-400 mV

  8. Analytical challenges in drug counterfeiting and falsification-The NMR approach.

    Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Malet-Martino, Myriam

    2011-06-25

    Counterfeiting of products is a global problem. As long as clothes, clocks, leather wear, etc. are faked there is no danger, but when it comes to drugs, counterfeiting can be life-threatening. In the last years sub-standard active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were found more often even though the use of the quality-ensuring methods of international pharmacopoeias should have detected additional impurities and the low content of the API. Methods orthogonal to the separating methods used in the pharmacopoeias are necessary to find counterfeits. Beside Raman and NIR spectroscopies as well as powder X-ray analysis, NMR spectroscopy being a primary ratio method of measurement is highly suitable to identify and quantify a drug and its related substances as well as to recognize a drug of sub-standard quality. DOSY experiments are suitable to identify the ingredients of formulations and therefore to identify wrong and/or additional ingredients. This review gives an overview of the application of quantitative NMR spectroscopy and DOSY NMR in anticounterfeiting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cerebral amyloidosis associated with cognitive decline in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease.

    Wang, Fen; Gordon, Brian A; Ryman, Davis C; Ma, Shengmei; Xiong, Chengjie; Hassenstab, Jason; Goate, Alison; Fagan, Anne M; Cairns, Nigel J; Marcus, Daniel S; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Ghetti, Bernardino; Farlow, Martin R; Sperling, Reisa; Salloway, Steve; Schofield, Peter R; Masters, Colin L; Martins, Ralph N; Rossor, Martin N; Jucker, Mathias; Danek, Adrian; Förster, Stefan; Lane, Christopher A S; Morris, John C; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Bateman, Randall J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the associations of cerebral amyloidosis with concurrent cognitive performance and with longitudinal cognitive decline in asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). Two hundred sixty-three participants enrolled in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study underwent neuropsychological evaluation as well as PET scans with Pittsburgh compound B. One hundred twenty-one participants completed at least 1 follow-up neuropsychological evaluation. Four composite cognitive measures representing global cognition, episodic memory, language, and working memory were generated using z scores from a battery of 13 standard neuropsychological tests. General linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate the relationship between baseline cerebral amyloidosis and baseline cognitive performance and whether baseline cerebral amyloidosis predicts cognitive change over time (mean follow-up 2.32 years ± 0.92, range 0.89-4.19) after controlling for estimated years from expected symptom onset, APOE ε4 allelic status, and education. In asymptomatic mutation carriers, amyloid burden was not associated with baseline cognitive functioning but was significantly predictive of longitudinal decline in episodic memory. In symptomatic mutation carriers, cerebral amyloidosis was correlated with worse baseline performance in multiple cognitive composites and predicted greater decline over time in global cognition, working memory, and Mini-Mental State Examination. Cerebral amyloidosis predicts longitudinal episodic memory decline in presymptomatic ADAD and multidomain cognitive decline in symptomatic ADAD. These findings imply that amyloidosis in the brain is an indicator of early cognitive decline and provides a useful outcome measure for early assessment and prevention treatment trials. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Sub-minute kinetics of human red cell fumarase: 1 H spin-echo NMR spectroscopy and 13 C rapid-dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Shishmarev, Dmitry; Wright, Alan J; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Pileio, Giuseppe; Stevanato, Gabriele; Brindle, Kevin M; Kuchel, Philip W

    2018-03-01

    Fumarate is an important probe of metabolism in hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. It is used to detect the release of fumarase in cancer tissues, which is associated with necrosis and drug treatment. Nevertheless, there are limited reports describing the detailed kinetic studies of this enzyme in various cells and tissues. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the sub-minute kinetics of human red blood cell fumarase using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and to provide a quantitative description of the enzyme that is relevant to the use of fumarate as a probe of cell rupture. The fumarase reaction was studied using time courses of 1 H spin-echo and 13 C-NMR spectra. 1 H-NMR experiments showed that the fumarase reaction in hemolysates is sufficiently rapid to make its kinetics amenable to study in a period of approximately 3 min, a timescale characteristic of hyperpolarized 13 C-NMR spectroscopy. The rapid-dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (RD-DNP) technique was used to hyperpolarize [1,4- 13 C]fumarate, which was injected into concentrated hemolysates. The kinetic data were analyzed using recently developed FmR α analysis and modeling of the enzymatic reaction using Michaelis-Menten equations. In RD-DNP experiments, the decline in the 13 C-NMR signal from fumarate, and the concurrent rise and fall of that from malate, were captured with high spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, which allowed the robust quantification of fumarase kinetics. The kinetic parameters obtained indicate the potential contribution of hemolysis to the overall rate of the fumarase reaction when 13 C-NMR RD-DNP is used to detect necrosis in animal models of implanted tumors. The analytical procedures developed will be applicable to studies of other rapid enzymatic reactions using conventional and hyperpolarized substrate NMR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A possible mechanism relating increased soil temperature to forest decline

    Tomlinson, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Nutrient cations are removed from the soil by uptake in biomass, and by leaching as a result of soil acidification. Such acidification results from acid deposition and/or from HNO 3 formed by mineralization and nitrification of humus, when at a rate in excess of the tree's nutritional requirements. This has been found to occur during and following periods of increased temperature and reduced rainfall. The cumulative loss of either Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ or K + by one or more of these processes, if greater than the amount released from the specific minerals in that soil, leads to nutrient deficiency, fine root mortality, poor growth, and eventually to die-back. Trees growing in soils derived from specific minerals in which there is a strong imbalance in the elements from which the exchangeable nutrients are formed, are vulnerable to nutrient deficiency. This paper discusses the relevance of earlier studies, when considered in relation to more recent findings. In Hawaii there have been frequent periods of increased temperature and drought resulting from the El Nino Southern Oscillation. This fact, when considered in relation to the relatively low K content, and its imbalance with Ca and Mg in the lava and volcanic ash on which the trees have grown, could result in K deficiency in the declining ohia trees. It is possible that the unusual periods of increased temperature and drought which have occurred in certain other localized areas may have led to the decline symptoms recently observed. In view of the threat of global warming, this possibility should be investigated. 39 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. The decline in Australian young male suicide.

    Morrell, Stephen; Page, Andrew N; Taylor, Richard J

    2007-02-01

    Since the late 1990s there has been a sharp downward trend in Australian young male suicide. It is possible that a major government youth suicide prevention initiative, the National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy (NYSPS), implemented during 1995-1999 may have influenced the decline. In this article, we examine time trends in age- and means-specific male and female Australian suicide rates in relation to unemployment rates and the NYSPS. Based on Australian suicide data over the period 1966-2003, we assess secular changes in the 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide rate ratio in relation to the NYSPS, using interrupted time series analysis (ARIMA), since this was previously found to be significantly associated with the 20-24 year male unemployment to total employment ratio. Results show that a dramatic reduction in Australian young male (aged 20-34 years) suicide has occurred since 1997-1998, declining from approximately 40 per 100,000 in 1997-1998 to approximately 20 per 100,000 in 2003. Most of the decline is due to a decrease in suicide by hanging and to a lesser extent from motor vehicle carbon monoxide and other gases. Further, the previously established strong secular association (lasting over 3 decades from 1966) between the rate ratio of 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide, and the rate ratio of 20-24 year male unemployment to total unemployment, appears to have been disrupted. ARIMA modelling of the suicide ratio against the initiative indicates a highly significant statistical association between the NYSPS and the suicide ratio reduction but not between the NYSPS and the unemployment indicator trend, suggesting a break in the link between young male suicide and unemployment. The recent sudden turnaround in Australian young male suicide trends and its extent appears to preclude explanations centring on slow-moving social indices traditionally associated with suicide, or on possible cohort effects. This sudden decrease

  13. Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Miller, David A. W.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Adams, Michael J.; Amburgey, Staci M.; Chambert, Thierry A.; Cruickshank, Sam S.; Fisher, Robert N.; Green, David M.; Hossack, Blake R.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Rittenhouse, Tracy A. G.; Ryan, Maureen E.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Walls, Susan C.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Gorman, Thomas A.; Ray, Andrew M.; Pilliod, David S.; Price, Steven J.; Saenz, Daniel; Sadinski, Walt; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Since amphibian declines were first proposed as a global phenomenon over a quarter century ago, the conservation community has made little progress in halting or reversing these trends. The early search for a “smoking gun” was replaced with the expectation that declines are caused by multiple drivers. While field observations and experiments have identified factors leading to increased local extinction risk, evidence for effects of these drivers is lacking at large spatial scales. Here, we use observations of 389 time-series of 83 species and complexes from 61 study areas across North America to test the effects of 4 of the major hypothesized drivers of declines. While we find that local amphibian populations are being lost from metapopulations at an average rate of 3.79% per year, these declines are not related to any particular threat at the continental scale; likewise the effect of each stressor is variable at regional scales. This result - that exposure to threats varies spatially, and populations vary in their response - provides little generality in the development of conservation strategies. Greater emphasis on local solutions to this globally shared phenomenon is needed.

  14. System of liquid thermostatic control for jet experiments on NMR

    Selivanov, S.I.; Bogatkin, R.A.; Ershov, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    The system of liquid thermostating of a sensor of NMR spectrometer, used as a registering device in the method of continuous and interrupting stream, is described. Such method of thermostating permits to make kinetic measurements in the temperature range from -40 to +60 deg C with the accuracy +-0.1 deg C and removes the necessity for applying secondary temperature NMR standards

  15. NMR-Metabolic Methodology in the Study of GM Foods

    The 1H NMR methodology used in the study of genetically modified (GM) foodstuff is discussed. The study of transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv "Luxor") over-expressing the KNAT1 gene from Arabidopsis is presented as a novel study-case. The 1H NMR metabolic profiling was carried out. Twenty-two wat...

  16. Rapid prediction of multi-dimensional NMR data sets

    Gradmann, Sabine; Ader, Christian; Heinrich, Ines; Nand, Deepak; Dittmann, Marc; Cukkemane, Abhishek; Dijk, Marc van; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Engelhard, Martin; Baldus, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We present a computational environment for Fast Analysis of multidimensional NMR DAta Sets (FANDAS) that allows assembling multidimensional data sets from a variety of input parameters and facilitates comparing and modifying such “in silico” data sets during the various stages of the NMR data analysis. The input parameters can vary from (partial) NMR assignments directly obtained from experiments to values retrieved from in silico prediction programs. The resulting predicted data sets enable a rapid evaluation of sample labeling in light of spectral resolution and structural content, using standard NMR software such as Sparky. In addition, direct comparison to experimental data sets can be used to validate NMR assignments, distinguish different molecular components, refine structural models or other parameters derived from NMR data. The method is demonstrated in the context of solid-state NMR data obtained for the cyclic nucleotide binding domain of a bacterial cyclic nucleotide-gated channel and on membrane-embedded sensory rhodopsin II. FANDAS is freely available as web portal under WeNMR (http://www.wenmr.eu/services/FANDAShttp://www.wenmr.eu/services/FANDAS).

  17. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Applications for chemists and biochemists

    Croasmun, W.R.; Carlson, R.M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2-D NMR) has become a very powerful class of experiments (in the hands of an adept scientist) with broad adaptability to new situations. It is the product of a happy marriage between modern pulse FT-NMR technology, with its large memory and high-speed computers, and the physicists and chemists who love to manipulate spin systems. Basic 2-D experiments are now a standard capability of modern NMR spectrometers, and this timely book intends to make 2-D NMR users of those who are familiar with normal 1-D NMR. The 2-D NMR goal is correlation of the lines of the observed NMR spectrum with other properties of the system. This book deals with applications to high-resolution spectrum analysis, utilizing either coupling between the NMR-active nuclei or chemical exchange to perform the correlation. The coupling can be scalar (through bonds) or direct through space (within 5 A). The coupling may be homonuclear (between like nuclei) or heteronuclear

  18. Rapid prediction of multi-dimensional NMR data sets

    Gradmann, Sabine; Ader, Christian [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Heinrich, Ines [Max Planck Institute for Molecular Physiology, Department of Physical Biochemistry (Germany); Nand, Deepak [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Dittmann, Marc [Max Planck Institute for Molecular Physiology, Department of Physical Biochemistry (Germany); Cukkemane, Abhishek; Dijk, Marc van; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Engelhard, Martin [Max Planck Institute for Molecular Physiology, Department of Physical Biochemistry (Germany); Baldus, Marc, E-mail: m.baldus@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    We present a computational environment for Fast Analysis of multidimensional NMR DAta Sets (FANDAS) that allows assembling multidimensional data sets from a variety of input parameters and facilitates comparing and modifying such 'in silico' data sets during the various stages of the NMR data analysis. The input parameters can vary from (partial) NMR assignments directly obtained from experiments to values retrieved from in silico prediction programs. The resulting predicted data sets enable a rapid evaluation of sample labeling in light of spectral resolution and structural content, using standard NMR software such as Sparky. In addition, direct comparison to experimental data sets can be used to validate NMR assignments, distinguish different molecular components, refine structural models or other parameters derived from NMR data. The method is demonstrated in the context of solid-state NMR data obtained for the cyclic nucleotide binding domain of a bacterial cyclic nucleotide-gated channel and on membrane-embedded sensory rhodopsin II. FANDAS is freely available as web portal under WeNMR (http://www.wenmr.eu/services/FANDAShttp://www.wenmr.eu/services/FANDAS).

  19. Improved Baseline in 29Si NMR Spectra of Water Glasses

    Schraml, Jan; Sandor, P.; Korec, S.; Krump, M.; Foller, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 7 (2013), s. 403-406 ISSN 0749-1581 Grant - others:GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/335; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011020 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : NMR * 29Si NMR * acoustic ringing Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.559, year: 2013

  20. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-09-05

    The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

  1. Solution NMR Spectroscopy in Target-Based Drug Discovery.

    Li, Yan; Kang, Congbao

    2017-08-23

    Solution NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool to study protein structures and dynamics under physiological conditions. This technique is particularly useful in target-based drug discovery projects as it provides protein-ligand binding information in solution. Accumulated studies have shown that NMR will play more and more important roles in multiple steps of the drug discovery process. In a fragment-based drug discovery process, ligand-observed and protein-observed NMR spectroscopy can be applied to screen fragments with low binding affinities. The screened fragments can be further optimized into drug-like molecules. In combination with other biophysical techniques, NMR will guide structure-based drug discovery. In this review, we describe the possible roles of NMR spectroscopy in drug discovery. We also illustrate the challenges encountered in the drug discovery process. We include several examples demonstrating the roles of NMR in target-based drug discoveries such as hit identification, ranking ligand binding affinities, and mapping the ligand binding site. We also speculate the possible roles of NMR in target engagement based on recent processes in in-cell NMR spectroscopy.

  2. SPE-NMR metabolite sub-profiling of urine

    Jacobs, D.M.; Spiesser, L.; Garnier, M.; Roo, de N.; Dorsten, van F.; Hollebrands, B.; Velzen, van E.; Draijer, R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    NMR-based metabolite profiling of urine is a fast and reproducible method for detection of numerous metabolites with diverse chemical properties. However, signal overlap in the (1)H NMR profiles of human urine may hamper quantification and identification of metabolites. Therefore, a new method has

  3. Global Europa

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    at the mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  4. FACTORS IMPLICATED IN AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DECLINES IN THE UNITED STATES

    This study identified the factors responsible for the decline of native amphibians in the U.S. The type of land use, the introduction of exotic animal species, and chemical contamination were identified as the most likely causes of decline.

  5. Russia's defense spending and the economic decline

    Susanne Oxenstierna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the development of Russian military spending in light of weak and negative growth of the Russian economy and to look at the reasons for the economic decline that has developed after the economic crisis in 2009 and is due to long-term internal structural factors that have existed since the mid-2000s. The confidence crisis resulting from Russia's aggression against Ukraine 2014, Western sanctions and falling oil prices has further aggravated these tendencies and the economy is now contracting. The main conclusions are that the share of the defense budget in GDP has risen substantially, but there is still a trade-off between defense and other public spending in the budget. Political reform would be necessary to implement market institutions and revive the economy.

  6. Differential diagnosis for cognitive decline in elderly

    Om Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline has a spectrum of presentations, which manifest from normality as part of senility to the established form of various neurodegenerative illnesses causing dementia. Understanding these various differential diagnoses is of great clinical significance as they have different management and interventional strategies. The neuropsychological deficits which are identified should follow known neuropathological disease patterns that helps in distinguishing different types of cognitive impairment to established dementia. It is important to look at different cognitive impairment in elderly with core diagnostic sense to define severity, type of cognitive impairments, identifying patients need for accommodation or adaptation, associated risks, effectiveness of therapies and predict mortality. This would help clinicians to identify and plan management based on individual needs in cases with variable cognitive impairment.

  7. World oil prices flat to declining

    Adelman, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    A forecast is presented of the likely trends in world oil prices over the short to medium term. A historical background is presented of the OPEC cartel and its role in influencing oil prices. The incentives and disincentives for OPEC to raise prices, and the tensions within the cartel are explored. Slower demand growth and the expansion of natural gas are expected to put downward pressure on oil prices, which are currently artificially high. The impacts of high taxes on development and exploration are examined, and it is shown that state ownership poses an obstacle to improved performance. Threats of price decline are expected to continue to lead to threats of hasty, or even violent action on the part of OPEC members, as happened in 1990. Privatization and tax codes designed to skim rent are positive trends

  8. Condensate recovery by cycling at declining pressures

    Havlena, Z G; Griffith, J D; Pot, R; Kiel, O G

    1967-06-05

    Cycling condensate reservoirs under conditions of declining pressure, rather than constant pressure, is advantageous from both a recovery and an economic standpoint. Wet gas displaced from the swept areas is recovered concurrently with wet gas recovered by gas expansion from the unswept portions of the reservoir. Any liquid condensed in the swept areas is revaporized by dry injection gas and recovered as an enriched gas. By this mode of operation, high condensate recovery is obtained, gas sales may be possible at an earlier stage of depletion, more flexibility in field and plant operations is feasible and reduction of 15% in investment and operating costs is achieved. Injection gas requirements are reduced by 40%. The Windfall reservoir in Canada has been successfully produced in this manner, starting in 1962. It is a typical retrograde type reservoir which in 1965 represented 15% of reservoirs exploited in North America.

  9. NMR-based metabolomics in human disease diagnosis: Applications, limitations, and recommendations

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.

    2013-04-03

    Metabolomics is a dynamic and emerging research field, similar to proteomics, transcriptomics and genomics in affording global understanding of biological systems. It is particularly useful in functional genomic studies in which metabolism is thought to be perturbed. Metabolomics provides a snapshot of the metabolic dynamics that reflect the response of living systems to both pathophysiological stimuli and/or genetic modification. Because this approach makes possible the examination of interactions between an organism and its diet or environment, it is particularly useful for identifying biomarkers of disease processes that involve the environment. For example, the interaction of a high fat diet with cardiovascular disease can be studied via such a metabolomics approach by modeling the interaction between genes and diet. The high reproducibility of NMR-based techniques gives this method a number of advantages over other analytical techniques in large-scale and long-term metabolomic studies, such as epidemiological studies. This approach has been used to study a wide range of diseases, through the examination of biofluids, including blood plasma/serum, urine, blister fluid, saliva and semen, as well as tissue extracts and intact tissue biopsies. However, complicating the use of NMR spectroscopy in biomarker discovery is the fact that numerous variables can effect metabolic composition including, fasting, stress, drug administration, diet, gender, age, physical activity, life style and the subject\\'s health condition. To minimize the influence of these variations in the datasets, all experimental conditions including sample collection, storage, preparation as well as NMR spectroscopic parameters and data analysis should be optimized carefully and conducted in an identical manner as described by the local standard operating protocol. This review highlights the potential applications of NMR-based metabolomics studies and gives some recommendations to improve sample

  10. Crystallographically-based analysis of the NMR spectra of maghemite

    Spiers, K.M.; Cashion, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    All possible iron environments with respect to nearest neighbour vacancies in vacancy-ordered and vacancy-disordered maghemite have been evaluated and used as the foundation for a crystallographically-based analysis of the published NMR spectra of maghemite. The spectral components have been assigned to particular configurations and excellent agreement obtained in comparing predicted spectra with published spectra taken in applied magnetic fields. The broadness of the published NMR lines has been explained by calculations of the magnetic dipole fields at the various iron sites and consideration of the supertransferred hyperfine fields. - Highlights: ► Analysis of 57 Fe NMR of maghemite based on vacancy ordering and nearest neighbour vacancies. ► Assignment of NMR spectral components based on crystallographic analysis of unique iron sites. ► Strong agreement between predicted spectra and published spectra taken in applied magnetic fields. ► Maghemite NMR spectral broadening due to various iron sites and supertransferred hyperfine field.

  11. NMR and the surgery of tumours at the craniocervical junction

    Ahyai, A.; Matsumara, A.; Rittmeyer, K.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnosis of tumors in the posterior fossa and at the craniocervical junction has always been problematic. In this region of the brain a clear visualization of the exact extent and relations of a space-occupying lesion is indispensable in assessing whether it is operable. Even though a tumor with its perifocal edema can be detected by CT, NMR opens new perspectives for the neurosurgeon. The authors present these cases in 3 groups. Group 1 comprises patients for whom NMR results contra-indicated operation. Group II consists of patients who would probably not have been operated on prior to the use of NMR. Group III includes patients who would probably not have been operated on prior to the use of NMR (e.g arachnoid cysts, Dandy-Walker malformations, etc); the excellent multi-dimensional imaging by NMR rendered the advisability of operation questionable, so that improved diagnostics may have spared the patients unnecessary operations

  12. $\\beta$-NMR of copper isotopes in ionic liquids

    We propose to test the feasibility of spin-polarization and $\\beta$-NMR studies on several short-lived copper isotopes, $^{58}$ Cu, $^{74}$Cu and $^{75}$Cu in crystals and liquids. The motivation is given by biological studies of Cu with $\\beta$-NMR in liquid samples, since Cu is present in a large number of enzymes involved in electron transfer and activation of oxygen. The technique is based on spin-polarization via optical pumping in the new VITO beamline. We will use the existing lasers, NMR magnet and NMR chambers and we will prepare a new optical pumping system. The studies will be devoted to tests of achieved $\\beta$-asymmetry in solid hosts, the behaviour of asymmetry when increasing vacuum, and finally NMR scans in ionic liquids. The achieved spin polarization will be also relevant for the plans to measure with high precision the magnetic moments of neutron-rich Cu isotopes.

  13. Dynamics of solutions and fluid mixtures by NMR

    Delpuech, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    After a short introduction to NMR spectroscopy, with a special emphasis on dynamical aspects, an overview on two fundamental aspects of molecular dynamics, NMR relaxation and its relationship with molecular reorientation, and magnetization transfer phenomena induced by molecular rate processes (dynamic NMR) is presented, followed by specific mechanisms of relaxation encountered in paramagnetic systems or with quadrupolar nuclei. Application fields are then reviewed: solvent exchange on metal ions with a variable pressure NMR approach, applications of field gradients in NMR, aggregation phenomena and micro-heterogeneity in surfactant solutions, polymers and biopolymers in the liquid state, liquid-like molecules in rigid matrices and in soft matter (swollen polymers and gels, fluids in and on inorganic materials, food)

  14. Diverging patterns of fertility decline in Uruguay

    Mathías Nathan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The total fertility rate (TFR in Uruguay fell from 2.5 to 1.9 children per woman between 1996 and 2011. However, no study to date has examined the decline of the TFR by observing changes in fertility patterns by birth order. Objective: The main aim of this study is to analyze recent changes in fertility level and timing of childbearing by birth order in Uruguay. Methods: We estimate unconditional and conditional age- and birth-order-specific fertility rates for 1996-2011 using data from vital statistics, population census, and national population estimates. Additionally, three period summary measures of birth-order-specific fertility quantum are calculated: TFR, PATFR and TFRp*. Timing changes by birth order are examined with MAB and TMAB, focusing on MAB1 and its standard deviation and comparing their evolutions in Uruguay with those of selected countries. Results: Fertility decline fits a parity-specific stopping model with a moderate increase in the mean ages of first, second, and third births. The distribution of conditional fertility rates for first and second births depicts an asymmetric bimodal shape linked to the increasing heterogeneity of the timing of childbearing. Compared to countries with similar fertility trends, heterogeneity in the age at first birth in Uruguay is remarkably high. Conclusions: Previous studies suggest that heterogeneity in first and second birth timing is related to structural social inequalities, as women from lower social strata have not significantly changed the age at which they bear a first child, whereas women of middle to high social strata have started to postpone it. The new evidence reinforces the idea that postponement transition in Uruguay cannot be studied without considering this consolidation of social status polarization in fertility timing.

  15. Compositional differences among Chinese soy sauce types studied by (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis.

    Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Wang, Xiaohua; Bin Yuan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-09-01

    Soy sauce a well known seasoning all over the world, especially in Asia, is available in global market in a wide range of types based on its purpose and the processing methods. Its composition varies with respect to the fermentation processes and addition of additives, preservatives and flavor enhancers. A comprehensive (1)H NMR based study regarding the metabonomic variations of soy sauce to differentiate among different types of soy sauce available on the global market has been limited due to the complexity of the mixture. In present study, (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis like principle component analysis (PCA), and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to investigate metabonomic variations among different types of soy sauce, namely super light, super dark, red cooking and mushroom soy sauce. The main additives in soy sauce like glutamate, sucrose and glucose were easily distinguished and quantified using (13)C NMR spectroscopy which were otherwise difficult to be assigned and quantified due to serious signal overlaps in (1)H NMR spectra. The significantly higher concentration of sucrose in dark, red cooking and mushroom flavored soy sauce can directly be linked to the addition of caramel in soy sauce. Similarly, significantly higher level of glutamate in super light as compared to super dark and mushroom flavored soy sauce may come from the addition of monosodium glutamate. The study highlights the potentiality of (13)C NMR based metabonomics coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis in differentiating between the types of soy sauce on the basis of level of additives, raw materials and fermentation procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Decline of the counterculture in the USA in the second half of XX century

    I. M. Barchiy

    2014-06-01

    Counterculture failed and began to decline, but the great amount of its values and ideals were dissolved in a general culture and were perceived by American society, including the pacifist, anti­racist, feminist, green, anti­globalization youth trends. There appeared the new forms of youth social movements that were created on the sample of beatniks, hippies or the «New Left».

  17. Steeper declines in forest photosynthesis than respiration explain age-driven decreases in forest growth.

    Tang, Jianwu; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Richardson, Andrew D; Kutsch, Werner; Janssens, Ivan A

    2014-06-17

    The traditional view of forest dynamics originated by Kira and Shidei [Kira T, Shidei T (1967) Jap J Ecol 17:70-87] and Odum [Odum EP (1969) Science 164(3877):262-270] suggests a decline in net primary productivity (NPP) in aging forests due to stabilized gross primary productivity (GPP) and continuously increased autotrophic respiration (Ra). The validity of these trends in GPP and Ra is, however, very difficult to test because of the lack of long-term ecosystem-scale field observations of both GPP and Ra. Ryan and colleagues [Ryan MG, Binkley D, Fownes JH (1997) Ad Ecol Res 27:213-262] have proposed an alternative hypothesis drawn from site-specific results that aboveground respiration and belowground allocation decreased in aging forests. Here, we analyzed data from a recently assembled global database of carbon fluxes and show that the classical view of the mechanisms underlying the age-driven decline in forest NPP is incorrect and thus support Ryan's alternative hypothesis. Our results substantiate the age-driven decline in NPP, but in contrast to the traditional view, both GPP and Ra decline in aging boreal and temperate forests. We find that the decline in NPP in aging forests is primarily driven by GPP, which decreases more rapidly with increasing age than Ra does, but the ratio of NPP/GPP remains approximately constant within a biome. Our analytical models describing forest succession suggest that dynamic forest ecosystem models that follow the traditional paradigm need to be revisited.

  18. Differential patterns of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in relict amphibian populations following severe disease-associated declines.

    Whitfield, Steven M; Alvarado, Gilbert; Abarca, Juan; Zumbado, Hector; Zuñiga, Ibrahim; Wainwright, Mark; Kerby, Jacob

    2017-09-20

    Global amphibian biodiversity has declined dramatically in the past 4 decades, and many amphibian species have declined to near extinction as a result of emergence of the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). However, persistent or recovering populations of several amphibian species have recently been rediscovered, and such populations may illustrate how amphibian species that are highly susceptible to chytridiomycosis may survive in the presence of Bd. We conducted field surveys for Bd infection in 7 species of Costa Rican amphibians (all species that have declined to near extinction but for which isolated populations persist) to characterize infection profiles in highly Bd-susceptible amphibians post-decline. We found highly variable patterns in infection, with some species showing low prevalence (~10%) and low infection intensity and others showing high infection prevalence (>80%) and either low or high infection intensity. Across sites, infection rates were negatively associated with mean annual precipitation, and infection intensity across sites was negatively associated with mean average temperatures. Our results illustrate that even the most Bd-susceptible amphibians can persist in Bd-enzootic ecosystems, and that multiple ecological or evolutionary mechanisms likely exist for host-pathogen co-existence between Bd and the most Bd-susceptible amphibian species. Continued monitoring of these populations is necessary to evaluate population trends (continuing decline, stability, or population growth). These results should inform efforts to mitigate impacts of Bd on amphibians in the field.

  19. Amphibian decline and extinction: what we know and what we need to learn.

    Collins, James P

    2010-11-01

    For over 350 million yr, thousands of amphibian species have lived on Earth. Since the 1980s, amphibians have been disappearing at an alarming rate, in many cases quite suddenly. What is causing these declines and extinctions? In the modern era (post 1500) there are 6 leading causes of biodiversity loss in general, and all of these acting alone or together are responsible for modern amphibian declines: commercial use; introduced/exotic species that compete with, prey on, and parasitize native frogs and salamanders; land use change; contaminants; climate change; and infectious disease. The first 3 causes are historical in the sense that they have been operating for hundreds of years, although the rate of change due to each accelerated greatly after about the mid-20th century. Contaminants, climate change, and emerging infectious diseases are modern causes suspected of being responsible for the so-called 'enigmatic decline' of amphibians in protected areas. Introduced/exotic pathogens, land use change, and infectious disease are the 3 causes with a clear role in amphibian decline as well as extinction; thus far, the other 3 causes are only implicated in decline and not extinction. The present work is a review of the 6 causes with a focus on pathogens and suggested areas where new research is needed. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a chytrid fungus that is an emerging infectious disease causing amphibian population decline and species extinction. Historically, pathogens have not been seen as a major cause of extinction, but Bd is an exception, which is why it is such an interesting, important pathogen to understand. The late 20th and early 21st century global biodiversity loss is characterized as a sixth extinction event. Amphibians are a striking example of these losses as they disappear at a rate that greatly exceeds historical levels. Consequently, modern amphibian decline and extinction is a lens through which we can view the larger story of biodiversity

  20. Global usability

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  1. Value of NMR logging for heavy oil characterization

    Chen, S.; Chen, J.; Georgi, D. [Baker Hughes, Calgary, AB (Canada); Sun, B. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Non-conventional, heavy oil fields are becoming increasingly important to the security of energy supplies and are becoming economically profitable to produce. Heavy oil reservoirs are difficult to evaluate since they are typically shallow and the connate waters are very fresh. Other heavy oil reservoirs are oil-wet where the resistivities are not indicative of saturation. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detects molecular level interactions. As such, it responds distinctively to different hydrocarbon molecules, thereby opening a new avenue for constituent analysis. This feature makes NMR a more powerful technique than bulk oil density or viscosity measurements for characterizing oils, and is the basis for detecting gas in heavy oil fields. NMR logging, which measures fluid in pore space directly, is capable of separating oil from water. It is possible to discern movable from bound water by analyzing NMR logs. The oil viscosity can be also quantified from NMR logs, NMR relaxation time and diffusivity estimates. The unique challenges for heavy oil reservoir characterization for the NMR technique were discussed with reference to the extra-fast decay of the NMR signal in response to extra-heavy oil/tars, and the lack of sensitivity in measuring very slow diffusion of heavy oil molecules. This paper presented various methods for analyzing heavy oil reservoirs in different viscosity ranges. Heavy oil fields in Venezuela, Kazakhstan, Canada, Alaska and the Middle East were analyzed using different data interpretation approaches based on the reservoir formation characteristics and the heavy oil type. NMR direct fluid typing was adequate for clean sands and carbonate reservoirs while integrated approaches were used to interpret extra heavy oils and tars. It was concluded that NMR logs can provide quantitative measures for heavy oil saturation, identify sweet spots or tar streaks, and quantify heavy oil viscosity within reasonable accuracy. 14 refs., 16 figs.

  2. Investigation of zeolites by solid state quadrapole NMR

    Janssen, R.

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the NMR investigation of zeolites. The nature and properties of zeolites are discussed. Some of the basic priniples of NMR techniques on quadrupole nuclei are presented. A special technique, namely a two-dimensional nutation experiment is discussed in detail. The theory of the nutation experiment for quadrupole spin species with spin quantum number 3/2 as well as 5/2 is presented. For both spin spcies the theoretical spectra are compared with experimental results. It is also shown that the nutation expeirment can be performed with several pulse schemes. It is shown how phase-sensitive pure-absorption nutation spectra can be obtained and an NMR-probe is presented that is capable of performing NMR experiments at high (up to 500 degree C) temperatures. The two-dimensional nutation NMR technique has been applied to sodium cations in zeolite NaA. For this purpose a numbre of zeolite samples were prepared that contained different amounts of water. With the aid of nutation NMR the hydration of the zeolite can be studied and conclusions can be drawn about the symmetry of the surrounding of the sodium cations. With the aid of an extension of the nutation NMR experiment: Rotary Echo Nutation NMR, it is shown that in zeolite NaA, in various stages of hydration, the sodium cations or water molecules are mobile. Proof is given by means of high-temperature 23 Na-NMR that dehydrates zeolite NaA undergoes a phase transition at ca. 120 degree C. In a high-temperature NMR investigation of zeolite ZSM-5 it is shown that the sodium ions start to execute motions when the temperature is increased. (author). 198 refs.; 72 figs.; 6 tabs

  3. Variations of NMR signals by hyperpolarization and ultrasound; Variation von NMR-Signalen durch Hyperpolarisation und Ultraschall

    Engelbertz, A.

    2006-07-01

    In this thesis it is described how p-NMR can be applied to metals with verlo low hydrogen concentrations and how a combination of ultrasound and NMR can lead to an improvement of the measureing method. As examples measurements on H{sub 2}O and ethanol are described. (HSI)

  4. Brain atrophy during aging. Quantitative studies with X-CT and NMR-CT

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamada, Kenji; Yamada, Susumu; Ono, Shuichi; Takeda, Shunpei; Hatazawa, Jun; Ito, Masatoshi; Kubota, Kazuo

    1985-12-01

    Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34-35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34-35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multi-infarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34-35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extent of brain atrophy (20 - 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was the decrease in the cerebral blood flow. We have classified brain atrophy into sulcal and cisternal enlargement type (type I), ventricular enlargement type (type II) and mixed type (type III) according to the clinical study using NMR-CT. Brain atrophy of type I progresses significantly in almost all of the geriatric disorders. This type of brain atrophy progresses significantly in heavy smokers and drinkers. Therefore this type of brain atrophy might be caused by the decline in the blood flow in anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Brain atrophy of type II was caused by the disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid circulation after cerebral bleeding and subarachnoid bleeding. Brain atrophy of type III was seen in vascular dementia or multi-infarct dementia which was caused by loss of brain matter after multiple infarction, and was seen also in dementia of Alzheimer type in which degeneration of nerve cells results in brain atrophy. NMR-CT can easily detect small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy. (J.P.N.).

  5. Automated protein structure calculation from NMR data

    Williamson, Mike P.; Craven, C. Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Current software is almost at the stage to permit completely automatic structure determination of small proteins of <15 kDa, from NMR spectra to structure validation with minimal user interaction. This goal is welcome, as it makes structure calculation more objective and therefore more easily validated, without any loss in the quality of the structures generated. Moreover, it releases expert spectroscopists to carry out research that cannot be automated. It should not take much further effort to extend automation to ca 20 kDa. However, there are technological barriers to further automation, of which the biggest are identified as: routines for peak picking; adoption and sharing of a common framework for structure calculation, including the assembly of an automated and trusted package for structure validation; and sample preparation, particularly for larger proteins. These barriers should be the main target for development of methodology for protein structure determination, particularly by structural genomics consortia

  6. High Magnetic Field Vortex Microscopy by NMR

    Mitrović, V. F.; Sigmund, E. E.; Bachman, H. N.; Halperin, W. P.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P.; Moulton, W. G.

    2001-03-01

    At low temperatures the ^17O NMR spectrum of HTS exhibits a characteristic vortex lattice line shape. Measurements of spin-lattice relaxation rate, T_1-1, across the vortex spectrum represent a probe of low-energy quasiparticle excitations as a function of distance from the vortex core. We report ^17O(2,3) T_1-1 measurements of YBa_2Cu_3O7 at low temperatures in magnetic fields up to 37 T. We find that the rate increases on approaching the vortex core. In the vortex core region at 37 T we observe an additional increase in the relaxation rate. The temperature dependence of the rate will also be discussed. Work at Northwestern University is supported by the NSF (DMR 91-20000) through the Science and Technology Center for Superconductivity.

  7. INFOS: spectrum fitting software for NMR analysis

    Smith, Albert A., E-mail: alsi@nmr.phys.chem.ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2017-02-15

    Software for fitting of NMR spectra in MATLAB is presented. Spectra are fitted in the frequency domain, using Fourier transformed lineshapes, which are derived using the experimental acquisition and processing parameters. This yields more accurate fits compared to common fitting methods that use Lorentzian or Gaussian functions. Furthermore, a very time-efficient algorithm for calculating and fitting spectra has been developed. The software also performs initial peak picking, followed by subsequent fitting and refinement of the peak list, by iteratively adding and removing peaks to improve the overall fit. Estimation of error on fitting parameters is performed using a Monte-Carlo approach. Many fitting options allow the software to be flexible enough for a wide array of applications, while still being straightforward to set up with minimal user input.

  8. NMR Measurements of Granular Flow and Compaction

    Fukushima, Eiichi

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be used to measure statistical distributions of granular flow velocity and fluctuations of velocity, as well as spatial distributions of particulate concentration, flow velocity, its fluctuations, and other parameters that may be derived from these. All measurements have been of protons in liquid-containing particles such as mustard seeds or pharmaceutical pills. Our favorite geometry has been the slowly rotating partially filled rotating drum with granular flow taking place along the free surface of the particles. All the above-mentioned parameters have been studied as well as a spatial distribution of particulate diffusion coefficients, energy dissipation due to collisions, as well as segregation of non-uniform mixtures of granular material. Finally, we describe some motions of granular material under periodic vibrations.

  9. NMR spectroscopy: a tool for conformational analysis

    Tormena, Claudio F.; Cormanich, Rodrigo A.; Rittner, Roberto; Freitas, Matheus P.

    2011-01-01

    The present review deals with the application of NMR data to the conformational analysis of simple organic compounds, together with other experimental methods like infrared spectroscopy and with theoretical calculations. Each sub-section describes the results for a group of compounds which belong to a given organic function like ketones, esters, etc. Studies of a single compound, even of special relevance, were excluded since the main goal of this review is to compare the results for a given function, where different substituents were used or small structural changes were introduced in the substrate, in an attempt to disclose their effects in the conformational equilibrium. Moreover, the huge amount of data available in the literature, on this research field, imposed some limitations which will be detailed in the Introduction, but it can be reminded in advance that these limitations include mostly the period when these results were published. (author)

  10. ImatraNMR: Novel software for batch integration and analysis of quantitative NMR spectra

    Mäkelä, A. V.; Heikkilä, O.; Kilpeläinen, I.; Heikkinen, S.

    2011-08-01

    Quantitative NMR spectroscopy is a useful and important tool for analysis of various mixtures. Recently, in addition of traditional quantitative 1D 1H and 13C NMR methods, a variety of pulse sequences aimed for quantitative or semiquantitative analysis have been developed. To obtain actual usable results from quantitative spectra, they must be processed and analyzed with suitable software. Currently, there are many processing packages available from spectrometer manufacturers and third party developers, and most of them are capable of analyzing and integration of quantitative spectra. However, they are mainly aimed for processing single or few spectra, and are slow and difficult to use when large numbers of spectra and signals are being analyzed, even when using pre-saved integration areas or custom scripting features. In this article, we present a novel software, ImatraNMR, designed for batch analysis of quantitative spectra. In addition to capability of analyzing large number of spectra, it provides results in text and CSV formats, allowing further data-analysis using spreadsheet programs or general analysis programs, such as Matlab. The software is written with Java, and thus it should run in any platform capable of providing Java Runtime Environment version 1.6 or newer, however, currently it has only been tested with Windows and Linux (Ubuntu 10.04). The software is free for non-commercial use, and is provided with source code upon request.

  11. NMR study of hyper-polarized 129Xe and applications to liquid-phase NMR experiments

    Marion, D.

    2008-07-01

    In liquid samples where both nuclear polarization and spin density are strong, the magnetization dynamics, which can be analysed by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) methods, is deeply influenced by the internal couplings induced by local dipolar fields. The present thesis describes some of the many consequences associated to the presence in the sample of concentrated xenon hyper-polarized by an optical pumping process. First, we deal with the induced modifications in frequency and line width of the proton and xenon spectra, then we present the results of SPIDER, a coherent polarization transfer experiment designed to enhance the polarization of protons, in order to increase their NMR signal level. A third part is dedicated to the description of the apparition of repeated chaotic maser emissions by un unstable xenon magnetization coupled to the detection coil tuned at the xenon Larmor frequency (here 138 MHz). In the last part, we present a new method allowing a better tuning of any NMR detection probe and resulting in sensible gains in terms of sensitivity and signal shaping. Finally, we conclude with a partial questioning of the classical relaxation theory in the specific field of highly polarized and concentrated spin systems in a liquid phase. (author)

  12. Decline in Kelp in West Europe and Climate.

    Virginie Raybaud

    Full Text Available Kelp ecosystems form widespread underwater forests playing a major role in structuring the biodiversity at a regional scale. Some seaweeds such as Laminaria digitata are also economically important, being exploited for their alginate and iodine content. Although some studies have shown that kelp ecosystems are regressing and that multiple causes are likely to be at the origin of the disappearance of certain populations, the extent to which global climate change may play a role remains speculative. Here we show that many populations of L. digitata along European coasts are on the verge of local extinction due to a climate-caused increase in sea temperature. By modeling the spatial distribution of the seaweed, we evaluate the possible implications of global climate change for the geographical patterns of the species using temperature data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5. Projections of the future range of L. digitata throughout the 21st century show large shifts in the suitable habitat of the kelp and a northward retreat of the southern limit of its current geographic distribution from France to Danish coasts and the southern regions of the United Kingdom. However, these projections depend on the intensity of warming. A medium to high warming is expected to lead to the extirpation of the species as early as the first half of the 21st century and there is high confidence that regional extinction will spread northwards by the end of this century. These changes are likely to cause the decline of species whose life cycle is closely dependent upon L. digitata and lead to the establishment of new ecosystems with lower ecological and economic values.

  13. Peak globalization. Climate change, oil depletion and global trade

    Curtis, Fred [Department of Economics, Drew University, Madison, NJ 07940 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The global trade in goods depends upon reliable, inexpensive transportation of freight along complex and long-distance supply chains. Global warming and peak oil undermine globalization by their effects on both transportation costs and the reliable movement of freight. Countering the current geographic pattern of comparative advantage with higher transportation costs, climate change and peak oil will thus result in peak globalization, after which the volume of exports will decline as measured by ton-miles of freight. Policies designed to mitigate climate change and peak oil are very unlikely to change this result due to their late implementation, contradictory effects and insufficient magnitude. The implication is that supply chains will become shorter for most products and that production of goods will be located closer to where they are consumed. (author)

  14. Peak globalization. Climate change, oil depletion and global trade

    Curtis, Fred

    2009-01-01

    The global trade in goods depends upon reliable, inexpensive transportation of freight along complex and long-distance supply chains. Global warming and peak oil undermine globalization by their effects on both transportation costs and the reliable movement of freight. Countering the current geographic pattern of comparative advantage with higher transportation costs, climate change and peak oil will thus result in peak globalization, after which the volume of exports will decline as measured by ton-miles of freight. Policies designed to mitigate climate change and peak oil are very unlikely to change this result due to their late implementation, contradictory effects and insufficient magnitude. The implication is that supply chains will become shorter for most products and that production of goods will be located closer to where they are consumed. (author)

  15. The birth rate decline in developing countries.

    Robey, B

    1993-01-01

    Family planning programs historically have played an important role in providing information and counseling and supplying modern methods. Most programs are effective due to socioeconomic development and strong political support. Potential demand for services will be growing. This means that donor agencies must commit additional funding, and users must begin paying or paying more for contraceptives. Services and method choices need to be expanded, and quality of care needs to be improved. Three primary factors will impact on fertility decline: 1) the rate of social development, 2) the speed with which small family norms spread and contraception is adopted, and 3) the facility of private and public suppliers to meet contraceptive demand. Other factors influence reproductive decisions (women's roles and status, economic hardships or opportunities, religion, ethnicity, culture, and tradition). Contraceptive prevalence has increased from under 10% in the 1960s to 38% of all married, reproductive age women in the developing world, excluding China, which has contraceptive prevalence of 72%. Regional differences are wide. In Latin America, contraceptive use averages nearly 60% and ranges from over 50% in 10 countries and below 38% in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Haiti. Contraceptive prevalence is above average in Indonesia (50%), Sri Lanka (62%), and Thailand (68%) and just below average in Bangladesh (40%), India (45%), Philippines (34%), and Vietnam (53%). Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest prevalence, except for Zimbabwe (45%), Botswana (35%), and Kenya (27%). 80% of current users rely on modern methods. In most surveyed countries, 20-30% of married women have unmet demand. Fertility decline, unmet demand, and contraceptive use have all been affected by the diffusion of ideas about the use of family planning and the small family norm. Innovators are usually high status, educated women, who spread their views to other social groups or geographic areas. The spread can be rapid

  16. Detection of site-specific binding and co-binding of ligands to macromolecules using 19F NMR

    Jenkins, B.G.

    1991-01-01

    Study of ligand-macromolecular interactions by 19 F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy affords many opportunities for obtaining molecular biochemical and pharmaceutical information. This is due to the absence of a background fluorine signal, as well as the relatively high sensitivity of 19 F NMR. Use of fluorine-labeled ligands enables one to probe not only binding and co-binding phenomena to macromolecules, but also can provide data on binding constants, stoichiometries, kinetics, and conformational properties of these complexes. Under conditions of slow exchange and macromolecule-induced chemical shifts, multiple 19 F NMR resonances can be observed for free and bound ligands. These shifted resonances are a direct correlate of the concentration of ligand bound in a specific state rather than the global concentrations of bound or free ligand which are usually determined using other techniques such as absorption spectroscopy or equilibrium dialysis. Examples of these interactions are demonstrated both from the literature and from interactions of 5-fluorotryptophan, 5-fluorosalicylic acid, flurbiprofen, and sulindac sulfide with human serum albumin. Other applications of 19 F NMR to study of these interactions in vivo, as well for receptor binding and metabolic tracing of fluorinated drugs and proteins are discussed

  17. UV-B Radiation Contributes to Amphibian Population Declines

    Blaustein, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    UV-B (280-315 nm) radiation is the most significant biologically damaging radiation at the terrestrial surface. At the organismal level, UV-B radiation can slow growth rates, cause immune dysfunction and result in sublethal damage. UV-B radiation can lead to mutations and cell death. Over evolutionary time, UV radiation has been an important stressor on living organisms. Natural events, including impacts from comets and asteroids, volcanic activity, supernova explosions and solar flares, can cause large-scale ozone depletion with accompanying increases in UV radiation. However, these natural events are transient. Moreover, the amount of ozone damage due to natural events depends upon a number of variables, including the magnitude of the event. This is different from modern-day human-induced production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other chemicals that deplete stratospheric ozone continuously, resulting in long-term increases in UV-B radiation at the surface of the earth. We will briefly review the effects of UV-B exposure in one group of aquatic organisms_amphibians. UV-B has been implicated as a possible factor contributing to global declines and range reductions in amphibian populations.

  18. Can NMR solve some significant challenges in metabolomics?

    Gowda, G.A. Nagana; Raftery, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The field of metabolomics continues to witness rapid growth driven by fundamental studies, methods development, and applications in a number of disciplines that include biomedical science, plant and nutrition sciences, drug development, energy and environmental sciences, toxicology, etc. NMR spectroscopy is one of the two most widely used analytical platforms in the metabolomics field, along with mass spectrometry (MS). NMR's excellent reproducibility and quantitative accuracy, its ability to identify structures of unknown metabolites, its capacity to generate metabolite profiles using intact biospecimens with no need for separation, and its capabilities for tracing metabolic pathways using isotope labeled substrates offer unique strengths for metabolomics applications. However, NMR's limited sensitivity and resolution continue to pose a major challenge and have restricted both the number and the quantitative accuracy of metabolites analyzed by NMR. Further, the analysis of highly complex biological samples has increased the demand for new methods with improved detection, better unknown identification, and more accurate quantitation of larger numbers of metabolites. Recent efforts have contributed significant improvements in these areas, and have thereby enhanced the pool of routinely quantifiable metabolites. Additionally, efforts focused on combining NMR and MS promise opportunities to exploit the combined strength of the two analytical platforms for direct comparison of the metabolite data, unknown identification and reliable biomarker discovery that continue to challenge the metabolomics field. This article presents our perspectives on the emerging trends in NMR-based metabolomics and NMR's continuing role in the field with an emphasis on recent and ongoing research from our laboratory. PMID:26476597

  19. Can NMR solve some significant challenges in metabolomics?

    Nagana Gowda, G. A.; Raftery, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The field of metabolomics continues to witness rapid growth driven by fundamental studies, methods development, and applications in a number of disciplines that include biomedical science, plant and nutrition sciences, drug development, energy and environmental sciences, toxicology, etc. NMR spectroscopy is one of the two most widely used analytical platforms in the metabolomics field, along with mass spectrometry (MS). NMR's excellent reproducibility and quantitative accuracy, its ability to identify structures of unknown metabolites, its capacity to generate metabolite profiles using intact bio-specimens with no need for separation, and its capabilities for tracing metabolic pathways using isotope labeled substrates offer unique strengths for metabolomics applications. However, NMR's limited sensitivity and resolution continue to pose a major challenge and have restricted both the number and the quantitative accuracy of metabolites analyzed by NMR. Further, the analysis of highly complex biological samples has increased the demand for new methods with improved detection, better unknown identification, and more accurate quantitation of larger numbers of metabolites. Recent efforts have contributed significant improvements in these areas, and have thereby enhanced the pool of routinely quantifiable metabolites. Additionally, efforts focused on combining NMR and MS promise opportunities to exploit the combined strength of the two analytical platforms for direct comparison of the metabolite data, unknown identification and reliable biomarker discovery that continue to challenge the metabolomics field. This article presents our perspectives on the emerging trends in NMR-based metabolomics and NMR's continuing role in the field with an emphasis on recent and ongoing research from our laboratory.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations on PGLa using NMR orientational constraints

    Sternberg, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.sternberg@partner.kit.edu; Witter, Raiker [Tallinn University of Technology, Technomedicum (Estonia)

    2015-11-15

    NMR data obtained by solid state NMR from anisotropic samples are used as orientational constraints in molecular dynamics simulations for determining the structure and dynamics of the PGLa peptide within a membrane environment. For the simulation the recently developed molecular dynamics with orientational constraints technique (MDOC) is used. This method introduces orientation dependent pseudo-forces into the COSMOS-NMR force field. Acting during a molecular dynamics simulation these forces drive molecular rotations, re-orientations and folding in such a way that the motional time-averages of the tensorial NMR properties are consistent with the experimentally measured NMR parameters. This MDOC strategy does not depend on the initial choice of atomic coordinates, and is in principle suitable for any flexible and mobile kind of molecule; and it is of course possible to account for flexible parts of peptides or their side-chains. MDOC has been applied to the antimicrobial peptide PGLa and a related dimer model. With these simulations it was possible to reproduce most NMR parameters within the experimental error bounds. The alignment, conformation and order parameters of the membrane-bound molecule and its dimer were directly derived with MDOC from the NMR data. Furthermore, this new approach yielded for the first time the distribution of segmental orientations with respect to the membrane and the order parameter tensors of the dimer systems. It was demonstrated the deuterium splittings measured at the peptide to lipid ratio of 1/50 are consistent with a membrane spanning orientation of the peptide.

  1. Developments in Global Food Prices

    Vanessa Rayner; Emily Laing; Jamie Hall

    2011-01-01

    Global food prices have increased significantly since the early 2000s, reversing the long-run trend decline in relative food prices over previous decades. A range of supply disruptions in key food-producing countries have contributed to higher food prices, along with strong demand from developing countries as per capita incomes rise and consumption patterns change. Rising commodity prices are leading to higher headline consumer price inflation in many countries though, at this stage, core mea...

  2. SHADOW GLOBALIZATION

    Larissa Mihaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews some development trends brought about by globalization, particularly, a growing tax evasion and tax avoidance, an expansion of illicit financial flows and the proliferation of a global criminal network. The author draws attention to some new phenomena, particularly, cosmopolitanization of some parts of national elites and a deepening divide between national interests and the private interests of elites as a consequence of financial globalization. Modern mass media, both Ru...

  3. Global Mindset

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Global Mindset (GM) – the way to think about the global reality – is on the agenda of multinational companies concomitant with the increase in global complexity, uncertainty and diversity. In spite of a number of studies, the concept is still fluid and far from a managerial.......e. the capability to sense (quickly), reflect (constructively) and act purposefully (for mutual benefit). A case on an MNC is used at the end to show the organizational manifestations of a GM....

  4. The growth and decline of cryonics

    David Sanders Stodolsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryogenic storage has become known as an alternative to burial. While a substantial fraction of the public finds cryonics acceptable, enrollment remains miniscule. One of the greatest unknowns is whether cryonics companies will be able to operate continuously until reanimation of those in storage becomes possible. Two failure modes are considered; organizational decline and political attack. The cryonics industry has adopted a strategy that implicitly targets atheist millionaires and alienates women. This is a result of neglecting science in its marketing efforts. American cryonics organizations have also incurred an avoidable political risk by refusing to use the funeral industry as a sales channel. Two alternative strategies are suggested that could minimize failure risk by reversing the stagnation of the industry. A “repackaging” of cryonics could accelerate growth and improve services, as well as the political position of the industry. This repackaging includes a restructuring of the channels for funding cryonics. Integration with the mainstream assumes using the funeral industry as a sales channel. While both political experiences and research results have made the need for these developments apparent, pioneers of the industry have resisted them.

  5. Population Genetic Aspects of Pollinator Decline

    Laurence Packer

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the theory of conservation genetics, with special emphasis on the influence of haplodiploidy and other aspects of bee biology upon conservation genetic parameters. We then investigated the possibility that pollinator decline can be addressed in this way, using two meta-analytical approaches on genetic data from the Hymenoptera and the Lepidoptera. First, we compared levels of heterozygosity between the orders. As has been found previously, the haplodiploid Hymenoptera had markedly lower levels of genetic variation than the Lepidoptera. Bees had even lower levels, and bumble bees, in particular, often seemed almost monomorphic genetically. However, the statistically confounding effects of phylogeny render detailed interpretation of such data difficult. Second, we investigated patterns of gene flow among populations of these insects. Hymenoptera were far more likely to show genetic effects of population fragmentation than are Lepidoptera, even at similar geographic distances between populations. The reduced effective population sizes resulting from haplodiploidy probably contributed to this result. The proportion of species with low levels of gene flow did not vary among the different taxonomic groups within the Hymenoptera.

  6. Development and decline of upright gait stability

    Marco eIosa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Upright gait is a peculiar characteristic of humans that requires the ability to manage upper body dynamic balance while walking, despite the perturbations that are generated by movements of the lower limbs. Most of the studies on upright gait stability have compared young adults and the elderly to determine the effects of aging. In other studies the comparison was between healthy subjects and patients to examine specific pathologies. Fewer researches have also investigated the development of upright gait stability in children.This review discusses these studies in order to provide an overview of this relevant aspect of human locomotion. A clear trend from development to decline of upright gait stability has been depicted across the entire lifespan, from toddlers at first steps to elderly. In old individuals, even if healthy, the deterioration of skeletal muscle, combined with sensorial and cognitive performance, reduces the ability to maintain an upright trunk during walking, increasing the instability and the risk of falls. Further, the pathological causes of altered development or of a sudden loss of gait stability, as well as the environmental influence are investigated. The last part of this review is focused on the control of upper body accelerations during walking, a particularly interesting topic for the recent development of low-cost wearable accelerometers.

  7. Molecular dynamics computer simulations based on NMR data

    Vlieg, J. de.

    1989-01-01

    In the work described in this thesis atom-atom distance information obtained from two-dimensional cuclear magnetic resonance is combined with molecular dynamics simulaitons. The simulation is used to improve the accuracy of a structure model constructed on the basis of NMR data. During the MD refinement the crude NMR structure is simultaneously optimized with respect to the atomic interaction function and to the set of atom-atom distances or other NMR information. This means that insufficient experimental data is completed with theoretical knowledge and the combination will lead to more reliable structures than would be obtained from one technique alone. (author). 191 refs.; 17 figs.; 12 schemes; 22 tabs

  8. Moessbauer and NMR study of novel Tin(IV)-lactames

    Kuzmann, Erno; Szalay, Roland; Homonnay, Zoltan, E-mail: homonnay@ludens.elte.hu; Nagy, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary)

    2012-03-15

    N-tributylstannylated 2-pyrrolidinone was reacted with tributyltin triflate in different molar ratios and the complex formation monitored using {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR and {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. Comparing the carbon NMR and tin Moessbauer results, a reaction scheme is suggested for the complexation which assumes the formation of a simultaneously O- and N-tributylstannylated pyrrolidinone cation. The formation of the only O-stannylated pyrrolidinone is also assumed to account for the non-constant Moessbauer parameters of the two tin environments in the distannylated pyrrolidinone cation when the ratio of tributyltin triflate is increased in the reaction.

  9. NMR imaging of bladder tumors in males. Preliminary clinical experience

    Sigal, R.; Rein, A.J.J.T.; Atlan, H.; Lanir, A.; Kedar, S.; Segal, S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the normal and pathologic bladder was performed in 10 male subjects: 5 normal volunteers, 4 with bladder primary carcinoma, 1 with bladder metastasis. All scanning was done using a superconductive magnet operating at 0.5 T. Spin echo was used as pulse sequence. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by NMR imaging. The ability of the technique to provide images in axial, sagital and coronal planes allowed a precise assessment of the morphology and the size of the tumors. The lack of hazards and the quality of images may promote NMR imaging to a prominent role in the diagnosis of human bladder cancer [fr

  10. NMR and domain wall mobility in intermetallic compounds

    Guimaraes, A.P.; Sampaio, L.C.; Cunha, S.F.; Alves, K.M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The technique of pulsed NMR can be used to study the distribution of hyperfine fields in a magnetic matrix. The dynamics of the domain walls are relevant to the generation of NMR signals. In the present study on the (R x Y 1-x ) Fe 2 intermetallic compounds, the reduction in the signals is associated to increased propagation fields. This indicates that a smaller domain wall mobility is at the origin of these effects. NMR spectra in this system show the importance of direct and indirect (i.e., mediated by Fe atoms) terms in the transferred hyperfine field. (author)

  11. NMR studies of metallic tin confined within porous matrices

    Charnaya, E. V.; Tien, Cheng; Lee, M. K.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2007-01-01

    119 Sn NMR studies were carried out for metallic tin confined within synthetic opal and porous glass. Tin was embedded into nanoporous matrices in the melted state under pressure. The Knight shift for liquid confined tin was found to decrease with decreasing pore size. Correlations between NMR line shapes, Knight shift, and pore filling were observed. The melting and freezing phase transitions of tin under confinement were studied through temperature dependences of NMR signals upon warming and cooling. Melting of tin within the opal matrix agreed well with the liquid skin model suggested for small isolated particles. The influence of the pore filling on the melting process was shown

  12. Global Warming: A Review of the Debates on the Causes ...

    USER

    Humans have changed the chemistry of the earth's atmosphere; most .... computer models predict that the effects of global warming will be very strong in the polar ..... to Monckton (2011) and Riebeek (2007), a natural decline in cloud cover.

  13. Thinner cortex in patients with subjective cognitive decline is associated with steeper decline of memory.

    Verfaillie, Sander C J; Slot, Rosalinde E; Tijms, Betty M; Bouwman, Femke; Benedictus, Marije R; Overbeek, Jozefien M; Koene, Teddy; Vrenken, Hugo; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; van der Flier, Wiesje M

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to investigate associations between regional cortical thickness and rate of decline over time in 4 cognitive domains in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD). We included 233 SCD patients with the total number of 654 neuropsychological assessments (median = 3, range = 2-8) and available baseline magnetic resonance imaging from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (125 males, age: 63 ± 9, Mini-Mental State Examination score: 28 ± 2). We assessed longitudinal cognitive functioning at baseline and follow-up in 4 cognitive domains (composite Z-scores): memory, attention, executive function, and language. Thickness (millimeter) was estimated using FreeSurfer for frontal, temporal, parietal, cingulate, and occipital cortices. We used linear mixed models to estimate effects of cortical thickness on cognitive performance (dependent variables). There were no associations between cortical thickness and baseline cognition, but a faster subsequent rate of memory loss was associated with thinner cortex of the frontal [β (SE) = 0.20 (0.07)], temporal [β (SE) = 0.18 (0.07)], and occipital [β (SE) = 0.22 (0.09)] cortices (all p cognitive decline related to neurodegenerative diseases, most prominently Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive declines precede and predict functional declines in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Laura B Zahodne

    Full Text Available To investigate the temporal ordering of cognitive and functional declines separately in older adults with or without Alzheimer's disease (AD.A community-based longitudinal study of aging and dementia in Northern Manhattan (Washington Heights/Hamilton Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project and a multicenter, clinic-based longitudinal study of prevalent AD at Columbia University Medical Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Hôpital de la Salpêtrière in Paris, France (the Predictors Study.3,443 initially non-demented older adults (612 with eventual incident dementia and 517 patients with AD.Cognitive measures included the modified Mini-Mental State Exam and composite scores of memory and language derived from a standardized neuropsychological battery. Function was measured with the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, completed by the participant (in the sample of non-demented older adults or an informant (in the sample of prevalent AD patients. Data were analyzed with autoregressive cross-lagged panel analysis.Cognitive scores more consistently predicted subsequent functional abilities than vice versa in non-demented older adults, participants with eventual incident dementia, and patients with prevalent AD.Cognitive declines appear to precede and cause functional declines prior to and following dementia diagnosis. Standardized neuropsychological tests are valid predictors of later functional changes in both non-demented and demented older adults.

  15. Subjective cognitive decline and fall risk in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline.

    Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Nozaki, Yuma; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2018-05-01

    The association between subjective cognitive decline and falls has not been clearly determined. Our aim was to explore the effect of subjective cognitive decline on falls in community-dwelling older adults with or without objective cognitive decline. We included 470 older adults (mean age 73.6 ± 5.2; 329 women) living in the community and obtained data on fall history directly from the participants. Subjective cognitive decline was assessed using a self-administered question. Objective cognitive function was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Statistical analyses were carried out separately for participants with objective cognitive decline and those without. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that, among participants without objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls [OR 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.12; p = 0.01). Conversely, among participants with objective cognitive decline, subjective cognitive decline was negatively associated with falls (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.85, p = 0.04). The result suggests that the objective-subjective disparity may affect falls in community-dwelling older adults. The presence of subjective cognitive decline was significantly positively associated with falls among cognitively intact older adults. However, among their cognitively impaired peers, the absence of subjective cognitive decline was positively associated with falls.

  16. Museum specimens reveal loss of pollen host plants as key factor driving wild bee decline in The Netherlands

    Scheper, J.A.; Reemer, M.; Kats, van R.J.M.; Ozinga, W.A.; Linden, van der G.T.J.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Siepel, H.; Kleijn, D.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for declining populations of both wild and managed bees has raised concern about a potential global pollination crisis. Strategies to mitigate bee loss generally aim to enhance floral resources. However, we do not really know whether loss of preferred floral resources is the key driver of

  17. Rapid population decline in red knots : fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay

    Baker, AJ; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Niles, LJ; do Nascimento, IDS; Atkinson, PW; Clark, NA; Minton, CDT; Peck, MK; Aarts, G

    2004-01-01

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego,

  18. Views of Physics Teachers on How to Address the Declining Enrolment in Physics at the University Level

    Oon, Pey-Tee; Subramaniam, R.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' views are worth hearing in order to get ideas on how to address the trend of declining enrolment in physics at the university level, which is regarded as a global problem. This study explores physics teachers' views on how to encourage more students to study physics at the university level. A sample of 166 physics teachers in Singapore…

  19. Study on the Effects of Oligo chitosan and Bioliquifert on Two Rice Mutants, NMR 151 and NMR 152

    Shakinah Salleh; Faiz Ahmad; Sobri Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Malaysia has successfully developed two new rice mutants namely NMR 151 and NMR 152. In addition, Nuclear Malaysia has also successfully developed Oligo chitosan and liquid bio fertilizer (Bioliquifert). Oligo chitosan acts as elicitor that has been proven to be very effective in controlling disease infections and improving yield productivity. Bioliquifert on the other hand is a mixture of microbes containing major nutrient-providing microorganisms. The objective of this study is to observe the effects of Oligo chitosan and Bioliquifert on rice mutants, NMR 151 and NMR 152. The treatment was applied on 14 day old seedlings of MR 219, NMR 151 and NMR 152 sowed in 20 cm pots containing silty clay from the paddy soil of Tanjung Karang, Selangor. The seedlings were then placed in the greenhouse at Nuclear Malaysia until it reaches 110 days old. Study was conducted in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 replications was used and each replication consisted of three plants. All treatments received compound and single dressing fertilizer as recommended by National Rice Production Package except for Treatment 2 and 3, in which Treatment 2 received Oligo chitosan and Bioliquifert while Treatment 3 only received Bioliquifert. Results on plant height, number of tiller and plant fresh weight are not significantly different for all cultivar except for seed dry weight of NMR 152 and MR 219. (author)

  20. Museum specimens reveal loss of pollen host plants as key factor driving wild bee decline in The Netherlands

    Scheper, Jeroen; Reemer, Menno; van Kats, Ruud; Ozinga, Wim A.; van der Linden, Giel T. J.; Schaminée, Joop H. J.; Siepel, Henk; Kleijn, David

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for declining populations of both wild and managed bees has raised concern about a potential global pollination crisis. Strategies to mitigate bee loss generally aim to enhance floral resources. However, we do not really know whether loss of preferred floral resources is the key driver of bee decline because accurate assessment of host plant preferences is difficult, particularly for species that have become rare. Here we examine whether population trends of wild bees in The Netherlands can be explained by trends in host plants, and how this relates to other factors such as climate change. We determined host plant preference of bee species using pollen loads on specimens in entomological collections that were collected before the onset of their decline, and used atlas data to quantify population trends of bee species and their host plants. We show that decline of preferred host plant species was one of two main factors associated with bee decline. Bee body size, the other main factor, was negatively related to population trend, which, because larger bee species have larger pollen requirements than smaller species, may also point toward food limitation as a key factor driving wild bee loss. Diet breadth and other potential factors such as length of flight period or climate change sensitivity were not important in explaining twentieth century bee population trends. These results highlight the species-specific nature of wild bee decline and indicate that mitigation strategies will only be effective if they target the specific host plants of declining species. PMID:25422416