WorldWideScience

Sample records for global matter transport

  1. Estimating source-attributable health impacts of ambient fine particulate matter exposure: global premature mortality from surface transportation emissions in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambliss, S E; Zeinali, M; Minjares, R; Silva, R; West, J J

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ambient fine particular matter (PM 2.5 ) was responsible for 3.2 million premature deaths in 2010 and is among the top ten leading risk factors for early death. Surface transportation is a significant global source of PM 2.5 emissions and a target for new actions. The objective of this study is to estimate the global and national health burden of ambient PM 2.5 exposure attributable to surface transportation emissions. This share of health burden is called the transportation attributable fraction (TAF), and is assumed equal to the proportional decrease in modeled ambient particulate matter concentrations when surface transportation emissions are removed. National population-weighted TAFs for 190 countries are modeled for 2005 using the MOZART-4 global chemical transport model. Changes in annual average concentration of PM 2.5 at 0.5 × 0.67 degree horizontal resolution are based on a global emissions inventory and removal of all surface transportation emissions. Global population-weighted average TAF was 8.5 percent or 1.75 μg m −3 in 2005. Approximately 242 000 annual premature deaths were attributable to surface transportation emissions, dominated by China, the United States, the European Union and India. This application of TAF allows future Global Burden of Disease studies to estimate the sector-specific burden of ambient PM 2.5 exposure. Additional research is needed to capture intraurban variations in emissions and exposure, and to broaden the range of health effects considered, including the effects of other pollutants. (letter)

  2. Dark matter and global symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Mambrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics are known to potentially rule out continuous global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Assuming the validity of such considerations, we derive stringent bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic-ray, neutrino, and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. We compute up-to-date, robust model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime for a variety of Planck-scale suppressed dimension-five effective operators. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models including the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left–Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee–Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Saw models. Assuming that (i global symmetries are broken at the Planck scale, that (ii the non-renormalizable operators mediating dark matter decay have O(1 couplings, that (iii the dark matter is a singlet field, and that (iv the dark matter density distribution is well described by a NFW profile, we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV–TeV, including the WIMP regime.

  3. Global Land Transport Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Over the next four decades, global passenger and freight travel is expected to double over 2010 levels. In order to accommodate this growth, it is expected that the world will need to add nearly 25 million paved road lane-kilometres and 335 000 rail track kilometres. In addition, it is expected that between 45 000 square kilometres and 77 000 square kilometres of new parking spaces will be added to accommodate vehicle stock growth. These land transport infrastructure additions, when combined with operations, maintenance and repairs, are expected to cost as much as USD 45 trillion by 2050. This publication reports on the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) analysis of infrastructure requirements to support projected road and rail travel through 2050, using the IEA Mobility Model. It considers land transport infrastructure additions to support travel growth to 2050. It also considers potential savings if countries pursue “avoid and shift” policies: in this scenario, cumulative global land transport infrastructure spending could decrease as much as USD 20 trillion by 2050 over baseline projections.

  4. Atmospheric Transport of Nutrient Matter during a Red Tide Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, R.; Weng, H.; Lin, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) resulting from an explosive increase in algae population have become a global problem in coastal marine environment. During 3rd -8th, May of 2006, large-scale, mixed prorocentrum dentatum stein and skeletonema costatum bloom developed in those water off the coast of Zhejiang province (Zhoushan city and Liuheng Island) of China. Using Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS), we find an atmospheric transport of considerable nutrient matter (nitrate, ammonium, Fe (Ⅱ)) to East China Sea (ECS) before the red tide event. It be inferred that the atmospheric transport of nutrient matter is a significant source of nutrient matter in the water of East China Sea whose hydrological setting is dominated by oligotrophic Taiwan Warm Current in spring. Such atmospheric transport of nutrient matter is likely a cause factor of red tide in the coast of East China Sea, especially during dust event. The study provides new information for discovering the occurring mechanism of the red tides in ECS and the essential parameters for the red tide research.

  5. Teaching cases on transportation and global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This project developed a series of three teaching cases that explore the implications of global : warming for transportation policy in the United States. The cases are intended to be used in : graduate and undergraduate courses on transportation poli...

  6. Acquisition management of the Global Transportation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-02

    This report discusses the acquisition management of the Global transportation Network by the U.S. Transportation Command. This report is one in a series of audit reports addressing DoD acquisition management of information technology systems. The Glo...

  7. Global atmospheric chemistry – which air matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Prather

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An approach for analysis and modeling of global atmospheric chemistry is developed for application to measurements that provide a tropospheric climatology of those heterogeneously distributed, reactive species that control the loss of methane and the production and loss of ozone. We identify key species (e.g., O3, NOx, HNO3, HNO4, C2H3NO5, H2O, HOOH, CH3OOH, HCHO, CO, CH4, C2H6, acetaldehyde, acetone and presume that they can be measured simultaneously in air parcels on the scale of a few km horizontally and a few tenths of a km vertically. As a first step, six global models have prepared such climatologies sampled at the modeled resolution for August with emphasis on the vast central Pacific Ocean basin. Objectives of this paper are to identify and characterize differences in model-generated reactivities as well as species covariances that could readily be discriminated with an unbiased climatology. A primary tool is comparison of multidimensional probability densities of key species weighted by the mass of such parcels or frequency of occurrence as well as by the reactivity of the parcels with respect to methane and ozone. The reactivity-weighted probabilities tell us which parcels matter in this case, and this method shows skill in differentiating among the models' chemistry. Testing 100 km scale models with 2 km measurements using these tools also addresses a core question about model resolution and whether fine-scale atmospheric structures matter to the overall ozone and methane budget. A new method enabling these six global chemistry–climate models to ingest an externally sourced climatology and then compute air parcel reactivity is demonstrated. Such an objective climatology containing these key species is anticipated from the NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom aircraft mission (2015–2020, executing profiles over the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. This modeling study addresses a core part of the design of ATom.

  8. Global atmospheric chemistry - which air matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Michael J.; Zhu, Xin; Flynn, Clare M.; Strode, Sarah A.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Liu, Junhua; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Fiore, Arlene M.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Mao, Jingqiu; Murray, Lee T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2017-07-01

    An approach for analysis and modeling of global atmospheric chemistry is developed for application to measurements that provide a tropospheric climatology of those heterogeneously distributed, reactive species that control the loss of methane and the production and loss of ozone. We identify key species (e.g., O3, NOx, HNO3, HNO4, C2H3NO5, H2O, HOOH, CH3OOH, HCHO, CO, CH4, C2H6, acetaldehyde, acetone) and presume that they can be measured simultaneously in air parcels on the scale of a few km horizontally and a few tenths of a km vertically. As a first step, six global models have prepared such climatologies sampled at the modeled resolution for August with emphasis on the vast central Pacific Ocean basin. Objectives of this paper are to identify and characterize differences in model-generated reactivities as well as species covariances that could readily be discriminated with an unbiased climatology. A primary tool is comparison of multidimensional probability densities of key species weighted by the mass of such parcels or frequency of occurrence as well as by the reactivity of the parcels with respect to methane and ozone. The reactivity-weighted probabilities tell us which parcels matter in this case, and this method shows skill in differentiating among the models' chemistry. Testing 100 km scale models with 2 km measurements using these tools also addresses a core question about model resolution and whether fine-scale atmospheric structures matter to the overall ozone and methane budget. A new method enabling these six global chemistry-climate models to ingest an externally sourced climatology and then compute air parcel reactivity is demonstrated. Such an objective climatology containing these key species is anticipated from the NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) aircraft mission (2015-2020), executing profiles over the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. This modeling study addresses a core part of the design of ATom.

  9. "Global Warming and Transport Policies"

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshitsugu Kanemoto

    2000-01-01

    The Japanese government has advocated a wide range of policy measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, e.g. improvements of gas mileage, development of alternative fuel vehicles, shifts to walking, bicycles and public transportation for passenger transportation and to trains and ships for cargos, greening of highways. The details of these policies and their effectiveness are not clear, however. Furthermore, virtually no analysis has been provided on the costs and benefi...

  10. Modelling global container freight transport demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Ivanova, O.; Halim, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to discuss methods and techniques for a quantitative and descriptive analysis of future container transport demand at a global level. Information on future container transport flows is useful for various purposes. It is instrumental for the assessment of returns of

  11. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    was the most important sector, contributing about 60 % for BC and OC, 45 % for PM2. 5, and less than 40 % for PM10, where large combustion sources and industrial processes are equally important. Global anthropogenic emissions of BC were estimated at about 6.6 and 7.2 Tg in 2000 and 2010, respectively, and represent about 15 % of PM2. 5 but for some sources reach nearly 50 %, i.e. for the transport sector. Our global BC numbers are higher than previously published owing primarily to the inclusion of new sources. This PM estimate fills the gap in emission data and emission source characterization required in air quality and climate modelling studies and health impact assessments at a regional and global level, as it includes both carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous constituents of primary particulate matter emissions. The developed emission dataset has been used in several regional and global atmospheric transport and climate model simulations within the ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants) project and beyond, serves better parameterization of the global integrated assessment models with respect to representation of black carbon and organic carbon emissions, and built a basis for recently published global particulate number estimates.

  12. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    anthropogenic total, and residential combustion was the most important sector, contributing about 60 % for BC and OC, 45 % for PM2. 5, and less than 40 % for PM10, where large combustion sources and industrial processes are equally important. Global anthropogenic emissions of BC were estimated at about 6.6 and 7.2 Tg in 2000 and 2010, respectively, and represent about 15 % of PM2. 5 but for some sources reach nearly 50 %, i.e. for the transport sector. Our global BC numbers are higher than previously published owing primarily to the inclusion of new sources. This PM estimate fills the gap in emission data and emission source characterization required in air quality and climate modelling studies and health impact assessments at a regional and global level, as it includes both carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous constituents of primary particulate matter emissions. The developed emission dataset has been used in several regional and global atmospheric transport and climate model simulations within the ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants project and beyond, serves better parameterization of the global integrated assessment models with respect to representation of black carbon and organic carbon emissions, and built a basis for recently published global particulate number estimates.

  13. The global transport of dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Kellogg, C.A.; Garrison, V.H.; Shinn, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    By some estimates as much as two billion metric tons of dust are lifted into the Earth's atmosphere every year. Most of this dust is stirred up by storms, the more dramatic of which are aptly named dust storms. But more than mere dirt is carried aloft. Drifting with the suspended dust particles are soil pollutants such as herbicides and pesticides and a significant number of microorganisms-bacteria, viruses and fungi. We can gain some appreciation of how much microbial life is actually floating in our atmosphere by performing a quick calculation. There are typically about one million bacteria per gram of soil, but let's be conservative and suppose there are only 10,000 bacteria per gram of airborne sediment. Assuming a modest one billion metric tons of sediment in the atmosphere, these numbers translate into a quintillion (1018) sediment-borne bacteria moving around the planet each year-enough to form a microbial bridge between Earth and Jupiter. Here we consider what we've learned about the airborne transport of sediment across the globe, and review some of the remarkable studies in this reemerging field that had it origins more than 100 years ago.

  14. Global Transport Networks and Infectious Disease Spread

    OpenAIRE

    Tatem, A.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Hay, S.I.

    2006-01-01

    Air, sea and land transport networks continue to expand in reach, speed of travel and volume of passengers and goods carried. Pathogens and their vectors can now move further, faster and in greater numbers than ever before. Three important consequences of global transport network expansion are infectious disease pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation. This review briefly examines some of the important historical examples of these disease and vector movements, ...

  15. Why mental health matters to global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram

    2014-12-01

    Global health has been defined as an area of study, research, and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. This article provides an overview of some central issues in global mental health in three parts. The first part demonstrates why mental health is relevant to global health by examining three key principles of global health: priority setting based on the burden of health problems, health inequalities and its global scope in particular in relation to the determinants and solutions for health problems. The second part considers and addresses the key critiques of global mental health: (a) that the "diagnoses" of mental disorders are not valid because there are no biological markers for these conditions; (b) that the strong association of social determinants undermines the use of biomedical interventions; (c) that the field is a proxy for the expansion of the pharmaceutical industry; and (d) that the actions of global mental health are equivalent to "medical imperialism" and it is a "psychiatric export." The final part discusses the opportunities for the field, piggybacking on the surge of interest in global health more broadly and on the growing acknowledgment of mental disorders as a key target for global health action. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Transportation conformity particulate matter hot-spot air quality modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In light of the new development in particulate matter (PM) hot-spot regulations and Illinois Department : of Transportation (IDOT)s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, : this project is intended to (1) perform and ...

  17. Original jurisdiction in matters relating to transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Decisions on actions for avoidance of government supervision in matters of transport of radioactive substances are placed under the original jurisdiction of administrative courts. (Kassel Administrative Court, decision of 20 December 1988 - 8 A 699/88). (orig.) [de

  18. Soil organic matter dynamics and the global carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, W.M.; Emanuel, W.R.; King, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    The large size and potentially long residence time of the soil organic matter pool make it an important component of the global carbon cycle. Net terrestrial primary production of about 60 Pg C·yr -1 is, over a several-year period of time, balanced by an equivalent flux of litter production and subsequent decomposition of detritus and soil organic matter. We will review many of the major factors that influence soil organic matter dynamics that need to be explicitly considered in development of global estimates of carbon turnover in the world's soils. We will also discuss current decomposition models that are general enough to be used to develop a representation of global soil organic matter dynamics

  19. Earth Matters: Studies for Our Global Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Pamela; Doyle, Andrea

    Through 12 readings and 32 activities this curriculum material introduces high school students to issues of the global environment and society, while both challenging them to critically evaluate the issues and motivating them to develop solutions. The materials are cited as being applicable to social studies, science, math, language arts, and…

  20. The transport safety of radioactive matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landier, D.; Louet, Ch.A.; Robert, Ch.; Binet, J.; Malesys, P.; Pourade, C.; Le Meur, A.; Robert, M.; Turquet de Beauregard, G.Y.; Hello, E.; Laumond, A.; Regnault, Ph.; Gourlay, M.; Bruhl, G.; Malvache, P.; Dumesnil, J.; Cohen, B.; Sert, G.; Pain, M.; Green, L.; Hartenstein, M.; Stewart, J.; Cottens, E.; Liebens, M.; Marignac, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Since the control of transport of radioactive materials was given to A.S.N. 10 years ago, A.S.N. has strengthened the radioactive material transport inspections, in particular of the designers, manufacturers, carriers and consignors. A.S.N. has implemented INES scale for incidents during transport. It has participated as much as possible to IAEA working groups in order to improve the international regulatory framework. And, supported by I.R.S.N., A.S.N. has performed a periodic safety review of existing package models and has approved new models incorporating innovative design features. Finally, A.S.N. has tested its emergency responses to procedures to an accident involving the transport of radioactive materials. All these actions taken together have led to improvement in and reinforcement of the safety culture among the transport operators; this has been acknowledged by a recent audit T.R.A.N.S.A.S. performed by IAEA. In spite of all these actions, there are not approved by the competent authority. As A.S.N. is in charge of every field in radioprotection, this should help to intensify the control. In addition, the different kinds of transport are also tackled as rail transport with S.N.C.F. radiological risk training, air transport through nuclear medicine. Some experience feedback are given such radioactive waste transport to the storage facilities in the Aube or how to protect the population after a nuclear transport incident with the O.R.S.E.C.-T.M.S. plans. (N.C.)

  1. Transport properties of hot gluonic matter

    OpenAIRE

    Bluhm, Marcus; Nahrgang, Marlene

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the temperature dependence of the scaled jet quenching parameter of hot gluonic matter within a quasiparticle approach. A pronounced maximum in the vicinity of the transition temperature is observed, where the ratio of the scaled jet quenching parameter and the inverse specific shear viscosity increases above typical values for weakly coupled systems.

  2. Interchange Instability and Transport in Matter-Antimatter Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendl, Alexander; Danler, Gregor; Wiesenberger, Matthias; Held, Markus

    2017-06-09

    Symmetric electron-positron plasmas in inhomogeneous magnetic fields are intrinsically subject to interchange instability and transport. Scaling relations for the propagation velocity of density perturbations relevant to transport in isothermal magnetically confined electron-positron plasmas are deduced, including damping effects when Debye lengths are large compared to Larmor radii. The relations are verified by nonlinear full-F gyrofluid computations. Results are analyzed with respect to planned magnetically confined electron-positron plasma experiments. The model is generalized to other matter-antimatter plasmas. Magnetized electron-positron-proton-antiproton plasmas are susceptible to interchange-driven local matter-antimatter separation, which can impede sustained laboratory magnetic confinement.

  3. Global limits and interference patterns in dark matter direct detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catena, Riccardo [Institut für Theoretische Physik,Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Gondolo, Paolo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah,115 South 1400 East #201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2015-08-13

    We compare the general effective theory of one-body dark matter nucleon interactions to current direct detection experiments in a global multidimensional statistical analysis. We derive exclusion limits on the 28 isoscalar and isovector coupling constants of the theory, and show that current data place interesting constraints on dark matter-nucleon interaction operators usually neglected in this context. We characterize the interference patterns that can arise in dark matter direct detection from pairs of dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, or from isoscalar and isovector components of the same operator. We find that commonly neglected destructive interference effects weaken standard direct detection exclusion limits by up to one order of magnitude in the coupling constants.

  4. Experimental Studies of the Transport Parameters of Warm Dense Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouffani, Khalid [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to establish fundamental properties of matter and energy under extreme physical conditions. Although high energy density physics (HEDP) research spans a wide range of plasma conditions, there is one unifying regime that is of particular importance and complexity: that of warm dense matter, the transitional state between solid state condensed matter and energetic plasmas. Most laboratory experimental conditions, including inertial confinement implosion, fall into this regime. Because all aspects of laboratory-created high-energy-density plasmas transition through the warm dense matter regime, understanding the fundamental properties to determine how matter and energy interact in this regime is an important aspect of major research efforts in HEDP. Improved understanding of warm dense matter would have significant and wide-ranging impact on HEDP science, from helping to explain wire initiation studies on the Sandia Z machine to increasing the predictive power of inertial confinement fusion modeling. The central goal or objective of our proposed research is to experimentally determine the electrical resistivity, temperature, density, and average ionization state of a variety of materials in the warm dense matter regime, without the use of theoretical calculations. Since the lack of an accurate energy of state (EOS) model is primarily due to the lack of experimental data, we propose an experimental study of the transport coefficients of warm dense matter.

  5. Dark matter "transporting" mechanism explaining positron excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doojin; Park, Jong-Chul; Shin, Seodong

    2018-04-01

    We propose a novel mechanism to explain the positron excesses, which are observed by satellite-based telescopes including PAMELA and AMS-02, in dark matter (DM) scenarios. The novelty behind the proposal is that it makes direct use of DM around the Galactic Center where DM populates most densely, allowing us to avoid tensions from cosmological and astrophysical measurements. The key ingredients of this mechanism include DM annihilation into unstable states with a very long laboratory-frame life time and their "retarded" decay near the Earth to electron-positron pair(s) possibly with other (in)visible particles. We argue that this sort of explanation is not in conflict with relevant constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background. Regarding the resultant positron spectrum, we provide a generalized source term in the associated diffusion equation, which can be readily applicable to any type of two-"stage" DM scenarios wherein production of Standard Model particles occurs at completely different places from those of DM annihilation. We then conduct a data analysis with the recent AMS-02 data to validate our proposal.

  6. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    development of dose response relationships that take into account how the high degree of source and demographic variability affect PM health response. We look forward to the continued growth of research in ERL contributing to air pollution emissions, distribution, and impacts. As the integrated study of air quality connects to economics, energy, agriculture, meteorology, climate change, and public health—among other subjects—its advancement is well-suited to an interdisciplinary, open-access journal like ERL. Thanks to our authors for contributing to ERL's growth in global air pollution research with such excellent work. Focus on Global Impacts of Particulate Matter Air Pollution Contents The articles below represent the first accepted contributions and further additions will appear in the near future. Major components of China's anthropogenic primary particulate emissions Qiang Zhang, David G Streets, Kebin He and Zbigniew Klimont Impacts of roadway emissions on urban particulate matter concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa: new evidence from Nairobi, Kenya E D S van Vliet and P L Kinney Potential influence of inter-continental transport of sulfate aerosols on air quality Junfeng Liu and Denise L Mauzerall Can warming particles enter global climate discussions? Tami C Bond

  7. Peatland Organic Matter Chemistry Trends Over a Global Latitudinal Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, B. A.; Hodgkins, S. B.; Carson, M. A.; Lamit, L. J.; Lilleskov, E.; Chanton, J.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands contain a significant amount of the global soil carbon, and the climate feedback of carbon cycling within these peatland systems is still relatively unknown. Organic matter composition of peatlands plays a major role in determining carbon storage, and while high latitude peatlands seem to be the most sensitive to climate change, a global picture of peat organic matter chemistry is required to improve predictions and models of greenhouse gas emissions fueled by peatland decomposition. The objective of this research is to test the hypothesis that carbohydrate content of peatlands near the equator will be lower than high latitude peatlands, while aromatic content will be higher. As a part of the Global Peatland Microbiome Project (GPMP), around 2000 samples of peat from 10 to 70 cm across a latitudinal gradient of 79 N to 53 S were measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to examine the organic matter functional groups of peat. Carbohydrate and aromatic content, as determined by FTIR, are useful proxies of decomposition potential and recalcitrance, respectively. We found a highly significant relationship between carbohydrate and aromatic content, latitude, and depth. Carbohydrate content of high latitude sites were significantly greater than at sites near the equator, in contrast to aromatic content which showed the opposite trend. It is also clear that carbohydrate content decreases with depth while aromatic content increases with depth. Higher carbohydrate content at higher latitudes indicates a greater potential for lability and resultant mineralization to form the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane, whereas the composition of low latitude peatlands is consistent with their apparent stability. We speculate that the combination of low carbohydrates and high aromatics at warmer locations near the equator could foreshadow the organic matter composition of high latitude peat transitioning to a more recalcitrant form with a

  8. Why Closely Coupled Work Matters in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Eskild

    2014-01-01

    We report on an ethnographic study of an offshore global software development project between Danish and Philippine developers in a Danish company called GlobalSoft. We investigate why the IT- developers chose to engage in more closely coupled work as the project progressed and argue that closely...... coupled work supported the collaboration in a very challenging project. Three key findings are presented: 1) Closely coupled work practices established connections across the collaboration ensuring knowledge exchange and improving coordination between project members, 2) Closely coupled work practices...... the project members could better anticipate issues and act accordingly. The implications of these findings include a reconsideration of the significance of closely coupled work in distributed settings. Also our findings open up discussions of why closely coupled work matters in global software development....

  9. Coherent transport of matter waves in disordered optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The development of modern techniques for the cooling and the manipulation of atoms in recent years, and the possibility to create Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases and to load them into regular optical lattices or disordered optical potentials, has evoked new interest for the disorder-induced localization of ultra-cold atoms. This work studies the transport properties of matter waves in disordered optical potentials, which are also known as speckle potentials. The effect of correlated disorder on localization is first studied numerically in the framework of the Anderson model. The relevant transport parameters in the configuration average over many different realizations of the speckle potential are then determined analytically, using self-consistent diagrammatic perturbation techniques. This allows to make predictions for a possible experimental observation of coherent transport phenomena for cold atoms in speckle potentials. Of particular importance are the spatial correlations of the speckle fluctuations, which are responsible for the anisotropic character of the single scattering processes in the effective medium. Coherent multiple scattering leads to quantum interference effects, which entail a renormalization of the diffusion constant as compared to the classical description. This so-called weak localization of matter waves is studied as the underlying mechanism for the disorder-driven transition to the Anderson-localization regime, explicitly taking into account the correlations of the speckle fluctuations. (orig.)

  10. Coherent transport of matter waves in disordered optical potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Robert

    2007-07-01

    The development of modern techniques for the cooling and the manipulation of atoms in recent years, and the possibility to create Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases and to load them into regular optical lattices or disordered optical potentials, has evoked new interest for the disorder-induced localization of ultra-cold atoms. This work studies the transport properties of matter waves in disordered optical potentials, which are also known as speckle potentials. The effect of correlated disorder on localization is first studied numerically in the framework of the Anderson model. The relevant transport parameters in the configuration average over many different realizations of the speckle potential are then determined analytically, using self-consistent diagrammatic perturbation techniques. This allows to make predictions for a possible experimental observation of coherent transport phenomena for cold atoms in speckle potentials. Of particular importance are the spatial correlations of the speckle fluctuations, which are responsible for the anisotropic character of the single scattering processes in the effective medium. Coherent multiple scattering leads to quantum interference effects, which entail a renormalization of the diffusion constant as compared to the classical description. This so-called weak localization of matter waves is studied as the underlying mechanism for the disorder-driven transition to the Anderson-localization regime, explicitly taking into account the correlations of the speckle fluctuations. (orig.)

  11. Fast-electron transport in cylindrically laser-compressed matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, F.; Koenig, M.; Batani, D.; Baton, S. D.; Beg, F. N.; Benedetti, C.; Brambrink, E.; Chawla, S.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Galimberti, M.; Gizzi, L. A.; Heathcote, R.; Higginson, D. P.; Hulin, S.; Jafer, R.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Lancaster, K.; Mac Kinnon, A. J.; McPhee, A. G.; Nazarov, W.; Nicolai, P.; Pasley, J.; Ravasio, A.; Richetta, M.; Santos, J. J.; Sgattoni, A.; Spindloe, C.; Vauzour, B.; Volpe, L.

    2009-12-01

    Experimental and theoretical results of relativistic electron transport in cylindrically compressed matter are presented. This experiment, which is a part of the HiPER roadmap, was achieved on the VULCAN laser facility (UK) using four long pulses beams (~4 × 50 J, 1 ns, at 0.53 µm) to compress a hollow plastic cylinder filled with plastic foam of three different densities (0.1, 0.3 and 1 g cm-3). 2D simulations predict a density of 2-5 g cm-3 and a plasma temperature up to 100 eV at maximum compression. A short pulse (10 ps, 160 J) beam generated fast electrons that propagate through the compressed matter by irradiating a nickel foil at an intensity of 5 × 1018 W cm-2. X-ray spectrometer and imagers were implemented in order to estimate the compressed plasma conditions and to infer the hot electron characteristics. Results are discussed and compared with simulations.

  12. Fundamentals of charged particle transport in gases and condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Robson, Robert E; Hildebrandt, Malte

    2018-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive and cohesive overview of transport processes associated with all kinds of charged particles, including electrons, ions, positrons, and muons, in both gases and condensed matter. The emphasis is on fundamental physics, linking experiment, theory and applications. In particular, the authors discuss: The kinetic theory of gases, from the traditional Boltzmann equation to modern generalizations A complementary approach: Maxwell’s equations of change and fluid modeling Calculation of ion-atom scattering cross sections Extension to soft condensed matter, amorphous materials Applications: drift tube experiments, including the Franck-Hertz experiment, modeling plasma processing devices, muon catalysed fusion, positron emission tomography, gaseous radiation detectors Straightforward, physically-based arguments are used wherever possible to complement mathematical rigor.

  13. Coarse Particulate Organic Matter: Storage, Transport, and Retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, Scott [Oakland University, Rochester, MI; Lamberti, Gary A. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Entrekin, Sally A. [University of Central Arkansas; Griffiths, Natalie A. [ORNL

    2017-08-01

    Coarse particulate organic matter, or CPOM, is a basal energy and nutrient resource in many stream ecosystems and is provided by inputs from the riparian zone, incoming tributaries, and to a lesser extent from in-stream production. The ability of a stream to retain CPOM or slow its transport is critical to its consumption and assimilation by stream biota. In this chapter, we describe basic exercises to measure (1) the amount of CPOM in the streambed and (2) the retention of CPOM from standardized particle releases. We further describe advanced exercises that (1) experimentally enhance the retentiveness of a stream reach and (2) measure organic carbon transport and turnover (i.e., spiraling) in the channel.

  14. Coarse Particulate Organic Matter: Storage, Transport, and Retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, Scott [Oakland University, Rochester, MI; Lamberti, Gary A. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Entrekin, Sally A. [University of Central Arkansas; Griffiths, Natalie A. [ORNL

    2017-06-01

    Coarse particulate organic matter, or CPOM, is a basal energy and nutrient resource in many stream ecosystems and is provided by inputs from the riparian zone, incoming tributaries, and to a lesser extent from in-stream production. The ability of a stream to retain CPOM or slow its transport is critical to its consumption and assimilation by stream biota. In this chapter, we describe basic exercises to measure (1) the amount of CPOM in the streambed and (2) the retention of CPOM from standardized particle releases. We further describe advanced exercises that (1) experimentally enhance the retentiveness of a stream reach and (2) measure organic carbon transport and turnover (i.e., spiraling) in the channel.

  15. Literature review of organic matter transport from marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual model for estimating a transport coefficient for the movement of nonliving organic matter from wetlands to the adjacent embayments was developed in a manner that makes it compatible with the Earth Resources Laboratory's Productive Capacity Model. The model, which envisages detritus movement from wetland pixels to the nearest land-water boundary followed by movement within the water column from tidal creeks to the adjacent embayment, can be transposed to deal with only the interaction between tidal water and the marsh or to estimate the transport from embayments to the adjacent coastal waters. The outwelling hypothesis postulated wetlands as supporting coastal fisheries either by exporting nutrients, such as inorganic nitrogen, which stimulated the plankton-based grazing food chain in the water column, or through the export of dissolved and particulate organic carbon which provided a benthic, detritus-based food web which provides the food source for the grazing food chain in a more indirect fashion.

  16. Globalisation, international transport and the global environment. A scenario approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Veen-Groot, D.B.; Nijkamp, P.

    1999-01-01

    The project 'Globalisation, International Transport and the Global Environment' aims to investigate the consequences of globalisation for international transport for global environmental quality as reflected in greenhouse gases in a very general sense. The policy aim (global/European) is to analyse the influence of international policy (Kyoto/IPCC/changes in carbon taxes) on transport volumes, intermodal substitutions or vehicle size and its implications for the environment. This short-paper aims to give an overview of the state-of-the-art of the title project. Attention will be paid to the assessment of trends, the scenario method, the conceptual framework and four qualitative globalisation scenarios. 16 refs

  17. Transport of dissolved organic matter in Boom Clay: Size effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durce, D.; Aertsens, M.; Jacques, D.; Maes, N.; Van Gompel, M.

    2018-01-01

    A coupled experimental-modelling approach was developed to evaluate the effects of molecular weight (MW) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on its transport through intact Boom Clay (BC) samples. Natural DOM was sampled in-situ in the BC layer. Transport was investigated with percolation experiments on 1.5 cm BC samples by measuring the outflow MW distribution (MWD) by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). A one-dimensional reactive transport model was developed to account for retardation, diffusion and entrapment (attachment and/or straining) of DOM. These parameters were determined along the MWD by implementing a discretisation of DOM into several MW points and modelling the breakthrough of each point. The pore throat diameter of BC was determined as 6.6-7.6 nm. Below this critical size, transport of DOM is MW dependent and two major types of transport were identified. Below MW of 2 kDa, DOM was neither strongly trapped nor strongly retarded. This fraction had an averaged capacity factor of 1.19 ± 0.24 and an apparent dispersion coefficient ranging from 7.5 × 10- 11 to 1.7 × 10- 11 m2/s with increasing MW. DOM with MW > 2 kDa was affected by both retardation and straining that increased significantly with increasing MW while apparent dispersion coefficients decreased. Values ranging from 1.36 to 19.6 were determined for the capacity factor and 3.2 × 10- 11 to 1.0 × 10- 11 m2/s for the apparent dispersion coefficient for species with 2.2 kDa < MW < 9.3 kDa. Straining resulted in an immobilisation of in average 49 ± 6% of the injected 9.3 kDa species. Our findings show that an accurate description of DOM transport requires the consideration of the size effects.

  18. Maritime transport operation in conditions of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary world economy is subject to dynamic integration processes that cause the most open countries in the free import and export goods. Intensive trade relations requires intercontinental free access to well-functioning transport systems. In the case of trade with distant partners, especially on other continents, an important criterion for the organization of cargo handling is a long range. Technological development of means of transport has meant that transport services have become a cheap and highly accessible to passengers and cargo.

  19. WHY DO LOGISTICS AND TRANSPORT MATTER FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelescu-Ionescu Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In face of the challenges of global competition, business firms are concentrating more on the needs of customers and seeking ways to reduce costs, improve quality and meet the ever-rising expectation of their customers. To these ends, many of them have identified logistics as an area to build cost and service advantages. Logistical activities have always been vital to organizations, and therefore business logistics and supply chain management represents a synthesis of many concepts, principles, and methods from the more traditional areas of production, purchasing, transportation, economics, as well as from the disciplines of applied mathematics, and organizational behaviour. It concentrates on important activities of management such as planning, organizing, and controlling, and also on a three-way relationship of related transportation, inventory, and location strategies, which are at the heart of good logistics planning and decision making. Selecting a good logistics strategy may yield a competitive advantage. Transportation provides the flow of materials, products and persons between production facilities, warehouses, distribution centers, terminals and customer locations. The progress in techniques and management principles improves the moving load, delivery speed, service quality, operation costs, the usage of facilities and energy saving. A strong system needs a clear frame of logistics and a proper transport implements and techniques to link the producing procedures. The transportation takes a crucial part in the management of logistic. Without well-developed transportation systems, logistics could not bring its advantages into full play. A good transport system in logistics activities could provide better logistics efficiency, reduce operation cost, and promote service quality. The process determines the efficiency of moving products and energy saving. Improvements in transportation and logistics make valuable contribution to production

  20. Introduction: Labour in Transport: Histories from the Global South

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellucci, Stefano; Deutsch, Jan-Georg; Joshi, Chitra; Corrêa, Larissa Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This introduction highlights the main subjects and research questions addressed in the articles making up this Special Issue on the labour histories of transport in the Global South. Although historiographical interest in the history of transport labour is growing, scientific knowledge on the

  1. On indexes and subject matter of “global competitiveness”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korotkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze the subject matter of a country’s competitiveness and to characterize statistical indexes of competitiveness known in the international practice from the perspective of a more elaborated theory of market competition. This aim follows from the identified problems. First, there are no generally accepted interpretation and joint understanding of competition and competitiveness at country level. Even the international organizations giving estimations of global competitiveness disagree on definitions of competitiveness. Secondly, there is no relation to the theory of market competition in the available source materials on competitiveness of the country without original methodology. Thirdly, well-known statistical indexes of global competitiveness do not have enough theoretical justification and differ in sets of factors. All this highlights the incompleteness of the methodology and methodological support of studying competitiveness at country level.Materials and methods. The research is based on the methodology of statistics, economic theory and marketing. The authors followed the basic principle of statistical methodology – requirement of continuous combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis, when the research begins and ends with qualitative analysis. A most important section of statistical methodology is widely used – construction of statistical indexes. In the course of the analysis, a method of statistical classifications is applied. A significant role in the present research is given to the method of generalizing and analogue method, realizing that related terms should mean similar and almost similar contents. Modeling of competition and competitiveness is widely used in the present research, which made it possible to develop a logical model of competition following from the competition theory.Results. Based on the definitions’ survey the analysis of the subject matter of global

  2. Physical considerations relevant to HZE-particle transport in matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmerling, W

    1988-06-01

    High-energy, highly charged (HZE) heavy nuclei may seem at first sight to be an exotic type of radiation, only remotely connected with nuclear power generation. On closer examination it becomes evident that heavy-ion accelerators are being seriously considered for driving inertial confinement fusion reactors, and high-energy heavy nuclei in the cosmic radiation are likely to place significant constraints on satellite power system deployment and space-based power generation. The use of beams of heavy nuclei in an increasing number of current applications, as well as their importance for the development of the state of the art of the future, makes it necessary to develop at the same time a good understanding of their transport through matter.

  3. Fast-electron transport in cylindrically laser-compressed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, F; Koenig, M; Baton, S D; Brambrink, E [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Palaiseau (France); Batani, D; Jafer, R [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universito di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Beg, F N; Chawla, S; Higginson, D P [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Benedetti, C [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna (Italy); Dorchies, F; Fourment, C; Hulin, S [Universite de Bordeaux - CNRS - CEA, Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Talence, F-33405 (France); Galimberti, M; Heathcote, R; Lancaster, K [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Gizzi, L A; Koester, P; Labate, L [LIL-IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, PISA (Italy); MacKinnon, A J [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Experimental and theoretical results of relativistic electron transport in cylindrically compressed matter are presented. This experiment, which is a part of the HiPER roadmap, was achieved on the VULCAN laser facility (UK) using four long pulses beams ({approx}4 x 50 J, 1 ns, at 0.53{mu}m) to compress a hollow plastic cylinder filled with plastic foam of three different densities (0.1, 0.3 and 1 g cm{sup -3}). 2D simulations predict a density of 2-5 g cm{sup -3} and a plasma temperature up to 100 eV at maximum compression. A short pulse (10 ps, 160 J) beam generated fast electrons that propagate through the compressed matter by irradiating a nickel foil at an intensity of 5 x 10{sup 18} W cm{sup -2}. X-ray spectrometer and imagers were implemented in order to estimate the compressed plasma conditions and to infer the hot electron characteristics. Results are discussed and compared with simulations.

  4. Validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment ozone profiles and evaluation of stratospheric transport in a global chemistry transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, A.T.J.; Landgraf, J.; Aben, I.; Hasekamp, O.; Bregman, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone (O3) profiles which are used to evaluate stratospheric transport in the chemistry transport model (CTM) Tracer Model version 5 (TM5) using a linearized stratospheric O3 chemistry scheme. A

  5. Validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment zone profiles and evaluation of stratospheric transport in a global chemistry transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, A.T.J.de; Landgraf, J.; Aben, I.; Hasekamp, O.; Bregman, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone (O3) profiles which are used to evaluate stratospheric transport in the chemistry transport model (CTM) Tracer Model version 5 (TM5) using a linearized stratospheric O3 chemistry scheme. A comparison of GOME O3

  6. Impacts of Intercontinental Transport of Anthropogenic Fine Particulate Matter on Human Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; West, J. Jason; Hongbin, Yu; Chin, Mian; Schulz, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Bey, Isabelle; Bian, Huisheng; Diehl, Thomas; Fiore, Arlene; hide

    2014-01-01

    Fine particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 microns or less (PM2.5) is associated with premature mortality and can travel long distances, impacting air quality and health on intercontinental scales. We estimate the mortality impacts of 20 % anthropogenic primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursor emission reductions in each of four major industrial regions (North America, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia) using an ensemble of global chemical transport model simulations coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution and epidemiologically-derived concentration-response functions. We estimate that while 93-97 % of avoided deaths from reducing emissions in all four regions occur within the source region, 3-7 % (11,500; 95 % confidence interval, 8,800-14,200) occur outside the source region from concentrations transported between continents. Approximately 17 and 13 % of global deaths avoided by reducing North America and Europe emissions occur extraregionally, owing to large downwind populations, compared with 4 and 2 % for South and East Asia. The coarse resolution global models used here may underestimate intraregional health benefits occurring on local scales, affecting these relative contributions of extraregional versus intraregional health benefits. Compared with a previous study of 20 % ozone precursor emission reductions, we find that despite greater transport efficiency for ozone, absolute mortality impacts of intercontinental PM2.5 transport are comparable or greater for neighboring source-receptor pairs, due to the stronger effect of PM2.5 on mortality. However, uncertainties in modeling and concentration-response relationships are large for both estimates.

  7. Global chemical composition of ambient fine particulate matter for exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Lo, Jason Wai-Ho; Wang, Yuxuan; Chen, Dan; Zhang, Lin; Kasibhatla, Prasad S; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Bittman, Shabtai; Macdonald, Douglas J

    2014-11-18

    Epidemiologic and health impact studies are inhibited by the paucity of global, long-term measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter. We inferred PM2.5 chemical composition at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 2004-2008 by combining aerosol optical depth retrieved from the MODIS and MISR satellite instruments, with coincident profile and composition information from the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Evaluation of the satellite-model PM2.5 composition data set with North American in situ measurements indicated significant spatial agreement for secondary inorganic aerosol, particulate organic mass, black carbon, mineral dust, and sea salt. We found that global population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations were dominated by particulate organic mass (11.9 ± 7.3 μg/m(3)), secondary inorganic aerosol (11.1 ± 5.0 μg/m(3)), and mineral dust (11.1 ± 7.9 μg/m(3)). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 30 μg/m(3) over East China. Sensitivity simulations suggested that population-weighted ambient PM2.5 from biofuel burning (11 μg/m(3)) could be almost as large as from fossil fuel combustion sources (17 μg/m(3)). These estimates offer information about global population exposure to the chemical components and sources of PM2.5.

  8. Globalisation, international transport and the global environment. A scenario approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Veen-Groot, D.B.; Nijkamp, P. [Department of Spatial Economics, Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    The project 'Globalisation, International Transport and the Global Environment' aims to investigate the consequences of globalisation for international transport for global environmental quality as reflected in greenhouse gases in a very general sense. The policy aim (global/European) is to analyse the influence of international policy (Kyoto/IPCC/changes in carbon taxes) on transport volumes, intermodal substitutions or vehicle size and its implications for the environment. This short-paper aims to give an overview of the state-of-the-art of the title project. Attention will be paid to the assessment of trends, the scenario method, the conceptual framework and four qualitative globalisation scenarios. 16 refs.

  9. Study of glyphosate transport through suspended particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Audrey; Landry, David; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sourice, Stéphane; Ballouche, Aziz

    2014-05-01

    complete (95% in 2 min). (ii) Kd obtained on the erodible fraction are two times higher than on 2 mm sieved soils. (iii) Desorption showed that glyphosate is desorbed from the erodible fraction at 40% after 25 desorptions. The aim of this study was to show the potential transport of glyphosate through suspended particulate matter. The adsorption on the erodible fraction argued to a significant transport potential of glyphosate on this fraction. The desorption of glyphosate from the erodible water fraction have revealed that the adsorption of glyphosate is reversible but it is much slower. These results demonstrate that glyphosate may be stored on the erodible fraction and be transported by these fractions. Keywords: Adsorption, Desorption, Glyphosate, Suspended Solids, Erosion.

  10. Globalisation, International Transport and the Global Environment (GITAGE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijkamp, P. [Department of Spatial Economics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    The title project aims to map the transport implications of current world-wide globalisation trends, with a particular view to the consequences of increased transport (of both passengers and goods) for global environmental quality as reflected in Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) (notably, but not exclusively CO2). In this study, environmental and climate consequences of globalisation are assessed in a quantitative sense for various modes of transport - in relation to international trade and person mobility - in a medium- to long-term perspective by using results and knowledge from the CPB World Scan Model and the IVM information base on global emissions. Four globalisation scenarios (quantified with WorldScan) formed the basis for various transport scenarios (on different scale levels) of which the consequences in terms of emissions were shown. Besides, the importance and possibilities of innovations in transport were clarified as this is of major importance in mapping out the future of transport. Also attention was paid to the possible impact of policy intervention. Under high economic growth and little political concern about climate change, CO2 emissions from transport might double to quadruple, depending on the region, in the period 1995-2020. It appears that European and Dutch emission levels can only be limited to around 1995 levels if, simultaneously, economic growth is limited, if under a trend towards sustainability transport intensities of economies decline and if all technical opportunities for reduction Of CO2 emissions are exploited. However, since transport is mainly a derived demand, the conclusion is that the transportation sector in itself has only a limited potential to offer a significant contribution towards a reduction in CO2 emissions. Transportation technology and logistics are mainly driven by competitive behaviour, so that an autonomous role of the transport sector in shaping a world characterised by sustainable development is rather limited. This

  11. Nuclear transport factors: global regulation of mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Douglass J; Travesa, Anna; Nord, Matthew S; Bernis, Cyril

    2015-08-01

    The unexpected repurposing of nuclear transport proteins from their function in interphase to an equally vital and very different set of functions in mitosis was very surprising. The multi-talented cast when first revealed included the import receptors, importin alpha and beta, the small regulatory GTPase RanGTP, and a subset of nuclear pore proteins. In this review, we report that recent years have revealed new discoveries in each area of this expanding story in vertebrates: (a) The cast of nuclear import receptors playing a role in mitotic spindle regulation has expanded: both transportin, a nuclear import receptor, and Crm1/Xpo1, an export receptor, are involved in different aspects of spindle assembly. Importin beta and transportin also regulate nuclear envelope and pore assembly. (b) The role of nucleoporins has grown to include recruiting the key microtubule nucleator - the γ-TuRC complex - and the exportin Crm1 to the mitotic kinetochores of humans. Together they nucleate microtubule formation from the kinetochores toward the centrosomes. (c) New research finds that the original importin beta/RanGTP team have been further co-opted by evolution to help regulate other cellular and organismal activities, ranging from the actual positioning of the spindle within the cell perimeter, to regulation of a newly discovered spindle microtubule branching activity, to regulation of the interaction of microtubule structures with specific actin structures. (d) Lastly, because of the multitudinous roles of karyopherins throughout the cell cycle, a recent large push toward testing their potential as chemotherapeutic targets has begun to yield burgeoning progress in the clinic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Global Local Structural Optimization of Transportation Aircraft Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciampa, P.D.; Nagel, B.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The study presents a multilevel optimization methodology for the preliminary structural design of transportation aircraft wings. A global level is defined by taking into account the primary wing structural components (i.e., ribs, spars and skin) which are explicitly modeled by shell layered finite

  13. Aggregation-induced reversal of transport distances of soil organic matter: are our balances correct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaxian; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2014-05-01

    The effect of soil erosion on global carbon cycling, especially as a source or sink of green-house gases (GHGs), is the subject of intense debate. The controversy arises mostly from the lack of information on the fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) as it moves from the site of erosion to the site of longer-term deposition. This requires improved understanding the transport distances of eroded SOC, which is principally related to the settling velocities of sediment fractions that carry the eroded SOC. For aggregated soils, settling velocities are affected by their actual aggregate size rather than the mineral grain size distribution. Aggregate stability is, in turn, strongly influenced by soil organic matter. This study aims at identifying the effect of aggregation on the transport distances of eroded SOC and its susceptibility to mineralization after transport and deposition. A rainfall simulation was carried out on a silty loam soil. The eroded sediments were fractionated by a settling tube apparatus into six different size classes according to their settling velocities and likely transport distances. Weight, SOC concentration and instantaneous respiration rates of the fractions of the six classes were measured. Our results show that: 1) 41% of the eroded SOC was transported with coarse aggregates that would be likely re-distributed across landscapes; 2) erosion was prone to accelerate the mineralization of eroded organic carbon immediately after erosion, compared to undisturbed aggregates; 3) erosion might make a higher contribution to atmospheric CO2 than the estimation made without considering the effects of aggregation and extra SOC mineralization during transport.

  14. 75 FR 55711 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Transport Rule under Executive Order 12866. In addition, EPA previously prepared the Regulatory Impacts...) EPA previously certified that the proposed Transport Rule will not have a significant economic impact...

  15. Transport of the colloid matter of riverine runoff through estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasareva, E. V.; Parfenova, A. M.; Demina, T. S.; Romanova, N. D.; Belyaev, N. A.; Romankevich, E. A.

    2017-07-01

    A procedure for separating the colloid component of natural waters is proposed. It was shown that this component is the main form of matter transfer in Ob River runoff, because the mass of colloid substance is two orders of magnitude higher than that of particulate matter in the outer part of the estuary. Simulation and field experiments revealed the influence of nature and concentration of organic matter on their ability to stabilize or flocculate clay particles with an increase in salinity, thus affecting the range of transfer of riverine runoff matter. It was shown that the interaction of humic acids and clay particles, as well as the increase in hydrophobic properties of a flocculant, improve flocculation efficiency. Criteria are proposed to recognize in the estuarine region areas of pronounced contribution of flocculation processes to sedimentation of fine particles. It is shown that the newly formed organic matter produced by biota under saline stress might be flocculants of fine particulate matter.

  16. Search for domain wall dark matter with atomic clocks on board global positioning system satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Benjamin M; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Dailey, Conner; Murphy, Mac; Pospelov, Maxim; Rollings, Alex; Sherman, Jeff; Williams, Wyatt; Derevianko, Andrei

    2017-10-30

    Cosmological observations indicate that dark matter makes up 85% of all matter in the universe yet its microscopic composition remains a mystery. Dark matter could arise from ultralight quantum fields that form macroscopic objects. Here we use the global positioning system as a ~ 50,000 km aperture dark matter detector to search for such objects in the form of domain walls. Global positioning system navigation relies on precision timing signals furnished by atomic clocks. As the Earth moves through the galactic dark matter halo, interactions with domain walls could cause a sequence of atomic clock perturbations that propagate through the satellite constellation at galactic velocities ~ 300 km s -1 . Mining 16 years of archival data, we find no evidence for domain walls at our current sensitivity level. This improves the limits on certain quadratic scalar couplings of domain wall dark matter to standard model particles by several orders of magnitude.

  17. Space Geodesy Monitoring Mass Transport in Global Geophysical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Mass transports occurring in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere-solid Earth-core system (the 'global geophysical fluids') are important geophysical phenomena. They occur on all temporal and spatial scales. Examples include air mass and ocean circulations, oceanic and solid tides, hydrological water and idsnow redistribution, mantle processes such as post-glacial rebound, earthquakes and tectonic motions, and core geodynamo activities. The temporal history and spatial pattern of such mass transport are often not amenable to direct observations. Space geodesy techniques, however, have proven to be an effective tool in monitorihg certain direct consequences of the mass transport, including Earth's rotation variations, gravitational field variations, and the geocenter motion. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in observing and understanding of these geodynamic effects. This paper will use several prominent examples to illustrate the triumphs in research over the past years under a 'Moore's law' in space geodesy. New space missions and projects promise to further advance our knowledge about the global mass transports. The latter contributes to our understanding of the geophysical processes that produce and regulate the mass transports, as well as of the solid Earth's response to such changes in terms of Earth's mechanical properties.

  18. Transportation energy in global cities: Sustainable transportation comes in from the cold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Peter; Kenworthy, Jeffery

    2001-01-01

    The energy, environmental and social benefits of sustainable transportation, i.e, public transit, biking and walking, have long been recognized but are now mainstream in global and local transportation policy debates. However, the economic value of sustainable transportation has always been seen as secondary, unless many external costs were included. The results of a new global study show that cities with significant sustainable transportation systems have reduced costs on road construction and maintenance; better operating cost recovery and fuel-efficiency; fewer road accidents and less air pollution. In overall terms, the percentage of city funds going to transportation is reduced. The data show that cities with the most roads have the highest transportation costs and the most rail-oriented cities have the lowest. Further, the most sprawling cities have the highest direct and indirect costs for transportation. Thus, strategies to contain sprawl, to reurbanize, to build new rail systems info car-dependent suburbs with focussed sub-centers, and to facilitate biking and walking, not only will improve energy efficiency but will reduce costs to the economy of a city. Strategies that build freeways and add to sprawl will do the opposite. Trends indicate that moves toward sustainable urban patterns are beginning. The need to operationalize sustainable transportation strategies in planning and engineering practice and in the politics of infrastructure funding remains a major challenge. Some cities are showing how this can be done. (author)

  19. Reversible white matter lesions during ketogenic diet therapy in glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohama, Tadashi; Fujii, Katsunori; Takahashi, Satoru; Nakamura, Fumito; Kohno, Yoichi

    2013-12-01

    Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome is caused by brain energy failure resulting from a disturbance in glucose transport. We describe a 4-year-old boy with classical type glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome with a heterozygous splice acceptor site mutation (c.517-2A>G) in the SLCA2A1 gene. We initiated a ketogenic diet at 4 months of age. However, even though his condition was good during ketogenic diet therapy, multiple cerebral white matter and right cerebellum lesions appeared at 9 months of age. The lesions in the cerebral white matter subsequently disappeared, indicating that white matter lesions during diet therapy may be reversible and independent of the ketogenic diet. This is the first report of reversible white matter lesions during ketogenic diet therapy in glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Global numerical simulations of turbulence and transport in a tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thyagaraja, A.

    1996-07-01

    In this work an attempt is made to present an overview of the work on global numerical simulations of tokamak turbulence and transport being conducted at Culham using a two-fluid, electromagnetic, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code called CUTIE which has been developed for the purpose. This review discusses the motivation and philosophy behind the construction of this code, its principal features, some results and the possible course of future investigations. (UK).

  1. Quark condensates in nuclear matter in the global color symmetry model of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuxin; Gao Dongfeng; Guo Hua

    2003-01-01

    With the global color symmetry model being extended to finite chemical potential, we study the density dependence of the local and nonlocal scalar quark condensates in nuclear matter. The calculated results indicate that the quark condensates increase smoothly with the increasing of nuclear matter density before the critical value (about 12ρ 0 ) is reached. It also manifests that the chiral symmetry is restored suddenly as the density of nuclear matter reaches its critical value. Meanwhile, the nonlocal quark condensate in nuclear matter changes nonmonotonously against the space-time distance among the quarks

  2. Changes in ocean vertical heat transport with global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika, Jan D.; Laliberté, Frédéric; Mudryk, Lawrence R.; Sijp, Willem P.; Nurser, A. J. G.

    2015-06-01

    Heat transport between the surface and deep ocean strongly influences transient climate change. Mechanisms setting this transport are investigated using coupled climate models and by projecting ocean circulation into the temperature-depth diagram. In this diagram, a "cold cell" cools the deep ocean through the downwelling of Antarctic waters and upwelling of warmer waters and is balanced by warming due to a "warm cell," coincident with the interhemispheric overturning and previously linked to wind and haline forcing. With anthropogenic warming, the cold cell collapses while the warm cell continues to warm the deep ocean. Simulations with increasingly strong warm cells, set by their mean Southern Hemisphere winds, exhibit increasing deep-ocean warming in response to the same anthropogenic forcing. It is argued that the partition between components of the circulation which cool and warm the deep ocean in the preindustrial climate is a key determinant of ocean vertical heat transport with global warming.

  3. A matter of degrees: A primer on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A primer on global warming is presented in order to provide information to Canadians on making environmentally responsible decisions. The fundamentals of natural climate change, the atmospheric environment, factors that influence climate, and the greenhouse effect are explained. Global warming is then discussed with reference to paleoclimatic research, the influence of human activity on increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and predictions of future climates. The possible impacts of global warming on Canada are described for such sectors as forests, fisheries, agriculture, sea levels, health, energy supply and demand, and the Arctic regions. The actions that citizens and governments can take in order to mitigate or adapt to global warming are then presented. A glossary and index are included. 55 refs., 17 figs

  4. Climatic and geomorphic drivers of plant organic matter transport in the Arun River, E Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Bernd; Feakins, Sarah J.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Olen, Stephanie M.; Adhikari, Danda P.; Mainali, Janardan; Sachse, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Fixation of atmospheric CO2 in terrestrial vegetation, and subsequent export and deposition of terrestrial plant organic matter in marine sediments is an important component of the global carbon cycle, yet it is difficult to quantify. This is partly due to the lack of understanding of relevant processes and mechanisms responsible for organic-matter transport throughout a landscape. Here we present a new approach to identify terrestrial plant organic matter source areas, quantify contributions and ascertain the role of ecologic, climatic, and geomorphic controls on plant wax export in the Arun River catchment spanning the world's largest elevation gradient from 205 to 8848 m asl, in eastern Nepal. Our approach takes advantage of the distinct stable hydrogen isotopic composition (expressed as δD values) of plant wax n-alkanes produced along this gradient, transported in river waters and deposited in flood deposits alongside the Arun River and its tributaries. In mainstem-flood deposits, we found that plant wax n-alkanes were mostly derived from the lower elevations constituting only a small fraction (15%) of the catchment. Informed by remote sensing data, we tested four differently weighted isotopic mixing models that quantify sourcing of tributary plant-derived organic matter along the Arun and compare it to our field observations. The weighting parameters included catchment area, net primary productivity (NPP) and annual rainfall amount as well as catchment relief as erosion proxy. When weighted by catchment area the isotopic mixing model could not explain field observations on plant wax δD values along the Arun, which is not surprising because the large arid Tibetan Plateau is not expected to be a major source. Weighting areal contributions by annual rainfall and NPP captured field observations within model prediction errors suggesting that plant productivity may influence source strength. However weighting by a combination of rainfall and catchment relief also

  5. Strategic Modeling of Global Container Transport Networks : Exploring the future of port-hinterland and maritime container transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halim, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    Uncertainties in future global trade flows due to changes in trade agreements, transport technologies or sustainability policies, will affect the patterns of global freight transport and, as a consequence, also affect the demand for major freight transport infrastructures such as ports and

  6. Openness to experience and creativity: When does global citizenship matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidikis, Viktoria; Dunbar, Nora D

    2017-10-04

    The relationship between the openness to experience trait (OTE) and creativity has been well documented in previous research. Likewise, the global citizenship construct has theoretical overlap with both OTE and creativity. We hypothesised global citizenship would make a unique contribution to explaining variance in five types of creativity (self/everyday, scholarly, performance, mechanical/scientific and artistic), above and beyond the contribution of OTE. Participants were predominantly female, European American, traditionally aged college students (N = 407). Global citizenship prosocial outcomes explained unique variance in self/everyday (sr 2  = .10), scholarly (sr 2  = .03) and mechanical/scientific (sr 2  = .03) creativity. Results are discussed in terms of dual processes theories of cognition. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. How Does Culture Matter in the Face of Globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying-Yi; Cheon, Bobby K

    2017-09-01

    Globalization has made exposure to multiple cultures not only possible, but often necessary and unavoidable. This article focuses on how people react and adapt to increasing globalization and multiculturalism. We posit that reactions to multiculturalism and intercultural contact are not universal and are themselves shaped by cultural experiences. That is, culture provides a frame of reference for reconciling and negotiating the inflow of foreign cultures and peoples. Although exposure to foreign cultures can widen one's worldview, thereby enhancing creativity and reducing prejudice, intercultural contact can also bring about negative exclusionary responses such as aversion, disgust, and defensiveness. We explore how culture and individual differences, such as a belief in racial essentialism, critically shape reactions to intercultural contact. Our discussion sheds light on recent geopolitical and societal shifts that reflect an increased backlash against rising globalization and cultural diversity.

  8. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  9. Production and global transport of Titan's sand particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Radebaugh, Jani; Hayes, Alexander G.; Arnold, Karl; Chandler, Clayton

    2015-06-01

    Previous authors have suggested that Titan's individual sand particles form by either sintering or by lithification and erosion. We suggest two new mechanisms for the production of Titan's organic sand particles that would occur within bodies of liquid: flocculation and evaporitic precipitation. Such production mechanisms would suggest discrete sand sources in dry lakebeds. We search for such sources, but find no convincing candidates with the present Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer coverage. As a result we propose that Titan's equatorial dunes may represent a single, global sand sea with west-to-east transport providing sources and sinks for sand in each interconnected basin. The sand might then be transported around Xanadu by fast-moving Barchan dune chains and/or fluvial transport in transient riverbeds. A river at the Xanadu/Shangri-La border could explain the sharp edge of the sand sea there, much like the Kuiseb River stops the Namib Sand Sea in southwest Africa on Earth. Future missions could use the composition of Titan's sands to constrain the global hydrocarbon cycle.

  10. Earth Matters: Studies for Our Global Future. 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Pamela, Ed.

    This teacher's guide helps students explore the connection between human population growth and the well-being of the planet. Twelve readings and 34 activities introduce high school students to global society and environmental issues such as climate change, biodiversity loss, gender equality, economics, poverty, energy, wildlife endangerment, waste…

  11. Does the projected pathway to global warming targets matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärring, Lars; Strandberg, Gustav

    2018-02-01

    Since the ‘Paris agreement’ in 2015 there has been much focus on what a +1.5 °C or +2 °C warmer world would look like. Since the focus lies on policy relevant global warming targets, or specific warming levels (SWLs), rather than a specific point in time, projections are pooled together to form SWL ensembles based on the target temperature rather than emission scenario. This study uses an ensemble of CMIP5 global model projections to analyse how well SWL ensembles represent the stabilized climate of global warming targets. The results show that the SWL ensembles exhibit significant trends that reflect the transient nature of the RCP scenarios. These trends have clear effect on the timing and clustering of monthly cold and hot extremes, even though the effect on the temperature of the extreme months is less visible. In many regions there is a link between choice of RCP scenario used in the SWL ensemble and climate change signal in the highest monthly temperatures. In other regions there is no such clear-cut link. From this we conclude that comprehensive analyses of what prospects the different global warming targets bring about will require stabilization scenarios. Awaiting such targeted scenarios we suggest that prudent use of SWL scenarios, taking their characteristics and limitations into account, may serve as reasonable proxies in many situations.

  12. Do Methods Matter in Global Leadership Development? Testing the Global Leadership Development Ecosystem Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennie L.

    2018-01-01

    As world communication, technology, and trade become increasingly integrated through globalization, multinational corporations seek employees with global leadership skills. However, the demand for these skills currently outweighs the supply. Given the rarity of globally ready leaders, global competency development should be emphasized in business…

  13. Hemispheric transport and influence of meteorology on global aerosol climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Zhao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on a 10-yr simulation with the global air quality modeling system GEM-AQ/EC, the northern hemispheric aerosol transport with the inter-annual and seasonal variability as well as the mean climate was investigated. The intercontinental aerosol transport is predominant in the zonal direction from west to east with the ranges of inter-annual variability between 14% and 63%, and is 0.5–2 orders of magnitude weaker in the meridional direction but with larger inter-annual variability. The aerosol transport is found to fluctuate seasonally with a factor of 5–8 between the maximum in late winter and spring and the minimum in late summer and fall. Three meteorological factors controlling the intercontinental aerosol transport and its inter-annual variations are identified from the modeling results: (1 Anomalies in the mid-latitude westerlies in the troposphere. (2 Variations of precipitation over the intercontinental transport pathways and (3 Changes of meteorological conditions within the boundary layer. Changed only by the meteorology, the aerosol column loadings in the free troposphere over the source regions of Europe, North America, South and East Asia vary inter-annually with the highest magnitudes of 30–37% in January and December and the lowest magnitudes of 16–20% in August and September, and the inter-annual aerosol variability within the boundary layer influencing the surface concentrations with the magnitudes from 6% to 20% is more region-dependent. As the strongest climatic signal, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO can lead the anomalies in the intercontinental aerosols in El Niño- and La Niña-years respectively with the strong and weak transport of the mid-latitude westerlies and the low latitude easterlies in the Northern Hemisphere (NH.

  14. Evidence for global electron transportation into the jovian inner magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, K; Murakami, G; Yamazaki, A; Tsuchiya, F; Kimura, T; Kagitani, M; Sakanoi, T; Uemizu, K; Kasaba, Y; Yoshikawa, I; Fujimoto, M

    2014-09-26

    Jupiter's magnetosphere is a strong particle accelerator that contains ultrarelativistic electrons in its inner part. They are thought to be accelerated by whistler-mode waves excited by anisotropic hot electrons (>10 kiloelectron volts) injected from the outer magnetosphere. However, electron transportation in the inner magnetosphere is not well understood. By analyzing the extreme ultraviolet line emission from the inner magnetosphere, we show evidence for global inward transport of flux tubes containing hot plasma. High-spectral-resolution scanning observations of the Io plasma torus in the inner magnetosphere enable us to generate radial profiles of the hot electron fraction. It gradually decreases with decreasing radial distance, despite the short collisional time scale that should thermalize them rapidly. This indicates a fast and continuous resupply of hot electrons responsible for exciting the whistler-mode waves. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Global analysis for spread of infectious diseases via transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yukihiko; Röst, Gergely

    2015-05-01

    We formulate an epidemic model for the spread of an infectious disease along with population dispersal over an arbitrary number of distinct regions. Structuring the population by the time elapsed since the start of travel, we describe the infectious disease dynamics during transportation as well as in the regions. As a result, we obtain a system of delay differential equations. We define the basic reproduction number R(0) as the spectral radius of a next generation matrix. For multi-regional systems with strongly connected transportation networks, we prove that if R(0) ≤ 1 then the disease will be eradicated from each region, while if R(0) > 1 there is a globally asymptotically stable equilibrium, which is endemic in every region. If the transportation network is not strongly connected, then the model analysis shows that numerous endemic patterns can exist by admitting a globally asymptotically stable equilibrium, which may be disease free in some regions while endemic in other regions. We provide a procedure to detect the disease free and the endemic regions according to the network topology and local reproduction numbers. The main ingredients of the mathematical proofs are the inductive applications of the theory of asymptotically autonomous semiflows and cooperative dynamical systems. We visualise stability boundaries of equilibria in a parameter plane to illustrate the influence of the transportation network on the disease dynamics. For a system consisting of two regions, we find that due to spatial heterogeneity characterised by different local reproduction numbers, R(0) may depend non-monotonically on the dispersal rates, thus travel restrictions are not always beneficial.

  16. Global effects of agriculture on fluvial dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Boëchat, Iola; Encina, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    DOM across climate zones of the northern and southern hemispheres. Both extensive and intensive farming altered fluvial DOM towards a more microbial and less plant-derived composition. Moreover, intensive farming significantly increased dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations. The DOM......Agricultural land covers approximately 40% of Earth’s land surface and affects hydromorphological, biogeochemical and ecological characteristics of fluvial networks. In the northern temperate region, agriculture also strongly affects the amount and molecular composition of dissolved organic matter...... composition change and DON concentration increase differed among climate zones and could be related to the intensity of current and historical nitrogen fertilizer use. As a result of agriculture intensification, increased DON concentrations and a more microbial-like DOM composition likely will enhance...

  17. Exploring the direct impacts of particulate matter and surface ozone on global crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiferl, L. D.; Heald, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    The current era of rising food demand to feed an increasing population along with expansion of industrialization throughout the globe has been accompanied by deteriorating air quality and an enhancement in agricultural activity. Both air quality and the food supply are vitally important to sustaining human enterprise, and understanding the effects air quality may have on agricultural production is critical. Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere decreases the total photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) available to crops through the scattering and absorption of radiation while also increasing the diffuse fraction (DF) of this PAR. Since plants respond positively to a higher DF through the more even distribution of photons to all leaves, the net effect of PM on crop production depends on the magnitudes of these values and the response mechanisms of a specific crop. In contrast, atmospheric ozone always acts to decrease crop production through its phytotoxic properties. While the relationships between ozone and crop production have been readily studied, the effects of PM on crop production and their relative importance compared to ozone is much more uncertain. This study uses the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model linked to the RRTMG radiative transfer model and the DSSAT crop model to explore the impacts of PM and ozone on the globally distributed production of maize, rice, wheat and soybeans. First, we examine how air quality differentially affects total seasonal production by crop and region. Second, we investigate the dependence of simulated production on air quality over different timescales and under varying cloud conditions.

  18. Vertical transport of organic matter in the various oceanic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, Nobuhiko; Hayakawa, Kazuhide

    1993-01-01

    Organic matter produced by the photosynthesis of the phytoplankton is removed from the euphotic layer to the underlying waters by sinking of the particles consisting of both marine snow and fecal pellet. Phytoplankton bloom always enhances the vertical flux of organic matter from the subsurface to deep waters. Turbidity current is another factor to govern the vertical flux of organic carbon especially in the continental shelf to its slope areas. However, no information are available to distinguish the organic materials from these two sources. Stable carbon isotope ratio and fatty acid composition give most promising informations to diagnose the physiological state of the phytoplankton which is one of the source of the organic materials of the sinking particle, because of the extensive variations of the δ 13 C of the phytoplankton cellular organic matter and fatty acid composition due to the phytoplankton growth rate (O'Leary, 1981; Morris et al., 1985). Δ 14 C of the organic matter of the sinking particle will provide an information as to how much organic materials are derived from the phytoplankton growing in the surface and subsurface waters and/or from the resuspended particles of the surface sediment in the continental shelf and its slope areas. Recently we analyzed various samples of the sinking particles collected from the coastal areas of the Antarctica and off Hokkaido, Japan for fatty acids and found that ratios as biomarker to diagnose these growth phases of the phytoplankton growing in the surface to subsurface waters. Thus, we intend to report here these data obtained. (J.P.N.)

  19. Ecosystem site description - an approach to quantify transport and accumulation of matter in a drainage area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderback, B.; Kautsky, U.; Lindborg, T.

    2004-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) presently perform site investigations at two sites in Sweden for a future repository of spent nuclear fuel. The safety assessment of a potential repository will, among other methods, use an approach where transport and accumulation of radionuclides is modelled by quantifying the pathways of carbon/nitrogen/phosphorous in the ecosystem. Since water is the most important medium for transportation of matter, the obvious delimitation of an area for quantification of matter transport is the drainage area. This study describes how site-specific data on surface water chemistry and hydrology, measured at several points along the flow paths of a drainage area, can be used to describe and quantify the flow of matter in terms of transport or accumulation. The approach was applied to the drainage area of Lake Eckarfjaerden, investigated as part of the site investigation programme at Forsmark in central Sweden. By using data from inlet and outlet of the lake, together with data from the lake itself, we quantified the flow of matter in the drainage area, and also developed mass-balance budgets for important elements. The results were used to validate process oriented terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem models, developed for the same drainage area in parallel to the present study. In conclusion, applying this approach will contribute substantially to our understanding of the processes controlling transport and accumulation of matter in a drainage area, and thereby reduce the uncertainties in estimating radionuclide flow and consequences to humans and the environment. (author)

  20. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D.; Zhang, Q.; Jiang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  1. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM 2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM 2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM 2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  2. As if Kyoto mattered: The clean development mechanism and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher Zegras, P.

    2007-01-01

    Transportation is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the most rapidly growing anthropogenic source. In the future, the developing world will account for the largest share of transport GHG increases. Four basic components drive transportation energy consumption and GHG emissions: activities (A), mode share (S), fuel intensity (I) and fuel choice (F) (ASIF). Currently, the Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism (CDM) serves as the main international market-based tool designed to reduce GHG emissions from the developing world. Theoretically, the CDM has the dual purpose of helping developing countries achieve 'sustainable development' goals and industrialized countries meet their Kyoto emissions reduction commitments. This paper reviews overall CDM activities and transportation CDM activities to date and then presents findings from three case studies of transportation CDM possibilities examined with the ASIF framework in Santiago de Chile. The analysis suggests that bus technology switch (I) provides a fairly good project fit for the CDM, while options aimed at inducing mode share (S) to bicycle, or modifying travel demand via land use changes (ASI) face considerable challenges. The implications of the findings for the CDM and the 'post-Kyoto' world are discussed

  3. Antimony as a global dilemma: Geochemistry, mobility, fate and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Indika; Vithanage, Meththika; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    Elevated concentrations of antimony (Sb) in environmental, biological and geochemical systems originating from natural, geological and anthropogenic sources are of particular global concern. This review presents a critical overview of natural geochemical processes which trigger the mobilization of Sb from its host mineral phases and related rocks to the surrounding environments. The primary source of Sb contamination in the environment is geogenic. The geochemical characteristics of Sb are determined by its oxidation states, speciation and redox transformation. Oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals and aqueous dissolution are the most prevalent geochemical mechanisms for the release of Sb to the environment. Transformation of mobile forms of Sb is predominantly controlled by naturally occurring precipitation and adsorption processes. Oxyhydroxides of iron, manganese and aluminum minerals have been recognized as naturally occurring Sb sequestrating agents in the environment. Antimony is also immobilized in the natural environment via precipitation with alkali and heavy metals resulting extremely stable mineral phases, such as schafarzikite, tripuhyite and calcium antimonates. Many key aspects, including detection, quantification, and speciation of Sb in different environmental systems as well as its actual human exposure remain poorly understood. Identification of global distribution of most vulnerable Sb-contaminated regions/countries along with aquifer sediments is an urgent necessity for the installation of safe drinking water wells. Such approaches could provide the global population Sb-safe drinking and irrigation water and hinder the propagation of Sb in toxic levels through the food chain. Hence, raising awareness through the mobility, fate and transport of Sb as well as further transdisciplinary research on Sb from global scientific communities will be a crucial stage to establish a sustainable Sb mitigation on a global scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  4. Transportation in El Salvador: a commitment to global warming management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, A.

    2001-01-01

    San Salvador City, El Salvador, is a city plagued with air pollution caused by traffic and congestion. Forecasts indicate the problem is likely to worsen in the coming years. Delcan International Corporation was commissioned by the Ministry of Public Works of El Salvador to study and evaluate the design and alternatives to a Ring Road circling San Salvador. The project, financed by the Inter-American Development Bank, is discussed in this paper, along with a summary of aspects of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and the environmental impacts assessment conducted. Human-induced changes in climate, increasing levels of greenhouse gases are referred to as global warming of climate change. Water vapour, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone are the main greenhouse gases, with carbon dioxide representing the biggest threat. Approximately 14 per cent of global carbon dioxide emissions are caused by fumes emanating from motor-vehicle gasoline-fuels, and 50 per cent of those are produced in developing countries. Motor vehicles produce 60 to 90 per cent of carbon dioxide emissions in Latin America urban centres. Some ways of reducing carbon dioxide emissions are: reduce travel, use more efficient vehicles, improving existing vehicle technologies and fuels, improving traveller behaviour, reducing congestion. ITS could be a valuable tool for measuring the effectiveness of measures designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The Intelligent Transportation System assists with the evaluation of the optimization and enlargement of existing roads, especially downtown, the construction of a highway around the city. This evaluation includes an environmental impact assessment, a traffic study and the highway final design. The Government of El Salvador has shown its commitment to sustainable practices toward global warming

  5. An active matter analysis of intracellular Active Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Kejia; Bae, Sung Chul; Granick, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Tens of thousands of fluorescence-based trajectories at nm resolution have been analyzed, regarding active transport along microtubules in living cells. The following picture emerges. Directed motion to pre-determined locations is certainly an attractive idea, but cannot be pre-programmed as to do so would sacrifice adaptability. The polarity of microtubules is inadequate to identify these directions in cells, and no other mechanism is currently known. We conclude that molecular motors carry cargo through disordered intracellular microtubule networks in a statistical way, with loud cellular ``noise'' both in directionality and speed. Programmed random walks describe how local 1D active transport traverses crowded cellular space efficiently, rapidly, minimizing the energy waste that would result from redundant activity. The mechanism of statistical regulation is not yet understood, however.

  6. WHY DO LOGISTICS AND TRANSPORT MATTER FOR DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Nedelescu-Ionescu Daniela; Rujan Ovidiu

    2014-01-01

    In face of the challenges of global competition, business firms are concentrating more on the needs of customers and seeking ways to reduce costs, improve quality and meet the ever-rising expectation of their customers. To these ends, many of them have identified logistics as an area to build cost and service advantages. Logistical activities have always been vital to organizations, and therefore business logistics and supply chain management represents a synthesis of many concepts, principle...

  7. Global Guidance On LCIA Indicators: Impacts Of Particulate Matter And Of Land Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter; McKone, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Improving life cycle impact assessment models is crucial. The flagship project of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative provides global guidance and consensus on environmental LCIA indicators for climate change, particulate matter impacts, land use impact on biodiversity, water scarcity and water ...

  8. Distance still matters. The hard reality of global expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghemawat, P

    2001-09-01

    Companies routinely overestimate the attractiveness of foreign markets. Dazzled by the sheer size of untapped markets, they lose sight of the difficulties of pioneering new, often very different territories. The problem is rooted in the analytic tools (the most prominent being country portfolio analysis, or CPA) that managers use to judge international investments. By focusing on national wealth, consumer income, and people's propensity to consume, CPA emphasizes potential sales, ignoring the costs and risks of doing business in a new market. Most of these costs and risks result from the barriers created by distance. "Distance," however, does not refer only to geography; its other dimensions can make foreign markets considerably more or less attractive. The CAGE framework of distance presented here considers four attributes: cultural distance (religious beliefs, race, social norms, and language that are different for the target country and the country of the company considering expansion); administrative or political distance (colony-colonizer links, common currency, and trade arrangements); geographic distance (the physical distance between the two countries, the size of the target country, access to waterways and the ocean, internal topography, and transportation and communications infrastructures); and economic distance (disparities in the two countries' wealth or consumer income and variations in the cost and quality of financial and other resources). This framework can help to identify the ways in which potential markets may be distant from existing ones. The article explores how (and by how much) various types of distance can affect different types of industries and shows how dramatically an explicit consideration of distance can change a company's picture of its strategic options.

  9. Antibiotics, bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes: aerial transport from cattle feed yards via particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachran, Andrew D; Blackwell, Brett R; Hanson, J Delton; Wooten, Kimberly J; Mayer, Gregory D; Cox, Stephen B; Smith, Philip N

    2015-04-01

    Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance has become a global health threat and is often linked with overuse and misuse of clinical and veterinary chemotherapeutic agents. Modern industrial-scale animal feeding operations rely extensively on veterinary pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, to augment animal growth. Following excretion, antibiotics are transported through the environment via runoff, leaching, and land application of manure; however, airborne transport from feed yards has not been characterized. The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), and ruminant-associated microbes are aerially dispersed via particulate matter (PM) derived from large-scale beef cattle feed yards. PM was collected downwind and upwind of 10 beef cattle feed yards. After extraction from PM, five veterinary antibiotics were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, ARG were quantified via targeted quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and microbial community diversity was analyzed via 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing. Airborne PM derived from feed yards facilitated dispersal of several veterinary antibiotics, as well as microbial communities containing ARG. Concentrations of several antibiotics in airborne PM immediately downwind of feed yards ranged from 0.5 to 4.6 μg/g of PM. Microbial communities of PM collected downwind of feed yards were enriched with ruminant-associated taxa and were distinct when compared to upwind PM assemblages. Furthermore, genes encoding resistance to tetracycline antibiotics were significantly more abundant in PM collected downwind of feed yards as compared to upwind. Wind-dispersed PM from feed yards harbors antibiotics, bacteria, and ARGs.

  10. Transport of heavy ions through matter within ion optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, T.

    1991-04-01

    In this thesis for the first time higher-order ion-optical calculations were connected with the whole phase-space changes of the heavy ions in passing through matter. With the developed programs and the newly proposed analytical methods atomic and nuclear interactions of the heavy ions within ion optical systems can be described realistically. The results of this thesis were applied to the conception of the fragment separator (FRS) and to the planning and preparation of experiments at the new GSI accelerator facility. Especially for the description of the ion-optical combination of FRS and the storage ring ESR the developed programs and methods proved to be necessary. A part of the applied theories on the atomic stopping could be confirmed in the framework of this thesis in an experiment with the high-resolving spectrometer SPEC at GANIL. The method of the isotopically pure separation of projectile fragments by means of magnetic analysis and the electronic energy loss could be also experimentally successfully tested at several energies (60-400 MeV/u). Furthermore in this thesis also application-related problems regarding a tumor therapy with heavy ions were solved. A concept for a medical separator (BMS) was developed, which separates light diagnosis beams isotopically purely and beyond improves the energy sharpness by means of an especially shaped (monoenergetic) stopper so that an in-situ range determination is possible with an accuracy of about one millimeter. (orig./HSI) [de

  11. Transportation Matters: A Health Impact Assessment in Rural New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Del Rio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This Health Impact Assessment (HIA informed the decision of expanding public transportation services to rural, low income communities of southern Doña Ana County, New Mexico on the U.S./Mexico border. The HIA focused on impacts of access to health care services, education, and economic development opportunities. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from surveys of community members, key informant interviews, a focus group with community health workers, and passenger surveys during an initial introduction of the transit system. Results from the survey showed that a high percentage of respondents would use the bus system to access the following: (1 84% for health services; (2 83% for formal and informal education opportunities; and (3 81% for economic opportunities. Results from interviews and the focus group supported the benefits of access to services but many were concerned with the high costs of providing bus service in a rural area. We conclude that implementing the bus system would have major impacts on resident’s health through improved access to: (1 health services, and fresh foods, especially for older adults; (2 education opportunities, such as community colleges, universities, and adult learning, especially for young adults; and (3 economic opportunities, especially jobs, job training, and consumer goods and services. We highlight the challenges associated with public transportation in rural areas where there are: (1 long distances to travel; (2 difficulties in scheduling to meet all needs; and (3 poor road and walking conditions for bus stops. The results are applicable to low income and fairly disconnected rural areas, where access to health, education, and economic opportunities are limited.

  12. Transportation Matters: A Health Impact Assessment in Rural New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Michelle; Hargrove, William L; Tomaka, Joe; Korc, Marcelo

    2017-06-13

    This Health Impact Assessment (HIA) informed the decision of expanding public transportation services to rural, low income communities of southern Doña Ana County, New Mexico on the U.S./Mexico border. The HIA focused on impacts of access to health care services, education, and economic development opportunities. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from surveys of community members, key informant interviews, a focus group with community health workers, and passenger surveys during an initial introduction of the transit system. Results from the survey showed that a high percentage of respondents would use the bus system to access the following: (1) 84% for health services; (2) 83% for formal and informal education opportunities; and (3) 81% for economic opportunities. Results from interviews and the focus group supported the benefits of access to services but many were concerned with the high costs of providing bus service in a rural area. We conclude that implementing the bus system would have major impacts on resident's health through improved access to: (1) health services, and fresh foods, especially for older adults; (2) education opportunities, such as community colleges, universities, and adult learning, especially for young adults; and (3) economic opportunities, especially jobs, job training, and consumer goods and services. We highlight the challenges associated with public transportation in rural areas where there are: (1) long distances to travel; (2) difficulties in scheduling to meet all needs; and (3) poor road and walking conditions for bus stops. The results are applicable to low income and fairly disconnected rural areas, where access to health, education, and economic opportunities are limited.

  13. The Global Lives Project: Making New Media Matter in a Global World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2010-01-01

    Computing has infiltrated the everyday life of people all over the world. It is no longer merely a tool for communication and interaction, but also something-to-think-with, a medium that can give us new dimensions in the way we experience and engage with the world.Critical computing evokes...... in the user new ways of thinking and interacting with a globalized world. The Global Lives Project is a compelling example of this usage of computing technology. The GLP archive, which contains visual documentation of the lives of different people from around the world on a digital platform on the Internet......, enables users to actively engage with global cultures. As a critical computing project, the Global Lives Project hopes to bring a critical awareness of how culture is categorized and transformed by engaging users in a collaborative new media project....

  14. Vesicular monoamine transporter 1 gene polymorphism and white matter integrity in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eunsoo; Han, Kyu-Man; Kang, June; Kim, Aram; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Chang, Hun Soo; Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Min-Soo; Greenberg, Tsafrir; Tae, Woo-Suk; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2017-07-03

    The genetic variant of the vesicular monoamine transporter 1 gene (VMAT1) has been suggested to be associated with monoaminergic signaling and neural circuit activity related to emotion processing. We aimed to investigate microstructural changes in white matter tracts of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and examined the interaction effect between VMAT1 Thr136Ile (rs1390938) polymorphism and MDD on white matter integrity. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and VMAT1 Thr136Ile (rs1390938) genotyping were performed on 103 patients diagnosed with MDD and 83 healthy control participants. DTI was used to investigate microstructural changes in white matter tracts in patients compared to healthy controls. The possible interaction effect between rs1390938 and MDD on white matter integrity was also assessed. Patients with MDD exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the forceps major (pdepression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The transport safety of radioactive matters; La surete des transports des matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landier, D.; Louet, Ch.A.; Robert, Ch. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Binet, J. [Commission europeenne, DG Energie et transports, Bruxelles (Belgium); Malesys, P. [TN International, 75 - Paris (France); Pourade, C. [Societe Dangexpress, 78 - St Remy l' Honore (France); Le Meur, A.; Robert, M. [Societe Nationale des Chemins de fer Francais, 75 - Paris (France); Turquet de Beauregard, G.Y.; Hello, E. [CIS bio, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Laumond, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Regnault, Ph.; Gourlay, M. [AREVA NC, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France); Bruhl, G. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. de la Protection et de la Surete Nucleaire, 92 (France); Malvache, P.; Dumesnil, J. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Cohen, B. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Sert, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Pain, M. [Ministere de l' Interieur, et de l' Amenagement du Territoire, Dir. de la Defense et la Securite Civiles, 75 - Paris (France); Green, L.; Hartenstein, M. [World Nuclear Transport Institute, London (United Kingdom); Stewart, J. [Ministere des Transport, Royaume Uni (United Kingdom); Cottens, E.; Liebens, M. [Agence Federale de Controle Nucleaire (Belgium); Marignac, Y. [Wise, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-02-15

    Since the control of transport of radioactive materials was given to A.S.N. 10 years ago, A.S.N. has strengthened the radioactive material transport inspections, in particular of the designers, manufacturers, carriers and consignors. A.S.N. has implemented INES scale for incidents during transport. It has participated as much as possible to IAEA working groups in order to improve the international regulatory framework. And, supported by I.R.S.N., A.S.N. has performed a periodic safety review of existing package models and has approved new models incorporating innovative design features. Finally, A.S.N. has tested its emergency responses to procedures to an accident involving the transport of radioactive materials. All these actions taken together have led to improvement in and reinforcement of the safety culture among the transport operators; this has been acknowledged by a recent audit T.R.A.N.S.A.S. performed by IAEA. In spite of all these actions, there are not approved by the competent authority. As A.S.N. is in charge of every field in radioprotection, this should help to intensify the control. In addition, the different kinds of transport are also tackled as rail transport with S.N.C.F. radiological risk training, air transport through nuclear medicine. Some experience feedback are given such radioactive waste transport to the storage facilities in the Aube or how to protect the population after a nuclear transport incident with the O.R.S.E.C.-T.M.S. plans. (N.C.)

  16. Securing global trade through secure freight transportation : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-16

    Given the increased probability of disruptions to global supply chains, and the significant impact these have on national and global economies, the problem is how to secure global trade. The concept of a global trade chain-of-custody has been develop...

  17. 75 FR 10331 - In the Matter of: Amalgamated Explorations, Inc., Areawide Cellular, Inc., Genomed, Inc., Global...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ..., Inc., Areawide Cellular, Inc., Genomed, Inc., Global Maintech Corp., Military Resale Group, Inc., Verado Holdings, Inc., and World Transport Authority, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading It appears to... is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Areawide Cellular, Inc...

  18. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J.; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution6, 7, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region14, 19, 20, 21, 22. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions23, air quality14 and health24 have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  19. Measurement of Preheat Due to Nonlocal Electron Transport in Warm Dense Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, K.; Holec, M.; Fontes, C. J.; Fryer, C. L.; Greeff, C. W.; Johns, H. M.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schmidt, D. W.; Šmíd, M.

    2018-01-01

    This Letter presents a novel approach to study electron transport in warm dense matter. It also includes the first x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) measurement from low-density CH foams compressed by a strong laser-driven shock at the OMEGA laser facility. The XRTS measurement is combined with velocity interferometry (VISAR) and optical pyrometry (SOP) providing a robust measurement of thermodynamic conditions in the shock. Evidence of significant preheat contributing to elevated temperatures reaching 17.5-35 eV in shocked CH foam is measured by XRTS. These measurements are complemented by abnormally high shock velocities observed by VISAR and early emission seen by SOP. These results are compared to radiation hydrodynamics simulations that include first-principles treatment of nonlocal electron transport in warm dense matter with excellent agreement. Additional simulations confirm that the x-ray contribution to this preheat is negligible.

  20. The transport of radioactive matters. Situation of transport events occurred in France from 1999 to 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report presents transport events involving radioactive material, occurred on French territory from 1999 to 2007, listed in the I.R.S.N. database. 901 events have been recorded. For each of them, about 70 parameters have been collected from the analysis of the notifications and reports of the events (type of event, type of package, level on the INES scale). This synthesis informs about the annual evolution of transport events involving radioactive material and about their seriousness level. It also presents a short description of the incidents with radiological aspect and of the main events occurred in 2007. Then, an analysis of the most frequent types of events from 1999 to 2007 and of their evolution tendencies is presented. It gives a view of the elements that could be deduced from this feedback, in order to improve the safety of the radioactive material transports. (authors)

  1. A mesoscale chemical transport model (MEDIUM) nested in a global chemical transport model (MEDIANTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claveau, J.; Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lower stratosphere and upper troposphere (UT-LS) are frequently subject to mesoscale or local scale exchange of air masses occurring along discontinuities. This exchange (e.g. downward) can constitute one of the most important source of ozone from the stratosphere down to the middle troposphere where strong mixing dilutes the air mass and competing the non-linear chemistry. The distribution of the chemical species in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere depends upon various source emissions, e.g. from polluted boundary layer or from aircraft emissions. Global models, as well as chemical transport models describe the climatological state of the atmosphere and are not able to describe correctly the stratosphere and troposphere exchange. Mesoscale models go further in the description of smaller scales and can reasonably include a rather detailed chemistry. They can be used to assess the budget of NO{sub x} from aircraft emissions in a mesoscale domain. (author) 4 refs.

  2. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable details on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). We project that global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector will be in the range of 3.0-4.0 Gt across the four scenarios in the year 2030. Corresponding global emissions are projected to be 101-138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44-54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14-18 Tg of total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6-4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM). At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010-2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two largest contributors to

  3. Global emission projections for the transportation sector using dynamic technology modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F.; Winijkul, E.; Streets, D. G.; Lu, Z.; Bond, T. C.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, global emissions of gases and particles from the transportation sector are projected from the year 2010 to 2050. The Speciated Pollutant Emission Wizard (SPEW)-Trend model, a dynamic model that links the emitter population to its emission characteristics, is used to project emissions from on-road vehicles and non-road engines. Unlike previous models of global emission estimates, SPEW-Trend incorporates considerable detail on the technology stock and builds explicit relationships between socioeconomic drivers and technological changes, such that the vehicle fleet and the vehicle technology shares change dynamically in response to economic development. Emissions from shipping, aviation, and rail are estimated based on other studies so that the final results encompass the entire transportation sector. The emission projections are driven by four commonly-used IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, and B2). With global fossil-fuel use (oil and coal) in the transportation sector in the range of 128-171 EJ across the four scenarios, global emissions are projected to be 101-138 Tg of carbon monoxide (CO), 44-54 Tg of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14-18 Tg of non-methane total hydrocarbons (THC), and 3.6-4.4 Tg of particulate matter (PM) in the year 2030. At the global level, a common feature of the emission scenarios is a projected decline in emissions during the first one or two decades (2010-2030), because the effects of stringent emission standards offset the growth in fuel use. Emissions increase slightly in some scenarios after 2030, because of the fast growth of on-road vehicles with lax or no emission standards in Africa and increasing emissions from non-road gasoline engines and shipping. On-road vehicles and non-road engines contribute the most to global CO and THC emissions, while on-road vehicles and shipping contribute the most to NOx and PM emissions. At the regional level, Latin America and East Asia are the two

  4. Challenges of global markets: The role of transportation in supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Temjanovski, Riste

    2015-01-01

    International business world has been undergoing a period of rapid transformation. Trends towards globalization, supported with multimodal transport and supply chain facilities are all reshaping the world’s trading patterns and consequently physical trade flows. The supply chain has become one of the main globalization forces today. Transportation occupies one-third of the amount in the logistics costs and transportation systems influence the performance of supply chain management. Only a goo...

  5. Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    ) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from collection, transport and transfer of 1 tonne of wet waste. Six examples involving collection...

  6. Covariant energy density functionals: Nuclear matter constraints and global ground state properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasjev, A. V.; Agbemava, S. E.

    2016-05-01

    The correlations between global description of the ground state properties (binding energies, charge radii) and nuclear matter properties of the state-of-the-art covariant energy density functionals have been studied. It was concluded that the strict enforcement of the constraints on the nuclear matter properties (NMP) defined in Dutra et al. [Phys. Rev. C 90, 055203 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevC.90.055203] will not necessarily lead to the functionals with good description of the binding energies and other ground and excited state properties. In addition, it will not substantially reduce the uncertainties in the predictions of the binding energies in neutron-rich systems. It turns out that the functionals, which come close to satisfying these NMP constraints, have some problems in the description of existing data. On the other hand, these problems are either absent or much smaller in the functionals which are carefully fitted to finite nuclei but which violate some NMP constraints. This is a consequence of the fact that the properties of finite nuclei are defined not only by nuclear matter properties but also by underlying shell effects. The mismatch of phenomenological content, existing in all modern functionals, related to nuclear matter physics and the physics of finite nuclei could also be responsible.

  7. "Global Warming and Transport Policy"(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshitsugu Kanemoto

    2000-01-01

    The Japanese government has advocated a wide range of policy measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, e.g. improvements of gas mileage, development of alternative fuel vehicles, shifts to walking, bicycles and public transportation for passenger transportation and to trains and ships for cargos, greening of highways. The details of these policies and their effectiveness are not clear, however. Furthermore, virtually no analysis has been provided on the costs and benefi...

  8. Morphing Surfaces Enable Acoustophoretic Contactless Transport of Ultrahigh-Density Matter in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Daniele; Sambatakakis, Giorgio; Bottan, Simone; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-01-01

    The controlled contactless transport of heavy drops and particles in air is of fundamental interest and has significant application potential. Acoustic forces do not rely on special material properties, but their utility in transporting heavy matter in air has been restricted by low power and poor controllability. Here we present a new concept of acoustophoresis, based on the morphing of a deformable reflector, which exploits the low reaction forces and low relaxation time of a liquid with enhanced surface tension through the use of thin overlaid membrane. An acoustically induced, mobile deformation (dimple) on the reflector surface enhances the acoustic field emitted by a line of discretized emitters and enables the countinuos motion of heavy levitated samples. With such interplay of emitters and reflecting soft-structure, a 5 mm steel sphere (0.5 grams) was contactlessly transported in air solely by acoustophoresis. PMID:24212104

  9. Morphing surfaces enable acoustophoretic contactless transport of ultrahigh-density matter in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, Daniele; Sambatakakis, Giorgio; Bottan, Simone; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-11-11

    The controlled contactless transport of heavy drops and particles in air is of fundamental interest and has significant application potential. Acoustic forces do not rely on special material properties, but their utility in transporting heavy matter in air has been restricted by low power and poor controllability. Here we present a new concept of acoustophoresis, based on the morphing of a deformable reflector, which exploits the low reaction forces and low relaxation time of a liquid with enhanced surface tension through the use of thin overlaid membrane. An acoustically induced, mobile deformation (dimple) on the reflector surface enhances the acoustic field emitted by a line of discretized emitters and enables the countinuos motion of heavy levitated samples. With such interplay of emitters and reflecting soft-structure, a 5 mm steel sphere (0.5 grams) was contactlessly transported in air solely by acoustophoresis.

  10. Effects of dissolved organic matter on the co-transport of mineral colloids and sorptive contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Saiers, James E.

    2015-06-01

    Colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone has important implications to groundwater quality, and has received considerable attention. Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous in subsurface environments, and its influence on mineral colloids and solute transport has been well documented. However, research on the influence of NOM on colloid-facilitated transport is limited. The objective of this paper is to elucidate the effects of NOM on colloid-facilitated transport of a radioactive contaminant (Cs-137) within partially-saturated sediments. Measurements made with re-packed columns reveal that Cs-137 mobility was low when mineral colloids were absent and was unaffected by the presence of NOM. The addition of mineral colloids to influent increased Cs-137 mobility, and effluent Cs-137 was dominated by the colloid-associated form. When NOM was added to systems that contained mineral colloids and Cs-137, the mobility of Cs-137 further increased. A mathematical model simulating colloid-facilitated transport showed that NOM increases Cs-137 transport by increasing colloid mobility and reducing the rate of Cs-137 adsorption to the porous medium.

  11. Effects of dissolved organic matter on the co-transport of mineral colloids and sorptive contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Saiers, James E

    2015-01-01

    Colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone has important implications to groundwater quality, and has received considerable attention. Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous in subsurface environments, and its influence on mineral colloids and solute transport has been well documented. However, research on the influence of NOM on colloid-facilitated transport is limited. The objective of this paper is to elucidate the effects of NOM on colloid-facilitated transport of a radioactive contaminant (Cs-137) within partially-saturated sediments. Measurements made with re-packed columns reveal that Cs-137 mobility was low when mineral colloids were absent and was unaffected by the presence of NOM. The addition of mineral colloids to influent increased Cs-137 mobility, and effluent Cs-137 was dominated by the colloid-associated form. When NOM was added to systems that contained mineral colloids and Cs-137, the mobility of Cs-137 further increased. A mathematical model simulating colloid-facilitated transport showed that NOM increases Cs-137 transport by increasing colloid mobility and reducing the rate of Cs-137 adsorption to the porous medium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Natural Organic Matter Transport Modeling with a Continuous Time Random Walk Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Daniel P; Bolster, Diogo; Maurice, Patricia A

    2014-02-01

    In transport experiments through columns packed with naturally Fe/Al oxide-coated quartz sand, breakthrough curves (BTCs) of natural organic matter (NOM) displayed strong and persistent power law tailing that could not be described by the classical advection-dispersion equation. Tailing was not observed in BTCs for a nonreactive tracer (sulforhodamine B); therefore, the anomalous transport is attributed to diverse adsorptive behavior of the polydisperse NOM sample rather than to physical heterogeneity of the porous medium. NOM BTC tailing became more pronounced with decreases in pH and increases in ionic strength, conditions previously shown to be associated with enhanced preferential adsorption of intermediate to high molecular weight NOM components. Drawing from previous work on anomalous solute transport, we develop an approach to model NOM transport within the framework of a continuous time random walk (CTRW) and show that under all conditions examined, the CTRW model is able to capture tailing of NOM BTCs by accounting for differences in transport rates of NOM fractions through a distribution of effective retardation factors. These results demonstrate the importance of considering effects of adsorptive fractionation on NOM mobility, and illustrate the ability of the CTRW model to describe transport of a multicomponent solute.

  13. Outline of experimental schemes for measurements of thermophysical and transport properties in warm dense matter at GSI and FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauschwitz, Anna; Jacoby, Joachim; Maruhn, Joachim; Basko, Mikhail; Efremov, Vladimir; Iosilevskiy, Igor; Neumayer, Paul; Novikov, Vladimir; Tauschwitz, Andreas; Rosmej, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Different experimental schemes for investigation of warm dense matter produced with intense energetic ion beams are presented. The described target configurations allow direct measurements of thermophysical and transport properties of warm dense matter without hydrodynamic recalculations. The presented experiments will be realized at the current GSI synchrotron SIS-18 and the future FAIR facility in the framework of the WDM-collaboration.

  14. Drivers of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the global epipelagic ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catalá, T.S.; Álvarez-Salgado, X. A.; Otero, J.

    2016-01-01

    effect of photobleaching is also detected. C3 (tryptophan-like) and C4 (tyrosine-like) variability was mostly dictated by salinity (S), by means of positive non-linear relationships, suggesting a primary physical control of their distributions at the global surface ocean scale that could be related......Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in open surface waters (oceans was analysed by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). A four-component PARAFAC model was fit to the EEMs, which included two humic......- (C1 and C2) and two amino acid-like (C3 and C4) components previously identified in ocean waters. Generalizedadditive models (GAMs) were used to explore the environmental factors that drive the global distribution of these PARAFAC components. The explained variance for the humic-like components...

  15. Release and transport of mobile organic matter and biocolloids: A combined physicochemical and microbiological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Katharina; Schaefer, Sabine; Babin, Doreen; Smalla, Konny; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Biogeochemical interfaces within the aggregate system of soils are "hot spots" of microbial activity and turnover of organic matter. We explore turnover, release and transport of mobile organic matter (MOM), micro-organisms (bio-colloids) and organo-mineral associations using a novel experimental approach employing two-layer columns experiment with matured soil under unsaturated flow conditions. The top layer was spiked with phenanthrene as a tracer for studying the decomposer communities involved in the decomposition of aromatic compounds that derive from lignin in natural systems. Columns were irrigated with artificial rain water with several flow interrupts of different durations. Physicochemical and chemical parameters as well as the microbial community composition were analysed in effluent samples and in soil slices. Release of MOM from the columns was in general controlled by non-equilibrium. Export of total and dissolved organic matter differed significantly in response to the flow interrupts. Effluent comprised organic and organo-mineral components as well as vital competent cells. By molecular biological methods we were even able to show that bacterial consortia exported are rather divers. Depth distribution of the bacterial communities associated with the immobile solid phase indicated high similarities in bacterial communities of the different depth layers and treatments. According to phenanthrene high affinity to the immobile phases, only a small fraction was subject to downstream transport with a strong decrease of the amount residing at the solid phase Our experiments directly prove that intact and competent microorganisms and even communities can be transported under unsaturated flow conditions. Moreover, we found that the dominant carbon source will impact not only the activity of specific microbial taxa but also their mobilization and transport. While total contribution of microbial organism to the mobile organic matter pool seems to be small, the

  16. 78 FR 39057 - In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Eric Breininger as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist Pursuant To... aforementioned individual as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist pursuant to section 1(b) of the Order. This...

  17. Quantum transport of atomic matter waves in anisotropic two-dimensional and three-dimensional disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piraud, M; Pezzé, L; Sanchez-Palencia, L

    2013-01-01

    The macroscopic transport properties in a disordered potential, namely diffusion and weak/strong localization, closely depend on the microscopic and statistical properties of the disorder itself. This dependence is rich in counter-intuitive consequences. It can be particularly exploited in matter wave experiments, where the disordered potential can be tailored and controlled, and anisotropies are naturally present. In this work, we apply a perturbative microscopic transport theory and the self-consistent theory of Anderson localization to study the transport properties of ultracold atoms in anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) speckle potentials. In particular, we discuss the anisotropy of single-scattering, diffusion and localization. We also calculate disorder-induced shift of the energy states and propose a method to include it, which amounts to renormalizing energies in the standard on-shell approximation. We show that the renormalization of energies strongly affects the prediction for the 3D localization threshold (mobility edge). We illustrate the theoretical findings with examples which are relevant for current matter wave experiments, where the disorder is created with laser speckle. This paper provides a guideline for future experiments aiming at the precise location of the 3D mobility edge and study of anisotropic diffusion and localization effects in 2D and 3D. (paper)

  18. Searching for global descriptors of engineered nanomaterial fate and transport in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Paul; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-03-19

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are a new class of environmental pollutants. Researchers are beginning to debate whether new modeling paradigms and experimental tests to obtain model parameters are required for ENMs or if approaches for existing pollutants are robust enough to predict ENM distribution between environmental compartments. This Account outlines how experimental research can yield quantitative data for use in ENM fate and exposure models. We first review experimental testing approaches that are employed with ENMs. Then we compare and contrast ENMs against other pollutants. Finally, we summarize the findings and identify research needs that may yield global descriptors for ENMs that are suitable for use in fate and transport modeling. Over the past decade, researchers have made significant progress in understanding factors that influence the fate and transport of ENMs. In some cases, researchers have developed approaches toward global descriptor models (experimental, conceptual, and quantitative). We suggest the following global descriptors for ENMs: octanol-water partition coefficients, solid-water partition coefficients, attachment coefficients, and rate constants describing reactions such as dissolution, sedimentation, and degradation. ENMs appear to accumulate at the octanol-water interface and readily interact with other interfaces, such as lipid-water interfaces. Batch experiments to investigate factors that influence retention of ENMs on solid phases are very promising. However, ENMs probably do not behave in the same way as dissolved chemicals, and therefore, researchers need to use measurement techniques and concepts more commonly associated with colloids. Despite several years of research with ENMs in column studies, available summaries tend to discuss the effects of ionic strength, pH, organic matter, ENM type, packing media, or other parameters qualitatively rather than reporting quantitative values, such as attachment efficiencies, that

  19. Impact of pairing on clustering and neutrino transport properties in low-density stellar matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrello, S.; Colonna, M.; Matera, F.

    2017-11-01

    We analyze the effects of pairing correlations on the behavior of stellar matter, focusing on thermodynamical conditions close to the onset of the liquid-gas phase transition, which are characterized by quite large density fluctuations and where clustering phenomena occur. We concentrate on the neutrino transport properties and we show, within a thermodynamical treatment, that at moderate temperatures, where pairing effects are still active, the scattering of neutrinos in the nuclear medium is significantly affected by the matter superfluidity. The pairing correlations can indeed enhance neutrino trapping and reduce the energy flux carried out by neutrino emission. New hints about an important impact of pairing on the cooling mechanism, by neutrino emission, are so envisaged and therefore this study could be of relevant interest for the evolution of proto-neutron stars and in modelization of supernova explosions.

  20. The industry commitment to global transport safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.

    2004-01-01

    Standards and regulations have no intrinsic practical effect without taking into account those who are the object of such standards and regulations. Standards and regulations do not become operationally effective until they are implemented by the entities which are subject to them. Accordingly, there is a necessary synergy between the regulator and the regulated - the regulators whose task it is to make and enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport, and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. One has no full meaning without the other. Harmonisation issues which can impede efficient and timely implementation of regulations can occur at any stage of the process, starting with the timely publication of the IAEA Regulations, incorporation by the modal organisations, adoption by national competent authorities and finally, rendered operational by industrial transport organisations. Both, the regulator and the transporter, can be more effective in achieving their purposes when they co-operate in the interest of mutual understanding. PATRAM provides one excellent opportunity for such exchange between the regulator and the regulated - there are other important opportunities within the IAEA and international modal organisations. I suggest, however, that more could be done between the regulators and the regulated collectively to share real-life experiences with actually implementing the regulations and operating within them, and to draw appropriate lessons. In the case of the international transport safety regulatory regime, it is the nuclear transport industry, such as represented by the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), which is, of course, the object of transport safety standards and regulations. And as such, the nuclear transport industry is a principal stakeholder in the regime. Regulatory compliance is a cornerstone of the nuclear transport industry. The international nature of the fuel cycle mandates transnational movement of

  1. Analysis of the Global Maritime Transportation System and Its Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202–4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704...slowdown/lockout in 2002, as negotiations of labor agreements caused a stop of port operations for ten days. As Los Angeles Times reports: 1 “It took...impassable, a change to landside transportation of the road can be considered. More specifically, road transportation can be used either to the destination

  2. Emerging global logistics networks : Implications for transport systems and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, LA; Ruijgrok, CJ; Thissen, MJPM

    2003-01-01

    Logistics chains are constantly changing to facilitate increasingly global movements. In qualitative terms, long term trends in logistics services indicate a growing degree of product customization and an increased responsiveness in order delivery. These trends impact on the development of

  3. Assessment of inter-city transport of particulate matter in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xing; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Bin; Cai, Siyi; Hao, Jiming

    2018-04-01

    The regional transport of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) plays an important role in the air pollution of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region in China. However, previous studies on regional transport of PM2.5 mainly aim at province level, which is insufficient for the development of an optimal joint PM2.5 control strategy. In this study, we calculate PM2.5 inflows and outflows through the administrative boundaries of three major cities in the BTH region, i.e., Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang, using the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model)-CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) modeling system. The monthly average inflow fluxes indicate the major directions of PM2.5 transport. For Beijing, the PM2.5 inflow fluxes from Zhangjiakou (in the northwest) and Baoding (in the southwest) constitute 57 % of the total in winter, and Langfang (in the southeast) and Baoding constitute 73 % in summer. Based on the net PM2.5 fluxes and their vertical distributions, we find there are three major transport pathways in the BTH region: the northwest-southeast pathway in winter (at all levels below 1000 m), the northwest-southeast pathway in summer (at all levels below 1000 m), and the southwest-northeast pathway in both winter and in summer (mainly at 300-1000 m). In winter, even if surface wind speeds are low, the transport at above 300 m can still be strong. Among the three pathways, the southwest-northeast happens along with PM2.5 concentrations 30 and 55 % higher than the monthly average in winter and summer, respectively. Analysis of two heavy pollution episodes in January and July in Beijing show a much (8-16 times) stronger transport than the monthly average, emphasizing the joint air pollution control of the cities located on the transport pathways, especially during heavy pollution episodes.

  4. Peatland use and transport of particulate organic matter in boreal headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttila, Hannu; Karjalainen, Satu-Maaria; Nieminen, Mika; Kløve, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    Peatland use can cause increased transport of particulate organic matter (POM) causing deteriorated water quality and especially siltation of stream beds. Even though topic has gained major attention among stakeholders it has received only minor efforts to solve the main sources and properties of transported particles. The development of effective management practices and evaluation of purification efficiency demands understanding of the sources of particulate matter in peat dominated catchments with various land uses and hydrological conditions. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determinate physical properties of POM in headwater brooks affected by different peatland uses, and; (2) to identity the sources of transported material by using sediment fingerprinting methods. For this purpose, two headwater catchments under peat extraction and peatland forestry land uses with 8 sampling points were monitored for 2 years using time integrated suspended sediment samplers. Data was completed by gap samples from 50 other headwater locations with different upstream land uses: pristine, peatland forestry and peat extraction. For the sources analysis, disturbed topsoil, stream bed sediment, banks of ditches and brooks, algae and various vegetation types were identified as the potential sediment sources. Stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) and C/N ratio were analyzed to discriminate between the possible sources. Results are further scaled against different land uses, landscape elements and seasonal hydrological conditions in headwaters. This paper presents the preliminary results from a two year study aiming to show various patterns in transport of POM in boreal headwater catchments. Due to strong land-water relationship in headwaters, further information on the properties of particles is needed to assess the downstream impacts of land use.

  5. Generic reactive transport codes as flexible tools to integrate soil organic matter degradation models with water, transport and geochemistry in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunek, J.; Jacques, D.; Mayer, K. U.; Gerard, F.

    2016-12-01

    A large number of organic matter degradation, CO2 transport and dissolved organic matter models have been developed during the last decades. However, organic matter degradation models are in many cases hard-coded in terms of pools, kinetics and dependency on environmental variables. The input of the model user is typically limited to the adjustment of input parameters. In addition, the coupling with geochemical soil processes including aqueous speciation, sorption and colloid-facilitated transport are not incorporated in many of these models. Furthermore, these models are combined with simplified representations of flow and transport processes. We illustrate the capability of generic reactive transport codes to overcome these shortcomings. The formulations of reactive transport codes include a physics-based continuum representation of flow and transport processes, while biogeochemical reactions can be described as equilibrium processes and/or kinetic reaction networks. The flexibility of these type of codes allows for straightforward extension of reaction networks with new model components and in such a way facilitates an application-tailored implementation of organic matter degradation models and related processes. A numerical benchmark involving two reactive transport codes (HPx and MIN3P) demonstrates how the process-based simulation of transient variably saturated water flow, solute transport, heat transfer and diffusion in the gas phase can be combined with a flexible implementation of a soil organic matter degradation model. The benchmark includes the production of leachable organic matter and inorganic carbon in the aqueous and gaseous phases, as well as different decomposition functions with first-order, linear dependence or nonlinear dependence on a biomass pool. In addition, we show how processes such as local bioturbation (biodiffusion) can be included implicitly through a Fickian formulation of transport of soil organic matter. Coupling soil organic

  6. A study of carbon monoxide distribution determinations for a global transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Leonard K.

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of this grant was to further the development of a global transport/chemistry model that simulates the physico-chemical behavior of methane and carbon monoxide in the troposphere. The computer simulation model is designed to analyze the processes that occur as methane and carbon monoxide are transported from their respective sources to their ultimate fate, e.g., final conversion to CO2, transport to the stratosphere, deposition at ground level, etc.

  7. Transport and dispersion during wintertime particulate matter episodes in the San Joaquin Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Clinton P; McCarthy, Michael C; Dye, Timothy S; Wheeler, Neil J M; Hafner, Hilary R; Roberts, Paul T

    2006-07-01

    Data analysis and modeling were performed to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of wintertime transport and dispersion processes and the impact of these processes on particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the California San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Radar wind profiler (RWP) and radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) data collected from 18 sites throughout Central California were used to estimate hourly mixing heights for a 3-month period and to create case studies of high-resolution diagnostic wind fields, which were used for trajectory and dispersion analyses. Data analyses show that PM episodes were characterized by an upper-level ridge of high pressure that generally produced light winds through the entire depth of the atmospheric boundary layer and low mixing heights compared with nonepisode days. Peak daytime mixing heights during episodes were -400 m above ground level (agl) compared with -800 m agl during nonepisodes. These episode/nonepisode differences were observed throughout the SJV. Dispersion modeling indicates that the range of influence of primary PM emitted in major population centers within the SJV ranged from -15 to 50 km. Trajectory analyses revealed that little intrabasin pollutant transport occurred among major population centers in the SJV; however, interbasin transport from the northern SJV and Sacramento regions into the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) was often observed. In addition, this analysis demonstrates the usefulness of integrating RWP/RASS measurements into data analyses and modeling to improve the understanding of meteorological processes that impact pollution, such as aloft transport and boundary layer evolution.

  8. Particulate matter air pollution may offset ozone damage to global crop production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Schiferl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring global food security requires a comprehensive understanding of environmental pressures on food production, including the impacts of air quality. Surface ozone damages plants and decreases crop production; this effect has been extensively studied. In contrast, the presence of particulate matter (PM in the atmosphere can be beneficial to crops given that enhanced light scattering leads to a more even and efficient distribution of photons which can outweigh total incoming radiation loss. This study quantifies the impacts of ozone and PM on the global production of maize, rice, and wheat in 2010 and 2050. We show that accounting for the growing season of these crops is an important factor in determining their air pollution exposure. We find that the effect of PM can offset much, if not all, of the reduction in yield associated with ozone damage. Assuming maximum sensitivity to PM, the current (2010 global net impact of air quality on crop production varies by crop (+5.6, −3.7, and +4.5 % for maize, wheat, and rice, respectively. Future emissions scenarios indicate that attempts to improve air quality can result in a net negative effect on crop production in areas dominated by the PM effect. However, we caution that the uncertainty in this assessment is large, due to the uncertainty associated with crop response to changes in diffuse radiation; this highlights that a more detailed physiological study of this response for common cultivars is crucial.

  9. Circulation and suspended particulate matter transport in a tidally dominated estuary: caravelas estuary, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto França Schettini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The circulation and transport of suspended particulate matter in the Caravelas Estuary are assessed. Nearly-synoptic hourly hydrographic, current (ADCP velocity and volume transport and suspended particulate matter data were collected during a full semidiurnal spring tide, on the two transects Boca do Tomba and Barra Velha and on longitudinal sections at low and high tide. On the first transect the peak ebb currents (-1.5 ms-1 were almost twice as strong as those of the wider and shallow Barra Velha inlet (-0.80 ms-1 and the peak flood currents were 0.75 and 0.60 ms-1, respectively. Due to the strong tidal currents both inlets had weak vertical salinity stratification and were classified with the Stratification-circulation Diagram as Type 2a (partially mixed-weakly stratified and Type 1a (well mixed. Volume transports were very close, ranging from -3,500 to 3,100 m³s-1 at the ebb and flood, respectively, with a residual -630 m³s-1. The concentration of the suspended particulate matter was closely related to the tidal variation and decreased landwards from 50 mg.L-1 at the estuary mouth, to 10 mg.L-1 at distances of 9 and 16 km for the low and high tide experiments, respectively. The total residual SPM transport was out of the estuary at rates of -18 tons per tidal cycle.A circulação e o transporte de material particulado em suspensão no Estuário de Caravelas são pesquisados. Dados quase-sinóticos hidrográficos, de correntes (velocidade e transporte de volume com ADCP e de material particulado em suspensão, foram medidos em intervalos horários durante um ciclo semidiurno de maré de sizígia, em duas seções transversais na Boca do Tomba e na Barra Velha e também em seções longitudinais na baixa-mar e na preamar. Na primeira transversal as correntes máximas de vazante (-1,50 m s-1 foram quase duas vezes mais intensas do que na seção transversal mais larga e rasa Barra Velha, (-0,80 m s-1 e as maiores velocidades das correntes de

  10. Trends in simulated chemical composition of global and regional population-weighted fine particulate matter over the recent 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Martin, R.; van Donkelaar, A.; Boys, B.; Hammer, M. S.; Xu, J.; Marais, E. A.; Reff, A.; Strum, M.; Ridley, D. A.; Crippa, M.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    We interpret in situ and satellite observations with a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to understand global trends in population-weighted mean chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over 1989-2013. Simulated PM2.5 composition concentrations at 2˚ × 2.5˚ resolution are downscaled to 0.1˚ × 0.1˚ with satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 to better represent population exposure. Trends in simulated and observed population-weighted mean PM2.5 composition over 1989-2013 exhibit a high degree of consistency for (in situ vs. downscaled simulation) PM2.5 (-2.4 vs. -2.4 % yr-1), secondary inorganic aerosols (-4.3 vs. -4.1% yr-1), organic aerosols (OA, -3.6 vs. -3.0 % yr-1) and black carbon (-4.3 vs. -3.9 % yr-1) over North America, as well as sulfate (-4.7 vs. -5.8 % yr-1) over Europe. The downscaled simulation also has overlapping 95% confidence intervals with satellite-derived trends in population-weighted mean PM2.5 for 20 of the 21 Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) regions over 1998-2013. Over 1989-2013, most (79%) of the simulated increase in global population-weighted mean PM2.5 of 0.28 μg m-3yr-1 is explained by significantly (p species predominantly drive trends in population-weighted mean PM2.5 over populous regions of South Asia (0.94 μg m-3yr-1), East Asia (0.66 μg m-3yr-1), Western Europe (-0.47 μg m-3yr-1) and North America (-0.32 μg m-3yr-1), primarily due to changes in anthropogenic emissions. Mineral dust from deserts and OA over open burning regions usually cause weak, insignificant trends in population-weighted mean PM2.5, despite strong inter-annual variation. Global trends in area-weighted mean PM2.5 differ significantly from population-weighted trends in both the magnitude and sign, indicating the importance of population weighting for relevance to human exposure studies. This study provides new insights into global changes in PM2.5 exposure through the recent 25 years, with particular attention given to the evolution of

  11. Anthropogenic fugitive, combustion and industrial dust is a significant, underrepresented fine particulate matter source in global atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.; Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal L.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Brauer, Michael; Henze, Daven K.; Klimont, Zbigniew; Venkataraman, Chandra; Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Global measurements of the elemental composition of fine particulate matter across several urban locations by the Surface Particulate Matter Network reveal an enhanced fraction of anthropogenic dust compared to natural dust sources, especially over Asia. We develop a global simulation of anthropogenic fugitive, combustion, and industrial dust which, to our knowledge, is partially missing or strongly underrepresented in global models. We estimate 2-16 μg m-3 increase in fine particulate mass concentration across East and South Asia by including anthropogenic fugitive, combustion, and industrial dust emissions. A simulation including anthropogenic fugitive, combustion, and industrial dust emissions increases the correlation from 0.06 to 0.66 of simulated fine dust in comparison with Surface Particulate Matter Network measurements at 13 globally dispersed locations, and reduces the low bias by 10% in total fine particulate mass in comparison with global in situ observations. Global population-weighted PM2.5 increases by 2.9 μg m-3 (10%). Our assessment ascertains the urgent need of including this underrepresented fine anthropogenic dust source into global bottom-up emission inventories and global models.

  12. Source contributions and regional transport of primary particulate matter in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jianlin; Wu, Li; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Chang, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Yang, Fumo; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-01-01

    A source-oriented CMAQ was applied to determine source sector/region contributions to primary particulate matter (PPM) in China. Four months were simulated with emissions grouped to eight regions and six sectors. Predicted elemental carbon (EC), primary organic carbon (POC), and PPM concentrations and source contributions agree with measurements and have significant spatiotemporal variations. Residential is a major contributor to spring/winter EC (50–80%), POC (60%–90%), and PPM (30–70%). For summer/fall, industrial contributes 30–50% for EC/POC and 40–60% for PPM. Transportation is more important for EC (20–30%) than POC/PPM (<5%). Open burning is important in summer/fall of Guangzhou and Chongqing. Dust contributes to 1/3–1/2 in spring/fall of Beijing, Xi'an and Chongqing. Based on sector–region combination, local residential/transportation and residential/industrial from Heibei are major contributors to spring PPM in Beijing. In summer/fall, local industrial is the largest. In winter, residential/industrial from local and Hebei account for >90% in Beijing. - Highlights: • A source-oriented CMAQ was established for primary particulate matter (PPM). • Source and region contributions to EC, POC and PPM in China were quantified. • Residential is major in spring/winter and industrial dominates in summer/fall. • Open burning is more important for southern while dust is in contrast. • Both local and Heibei emissions contribute to PPM in Beijing. - Source and region contributions to primary particulate matter in China were quantified for four months during 2012-2013. Residential and industrial are the major contributors.

  13. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, Douglas; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  14. Transient Global Amnesia with Reversible White Matter Lesions: A Variant of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Nakamizo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a self-limited disease characterized by isolated amnesia, which resolves within 24 h. In contrast, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a potentially life-threatening disease that usually presents with seizures, altered mental status, headache, and visual disturbances. It is characterized by reversible vasogenic edema that predominantly involves the parieto-occipital subcortical white matter as shown by neuroimaging studies. To date, there have been no reported cases of PRES with a clinical course resembling TGA. Here we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with isolated amnesia and headache. On admission, her blood pressure was 187/100 mmHg. She had complete anterograde amnesia and slight retrograde amnesia without other neurological findings. After the treatment of her hypertension, the amnesia resolved within 24 h. Although the initial magnetic resonance image (MRI was almost normal, the fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR images of the MRI on the next day revealed several small foci of high intensity areas in the fronto-parieto-occipital subcortical white matter, presumed to be vasogenic edema in PRES. The lesions disappeared one month later. This case suggests that PRES can mimic the clinical course of TGA. PRES should be considered in the differential diagnosis for TGA.

  15. On Production and Green Transportation Coordination in a Sustainable Global Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Guo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a coordination problem of production and green transportation and the effects of production and transportation coordination on supply chain sustainability in a global supply chain environment with the consideration of important realistic characteristics, including parallel machines, different order processing complexities, fixed delivery departure times, green transportation and multiple transportation modes. We formulate the measurements for carbon emissions of different transportation modes, including air, sea and land transportation. A hybrid genetic algorithm-based optimization approach is developed to handle this problem, in which a hybrid genetic algorithm and heuristic procedures are combined. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is validated by means of various problem instances. We observe that the coordination of production and green transportation has a large effect on the overall supply chain sustainability, which can reduce the total supply chain cost by 9.60% to 21.90%.

  16. Global supply chain management/transportation : building a global network of scholars and educators : phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    During the project period two conferences--1st Symposium and Workshop in Global : Supply Chain (http://www.business.utoledo.edu/scm) at University of Toledo, Toledo, : OH, USA (October 6-7, 2007) and 2nd Symposium and Workshop in Global Supply : Chai...

  17. Global and regional associations of smaller cerebral gray and white matter volumes with gait in older people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele L Callisaya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gait impairments increase with advancing age and can lead to falls and loss of independence. Brain atrophy also occurs in older age and may contribute to gait decline. We aimed to investigate global and regional relationships of cerebral gray and white matter volumes with gait speed, and its determinants step length and cadence, in older people. METHODS: In a population-based study, participants aged >60 years without Parkinson's disease or brain infarcts underwent magnetic resonance imaging and gait measurements using a computerized walkway. Linear regression was used to study associations of total gray and white matter volumes with gait, adjusting for each other, age, sex, height and white matter hyperintensity volume. Other covariates considered in analyses included weight and vascular disease history. Voxel-based morphometry was used to study regional relationships of gray and white matter with gait. RESULTS: There were 305 participants, mean age 71.4 (6.9 years, 54% male, mean gait speed 1.16 (0.22 m/s. Smaller total gray matter volume was independently associated with poorer gait speed (p = 0.001 and step length (p<0.001, but not cadence. Smaller volumes of cortical and subcortical gray matter in bilateral regions important for motor control, vision, perception and memory were independently associated with slower gait speed and shorter steps. No global or regional associations were observed between white matter volume and gait independent of gray matter volume, white matter hyperintensity volume and other covariates. CONCLUSION: Smaller gray matter volume in bilaterally distributed brain networks serving motor control was associated with slower gait speed and step length, but not cadence.

  18. Global energy transports and the influence of clouds on transport requirements - A satellite analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Byung-Ju; Smith, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    This report investigates the impact of differential net radiative heating on 2D energy transports within the atmosphere ocean system and the role of clouds on this process. The 2D mean energy transports, in answer to zonal and meridional gradients in the net radiation field, show an east-west coupled dipole structure in which the Pacific acts as the major energy source and North Africa as the major energy sink. It is demonstrated that the dipole is embedded in the secondary energy transports arising mainly from the differential heating between land and oceans in the tropics in which the tropical east-west (zonal) transports are up to 30 percent of the tropical north-south (meridional) transports.

  19. Transport and the global environment: Accounting for GHG reductions in policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Markanday, A.; Boyd, R.; Hunt, A.; Taylor, T. [Univ. of Bath, (United Kingdom); Sathaye, J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley (USS)

    2001-07-01

    That the transport sector is among the fastest growing economic sectors in both developed and developing countries is no surprise. The movement of people and goods is an essential part of modern society, and unlike some other economic goods the demand for transport largely coupled to income, so that as people become wealthier they demand ever more transport. Despite their many advantages of personal choice, convenience, and flexibility, modern transportation systems are not without problems, notably those that affect the environment and quality of life. The poor, even hazardous, air quality in many cities is often largely attributed to motor vehicle use, while the transport sector globally contributes one quarter of the greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere each year. Unfortunately, the environmental consequences of thransportation choices - both local and global - are often overlooked when transport planning decisions are made. This book attempts to remedy that deficiency by providing a guide to technical experts and policy makers concerned with environmental polices for the transport sector. It offers a consistent analytical structure for examining the environmental aspects of transport choices; defines the key economic and environmental concepts used in good policy analysis; and gives information on technologies, environmental impacts, and cost effectiveness of various policy options. The book also describes international financial mechanisms that can be used to support sustainable transportation policies and programmes. (au)

  20. Plane parallel radiance transport for global illumination in vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N.; Mobley, C.; Keating, B.; Wu, E.H.

    1997-01-05

    This paper applies plane parallel radiance transport techniques to scattering from vegetation. The leaves, stems, and branches are represented as a volume density of scattering surfaces, depending only on height and the vertical component of the surface normal. Ordinary differential equations are written for the multiply scattered radiance as a function of the height above the ground, with the sky radiance and ground reflectance as boundary conditions. They are solved using a two-pass integration scheme to unify the two-point boundary conditions, and Fourier series for the dependence on the azimuthal angle. The resulting radiance distribution is used to precompute diffuse and specular `ambient` shading tables, as a function of height and surface normal, to be used in rendering, together with a z-buffer shadow algorithm for direct solar illumination.

  1. Gyrokinetic Simulation of Global Turbulent Transport Properties in Tokamak Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.X.; Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Lewandowski, J.L.V.; Rewoldt, G.; Hahm, T.S.; Manickam, J.

    2006-01-01

    A general geometry gyro-kinetic model for particle simulation of plasma turbulence in tokamak experiments is described. It incorporates the comprehensive influence of noncircular cross section, realistic plasma profiles, plasma rotation, neoclassical (equilibrium) electric fields, and Coulomb collisions. An interesting result of global turbulence development in a shaped tokamak plasma is presented with regard to nonlinear turbulence spreading into the linearly stable region. The mutual interaction between turbulence and zonal flows in collisionless plasmas is studied with a focus on identifying possible nonlinear saturation mechanisms for zonal flows. A bursting temporal behavior with a period longer than the geodesic acoustic oscillation period is observed even in a collisionless system. Our simulation results suggest that the zonal flows can drive turbulence. However, this process is too weak to be an effective zonal flow saturation mechanism.

  2. Drivers of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the global epipelagic ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Catalá, T. S.

    2016-03-24

    Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in open surface waters (< 200 m) of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans was analysed by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). A four-component PARAFAC model was fit to the EEMs, which included two humic- (C1 and C2) and two amino acid-like (C3 and C4) components previously identified in ocean waters. Generalized-additive models (GAMs) were used to explore the environmental factors that drive the global distribution of these PARAFAC components. The explained variance for the humic-like components was substantially larger (> 70%) than for the amino acid-like components (< 35%). The environmental variables exhibiting the largest effect on the global distribution of C1 and C2 were apparent oxygen utilisation followed by chlorophyll a. Positive non-linear relationships between both predictor variables and the two humic-like PARAFAC components suggest that their distribution are biologically controlled. Compared with the dark ocean (> 200 m), the relationships of C1 and C2 with AOU indicate a higher C1/AOU and C2/AOU ratios of the humic-like substances in the dark ocean than in the surface ocean where a net effect of photobleaching is also detected. C3 (tryptophan-like) and C4 (tyrosine-like) variability was mostly dictated by salinity (S), by means of positive non-linear relationships, suggesting a primary physical control of their distributions at the global surface ocean scale that could be related to the changing evaporation-precipitation regime. Remarkably, bacterial biomass (BB) only contributed to explain a minor part of the variability of C1 and C4.

  3. Modeling of transports of water and matter in landscape. Proceedings; Modellierung des Wasser- und Stofftransportes in grossen Einzugsgebieten. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronstert, A.; Krysanova, V.; Schroeder, A.; Becker, A.; Bork, H.R. [eds.

    1998-04-01

    During recent years, the quantitative description of the water fluxes and the coupled transport of physical and chemical matter in the landscape has become steadily more and more important. The reasons for this are an increasing public awareness about the possible impacts of changes of land use, land cover, and of changes in regional and global climatic conditions together with a need for sound, multi-objective management of large river basins. The investigation areas of concern a usually much larger in extent than a typically sized hydrological investigation catchment. The tools primarily used in the quantification of the hydrological fluxes at the large scale are the so-called large-scale hydrological models. These models are comparatively new and still at the stage of development and improvement. The mentioned need for advanced large-scale hydrological models provided the reason for inviting scientists from German-speaking countries with experience in large-scale hydrological and hydro-meteorological models to exchange and discuss their modelling concepts and to identify research needs. The workshop was held at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) on 15 and 16 December 1997, and was jointly organised by PIK, the University of Potsdam and the Centre for Agriculture and Land Use Research (ZALF). The workshop was attended by over 40 scientists, of whom 19 gave a presentation. (orig.)

  4. Small scale variability of transport and composition of dissolved organic matter in the subsoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinemann, T.; Mikutta, R.; Kalbitz, K.; Guggenberger, G.

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the most mobile fraction of carbon in the soil and connects the carbon-rich topsoil with the subsoil where translocated OM may get stabilized. The water flux in soil is highly heterogeneous, both temporarily and spatially. We, therefore, hypothesize that at high flow velocities, DOM can bypass possible mineral binding sites and microorganisms, thus leading to less degraded DOM under high flow velocities. To address this question, we investigated water and DOM fluxes in situ using segmented suction plates (4 x 4 segments on 24 x 24 cm) installed into three soil observatories at three depths (10 cm, 50 cm, and 150 cm) in a Dystric Cambisol under Beech (Fagus sylvatica) near Hannover, Germany. To follow the transport of carbon from the litter layer through the soil, an in situ 13C-labelling experiment has been conducted in January 2015. Concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and DOM composition was analyzed using high temperature combustion and photometric methods. The amount of transported DOC decreased by ca. 80 % from 10 to 50 cm depth and by 40 % from 50 to 150 cm depth. Different flow patterns existed at the centimeter scale, which were stable over time for individual suction plate segments. The specific UV280 nm absorbance of DOM decreased with increasing soil depth. This indicates a selective loss of aromatic compounds. The influence of different flow regimes on the DOM quality became apparent in the subsoil samples (>50 cm depth) showing a correlation of increasing UV280 nm absorbance with increasing water flux. The 13C-labelling experiment showed that after 10 month just 0.3 % of the DOC in 150 cm depth was derived from fresh litter. The transport of leaf litter carbon seemed to be controlled by the flow regime as the DO13C ratio and the water flux correlated positively. This can be an indication for the importance of preferential flow on carbon transport to the subsoil.

  5. Simulation of the transport of suspended particulate matter in the Rio de la Plata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausstein, H.

    2008-11-06

    Numerical simulations of the transport of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Rio de la Plata estuary were performed with a three dimensional model for coastal waters driven by wave sand currents. Aturbulence based flocculation approach is implemented to the model. The model is for the first time applied under heavy conditions, since the Rio de la Plata has discharges up to 25000 m{sup 3}/s and SPM concentrations up to 300-400 mg/l. Such concentrations are also difficult to compute from satellite measurements. SeaWiFs satellite images served for the validation of the model results. The model is able to reproduce the shape and the position of the front as well as the zone of the turbidity maximum. It also identifies the zones of erosion and deposition which is of significant importance because of the dense ship traffic along the navigational channels towards Buenos Aires and the cities upstream the rivers. (orig.)

  6. Transport of laser accelerated proton beams and isochoric heating of matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, M; Alber, I; Guenther, M; Harres, K [Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Bagnoud, V [GSI Helmholtzzentrum f. Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Brown, C; Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Clarke, R; Heathcote, R; Li, B [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX14 OQX (United Kingdom); Daido, H [Photo Medical Research Center, JAEA, Kizugawa-City, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Fernandez, J; Flippo, K; Gaillard, S; Gauthier, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Glenzer, S; Kritcher, A; Kugland, N; LePape, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Makita, M, E-mail: markus.roth@physik.tu-darmstadt.d [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. We report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  7. Global vertical mass transport by clouds - A two-dimensional model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, Mats

    1988-05-01

    A two-dimensional global dispersion model, where vertical transport in the troposphere carried out by convective as well as by frontal cloud systems is explicitly treated, is developed from an existing diffusion model. A parameterization scheme for the cloud transport, based on global cloud statistics, is presented. The model has been tested by using Kr-85, Rn-222 and SO 2 as tracers. Comparisons have been made with observed distributions of these tracers, but also with model results without the cloud transport, using eddy diffusion as the primary means of vertical transport. The model results indicate that for trace species with a turnover time of days to weeks, the introduction of cloud-transport gives much more realistic simulations of their vertical distribution. Layers of increased mixing ratio with height, which can be found in real atmosphere, are reproduced in our cloud-transport model profiles, but can never be simulated with a pure eddy diffusion model. The horizontal transport in the model, by advection and eddy diffusion, gives a realistic distribution between the hemispheres of the more long-lived tracers (Kr-85). A combination of vertical transport by convective and frontal cloud systems is shown to improve the model simulations, compared to limiting it to convective transport only. The importance of including cumulus clouds in the convective transport scheme, in addition to the efficient transport by cumulonimbus clouds, is discussed. The model results are shown to be more sensitive to the vertical detrainment distribution profile than to the absolute magnitude of the vertical mass transport. The scavenging processes for SO 2 are parameterized without the introduction of detailed chemistry. An enhanced removal, due to the increased contact with droplets in the in-cloud lifting process, is introduced in the model. (author)

  8. Hydrological and biogeochemical controls on watershed dissolved organic matter transport: pulse-shunt concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Peter A; Saiers, James E; Sobczak, William V

    2016-01-01

    Hydrological precipitation and snowmelt events trigger large "pulse" releases of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) into drainage networks due to an increase in DOM concentration with discharge. Thus, low-frequency large events, which are predicted to increase with climate change, are responsible for a significant percentage of annual terrestrial DOM input to drainage networks. These same events are accompanied by marked and rapid increases in headwater stream velocity; thus they also "shunt" a large proportion of the pulsed DOM to downstream, higher-order rivers and aquatic ecosystems geographically removed from the DOM source of origin. Here we merge these ideas into the "pulse-shunt concept" (PSC) to explain and quantify how infrequent, yet major hydrologic events may drive the timing, flux, geographical dispersion, and regional metabolism of terrestrial DOM. The PSC also helps reconcile long-standing discrepancies in C cycling theory and provides a robust framework for better quantifying its highly dynamic role in the global C cycle. The PSC adds a critical temporal dimension to linear organic matter removal dynamics postulated by the river continuum concept. It also can be represented mathematically through a model that is based on stream scaling approaches suitable for quantifying the important role of streams and rivers in the global C cycle. Initial hypotheses generated by the PSC include: (1) Infrequent large storms and snowmelt events account for a large and underappreciated percentage of the terrestrial DOM flux to drainage networks at annual and decadal time scales and therefore event statistics are equally important to total discharge when determining terrestrial fluxes. (2) Episodic hydrologic events result in DOM bypassing headwater streams and being metabolized in large rivers and exported to coastal systems. We propose that the PSC provides a framework for watershed biogeochemical modeling and predictions and discuss implications to

  9. Japanese automotive transportation sector's impact upon global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaseki, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Automobiles are still increasing in number in Japan. If this continues, CO 2 emissions in this sector may increase through the first half of the 21st century. Consequently, a study of measures for reducing these CO 2 emissions is essential. In this paper, possible automotive technologies, improvements in fuel consumption and the introduction of electric vehicles are discussed. These measures are then evaluated for the Japanese case. Furthermore, market penetration of these technologies is evaluated, using life-cycle cost analysis based on initial cost and annual fuel cost. It is concluded that reducing CO 2 emissions to 1995 levels by 2010 is possible. This would require the simultaneous implementation of fuel-consumption improvements and the introduction of electric vehicles. However, automotive consumers would be reluctant to accept these technologies, particularly electric vehicles, because of their high purchase-price and low benefits in terms of operating economy. Acceptance will require financial and institutional support from the public sector in introducing these automotive technologies into the Japanese transportation sector. (author)

  10. Global transport of thermophilic bacteria in atmospheric dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfumo, Amedea; Marchant, Roger

    2010-04-01

    Aerosols from dust storms generated in the Sahara-Sahel desert area of Africa are transported north over Europe and periodically result in dry dust precipitation in the Mediterranean region. Samples of dust collected in Turkey and Greece following two distinct desert storm events contained viable thermophilic organisms of the genus Geobacillus, namely G. thermoglucosidasius and G. thermodenitrificans, and the recently reclassified Aeribacillus pallidus (formerly Geobacillus pallidus). We present here evidence that African dust storms create an atmospheric bridge between distant geographical regions and that they are also probably the source of thermophilic geobacilli later deposited over northern Europe by rainfall or dust plumes themselves. The same organisms (99% similarity in the 16S rDNA sequence) were found in dust collected in the Mediterranean region and inhabiting cool soils in Northern Ireland. This study also contributes new insights to the taxonomic identification of Geobacillus sp. Attempts to identify these organisms using 16S rRNA gene sequences have revealed that they contain multiple and diverse copies of the ribosomal RNA operon (up to 10 copies with nine different sequences), which dictates care in interpreting data about the systematics of this genus. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 – Part 1: Land transport and shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Righi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry global climate-chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications, we simulate the impact of land transport and shipping emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Future emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs designed in support of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare the resulting 2030 land-transport- and shipping-induced aerosol concentrations to the ones obtained for the year 2000 in a previous study with the same model configuration. The simulations suggest that black carbon and aerosol nitrate are the most relevant pollutants from land transport in 2000 and 2030 and their impacts are characterized by very strong regional variations during this time period. Europe and North America experience a decrease in the land-transport-induced particle pollution, although in these regions this sector remains a major source of surface-level pollution in 2030 under all RCPs. In Southeast Asia, however, a significant increase is simulated, but in this region the surface-level pollution is still controlled by other sources than land transport. Shipping-induced air pollution is mostly due to aerosol sulfate and nitrate, which show opposite trends towards 2030. Sulfate is strongly reduced as a consequence of sulfur reduction policies in ship fuels in force since 2010, while nitrate tends to increase due to the excess of ammonia following the reduction in ammonium sulfate. The aerosol-induced climate impact of both sectors is dominated by aerosol-cloud effects and is projected to decrease between 2000 and 2030, nevertheless still contributing a significant radiative forcing to Earth's radiation budget.

  12. Global nutrient transport in a world of giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E; Roman, Joe; Faurby, Søren; Wolf, Adam; Haque, Alifa; Bakker, Elisabeth S; Malhi, Yadvinder; Dunning, John B; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-26

    The past was a world of giants, with abundant whales in the sea and large animals roaming the land. However, that world came to an end following massive late-Quaternary megafauna extinctions on land and widespread population reductions in great whale populations over the past few centuries. These losses are likely to have had important consequences for broad-scale nutrient cycling, because recent literature suggests that large animals disproportionately drive nutrient movement. We estimate that the capacity of animals to move nutrients away from concentration patches has decreased to about 8% of the preextinction value on land and about 5% of historic values in oceans. For phosphorus (P), a key nutrient, upward movement in the ocean by marine mammals is about 23% of its former capacity (previously about 340 million kg of P per year). Movements by seabirds and anadromous fish provide important transfer of nutrients from the sea to land, totalling ∼150 million kg of P per year globally in the past, a transfer that has declined to less than 4% of this value as a result of the decimation of seabird colonies and anadromous fish populations. We propose that in the past, marine mammals, seabirds, anadromous fish, and terrestrial animals likely formed an interlinked system recycling nutrients from the ocean depths to the continental interiors, with marine mammals moving nutrients from the deep sea to surface waters, seabirds and anadromous fish moving nutrients from the ocean to land, and large animals moving nutrients away from hotspots into the continental interior.

  13. Reprint of "Nuclear transport factors: global regulation of mitosis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Douglass J; Travesa, Anna; Nord, Matthew S; Bernis, Cyril

    2015-06-01

    The unexpected repurposing of nuclear transport proteins from their function in interphase to an equally vital and very different set of functions in mitosis was very surprising. The multi-talented cast when first revealed included the import receptors, importin alpha and beta, the small regulatory GTPase RanGTP, and a subset of nuclear pore proteins. In this review, we report that recent years have revealed new discoveries in each area of this expanding story in vertebrates: (a) The cast of nuclear import receptors playing a role in mitotic spindle regulation has expanded: both transportin, a nuclear import receptor, and Crm1/Xpo1, an export receptor, are involved in different aspects of spindle assembly. Importin beta and transportin also regulate nuclear envelope and pore assembly. (b) The role of nucleoporins has grown to include recruiting the key microtubule nucleator – the γ-TuRC complex – and the exportin Crm1 to the mitotic kinetochores of humans. Together they nucleate microtubule formation from the kinetochores toward the centrosomes. (c) New research finds that the original importin beta/RanGTP team have been further co-opted by evolution to help regulate other cellular and organismal activities, ranging from the actual positioning of the spindle within the cell perimeter, to regulation of a newly discovered spindle microtubule branching activity, to regulation of the interaction of microtubule structures with specific actin structures. (d) Lastly, because of the multitudinous roles of karyopherins throughout the cell cycle, a recent large push toward testing their potential as chemotherapeutic targets has begun to yield burgeoning progress in the clinic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Commuters? Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution Is Affected by Mode of Transport, Fuel Type, and Route

    OpenAIRE

    Zuurbier, Moniek; Hoek, Gerard; Oldenwening, Marieke; Lenters, Virissa; Meliefste, Kees; van den Hazel, Peter; Brunekreef, Bert

    2010-01-01

    Background Commuters are exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, but little quantitative information is currently available on differences in exposure between different modes of transport, routes, and fuel types. Objectives The aim of our study was to assess differences in commuters? exposure to traffic-related air pollution related to transport mode, route, and fuel type. Methods We measured particle number counts (PNCs) and concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter ? 2.5 ?m in a...

  15. Source contributions and regional transport of primary particulate matter in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianlin; Wu, Li; Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Chang, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Yang, Fumo; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang

    2015-12-01

    A source-oriented CMAQ was applied to determine source sector/region contributions to primary particulate matter (PPM) in China. Four months were simulated with emissions grouped to eight regions and six sectors. Predicted elemental carbon (EC), primary organic carbon (POC), and PPM concentrations and source contributions agree with measurements and have significant spatiotemporal variations. Residential is a major contributor to spring/winter EC (50-80%), POC (60%-90%), and PPM (30-70%). For summer/fall, industrial contributes 30-50% for EC/POC and 40-60% for PPM. Transportation is more important for EC (20-30%) than POC/PPM (Guangzhou and Chongqing. Dust contributes to 1/3-1/2 in spring/fall of Beijing, Xi'an and Chongqing. Based on sector-region combination, local residential/transportation and residential/industrial from Heibei are major contributors to spring PPM in Beijing. In summer/fall, local industrial is the largest. In winter, residential/industrial from local and Hebei account for >90% in Beijing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biofuels in the long-run global energy supply mix for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Govinda R

    2014-01-13

    Various policy instruments along with increasing oil prices have contributed to a sixfold increase in global biofuels production over the last decade (2000-2010). This rapid growth has proved controversial, however, and has raised concerns over potential conflicts with global food security and climate change mitigation. To address these concerns, policy support is now focused on advanced or second-generation biofuels instead of crop-based first-generation biofuels. This policy shift, together with the global financial crisis, has slowed the growth of biofuels production, which has remained stagnant since 2010. Based upon a review of the literature, this paper examines the potential long-run contribution of biofuels to the global energy mix, particularly for transportation. We find that the contribution of biofuels to global transportation fuel demand is likely to be limited to around 5% over the next 10-15 years. However, a number of studies suggest that biofuels could contribute up to a quarter of global transportation fuel demand by 2050, provided technological breakthroughs reduce the costs of sustainably produced advanced biofuels to a level where they can compete with petroleum fuels.

  17. Mind the rate. Why rate global climate change matters, and how much

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    To assess climate policies in a cost-efficiency framework with constraints on the magnitude and rate of global climate change we have built RESPONSE, an optimal control integrated assessment model. Our results show that the uncertainty about climate sensitivity leads to significant short-term mitigation efforts all the more as the arrival of information regarding this parameter is belated. There exists thus a high opportunity cost to know before 2030 the true value of this parameter, which is not totally granted so far. Given this uncertainty, a +2 deg C objective could lead to rather stringent policy recommendations for the coming decades and might prove unacceptable. Furthermore, the uncertainty about climate sensitivity magnifies the influence of the rate constraint on short-term decision, leading to rather stringent policy recommendations for the coming decades. This result is particularly robust to the choice of discount rate and to the beliefs of the decision-maker about climate sensitivity. We finally show that the uncertainty about the rate constraint is even more important for short-term decision than the uncertainty about climate sensitivity or magnitude of warming. This means that the critical rate of climate change, i.e. a transient characteristic of climate risks, matters much more than the long-term objective of climate policy, i.e. the critical magnitude of climate change. Therefore, research should be aimed at better characterising climate change risks in view to help decision-makers in agreeing on a safe guardrail to limit the rate of global warming. (author)

  18. White matter hyperintensities, executive function and global cognitive performance in vascular mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Kenji Sudo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI represents an early symptomatic stage of vascular cognitive impairment and might be associated to fronto-executive dysfunction. Methods Twenty-six individuals (age: 73.11±7.90 years; 65.4% female; schooling: 9.84±3.61 years were selected through neuropsychological assessment and neuroimaging. Clinical and neuroimaging data of VaMCI individuals (n=15 were compared to normal controls (NC, n=11 and correlated with Fazekas scale. Results VaMCI performed significantly worse than NC in Trail-Making Test (TMT B, errors in TMT B, difference TMT B-A and Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG final scores. Correlations were found among scores in modified Fazekas scale and performances in TMT B (time to complete and errors, difference TMT B-A and CAMCOG total score. Conclusion Extension of white matter hyperintensities might be correlated to poorer global cognition and impairments in a set of fronto-executive functions, such as cognitive speed, set shifting and inhibitory control in VaMCI.

  19. Global charcoal mobilization from soils via dissolution and riverine transport to the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rudolf; Ding, Yan; Niggemann, Jutta; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Stubbins, Aron; Spencer, Robert G M; Campbell, John; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2013-04-19

    Global biomass burning generates 40 million to 250 million tons of charcoal every year, part of which is preserved for millennia in soils and sediments. We have quantified dissolution products of charcoal in a wide range of rivers worldwide and show that globally, a major portion of the annual charcoal production is lost from soils via dissolution and subsequent transport to the ocean. The global flux of soluble charcoal accounts to 26.5 ± 1.8 million tons per year, which is ~10% of the global riverine flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We suggest that the mobilization of charcoal and DOC out of soils is mechanistically coupled. This study closes a major gap in the global charcoal budget and provides critical information in the context of geoengineering.

  20. Pyrogenic organic matter production from wildfires: a missing sink in the global carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H; Preston, Caroline M; González-Rodríguez, Gil

    2015-04-01

    Wildfires release substantial quantities of carbon (C) into the atmosphere but they also convert part of the burnt biomass into pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM). This is richer in C and, overall, more resistant to environmental degradation than the original biomass, and, therefore, PyOM production is an efficient mechanism for C sequestration. The magnitude of this C sink, however, remains poorly quantified, and current production estimates, which suggest that ~1-5% of the C affected by fire is converted to PyOM, are based on incomplete inventories. Here, we quantify, for the first time, the complete range of PyOM components found in-situ immediately after a typical boreal forest fire. We utilized an experimental high-intensity crown fire in a jack pine forest (Pinus banksiana) and carried out a detailed pre- and postfire inventory and quantification of all fuel components, and the PyOM (i.e., all visually charred, blackened materials) produced in each of them. Our results show that, overall, 27.6% of the C affected by fire was retained in PyOM (4.8 ± 0.8 t C ha(-1)), rather than emitted to the atmosphere (12.6 ± 4.5 t C ha(-1)). The conversion rates varied substantially between fuel components. For down wood and bark, over half of the C affected was converted to PyOM, whereas for forest floor it was only one quarter, and less than a tenth for needles. If the overall conversion rate found here were applicable to boreal wildfire in general, it would translate into a PyOM production of ~100 Tg C yr(-1) by wildfire in the global boreal regions, more than five times the amount estimated previously. Our findings suggest that PyOM production from boreal wildfires, and potentially also from other fire-prone ecosystems, may have been underestimated and that its quantitative importance as a C sink warrants its inclusion in the global C budget estimates. © 2014 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Inverse modeling of methane sources and sinks using the adjoint of a global transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, S; Kaminski, T; Dentener, F; Lelieveld, J; Heimann, M

    1999-01-01

    An inverse modeling method is presented to evaluate the sources and sinks of atmospheric methane. An adjoint version of a global transport model has been used to estimate these fluxes at a relatively high spatial and temporal resolution. Measurements from 34 monitoring stations and 11 locations

  2. Long-range transport and global fractionation of POPs: insights from multimedia modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheringer, M.; Salzmann, M.; Stroebe, M.; Wegmann, F.; Fenner, K.; Hungerbuehler, K.

    2004-01-01

    The long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is investigated with two multimedia box models of the global system. ChemRange is a purely evaluative, one-dimensional steady-state (level III) model; CliMoChem is a two-dimensional model with different temperatures, land/water ratios and vegetation types in different latitudinal zones. Model results are presented for three case studies: (i) the effect of atmospheric aerosol particles on the long-range transport of POPs, (ii) the effect of oceanic deposition on the long-range transport of different PCB congeners, (iii) the global fractionation of different PCB congeners. The model results for these case studies show: (i) the low atmospheric half-lives estimated for several organochlorine pesticides are likely to be inconsistent with the observed long-range transport of these compounds; (ii) export to the deep sea reduces the potential for long-range transport of highly hydrophobic compounds (but does not remove these chemicals from the biosphere); (iii) there are different meanings of the term global fractionation that refer to different aspects of the fractionation process and need to be distinguished. The case-study results further indicate that the influences of varying environmental conditions on the physicochemical properties and the degradation rate constants of POPs need to be determined. - Multimedia box models are applied to case studies of the behavior of POPs

  3. Organic matter linked radionuclide transport in Boom clay - Phenomenological understanding and abstraction to PA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, N.; Bruggeman, C.; Liu, D.J.; Salah, S.; Van Laer, L.; Wang, L.; Weetjens, E.; Govaerts, J.; Marivoet, J.; Brassinnes, S.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the frame of the Belgian research program on long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive wastes coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, plastic clays (i.e., Boom Clay and Ypresian clays) are investigated for their potential to host a deep geological disposal repository for radioactive waste because of, among others, their ability to significantly retard radionuclide releases to the biosphere. The Boom Clay is characterised by the presence of a relatively high amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM, humic substances) which show a strong interaction with a suite of radionuclides (RN) like lanthanides, actinides and transition metals. This interaction with DOM leads in general to an increased mobility of the radionuclide as the OM can act as a colloidal carrier for the radionuclide. Therefore, the quantification and the understanding of the underlying processes are needed for the demonstration of confidence in the host formation to act as a suitable barrier. However, this is not an easy task, given the multitude of processes involved: complexation/colloid formation, sorption, kinetics, filtration, -. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the research work that leads to a straightforward reactive transport model capturing fairly well the experimental observations. The model can be considered as an intermediate model providing a good basis for further safety abstraction on the one hand and the way to a more detailed phenomenological understanding on the other hand. The research is focussed on the underlying processes that govern speciation, sorption and transport. These underlying processes are investigated in a bottom-up approach, from simple systems to more complex systems. Interpretation is done using thermodynamic based models. Whereas the contribution of Bruggeman et al. focusses mainly on (batch) sorption studies (of trivalent RN), this presentation will provide more details on the

  4. Organic matter iron and nutrient transport and nature of dissolved organic matter in the drainage basin of a boreal humic river in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, K.

    1994-01-01

    Organic carbon and iron transport into the Gulf of Bothnia and the seasonal changes in the nature of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were studied in 1983 and 1984 at the mouth of the River Kiiminkijoki, which crosses an area of minerotrophic mires in northern Finland. Organic and inorganic transport within the drainage basin was studied in the summer and autumn of 1985 and 1986. The results indicate that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is mainly of terrestrial origin, leaching mostly from peatlands. The DOC concentrations decrease under low flow conditions. The proportion of drifting algae as a particulate organic carbon (POC) source seems to increase in summer. The changes in the ratio of Fe/DOC, the colour of the DOM and the ratio of Fe/DOC, the colour of the DOM and the ratio of fluorescence to DOC with discharge give indications of the origin, formation, nature and fate of the DOM in the river water. Temperature-dependent microbiological processes in the formation and sedimentation of Fe-organic colloids seem to be important. Estimates are given for the amounts and transport rates of organic carbon and Fe discharged into the Gulf of Bothnia by river. High apparent molecular weight (HAMW) organic colloids are important for the organic, Fe and P transport in the basin. The DOM in the water consists mainly of fulvic acids, although humic acids are also important. The results indicate an increase in the mobilization of HAMW Fe-organic colloids in the peatlands following drainage and peat mining. The transport of inorganic nitrogen from the peatlands in the area and in the river is increasing due to peat mining. The changes in the transport of organic matter, Fe and P are less marked

  5. Studying the physical basis of global warming: thermal effects of the interaction between radiation and matter and greenhouse effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, Ugo; De Ambrosis, Anna; Mascheretti, Paolo [Department of Physics ' A Volta' , University of Pavia, Via A Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: ugo.besson@unipv.it, E-mail: anna.deambrosisvigna@unipv.it

    2010-03-15

    We present a teaching module dealing with the thermal effects of interaction between radiation and matter, the infrared emission of bodies and the greenhouse effect devoted to university level and teacher education. The module stresses the dependence of the optical properties of materials (transparency, absorptivity and emissivity) on radiation frequency, as a result of interaction between matter and radiation. Multiple experiences are suggested to favour a progressive construction of knowledge on the physical aspects necessary to understand the greenhouse effect and global warming. Some results obtained with university students are briefly reported.

  6. Optimal voxel size for measuring global gray and white matter proton metabolite concentrations using chemical shift imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Lars Peter Grüner; Adalsteinsson, E; Pfefferbaum, A

    2000-01-01

    compared to single voxel methods. In the present study, the optimal voxel size is calculated from segmented human brain data and accompanying field maps. The optimal voxel size is found to be approximately 8 cc, but a wide range of values, 4-64 cc, can be chosen with little increase in estimated......Quantification of gray and white matter levels of spectroscopically visible metabolites can provide important insights into brain development and pathological conditions. Chemical shift imaging offers a gain in efficiency for estimation of global gray and white matter metabolite concentrations...

  7. Studying the physical basis of global warming: thermal effects of the interaction between radiation and matter and greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, Ugo; De Ambrosis, Anna; Mascheretti, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We present a teaching module dealing with the thermal effects of interaction between radiation and matter, the infrared emission of bodies and the greenhouse effect devoted to university level and teacher education. The module stresses the dependence of the optical properties of materials (transparency, absorptivity and emissivity) on radiation frequency, as a result of interaction between matter and radiation. Multiple experiences are suggested to favour a progressive construction of knowledge on the physical aspects necessary to understand the greenhouse effect and global warming. Some results obtained with university students are briefly reported.

  8. Driving forces: Motor vehicle trends and their implications for global warming, energy strategies, and transportation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, J.J.; Walsh, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Cars, trucks, and other vehicles have long been linked to smog and other urban pollution, but the part they play in the larger complex of atmospheric and energy ills that we now face is often overlooked. In Driving Forces: Motor Vehicle Trends and Their Implications for Global Warming, Energy Strategies, and Transportation Planning, James J. MacKenzie, senior associate in World Resources Institute's Program in Climate, Energy, and Pollution, and Michael P. Walsh, an international consultant on transportation and environmental issues, fill in this knowledge gap with new data and analyses. They spell out four policy shifts that can help hold the line on global warming: improve new-vehicle efficiency; make transportation more efficient; cut other greenhouse gas emissions; create the green car of the future. The report focuses especially on the US, which pioneered the automotive revolution and leads the world in oil imports and emissions

  9. Influence of Natural Organic Matter on Aggregation, Deposition, and Transport of Fullerene Colloids in Aqueous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Rattanaudompol, U.; Powell, T.; Bouchard, D.

    2011-12-01

    Engineered fullerenes are increasingly being used in commercial products (e.g., skin and eye creams, tennis racquets, and lubricants) that may become a significant source for environmental release. A thorough understanding of fullerenes' aggregation in aqueous phase and deposition/transport in porous media is needed for evaluating the environmental persistence of fullerenes and subsequent human or ecological exposure. A number of recent studies have shown that fullerenes form stable colloidal aggregates in aqueous media and that their environmental behaviors largely depend on solution chemistry including ionic strength, solution pH, and the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). Nonetheless, the lack of systematic studies on NOM interaction with fullerene colloids and the coupling of this interaction with ionic strength and solution pH make predicting environmental behaviors of fullerenes a difficult task. In this study, electrophoretic mobility (EM), particle size, and aggregation kinetics of C60 colloidal suspensions were measured under a range of ionic strength (1.5-500.5 mM), solution pH (4, 7.8, and 10), and humic (0-9 mg C/L) or fulvic (0-11 mg C/L) acid concentrations. The EM data could be modeled with Ohshima's soft particle theory to probe thickness, softness, and charge density of adsorbed NOM layers on fullerene colloids. Under select conditions that represent low and high mobility, deposition studies using a quartz crystal microbalance and transport experiments in saturated and unsaturated sand columns will be conducted. It is anticipated that NOM may alter the transport of fullerene C60 differently in unsaturated media compared with saturated media. Our preliminary results showed that humic acid is more effective than fulvic acid in stabilizing fullerene suspensions and the extent of this stabilizing effect is a function of ionic strength when buffered at pH 7.8 with 0.5 mM NaHCO3. The findings of this study will help better assess the fate and

  10. Carrier Transport and Related Effects in Detectors of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundqvist, Kyle Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is searching for weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPS), which could explain the dark matter problem in cosmology and particle physics. By simultaneously measuring signals from deposited charge and the energy in nonequilibrium phonons created by particle interactions in intrinsic germanium crystals at a temperature of 40 mK, a signature response for each event is produced. This response, combined with phonon pulse-shape information, allows CDMS to actively discriminate candidate WIMP interactions with nuclei from electromagnetic radioactive background which interacts with electrons. The challenges associated with these techniques are unique. Carrier scattering is dominated by the spontaneous emission of Luke-Neganov phonons due to zeropoint fluctuations of the lattice ions. Drift fields are maintained at only a few V/cm, else these emitted phonons would dominate the phonons of the original interaction. The dominant systematic issues with CDMS detectors are due to the effects of space charge accumulation. It has been an open question how space charge accrues, and by which of several potential recombination and ionization processes. In this work, we have simulated the transport of electrons and holes in germanium under CDMS conditions. We have implemented both a traditional Monte Carlo technique based on carrier energy, followed later by a novel Monte Carlo algorithm with scattering rates defined and sampled by vector momentum. This vector-based method provides for a full anisotropic simulation of carrier transport including free-fight acceleration with an anisotropic mass, and anisotropic scattering rates. With knowledge of steady state carrier dynamics as a function of applied field, the results of our Monte Carlo simulations allow us to make a wide variety of predictions for energy dependent processes for both electrons and holes. Such processes include carrier capture by charged impurities, neutral impurities, static

  11. A Global Perspective of Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and Its Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arideep; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    Fine particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air is implicated in a variety of human health issues throughout the globe. Regulation of fine PM in the atmosphere requires information on the dimension of the problem with respect to variations in concentrations and sources. To understand the current status of fine particles in the atmosphere and their potential harmful health effects in different regions of the world this review article was prepared based on peer-reviewed scientific papers, scientific reports, and database from government organizations published after the year 2000 to evaluate the global scenario of the PM 2.5 (particles health effects of PM 2.5 and its components. PM 2.5 levels and exceedances of national and international standards were several times higher in Asian countries, while levels in Europe and USA were mostly well below the respective standards. Vehicular traffic has a significant influence on PM 2.5 levels in urban areas; followed by combustion activities (biomass, industrial, and waste burning) and road dust. In urban atmosphere, fine particles are mostly associated with different health effects with old aged people, pregnant women, and more so children being the most susceptible ones. Fine PM chemical constituents severely effect health due to their carcinogenic or mutagenic nature. Most of the research indicated an exceedance of fine PM level of the standards with a diverse array of health effects based on PM 2.5 chemical constituents. Emission reduction policies with epidemiological studies are needed to understand the benefits of sustainable control measures for fine PM mitigation.

  12. Electron transport in radiotherapy using local-to-global Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svatos, M.M.; Chandler, W.P.; Siantar, C.L.H.; Rathkopf, J.A.; Ballinger, C.T.

    1994-09-01

    Local-to-Global (L-G) Monte Carlo methods are a way to make three-dimensional electron transport both fast and accurate relative to other Monte Carlo methods. This is achieved by breaking the simulation into two stages: a local calculation done over small geometries having the size and shape of the ''steps'' to be taken through the mesh; and a global calculation which relies on a stepping code that samples the stored results of the local calculation. The increase in speed results from taking fewer steps in the global calculation than required by ordinary Monte Carlo codes and by speeding up the calculation per step. The potential for accuracy comes from the ability to use long runs of detailed codes to compile probability distribution functions (PDFs) in the local calculation. Specific examples of successful Local-to-Global algorithms are given

  13. The uranium institute transport working group: a common approach to global issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot-Colle, C.

    1998-01-01

    With more than 442 nuclear power plants in operation all over the world delivering clean and safe electricity on a daily basis, nuclear energy is and will undoubtedly be one of the most promising way to cope with present and future economic, demographic, and environmental challenges. Nuclear materials transportation business links the various nuclear actors: research institutes, utilities, fuel cycle industries, and waste management agencies. As pipelines or tankers for the petroleum industry, transportation gives nuclear energy its consistency. Still, conversely to other industrial areas, transportation volumes and figures are rather low in the nuclear business. For instance, transport of dangerous goods in France represents around 15 million packages per year. Out of this, only 15,000 or 0.1 % are nuclear fuel cycle materials. When applied to the USA, this figure is even more striking: 100 million of dangerous goods containers are shipped each year. Only 10,000 pertains to nuclear fuel cycle materials. Even so, in our world of economic and cultural globalization, transport of nuclear materials is no longer a domestic issue. It crosses boundaries and appeals to various areas ranging from safety to communication. That is why the Uranium Institute decided, in 1995, to set up a working group dedicated to transport issues. This paper covers the Uranium Institute Transport Working Group, from its creation to its most recent achievements. (author)

  14. Temporal frequency probing for 5D transient analysis of global light transport

    KAUST Repository

    O'Toole, Matthew

    2014-07-27

    We analyze light propagation in an unknown scene using projectors and cameras that operate at transient timescales. In this new photography regime, the projector emits a spatio-temporal 3D signal and the camera receives a transformed version of it, determined by the set of all light transport paths through the scene and the time delays they induce. The underlying 3D-to-3D transformation encodes scene geometry and global transport in great detail, but individual transport components (e.g., direct reflections, inter-reflections, caustics, etc.) are coupled nontrivially in both space and time. To overcome this complexity, we observe that transient light transport is always separable in the temporal frequency domain. This makes it possible to analyze transient transport one temporal frequency at a time by trivially adapting techniques from conventional projector-to-camera transport. We use this idea in a prototype that offers three never-seen-before abilities: (1) acquiring time-of-flight depth images that are robust to general indirect transport, such as interreflections and caustics; (2) distinguishing between direct views of objects and their mirror reflection; and (3) using a photonic mixer device to capture sharp, evolving wavefronts of "light-in-flight".

  15. Complexity in human transportation networks: a comparative analysis of worldwide air transportation and global cargo-ship movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley-Meza, O.; Thiemann, C.; Grady, D.; Lee, J. J.; Seebens, H.; Blasius, B.; Brockmann, D.

    2011-12-01

    We present a comparative network-theoretic analysis of the two largest global transportation networks: the worldwide air-transportation network (WAN) and the global cargo-ship network (GCSN). We show that both networks exhibit surprising statistical similarities despite significant differences in topology and connectivity. Both networks exhibit a discontinuity in node and link betweenness distributions which implies that these networks naturally segregate into two different classes of nodes and links. We introduce a technique based on effective distances, shortest paths and shortest path trees for strongly weighted symmetric networks and show that in a shortest path tree representation the most significant features of both networks can be readily seen. We show that effective shortest path distance, unlike conventional geographic distance measures, strongly correlates with node centrality measures. Using the new technique we show that network resilience can be investigated more precisely than with contemporary techniques that are based on percolation theory. We extract a functional relationship between node characteristics and resilience to network disruption. Finally we discuss the results, their implications and conclude that dynamic processes that evolve on both networks are expected to share universal dynamic characteristics.

  16. Tearing relaxation and the globalization of transport in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, Loren; Barnes, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    Tearing instability of field-reversed configurations (FRC) is investigated using the method of neighboring equilibria. It is shown that the conducting wall position in experiment lies very close to the location needed for tearing stability. This strongly suggests that vigorous but benign tearing modes, acting globally, are the engine of continual self-organization in FRCs, i.e., tearing relaxation. It also explains the ''profile consistency'' and anomalous loss rate of magnetic flux. In effect, tearing globalizes the effect of edge-driven transport.

  17. Transport, mechanical and global migration data of multilayer copolyamide nanocomposite films with different layouts

    OpenAIRE

    Scarfato, P.; Garofalo, E.; Di Maio, L.; Incarnato, L.

    2017-01-01

    Transport, mechanical and global migration data concern multilayer food packaging films with different layouts, all incorporating a layered silicate/polyamide nanocomposite as oxygen barrier layer, and a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as moisture resistant layer in direct contact with food. The data are related to ?Tuning of co-extrusion processing conditions and film layout to optimize the performances of PA/PE multilayer nanocomposite films for food packaging? by?Garofalo et al. (2017) [1]...

  18. Global source attribution of tropospheric ozone: Long-range transport from various source regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, K.; Akimoto, H.

    2007-06-01

    We examine contributions from various source regions to global distributions and budgets of tropospheric ozone (O3) in the context of intercontinental transport, using tagged tracer simulation with a global chemical transport model. For tagging O3, we consider regional separation of the model domain on the basis of the distributions of O3 chemical production. We define 14 polluted source regions (14 tracers) in the boundary layer (North America, Europe, China, etc.) and 8 regions (8 tracers) in the free troposphere; O3 production in the remaining (remote) tropospheric region and O3 transport from the stratosphere are also tagged as separate tracers. O3 transport from the polluted source regions like North America, Europe, and Asia generally accounts for more than 40% of ozone abundances even in remote locations. O3 exports from boundary layer in China and Asian free troposphere are discerned through much of the Northern Hemisphere, suggesting significant and extensive impacts of eastern Asian pollution. In particular, O3 from Asian free troposphere plays the most important roles in distribution and seasonal variation of O3 in the middle-upper troposphere almost globally. In June-September, the model calculates a large O3 contribution (5-10 ppbv) from Asian free troposphere in the upper troposphere over the South Pacific associated with long-range interhemispheric transport from Asia to the southern midlatitudes (via the western Indian Ocean, Africa, and Atlantic) in the upper troposphere. O3 transported from biomass burning regions such as South America, Africa, and Australia widely distributes in the Southern Hemisphere. Our simulation demonstrates that there is a significant interhemispheric O3 transport from South America to the northern midlatitudes in the upper troposphere which reaches Japan, North Pacific, and the United States in conjunction with O3 export from North Africa. Our tagged O3 simulation estimates that the annual mean global tropospheric O3

  19. Global change-driven effects on dissolved organic matter composition: Implications for food webs of northern lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Irena F; Bergström, Ann-Kristin; Trick, Charles G; Grimm, Nancy B; Hessen, Dag O; Karlsson, Jan; Kidd, Karen A; Kritzberg, Emma; McKnight, Diane M; Freeman, Erika C; Senar, Oscar E; Andersson, Agneta; Ask, Jenny; Berggren, Martin; Cherif, Mehdi; Giesler, Reiner; Hotchkiss, Erin R; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Palta, Monica M; Vrede, Tobias; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A

    2018-03-15

    Northern ecosystems are experiencing some of the most dramatic impacts of global change on Earth. Rising temperatures, hydrological intensification, changes in atmospheric acid deposition and associated acidification recovery, and changes in vegetative cover are resulting in fundamental changes in terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages. The effects of global change are readily observed in alterations in the supply of dissolved organic matter (DOM)-the messenger between terrestrial and lake ecosystems-with potentially profound effects on the structure and function of lakes. Northern terrestrial ecosystems contain substantial stores of organic matter and filter or funnel DOM, affecting the timing and magnitude of DOM delivery to surface waters. This terrestrial DOM is processed in streams, rivers, and lakes, ultimately shifting its composition, stoichiometry, and bioavailability. Here, we explore the potential consequences of these global change-driven effects for lake food webs at northern latitudes. Notably, we provide evidence that increased allochthonous DOM supply to lakes is overwhelming increased autochthonous DOM supply that potentially results from earlier ice-out and a longer growing season. Furthermore, we assess the potential implications of this shift for the nutritional quality of autotrophs in terms of their stoichiometry, fatty acid composition, toxin production, and methylmercury concentration, and therefore, contaminant transfer through the food web. We conclude that global change in northern regions leads not only to reduced primary productivity but also to nutritionally poorer lake food webs, with discernible consequences for the trophic web to fish and humans. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere: determining important driving forces using a global atmospheric transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Friedman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a spatially and temporally resolved global atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB model, driven by meteorological data, that is skilled at simulating mean atmospheric PCB concentrations and seasonal cycles in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and mean Arctic concentrations. However, the model does not capture the observed Arctic summer maximum in atmospheric PCBs. We use the model to estimate global budgets for seven PCB congeners, and we demonstrate that congeners that deposit more readily show lower potential for long-range transport, consistent with a recently described "differential removal hypothesis" regarding the hemispheric transport of PCBs. Using sensitivity simulations to assess processes within, outside, or transport to the Arctic, we examine the influence of climate- and emissions-driven processes on Arctic concentrations and their effect on improving the simulated Arctic seasonal cycle. We find evidence that processes occurring outside the Arctic have a greater influence on Arctic atmospheric PCB levels than processes that occur within the Arctic. Our simulations suggest that re-emissions from sea ice melting or from the Arctic Ocean during summer would have to be unrealistically high in order to capture observed temporal trends of PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere. We conclude that midlatitude processes are likely to have a greater effect on the Arctic under global change scenarios than re-emissions within the Arctic.

  1. PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere: determining important driving forces using a global atmospheric transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carey L.; Selin, Noelle E.

    2016-03-01

    We present a spatially and temporally resolved global atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) model, driven by meteorological data, that is skilled at simulating mean atmospheric PCB concentrations and seasonal cycles in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and mean Arctic concentrations. However, the model does not capture the observed Arctic summer maximum in atmospheric PCBs. We use the model to estimate global budgets for seven PCB congeners, and we demonstrate that congeners that deposit more readily show lower potential for long-range transport, consistent with a recently described "differential removal hypothesis" regarding the hemispheric transport of PCBs. Using sensitivity simulations to assess processes within, outside, or transport to the Arctic, we examine the influence of climate- and emissions-driven processes on Arctic concentrations and their effect on improving the simulated Arctic seasonal cycle. We find evidence that processes occurring outside the Arctic have a greater influence on Arctic atmospheric PCB levels than processes that occur within the Arctic. Our simulations suggest that re-emissions from sea ice melting or from the Arctic Ocean during summer would have to be unrealistically high in order to capture observed temporal trends of PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere. We conclude that midlatitude processes are likely to have a greater effect on the Arctic under global change scenarios than re-emissions within the Arctic.

  2. Do Global Risk Factors Matter for International Cost of Capital Computations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractInternational financial markets are becoming integrated. Hence, global risk factor are increasingly important for portfolio selection and asset pricing. The recent empirical finance literature has confirmed that both the global market portfolio and exchange rate risk factors constitute

  3. Impact of transport model errors on the global and regional methane emissions estimated by inverse modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, R.; Bousquet, P.; Chevallier, F.; Fortems-Cheney, A.; Szopa, S.; Saunois, M.; Agusti-Panareda, A.; Bergmann, D.; Bian, H.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Gloor, E.; Houweling, S.; Kawa, S. R.; Krol, M.; Patra, P. K.; Prinn, R. G.; Rigby, M.; Saito, R.; Wilson, C.

    2013-10-01

    A modelling experiment has been conceived to assess the impact of transport model errors on methane emissions estimated in an atmospheric inversion system. Synthetic methane observations, obtained from 10 different model outputs from the international TransCom-CH4 model inter-comparison exercise, are combined with a prior scenario of methane emissions and sinks, and integrated into the three-component PYVAR-LMDZ-SACS (PYthon VARiational-Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique model with Zooming capability-Simplified Atmospheric Chemistry System) inversion system to produce 10 different methane emission estimates at the global scale for the year 2005. The same methane sinks, emissions and initial conditions have been applied to produce the 10 synthetic observation datasets. The same inversion set-up (statistical errors, prior emissions, inverse procedure) is then applied to derive flux estimates by inverse modelling. Consequently, only differences in the modelling of atmospheric transport may cause differences in the estimated fluxes. In our framework, we show that transport model errors lead to a discrepancy of 27 Tg yr-1 at the global scale, representing 5% of total methane emissions. At continental and annual scales, transport model errors are proportionally larger than at the global scale, with errors ranging from 36 Tg yr-1 in North America to 7 Tg yr-1 in Boreal Eurasia (from 23 to 48%, respectively). At the model grid-scale, the spread of inverse estimates can reach 150% of the prior flux. Therefore, transport model errors contribute significantly to overall uncertainties in emission estimates by inverse modelling, especially when small spatial scales are examined. Sensitivity tests have been carried out to estimate the impact of the measurement network and the advantage of higher horizontal resolution in transport models. The large differences found between methane flux estimates inferred in these different configurations highly question the consistency of

  4. Impact of transport model errors on the global and regional methane emissions estimated by inverse modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Locatelli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A modelling experiment has been conceived to assess the impact of transport model errors on methane emissions estimated in an atmospheric inversion system. Synthetic methane observations, obtained from 10 different model outputs from the international TransCom-CH4 model inter-comparison exercise, are combined with a prior scenario of methane emissions and sinks, and integrated into the three-component PYVAR-LMDZ-SACS (PYthon VARiational-Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique model with Zooming capability-Simplified Atmospheric Chemistry System inversion system to produce 10 different methane emission estimates at the global scale for the year 2005. The same methane sinks, emissions and initial conditions have been applied to produce the 10 synthetic observation datasets. The same inversion set-up (statistical errors, prior emissions, inverse procedure is then applied to derive flux estimates by inverse modelling. Consequently, only differences in the modelling of atmospheric transport may cause differences in the estimated fluxes. In our framework, we show that transport model errors lead to a discrepancy of 27 Tg yr−1 at the global scale, representing 5% of total methane emissions. At continental and annual scales, transport model errors are proportionally larger than at the global scale, with errors ranging from 36 Tg yr−1 in North America to 7 Tg yr−1 in Boreal Eurasia (from 23 to 48%, respectively. At the model grid-scale, the spread of inverse estimates can reach 150% of the prior flux. Therefore, transport model errors contribute significantly to overall uncertainties in emission estimates by inverse modelling, especially when small spatial scales are examined. Sensitivity tests have been carried out to estimate the impact of the measurement network and the advantage of higher horizontal resolution in transport models. The large differences found between methane flux estimates inferred in these different configurations highly

  5. The Global Modeling Initiative Assessment Model: Model Description, Integration and Testing of the Transport Shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotman, D.A.; Tannahill, J.R.; Kinnison, D.E.; Connell, P.S.; Bergmann, D.; Proctor, D.; Rodriquez, J.M.; Lin, S.J.; Rood, R.B.; Prather, M.J.; Rasch, P.J.; Considine, D.B.; Ramaroson, R.; Kawa, S.R.

    2000-04-25

    We describe the three dimensional global stratospheric chemistry model developed under the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) to assess the possible environmental consequences from the emissions of a fleet of proposed high speed civil transport aircraft. This model was developed through a unique collaboration of the members of the GMI team. Team members provided computational modules representing various physical and chemical processes, and analysis of simulation results through extensive comparison to observation. The team members' modules were integrated within a computational framework that allowed transportability and simulations on massively parallel computers. A unique aspect of this model framework is the ability to interchange and intercompare different submodules to assess the sensitivity of numerical algorithms and model assumptions to simulation results. In this paper, we discuss the important attributes of the GMI effort, describe the GMI model computational framework and the numerical modules representing physical and chemical processes. As an application of the concept, we illustrate an analysis of the impact of advection algorithms on the dispersion of a NO{sub y}-like source in the stratosphere which mimics that of a fleet of commercial supersonic transports (High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT)) flying between 17 and 20 kilometers.

  6. Robustness and flexibility in compact quasiaxial stellarators: Global ideal MHD stability and energetic particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Diallo, A.; Cooper, W.A.; Fu, G.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Concerns about the flexibility and robustness of a compact quasiaxial stellarator design are addressed by studying the effects of varied pressure and rotational transform profiles on expected performance. For thirty, related, fully three-dimensional configurations the global, ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability is evaluated as well as energetic particle transport. It is found that tokamak intuition is relevant to understanding the magnetohydrodynamic stability, with pressure gradient driving terms and shear stabilization controlling both the periodicity preserving, N=0, and the non-periodicity preserving, N=1, unstable kink modes. Global kink modes are generated by steeply peaked pressure profiles near the half radius and edge localized kink modes are found for plasmas with steep pressure profiles at the edge as well as with edge rotational transform above 0.5. Energetic particle transport is not strongly dependent on these changes of pressure and current (or rotational transform) profiles, although a weak inverse dependence on pressure peaking through the corresponding Shafranov shift is found. While good transport and MHD stability are not anticorrelated in these equilibria, stability only results from a delicate balance of the pressure and shear stabilization forces. A range of interesting MHD behaviors is found for this large set of equilibria, exhibiting similar particle transport properties

  7. Transportability of tertiary qualifications and CPD: A continuing challenge for the global health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltman Deborah C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In workforces that are traditionally mobile and have long lead times for new supply, such as health, effective global indicators of tertiary education are increasingly essential. Difficulties with transportability of qualifications and cross-accreditation are now recognised as key barriers to meeting the rapidly shifting international demands for health care providers. The plethora of mixed education and service arrangements poses challenges for employers and regulators, let alone patients; in determining equivalence of training and competency between individuals, institutions and geographical locations. Discussion This paper outlines the shortfall of the current indicators in assisting the process of global certification and competency recognition in the health care workforce. Using Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD data we highlight how International standardisation in the tertiary education sector is problematic for the global health workforce. Through a series of case studies, we then describe a model which enables institutions to compare themselves internally and with others internationally using bespoke or prioritised parameters rather than standards. Summary The mobility of the global health workforce means that transportability of qualifications is an increasing area of concern. Valid qualifications based on workplace learning and assessment requires at least some variables to be benchmarked in order to judge performance.

  8. Evaluating inter-continental transport of fine aerosols:(2) Global health impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Horowitz, Larry W.

    In this second of two companion papers, we quantify for the first time the global impact on premature mortality of the inter-continental transport of fine aerosols (including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, and mineral dust) using the global modeling results of (Liu et al., 2009). Our objective is to estimate the number of premature mortalities in each of ten selected continental regions resulting from fine aerosols transported from foreign regions in approximately year 2000. Our simulated annual mean population-weighted (P-W) concentrations of total PM2.5 (aerosols with diameter less than 2.5 μm) are highest in East Asia (EA, 30 μg m -3) and lowest in Australia (3.6 μg m -3). Dust is the dominant component of PM2.5 transported between continents. We estimate global annual premature mortalities (for adults age 30 and up) due to inter-continental transport of PM2.5 to be nearly 380 thousand (K) in 2000. Approximately half of these deaths occur in the Indian subcontinent (IN), mostly due to aerosols transported from Africa and the Middle East (ME). Approximately 90K deaths globally are associated with exposure to foreign (i.e., originating outside a receptor region) non-dust PM2.5. More than half of the premature mortalities associated with foreign non-dust aerosols are due to aerosols originating from Europe (20K), ME (18K) and EA (15K); and nearly 60% of the 90K deaths occur in EA (21K), IN (19K) and Southeast Asia (16K). The lower and higher bounds of our estimated 95% confidence interval (considering uncertainties from the concentration-response relationship and simulated aerosol concentrations) are 18% and 240% of the estimated deaths, respectively, and could be larger if additional uncertainties were quantified. We find that in 2000 nearly 6.6K premature deaths in North America (NA) were associated with foreign PM2.5 exposure (5.5K from dust PM2.5). NA is least impacted by foreign PM2.5 compared to receptors on the Eurasian continent. However, the

  9. Long-range transport of airborne microbes over the global tropical and subtropical ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Mayol, Eva

    2017-07-28

    The atmosphere plays a fundamental role in the transport of microbes across the planet but it is often neglected as a microbial habitat. Although the ocean represents two thirds of the Earth\\'s surface, there is little information on the atmospheric microbial load over the open ocean. Here we provide a global estimate of microbial loads and air-sea exchanges over the tropical and subtropical oceans based on the data collected along the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition. Total loads of airborne prokaryotes and eukaryotes were estimated at 2.2 × 1021 and 2.1 × 1021 cells, respectively. Overall 33-68% of these microorganisms could be traced to a marine origin, being transported thousands of kilometres before re-entering the ocean. Moreover, our results show a substantial load of terrestrial microbes transported over the oceans, with abundances declining exponentially with distance from land and indicate that islands may act as stepping stones facilitating the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes.The extent to which the ocean acts as a sink and source of airborne particles to the atmosphere is unresolved. Here, the authors report high microbial loads over the tropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans and propose islands as stepping stones for the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes..

  10. Long-range transport of airborne microbes over the global tropical and subtropical ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayol, Eva; Arrieta, Jesús M; Jiménez, Maria A; Martínez-Asensio, Adrián; Garcias-Bonet, Neus; Dachs, Jordi; González-Gaya, Belén; Royer, Sarah-J; Benítez-Barrios, Verónica M; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Duarte, Carlos M

    2017-08-04

    The atmosphere plays a fundamental role in the transport of microbes across the planet but it is often neglected as a microbial habitat. Although the ocean represents two thirds of the Earth's surface, there is little information on the atmospheric microbial load over the open ocean. Here we provide a global estimate of microbial loads and air-sea exchanges over the tropical and subtropical oceans based on the data collected along the Malaspina 2010 Circumnavigation Expedition. Total loads of airborne prokaryotes and eukaryotes were estimated at 2.2 × 10 21 and 2.1 × 10 21 cells, respectively. Overall 33-68% of these microorganisms could be traced to a marine origin, being transported thousands of kilometres before re-entering the ocean. Moreover, our results show a substantial load of terrestrial microbes transported over the oceans, with abundances declining exponentially with distance from land and indicate that islands may act as stepping stones facilitating the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes.The extent to which the ocean acts as a sink and source of airborne particles to the atmosphere is unresolved. Here, the authors report high microbial loads over the tropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans and propose islands as stepping stones for the transoceanic transport of terrestrial microbes..

  11. Commuters' exposure to particulate matter air pollution is affected by mode of transport, fuel type, and route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Moniek; Hoek, Gerard; Oldenwening, Marieke; Lenters, Virissa; Meliefste, Kees; van den Hazel, Peter; Brunekreef, Bert

    2010-06-01

    Commuters are exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, but little quantitative information is currently available on differences in exposure between different modes of transport, routes, and fuel types. The aim of our study was to assess differences in commuters' exposure to traffic-related air pollution related to transport mode, route, and fuel type. We measured particle number counts (PNCs) and concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter bus passengers, we calculated that the inhaled air pollution doses were highest for cyclists. With the exception of PM10, we found that inhaled air pollution doses were lowest for electric bus passengers. Commuters' rush hour exposures were significantly influenced by mode of transport, route, and fuel type.

  12. Assessment of global and regional diffusion changes along white matter tracts in parkinsonian disorders by MR tractography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Surova

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of diffusion tensor tractography (DTT in parkinsonian disorders using a recently developed method for normalization of diffusion data and tract size along white matter tracts. Furthermore, the use of DTT in selected white matter tracts for differential diagnosis was assessed. METHODS: We quantified global and regional diffusion parameters in major white matter tracts in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA, progressive nuclear palsy (PSP, idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD and healthy controls. Diffusion tensor imaging data sets with whole brain coverage were acquired at 3 T using 48 diffusion encoding directions and a voxel size of 2×2×2 mm(3. DTT of the corpus callosum (CC, cingulum (CG, corticospinal tract (CST and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP was performed using multiple regions of interest. Regional evaluation comprised projection of fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, radial diffusivity (RD and the apparent area coefficient (AAC onto a calculated mean tract and extraction of their values along each structure. RESULTS: There were significant changes of global DTT parameters in the CST (MSA and PSP, CC (PSP and CG (PSP. Consistent tract-specific variations in DTT parameters could be seen along each tract in the different patient groups and controls. Regional analysis demonstrated significant changes in the anterior CC (MD, RD and FA, CST (MD and CG (AAC of patients with PSP compared to controls. Increased MD in CC and CST, as well as decreased AAC in CG, was correlated with a diagnosis of PSP compared to IPD. CONCLUSIONS: DTT can be used for demonstrating disease-specific regional white matter changes in parkinsonian disorders. The anterior portion of the CC was identified as a promising region for detection of neurodegenerative changes in patients with PSP, as well as for differential diagnosis between PSP and IPD.

  13. Ceftriaxone modulates uptake activity of glial glutamate transporter-1 against global brain ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-Yan; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Dan; Li, Li; Li, Wen-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Ceftriaxone(Cef) selectively increases the expression of glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), which was thought to be neuroprotective in some circumstances. However, the effect of Cef on glutamate uptake of GLT-1 was mostly assayed using in vitro studies such as primary neuron/astrocyte cultures or brain slices. In addition, the effect of Cef on neurons in different ischemic models was still discrepant. Therefore, this study was undertaken to observe the effect of Cef on neurons in global brain ischemia in rats, and especially to provide direct evidence of the up-regulation of GLT-1 uptake for glutamate contributing to the neuronal protection of Cef against brain ischemia. Neuropathological evaluation indicated that administration of Cef, especially pre-treatment protocols, significantly prevented delayed neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 subregion normally induced by global brain ischemia. Simultaneously, pre-administration of Cef significantly up-regulated the expression of GLT-1. Particularly, GLT-1 uptake assay with (3) H-glutamate in living cells from adult rats showed that up-regulation in glutamate uptake accompanied up-regulated GLT-1 expression. Inhibition of GLT-1 by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides or dihydrokainate significantly inhibited the Cef-induced up-regulation in GLT-1 uptake and the neuroprotective effect against global ischemia. Thus, we may conclude that Cef protects neurons against global brain ischemia via up-regulation of the expression and glutamate uptake of GLT-1. Glutamate uptake by glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) is the principal way to regulate extracellular glutamate homeostasis in central nervous system. Over-accumulation of glutamate results in excitotoxicity and injures neurons after cerebral ischemia. Ceftriaxone up-regulates GLT-1 expression and uptake of glutamate, diminishes the excitotoxicity of glutamate and then protects neurons against global brain ischemia. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Effects of source and seasonal variations of natural organic matters on the fate and transport of CeO2 nanoparticles in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural organic matter (NOM) affects the stability and transport of nanoparticles (NPs) in natural waters by modifying their physiochemical properties. Source location, and seasonal variations, influence their molecular, physical and electrical charge properties. To understand th...

  15. The Influence of 3D Printing on Global Container Multimodal Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Container multimodal transport system was an important promoter of postwar globalization. But in the future, part of global manufacturing may change from centralized to distributed due to 3D printing. To evaluate its impact, this research established a system dynamics model of sneakers supply chain firstly. The modeling showed that the total demand of international transport would decline after the application of 3D printing. For consumer country, the return of manufacturing would increase its container business. And that of producer country would reduce correspondingly. But for resource country, its resource exports would decline, while its container business may grow for the local processing of printing filaments. Secondly, the evaluations based on the data of Guangzhou port suggest that the 3D printing of sneakers was not enough to subvert the existing system. It would be broken only after the 3D printing of electrical products. By then, more manufacturing activities would transfer to the end of supply chain. On the other hand, producer country may actively respond to maintain its advantage in incumbent industrial pattern, such as Belt and Road initiative proposed by China. Deglobalization, caused by 3D printing, and globalization strengthening, caused by trade cooperation, will affect this system simultaneously.

  16. Impact of dissolved organic matter on colloid transport in the vadose zone: deterministic approximation of transport deposition coefficients from polymeric coating characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Verónica L; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Bin; Lion, Leonard W; Bisogni, James J; McDonough, Brendan A; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2011-02-01

    Although numerous studies have been conducted to discern colloid transport and stability processes, the mechanistic understanding of how dissolved organic matter (DOM) affects colloid fate in unsaturated soils (i.e., the vadose zone) remains unclear. This study aims to bridge the gap between the physicochemical responses of colloid complexes and porous media interfaces to solution chemistry, and the effect these changes have on colloid transport and fate. Measurements of adsorbed layer thickness, density, and charge of DOM-colloid complexes and transport experiments with tandem internal process visualization were conducted for key constituents of DOM, humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA), at acidic, neutral and basic pH and two CaCl(2) concentrations. Polymeric characteristics reveal that, of the two tested DOM constituents, only HA electrosterically stabilizes colloids. This stabilization is highly dependent on solution pH which controls DOM polymer adsorption affinity, and on the presence of Ca(+2) which promotes charge neutralization and inter-particle bridging. Transport experiments indicate that HA improved colloid transport significantly, while FA only marginally affected transport despite having a large effect on particle charge. A transport model with deposition and pore-exclusion parameters fit experimental breakthrough curves well. Trends in deposition coefficients are correlated to the changes in colloid surface potential for bare colloids, but must include adsorbed layer thickness and density for sterically stabilized colloids. Additionally, internal process observations with bright field microscopy reveal that, under optimal conditions for retention, experiments with FA or no DOM promoted colloid retention at solid-water interfaces, while experiments with HA enhanced colloid retention at air-water interfaces, presumably due to partitioning of HA at the air-water interface and/or increased hydrophobic characteristics of HA-colloid complexes. © 2010

  17. A Test of Sensitivity to Convective Transport in a Global Atmospheric CO2 Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, H.; Kawa, S. R.; Chin, M.; Pawson, S.; Zhu, Z.; Rasch, P.; Wu, S.

    2006-01-01

    Two approximations to convective transport have been implemented in an offline chemistry transport model (CTM) to explore the impact on calculated atmospheric CO2 distributions. GlobalCO2 in the year 2000 is simulated using theCTM driven by assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA s Goddard Earth Observation System Data Assimilation System, Version 4 (GEOS-4). The model simulates atmospheric CO2 by adopting the same CO2 emission inventory and dynamical modules as described in Kawa et al. (convective transport scheme denoted as Conv1). Conv1 approximates the convective transport by using the bulk convective mass fluxes to redistribute trace gases. The alternate approximation, Conv2, partitions fluxes into updraft and downdraft, as well as into entrainment and detrainment, and has potential to yield a more realistic simulation of vertical redistribution through deep convection. Replacing Conv1 by Conv2 results in an overestimate of CO2 over biospheric sink regions. The largest discrepancies result in a CO2 difference of about 7.8 ppm in the July NH boreal forest, which is about 30% of the CO2 seasonality for that area. These differences are compared to those produced by emission scenario variations constrained by the framework of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to account for possible land use change and residual terrestrial CO2 sink. It is shown that the overestimated CO2 driven by Conv2 can be offset by introducing these supplemental emissions.

  18. Evaluation of Stratospheric Transport in New 3D Models Using the Global Modeling Initiative Grading Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahan, Susan E.; Douglass, Anne R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) Team developed objective criteria for model evaluation in order to identify the best representation of the stratosphere. This work created a method to quantitatively and objectively discriminate between different models. In the original GMI study, 3 different meteorological data sets were used to run an offline chemistry and transport model (CTM). Observationally-based grading criteria were derived and applied to these simulations and various aspects of stratospheric transport were evaluated; grades were assigned. Here we report on the application of the GMI evaluation criteria to CTM simulations integrated with a new assimilated wind data set and a new general circulation model (GCM) wind data set. The Finite Volume Community Climate Model (FV-CCM) is a new GCM developed at Goddard which uses the NCAR CCM physics and the Lin and Rood advection scheme. The FV-Data Assimilation System (FV-DAS) is a new data assimilation system which uses the FV-CCM as its core model. One year CTM simulations of 2.5 degrees longitude by 2 degrees latitude resolution were run for each wind data set. We present the evaluation of temperature and annual transport cycles in the lower and middle stratosphere in the two new CTM simulations. We include an evaluation of high latitude transport which was not part of the original GMI criteria. Grades for the new simulations will be compared with those assigned during the original GMT evaluations and areas of improvement will be identified.

  19. Magnetically Modulated Heat Transport in a Global Simulation of Solar Magneto-convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossette, Jean-Francois [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Campus Box 600, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Charbonneau, Paul [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K. [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, RG2 9AX (United Kingdom); Rast, Mark P., E-mail: Jean-Francois.Cossette@lasp.colorado.edu, E-mail: paulchar@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: smolar@ecmwf.int, E-mail: Mark.Rast@lasp.colorado.edu [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Campus Box 391, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    We present results from a global MHD simulation of solar convection in which the heat transported by convective flows varies in-phase with the total magnetic energy. The purely random initial magnetic field specified in this experiment develops into a well-organized large-scale antisymmetric component undergoing hemispherically synchronized polarity reversals on a 40 year period. A key feature of the simulation is the use of a Newtonian cooling term in the entropy equation to maintain a convectively unstable stratification and drive convection, as opposed to the specification of heating and cooling terms at the bottom and top boundaries. When taken together, the solar-like magnetic cycle and the convective heat flux signature suggest that a cyclic modulation of the large-scale heat-carrying convective flows could be operating inside the real Sun. We carry out an analysis of the entropy and momentum equations to uncover the physical mechanism responsible for the enhanced heat transport. The analysis suggests that the modulation is caused by a magnetic tension imbalance inside upflows and downflows, which perturbs their respective contributions to heat transport in such a way as to enhance the total convective heat flux at cycle maximum. Potential consequences of the heat transport modulation for solar irradiance variability are briefly discussed.

  20. Algal biomass as a global source of transport fuels: Overview and development perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayat Ullah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the global fuel crisis of the early 1970s, coupled with concerns for the environment, the use of biofuel has been on the increase in many regions throughout the world. At present, a total of approximately 30 billion (30×109 liters of biofuel are utilized worldwide annually, although most countries rely hugely on the first generation biofuel. The limitations of the first and second generation biofuel gave rise to current interest in algae as a promising alternative to these conventional biofuel sources. Algal biomass could provide a lion׳s share of the global transport fuel requirements in future. The present review highlights some important developments in, and potentials of algaculture as a major biomass resource of the future. However, the major constraint to commercial-scale algae farming for energy production is the cost factor, which must be addressed adequately before its potentials can be harnessed.

  1. Global existence of weak solutions to dissipative transport equations with nonlocal velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hantaek; Granero-Belinchón, Rafael; Lazar, Omar

    2018-04-01

    We consider 1D dissipative transport equations with nonlocal velocity field: where is a nonlocal operator given by a Fourier multiplier. We especially consider two types of nonlocal operators: (1) , the Hilbert transform, (2) . In this paper, we show several global existence of weak solutions depending on the range of γ, δ and α. When , we take initial data having finite energy, while we take initial data in weighted function spaces (in the real variables or in the Fourier variables), which have infinite energy, when .

  2. On the Boltzmann Equation with Stochastic Kinetic Transport: Global Existence of Renormalized Martingale Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punshon-Smith, Samuel; Smith, Scott

    2018-02-01

    This article studies the Cauchy problem for the Boltzmann equation with stochastic kinetic transport. Under a cut-off assumption on the collision kernel and a coloring hypothesis for the noise coefficients, we prove the global existence of renormalized (in the sense of DiPerna/Lions) martingale solutions to the Boltzmann equation for large initial data with finite mass, energy, and entropy. Our analysis includes a detailed study of weak martingale solutions to a class of linear stochastic kinetic equations. This study includes a criterion for renormalization, the weak closedness of the solution set, and tightness of velocity averages in {{L}1}.

  3. Secondary organic aerosol in the global aerosol - chemistry transport model Oslo CTM2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Berntsen, T.; Myhre, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2007-06-01

    The global chemical transport model Oslo CTM2 has been extended to include the formation, transport and deposition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Precursor hydrocarbons which are oxidised to form condensible species include both biogenic species such as terpenes and isoprene, as well as species emitted predominantly by anthropogenic activities (toluene, m-xylene, methylbenzene and other aromatics). A model simulation for 2004 gives an annual global SOA production of approximately 55 Tg. Of this total, 2.5 Tg is found to consist of the oxidation products of anthropogenically emitted hydrocarbons, and about 15 Tg is formed by the oxidation products of isoprene. The global production of SOA is increased to about 76 Tg yr-1 by allowing semi-volatile species to condense on ammonium sulphate aerosol. This brings modelled organic aerosol values closer to those observed, however observations in Europe remain significantly underestimated, raising the possibility of an unaccounted for SOA source. Allowing SOA to form on ammonium sulphate aerosol increases the contribution of anthropogenic SOA from about 4.5% to almost 9% of the total production. The importance of NO3 as an oxidant of SOA precursors is found to vary regionally, causing up to 50%-60% of the total amount of SOA near the surface in polluted regions and less than 25% in more remote areas. This study underscores the need for SOA to be represented in a more realistic way in global aerosol models in order to better reproduce observations of organic aerosol burdens in industrialised and biomass burning regions.

  4. Developing a long-term global tourism transport model using a behavioural approach: implications for sustainable tourism policy making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the creation and use of a long-term global tourism transport model for private and public sector tourism policy makers. Given that technology is unlikely to reduce tourism transport's impact on climate change sufficiently to avoid serious dangers, behavioural change is necessary.

  5. An Integrated Risk Function for Estimating the Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, C. Arden; Ezzati, Majid; Olives, Casey; Lim, Stephen S.; Mehta, Sumi; Shin, Hwashin H.; Singh, Gitanjali; Hubbell, Bryan; Brauer, Michael; Anderson, H. Ross; Smith, Kirk R.; Balmes, John R.; Bruce, Nigel G.; Kan, Haidong; Laden, Francine; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Turner, Michelle C.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Cohen, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Background: Estimating the burden of disease attributable to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ambient air requires knowledge of both the shape and magnitude of the relative risk (RR) function. However, adequate direct evidence to identify the shape of the mortality RR functions at the high ambient concentrations observed in many places in the world is lacking. Objective: We developed RR functions over the entire global exposure range for causes of mortality in adults: ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer (LC). We also developed RR functions for the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) that can be used to estimate mortality and lost-years of healthy life in children Burnett RT, Pope CA III, Ezzati M, Olives C, Lim SS, Mehta S, Shin HH, Singh G, Hubbell B, Brauer M, Anderson HR, Smith KR, Balmes JR, Bruce NG, Kan H, Laden F, Prüss-Ustün A, Turner MC, Gapstur SM, Diver WR, Cohen A. 2014. An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:397–403; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307049 PMID:24518036

  6. Global changes alter soil fungal communities and alter rates of organic matter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.; Frey, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    Global changes - such as warming, more frequent and severe droughts, increasing atmospheric CO2, and increasing nitrogen (N) deposition rates - are altering ecosystem processes. The balance between soil carbon (C) accumulation and decomposition is determined in large part by the activity and biomass of detrital organisms, namely soil fungi, and yet their sensitivity to global changes remains unresolved. We present results from a meta-analysis of 200+ studies spanning manipulative and observational field experiments to quantify fungal responses to global change and expected consequences for ecosystem C dynamics. Warming altered the functional soil microbial community by reducing the ratio of fungi to bacteria (f:b) total fungal biomass. Additionally, warming reduced lignolytic enzyme activity generally by one-third. Simulated N deposition affected f:b differently than warming, but the effect on fungal biomass and activity was similar. The effect of N-enrichment on f:b was contingent upon ecosystem type; f:b increased in alpine meadows and heathlands but decreased in temperate forests following N-enrichment. Across ecosystems, fungal biomass marginally declined by 8% in N-enriched soils. In general, N-enrichment reduced fungal lignolytic enzyme activity, which could explain why soil C accumulates in some ecosystems following warming and N-enrichment. Several global change experiments have reported the surprising result that soil C builds up following increases in temperature and N deposition rates. While site-specific studies have examined the role of soil fungi in ecosystem responses to global change, we present the first meta-analysis documenting general patterns of global change impacts on soil fungal communities, biomass, and activity. In sum, we provide evidence that soil microbial community shifts and activity plays a large part in ecosystem responses to global changes, and have the potential to alter the magnitude of the C-climate feedback.

  7. DELTA : a computer code for determination of efficiency of particulate matter and aerosol transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picini, P.; Caropreso, G.; Antonini, A.; Galuppi, G.; Sbrana, M.; Bardone, G.; Malvestuto, V.; Ricotta, A.

    1996-04-01

    In the Part I of this paper a mathematical model to calculate the sampling and transport efficiencies (both in laminar and turbulent condition) of any sampling and transport system decomposable in several cylindrical elemental component is presented. In the Part II an experimental facility built in Casaccia ENEA laboratory is described and the measures carried out to validate the model are reported

  8. Cellular distribution of glucose and monocarboxylate transporters in human brain white matter and multiple sclerosis lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, P.G.; Michailidou, I.; Witte, M.E.; Mizee, M.R.; van der Pol, SM; Hof, B.; Reijerkerk, A.; Pellerin, L.; van der Valk, P.; de Vries, H.E.; van Horssen, J.

    2014-01-01

    To ensure efficient energy supply to the high demanding brain, nutrients are transported into brain cells via specific glucose (GLUT) and monocarboxylate transporters (MCT). Mitochondrial dysfunction and altered glucose metabolism are thought to play an important role in the progression of

  9. A Global System for Transportation Simulation and Visualization in Emergency Evacuation Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-01-01

    Simulation-based studies are frequently used for evacuation planning and decision making processes. Given the transportation systems complexity and data availability, most evacuation simulation models focus on certain geographic areas. With routine improvement of OpenStreetMap road networks and LandScanTM global population distribution data, we present WWEE, a uniform system for world-wide emergency evacuation simulations. WWEE uses unified data structure for simulation inputs. It also integrates a super-node trip distribution model as the default simulation parameter to improve the system computational performance. Two levels of visualization tools are implemented for evacuation performance analysis, including link-based macroscopic visualization and vehicle-based microscopic visualization. For left-hand and right-hand traffic patterns in different countries, the authors propose a mirror technique to experiment with both scenarios without significantly changing traffic simulation models. Ten cities in US, Europe, Middle East, and Asia are modeled for demonstration. With default traffic simulation models for fast and easy-to-use evacuation estimation and visualization, WWEE also retains the capability of interactive operation for users to adopt customized traffic simulation models. For the first time, WWEE provides a unified platform for global evacuation researchers to estimate and visualize their strategies performance of transportation systems under evacuation scenarios.

  10. Long term energy and emission implications of a global shift to electricity-based public rail transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Kim, Son H.

    2015-01-01

    With high reliance on light-duty vehicles in the present, the future of global transportation system is also geared towards private modes, which has significant energy and emission implications. Public transportation has been argued as an alternative strategy for meeting the rising transportation demands of the growing world, especially the poor, in a sustainable and energy efficient way. The present study analyzes an important yet under-researched question – what are the long-term energy and emission implications of an electric rail based passenger transportation system for meeting both long and short distance passenter transportation needs? We analyze a suite of electric rail share scenarios with and without climate policy. In the reference scenario, the transportation system will evolve towards dominance of fossil based light-duty vehicles. We find that an electric rail policy is more successful than an economy wide climate policy in reducing transport sector energy demand and emissions. Economy wide emissions however can only be reduced through a broader climate policy, the cost of which can be reduced by hundreds of billions of dollars across the century when implemented in combination with the transport sector focused electric rail policy. Moreover, higher share of electric rail enhances energy security for oil importing nations and reduces vehicular congestion and road infrastructure requirement as well. -- Highlights: •Economy wide carbon price policy will have little impact on transportation emissions. •Focused energy and emission mitigation policies required for transportation sector. •Large global shift towards electric rail based public transport is one possible option. •Transport sector focused policy will have marginal impact on total global emissions. •A combined transport sector and economy wide policy can reduce costs significantly

  11. Relationships matter: the role for social-emotional learning in an interprofessional global health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Toby Treem

    2014-12-01

    As global health curricula and competencies are defined, the instructional foundation of practice-based learning and soft skills training requires reexamination. This paper explores the integration of social-emotional instruction into global health education, specifically highlighting its role in interprofessional learning environments. One method to teach the core competencies in the higher education context is through restorative practices. Restorative practices is a "social science that integrates developments from a variety of disciplines and fields in order to build healthy communities, increase social capital, decrease crime and antisocial behavior, repair harm and restore relationships." The restorative philosophy incorporates the core competencies of socio-emotional learning and views conflict as an opportunity for learning. The first part discusses the foundations of social-emotional learning (SEL). It then explores the applicability of SEL in interprofessional and global health education. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  12. Turnover time of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the dark global ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catalá, Teresa Serrano; Reche, Isabel; Fuentes-Lema, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    in situ and detectable by fluorescence spectroscopy. Here we show two ubiquitous humic-like fluorophores with turnover times of 435±41 and 610±55 years, which persist significantly longer than the ~350 years that the dark global ocean takes to renew. In parallel, decay of a tyrosine-like fluorophore...... with a turnover time of 379±103 years is also detected. We propose the use of DOM fluorescence to study the cycling of resistant DOM that is preserved at centennial timescales and could represent a mechanism of carbon sequestration (humic-like fraction) and the decaying DOM injected into the dark global ocean...

  13. Diagnostic tools for evaluating quasi-horizontal transport in global-scale chemistry models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Huikyo; Youn, Daeok; Patten, Kenneth O.; Olsen, Seth C.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    2012-10-01

    The upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) plays an important role in climate and atmospheric chemistry. Despite its importance on the point of causing deep intrusions of tropics originated air into the midlatitudes, the quasi-horizontal transport process in the UTLS, represented by global chemistry-transport models (CTMs) or chemistry-climate models (CCMs), cannot easily be diagnosed with conventional analyses on isobaric surfaces. We use improved diagnostic tools to better evaluate CTMs and CCMs relative to satellite observations in the region of UTLS. Using the Hellinger distance, vertical profiles of probability density functions (PDFs) of chemical tracers simulated by the Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers 3.1 (MOZART-3.1) are quantitatively compared with satellite data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument in the tropopause relative altitude coordinate to characterize features of tracer distributions near the tropopause. Overall, the comparison of PDFs between MLS and MOZART-3.1 did not satisfy the same population assumption. Conditional PDFs are used to understand the meteorological differences between global climate models and the real atmosphere and the conditional PDFs between MOZART-3.1 and MLS showed better agreement compared to the original PDFs. The low static stability during high tropopause heights at midlatitudes suggests that the variation of tropopause height is related to transport processes from the tropics to midlatitudes. MOZART-3.1 with the GEOS4 GCM winds reproduces episodes of the tropical air intrusions. However, our diagnostic analyses show that the GEOS4 GCM did not properly reproduce the high tropopause cases at midlatitudes especially in spring.

  14. Global Model Comparison with NOAA Observed Surface Ozone to Understand Transport in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; McClure-Begley, A.; Tummon, F.; Tilmes, S.; Yudina, A.; Crepinsek, S.; Uttal, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic region is rapidly gaining interest and support for scientific studies to help understand and characterize the processes, sources, and chemical composition of the Arctic environment. In order to understand the Arctic climate system and the changes that are occurring, it is imperative to know the behavior and impact of atmospheric constituents. As a secondary pollutant which impacts the oxidation capacity and radiative forcing of the atmosphere, ozone is an imperative species to characterize. Global atmospheric models help to confirm and understand the influence of long-distance transport on local ozone conditions. This analysis highlights the winter season when ozone conditions are not being driven by photochemical influence, and transport is the prevalent means of ozone variation. In order to ensure adequate representation of ozone conditions and source regions, model comparison verifies the ability of models to represent the behavior of ozone at the surface. Ozone mixing ratios observed from Barrow, Alaska and Summit, Greenland, are critical observations to provide fundamental knowledge of the behavior and trends of ground-level ozone in the Arctic. The observed surface ozone and wind data are compared against two different global climate-chemistry models to assess the ability for models to simulate surface ozone in the arctic region. The CCM SOCOL (Modeling tools for studies of Solar Climate Ozone Links) and Community Earth System Model (CESM1) CAM4-chem are compared to observational measurements. Comparisons between the model and observations are used as the first step in understanding of the long-range transport contribution to ozone variability in the boundary layer of the Arctic environment. An improvement in agreement between observations and chemistry-climate hind cast is found when the model is forced with reanalysis wind conditions.

  15. Detailed assessment of global transport-energy models’ structures and projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Sonia; Mishra, Gouri Shankar; Fulton, Lew; Kyle, Page; McCollum, David L.; Miller, Joshua; Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Teter, Jacob

    2017-08-01

    This paper focuses on comparing the frameworks and projections from four major global transportation models with considerable transportation technology and behavioral detail. We analyze and compare the modeling frameworks, underlying data, assumptions, intermediate parameters, and projections to identify the sources of divergence or consistency, as well as key knowledge gaps. We find that there are significant differences in the base-year data and key parameters for future projections, especially for developing countries. These include passenger and freight activity, mode shares, vehicle ownership rates, and even energy consumption by mode, particularly for shipping, aviation and trucking. This may be due in part to a lack of previous efforts to do such consistency-checking and “bench-marking.” We find that the four models differ in terms of the relative roles of various mitigation strategies to achieve a 2°C / 450 ppm CO2e target: the economics-based integrated assessment models favor the use of low carbon fuels as the primary mitigation option followed by efficiency improvements, whereas transport-only and expert-based models favor efficiency improvements of vehicles followed by mode shifts. We offer recommendations for future modeling improvements focusing on (1) reducing data gaps; (2) translating the findings from this study into relevant policy implications such as feasibility of current policy goals, additional policy targets needed, regional vs. global reductions, etc.; (3) modeling strata of demographic groups to improve understanding of vehicle ownership levels, travel behavior, and urban vs. rural considerations; and (4) conducting coordinated efforts in aligning input assumptions and historical data, policy analysis, and modeling insights.

  16. Secondary organic aerosol in the global aerosol - chemical transport model Oslo CTM2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Berntsen, T.; Myhre, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2007-11-01

    The global chemical transport model Oslo CTM2 has been extended to include the formation, transport and deposition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Precursor hydrocarbons which are oxidised to form condensible species include both biogenic species such as terpenes and isoprene, as well as species emitted predominantly by anthropogenic activities (toluene, m-xylene, methylbenzene and other aromatics). A model simulation for 2004 gives an annual global SOA production of approximately 55 Tg. Of this total, 2.5 Tg is found to consist of the oxidation products of anthropogenically emitted hydrocarbons, and about 15 Tg is formed by the oxidation products of isoprene. The global production of SOA is increased to about 69 Tg yr-1 by allowing semi-volatile species to partition to ammonium sulphate aerosol. This brings modelled organic aerosol values closer to those observed, however observations in Europe remain significantly underestimated. Allowing SOA to partition into ammonium sulphate aerosol increases the contribution of anthropogenic SOA from about 4.5% to 9.4% of the total production. Total modelled organic aerosol (OA) values are found to represent a lower fraction of the measured values in winter (when primary organic aerosol (POA) is the dominant OA component) than in summer, which may be an indication that estimates of POA emissions are too low. Additionally, for measurement stations where the summer OA values are higher than in winter, the model generally underestimates the increase in summertime OA. In order to correctly model the observed increase in OA in summer, additional SOA sources or formation mechanisms may be necessary. The importance of NO3 as an oxidant of SOA precursors is found to vary regionally, causing up to 50%-60% of the total amount of SOA near the surface in polluted regions and less than 25% in more remote areas, if the yield of condensible oxidation products for β-pinene is used for NO3 oxidation of all terpenes. Reducing the yield

  17. Secondary organic aerosol in the global aerosol – chemical transport model Oslo CTM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. A. Isaksen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The global chemical transport model Oslo CTM2 has been extended to include the formation, transport and deposition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Precursor hydrocarbons which are oxidised to form condensible species include both biogenic species such as terpenes and isoprene, as well as species emitted predominantly by anthropogenic activities (toluene, m-xylene, methylbenzene and other aromatics. A model simulation for 2004 gives an annual global SOA production of approximately 55 Tg. Of this total, 2.5 Tg is found to consist of the oxidation products of anthropogenically emitted hydrocarbons, and about 15 Tg is formed by the oxidation products of isoprene. The global production of SOA is increased to about 69 Tg yr−1 by allowing semi-volatile species to partition to ammonium sulphate aerosol. This brings modelled organic aerosol values closer to those observed, however observations in Europe remain significantly underestimated. Allowing SOA to partition into ammonium sulphate aerosol increases the contribution of anthropogenic SOA from about 4.5% to 9.4% of the total production. Total modelled organic aerosol (OA values are found to represent a lower fraction of the measured values in winter (when primary organic aerosol (POA is the dominant OA component than in summer, which may be an indication that estimates of POA emissions are too low. Additionally, for measurement stations where the summer OA values are higher than in winter, the model generally underestimates the increase in summertime OA. In order to correctly model the observed increase in OA in summer, additional SOA sources or formation mechanisms may be necessary. The importance of NO3 as an oxidant of SOA precursors is found to vary regionally, causing up to 50%–60% of the total amount of SOA near the surface in polluted regions and less than 25% in more remote areas, if the yield of condensible oxidation products for β-pinene is used for NO3 oxidation of all terpenes

  18. Soft CP violation and the global matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjanovic, G.; Stecker, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    Scenarios for baryon production are considered within the context of SU(5) and SO(10) grand unified theories where CP violation arises spontaneously. The spontaneous CP symmetry breaking then results in a matter-antimatter domain structure in the universe. Two possible, distinct types of theories of soft CP violation are defined. In the first type the CP nonconservation originates only from the breaking of SU(2) sub L X U(1) symmetry, and in the second type, even at the unification temperature scale, CP violation can emerge as a result of symmetry breaking by the vacuum expectation values of the superheavy Higgs sector scalars.

  19. Alternative "global warming" metrics in life cycle assessment: a case study with existing transportation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P; Aamaas, Borgar; T Lund, Marianne; Solli, Christian; Fuglestvedt, Jan S

    2011-10-15

    The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) impact category "global warming" compares emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) using Global Warming Potential (GWP) with a 100-year time-horizon as specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Two weaknesses of this approach are (1) the exclusion of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) and biophysical factors despite their established importance, and (2) the use of a particular emission metric (GWP) with a choice of specific time-horizons (20, 100, and 500 years). The GWP and the three time-horizons were based on an illustrative example with value judgments and vague interpretations. Here we illustrate, using LCA data of the transportation sector, the importance of SLCFs relative to LLGHGs, different emission metrics, and different treatments of time. We find that both the inclusion of SLCFs and the choice of emission metric can alter results and thereby change mitigation priorities. The explicit inclusion of time, both for emissions and impacts, can remove value-laden assumptions and provide additional information for impact assessments. We believe that our results show that a debate is needed in the LCA community on the impact category "global warming" covering which emissions to include, the emission metric(s) to use, and the treatment of time.

  20. Eating as if It Really Matters: Teaching the Pedagogy of Food in the Age of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    To survive, we need to eat. And yet eating is much more than just ingesting fuel to keep our bodies going. Besides being a source of sustenance, food is a cause for celebration, an inducement to temptation, a weapon for wielding power, an indicator of well-being, a catalyst for change, and a vehicle for learning. In the age of globalization, these…

  1. How Culture Matters in Educational Borrowing? Chinese Teachers' Dilemmas in a Global Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-nan; Feng, Da-ming

    2015-01-01

    Educational borrowing may cause numerous dilemmas that emerge from cross-cultural differences among teachers in the globalization. Through the case study on the flipped classroom introduced from the United States into Chinese middle schools, this article presents an examination of dilemmas that teachers encountered during educational borrowing in…

  2. Airborne particulate matter in public transport: a field study at major intersection points in Frankfurt am Main (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Alexander; Bohn, Julia; Groneberg, David A; Schulze, Johannes; Bundschuh, Matthias

    2014-04-09

    Chronic particulate matter (PM) exposure is correlated to various health effects, even at low amounts. WHO has defined PM concentration limits as daily and annual mean values which were made legally binding in the European Union. While many studies have focused on PM concentrations in special environments, little is known about the average PM- exposure for both employees and passengers in the German public transportation system. Particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1) - concentrations were monitored for 30 minutes at 15 different areas in Frankfurt am Main with major public traffic. Maximum and mean concentrations and, as a surrogate for the inhaled dosage, the Area Under the Curve (AUC) for 15 minutes of exposure were calculated. The WHO limits for PM10 and PM2.5 were exceeded at nearly all times and areas. Highest maximum concentrations were found at underground stations, subterranean railway stations and subterranean shopping arcades with much lower values obtained at surface points. In one measurement at a surface test point smokers who neglected the non-smoking policy could be identified as a major cause for a at least temporary strong increase of PM-load as seen in high maximum values and normal averages. Subterranean areas have high particulate matter contamination exceeding WHO limits. Improvement may be achieved by increased ventilation. Subterranean shops and kiosks, being workplaces with long term exposure, should be equipped with external air supply. The non- smoking policy of the "Deutsche Bahn" for public spaces should be enforced.

  3. Simulation of a relativistic heavy ions beam transport in the matter: contribution of the fragmentation process and biological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibnouzahir, M.

    1995-03-01

    The study of relativistic heavy ion collisions permit an approach of the properties of dense and not hadronic matter, and an analysis of the reaction mechanisms. Such studies are also interesting on the biological point of view, since there exist now well defined projects concerning the radiotherapy with high LET particles as neutrons, protons, heavy ions. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the processes which occur in the propagation of a relativistic heavy ion beam (E≥ 100 A.MeV) in matter. We have elaborated a three dimensional transport code, using a Monte Carlo method, in order to describe the propagation of Ne and Ar ions in water. Violent nuclear collisions giving fragmentation process have been taken into account by use of the FREESCO program. We have tested the validity of our transport model and we show an important change of the energy deposition at the vicinity of the Bragg peak; such a distortion, due mainly to fragmentation reactions, is of a great interest for biological applications. (author)

  4. Explicit de Sitter flux vacua for global string models with chiral matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicoli, Michele; Klevers, Denis; Krippendorf, Sven; Mayrhofer, Christoph; Quevedo, Fernando; Valandro, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    We address the open question of performing an explicit stabilisation of all closed string moduli (including dilaton, complex structure and Kähler moduli) in fluxed type IIB Calabi-Yau compactifications with chiral matter. Using toric geometry we construct Calabi-Yau manifolds with del Pezzo singularities. D-branes located at such singularities can support the Standard Model gauge group and matter content or some close extensions. In order to control complex structure moduli stabilisation we consider Calabi-Yau manifolds which exhibit a discrete symmetry that reduces the effective number of complex structure moduli. We calculate the corresponding periods in the symplectic basis of invariant three-cycles and find explicit flux vacua for concrete examples. We compute the values of the flux superpotential and the string coupling at these vacua. Starting from these explicit complex structure solutions, we obtain AdS and dS minima where the Kähler moduli are stabilised by a mixture of D-terms, non-perturbative and perturbative α ' corrections as in the LARGE Volume Scenario. In the considered example the visible sector lives at a dP6 singularity which can be higgsed to the phenomenologically interesting class of models at the dP3 singularity.

  5. Explicit de Sitter flux vacua for global string models with chiral matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Klevers, Denis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States); Krippendorf, Sven [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Mayrhofer, Christoph [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Quevedo, Fernando [ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Valandro, Roberto [ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2014-05-05

    We address the open question of performing an explicit stabilisation of all closed string moduli (including dilaton, complex structure and Kähler moduli) in fluxed type IIB Calabi-Yau compactifications with chiral matter. Using toric geometry we construct Calabi-Yau manifolds with del Pezzo singularities. D-branes located at such singularities can support the Standard Model gauge group and matter content or some close extensions. In order to control complex structure moduli stabilisation we consider Calabi-Yau manifolds which exhibit a discrete symmetry that reduces the effective number of complex structure moduli. We calculate the corresponding periods in the symplectic basis of invariant three-cycles and find explicit flux vacua for concrete examples. We compute the values of the flux superpotential and the string coupling at these vacua. Starting from these explicit complex structure solutions, we obtain AdS and dS minima where the Kähler moduli are stabilised by a mixture of D-terms, non-perturbative and perturbative α{sup ′} corrections as in the LARGE Volume Scenario. In the considered example the visible sector lives at a dP{sub 6} singularity which can be higgsed to the phenomenologically interesting class of models at the dP{sub 3} singularity.

  6. Control of Fossil-Fuel Particulate Black Carbon and Organic Matter, the Most Effective Method of Slowing Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2001-12-01

    Under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, no control of black carbon (BC) was considered. Here, it is found, through simulations in which seven new particles feedbacks to climate are identified, that any emission reduction of fossil-fuel (f.f.) particulate BC plus associated organic matter (OM) will slow global warming more than will any emission reduction of CO2 or CH4 for a definite time period. When all f.f. BC+OM and anthropogenic CO2 and CH4 emissions are eliminated together, that period is 20-90 years. It is also found that historical net global warming can be attributed roughly to greenhouse-gas plus f.f. BC+OM warming minus anthropogenic sulfate cooling. Eliminating all f.f. BC+OM could eliminate more than 40 percent of such net warming within three years if no other changes occurred. Reducing CO2 emissions by a third would have the same effect, but after 50-200 years. Finally, diesel cars warm climate more than do equivalent gasoline cars; thus, fuel- and carbon-tax laws that favor diesel promote global warming.

  7. A test of sensitivity to convective transport in a global atmospheric CO{sub 2} simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, H. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). UMBC Goddard Earth Science and Technology Center; Kawa, S.R.; Chin, M.; Pawson, S.; Zhu, Z. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Rasch, P. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Wu, S. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Two approximations to convective transport have been implemented in an offline chemistry transport model (CTM) to explore the impact on calculated atmospheric CO{sub 2} distributions. Global CO{sub 2} in the year 2000 is simulated using the CTM driven by assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA's Goddard Earth Observation System Data Assimilation System, Version 4 (GEOS-4). The model simulates atmospheric CO{sub 2} by adopting the same CO{sub 2} emission inventory and dynamical modules as described in Kawa et al. (convective transport scheme denoted as Conv1). Conv1 approximates the convective transport by using the bulk convective mass fluxes to redistribute trace gases. The alternate approximation, Conv2, partitions fluxes into updraft and downdraft, as well as into entrainment and detrainment, and has potential to yield a more realistic simulation of vertical redistribution through deep convection.Replacing Conv1 by Conv2 results in an overestimate of CO{sub 2} over biospheric sink regions. The largest discrepancies result in a CO{sub 2} difference of about 7.8 ppm in the July NH boreal forest, which is about 30% of the CO{sub 2} seasonality for that area. These differences are compared to those produced by emission scenario variations constrained by the framework of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to account for possible land use change and residual terrestrial CO{sub 2} sink. It is shown that the overestimated CO{sub 2} driven by Conv2 can be offset by introducing these supplemental emissions.

  8. Ecological linkages between headwaters and downstream ecosystems: Transport of organic matter, invertebrates, and wood down headwater channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, M.S.; Richardson, J.S.; Naiman, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Headwater streams make up a large proportion of the total length and watershed area of fluvial networks, and are partially characterized by the large volume of organic matter (large wood, detritus, and dissolved organic matter) and invertebrate inputs from the riparian forest, relative to stream size. Much of those inputs are exported to downstream reaches through time where they potentially subsidize river communities. The relative rates, timing, and conversion processes that carry inputs from small streams to downstream reaches are reasonably well quantified. For example, larger particles are converted to smaller particles, which are more easily exported. Also, dissolved organic matter and surface biofilms are converted to larger particles which can be more easily intercepted by consumers. However, the quality of these materials as it affects biological activity downstream is not well known, nor is the extent to which timing permits biological use of those particles. These ecological unknowns need to be resolved. Further, land uses may disrupt and diminish material transport to downstream reaches by removing sources (e.g., forest harvest), by affecting transport and decomposition processes (e.g., flow regulation, irrigation, changes in biotic communities), and by altering mechanisms of storage within headwaters (e.g., channelization). We present conceptual models of energy and nutrient fluxes that outline small stream processes and pathways important to downstream communities, and we identify informational gaps that, if filled, could significantly advance the understanding of linkages between headwater streams and larger rivers. The models, based on empirical evidence and best professional judgment, suggest that navigable waters are significantly influenced by headwater streams through hydrological and ecological connectivities, and land use can dramatically influence these natural connectivities, impacting downstream riverine ecosystems. ?? 2007 American Water

  9. Comparison of TCCON and GOSAT Column Averaged CO2 to Global Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Wang, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The measurements of column averaged CO2 contain ground surface CO2 flux signals. Comparing these observations to modeling results helps us to better understand the distributions and variations of CO2 sources and sinks and to evaluate the model transport. In this study, we ran a global atmospheric transport model (PCTM) from 2003 to 2011, using a near-balanced bottom up CASA/GSFC-GFED2 CO2 emissions and uptake as the biospheric part of total CO2 flux. All the transport modeling and biospheric CO2 fluxes are forced or driven by NASA MERRA reanalysis data. The PCTM model captures the observed CO2 seasonal cycles and inter-hemispheric gradients at TCCON sites well, within about a ppmv in most instances. The model also agrees very well with observations in the phase and amplitude of synoptic variations, showing high spatial and temporal correlations. These results suggest that the PCTM model has a good skill in capturing variable processes at different atmospheric levels, including the surface level CO2 signals. This study also shows that the CO2 fluxes used in the modeling (primarily the biospheric ones) provide a reasonably good prior representation of the CO2 flux distribution globally. Comparison analysis of GOSAT XCO2 data to PCTM modeling is mainly done on the monthly basis. The GOSAT XCO2 data used are from the JPL ACOS team's version 2.9. We co-sampled the modeling results with GOSAT XCO2 measurements spatially and temporally. Results show the GOSAT retrievals have the ability to capture the seasonal cycles globally, generally presenting reasonable positive correlations with modeling, with some persistent negative biases. On the synoptic scale, GOSAT XCO2 shows obvious discrepancies with modeling in some areas, suggesting possible large uncertainties in the XCO2 retrievals. We also compared the column CO2 data to output from a perturbed CO2 flux model to test the sensitivity of the observations in detecting small flux changes. These sensitivity experiments will

  10. Dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) impacts photosynthetic oxygen production and electron transport in coontail Ceratophyllum demersum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pflugmacher, S.; Pietsch, C.; Rieger, W.; Steinberg, C.E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) is dead organic matter exceeding, in freshwater systems, the concentration of organic carbon in all living organisms by far. 80-90% (w/w) of the NOM is made up of humic substances (HS). Although NOM possesses several functional groups, a potential effect on aquatic organisms has not been studied. In this study, direct effects of NOM from various origins on physiological and biochemical functions in the aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum are presented. Environmentally relevant concentrations of NOM cause inhibitory effects on the photosynthetic oxygen production of C. demersum. Various NOM sources and the synthetic humic substance HS1500 inhibit the photosynthetic oxygen production of the plant as observed with 1-amino-anthraquinone, a known inhibitor of plant photosynthesis. 1-Aminoanthraquinone may serve as an analogue for the quinoid structures in NOM and HS. Most likely, the effects of NOM may be related to quinoid structures and work downstream of photosynthesis at photosystem (PS) II

  11. How culture matters in educational borrowing? Chinese teachers’ dilemmas in a global era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-nan Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Educational borrowing may cause numerous dilemmas that emerge from cross-cultural differences among teachers in the globalization. Through the case study on the flipped classroom introduced from the United States into Chinese middle schools, this article presents an examination of dilemmas that teachers encountered during educational borrowing in the global era. Based on the theoretical literature on cultural-historical activity theory, the study used interviews, field observations, and documents from six secondary schools in mainland China for one and a half years to understand comprehensively the dilemmas that teachers encountered when implementing the flipped classroom. The findings indicate that understandings of knowledge production, transmission, and the goal of education in mainland China differ from those in the west, which is the main reason for the teacher dilemmas. Because of the diversity in social culture, we suggest that teachers should be more culturally sensitive and improve compatibility in the process of educational borrowing.

  12. Inequality, poverty and quality of institutions: which freedom channels of globalization matter for Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice A

    2013-01-01

    Are formal institutions instrumental in the effect globalization mechanisms have on the human face? If so, through which freedoms channels are poverty and inequality mitigated? With the instrumentality of formal institutions: (1) de jure financial liberalization (KAOPEN) has a positive income-redistribution impact while the de facto measure (FDI) does not; (2) political liberalization has a disequalizing effect and; (3) economic freedom has a positive (negative) effect on inequality (poverty)...

  13. Study of suprathermal electron transport in solid or compressed matter for the fast-ignitor scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, F.

    2010-01-01

    The inertial confinement fusion (ICF) concept is widely studied nowadays. It consists in quickly compressing and heating a small spherical capsule filled with fuel, using extremely energetic lasers. Since approximately 15 years, the fast-ignition (FI) technique has been proposed to facilitate the fuel heating by adding a particle beam - electrons generated by an ultra-intense laser - at the exact moment when the capsule compression is at its maximum. This thesis constitutes an experimental study of these electron beams generated by picosecond-scale lasers. We present new results on the characteristics of these electrons after they are accelerated by the laser (energy, divergence, etc.) as well as their interaction with the matter they pass through. The experimental results are explained and reveal different aspects of these laser-accelerated fast electrons. Their analysis allowed for significant progress in understanding several mechanisms: how they are injected into solid matter, how to measure their divergence, and how they can be automatically collimated inside compressed matter. (author) [fr

  14. Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon and organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2002-10-01

    Under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, no control of black carbon (BC) was considered. Here, it is found, through simulations in which 12 identifiable effects of aerosol particles on climate are treated, that any emission reduction of fossil-fuel (f.f.) particulate BC plus associated organic matter (OM) may slow global warming more than may any emission reduction of CO2 or CH4 for a specific period. When all f.f. BC + OM and anthropogenic CO2 and CH4 emissions are eliminated together, the period is 25-100 years. It is also estimated that historical net global warming can be attributed roughly to greenhouse gas plus f.f. BC + OM warming minus substantial cooling by other particles. Eliminating all f.f. BC + OM could eliminate 20-45% of net warming (8-18% of total warming before cooling is subtracted out) within 3-5 years if no other change occurred. Reducing CO2 emissions by a third would have the same effect, but after 50-200 years. Finally, diesel cars emitting continuously under the most recent U.S. and E.U. particulate standards (0.08 g/mi; 0.05 g/km) may warm climate per distance driven over the next 100+ years more than equivalent gasoline cars. Thus, fuel and carbon tax laws that favor diesel appear to promote global warming. Toughening vehicle particulate emission standards by a factor of 8 (0.01 g/mi; 0.006 g/km) does not change this conclusion, although it shortens the period over which diesel cars warm to 13-54 years. Although control of BC + OM can slow warming, control of greenhouse gases is necessary to stop warming. Reducing BC + OM will not only slow global warming but also improve human health.

  15. Contributions to cities' ambient particulate matter (PM): A systematic review of local source contributions at global level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagulian, Federico; Belis, Claudio A.; Dora, Carlos Francisco C.; Prüss-Ustün, Annette M.; Bonjour, Sophie; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Amann, Markus

    2015-11-01

    For reducing health impacts from air pollution, it is important to know the sources contributing to human exposure. This study systematically reviewed and analysed available source apportionment studies on particulate matter (of diameter of 10 and 2.5 microns, PM10 and PM2.5) performed in cities to estimate typical shares of the sources of pollution by country and by region. A database with city source apportionment records, estimated with the use of receptor models, was also developed and available at the website of the World Health Organization. Systematic Scopus and Google searches were performed to retrieve city studies of source apportionment for particulate matter. Six source categories were defined. Country and regional averages of source apportionment were estimated based on city population weighting. A total of 419 source apportionment records from studies conducted in cities of 51 countries were used to calculate regional averages of sources of ambient particulate matter. Based on the available information, globally 25% of urban ambient air pollution from PM2.5 is contributed by traffic, 15% by industrial activities, 20% by domestic fuel burning, 22% from unspecified sources of human origin, and 18% from natural dust and salt. The available source apportionment records exhibit, however, important heterogeneities in assessed source categories and incompleteness in certain countries/regions. Traffic is one important contributor to ambient PM in cities. To reduce air pollution in cities and the substantial disease burden it causes, solutions to sustainably reduce ambient PM from traffic, industrial activities and biomass burning should urgently be sought. However, further efforts are required to improve data availability and evaluation, and possibly to combine with other types of information in view of increasing usefulness for policy making.

  16. Real time global tests of the ALICE High Level Trigger data transport framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.; Cicalo, C [Univ. Monseratto, INFN, Cgliari (Italy); Chattopadhyay, S. [Saha Inst., Kolkata (India); Cleymans, J.; De Vaux, G.; Fearick, R.W.; Szostak, A.; Vilakazi, Z.Z. [Univ. Cape Town, Physics depart., 7700 (South Africa); Lindenstruth, V.; Steinbeck, T.M.; Tilsner, H.; Weis, R. [Kirchoff Inst., Heidelberg Univ., D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) system of the ALICE experiment is an online event filter and trigger system designed for input bandwidths of up to 25 GB/s at event rates of up to 1 kHz. The system is designed as a scalable PC cluster, implementing several hundred nodes. The transport of data in the system is handled by an object-oriented data flow framework operating on the basis of the publisher-subscriber principle, being designed fully pipelined with lowest processing overhead and communication latency in the cluster. In this paper, we report the latest measurements where this framework has been operated on five different sites over a global north-south link extending more than 10,000 km, processing a 'real-time' data flow. (authors)

  17. Real time global tests of the ALICE High Level Trigger data transport framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, B.; Cicalo, C; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cleymans, J.; De Vaux, G.; Fearick, R.W.; Szostak, A.; Vilakazi, Z.Z.; Lindenstruth, V.; Steinbeck, T.M.; Tilsner, H.; Weis, R.

    2008-01-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) system of the ALICE experiment is an online event filter and trigger system designed for input bandwidths of up to 25 GB/s at event rates of up to 1 kHz. The system is designed as a scalable PC cluster, implementing several hundred nodes. The transport of data in the system is handled by an object-oriented data flow framework operating on the basis of the publisher-subscriber principle, being designed fully pipelined with lowest processing overhead and communication latency in the cluster. In this paper, we report the latest measurements where this framework has been operated on five different sites over a global north-south link extending more than 10,000 km, processing a 'real-time' data flow. (authors)

  18. Global seamless network demonstrator: carrier grade automatic switched transport network implementation in realistic telecom field environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foisel, Hans-Martin; Hanik, Norbert; Braun, Ralf-Peter; Lehr, Georg; Gladisch, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    The Global Seamless Network (GSN) Demonstrator is presented, a joint effort of system vendors and Deutsche Telekom Group R&D to demonstrate network functions and management integration and enable, for the first time, experiences with a carrier grade Automatically Switched Transport Network (ASTN) implementation and the envisaged main ASTN clients, IP and Ethernet. For end-to-end monitoring capability, integrating the view on the ASTN and Ethernet-MAN configuration, an UMS (Upper Monitoring System) is being developed. Furthermore broadband application were implemented to visualise the network functions. The ASTN backbone consists of four cross connects and an ULH-WDM system with 3x 10Gbit/s channels (OCh) between Berlin and Darmstadt, whereby each OCh is treated as a virtual fibre.

  19. Global Air Quality Predictions of Particulate Matter in the Middle East and Sensitivity to Future Emissions Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzo, E. A.; Holmes, C. D.; Paltsev, S.; Alawad, A.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the influence of natural and anthropogenic drivers of future PM in the Middle East region using two future emissions scenarios to drive the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model. The Arabian Peninsula is a major source of windblown dust as well as anthropogenic aerosols. Future emissions - driven jointly and individually by climate change and anthropogenic emissions from this rapidly growing region - will play an important role in both climate forcing and human health impacts from particulate matter. We use two scenarios to compare their climate and air quality implications. First, we use the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) for four radiative forcing cases. Second, we develop a consistent future greenhouse gas and conventional pollutant emission inventory using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, which is a general equilibrium model of the global economy that calculates how economic growth and anthropogenic emissions change as a result of policies and other stressors. With EPPA, we examine three emissions cases, a business-as-usual case and two stabilization cases leading to anthropogenic radiative forcings of 3.7 W/m2 and 4.5 W/m2. We use these scenarios to drive GEOS-Chem for present and future climate, assessing changes in chemical composition of aerosol and drivers, both natural and anthropogenic, out to 2050. We find that projected anthropogenic emissions are strong determinants of future particulate matter air quality in the Middle East region.

  20. Three-dimensional Wavelet-based Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Global Atmospheric Chemical Transport Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastigejev, Y.; Semakin, A. N.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate numerical simulations of global scale three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport models (CTMs) are essential for studies of many important atmospheric chemistry problems such as adverse effect of air pollutants on human health, ecosystems and the Earth's climate. These simulations usually require large CPU time due to numerical difficulties associated with a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, nonlinearity and large number of reacting species. In our previous work we have shown that in order to achieve adequate convergence rate and accuracy, the mesh spacing in numerical simulation of global synoptic-scale pollution plume transport must be decreased to a few kilometers. This resolution is difficult to achieve for global CTMs on uniform or quasi-uniform grids. To address the described above difficulty we developed a three-dimensional Wavelet-based Adaptive Mesh Refinement (WAMR) algorithm. The method employs a highly non-uniform adaptive grid with fine resolution over the areas of interest without requiring small grid-spacing throughout the entire domain. The method uses multi-grid iterative solver that naturally takes advantage of a multilevel structure of the adaptive grid. In order to represent the multilevel adaptive grid efficiently, a dynamic data structure based on indirect memory addressing has been developed. The data structure allows rapid access to individual points, fast inter-grid operations and re-gridding. The WAMR method has been implemented on parallel computer architectures. The parallel algorithm is based on run-time partitioning and load-balancing scheme for the adaptive grid. The partitioning scheme maintains locality to reduce communications between computing nodes. The parallel scheme was found to be cost-effective. Specifically we obtained an order of magnitude increase in computational speed for numerical simulations performed on a twelve-core single processor workstation. We have applied the WAMR method for numerical

  1. Air transport and tourism of Montenegro in terms of global recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's dynamic environment can be characterized as unstable and unpredictable, which significantly affects the development of tourism and the flow of air traffic management which is why the tourism industry should be understood as a process based on continuous research, analysis and understanding of the interactions between the identified changes. Starting from the geographical position and strategic documents on Transport and Tourism, Montenegro is positioned as a air traffic destination whose success in the tourism market is conditioned by the willingness and ability of the holder of the tourist and transport policy pursuant to the challenges of today's approaches to planning and precisely define the development goals and courses of action. Based on the above and due recognition of the economic crisis as the challenges that face our country emphasized the need to analyze the effects of the global economic crisis on the performance of air traffic and future development of tourism in Montenegro. With the intention of the comprehensive observation of the current situation, this paper will present quantitative data from the previous period with the development of air traffic forecasts, organized under the development of Montenegrin tourism. In this way we want the consequences of the global economic crisis displayed as a serious threat to the development of air traffic and tourism in Montenegro, with the ultimate aim of highlighting the importance of establishing high-quality air traffic as part of an integrated approach to tourism development of our country that can achieve a certain degree of resistance to contemporary challenges.

  2. GEM/POPs: a global 3-D dynamic model for semi-volatile persistent organic pollutants ─ Part 2: Global transports and budgets of PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Barrie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Global transports and budgets of three PCBs were investigated with a 3-D dynamic model for semi-volatile persistent organic pollutants – GEM/POPs. Dominant pathways were identified for PCB transports in the atmosphere with a transport flux peaking below 8 km for gaseous and 14 km for particulate PCB28, and peaking below 4 km for gaseous and 6 km for particulate PCB180. The inter-continental transports of PCBs in the Northern Hemisphere (NH are dominated in the zonal direction with their route changes regulated seasonally by the variation of westerly jet. The transport pathways from Europe and North Atlantic contributed the most PCBs to the Arctic. Inter-hemispheric transports of PCBs originated from the regions of Europe, Asia and North America in three different flow-paths, accompanying with easterly jet, Asian monsoon winds and trade winds. PCBs from the Southern Hemisphere (SH could also be exported into the NH. According to the PCB emissions of year 2000, Europe, North America and Asia are the three largest sources of the three PCBs, contributing to the global background concentrations in the atmosphere, soil and water. Globally, PCB28 in soil and water has become a comparable source to the anthropogenic emissions while heavier PCBs such as PCB153 and 180 are still transporting into soil and water. For all three congeners, particulate PCBs are concentrated in the higher levels than gaseous PCBs. More than half of the particulate PCB28 could reach up to the stratosphere, while most of the heavier counter-parts (PCB153 and PCB180 are stored in the troposphere including boundary layer with more than 99% gaseous PCB180 below 6 km.

  3. Management Matters: A Leverage Point for Health Systems Strengthening in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth H. Bradley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite a renewed focus in the field of global health on strengthening health systems, inadequate attention has been directed to a key ingredient of high-performing health systems: management. We aimed to develop the argument that management – defined here as the process of achieving predetermined objectives through human, financial, and technical resources – is a cross-cutting function necessary for success in all World Health Organization (WHO building blocks of health systems strengthening. Management within health systems is particularly critical in low-income settings where the efficient use of scarce resources is paramount to attaining health goals. More generally, investments in management capacity may be viewed as a key leverage point in grand strategy, as strong management enables the achievement of large ends with limited means. We also sought to delineate a set of core competencies and identify key roles to be targeted for management capacity building efforts. Several effective examples of management interventions have been described in the research literature. Together, the existing evidence underscores the importance of country ownership of management capacity building efforts, which often challenge the status quo and thus need country leadership to sustain despite inevitable friction. The literature also recognizes that management capacity efforts, as a key ingredient of effective systems change, take time to embed, as new protocols and ways of working become habitual and integrated as standard operating procedures. Despite these challenges, the field of health management as part of global health system strengthening efforts holds promise as a fundamental leverage point for achieving health system performance goals with existing human, technical, and financial resources. The evidence base consistently supports the role of management in performance improvement but would benefit from additional research with improved

  4. Management Matters: A Leverage Point for Health Systems Strengthening in Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Taylor, Lauren A.; Cuellar, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a renewed focus in the field of global health on strengthening health systems, inadequate attention has been directed to a key ingredient of high-performing health systems: management. We aimed to develop the argument that management – defined here as the process of achieving predetermined objectives through human, financial, and technical resources – is a cross-cutting function necessary for success in all World Health Organization (WHO) building blocks of health systems strengthening. Management within health systems is particularly critical in low-income settings where the efficient use of scarce resources is paramount to attaining health goals. More generally, investments in management capacity may be viewed as a key leverage point in grand strategy, as strong management enables the achievement of large ends with limited means. We also sought to delineate a set of core competencies and identify key roles to be targeted for management capacity building efforts. Several effective examples of management interventions have been described in the research literature. Together, the existing evidence underscores the importance of country ownership of management capacity building efforts, which often challenge the status quo and thus need country leadership to sustain despite inevitable friction. The literature also recognizes that management capacity efforts, as a key ingredient of effective systems change, take time to embed, as new protocols and ways of working become habitual and integrated as standard operating procedures. Despite these challenges, the field of health management as part of global health system strengthening efforts holds promise as a fundamental leverage point for achieving health system performance goals with existing human, technical, and financial resources. The evidence base consistently supports the role of management in performance improvement but would benefit from additional research with improved methodological rigor and longer

  5. Global security and the impacts in nuclear matter control: Nuclear Security Summit 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Martonio Mont’Alverne Barreto; Barreto, Midred Cavalcante, E-mail: barreto@unifor.br, E-mail: midredcb@hotmail.com [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Due to the current international security instability, especially resulting from traffic and nuclear terrorism threat proliferation, the Nuclear Security Summits were conceived with the objective of increasing the cooperation between States, institutions and international organisms, as well as conducting a global community in following the guidelines and action plans which have produced curious results such as the reduction and the removal of enriched uranium in some countries, the reinforcement of safeguard installations that store radioactive materials and the establishment of Excellence Centers, qualification, training and technological development in the fight against nuclear weaponry traffic. (author)

  6. Why does site visit matter in global software development: A knowledge-based perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Face-to-Face (F2F) interaction is a strong means to foster social relationships and effective knowledge sharing within a team. However, communication in Global Software Development (GSD) teams is usually restricted to computer-mediated conversation that is perceived to be less effective...... knowledge sharing between team members from both sites. The findings are expected to contribute to building a common knowledge and under- standing about the role and usefulness of the site visits for supporting and improving knowledge sharing in GSD teams by establishing and sustaining social...

  7. Global security and the impacts in nuclear matter control: Nuclear Security Summit 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Martonio Mont’Alverne Barreto; Barreto, Midred Cavalcante

    2017-01-01

    Due to the current international security instability, especially resulting from traffic and nuclear terrorism threat proliferation, the Nuclear Security Summits were conceived with the objective of increasing the cooperation between States, institutions and international organisms, as well as conducting a global community in following the guidelines and action plans which have produced curious results such as the reduction and the removal of enriched uranium in some countries, the reinforcement of safeguard installations that store radioactive materials and the establishment of Excellence Centers, qualification, training and technological development in the fight against nuclear weaponry traffic. (author)

  8. Comparing Global Atmospheric CO2 Flux and Transport Models with Remote Sensing (and Other) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Pawson, S.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wofsy, S. C.; Andrews, A. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report recent progress derived from comparison of global CO2 flux and transport models with new remote sensing and other sources of CO2 data including those from satellite. The overall objective of this activity is to improve the process models that represent our understanding of the workings of the atmospheric carbon cycle. Model estimates of CO2 surface flux and atmospheric transport processes are required for initial constraints on inverse analyses, to connect atmospheric observations to the location of surface sources and sinks, to provide the basic framework for carbon data assimilation, and ultimately for future projections of carbon-climate interactions. Models can also be used to test consistency within and between CO2 data sets under varying geophysical states. Here we focus on simulated CO2 fluxes from terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric transport mutually constrained by analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office for the period 2000 through 2009. Use of assimilated meteorological data enables direct model comparison to observations across a wide range of scales of variability. The biospheric fluxes are produced by the CASA model at 1x1 degrees on a monthly mean basis, modulated hourly with analyzed temperature and sunlight. Both physiological and biomass burning fluxes are derived using satellite observations of vegetation, burned area (as in GFED-3), and analyzed meteorology. For the purposes of comparison to CO2 data, fossil fuel and ocean fluxes are also included in the transport simulations. In this presentation we evaluate the model's ability to simulate CO2 flux and mixing ratio variability in comparison to remote sensing observations from TCCON, GOSAT, and AIRS as well as relevant in situ observations. Examples of the influence of key process representations are shown from both forward and inverse model comparisons. We find that the model can resolve much of the synoptic, seasonal, and interannual

  9. Transport, mechanical and global migration data of multilayer copolyamide nanocomposite films with different layouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfato, P; Garofalo, E; Di Maio, L; Incarnato, L

    2017-06-01

    Transport, mechanical and global migration data concern multilayer food packaging films with different layouts, all incorporating a layered silicate/polyamide nanocomposite as oxygen barrier layer, and a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as moisture resistant layer in direct contact with food. The data are related to "Tuning of co-extrusion processing conditions and film layout to optimize the performances of PA/PE multilayer nanocomposite films for food packaging" by Garofalo et al. (2017) [1]. Nanocomposite multilayer films, with different relative layer thicknesses and clay types, were produced using a laboratory scale co-extrusion blown-film equipment and were analyzed in terms of transport to oxygen and water vapor, mechanical properties and overall migration. The results have shown that all the multilayer hybrid films, based on the copolyamide layer filled with Cloisite 30B, displayed the most significant oxygen barrier improvements and the best mechanical properties compared to the unfilled films. No significant alteration of the overall migration values was observed, as expectable [2], [3], [4]. The performance improvement was more relevant in the case of the film with the thinner nanocomposite layer.

  10. Transport, mechanical and global migration data of multilayer copolyamide nanocomposite films with different layouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarfato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport, mechanical and global migration data concern multilayer food packaging films with different layouts, all incorporating a layered silicate/polyamide nanocomposite as oxygen barrier layer, and a low-density polyethylene (LDPE as moisture resistant layer in direct contact with food. The data are related to “Tuning of co-extrusion processing conditions and film layout to optimize the performances of PA/PE multilayer nanocomposite films for food packaging” by Garofalo et al. (2017 [1]. Nanocomposite multilayer films, with different relative layer thicknesses and clay types, were produced using a laboratory scale co-extrusion blown-film equipment and were analyzed in terms of transport to oxygen and water vapor, mechanical properties and overall migration. The results have shown that all the multilayer hybrid films, based on the copolyamide layer filled with Cloisite 30B, displayed the most significant oxygen barrier improvements and the best mechanical properties compared to the unfilled films. No significant alteration of the overall migration values was observed, as expectable [2–4]. The performance improvement was more relevant in the case of the film with the thinner nanocomposite layer.

  11. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of a sediment transport model: a global approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Yang, J.; Tung, Y.

    1993-12-01

    Computerized sediment transport models are frequently employed to quantitatively simulate the movement of sediment materials in rivers. In spite of the deterministic nature of the models, the outputs are subject to uncertainty due to the inherent variability of many input parameters in time and in space, along with the lack of complete understanding of the involved processes. The commonly used first-order method for sensitivity and uncertainty analyses is to approximate a model by linear expansion at a selected point. Conclusions from the first-order method could be of limited use if the model responses drastically vary at different points in parameter space. To obtain the global sensitivity and uncertainty features of a sediment transport model over a larger input parameter space, the Latin hypercubic sampling technique along with regression procedures were employed. For the purpose of illustrating the methodologies, the computer model HEC2-SR was selected in this study. Through an example application, the results about the parameters sensitivity and uncertainty of water surface, bed elevation and sediment discharge were discussed.

  12. Transport and Retention of Colloids in Porous Media: Does Shape Really Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of particle shape on its transport and retention in porous media was evaluated by stretching carboxylate-modified fluorescent polystyrene spheres into rod shapes with aspect ratios of 2:1 and 4:1. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation experiments (QCM-D) were c...

  13. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why it Matters for Global Capitalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiller, Robert J. (Yale)

    2010-03-02

    In his lecture, Shiller will discuss the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. Winner of the getAbstract International Book Award and the 2009 TIAA-CREF Paul A. Samuelson Award for Outstanding Scholarly Writing on Lifelong Financial Security, the book, which has the same title as Shiller's lecture, discusses how "animal spirits," or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today's global financial crisis. John Maynard Keynes coined the phrase "animal spirits" to describe the changing psychology that led to the Great Depression and the recovery from it. Like Keynes, Shiller and Akerlof believe that government intervention is necessary to overcome the adverse effects on the economy brought about by unruly and irrational human emotions. In his talk, Shiller will explain how "animal spirits" lead to adverse economic effects, and he will outline his insights on how the global economy can recover from its recent setbacks.

  14. Modelling stratospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummukainen, M. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory

    1995-12-31

    Numerical modelling of atmospheric chemistry aims to increase the understanding of the characteristics, the behavior and the evolution of atmospheric composition. These topics are of utmost importance in the study of climate change. The multitude of gases and particulates making up the atmosphere and the complicated interactions between them affect radiation transfer, atmospheric dynamics, and the impacts of anthropogenic and natural emissions. Chemical processes are fundamental factors in global warming, ozone depletion and atmospheric pollution problems in general. Much of the prevailing work on modelling stratospheric chemistry has so far been done with 1- and 2-dimensional models. Carrying an extensive chemistry parameterisation in a model with high spatial and temporal resolution is computationally heavy. Today, computers are becoming powerful enough to allow going over to 3-dimensional models. In order to concentrate on the chemistry, many Chemical Transport Models (CTM) are still run off-line, i.e. with precalculated and archived meteorology and radiation. In chemistry simulations, the archived values drive the model forward in time, without interacting with the chemical evolution. This is an approach that has been adopted in stratospheric chemistry modelling studies at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. In collaboration with the University of Oslo, a development project was initiated in 1993 to prepare a stratospheric chemistry parameterisation, fit for global 3-dimensional modelling. This article presents the parameterisation approach. Selected results are shown from basic photochemical simulations

  15. A review of the global emissions, transport and effects of heavy metals in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, J.R.; Ashton, W.B.; Rapoport, R.D.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the sources and quantities of heavy metal emissions, their transport and fate, their potential health and environmental effects, and strategies to control them. The approach is to review the literature on this topic and to consult with experts in the field. Ongoing research activities and research needs are discussed. Estimates of global anthropogenic and natural emissions indicate that anthropogenic emissions are responsible for most of the heavy metals released into the atmosphere and that industrial activities have had a significant impact on the global cycling of trace metals. The largest anthropogenic sources of trace metals are coal combustion and the nonferrous metal industry. Atmospheric deposition is an important pathway by which trace metals enter the environment. Atmospheric deposition varies according to the solubility of the element and the length of time it resides in the atmosphere. Evidence suggests that deposition is influenced by other chemicals in the atmosphere, such as ozone and sulfur dioxide. Trace metals also enter the environment through leaching. Existing emissions-control technologies such as electrostatic precipitators, baghouses, and scrubbers are designed to remove other particulates from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants and are only partially effective at removing heavy metals. Emerging technologies such as flue gas desulfurization, lignite coke, and fluidized bed combustion could further reduce emissions. 108 refs

  16. The Terrestrial Fossil Organic Matter Record of Global Carbon Cycling: A Late Paleozoic through Early Mesozoic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanez, I. P.

    2006-12-01

    The carbon isotope composition of terrestrial fossil organic matter (δ13Corg) has been widely used as a proxy of global carbon cycling and to reconstruct perturbations to the ocean-atmosphere carbon budget. The degree to which terrestrial δ13Corg records local to regional environmental conditions versus the evolution of the global carbon cycle has been highly debated. The high-resolution (104 to 106 m.y.) terrestrial δ13Corg record presented here defines a long-term trend through the latest Devonian to Late Triassic that reveals significant and systematic variations that track independently inferred changes in climate, paleo-atmospheric pCO2, and major restructuring in paleotropical flora. This newly derived record is based on 350 carbon isotope analyses of compressed and permineralized plants, cuticle, charcoal and coal (including vitrinite and fusinite) collected from paleo-wetland mudstones and claystones, claystone-filled abandoned fluvial channels, floodplain mudstones, and ephemeral lacustrine deposits at paleo-tropical to paleo-temperate latitudes. Morphologic and geochemical analysis of contemporaneous paleosols and fluvial-alluvial deposits allow for correlation of terrestrial δ13Corg values to reconstructed paleo-environmental conditions. Terrestrial δ13Corg values of contemporaneous fossil organic matter exhibit systematic inter- and intra-basinal variation of up to 2‰ associated with differences in paleo-precipitation and burial history, and geomorphic position within depositional basins and paleo-fluvial systems. Variation in δ13Corg by organic matter type is minimal to less than 1.5‰; specifically, charcoal δ13Corg values overlap to are slightly less negative than those of thermally less mature organic components analyzed. Overall, variation within contemporaneous populations is significantly less than defined by the long-term terrestrial δ13Corg record. Moreover, paleo-floral pi/pa ratios, an established proxy of water-use efficiency of

  17. Emissions, fate and transport of persistent organic pollutants to the Arctic in a changing global climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhrnschimmel, Henry; MacLeod, Matthew; Hungerbuhler, Konrad

    2013-03-05

    Climate change is expected to alter patterns of human economic activity and the associated emissions of chemicals, and also to affect the transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here, we use a global-scale multimedia chemical fate model to analyze and quantify the impact of climate change on emissions and fate of POPs, and their transport to the Arctic. First, climate change effects under the SRES-A2 scenario are illustrated using case-studies for two well-characterized POPs, PCB153, and α-HCH. Then, we model the combined impact of altered emission patterns and climatic conditions on environmental concentrations of potential future-use substances with a broad range of chemical properties. Starting from base-case generic emission scenarios, we postulate changes in emission patterns that may occur in response to climate change: enhanced usage of industrial chemicals in an ice-free Arctic, and intensified application of agrochemicals due to higher crop production and poleward expansion of potential arable land. We find both increases and decreases in concentrations of POP-like chemicals in the Arctic in the climate change scenario compared to the base-case climate. During the phase of ongoing primary emissions, modeled increases in Arctic contamination are up to a factor of 2 in air and water, and are driven mostly by changes in emission patterns. After phase-out, increases are up to a factor of 2 in air and 4 in water, and are mostly attributable to changes in transport and fate of chemicals under the climate change scenario.

  18. Multi-model impacts of climate change on pollution transport from global emission source regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Doherty

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on tropospheric transport, diagnosed from a carbon monoxide (CO-like tracer species emitted from global CO sources, are evaluated from an ensemble of four chemistry–climate models (CCMs contributing to the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP. Model time-slice simulations for present-day and end-of-the-21st-century conditions were performed under the Representative Concentrations Pathway (RCP climate scenario RCP 8.5. All simulations reveal a strong seasonality in transport, especially over the tropics. The highest CO-tracer mixing ratios aloft occur during boreal winter when strong vertical transport is co-located with biomass burning emission source regions. A consistent and robust decrease in future CO-tracer mixing ratios throughout most of the troposphere, especially in the tropics, and an increase around the tropopause is found across the four CCMs in both winter and summer. Decreases in CO-tracer mixing ratios in the tropical troposphere are associated with reduced convective mass fluxes in this region, which in turn may reflect a weaker Hadley cell circulation in the future climate. Increases in CO-tracer mixing ratios near the tropopause are largely attributable to a rise in tropopause height enabling lofting to higher altitudes, although a poleward shift in the mid-latitude jets may also play a minor role in the extratropical upper troposphere. An increase in CO-tracer mixing ratios also occurs near the Equator, centred over equatorial and Central Africa, extending from the surface to the mid-troposphere. This is most likely related to localised decreases in convection in the vicinity of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, resulting in larger CO-tracer mixing ratios over biomass burning regions and smaller mixing ratios downwind.

  19. Multi-model impacts of climate change on pollution transport from global emission source regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Ruth M.; Orbe, Clara; Zeng, Guang; Plummer, David A.; Prather, Michael J.; Wild, Oliver; Lin, Meiyun; Shindell, Drew T.; Mackenzie, Ian A.

    2017-11-01

    The impacts of climate change on tropospheric transport, diagnosed from a carbon monoxide (CO)-like tracer species emitted from global CO sources, are evaluated from an ensemble of four chemistry-climate models (CCMs) contributing to the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). Model time-slice simulations for present-day and end-of-the-21st-century conditions were performed under the Representative Concentrations Pathway (RCP) climate scenario RCP 8.5. All simulations reveal a strong seasonality in transport, especially over the tropics. The highest CO-tracer mixing ratios aloft occur during boreal winter when strong vertical transport is co-located with biomass burning emission source regions. A consistent and robust decrease in future CO-tracer mixing ratios throughout most of the troposphere, especially in the tropics, and an increase around the tropopause is found across the four CCMs in both winter and summer. Decreases in CO-tracer mixing ratios in the tropical troposphere are associated with reduced convective mass fluxes in this region, which in turn may reflect a weaker Hadley cell circulation in the future climate. Increases in CO-tracer mixing ratios near the tropopause are largely attributable to a rise in tropopause height enabling lofting to higher altitudes, although a poleward shift in the mid-latitude jets may also play a minor role in the extratropical upper troposphere. An increase in CO-tracer mixing ratios also occurs near the Equator, centred over equatorial and Central Africa, extending from the surface to the mid-troposphere. This is most likely related to localised decreases in convection in the vicinity of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), resulting in larger CO-tracer mixing ratios over biomass burning regions and smaller mixing ratios downwind.

  20. Review of global environmental-transport models for 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Killough, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    Global environmental transport models for the long-lived and mobile radionuclides 3 H, 14 C, 85 Kr, and 129 I are reviewed from the perspective of their application to collective dose assessments following releases, e.g., from the nuclear fuel cycle. Contributions to the collective dose commitment from first-pass local and regional exposures are compared. Current global models for 14 C and 85 Kr appear to be satisfactory for dose assessment purposes. Global modeling for 3 H is more difficult than for 14 C and 85 Kr, because of the different physico-chemical forms in which atmospheric releases occur. Global models for 129 I models indicate the primary importance of retention in surface soils for collective doses during the first 10 4 years following atmospheric releases and the importance of long-term transport to ocean sediments for reducing the dose commitment

  1. Examining gray matter structures associated with individual differences in global life satisfaction in a large sample of young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Ding, Ke; Yang, Zetian; Dang, Xiaobin; Hu, Siyuan; Song, Yiying

    2015-01-01

    Although much attention has been directed towards life satisfaction that refers to an individual’s general cognitive evaluations of his or her life as a whole, little is known about the neural basis underlying global life satisfaction. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the structural neural correlates of life satisfaction in a large sample of young healthy adults (n = 299). We showed that individuals’ life satisfaction was positively correlated with the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and negatively correlated with the rGMV in the left precuneus and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of results remained significant even after controlling for the effect of general positive and negative affect, suggesting a unique structural correlates of life satisfaction. Furthermore, we found that self-esteem partially mediated the association between the PHG volume and life satisfaction as well as that between the precuneus volume and global life satisfaction. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural neural basis of life satisfaction, and highlight that self-esteem might play a crucial role in cultivating an individual’s life satisfaction. PMID:25406366

  2. Examining gray matter structures associated with individual differences in global life satisfaction in a large sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Ding, Ke; Yang, Zetian; Dang, Xiaobin; Hu, Siyuan; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2015-07-01

    Although much attention has been directed towards life satisfaction that refers to an individual's general cognitive evaluations of his or her life as a whole, little is known about the neural basis underlying global life satisfaction. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the structural neural correlates of life satisfaction in a large sample of young healthy adults (n = 299). We showed that individuals' life satisfaction was positively correlated with the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and negatively correlated with the rGMV in the left precuneus and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of results remained significant even after controlling for the effect of general positive and negative affect, suggesting a unique structural correlates of life satisfaction. Furthermore, we found that self-esteem partially mediated the association between the PHG volume and life satisfaction as well as that between the precuneus volume and global life satisfaction. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural neural basis of life satisfaction, and highlight that self-esteem might play a crucial role in cultivating an individual's life satisfaction. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. THE IMPORTANCE OF JUDICIAL COOPERATION IN CRIMINAL MATTERS IN THE AGE OF CONTEMPORARY GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Nicoleta PÎRVULESCU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Crime has been an ubiquitous phenomenon in human society since ancient times. The evolution of mankind, through the development and emancipation of the human mind, has led to a diversification of the way in which crimes are committed, far exceeding the area of reaction of a single isolated state. Globalization is a positive reality nowadays, but along with it, some less desirable aspects, such as the speed and flexibility of the movement of people, goods, services and information, may emerge. That is why, in this context, the world's states must cooperate in the immense fight against national and international crime. Against an international scourge, the answer can only be an international one.

  4. Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide (nTiO2) Transport in Water-Saturated Natural Sediments: Influence of Soil Organic Matter and Fe/Al Oxyhydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Power, L.; Cheng, T.

    2017-12-01

    Transport of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) in subsurface environments has important implications to water quality and soil contamination. Although extensive research has been conducted to understand the effects of water chemistry on ENP transport, less attention has been paid to influences from the transport medium/matrix. The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of natural organic matter (NOM) and Fe/Al oxyhydroxides in a natural sediment on ENP transport. A sediment was collected and separated into four portions, one of which was unmodified, and the others treated to remove specific components (organic matter, Fe/Al oxyhydroxides, or both organic matter and Fe/Al oxyhydroxides). Transport of nanoscale titanium dioxide (nTiO2) in columns packed with quartz sand and each of the four types of the sediment under water-saturated conditions was studied. Our results showed that nTiO2 transport was strongly influenced by pH and sediment composition. When influent pH = 5, nTiO2 transport in all the sediments was low, as positively-charged nTiO2 was attracted to negatively charged NOM, quartz, and other minerals. nTiO2 transport was slightly enhanced in columns packed with untreated sediment or Fe/Al oxyhydroxides removed sediment due to dissolved organic matter generated by the partial dissolution of NOM, which adsorbed onto nTiO2 surface and reversed its zeta potential to negative. When influent pH = 9, nTiO2 transport was generally high since negatively-charged nTiO2 was repelled by negatively charged transport medium. However, in columns packed with the organic matter removed sediment or the Fe/Al oxyhydroxides removed sediment, nTiO2 transport was low. This was attributable to pH buffering by the sediment, which decreased pore water pH in the column, resulting in zeta potential change and electrostatic attraction between Fe/Al oxyhydroxides and nTiO2. This research demonstrates that electrostatic forces between nTiO2 and mineral/organic components

  5. The effects of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and age on frontal white matter integrity in healthy adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune eJonassen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of populations at genetic risk have the potential to explore the underlying structural and functional mechanisms in the development of psychological disorders. The polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 has been associated with major depression (Caspi et al., 2003. In healthy women, variation in the human brain white matter microstructure integrity in the uncinate fascicule (UF has been suggested as an endophenotypes in the development of major depression (MDD. Pacheco et al. (2009 found a unique effect of age and 5-HTTLPR within the left frontal UF. The present study examined whether these associations persist along the adult life span. Thirty-seven right-handed healthy women between 21 and 61 years of age were invited for a diffusion MRI study. The functional polymorphism 5-HTTLPR located in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Fractional anisotropy (FA was generated for the UF based on Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. Models of emotion regulation circuitry suggest that working memory is important in conscious emotion regulation (Price and Drevets, 2010. To explore if 5-HTTLPR is related to this aspects of emotion processing, a working memory pathway, the superior longitudinal fascicule (SLF was included. The results demonstrate that age may explain the hypothesized association between 5-HTTLPR and frontal uncinate fascicule white matter integrity in healthy adult women. Both white matter changes associated with the aging process and those associated with growth and development may explain why the earlier reported unique effects of genotype in frontal UF FA do not persist into adulthood.

  6. Transport of organic contaminants in subsoil horizons and effects of dissolved organic matter related to organic waste recycling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabauty, Florian; Pot, Valérie; Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Bernet, Nathalie; Labat, Christophe; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Compost amendment on agricultural soil is a current practice to compensate the loss of organic matter. As a consequence, dissolved organic carbon concentration in soil leachates can be increased and potentially modify the transport of other solutes. This study aims to characterize the processes controlling the mobility of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in deep soil layers and their potential impacts on the leaching of organic contaminants (pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds) potentially present in cultivated soils receiving organic waste composts. We sampled undisturbed soil cores in the illuviated horizon (60-90 cm depth) of an Albeluvisol. Percolation experiments were made in presence and absence of DOM with two different pesticides, isoproturon and epoxiconazole, and two pharmaceutical compounds, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole. Two types of DOM were extracted from two different soil surface horizons: one sampled in a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge applied once every 2 years since 1998 and one sampled in an unamended plot. Results show that DOM behaved as a highly reactive solute, which was continuously generated within the soil columns during flow and increased after flow interruption. DOM significantly increased the mobility of bromide and all pollutants, but the effects differed according the hydrophobic and the ionic character of the molecules. However, no clear effects of the origin of DOM on the mobility of the different contaminants were observed.

  7. Investigating organic matter in Fanno Creek, Oregon, Part 2 of 3: sources, sinks, and transport of organic matter with fine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Mackenzie K.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Goldman, Jami H.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2014-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) is abundant in Fanno Creek, Oregon, USA, and has been tied to a variety of water-quality concerns, including periods of low dissolved oxygen downstream in the Tualatin River, Oregon. The key sources of OM in Fanno Creek and other Tualatin River tributaries have not been fully identified, although isotopic analyses from previous studies indicated a predominantly terrestrial source. This study investigates the role of fine sediment erosion and deposition (mechanisms and spatial patterns) in relation to OM transport. Geomorphic mapping within the Fanno Creek floodplain shows that a large portion (approximately 70%) of the banks are eroding or subject to erosion, likely as a result of the imbalance caused by anthropogenic alteration. Field measurements of long- and short-term bank erosion average 4.2 cm/year and average measurements of deposition for the watershed are 4.8 cm/year. The balance between average annual erosion and deposition indicates an export of 3,250 metric tons (tonnes, t) of fine sediment to the Tualatin River—about twice the average annual export of 1,880 t of sediment at a location 2.4 km from the creek’s mouth calculated from suspended sediment load regressions from continuous turbidity data and suspended sediment samples. Carbon content from field samples of bank material, combined with fine sediment export rates, indicates that about 29–67 t of carbon, or about 49–116 t of OM, from bank sediment may be exported to the Tualatin River from Fanno Creek annually, an estimate that is a lower bound because it does not account for the mass wasting of organic-rich O and A soil horizons that enter the stream.

  8. Atmospheric fate and transport of fine volcanic ash: Does particle shape matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. M.; Allard, M. P.; Klewicki, J.; Proussevitch, A. A.; Mulukutla, G.; Genareau, K.; Sahagian, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash presents hazards to infrastructure, agriculture, and human and animal health. In particular, given the economic importance of intercontinental aviation, understanding how long ash is suspended in the atmosphere, and how far it is transported has taken on greater importance. Airborne ash abrades the exteriors of aircraft, enters modern jet engines and melts while coating interior engine parts causing damage and potential failure. The time fine ash stays in the atmosphere depends on its terminal velocity. Existing models of ash terminal velocities are based on smooth, quasi-spherical particles characterized by Stokes velocity. Ash particles, however, violate the various assumptions upon which Stokes flow and associated models are based. Ash particles are non-spherical and can have complex surface and internal structure. This suggests that particle shape may be one reason that models fail to accurately predict removal rates of fine particles from volcanic ash clouds. The present research seeks to better parameterize predictive models for ash particle terminal velocities, diffusivity, and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer. The fundamental hypothesis being tested is that particle shape irreducibly impacts the fate and transport properties of fine volcanic ash. Pilot studies, incorporating modeling and experiments, are being conducted to test this hypothesis. Specifically, a statistical model has been developed that can account for actual volcanic ash size distributions, complex ash particle geometry, and geometry variability. Experimental results are used to systematically validate and improve the model. The experiments are being conducted at the Flow Physics Facility (FPF) at UNH. Terminal velocities and dispersion properties of fine ash are characterized using still air drop experiments in an unconstrained open space using a homogenized mix of source particles. Dispersion and sedimentation dynamics are quantified using particle image

  9. Trans-pacific dust transport: integrated analysis of NASA/CALIPSO and a global aerosol transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eguchi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Detailed 3-D structures of Trans-Pacific Asian dust transport occurring during 5–15 May 2007 were investigated using the NASA/CALIOP vertical-resolved measurements and a three-dimensional aerosol model (SPRINTARS. Both CALIOP and SPRINTARS dust extinctions showed a good agreement along the way of the transport from the dust source regions across North Pacific into North America. A vertically two-layered dust distribution was observed over the northeastern Pacific and North America. The lower dust layer originated from a dust storm generated in the Gobi Desert on 5 May. It was transported at an altitude of around 4 km MSL and has mixed with Asian anthropogenic air pollutants during the course of transport. The upper dust layer mainly originated from a dust storm that occurred in the Taklimakan Desert 2–3 days after the Gobi dust storm generation. The upper dust cloud was transported in higher altitudes above the major clouds layer during the Trans-Pacific transport. It therefore has remained unmixed with the Asian air pollutants and almost unaffected by wet removal. The decay of its concentration level was small (only one-half after its long-distance transport crossing the Pacific. Our dust budget analysis revealed that the Asian dust flux passing through the longitude plane of 140° E was 2.1 Tg, and one third of that arrived North America. The cases analyzed in this study revealed that, while the Gobi Desert is an important source that can contribute to the long-range dust transport, the Taklimakan Desert appears to be another important source that can contribute to the dust transport occurring particularly at high altitudes.

  10. Transport Infrastructure and the Environment in the Global South: Sustainable Mobility and Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cervero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Integrasi infrastruktur transportasi dan perkembangan kota harus ditingkatkan kepentingannya. Di banyak kota di belahan bumi bagian selatan, investasi pada Bus Rapid Transit (BRT memberikan kesempatan untuk peningkatan tersebut. Akan tetapi, sampai saat ini, sistem BRT telah gagal dalam menciptakan pembangunan yang kompak dan multi-guna bukan saja karena kurangnya perencanaan strategis kawasan stasiun tetapi juga dampak dari penempatan jalur-jalur dan stasiun pada wilayah perkotaan yang stagnan dan pada median jalan yang sibuk. Sistem BRT selama ini dipertimbangkan dan dirancang sebagai suatu investasi pergerakan dan bukan pembentuk kota. Disebabkan mayoritas pertumbuhan kota di masa depan di seluruh dunia akan berada pada kota-kota menengah yang cocok untuk investasi BRT, kesempatan untuk membuat sistem BRT sebagai investasi pembentuk kota tidak boleh disia-siakan. Pembangunan yang berorientasi transit adalah salah satu dari sejumlah model yang paling menjanjikan untuk mendorong pola pergerakan dan urbanisasi yang lebih berkelanjutan di kota-kota di belahan bumi selatan.Kata kunci. Transportasi publik, bus rapid transit, tata guna lahan, keberlanjutan, pembangunan berorientasi transitAbstract. The integration of transport infrastructure and urban development must be elevated in importance. In many cities of the Global South, recent Bus Rapid Transit (BRT investments provide an unprecedented opportunity to do just that. To date, however, BRT systems have failed to leverage compact, mixed-use development due not only to little strategic station-area planning but also factors like siting lines and stations in stagnant urban districts and busy roadway medians. BRT systems are being conceived and designed as mobility investments rather than city-shaping ones. Given that the majority of future urban growth worldwide will be in intermediate-size cities well-suited for BRT investments, the opportunities for making these not only mobility

  11. Municipal solid waste conversion to transportation fuels: a life-cycle estimation of global warming potential and energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressley, Phillip N.; Aziz, Tarek N.; DeCarolis, Joseph F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper utilizes life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to evaluate the conversion of U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) to liquid transportation fuels via gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (FT). The model estimates the cumulative energy demand and global warming potential (GWP) associated...

  12. HTAP_v2.2: a mosaic of regional and global emission grid maps for 2008 and 2010 to study hemispheric transport of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Crippa, M.; Guizzardi, D.; Dentener, F.; Muntean, M.; Pouliot, G.; Keating, T.; Zhang, Q.; Kurokawa, J.; Wankmüller, R.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Kuenen, J. J. P.; Klimont, Z.; Frost, G.; Darras, S.; Koffi, B.; Li, M.

    2015-10-01

    The mandate of the Task Force Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) is to improve the scientific understanding of the intercontinental air pollution transport, to quantify impacts on human health, vegetation and climate, to identify emission mitigation options across the regions of the Northern Hemisphere, and to guide future policies on these aspects. The harmonization and improvement of regional emission inventories is imperative to obtain consolidated estimates on the formation of global-scale air pollution. An emissions data set has been constructed using regional emission grid maps (annual and monthly) for SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10, PM2.5, BC and OC for the years 2008 and 2010, with the purpose of providing consistent information to global and regional scale modelling efforts. This compilation of different regional gridded inventories - including that of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for USA, the EPA and Environment Canada (for Canada), the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) and Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) for Europe, and the Model Inter-comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia III) for China, India and other Asian countries - was gap-filled with the emission grid maps of the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.3) for the rest of the world (mainly South America, Africa, Russia and Oceania). Emissions from seven main categories of human activities (power, industry, residential, agriculture, ground transport, aviation and shipping) were estimated and spatially distributed on a common grid of 0.1° × 0.1° longitude-latitude, to yield monthly, global, sector-specific grid maps for each substance and year. The HTAP_v2.2 air pollutant grid maps are considered to combine latest available regional information within a complete global data set. The disaggregation by sectors, high spatial and

  13. Contribution of dust transport and resuspension to particulate matter levels in the Mediterranean atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Dragana; Vukmirović, Zorka; Tošić, Ivana; Unkašević, Miroslava

    A sampling site at Herceg-Novi (Montenegro) is included in the network for the monitoring of airborne pollutants along the Mediterranean coast. The 24-h concentrations of total suspended particles (TSP) were measured by a standardized gravimetric method in a 1-in-6 day schedule program. The available data set from the period 1995-2000 was chosen for statistical analysis. The 3-parameter Weibull probability model successfully described the distributions of TSP concentrations as the total population and the part of them transported from the continental side. However, in the concentration set from the southern segment, outliers were found indicating the appearance of the highest concentrations from the open Adriatic Sea. The collected particles mostly constituted of PM10 and the ratio PM10/TSP reached value of 0.9. An analysis of the filter samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the presence of marine aerosol, crustal and amorphous material. The Fe content of >2% in the TSP samples was accepted for the identification of genuine Saharan dust transport. The frequency of these events of 7% a year contributed to an increase of the annual TSP concentrations of 10%-15%. The amorphous material was found in the sample of 31 May/1 June 1999 after the bombing of Cape Arza on the Luštica Peninsula, which is situated 5 km away from the sampling site. The attack occurred on 30 May and depleted uranium ammunition was used. The 238U radioactivity was at the background level, but the pulverous material found in that sample most likely originated from dust and soil transported from Cape Arza to Herceg-Novi on 31 May as the backward trajectory analysis by the Eta model showed. Resuspension was the dominant process affecting the TSP concentration, but this episode did not reflect significantly on the annual TSP levels, as is the case with the Saharan dust storms. The methodology applied in this work allowed a fugitive source of PM from destroyed objects and bombed

  14. STUDY OF TOTAL SUSPENDED MATTER TRANSPORTATION AND CIRCULATION IN JAKARTA BAY USING NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Made Suriwati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta Bay lies in the north of Jakarta and receives freshwater run off from thirteen rivers that run through the Jakarta metropolitan area, a conurbation that is home to some 20 millions people. Total discharges of organic water pollution have experienced a rapid increase from 214 tones per day in 1980 to over 537 tones per day in 1993. This is resulted to the high nutrient levels and eutrophication of coastal waters. Input pollutant in Jakarta Bay change the natural environment condition. Eutrophication has severe local impacts in the Jakarta Bay (GEF, 2008. Study of TSM in Jakarta Bay was conducted during September 2008 to June 2009. The aims of this research were to investigate the transportations of TSM in Jakarta Bay MODIS satellite data was used and the current pattern circulation in Jakarta Bay. Methods applied were MODIS satellite data analyses from 2003 to 2005 and numerical model 2-dimensional, for the in-situ data of total suspended matter secondary data from LIPI in September 2004 was applied. To validate the result regression method was used. Validation research results using MODIS satellite analysis showed the regression coefficient is R=0.72. Vector of current in Jakarta Bay in September 2004 experienced of the change direction and speed at each condition during spring condition at flood tide 1.23 m/s, highest tide 0.77 m/s, ebb tide 0.83 m/s, and lowest tide1.31 m/s and during neap condition at flood tide 0.71 m/s, highest tide 0.69 m/s, ebb tide 0.90 m/s, and lowest tide 0.34 m/s. Transportation of TSM in Jakarta Bay are dynamic, in dry season transportation of TSM higher than rain season.

  15. Reactive transport modeling of dissolved organic matter and iron in the Bengal Basin and Mahomet Bedrock Valley aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, N.; Kulkarni, H. V.; Steward, D. R.; Datta, S.

    2016-12-01

    Despite their different geography, geology and hydrology, Bengal Basin (BB) and Mahomet Bedrock Valley (MBV) aquifers have some key processes in common that mobilize arsenic (As) into groundwater. Groundwater flow, transport of sedimentary labile carbon and dissolved organic matter (DOM) through a multi-layer aquifer system, and microbial interactions together play an important role in the discontinuous As distribution. This study characterized and compared the DOM in high and low As groundwaters in BB and MBV aquifers and developed refined hydrogeological flow models for each of the aquifers. Fluorescence indices suggested substantially more humified and decomposed DOM character in high As (>50 ppb) zones than in low As (<50 ppb) zones in both aquifers. Modeling results indicate North-West to South-East flow with velocity of 7.2 cm/day for the BB aquifer and South-East to North-West with velocity of 35 cm/day for the MBV aquifer. A transport model including advection, dispersion, sorption and reaction was developed to understand the distribution of dissolved iron (Fe) in domains. A modified Monod rate law was used to simulate acetotrophic Fe reduction influenced by the presence of humic-like DOM, based on experimental data. The model produced a Fe2+ distribution, which was similar to that observed in high and low As sites in the BB aquifer. Meanwhile, in the MBV aquifer model, the dispersion of Fe2+ was found to be lower due to higher hydraulic gradient. Model results further indicated that in 30 years these processes would mobilize Fe2+ up to 1.4 km and 5 km in BB and MBV aquifers, respectively. While the quality of DOM in the two aquifers showed similarities, diverse flow and transport conditions may result in more localized and widespread distributions of Fe2+ and As in the BB and MBV aquifers respectively.

  16. The Pricing Evolution in the Air Transportation Industry. Implication for the Romanian Tourism Sector in the Era of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Marin-Pantelescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The globalization process involves the liberalization of the services and the air transportation industry is responsive to this reality. There is a developing tendency for global alliances and strategies in major airline companies. The globalization implies extending service networks in the whole world. Currently we are witnessing lower prices for domestic and foreign airline flights with benefits for the tourists’ business and leisure activities. The last minute offers and early booking prices provide a win-win situation, for the airline companies on one side and for the customers on the other side. The positive online reviews influence people buying decision because customers are more sensitive than ever to the services prices. Under this condition it is very interesting to see the evolution of pricing in the air transportation industry and the implication for the Romanian tourism sector.

  17. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  18. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  19. Impacts of Wind Stress Changes on the Global Heat Transport, Baroclinic Instability, and the Thermohaline Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Prietsch Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind stress is a measure of momentum transfer due to the relative motion between the atmosphere and the ocean. This study aims to investigate the anomalous pattern of atmospheric and oceanic circulations due to 50% increase in the wind stress over the equatorial region and the Southern Ocean. In this paper we use a coupled climate model of intermediate complexity (SPEEDO. The results show that the intensification of equatorial wind stress causes a decrease in sea surface temperature in the tropical region due to increased upwelling and evaporative cooling. On the other hand, the intensification of wind stress over the Southern Ocean induces a regional increase in the air and sea surface temperatures which in turn leads to a reduction in Antarctic sea ice thickness. This occurs in association with changes in the global thermohaline circulation strengthening the rate of Antarctic Bottom Water formation and a weakening of the North Atlantic Deep Water. Moreover, changes in the Southern Hemisphere thermal gradient lead to modified atmospheric and oceanic heat transports reducing the storm tracks and baroclinic activity.

  20. Book reviews: Animal spirits. How human psychology drives the economy and why it matters for global capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MANOLESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal spirits*. How human psychology drives the economy and why it matters for global capitalism helps us understand how the economic systems operate on the economic theory crisis background. The message of the book is recognizing the importance of irrationality factors in formulating the economic theory. The paper calls for reconsidering the economy fundamentals and principles, presenting a new way of understanding the significant economic phenomena that standard economic science cannot explain or accurately interpret. In this respect, a new way to revolutionize the economic thinking which might change the approach of the economic crises, unemployment, poverty, economic fluctuations and the like, is open. * The “animal spirits” collocation (coming from Latin spiritus animalis, where animus pertains to the soul or means to animate refers to that nervous fluid presently covering the psychological and emotional motivation factors. In a broad sense, the animal spirits refer to vivacity, to the natural state of a healthy animal, acting as an intermediary between the body and soul. In an economic context, Keynes speaks about the people’s strength and vitality determining them to make bold decisions and to invest money, effort and time in business initiatives. From an economic perspective, the animal spirits cover an element of anxiety and inconsistency present in the economy, the people’s unusual ambiguity and insecurity which sometimes paralyse them, while otherwise stimulate them overcome fear and hesitation.

  1. How to save the WIMP. Global analysis of a dark matter model with two s-channel mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerr, Michael; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Schwetz, Thomas; Vogl, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A reliable comparison of different dark matter (DM) searches requires models that satisfy certain consistency requirements like gauge invariance and perturbative unitarity. As a well-motivated example, we study two-mediator DM (2MDM). The model is based on a spontaneously broken U(1) ' gauge symmetry and contains a Majorana DM particle as well as two s-channel mediators, one vector (the Z ' ) and one scalar (the dark Higgs). We perform a global scan over the parameters of the model assuming that the DM relic density is obtained by thermal freeze-out in the early Universe and imposing a large set of constraints: direct and indirect DM searches, monojet, dijet and dilepton searches at colliders, Higgs observables, electroweak precision tests and perturbative unitarity. We conclude that thermal DM is only allowed either close to an s-channel resonance or if at least one mediator is lighter than the DM particle. In these cases a thermal DM abundance can be obtained although DM couplings to the Standard Model are tiny. Interestingly, we find that vector-mediated DM-nucleon scattering leads to relevant constraints despite the velocity-suppressed cross section, and that indirect detection can be important if DM annihilations into both mediators are kinematically allowed.

  2. Matter accumulation and changes of assimilation product transport and carbohydrate regime in barley plants as induced by infection with Puccinia striiformis West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Accumulation of nuclides (/sup 32/P, /sup 14/C), /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation and /sup 14/C transport were studied in several barley cultivars differing in their resistance to yellow rust. Increased matter accumulation was found in the rust pustules. Mycelium was proved by means of autoradiography. Infection causes changes with regard to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation, carbohydrate regime and transport of /sup 14/C assimilation products. Certain relationships exist between these changes and plant resistance to yellow rust. During germination the rust uredospores release substances, particularly amino acids, to be transported in the plant.

  3. Matter accumulation and changes of assimilation product transport and carbohydrate regime in barley plants as induced by infection with Puccinia striiformis West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    1982-01-01

    Accumulation of nuclides ( 32 P, 14 C), 14 CO 2 assimilation and 14 C transport were studied in several barley cultivars differing in their resistance to yellow rust. Increased matter accumulation was found in the rust pustules. Mycelium was proved by means of autoradiography. Infection causes changes with regard to 14 CO 2 assimilation, carbohydrate regime and transport of 14 C assimilation products. Certain relationships exist between these changes and plant resistance to yellow rust. During germination the rust uredospores release substances, particularly amino acids, to be transported in the plant. (author)

  4. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  5. Ozone impacts of gas-aerosol uptake in global chemistry transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadtler, Scarlet; Simpson, David; Schröder, Sabine; Taraborrelli, Domenico; Bott, Andreas; Schultz, Martin

    2018-03-01

    The impact of six heterogeneous gas-aerosol uptake reactions on tropospheric ozone and nitrogen species was studied using two chemical transport models, the Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-West of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP MSC-W) and the European Centre Hamburg general circulation model combined with versions of the Hamburg Aerosol Model and Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (ECHAM-HAMMOZ). Species undergoing heterogeneous reactions in both models include N2O5, NO3, NO2, O3, HNO3, and HO2. Since heterogeneous reactions take place at the aerosol surface area, the modelled surface area density (Sa) of both models was compared to a satellite product retrieving the surface area. This comparison shows a good agreement in global pattern and especially the capability of both models to capture the extreme aerosol loadings in east Asia. The impact of the heterogeneous reactions was evaluated by the simulation of a reference run containing all heterogeneous reactions and several sensitivity runs. One reaction was turned off in each sensitivity run to compare it with the reference run. The analysis of the sensitivity runs confirms that the globally most important heterogeneous reaction is the one of N2O5. Nevertheless, NO2, HNO3, and HO2 heterogeneous reactions gain relevance particularly in east Asia due to the presence of high NOx concentrations and high Sa in the same region. The heterogeneous reaction of O3 itself on dust is of minor relevance compared to the other heterogeneous reactions. The impacts of the N2O5 reactions show strong seasonal variations, with the biggest impacts on O3 in springtime when photochemical reactions are active and N2O5 levels still high. Evaluation of the models with northern hemispheric ozone surface observations yields a better agreement of the models with observations in terms of concentration levels, variability, and temporal correlations at most sites when the heterogeneous reactions are

  6. Using organic biomarkers to trace the transport pathways of livestock-derived organic matter in the soil subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Charlotte; Michaelides, Katerina; Evershed, Richard; Chadwick, David; Dungait, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    We explore the use of organic biomarkers as tracers for different components of livestock-derived organic matter (LD-OM) at two different spatial scales. We conducted six small-scale rainfall simulation experiments on a 30 × 30 × 30 cm soil lysimeter, following an application of bovine slurry at a rate of 5 l m-2. Throughout the experiment timed samples of leachate from the base of the lysimeter were collected, then soil cores were taken following the rainfall simulation. These samples were analysed in order to identify the most suitable biomarkers to trace dissolved and sediment-bound LD-OM respectively. The results showed that ammonium was an important tracer compound for dissolved LD-OM, along with other key low molecular weight compounds such as carbohydrates and amino acids. Analysis of the soil cores confirmed that compounds 5-β sigmastanol and 5-β epistigmastanol (5-β stanols) could be used very effectively to trace the sediment-bound and colloidal component of LD-OM. These specific organic compounds, which are identifiable by GC/MS analysis, only occur due to biohydrogenation of plant sterols in a ruminant gut, providing a unique opportunity to trace bovine faecal matter via sediment pathways. These tracers were then applied to a larger 3-D hillslope system by using University of Bristol's TRACE (Test Rig for Advancing Connectivity Experiments) facility. TRACE is a large-scale dual axis soil-slope measuring 6 m long × 2.5 m wide × 0.3 m deep accompanied by a 6-nozzle rainfall simulator. In these experiments slurry was only applied to the top 1 m section of the hillslope, in order to trace how the LD-OM was transported in the soil system. The slope allows the collection of leachate from the soil surface, from lateral through-flow and infiltrated water which reached the soil base (indicating deeper pathways). This enabled the distinction between LD-OM transported via different hydrological pathways. Soil cores were also taken across the soil surface

  7. Microbially Produced Organic Matter and Its Role in Facilitating Pu Transport in the Deep Vadose Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. C.; Tinnacher, R. M.; Zavarin, M.; Kersting, A. B.; Czerwinski, K.; Moser, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    Microorganisms have the potential to affect the fate and mobility of actinides in the deep vadose zone (DVZ) by metabolism (direct oxidation/reduction and changes to ecosystem redox potential), production of colloids and ligands, or by sorption (biofilms). The role of microbial communities in colloid-facilitated Pu transport is currently under investigation at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our experimental objective is to obtain both qualitative and quantitative data on the in situ role of biological organic material (DOM, POC, and EPS) on the (de)sorption of Pu at environmentally relevant concentrations. Groundwater samples were collected through vertical ventilation holes from a flooded post-test tunnel at the (NTS), where SSU rRNA gene libraries revealed a range of potential microbial physiotypes. Microbial enrichments were set up with the aim of isolating numerically significant representatives of major relevant physiotypes (e.g. aerobic heterotrophs, Mn/Fe reducers, EPS producers). NTS isolates, a well-characterized Shewanella sp.(str. CN-32), and an EPS-mutant of this strain were screened for their reactivity with Pu(IV). Organisms with both high and low (relative) Kd’s were used in sorption and cell lysis experiments. Viability experiments were conducted for all isolates in NaCl or NaCl/NaHCO3 solutions (I=0.01) for pH = 3, 5, 7, and 9. Products from cell lysis were filtered (0.22 um) or dialyzed (MW cutoff = 20,000 kD). These fractions were normalized by TOC and equilibrated with Pu to determine if Pu sorbs more strongly to either viable cells, EPS, cell membranes, or cell exudates. In our experiments, Pu(IV) sorbed most strongly to cells or cell fractions with EPS (expolysaccharide, the major biofilm component). However, cell fractions and exudates, which may become mobile when released from lysed or senescing cells, also strongly sorbed to Pu(IV). Therefore, changes in groundwater chemistry (e.g., pH or ionic strength) may have both direct chemical

  8. Interplay of Natural Organic Matter with Flow Rate and Particle Size on Colloid Transport: Experimentation, Visualization, and Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinyao; Zhang, Yimeng; Chen, Fangmin; Yang, Yuesuo

    2015-11-17

    The investigation on factors that affect the impact of natural organic matter (NOM) on colloid transport in complex hydraulic flow systems remains incomplete. Using our previously established approach, the interplay of flow rate and particle size on the NOM effect was quantified, using flow rates of 1 and 2 mL/min and particle sizes of 50 and 200 nm to represent small nanoparticles (1-100 nm) and large non-nano-microspheres (100-1000 nm) in the low-flow groundwater environment. Latex particles, Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA), and iron oxide-coated sand were used as model particles, NOM, and the aquifer medium, respectively. The quantitative results show NOM blocked more sites for large particles at a high flow rate: 1 μg of SRHA blocked 5.95 × 10(9) microsphere deposition sites at 2 mL/min but only 7.38 × 10(8) nanoparticle deposition sites at 1 mL/min. The particle size effect dominated over the flow rate, and the overall effect of the two is antagonistic. Granule-scale visualization of the particle packing on the NOM-presented sand surface corroborates the quantification results, revealing a more dispersed status of large particles at a high flow rate. We interpret this phenomenon as a polydispersivity effect resulting from the differential size of the particles and NOM: high flow and a high particle size enlarge the ratio of particle-blocked to NOM-blocked areas and thus the NOM blockage. To our knowledge, this is the first model-assisted quantification on the interplay of NOM, flow rate, and particle size on colloid transport. These findings are significant for nanorisk assessment and nanoremediation practices.

  9. Global Source Parameters from Regional Spectral Ratios for Yield Transportability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. S.; Fisk, M. D.; Stead, R. J.; Begnaud, M. L.; Rowe, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    We use source parameters such as moment, corner frequency and high frequency rolloff as constraints in amplitude tomography, ensuring that spectra of well-studied earthquakes are recovered using the ensuing attenuation and site term model. We correct explosion data for path and site effects using such models, which allows us to test transportability of yield estimation techniques based on our best source spectral estimates. To develop a background set of source parameters, we applied spectral ratio techniques to envelopes of a global set of regional distance recordings from over 180,000 crustal events. Corner frequencies and moment ratios were determined via inversion using all event pairs within predetermined clusters, shifting to absolute levels using independently determined regional and teleseismic moments. The moment and corner frequency results can be expressed as stress drop, which has considerable scatter, yet shows dramatic regional patterns. We observe high stress in subduction zones along S. America, S. Mexico, the Banda Sea, and associated with the Yakutat Block in Alaska. We also observe high stress at the Himalayan syntaxes, the Pamirs, eastern Iran, the Caspian, the Altai-Sayan, and the central African rift. Low stress is observed along mid ocean spreading centers, the Afar rift, patches of convergence zones such as Nicaragua, the Zagros, Tibet, and the Tien Shan, among others. Mine blasts appear as low stress events due to their low corners and steep rolloffs. Many of these anomalies have been noted by previous studies, and we plan to compare results directly. As mentioned, these results will be used to constrain tomographic imaging, but can also be used in model validation procedures similar to the use of ground truth in location problems, and, perhaps most importantly, figure heavily in quality control of local and regional distance amplitude measurements.

  10. Demonstration of global supply chains with intermodal transportation and decision support for small and medium business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    The globalization has exposed all companies, large or small, to global competition : and cooperation. The US furniture industry is not an exception in this process. Table 1 : provides an overall picture of the evolvement of the US residential furnitu...

  11. Source apportionment of fine particulate matter in China in 2013 using a source-oriented chemical transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhihao; Li, Jingyi; Huang, Lin; Wang, Peng; Wu, Li; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang; Lu, Li; Liu, Xuejun; Liao, Hong; Hu, Jianlin

    2017-12-01

    China has been suffering high levels of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ). Designing effective PM 2.5 control strategies requires information about the contributions of different sources. In this study, a source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to quantitatively estimate the contributions of different source sectors to PM 2.5 in China. Emissions of primary PM 2.5 and gas pollutants of SO 2 , NO x , and NH 3 , which are precursors of particulate sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA, major PM 2.5 components in China), from eight source categories (power plants, residential sources, industries, transportation, open burning, sea salt, windblown dust and agriculture) were separately tracked to determine their contributions to PM 2.5 in 2013. Industrial sector is the largest source of SNA in Beijing, Xi'an and Chongqing, followed by agriculture and power plants. Residential emissions are also important sources of SNA, especially in winter when severe pollution events often occur. Nationally, the contributions of different source sectors to annual total PM 2.5 from high to low are industries, residential sources, agriculture, power plants, transportation, windblown dust, open burning and sea salt. Provincially, residential sources and industries are the major anthropogenic sources of primary PM 2.5 , while industries, agriculture, power plants and transportation are important for SNA in most provinces. For total PM 2.5 , residential and industrial emissions are the top two sources, with a combined contribution of 40-50% in most provinces. The contributions of power plants and agriculture to total PM 2.5 are about 10%, respectively. Secondary organic aerosol accounts for about 10% of annual PM 2.5 in most provinces, with higher contributions in southern provinces such as Yunnan (26%), Hainan (25%) and Taiwan (21%). Windblown dust is an important source in western provinces such as Xizang (55% of total PM 2.5 ), Qinghai (74%), Xinjiang (59

  12. Commuters’ Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution Is Affected by Mode of Transport, Fuel Type, and Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Moniek; Hoek, Gerard; Oldenwening, Marieke; Lenters, Virissa; Meliefste, Kees; van den Hazel, Peter; Brunekreef, Bert

    2010-01-01

    Background Commuters are exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, but little quantitative information is currently available on differences in exposure between different modes of transport, routes, and fuel types. Objectives The aim of our study was to assess differences in commuters’ exposure to traffic-related air pollution related to transport mode, route, and fuel type. Methods We measured particle number counts (PNCs) and concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), PM10, and soot between June 2007 and June 2008 on 47 weekdays, from 0800 to 1000 hours, in diesel and electric buses, gasoline- and diesel-fueled cars, and along two bicycle routes with different traffic intensities in Arnhem, the Netherlands. In addition, each-day measurements were taken at an urban background location. Results We found that median PNC exposures were highest in diesel buses (38,500 particles/cm3) and for cyclists along the high-traffic intensity route (46,600 particles/cm3) and lowest in electric buses (29,200 particles/cm3). Median PM10 exposure was highest from diesel buses (47 μg/m3) and lowest along the high- and low-traffic bicycle routes (39 and 37 μg/m3). The median soot exposure was highest in gasoline-fueled cars (9.0 × 10−5/m), diesel cars (7.9 × 10−5/m), and diesel buses (7.4 × 10−5/m) and lowest along the low-traffic bicycle route (4.9 × 10−5/m). Because the minute ventilation (volume of air per minute) of cyclists, which we estimated from measured heart rates, was twice the minute ventilation of car and bus passengers, we calculated that the inhaled air pollution doses were highest for cyclists. With the exception of PM10, we found that inhaled air pollution doses were lowest for electric bus passengers. Conclusions Commuters’ rush hour exposures were significantly influenced by mode of transport, route, and fuel type. PMID:20185385

  13. Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Development and Global Competitiveness of US Space Transportation Industry: Critical Success Factors Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyinda, Chris I.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the unrelenting call in both public and private sectors fora to reduce the high cost associated with space transportation, many innovative partially or fully RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicles) designs (X-34-37) were initiated. This call is directed at all levels of space missions including scientific, military, and commercial and all aspects of the missions such as nonrecurring development, manufacture, launch, and operations. According to Wertz, tbr over thirty years, the cost of space access has remained exceedingly high. The consensus in the popular press is that to decrease the current astronomical cost of access to space, more safer, reliable, and economically viable second generation RLVs (SGRLV) must be developed. Countries such as Brazil, India, Japan, and Israel are now gearing up to enter the global launch market with their own commercial space launch vehicles. NASA and the US space launch industry cannot afford to lag behind. Developing SGRLVs will immeasurably improve the US's space transportation capabilities by helping the US to regain the global commercial space markets while supporting the transportation capabilities of NASA's space missions, Developing the SGRLVs will provide affordable commercial space transportation that will assure the competitiveness of the US commercial space transportation industry in the 21st century. Commercial space launch systems are having difficulty obtaining financing because of the high cost and risk involved. Access to key financial markets is necessary for commercial space ventures. However, public sector programs in the form of tax incentives and credits, as well as loan guarantees are not yet available. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate discussion and assess the critical success factors germane for RLVs development and US global competitiveness.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of the central Tibetan Plateau, China: Distribution, sources, transport and contribution in global cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Guo-Li; Wu, Li-Juan; Sun, Yong; Li, Jun; Li, Jing-Chao; Wang, Gen-Hou

    2015-01-01

    Forty-four soil samples were collected across the central Tibetan Plateau (CTP) at altitudes between 3711 m and 5352 m, and their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents were measured to be from 0.43 to 26.66 ng/g. The main sources of PAHs were identified for each of four sub-areas, and their concentrations in soils were determined to be mainly influenced by local sources. Along a 600 km sampling trajectory from Lhasa, which served as the biggest local source, the concentrations of PAHs decreased logarithmically with increasing distances from the source. Meanwhile, the fractional proportions of PAHs were observed to change logarithmically according to the transport distances. Conclusively, PAHs from local sources were transported within the CTP and dominated PAHs concentrations in the soils, but few of them were transported outside the CTP. In global cycling, the soils in the CTP mainly serve as background and a “sink” for PAHs. - Highlights: • Main sources of PAHs were identified for each of four sub-areas in CTP. • Local sources dominated PAHs in soils but rarely transported outside CTP. • The PAHs in soils changed logarithmically according to the distances from source. • It is first revealed how the local PAH sources influenced PAHs in the soils of CTP. - Local sources dominated PAHs concentrations in the soils of CTP but rarely transported outside, and PAHs in soils changed logarithmically according to the transported distances

  15. The simulation of the transport of aircraft emissions by a three-dimensional global model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. M. Velders

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional off-line tracer transport model coupled to the ECMWF analyses has been used to study the transport of trace gases in the atmosphere. The model gives a reasonable description of their general transport in the atmosphere. The simulation of the transport of aircraft emissions (as NOx has been studied as well as the transport of passive tracers injected at different altitudes in the North Atlantic flight corridor. A large zonal variation in the NOx concentrations as well as large seasonal and yearly variations was found. The altitude of the flight corridor influences the amount of tracers transported into the troposphere and stratosphere to a great extent.

  16. Global production chains in the fast fashion sector, transports and logistics: the case of the Spanish retailer Inditex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Escalona Orcao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent geographical analyses of global production networks in different economic sectors demonstrate that little attention has been paid to the logistical and transport systems through which networks are fully integrated. This paper on Inditex, a leading firm in the fast fashion sector, addresses this lack of attention and analyses how transport and logistics fit into the production network and provide the firm with one of its most notable competitive advantages. We describe the network of shops and manufacturing, present the principles of the logistical model, and provide details of the procedures applied for the functional and geographical integration of the chain of production of Zara, the best known of the company’s 11 brands. The analysis highlights the growing use of air transport in supplying chains of high-fashion-content products manufactured in distant countries and in the distribution of garments to distant markets. The conclusion of the paper is that logistics and transport strategies must be considered because the geographical configuration of global fashion networks increasingly depends on how rapidly the major fashion retailers are able to meet the needs of time-sensitive customers and the appropriate organisational and logistical strategies they adopt for that purpose.

  17. Experimental investigation of fast electron transport in solid density matter: Recent results from a new technique of X-ray energy-encoded 2D imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Labate, L.; Förster, E.; Giulietti, A.; Giulietti, D.; Höfer, S.; Kämpfer, T.; Köster, P.; Kozlová, Michaela; Levato, T.; Lötzsch, R.; Lübecke, A.; Mocek, Tomáš; Polan, Jiří; Rus, Bedřich; Uschmann, I.; Zamponi, F.; Gizzi, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2009), s. 643-649 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 12843 - TUIXS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : anisotropic Bremsstrahlung * fast electron diagnostics * fast electron transport * high -density matter * relativistic electrons Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.420, year: 2008

  18. Global charcoal mobilization from soils via dissolution and riverine transport to the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf Jaffe; Yan Ding; Jutta Niggemann; Anssi V. Vahatalo; Aron Stubbins; Robert G. M. Spencer; John Campbell; Thorsten. Dittmar

    2013-01-01

    Global biomass burning generates 40 million to 250 million tons of charcoal every year, part of which is preserved for millennia in soils and sediments. We have quantified dissolution products of charcoal in a wide range of rivers worldwide and show that globally, a major portion of the annual charcoal production is lost from soils via dissolution and subsequent...

  19. FROM CENTRALITY TO INTERMEDIACY IN THE GLOBAL TRANSPORT NETWORK? UKRAINE’S TRIALS AND TRIBULATIONS AS A POTENTIAL TRANSIT COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Grushevska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine currently is in a very complex economic and political situation, which in itself represents a pivotal point for its further recovery and evolution. Nevertheless, the rise of economic centres in Eastern and Central Europe creates opportunities for Ukraine to develop short sea shipping services (via the Black Sea and water and land-based hub-feeder networks to and from these areas. This paper provides an academic study of the potential of Ukraine in taking up a role in emerging distribution systems in East and Central Europe facilitating the cargo transportation from regions such as Central Asia, Caucasus and even more distant overseas areas. Based on the concepts of intermediacy and centrality as introduced by Fleming and Hayuth (1994 the role of Ukraine in the global and regional transport networks will be analysed in order to assess to what extent particular regions in Ukraine can serve as important gateways to Europe. An extensive review and synthesis of the published studies during the last 20 years on Ukraine’s transit flows and transit function will be presented. The obtained results will be contraposed to the results obtained from about 20 interviews conducted with transport business representatives in Ukraine and abroad. Based on the outcome of bottlenecks and deficiencies in Ukraine’s transport system, the optimal road map for Ukraine’s integration into the European transport network will be defined.

  20. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  1. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  2. Transparency as Contested Political Terrain: Who Knows What about the Global GMO Trade and Why does it Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the prospects for transparency to be a transformative force in global biosafety governance. The global regime governing trade in genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, institutionalizes information disclosure as the central mechanism through

  3. Global riverine N and P transport to ocean increased during the twentieth century despite increased retention along the aquatic continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beusen, A. H. W.; Bouwman, A. F.; Van Beek, L. P. H.; Mogollón, J. M.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Various human activities, including agriculture, water consumption, river damming, and aquaculture, have intensified over the last century. This has had a major impact on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling in global continental waters. In this study, we use a coupled nutrient-input, hydrology, in-stream nutrient retention model to quantitatively track the changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th century. Our results suggest that, during this period, the global nutrient delivery to streams increased from 34 to 64 Tg N yr-1 and from 5 to 9 Tg N yr-1. Furthermore, in-stream retention and removal grew from 14 to 27 Tg N yr-1 and 3 to 5 Tg N yr-1. One of the major cause of increased retention is the growing number of reservoirs which now account for 24 and 22 % of global N and P retention/removal in freshwater systems, respectively. This increase in nutrient retention could not balance the increase in nutrient delivery to rivers with the consequence that river nutrient transport to the ocean increased from 19 to 37 Tg N yr-1 and from 2 to 4 Tg N yr-1. Human activities have also led to a global increase in the molar N : P ratio in freshwater bodies.

  4. Globalization of the automobile industry in China. Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policy making and transport management. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems and stronger emissions control would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. (author)

  5. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Lin

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis

  6. Incorporation of a Generalized Data Assimilation Module within a Global Photospheric Flux Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION...Traditional Photospheric Magnetic Flux Synoptic Maps .........................................................1 2.2 Photospheric Flux Transport Models...4 3. WH model evolved synoptic map (latitude vs. longitude

  7. The role of global economical and regional politics in the transglobalization of the transport acitity

    OpenAIRE

    Cupsa Ovidiu-Sorin

    2012-01-01

    Politics has always played an important role in the development of the economy. The development of the transport infrastructure is determined directly by the economical politics of the states and of the great customs alliances

  8. Genesis, Pathways, and Terminations of Intense Global Water Vapor Transport in Association with Large-Scale Climate Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellars, S. L.; Kawzenuk, B.; Nguyen, P.; Ralph, F. M.; Sorooshian, S.

    2017-12-01

    The CONNected objECT (CONNECT) algorithm is applied to global Integrated Water Vapor Transport data from the NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications - Version 2 reanalysis product for the period of 1980 to 2016. The algorithm generates life-cycle records in time and space evolving strong vapor transport events. We show five regions, located in the midlatitudes, where events typically exist (off the coast of the southeast United States, eastern China, eastern South America, off the southern tip of South Africa, and in the southeastern Pacific Ocean). Global statistics show distinct genesis and termination regions and global seasonal peak frequency during Northern Hemisphere late fall/winter and Southern Hemisphere winter. In addition, the event frequency and geographical location are shown to be modulated by the Arctic Oscillation, Pacific North American Pattern, and the quasi-biennial oscillation. Moreover, a positive linear trend in the annual number of objects is reported, increasing by 3.58 objects year-over-year.

  9. Global analysis of the MATE gene family of metabolite transporters in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Adolfo Luís dos; Chaves-Silva, Samuel; Yang, Lina; Maia, Lucas Gontijo Silva; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Sinharoy, Senjuti; Zhao, Jian; Benedito, Vagner Augusto

    2017-01-01

    Background Species in the Solanaceae family are known for producing plethora of specialized metabolites. In addition to biosynthesis pathways, a full comprehension of secondary metabolism must also take into account the transport and subcellular compartmentalization of substances. Here, we examined the MATE (Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion, or Multi-Antimicrobial Extrusion) gene family in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome with the objective of better understanding the transport ...

  10. Global changes in mineral transporters in tetraploid switchgrasses (Panicum virgatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A. Palmer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L is perennial, C4 grass with great potential as a biofuel crop. An in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that control mineral uptake, distribution and remobilization will benefit sustainable production. Nutrients are mobilized from aerial portions to below-ground crowns and rhizomes as a natural accompaniment to above-ground senescence post seed-set. Mineral uptake and remobilization is dependent on transporters, however, little if any information is available about the specific transporters that are needed and how their relative expression changes over a growing season. Using well-defined classes of mineral transporters, we identified 520 genes belonging to 40 different transporter classes in the tetraploid switchgrass genome. Expression patterns were determined for many of these genes using publically available transcriptomic datasets obtained from both greenhouse and field grown plants. Certain transporters showed strong temporal patterns of expression in distinct developmental stages of the plant. Gene-expression was verified for selected transporters using qRT-PCR. By and large these analyses confirmed the developmental stage-specific expression of these genes. Mineral analyses indicated that K, Fe, Mg, Co and As had a similar pattern of accumulation with apparent limited remobilization at the end of the growing season. These initial analyses will serve as a foundation for more detailed examination of the nutrient biology of switchgrass.

  11. Global warming and air transport : meeting the challenge of sustainable growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Aviation impacts community noise footprints, air quality, water quality, energy usage and availability, and the global climate. Trends show environmental impacts from aircraft noise and aviation emissions will be a critical constraint on capacity gro...

  12. Global dynamics, phase space transport, orbits homoclinic to resonances, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggins, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    This monograph, which grew out of a series of lectures delivered by Stephen Wiggins at the Fields Institute in early 1993, is concerned with the geometrical viewpoint of the global dynamics of nonlinear dynamical systems. With appropriate examples and concise explanations, Wiggins unites many different topics into one volume and makes a unique contribution to the field. Engineers, physicists, chemists, and mathematicians who work on issues related to the global dynamics of nonlinear dynamical systems will find these lectures very useful.

  13. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA....... It thus explores the systems of reason that educational comparative practices carry through time; focusing on the way configurations are reproduced and transformed, forming the pre-school child as a central curricular variable....

  14. Global analysis of the MATE gene family of metabolite transporters in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Adolfo Luís Dos; Chaves-Silva, Samuel; Yang, Lina; Maia, Lucas Gontijo Silva; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Sinharoy, Senjuti; Zhao, Jian; Benedito, Vagner Augusto

    2017-10-30

    Species in the Solanaceae family are known for producing plethora of specialized metabolites. In addition to biosynthesis pathways, a full comprehension of secondary metabolism must also take into account the transport and subcellular compartmentalization of substances. Here, we examined the MATE (Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion, or Multi-Antimicrobial Extrusion) gene family in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome with the objective of better understanding the transport of secondary metabolites in this model species. MATE membrane effluxers encompass an ancient gene family of secondary transporters present in all kingdoms of life, but with a remarkable expansion in plants. They mediate the transport of primary and secondary metabolites using the proton motive force through several membrane systems of the cell. We identified 67 genes coding for MATE transporters in the tomato genome, 33 of which are expressed constitutively whereas 34 are expressed in specific cell types or environmental conditions. Synteny analyses revealed bona fide paralogs and Arabidopsis orthologs. Co-expression analysis between MATE and regulatory genes revealed 78 positive and 8 negative strong associations (ρ≥|0.8|). We found no evidence of MATE transporters belonging to known metabolic gene clusters in tomato. Altogether, our expression data, phylogenetic analyses, and synteny study provide strong evidence of functional homologies between MATE genes of tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana. Our co-expression study revealed potential transcriptional regulators of MATE genes that warrant further investigation. This work sets the stage for genome-wide functional analyses of MATE transporters in tomato and other Solanaceae species of economic relevance.

  15. Moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin and its response to North Atlantic cooling and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Ingo [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Atmospheric moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin plays an important role in regulating North Atlantic salinity and thus the strength of the thermohaline circulation. Potential changes in the strength of this moisture transport are investigated for two different climate-change scenarios: North Atlantic cooling representative of Heinrich events, and increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. The effect of North Atlantic cooling is studied using a coupled regional model with comparatively high resolution that successfully simulates Central American gap winds and other important aspects of the region. Cooler North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in this model leads to a regional decrease of atmospheric moisture but also to an increase in wind speed across Central America via an anomalous pressure gradient. The latter effect dominates, resulting in a 0.13 Sv (1 Sv = 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} s{sup -1}) increase in overall moisture transport to the Pacific basin. In fresh water forcing simulations with four different general circulation models, the wind speed effect is also present but not strong enough to completely offset the effect of moisture decrease except in one model. The influence of GHG forcing is studied using simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archive. In these simulations atmospheric moisture increases globally, resulting in an increase of moisture transport by 0.25 Sv from the Atlantic to Pacific. Thus, in both scenarios, moisture transport changes act to stabilize the thermohaline circulation. The notion that the Andes effectively block moisture transport from the Atlantic to the Pacific basin is not supported by the simulations and atmospheric reanalyses examined here. This indicates that such a blocking effect does not exist or else that higher resolution is needed to adequately represent the steep orography of the Andes. (orig.)

  16. The role of global trade and transport network topology in the human-mediated dispersal of alien species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Natalie Clare; Paini, Dean Ronald; Bayliss, Kirsty Louise; Hodda, Michael

    2015-02-01

    More people and goods are moving further and more frequently via many different trade and transport networks under current trends of globalisation. These networks can play a major role in the unintended introduction of exotic species to new locations. With the continuing rise in global trade, more research attention is being focused on the role of networks in the spread of invasive species. This represents an emerging field of research in invasion science and the substantial knowledge being generated within other disciplines can provide ecologists with new tools with which to study invasions. For the first time, we synthesise studies from several perspectives, approaches and disciplines to derive the fundamental characteristics of network topology determining the likelihood of spread of organisms via trade and transport networks. These characteristics can be used to identify critical points of vulnerability within these networks and enable the development of more effective strategies to prevent invasions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. The implications of megatrends in information and communication technology and transportation for changes in global physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Michael; Sarmiento, Olga L; Montes, Felipe; Ogilvie, David; Marcus, Bess H; Perez, Lilian G; Brownson, Ross C

    2012-07-21

    Physical inactivity accounts for more than 3 million deaths per year, most from non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We used reviews of physical activity interventions and a simulation model to examine how megatrends in information and communication technology and transportation directly and indirectly affect levels of physical activity across countries of low, middle, and high income. The model suggested that the direct and potentiating eff ects of information and communication technology, especially mobile phones, are nearly equal in magnitude to the mean eff ects of planned physical activity interventions. The greatest potential to increase population physical activity might thus be in creation of synergistic policies in sectors outside health including communication and transportation. However, there remains a glaring mismatch between where studies on physical activity interventions are undertaken and where the potential lies in low-income and middle-income countries for population-level effects that will truly affect global health.

  18. Evaluating the Credibility of Transport Processes in the Global Modeling Initiative 3D Model Simulations of Ozone Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahan, Susan E.; Douglass, Anne R.

    2003-01-01

    The Global Modeling Initiative has integrated two 35-year simulations of an ozone recovery scenario with an offline chemistry and transport model using two different meteorological inputs. Physically based diagnostics, derived from satellite and aircraft data sets, are described and then used to evaluate the realism of temperature and transport processes in the simulations. Processes evaluated include barrier formation in the subtropics and polar regions, and extratropical wave-driven transport. Some diagnostics are especially relevant to simulation of lower stratospheric ozone, but most are applicable to any stratospheric simulation. The temperature evaluation, which is relevant to gas phase chemical reactions, showed that both sets of meteorological fields have near climatological values at all latitudes and seasons at 30 hPa and below. Both simulations showed weakness in upper stratospheric wave driving. The simulation using input from a general circulation model (GMI(sub GCM)) showed a very good residual circulation in the tropics and northern hemisphere. The simulation with input from a data assimilation system (GMI(sub DAS)) performed better in the midlatitudes than at high latitudes. Neither simulation forms a realistic barrier at the vortex edge, leading to uncertainty in the fate of ozone-depleted vortex air. Overall, tracer transport in the offline GMI(sub GCM) has greater fidelity throughout the stratosphere than the GMI(sub DAS).

  19. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  20. Global energy scenarios meeting stringent CO2 constraints - cost-effective fuel choices in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar, Christian; Lindgren, Kristian; Andersson, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess fuel choices in the transportation sector under stringent global carbon constraints. Three key questions are asked: (i) when is it cost-effective to carry out the transition away from gasoline/diesel; (ii) to which fuel is it cost-effective to shift; and (iii) in which sector is biomass most cost-effectively used? These questions are analyzed using a global energy systems model (GET 1.0), with a transportation module, where vehicle costs (fuel cell, reformer and storage tank), infrastructure and primary energy availability are treated explicitly. The model is run under the assumption that atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 should be stabilized at 400 ppm. Three main results emerge: (i) despite the stringent CO 2 constraints, oil-based fuels remain dominant in the transportation sector over the next 50 years; and (ii) once a transition towards alternative fuels takes place, the preferred choice of fuel is hydrogen, even if we assume that hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are substantially more costly than methanol fuel cell vehicles. There may, under some circumstances, be a transient period of several decades with a significant share of methanol in the transportation sector. (iii) Biomass is most cost-effectively used in the heat and process heat sectors. If carbon sequestration from biomass is allowed, biomass is primarily used for hydrogen generation since small-scale heat applications are not suitable for carbon sequestration. Detailed sensitivity analyses show that these results are robust with respect to several parameters. Some policy conclusions are drawn

  1. Macroeconomic surroundings of transport and logistics sector in Poland during the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last quarter of 2009, Poland has entered a phase of economic growth. Presently, despite the emerging financial problems in the EU zone, positive market sig-nals can still be observed in Poland, for example increase in domestic and external de-mand, incoming orders in the industry sector and production capacity in companies. The-se changes enhance growth of production in the industry and construction sectors, which are perceived as key sectors for generating demand for transport services. Therefore the lack of market signals that indicate economic slowdown means that the conditions for transport and logistics sector development in Poland are not expected to deteriorate. The key threat to the stability of economic growth in Poland, and in consequence to transport and logistics companies, is the excess debt of public finance sector.

  2. A modeling study of secondary organic aerosol formation from sesquiterpenes using the STOCHEM global chemistry and transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. A. H.; Jenkin, M. E.; Foulds, A.; Derwent, R. G.; Percival, C. J.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2017-04-01

    Sesquiterpenes are one of the precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) which can be an important global sources of organic aerosol (OA). Updating the chemistry scheme in the global chemistry transport model by incorporating an oxidation mechanism for β-caryophyllene (representing all sesquiterpenes), adding global sesquiterpene emissions of 29 Tg/yr, and revising global monoterpene emissions up to 162 Tg/yr [Guenther et al., 2012] led to an increase of SOA burden by 95% and SOA production rate by 106% relative to the base case described in Utembe et al. [2011]. Including the emissions of sesquiterpenes resulted in increase of SOA burden of 0.11 Tg and SOA production rate of 12.9 Tg/yr relative to the base case. The highest concentrations of sesquiterpene-derived SOA (by up to 1.2 μg/m3) were found over central Africa and South America, the regions having high levels of biogenic emissions with significant biomass burning. In the updated model simulation, the multigeneration oxidation products from sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes transported above the boundary layer and condensed to the aerosol phase at higher altitude led to an increase of OA by up to 30% over the tropics and northern midlatitude to higher altitude. The model evaluation showed an underestimation of model OA mostly for the campaigns dominated by regional anthropogenic pollution. The increase of SOA production from sesquiterpenes reduced the discrepancies between modeled and observed OA concentrations over the remote and rural areas. The increase of SOA concentrations by up to 200% from preindustrial to present scenarios was found over the tropical oceans.

  3. Organic matter recycling in a shallow coastal zone (NW Mediterranean): The influence of local and global climatic forcing and organic matter lability on hydrolytic enzyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misic, Cristina; Harriague, Anabella Covazzi

    2008-12-01

    Seawater and sediment were collected on a monthly basis from a shallow (10.5 m depth) coastal site in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean) from November 1993 to December 1994 to determine the main environmental forces that influenced the biogeochemical processes and to study the relationships between the availability and lability of the organic matter (OM) and hydrolytic enzymatic activity. The current direction throughout the sampling year was influenced by the climatic conditions, which showed significant correlations with north atlantic oscillation (NAO) index values. The current generally flowed northwards in spring. This could cause significantly lower transparency values than in the summer, when an eastward current probably reduced the allochthonous input of material from the main local watercourse and contributed to turning the conditions from mesotrophic to oligotrophic. Spring and summer were separated by transitional periods more than by the canonical autumn and winter seasons. These transitions were characterised by a reduction in salinity values and by resuspension caused by water column mixing and a current flowing towards the southwest. The significant inverse correlations of the chlorophyll- a and protein concentrations, bacterial abundance and proteolysis of the bottom seawater and transparency showed the direct influence of resuspension on the organic matter dynamics. Moreover, OM trophic quality influenced the bacterial parameters and the enzymatic activities. The glycolytic β glucosidase and chitinase activities and their bacterial cell-specific hydrolytic rates were higher when substrates such as hydrolysable proteins were available, while they decreased when refractory compounds were abundant. The low leucine aminopeptidase: β glucosidase ratio values observed in the water column were presumably related to the potential ease with which microbes obtained protein-derived materials and energy, the protein hydrolysable fraction being estimated at

  4. Characterization and speciation of fine particulate matter inside the public transport buses running on bio-diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Air pollution with respect to particulate matter was investigated in Toledo, Ohio, USA, a : city of approximately 300,000, in 2009. Two study buses were selected to reflect typical : exposure conditions of passengers while traveling in the bus. Monit...

  5. Agriculture, Transportation and the Timing of Urbanization: Global Analysis at the Grid Cell Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motamed, M.J.; Florax, R.J.G.M.; Masters, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the timing of a location's historical transition from rural to urban activity. We test whether urbanization occurs sooner in places with higher agricultural potential and comparatively lower transport costs, using worldwide data that divide the earth's surface at half-degree

  6. Impact of transport model errors on the global and regional methane emissions estimated by inverse modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locatelli, R.; Bousquet, P.; Chevallier, F.; Fortems-Cheney, A.; Szopa, S.; Saunois, M.; Agusti-Panareda, A.; Bergmann, D.; Bian, H.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Chipperfield, M.P.; Gloor, E.; Houweling, S.; Kawa, S.R.; Krol, M.C.; Patra, P.K.; Prinn, R.G.; Rigby, M.; Saito, R.; Wilson, C.

    2013-01-01

    A modelling experiment has been conceived to assess the impact of transport model errors on methane emissions estimated in an atmospheric inversion system. Synthetic methane observations, obtained from 10 different model outputs from the international TransCom-CH4 model inter-comparison exercise,

  7. Cellular effects of fluorodeoxyglucose: Global changes in the lipidome and alteration in intracellular transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaliauskiene, Simona; Torgersen, Maria Lyngaas; Lingelem, Anne Berit Dyve; Klokk, Tove Irene; Lintonen, Tuulia; Simolin, Helena; Ekroos, Kim; Skotland, Tore; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2016-11-29

    2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), labeled with 18F radioisotope, is the most common imaging agent used for positron emission tomography (PET) in oncology. However, little is known about the cellular effects of FDG. Another glucose analogue, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), has been shown to affect many cellular functions, including intracellular transport and lipid metabolism, and has been found to improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapeutic agents in vivo. Thus, in the present study, we have investigated cellular effects of FDG with the focus on changes in cellular lipids and intracellular transport. By quantifying more than 200 lipids from 17 different lipid classes in HEp-2 cells and by analyzing glycosphingolipids from MCF-7, HT-29 and HBMEC cells, we have discovered that FDG treatment inhibits glucosylceramide synthesis and thus reduces cellular levels of glycosphingolipids. In addition, in HEp-2 cells the levels and/or species composition of other lipid classes, namely diacylglycerols, phosphatidic acids and phosphatidylinositols, were found to change upon treatment with FDG. Furthermore, we show here that FDG inhibits retrograde Shiga toxin transport and is much more efficient in protecting cells against the toxin than 2DG. In summary, our data reveal novel effects of FDG on cellular transport and glycosphingolipid metabolism, which suggest a potential clinical application of FDG as an adjuvant for cancer chemotherapy.

  8. Does Climate Literacy Matter? A Case Study of U.S. Students' Level of Concern about Anthropogenic Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Educators seeking to address global warming in their classrooms face numerous challenges, including the question of whether student opinions about anthropogenic global warming (AGW) can change in response to increased knowledge about the climate system. This article analyzes survey responses from 458 students at a primarily undergraduate…

  9. A new method to estimate global mass transport and its implication for sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S.; Heki, K.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of changes in global land mass by using GRACE observations can be achieved by two methods, a mascon method and a forward modeling method. However, results from these two methods show inconsistent secular trend. Sea level budget can be adopted to validate the consistency among observations of sea level rise by altimetry, steric change by the Argo project, and mass change by GRACE. Mascon products from JPL, GSFC and CSR are compared here, we find that all these three products cannot achieve a reconciled sea level budget, while this problem can be solved by a new forward modeling method. We further investigate the origin of this difference, and speculate that it is caused by the signal leakage from the ocean mass. Generally, it is well recognized that land signals leak into oceans, but it also happens the other way around. We stress the importance of correction of leakage from the ocean in the estimation of global land masses. Based on a reconciled sea level budget, we confirmed that global sea level rise has been accelerating significantly over 2005-2015, as a result of the ongoing global temperature increase.

  10. Sources of plant-derived carbon and stability of organic matter in soil: Implications for global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Crow; Kate Lajtha; Timothy R. Filley; Chris Swanston; Richard D. Bowden; Bruce A. Caldwell

    2009-01-01

    Alterations in forest productivity and changes in the relative proportion of above- and belowground biomass may have nonlinear effects on soil organic matter (SOM) storage. To study the influence of plant litter inputs on SOM accumulation, the Detritus Input Removal and Transfer (DIRT) Experiment continuously alters above- and belowground plant inputs to soil by a...

  11. Studying the Physical Basis of Global Warming: Thermal Effects of the Interaction between Radiation and Matter and Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Ugo; De Ambrosis, Anna; Mascheretti, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We present a teaching module dealing with the thermal effects of interaction between radiation and matter, the infrared emission of bodies and the greenhouse effect devoted to university level and teacher education. The module stresses the dependence of the optical properties of materials (transparency, absorptivity and emissivity) on radiation…

  12. 75 FR 53732 - In the Matter of the Designation of Wali Ur Rehman as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... might have a constitutional presence in the United States would render ineffectual the blocking and... have a constitutional presence in the United States, because to do so would render ineffectual the... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7144] In the Matter of the Designation of Wali Ur Rehman as a...

  13. Re-assessing Present Day Global Mass Transport and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment From a Data Driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Jiang, Y.; Simonsen, S.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Ligtenberg, S.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; van der Wal, W.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Determining present-day mass transport (PDMT) is complicated by the fact that most observations contain signals from both present day ice melting and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Despite decades of progress in geodynamic modeling and new observations, significant uncertainties remain in both. The key to separate present-day ice mass change and signals from GIA is to include data of different physical characteristics. We designed an approach to separate PDMT and GIA signatures by estimating them simultaneously using globally distributed interdisciplinary data with distinct physical information and a dynamically constructed a priori GIA model. We conducted a high-resolution global reappraisal of present-day ice mass balance with focus on Earth's polar regions and its contribution to global sea-level rise using a combination of ICESat, GRACE gravity, surface geodetic velocity data, and an ocean bottom pressure model. Adding ice altimetry supplies critically needed dual data types over the interiors of ice covered regions to enhance separation of PDMT and GIA signatures, and achieve half an order of magnitude expected higher accuracies for GIA and consequently ice mass balance estimates. The global data based approach can adequately address issues of PDMT and GIA induced geocenter motion and long-wavelength signatures important for large areas such as Antarctica and global mean sea level. In conjunction with the dense altimetry data, we solved for PDMT coefficients up to degree and order 180 by using a higher-resolution GRACE data set, and a high-resolution a priori PDMT model that includes detailed geographic boundaries. The high-resolution approach solves the problem of multiple resolutions in various data types, greatly reduces aliased errors from a low-degree truncation, and at the same time, enhances separation of signatures from adjacent regions such as Greenland and Canadian Arctic territories.

  14. Agriculture, Transportation and the Timing of Urbanization: Global Analysis at the Grid Cell Level

    OpenAIRE

    Mesbah J. Motamed; Raymond J.G.M. Florax; William A. Masters

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the timing of a location's historical transition from rural to urban activity. We test whether urbanization occurs sooner in places with higher agricultural potential and comparatively lower transport costs, using worldwide data that divide the earth's surface at half-degree intervals into 62,290 cells. From an independent estimate of each cell's rural and urban population history over the last 2,000 years, we identify the date at which each cell achieves various threshol...

  15. An Inverse Model for Calculation of Global Volume Transport from Wind and Hydrographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    differentiation of (22) with respect to x gives the volume transport vorticity equation, j2C ¼ b Ah ðV−Vden−VbÞ− 1Ahq0 Asy Ax − Asx Ay þ AQ2 Ax − AQ1 Ay...q0 : ð31Þ Similarly, (30) becomes bðV−Vden−VbÞ ¼ 1q0 Asy Ax − Asx Ay ; ð32Þ which is the Sverdrup relation. In (31), (Uden, Vden) depend on

  16. A global approach to a transport system for radioactive waste-case study: radioactive drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.; Gilles, P.; Vinarnick, L.

    1986-01-01

    For the year 1984 in France: radionuclides in unsealed sources, used in medical circles represent 4812 Ci (4812 x 37 GBq) of which 80% for Technetium 99 m alone. The market for these products has expanded greatly in fifteen years, by at least a factor of 6. the parcels are in the number of at least 200 000 of which 120 000 parcels are A labelled containing radiopharmaceutical preparations administered in vivo and radiochemical preparations used in vitro or in research. the users are few in number, 375 in all, of whom 127 are Departments of Nuclear Medicine who are the principal users; deliveries are very regular and are made along some large axes. transport accidents are extremely rare. the dosimetric data of workers are of a quality and equivalent of the collective dose for workers is in the order of 0.42 h.Sv; furthermore this equivalent of the collective dose has been recognisably the same for 15 years despite the increases in personnel and production; within the present framework of regulations concerning transport of the parcels, radioprotection of workers depends on the ethics of the suppliers. The drivers, who transport radioactive parcels only are regularly exposed to more than 10 mSv per year and the study of this group of workers should be a priority. The distribution of the doses received by packers in the large transit centres is not known. The equivalent of the collective public dose, due to the transport of these unsealed sources for medical use must be between 0.01 h.Sv and 0.1 h.Sv

  17. Flux expansion effect on turbulent transport in 3D global simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Galassi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The flux expansion effect on the Scrape-Off Layer equilibrium is inspected through TOKAM3X 3D turbulence simulations. Three magnetic equilibria with analytically controlled flux expansion are built, representing respectively a positive, a null and a negative Shafranov shift. Turbulent E × B fluxes across flux surfaces show similar amplitudes and poloidal distributions in all cases. The ballooning nature of the interchange instability is recovered, with an enhancement of turbulence in the vicinity of the limiter, probably due to a Kelvin–Helmoltz instability. Interestingly, the poloidally averaged density decay length is found to be shorter almost by a factor 2 in the case of flux surfaces compressed at the low-field side midplane, with respect to the opposite case, indicating the presence of unfavorable conditions for the turbulent transport. The difference in the magnetic field line shape is pointed out as a mechanism which affects the turbulent transport across the flux surfaces. Indeed the unstable region has a larger parallel extension when flux expansion in the low-field side is larger. Moreover, the configuration with a lower magnetic shear at the low-field side midplane shows a more unstable behavior. The role of this parameter in turbulence stabilization is qualitatively evaluated. The difference in the distribution of transport along the parallel direction is shown to affect also the parallel flows, which are analyzed for the three proposed cases.

  18. The Air Transportation Policy of Small States: Meeting the Challenges of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The air transport policies of small states are currently at a crossroad. Policy makers in these countries are facing a difficult dilemma: either follow the general trend of liberalization and pay the high cost of the resulting restructuring or maintain the existing regulatory and ownership structures at the risk of isolation thus undermining the viability and sustainability of their air transport sector and their economies in general. This paper proposes to explore the broad issues raised by this difficult dilemma, to outline its special significance in the context of small states and to delineate the options opened to the economic policymakers; in these states. After a brief note on the method of research, we sketch the main elements of the international air transport industry in which the airlines of small states are called upon to act. We then propose to review the main features of the analytical framework of this debate as it pertains to the special circumstances of these states. Then we focus on the challenges facing the airlines of Small States, while the next section proposes a number of the alternative policy options open to the policy makers in these states. The main conclusions are drawn in the final section.

  19. United States Transportation Command 2001 Annual Command Report: Transforming Global Mobility ... and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    trends -commercial and governmental- and to respond to global impacts of new tech- nologies, industry partnerships, new business practices, and military...industry to operate current technology, anticipate trends , and develop future capabilities. Our task is to link the pieces to form a seamless...has implemented eBusiness software to unify and streamline its service operations now enabling them to deliver world- class customer service through

  20. Phase retrieval using radiation and matter-wave fields: Validity of Teague's method for solution of the transport-of-intensity equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, Jelena A.; Gureyev, Timur E.; Paganin, David M.; Pavlov, Konstantin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although originally developed for coherent paraxial scalar electromagnetic radiation in the visible-light regime, phase retrieval using the transport-of-intensity equation has been successfully applied to a range of paraxial radiation and matter-wave fields. Such applications include using electron wave fields to quantitatively image magnetic skyrmions and spin ices, propagation-based phase-contrast imaging using cold neutrons and hard x-rays, and visible-light refractive imaging of the projected column density of cold-atom clouds. Teague's method for phase retrieval using the transport-of-intensity equation, which renders the phase of a paraxial complex wave indirectly measurable via the existence of a conserved current, has been applied to a broad variety of situations which include all of the experiments described above. However, these applications have been undertaken without a thorough analysis of the underlying validity of the method. Here we derive sufficient conditions for the phase-retrieval solution provided by Teague's method to coincide with the true phase of the paraxial radiation or matter-wave field. We also present a sufficient condition guaranteeing that the discrepancy between the true phase function and that reconstructed using Teague's solution is small. These conditions demonstrate that, in most practical cases, for phase-amplitude retrieval using the transport-of-intensity equation, the Teague solution is very close to the exact solution. However, we also describe a counter example in the context of phase-amplitude retrieval using hard x-rays, in which the relative root-mean-square difference between the exact solution and that obtained using Teague's method is 9%. These findings clarify the foundations of one of the most widely applied methods for propagation-based phase retrieval of both paraxial matter and radiation wave fields and define a region for its applicability.

  1. The reprocessing - recycling and the transport of nuclear matters in France; Le retraitement - recyclage et le transport des matieres nucleaires en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In terms of radioactive wastes management two possibilities are considered: direct storage or reprocessing-recycling. The second possibility is presented with its sanitary impacts as also the energetic, environmental and economic advantages. Three other parts are devoted to the irradiated fuels transportation, the return of foreign wastes in their country of origin and the nuclear material transport between France and Germany. (A.L.B.)

  2. Optimal estimation of the surface fluxes of methyl chloride using a 3-D global chemical transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xiao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Methyl chloride (CH3Cl is a chlorine-containing trace gas in the atmosphere contributing significantly to stratospheric ozone depletion. Large uncertainties in estimates of its source and sink magnitudes and temporal and spatial variations currently exist. GEIA inventories and other bottom-up emission estimates are used to construct a priori maps of the surface fluxes of CH3Cl. The Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry (MATCH, driven by NCEP interannually varying meteorological data, is then used to simulate CH3Cl mole fractions and quantify the time series of sensitivities of the mole fractions at each measurement site to the surface fluxes of various regional and global sources and sinks. We then implement the Kalman filter (with the unit pulse response method to estimate the surface fluxes on regional/global scales with monthly resolution from January 2000 to December 2004. High frequency observations from the AGAGE, SOGE, NIES, and NOAA/ESRL HATS in situ networks and low frequency observations from the NOAA/ESRL HATS flask network are used to constrain the source and sink magnitudes. The inversion results indicate global total emissions around 4100 ± 470 Gg yr−1 with very large emissions of 2200 ± 390 Gg yr−1 from tropical plants, which turn out to be the largest single source in the CH3Cl budget. Relative to their a priori annual estimates, the inversion increases global annual fungal and tropical emissions, and reduces the global oceanic source. The inversion implies greater seasonal and interannual oscillations of the natural sources and sink of CH3Cl compared to the a priori. The inversion also reflects the strong effects of the 2002/2003 globally widespread heat waves and droughts on global emissions from tropical plants, biomass burning and salt marshes, and on the soil sink.

  3. Differential Associations of Socioeconomic Status With Global Brain Volumes and White Matter Lesions in African American and White Adults: the HANDLS SCAN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldstein, Shari R; Dore, Gregory A; Davatzikos, Christos; Katzel, Leslie I; Gullapalli, Rao; Seliger, Stephen L; Kouo, Theresa; Rosenberger, William F; Erus, Guray; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to examine interactive relations of race and socioeconomic status (SES) to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-assessed global brain outcomes with previously demonstrated prognostic significance for stroke, dementia, and mortality. Participants were 147 African Americans (AAs) and whites (ages 33-71 years; 43% AA; 56% female; 26% below poverty) in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span SCAN substudy. Cranial MRI was conducted using a 3.0 T unit. White matter (WM) lesion volumes and total brain, gray matter, and WM volumes were computed. An SES composite was derived from education and poverty status. Significant interactions of race and SES were observed for WM lesion volume (b = 1.38; η = 0.036; p = .028), total brain (b = 86.72; η = 0.042; p brain volumes than all other groups (albeit within normal range). Low SES was associated with greater WM pathology-a marker for increased stroke risk-in AAs. Higher SES was associated with greater total brain volume-a putative global indicator of brain health and predictor of mortality-in whites. Findings may reflect environmental and interpersonal stressors encountered by AAs and those of lower SES and could relate to disproportionate rates of stroke, dementia, and mortality.

  4. Photostability of glycine and nitrogen basis in cometary grains : application to the transport of organic matter within the primitive Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiagh, K.; Belilla, J.; Fray, N.; Valorso, R.; Cottin, H.

    2015-10-01

    The study of photochemistry in the solar system is of prime importance to assess complex organic chemistry in any extraterrestrial environment. Among those environments, comets and grains ejected from their nuclei are of particular interest in the context of astrobiology as they could have brought organic matter on the primitive Earth, and hence contribute to the emergence of life. Furthermore, they can provide precious information on the physico-chemical parameters prevailing in the primitive solar nebula during its formation. In this context, we are studying the extent to which organic matter within grains may survive to solar radiation and the fraction of these organic molecules destroyed when it is subjected to sunlight.

  5. Progress in Modeling Global Atmospheric CO2 Fluxes and Transport: Results from Simulations with Diurnal Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collatz, G. James; Kawa, R.

    2007-01-01

    Progress in better determining CO2 sources and sinks will almost certainly rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. Use of advanced data requires improved modeling and analysis capability. Under NASA Carbon Cycle Science support we seek to develop and integrate improved formulations for 1) atmospheric transport, 2) terrestrial uptake and release, 3) biomass and 4) fossil fuel burning, and 5) observational data analysis including inverse calculations. The transport modeling is based on meteorological data assimilation analysis from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office. Use of assimilated met data enables model comparison to CO2 and other observations across a wide range of scales of variability. In this presentation we focus on the short end of the temporal variability spectrum: hourly to synoptic to seasonal. Using CO2 fluxes at varying temporal resolution from the SIB 2 and CASA biosphere models, we examine the model's ability to simulate CO2 variability in comparison to observations at different times, locations, and altitudes. We find that the model can resolve much of the variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The influence of key process representations is inferred. The high degree of fidelity in these simulations leads us to anticipate incorporation of realtime, highly resolved observations into a multiscale carbon cycle analysis system that will begin to bridge the gap between top-down and bottom-up flux estimation, which is a primary focus of NACP.

  6. Light duty vehicle transportation and global climate policy: The importance of electric drive vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Longden, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    With a focus on the interaction between long-term climate targets and personal transport we review the electrification of light duty vehicles (LDVs) within a model that utilizes a learning-by-researching structure. By modeling the demand of vehicles, the use of fuels and emissions implied, the model solves for the optimum RD and D investments that decrease the cost of hybrid, plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles. A range of technology and climate policy scenarios provide long term projections of vehicle use that highlight the potential synergies between innovation in the transportation sector and the energy sector. We find that even when the capital cost of electric drive vehicles (EDVs) remains higher than that of traditional combustion engine alternatives, EDVs are likely to play a key role in the decarbonisation implied by stringent climate policy. Limited innovation in batteries results in notable increases in policy costs consistent with a two degree climate policy target. - Highlights: • Significant increase in vehicles across regions in the medium to long term future. • Climate policy costs are sensitive to a lack of electric drive vehicles (EDVs). • Achieving 450ppm with no change in battery costs has a policy cost that is 2.86 percentage points higher than the base 450ppm scenario. • Climate policy hastens the introduction of electrified vehicles, however EDVs do not become the dominant vehicle of choice before the middle of the century

  7. Personal exposure to particulate matter in commuters using different transport modes (bus, bicycle, car and subway) in an assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Liliana; Mesías, Stephanie; Iglesias, Verónica; Silva, Claudio; Cáceres, Dante D; Ruiz-Rudolph, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare personal exposure to particulate matter (fine and ultrafine particles) in commuters using different transport modes (bicycle, bus, car and subway) in a busy, assigned route in downtown Santiago, Chile. Volunteers carrying personal samplers completed scheduled commutes during the morning rush hours, while central site measurements were conducted in parallel. A total of 137 valid commutes were assessed. The impact of central site, traffic and other variables was explored with regression models. PM2.5 personal concentrations were equal to or slightly above central site measurements, while UFP personal concentrations were above them. Regression models showed impacts of both background levels and traffic emissions on personal PM2.5 and UFP exposure. Traffic impacts varied with transport modes. Estimates of traffic impacts on personal PM2.5 exposure were 2.0, 13.0, 16.9 and 17.5 μg m(-3), for car, bicycle, subway and bus, respectively; while for UFP exposure were 8400, 16 200, 25 600 and 30 100 counts per cm(3), for subway, car, bicycle and bus, respectively. After controlling the central site and transport mode, higher temperatures increased PM2.5 exposure and decreased UFP ones, while the wind direction affected UFP personal exposure. In conclusion, we found significant impacts of both central site background measurements and traffic emissions on personal exposure of volunteer commuters in an assigned route in Santiago, with impacts varying with transport modes.

  8. Vulnerability of permafrost carbon to global warming. Part I: model description and role of heat generated by organic matter decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvorostyanov, D.V.; Ciais, G. (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et l' Environnement, Saclay (France)); Krinner, G. (Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, St Martin d' Heres (France)). e-mail: Dimitry.Khvorostiyanov@lsce.ipsl.fr; Heimann, M. (Max-Planck Inst. of Biogeochemistry, Jena (DE)); Zimov, S.A. (Northeast Science Station, Cherskii (RU))

    2008-07-01

    We constructed a new model to study the sensitivity of permafrost carbon stocks to future climate warming. The one-dimensional model solves an equation for diffusion of heat penetrating from the overlying atmosphere and takes into account additional in situ heat production by active soil microorganisms. Decomposition of frozen soil organic matter and produced CO{sub 2} and methane fluxes result from an interplay of soil heat conduction and phase transitions, respiration, methanogenesis and methanotrophy processes. Respiration and methanotrophy consume soil oxygen and thus can only develop in an aerated top-soil column. In contrast, methanogenesis is not limited by oxygen and can be sustained within the deep soil, releasing sufficient heat to further thaw in depth the frozen carbon-rich soil organic matter. Heat production that accompanies decomposition and methanotrophy can be an essential process providing positive feedback to atmospheric warming through self-sustaining transformation of initially frozen soil carbon into CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. This supplementary heat becomes crucial, however, only under certain climate conditions. Oxygen limitation to soil respiration slows down the process, so that the mean flux of carbon released during the phase of intense decomposition is more than two times less than without oxygen limitation. Taking into account methanogenesis increases the mean carbon flux by 20%. Part II of this study deals with mobilization of frozen carbon stock in transient climate change scenarios with more elaborated methane module, which makes it possible to consider more general cases with various site configurations. Part I (this manuscript) studies mobilization of 400 GtC carbon stock of the Yedoma in response to a stepwise rapid warming focusing on the role of supplementary heat that is released to the soil during decomposition of organic matter

  9. Effects of pH, ionic strength, dissolved organic matter, and flow rate on the co-transport of MS2 bacteriophages with kaolinite in gravel aquifer media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Gillian E; Pang, Liping; Flury, Markus; Close, Murray E; Flintoft, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Viruses are often associated with colloids in wastewater and could be transported with colloids into groundwater from land disposal of human and animal effluent and sludge, causing contamination of groundwater. To investigate the role of colloids in the transport of viruses in groundwater, experiments were conducted using a 2m long column packed with heterogeneous gravel aquifer media. Bacteriophage MS2 was used as the model virus and kaolinite as the model colloid. Experimental data were analyzed using Temporal Moment Analysis and Filtration Theory. In the absence of kaolinite colloid, MS2 phage traveled slightly faster than the conservative tracer bromide (Br), with little differences observed between unfiltered and filtered MS2 phage (0.22 microm as the operational cut-off for colloid-free virus). In the presence of kaolinite colloids, MS2 phage breakthrough occurred concurrently with that of the colloidal particles and the time taken to reach the peak virus concentration was reduced, suggesting a colloid-facilitated virus transport in terms of peak-concentration time and velocity. Meanwhile mass recovery and magnitude of concentrations of the phages were significantly reduced, indicating colloid-assisted virus attenuation in terms of concentrations and mass. Decreasing the pH or increasing the ionic strength increased the level of virus attachment to the aquifer media and colloids, and virus transport became more retarded, resulting in lower peak-concentration, lower mass recovery, longer peak-concentration time, and greater apparent collision efficiency. Increasing the concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) or flow rate resulted in faster virus transport velocity, higher peak-concentrations and mass recoveries, and lower apparent collision efficiencies. The dual-role of colloids in transport viruses has important implications for risk analysis and remediation of virus-contaminated sites. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A global stratospheric bromine monoxide climatology based on the BASCOE chemical transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Theys

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A new climatology of stratospheric BrO profiles based on a parameterization using dynamical and chemical indicators has been developed, with the aim to apply it to the retrieval of tropospheric BrO columns from space nadir measurements. The adopted parameterization is based on three years of output data from the 3-D chemistry transport model BASCOE. The impact of the atmospheric dynamics on the stratospheric BrO distribution is treated by means of Bry/ozone correlations built from 3-D-CTM model results, while photochemical effects are taken into account using stratospheric NO2 columns as an indicator of the BrO/Bry ratio. The model simulations have been optimized for bromine chemistry and budget, and validated through comparisons using an extensive data set of ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite limb (SCIAMACHY stratospheric BrO observations.

  11. Machine learning of atmospheric chemistry. Applications to a global chemistry transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. J.; Keller, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is central to many environmental issues such as air pollution, climate change, and stratospheric ozone loss. Chemistry Transport Models (CTM) are a central tool for understanding these issues, whether for research or for forecasting. These models split the atmosphere in a large number of grid-boxes and consider the emission of compounds into these boxes and their subsequent transport, deposition, and chemical processing. The chemistry is represented through a series of simultaneous ordinary differential equations, one for each compound. Given the difference in life-times between the chemical compounds (mili-seconds for O(1D) to years for CH4) these equations are numerically stiff and solving them consists of a significant fraction of the computational burden of a CTM.We have investigated a machine learning approach to solving the differential equations instead of solving them numerically. From an annual simulation of the GEOS-Chem model we have produced a training dataset consisting of the concentration of compounds before and after the differential equations are solved, together with some key physical parameters for every grid-box and time-step. From this dataset we have trained a machine learning algorithm (random regression forest) to be able to predict the concentration of the compounds after the integration step based on the concentrations and physical state at the beginning of the time step. We have then included this algorithm back into the GEOS-Chem model, bypassing the need to integrate the chemistry.This machine learning approach shows many of the characteristics of the full simulation and has the potential to be substantially faster. There are a wide range of application for such an approach - generating boundary conditions, for use in air quality forecasts, chemical data assimilation systems, centennial scale climate simulations etc. We discuss our approches' speed and accuracy, and highlight some potential future directions for

  12. Association between reduced white matter integrity in the corpus callosum and serotonin transporter gene DNA methylation in medication-naive patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, E; Choi, S; Kang, J; Kim, A; Han, K-M; Chang, H S; Tae, W S; Son, K R; Joe, S-H; Lee, M-S; Ham, B-J

    2016-08-09

    Previous evidence suggests that the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) is associated with the structure of brain regions that are critically involved in dysfunctional limbic-cortical network activity associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics were used to investigate changes in white matter integrity in patients with MDD compared with healthy controls. A possible association between structural alterations in white matter tracts and DNA methylation of the SLC6A4 promoter region was also assessed. Thirty-five medication-naive patients with MDD (mean age: 40.34, male/female: 10/25) and age, gender and education level matched 49 healthy controls (mean age: 41.12, male/female: 15/34) underwent DTI. SLC6A4 DNA methylation was also measured at five CpG sites of the promoter region, and the cell type used was whole-blood DNA. Patients with MDD had significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values for the genu of the corpus callosum and body of the corpus callosum than that in healthy controls (family-wise error corrected, Pdepression. Moreover, we believe this is the first report of a correlation between DNA methylation of the SLC6A4 promoter region and white matter integrity in patients with MDD.

  13. Environmental radioactivity. Global transport, distribution and its long-term variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident, which occurred as a result of huge earthquake and resulting tsunami, had a severe impact on world communities as did Japanese, because of cause of serious radioactivity contamination in the environment. Long-term effects of radioactivity contamination from F1NPP are concerned. To assess the long-term environmental effects of the F1NPP accident, it is important to review the history of global radioactivity contamination, which started from Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear explosions in Aug. 1945. Radionuclides released in the environment as a result of atmospheric nuclear explosions, nuclear reactor accident and others are migrated between atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and lithosphere according to natural processes. We describe long-term environmental behaviors of anthropogenic radionuclides derived from the atmospheric nuclear explosions and others, which is useful to predict the behaviors and fate of the F1NPP-derived radionuclides. (author)

  14. The coupling of runoff and dissolved organic matter transport: Insights from in situ fluorescence measurements in small streams and large rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, B. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Downing, B. D.; Saraceno, J.; Shanley, J. B.; Aiken, G.; Murdoch, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics in streams and rivers can help characterize mercury transport, assess causes of drinking water issues, and lead to improved understanding of watershed source areas and carbon loads to downstream ecosystems. However, traditional sampling approaches that collect discrete concentration data at weekly to monthly intervals often fail to adequately capture hydrological pulses ranging from early snowmelt periods to short-duration rainfall events. Continuous measurements of chromophoric dissolved organic matter fluorescence (FDOM) in rivers and streams now provide an opportunity to more accurately quantify DOM loads and processes in aquatic ecosystems at a range of scales. In this study, we used continuous FDOM data from in situ sensors along with discharge data to assess the coupling of FDOM transport and runoff in small streams and large rivers. Results from headwater catchments in New England and California show that FDOM is tightly coupled with runoff, supporting strong linkages between watershed flow paths and DOM concentrations in streams. Results also show that the magnitude of FDOM response relative to runoff varies seasonally, with highest concentrations during autumn rainfall events (after leaf fall) and lower concentrations during peak snowmelt for equivalent runoff. In large river basins, FDOM dynamics are also coupled with runoff and exhibit the same seasonal variability in the magnitude of FDOM response relative to discharge. However, the peaks in FDOM typically lag runoff by several days, reflecting the influence of a variety of factors such as water residence times, reservoir releases, and connectivity to organic matter-rich riparian floodplains and wetlands. Our results show that in situ FDOM data will be important for understanding the coupling of runoff and DOM across multiple scales and could serve a critical role in monitoring, assessment and decision-making in both small and large watersheds.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - fate and long-range atmospheric transport studied using a global model, EMAC-SVOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octaviani, Mega; Tost, Holger; Lammel, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are emitted by incomplete combustion from fossil fuel, vehicles, and biomass burning. They may persist in environmental compartments, pose a health hazard and may bio accumulate along food chains. The ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model had been used to simulate global tropospheric, stratospheric chemistry and climate. In this study, we improve the model to include simulations of the transport and fate of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC). The EMAC-SVOC model takes into account essential environmental processes including gas-particle partitioning, dry and wet deposition, chemical and bio-degradation, and volatilization from sea surface, soils, vegetation, and snow. The model was evaluated against observational data in the Arctic, mid-latitudes, and tropics, and further applied to study total environmental lifetime and long-range transport potential (LRTP) of PAHs. We selected four compounds for study, spanning a wide range of volatility, i.e., phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. Several LRTP indicators were investigated, including the Arctic contamination potential, meridional spreading, and zonal and meridional fluxes to remote regions.

  16. Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoudias, T.; Lelieveld, J.

    2013-01-01

    We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255). The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131 I and 137 Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133 Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Chino et al. (2011) and Stohl et al. (2012); especially the emission estimates of 131 I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO). We calculated that about 80% of the radioactivity from Fukushima which was released to the atmosphere deposited into the Pacific Ocean. In Japan a large inhabited land area was contaminated by more than 40 kBq m -2 . We also estimated the inhalation and 50-year dose by 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 131 I to which the people in Japan are exposed.

  17. Development of algorithms for using satellite meteorological data sets to study global transport of stratospheric aerosols and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Want, P. H.; Deepak, A.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of stratospheric aerosol and ozone measurements obtained from the NASA developed SAM II and SAGE satellite instruments were investigated for their global scale transports. The stratospheric aerosols showed that during the stratospheric warming of the winter 1978 to 1979, the distribution of the zonal mean aerosol extinction ratio in the northern high latitude exhibited distinct changes. Dynamic processes might have played an important role in maintenance role in maintenance of this zonal mean distribution. As to the stratospheric ozone, large poleward ozone transports are shown to occur in the altitude region from 24 km to 38 km near 55N during this warming. This altitude region is shown to be a transition region of the phase relationship between ozone and temperature waves from an in-phase one above 38 km. It is shown that the ozone solar heating in the upper stratosphere might lead to enhancement of the damping rate of the planetary waves due to infrared radiation alone in agreement with theoretical analyses and an earlier observational study.

  18. Modelling the global atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Christoudias

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We modeled the global atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The EMAC atmospheric chemistry – general circulation model was used, with circulation dynamics nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data. We applied a resolution of approximately 0.5 degrees in latitude and longitude (T255. The model accounts for emissions and transport of the radioactive isotopes 131I and 137Cs, and removal processes through precipitation, particle sedimentation and dry deposition. In addition, we simulated the release of 133Xe, a noble gas that can be regarded as a passive transport tracer of contaminated air. The source terms are based on Chino et al. (2011 and Stohl et al. (2012; especially the emission estimates of 131I are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. The calculated concentrations have been compared to station observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO. We calculated that about 80% of the radioactivity from Fukushima which was released to the atmosphere deposited into the Pacific Ocean. In Japan a large inhabited land area was contaminated by more than 40 kBq m-2. We also estimated the inhalation and 50-year dose by 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I to which the people in Japan are exposed.

  19. Intercomparison of modal and sectional aerosol microphysics representations within the same 3-D global chemical transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Mann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the most advanced aerosol-climate models it is common to represent the aerosol particle size distribution in terms of several log-normal modes. This approach, motivated by computational efficiency, makes assumptions about the shape of the particle distribution that may not always capture the properties of global aerosol. Here, a global modal aerosol microphysics module (GLOMAP-mode is evaluated and improved by comparing against a sectional version (GLOMAP-bin and observations in the same 3-D global offline chemistry transport model. With both schemes, the model captures the main features of the global particle size distribution, with sub-micron aerosol approximately unimodal in continental regions and bi-modal in marine regions. Initial bin-mode comparisons showed that the current values for two size distribution parameter settings in the modal scheme (mode widths and inter-modal separation sizes resulted in clear biases compared to the sectional scheme. By adjusting these parameters in the modal scheme, much better agreement is achieved against the bin scheme and observations. Annual mean surface-level mass of sulphate, sea-salt, black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC are within 25% in the two schemes in nearly all regions. Surface level concentrations of condensation nuclei (CN, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN, surface area density and condensation sink also compare within 25% in most regions. However, marine CCN concentrations between 30° N and 30° S are systematically 25–60% higher in the modal model, which we attribute to differences in size-resolved particle growth or cloud-processing. Larger differences also exist in regions or seasons dominated by biomass burning and in free-troposphere and high-latitude regions. Indeed, in the free-troposphere, GLOMAP-mode BC is a factor 2–4 higher than GLOMAP-bin, likely due to differences in size-resolved scavenging. Nevertheless, in most parts of the atmosphere, we conclude that bin

  20. GNES-R: Global nuclear energy simulator for reactors task 1: High-fidelity neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarno, K.; De Almeida, V.; D'Azevedo, E.; De Oliveira, C.; Hamilton, S.

    2006-01-01

    A multi-laboratory, multi-university collaboration has formed to advance the state-of-the-art in high-fidelity, coupled-physics simulation of nuclear energy systems. We are embarking on the first-phase in the development of a new suite of simulation tools dedicated to the advancement of nuclear science and engineering technologies. We seek to develop and demonstrate a new generation of multi-physics simulation tools that will explore the scientific phenomena of tightly coupled physics parameters within nuclear systems, support the design and licensing of advanced nuclear reactors, and provide benchmark quality solutions for code validation. In this paper, we have presented the general scope of the collaborative project and discuss the specific challenges of high-fidelity neutronics for nuclear reactor simulation and the inroads we have made along this path. The high-performance computing neutronics code system utilizes the latest version of SCALE to generate accurate, problem-dependent cross sections, which are used in NEWTRNX - a new 3-D, general-geometry, discrete-ordinates solver based on the Slice-Balance Approach. The Global Nuclear Energy Simulator for Reactors (GNES-R) team is embarking on a long-term simulation development project that encompasses multiple laboratories and universities for the expansion of high-fidelity coupled-physics simulation of nuclear energy systems. (authors)

  1. Comparison of Global Navigation Satellite System Devices on Speed Tracking in Road (TranSPORT Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Supej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS are, in addition to being most widely used vehicle navigation method, becoming popular in sport-related tests. There is a lack of knowledge regarding tracking speed using GNSS, therefore the aims of this study were to examine under dynamic conditions: (1 how accurate technologically different GNSS measure speed and (2 how large is latency in speed measurements in real time applications. Five GNSSs were tested. They were fixed to a car’s roof-rack: a  smart phone, a wrist watch, a handheld device, a professional system for testing vehicles and a high-end Real Time Kinematics (RTK GNSS. The speed data were recorded and analyzed during rapid acceleration and deceleration as well as at steady speed. The study produced four main findings. Higher frequency and high quality GNSS receivers track speed at least at comparable accuracy to a vehicle speedometer. All GNSS systems measured maximum speed and movement at a constant speed well. Acceleration and deceleration have different level of error at different speeds. Low cost GNSS receivers operating at 1 Hz sampling rate had high latency (up to 2.16 s and are not appropriate for tracking speed in real time, especially during dynamic movements.

  2. Comparison of Global Navigation Satellite System Devices on Speed Tracking in Road (Tran)SPORT Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supej, Matej; Cuk, Ivan

    2014-12-08

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are, in addition to being most widely used vehicle navigation method, becoming popular in sport-related tests. There is a lack of knowledge regarding tracking speed using GNSS, therefore the aims of this study were to examine under dynamic conditions: (1) how accurate technologically different GNSS measure speed and (2) how large is latency in speed measurements in real time applications. Five GNSSs were tested. They were fixed to a car's roof-rack: a  smart phone, a wrist watch, a handheld device, a professional system for testing vehicles and a high-end Real Time Kinematics (RTK) GNSS. The speed data were recorded and analyzed during rapid acceleration and deceleration as well as at steady speed. The study produced four main findings. Higher frequency and high quality GNSS receivers track speed at least at comparable accuracy to a vehicle speedometer. All GNSS systems measured maximum speed and movement at a constant speed well. Acceleration and deceleration have different level of error at different speeds. Low cost GNSS receivers operating at 1 Hz sampling rate had high latency (up to 2.16 s) and are not appropriate for tracking speed in real time, especially during dynamic movements.

  3. The adjustment of global external imbalances: does partial exchange rate pass-through to trade prices matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Gust; Nathan Sheets

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses whether partial exchange rate pass-through to trade prices has important implications for the prospective adjustment of global external imbalances. To address this question, we develop an open-economy DGE model in which firms set their prices with an eye toward maintaining their competitiveness against other producers; this feature of the model generates a variable desired markup and, hence, pass-through that is less than complete. With trade price elasticities of unity or...

  4. Modeling of the regional and global transport of radionuclides from the Kola NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchuk, G.I.; Aloyan, A.E.; Arutyunyan, V.O.; Louzan, P.I.; Bergman, R.

    2000-05-01

    This Technical Report belongs to the INTAS project 96-1802: Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia. The aim of this INTAS project is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in northwest Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The main aim in this technical report is to calculate and describe radioactive contamination levels in the Kola Peninsula resulting from a hypothetical accidental release from the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP). The method of assessment of radioactive contamination in the Kola Peninsula described here is based on the mathematical models developed at the Institute for Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INM RAS). Model validation was performed several times on a wide variety of actual problems and case studies. The validation procedure indicated good capabilities in predicting the qualitative and quantitative contamination patterns resulting from the processes under consideration. Various scenarios reflecting typical meteorological conditions in a specific area are used in the numerical simulation. The conclusions resulting from analysis of such scenario calculations are of rather general character, and can be extrapolated in time provided that climate remains relatively stable. The employed 3D numerical model of radionuclide transport in the Northern hemisphere takes into account the interaction between boundary layers of the ocean and atmosphere, long term tracing of the radionuclides evolution in the atmosphere, their deposition on the earth surface, and migration in soil and sea water

  5. Improving the representation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA in the MOZART-4 global chemical transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The secondary organic aerosol (SOA module in the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4 was updated by replacing existing two-product (2p parameters with those obtained from two-product volatility basis set (2p-VBS fits (MZ4-C1, and by treating SOA formation from the following additional volatile organic compounds (VOCs: isoprene, propene and lumped alkenes (MZ4-C2. Strong seasonal and spatial variations in global SOA distributions were demonstrated, with significant differences in the predicted concentrations between the base case and updated model simulations. Updates to the model resulted in significant increases in annual average SOA mass concentrations, particularly for the MZ4-C2 simulation in which the additional SOA precursor VOCs were treated. Annual average SOA concentrations predicted by the MZ4-C2 simulation were 1.00 ± 1.04 μg m−3 in South America, 1.57 ± 1.88 μg m−3 in Indonesia, 0.37 ± 0.27 μg m−3 in the USA, and 0.47 ± 0.29 μg m−3 in Europe with corresponding increases of 178, 406, 311 and 292% over the base-case simulation, respectively, primarily due to inclusion of isoprene. The increases in predicted SOA mass concentrations resulted in corresponding increases in SOA contributions to annual average total aerosol optical depth (AOD by ~ 1–6%. Estimated global SOA production was 5.8, 6.6 and 19.1 Tg yr−1 with corresponding burdens of 0.22, 0.24 and 0.59 Tg for the base-case, MZ4-C1 and MZ4-C2 simulations, respectively. The predicted SOA budgets fell well within reported ranges for comparable modeling studies, 6.7 to 96 Tg yr−1, but were lower than recently reported observationally constrained values, 50 to 380 Tg yr−1. For MZ4-C2, simulated SOA concentrations at the surface also were in reasonable agreement with comparable modeling studies and observations. Total organic aerosol (OA mass concentrations at the surface, however, were slightly over-predicted in Europe, Amazonian

  6. Global well-posedness for passively transported nonlinear moisture dynamics with phase changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittmeir, Sabine; Klein, Rupert; Li, Jinkai; Titi, Edriss S.

    2017-10-01

    We study a moisture model for warm clouds that has been used by Klein and Majda (2006 Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 20 525-551) as a basis for multiscale asymptotic expansions for deep convective phenomena. These moisture balance equations correspond to a bulk microphysics closure in the spirit of Kessler (1969 Meteorol. Monogr. 10 1-84) and Grabowski and Smolarkiewicz (1996 Mon. Weather Rev. 124 487-97), in which water is present in the gaseous state as water vapor and in the liquid phase as cloud water and rain water. It thereby contains closures for the phase changes condensation and evaporation, as well as the processes of autoconversion of cloud water into rainwater and the collection of cloud water by the falling rain droplets. Phase changes are associated with enormous amounts of latent heat and therefore provide a strong coupling to the thermodynamic equation. In this work we assume the velocity field to be given and prove rigorously the global existence and uniqueness of uniformly bounded solutions of the moisture model with viscosity, diffusion and heat conduction. To guarantee local well-posedness we first need to establish local existence results for linear parabolic equations, subject to the Robin boundary conditions on the cylindric type of domains under consideration. We then derive a priori estimates, for proving the maximum principle, using the Stampacchia method, as well as the iterative method by Alikakos (1979 J. Differ. Equ. 33 201-25) to obtain uniform boundedness. The evaporation term is of power law type, with an exponent in general less or equal to one and therefore making the proof of uniqueness more challenging. However, these difficulties can be circumvented by introducing new unknowns, which satisfy the required cancellation and monotonicity properties in the source terms.

  7. Specific Features of Transport Market Characterising the Interrelation of Logistics, Global Distribution and Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available If we acknowledge the role of traffic as active leaderof the sustainable economy development, then we certainlyhave to analyse the environment in which the traffic exists asa system, and therefore we have to foresee its limits which aredetermined by the specifics of the traffic system. Representingthe circulation system of economy, traffic has to eavesdrop onthe demands of the market, and has to be transformed andmodernised. The experience gained by working on the projectsand the studies related to business organisation resulted inthe conclusion that the requirements related to logistics inthe nineties were significantly greater than had been thecommon target until then -reduction of costs. In order to adjustcompletely to the market demands, with the help of advancedinformation technology, the companies apply logisticsas tools of competitiveness on the market. Extraordinmyachievements of IT, using of virtual reality enable businesspeople to communicate and contract businesses without beingphysically present. What is it that makes some companies moresuccessful than others? It is obviously a question of the advantagesof distribution realisation due to the fact that nowadayspurchase and selling are run globally in the world. The distributionof products at the right time, to the right place, at a pricewhich is favourable both to the seller and the buyer, in the rightmanner and in the appropriate quantity in the marketing senseis the prerequisite for the business success as element of businesslogistics. The development of this tool must be basedon the monitoring of the needs for the logistics managementand the tactical adaptability of the company. The solution oflogistics management of business processes must satisfy thecurrent and future customers' requirements in order to be competitive.

  8. Impact of the global economic crisis on metal levels in particulate matter (PM) at an urban area in the Cantabria Region (Northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, A; Fernández-Olmo, I; Irabien, A

    2011-05-01

    Air pollution by particulate matter is well linked with anthropogenic activities; the global economic crisis that broke out in the last year may be a proper indicator of this close relationship. Some economic indicators show the regional effects of the crisis on the Cantabria Region. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on PM10 levels and composition at the major city of the region, Santander. Some metals linked to anthropogenic activities were measured at Santander and studied by Positive Matrix Factorization; this statistical analysis allowed to identify three main factors: urban background, industrial and molybdenum-related factor. The main results show that the temporal trend of the levels of the industrial tracers found in the present study are well agree with the evolution of the studied economic indicators; nevertheless, the urban background tracers and PM10 concentration levels are not well correlated with the studied economic indicators. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2005-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  10. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  11. The global chemistry transport model TM5: description and evaluation of the tropospheric chemistry version 3.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Huijnen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive description and benchmark evaluation of the tropospheric chemistry version of the global chemistry transport model TM5 (Tracer Model 5, version TM5-chem-v3.0. A full description is given concerning the photochemical mechanism, the interaction with aerosol, the treatment of the stratosphere, the wet and dry deposition parameterizations, and the applied emissions. We evaluate the model against a suite of ground-based, satellite, and aircraft measurements of components critical for understanding global photochemistry for the year 2006.

    The model exhibits a realistic oxidative capacity at a global scale. The methane lifetime is ~8.9 years with an associated lifetime of methyl chloroform of 5.86 years, which is similar to that derived using an optimized hydroxyl radical field.

    The seasonal cycle in observed carbon monoxide (CO is well simulated at different regions across the globe. In the Northern Hemisphere CO concentrations are underestimated by about 20 ppbv in spring and 10 ppbv in summer, which is related to missing chemistry and underestimated emissions from higher hydrocarbons, as well as to uncertainties in the seasonal variation of CO emissions. The model also captures the spatial and seasonal variation in formaldehyde tropospheric columns as observed by SCIAMACHY. Positive model biases over the Amazon and eastern United States point to uncertainties in the isoprene emissions as well as its chemical breakdown.

    Simulated tropospheric nitrogen dioxide columns correspond well to observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument in terms of its seasonal and spatial variability (with a global spatial correlation coefficient of 0.89, but TM5 fields are lower by 25–40%. This is consistent with earlier studies pointing to a high bias of 0–30% in the OMI retrievals, but uncertainties in the emission inventories have probably also contributed to the discrepancy.

    TM5 tropospheric

  12. A global wetland methane emissions and uncertainty dataset for atmospheric chemical transport models (WetCHARTs version 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bloom

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wetland emissions remain one of the principal sources of uncertainty in the global atmospheric methane (CH4 budget, largely due to poorly constrained process controls on CH4 production in waterlogged soils. Process-based estimates of global wetland CH4 emissions and their associated uncertainties can provide crucial prior information for model-based top-down CH4 emission estimates. Here we construct a global wetland CH4 emission model ensemble for use in atmospheric chemical transport models (WetCHARTs version 1.0. Our 0.5°  ×  0.5° resolution model ensemble is based on satellite-derived surface water extent and precipitation reanalyses, nine heterotrophic respiration simulations (eight carbon cycle models and a data-constrained terrestrial carbon cycle analysis and three temperature dependence parameterizations for the period 2009–2010; an extended ensemble subset based solely on precipitation and the data-constrained terrestrial carbon cycle analysis is derived for the period 2001–2015. We incorporate the mean of the full and extended model ensembles into GEOS-Chem and compare the model against surface measurements of atmospheric CH4; the model performance (site-level and zonal mean anomaly residuals compares favourably against published wetland CH4 emissions scenarios. We find that uncertainties in carbon decomposition rates and the wetland extent together account for more than 80 % of the dominant uncertainty in the timing, magnitude and seasonal variability in wetland CH4 emissions, although uncertainty in the temperature CH4 : C dependence is a significant contributor to seasonal variations in mid-latitude wetland CH4 emissions. The combination of satellite, carbon cycle models and temperature dependence parameterizations provides a physically informed structural a priori uncertainty that is critical for top-down estimates of wetland CH4 fluxes. Specifically, our ensemble can provide enhanced information on the prior

  13. The Role of Low-severity Fire and Thermal Alteration of Soil Organic Matter in Carbon Preservation and GHG Flux From Global Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, N. E.; Wang, H.; Hodgkins, S. B.; Richardson, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Many global peatlands are dominated by fire-adapted plant communities and are subject to frequent wildfires with return intervals ranging between 3 to 100 years. Wildfires in peatlands are typically low-severity events that occur in winter and spring when vegetation is desiccated and soil moisture content is high. As a result, most wildfires consume aboveground fuels in a matter of minutes without igniting the nearly saturated peat. In such fires, surface soil layers are subjected to flash heating with a rapid loss of soil moisture but little loss of soil organic matter (SOM). Such fires have the potential to alter the chemical structure of SOM, even in the absence of combustion, through Maillard's Reaction and similar chemical processes, and through structural changes that protect SOM from decomposition. This study examines the effects of low-intensity surface fires on the recalcitrance of SOM from fire-adapted communities located in subtropical, temperate and sub-boreal peatlands. In addition, soil from a non-fire-adapted Peruvian palm peatland was examined for response to thermal alteration. The timing and temperatures of low-intensity fires were measured in the field during prescribed burns and replicated in simulated fires. The effects of fire on the chemical structure of SOM were examined with FTIR, SEM and XPS. Burned and unburned peat replicates were incubated at three temperatures (5oC, 15oC, 25oC) in controlled chambers for more than six months. Burned replicates initially showed higher CO2, CH4 and NO2 emissions. Yet, within four weeks emissions from the burned replicates dropped below those of unburned replicates and remained significantly lower (10-50%) for the duration of the experiment. In addition, thermal alteration significantly reduced the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of thermally altered peat. After accounting for small initial losses of organic matter (<10 %) during the fire simulations, thermal alteration of SOM resulted in a net long

  14. Predicting tropospheric ozone and hydroxyl radical in a global, three-dimensional, chemistry, transport, and deposition model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, C.S.

    1995-01-05

    Two of the most important chemically reactive tropospheric gases are ozone (O{sub 3}) and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Although ozone in the stratosphere is a necessary protector against the sun`s radiation, tropospheric ozone is actually a pollutant which damages materials and vegetation, acts as a respiratory irritant, and is a greenhouse gas. One of the two main sources of ozone in the troposphere is photochemical production. The photochemistry is initiated when hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO) react with nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} = NO + NO{sub 2}) in the presence of sunlight. Reaction with the hydroxyl radical, OH, is the main sink for many tropospheric gases. The hydroxyl radical is highly reactive and has a lifetime on the order of seconds. Its formation is initiated by the photolysis of tropospheric ozone. Tropospheric chemistry involves a complex, non-linear set of chemical reactions between atmospheric species that vary substantially in time and space. To model these and other species on a global scale requires the use of a global, three-dimensional chemistry, transport, and deposition (CTD) model. In this work, I developed two such three dimensional CTD models. The first model incorporated the chemistry necessary to model tropospheric ozone production from the reactions of nitrogen oxides with carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH{sub 4}). The second also included longer-lived alkane species and the biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, which is emitted by growing plants and trees. The models` ability to predict a number of key variables (including the concentration of O{sub 3}, OH, and other species) were evaluated. Then, several scenarios were simulated to understand the change in the chemistry of the troposphere since preindustrial times and the role of anthropogenic NO{sub x} on present day conditions.

  15. Chlor-alkali industrial contamination and riverine transport of mercury: Distribution and partitioning of mercury between water, suspended matter, and bottom sediment of the Thur River, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hissler, Christophe; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    Total dissolved and total particulate Hg mass balances were estimated during one hydrological period (July 2001-June 2002) in the Thur River basin, which is heavily polluted by chlor-alkali industrial activity. The seasonal variations of the Hg dynamics in the aquatic environment were assessed using total Hg concentrations in bottom sediment and suspended matter, and total and reactive dissolved Hg concentrations in the water. The impact of the chlor-alkali plant (CAP) remains the largest concern for Hg contamination of this river system. Upstream from the CAP, the Hg partitioning between dissolved and particulate phases was principally controlled by the dissolved fraction due to snow melting during spring high flow, while during low flow, Hg was primarily adsorbed onto particulates. Downstream from the CAP, the Hg partitioning is controlled by the concentration of dissolved organic and inorganic ligands and by the total suspended sediment (TSS) concentrations. Nevertheless, the particulate fluxes were five times higher than the dissolved ones. Most of the total annual flux of Hg supplied by the CAP to the river is transported to the outlet of the catchment (total Hg flux: 70 μg m -2 a -1 ). Downstream from the CAP, the bottom sediment, mainly composed of coarse sediment (>63 μm) and depleted in organic matter, has a weak capacity to trap Hg in the river channel and the stock of Hg is low (4 mg m -2 ) showing that the residence time of Hg in this river is short

  16. Solubility and transport of Cr(III) in a historically contaminated soil - Evidence of a rapidly reacting dimeric Cr(III) organic matter complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löv, Åsa; Sjöstedt, Carin; Larsbo, Mats; Persson, Ingmar; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Cornelis, Geert; Kleja, Dan B

    2017-12-01

    Chromium is a common soil contaminant and, although it has been studied widely, questions about its speciation and dissolutions kinetics remain unanswered. We combined information from an irrigation experiment performed with intact soil columns with data from batch experiments to evaluate solubility and mobilization mechanisms of Cr(III) in a historically contaminated soil (>65 years). Particulate and colloidal Cr(III) forms dominated transport in this soil, but their concentrations were independent of irrigation intensity (2-20 mm h -1 ). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements indicated that Cr(III) associated with colloids and particles, and with the solid phase, mainly existed as dimeric hydrolyzed Cr(III) bound to natural organic matter. Dissolution kinetics of this species were fast (≤1 day) at low pH (organic matter complex with a geochemical equilibrium model using only generic binding parameters, opening the way for use of geochemical models in risk assessments of Cr(III)-contaminated sites. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluating the Capacity of Global CO2 Flux and Atmospheric Transport Models to Incorporate New Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Erickson, D. J.; Denning, A. S.; Wofsy, S. C.; Andrews, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    As we enter the new era of satellite remote sensing for CO2 and other carbon cyclerelated quantities, advanced modeling and analysis capabilities are required to fully capitalize on the new observations. Model estimates of CO2 surface flux and atmospheric transport are required for initial constraints on inverse analyses, to connect atmospheric observations to the location of surface sources and sinks, and ultimately for future projections of carbon-climate interactions. For application to current, planned, and future remotely sensed CO2 data, it is desirable that these models are accurate and unbiased at time scales from less than daily to multi-annual and at spatial scales from several kilometers or finer to global. Here we focus on simulated CO2 fluxes from terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric transport mutually constrained by analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office for the period 1998 through 2006. Use of assimilated meteorological data enables direct model comparison to observations across a wide range of scales of variability. The biospheric fluxes are produced by the CASA model at lxi degrees on a monthly mean basis, modulated hourly with analyzed temperature and sunlight. Both physiological and biomass burning fluxes are derived using satellite observations of vegetation, burned area (as in GFED-2), and analyzed meteorology. For the purposes of comparison to CO2 data, fossil fuel and ocean fluxes are also included in the transport simulations. In this presentation we evaluate the model's ability to simulate CO2 flux and mixing ratio variability in comparison to in situ observations at sites in Northern mid latitudes and the continental tropics. The influence of key process representations is inferred. We find that the model can resolve much of the hourly to synoptic variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The seasonal cycle and its

  18. American Express Global Business Travel 2018 Forecast Indicates Moderate Price Increase Across Air, Hotel and Ground Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    NEW YORK – The outlook for international business travel is generally optimistic, according to the Global Business Travel Forecast 2018 published by American Express Global Business Travel (GBT). Demand is being driven by a steadily improving global economy and growing confidence among the business and investor communities. Hotel performance is expected to improve globally 29 January 2018

  19. Transport of super-thermal particles and their effect on the stability of global modes in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneller, Mirjam Simone

    2013-01-01

    In thermonuclear plasmas, a population of super-thermal particles generated by external heating methods or fusion reactions can lead to the excitation of global instabilities. The transport processes due to nonlinear wave-particle interactions and the consequential particle losses reduce the plasma heating and the efficiency of the fusion reaction rate. Furthermore, these energetic or fast particles may cause severe damages to the wall of the device. This thesis addresses the resonance mechanisms between these energetic particles and global MHD and kinetic MHD waves, employing the hybrid code HAGIS. A systematic investigation of energetic particles resonant with multiple modes (double-resonance) is presented for the first time. The double-resonant mode coupling is modeled for waves with different frequencies in various overlapping scenarios. It is found that, depending on the radial mode distance, double-resonance is able to significantly enhance, both the growth rates and the saturation amplitudes. Small radial mode distances, however can lead to strong nonlinear mode stabilization of a linear dominant mode. For the first time, simulations of experimental conditions in the ASDEX Upgrade fusion device are performed for different plasma equilibria (particularly for different q profiles). An understanding of fast particle behavior for non-monotonic q profiles is important for the development of advanced fusion scenarios. The numerical tool is the extended version of the HAGIS code, which computes the particle motion in the vacuum region between vessel wall in addition to the internal plasma volume. For this thesis, a consistent fast particle distribution function was implemented, to represent the fast particle population generated by the particular heating method (ICRH). Furthermore, HAGIS was extended to use more realistic eigenfunctions, calculated by the gyrokinetic eigenvalue solver LIGKA. One important aim of these simulations is to allow fast ion loss

  20. Transport of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes through silica based porous media: influences of aquatic chemistry, surface chemistry, and natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Bitter, Julie L; Smith, Billy A; Fairbrother, D Howard; Ball, William P

    2013-12-17

    This paper provides results from studies of the transport of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) of varying surface oxygen concentrations under a range of aquatic conditions and through uniform silica glass bead media. In the presence of Na(+), the required ionic strength (IS) for maximum particle attachment efficiency (i.e., the critical deposition concentration, or CDC) increased as the surface oxygen concentration of the O-MWCNTs or pH increased, following qualitative tenets of theories based on electrostatic interactions. In the presence of Ca(2+), CDC values were lower than those with Na(+) present, but were no longer sensitive to surface oxygen content, suggesting that Ca(2+) impacts the interactions between O-MWCNTs and glass beads by mechanisms other than electrostatic alone. The presence of Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) decreased the attachment efficiency of O-MWCNTs in the presence of either Na(+) or Ca(2+), but with more pronounced effects when Na(+) was present. Nevertheless, low concentrations of SRNOM (organic carbon) were sufficient to mobilize all O-MWCNTs studied at CaCl2 concentrations as high as 10 mM. Overall, this study reveals that NOM content, pH, and cation type show more importance than surface chemistry in affecting O-MWCNTs deposition during transport through silica-based porous media.

  1. Transport and deposition of Suwannee River Humic Acid/Natural Organic Matter formed silver nanoparticles on silica matrices: the influence of solution pH and ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaighe, Nelson; Depner, Sean W; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Sohn, Mary

    2013-07-01

    The transport and deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) formed from Ag(+) reduction by Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) and Suwannee River Natural Organic Matter (SRNOM) utilizing a silica matrix is reported. The morphology and stability of the AgNPs was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The percentage conversion of the initial [Ag(+)] to [AgNPs] was determined from a combination of atomic absorption (AAS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, and centrifugation techniques. The results indicate higher AgNP transport and consequently low deposition in the porous media at basic pH conditions and low ionic strength. However, at low acidic pH and high ionic strength, especially with the divalent metallic cations, the mobility of the AgNPs in the porous media was very low, most likely due to NP aggregation. Overall, the results suggest the potential for AgNP contamination of subsurface soils and groundwater aquifers is mostly dependent on their aggregation state, controlled by the soil water and sediment ionic strength and pH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Covariant kinetic theory for effective fugacity quasiparticle model and first order transport coefficients for hot QCD matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sukanya; Chandra, Vinod

    2018-02-01

    An effective relativistic kinetic theory has been constructed for an interacting system of quarks, antiquarks and gluons within a quasiparticle description of hot QCD medium at finite temperature and baryon chemical potential, where the interactions are encoded in the gluon and quark effective fugacities with nontrivial energy dispersions. The local conservations of stress-energy tensor and number current require the introduction of a mean field term in the transport equation which produces non-vanishing contribution to the first order transport coefficients. Such contribution has been observed to be significant for the temperatures which are closer to the QCD transition temperature, however, induces negligible contributions beyond a few times the transition temperature. As an implication, impact of the mean field contribution on the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity, bulk viscosity and thermal conductivity of a hot QCD medium in the presence of binary, elastic collisions among the constituents, has been investigated. Visible effects have been observed for the temperature regime closer to the QCD transition temperature.

  3. Ultra High Intensity laser produced fast electron transport in under-dense and over-dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manclossi, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is related to inertial fusion research, and particularly concerns the approach to fast ignition, which is based on the use of ultra-intense laser pulses to ignite the thermonuclear fuel. Until now, the feasibility of this scheme has not been proven and depends on many fundamental aspects of the underlying physics, which are not yet fully understood and which are also very far from controls. The main purpose of this thesis is the experimental study of transport processes in the material over-dense (solid) and under-dense (gas jet) of a beam of fast electrons produced by pulse laser at a intensity of some 10 19 Wcm -2 . (author)

  4. A weighted higher-order network analysis of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) transport in Yangtze River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufang; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Shuhua

    2018-04-01

    Specification of PM2.5 transmission characteristics is important for pollution control, policymaking and prediction. In this paper, we propose weights for motif instances, thereby to implement a weighted higher-order clustering algorithm for a weighted, directed PM2.5 network in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China. The weighted, directed network we create in this paper includes information on meteorological conditions of wind speed and wind direction, plus data on geographic distance and PM2.5 concentrations. We aim to reveal PM2.5 mobility between cities in the YRD. Major potential PM2.5 contributors and closely interacted clusters are identified in the network of 178 air quality stations in the YRD. To our knowledge, it is the first work to incorporate weight information into the higher-order network analysis to study PM2.5 transport.

  5. VERTIGO (VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean): A study of particle sources and flux attenuation in the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesseler, K.O.; Trull, T.W.; Steinberg, D.K.; Silver, M.W.; Siegel, D.A.; Saitoh, S.-I.; Lamborg, C.H.; Lam, P.J.; Karl, D.M.; Jiao, N.Z.; Honda, M.C.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Brown, S.L.; Boyd, P.W.; Bishop, J.K.B.; Bidigare, R.R.

    2008-06-10

    The VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) study examined particle sources and fluxes through the ocean's 'twilight zone' (defined here as depths below the euphotic zone to 1000 m). Interdisciplinary process studies were conducted at contrasting sites off Hawaii (ALOHA) and in the NW Pacific (K2) during 3 week occupations in 2004 and 2005, respectively. We examine in this overview paper the contrasting physical, chemical and biological settings and how these conditions impact the source characteristics of the sinking material and the transport efficiency through the twilight zone. A major finding in VERTIGO is the considerably lower transfer efficiency (T{sub eff}) of particulate organic carbon (POC), POC flux 500/150 m, at ALOHA (20%) vs. K2 (50%). This efficiency is higher in the diatom-dominated setting at K2 where silica-rich particles dominate the flux at the end of a diatom bloom, and where zooplankton and their pellets are larger. At K2, the drawdown of macronutrients is used to assess export and suggests that shallow remineralization above our 150 m trap is significant, especially for N relative to Si. We explore here also surface export ratios (POC flux/primary production) and possible reasons why this ratio is higher at K2, especially during the first trap deployment. When we compare the 500 m fluxes to deep moored traps, both sites lose about half of the sinking POC by >4000 m, but this comparison is limited in that fluxes at depth may have both a local and distant component. Certainly, the greatest difference in particle flux attenuation is in the mesopelagic, and we highlight other VERTIGO papers that provide a more detailed examination of the particle sources, flux and processes that attenuate the flux of sinking particles. Ultimately, we contend that at least three types of processes need to be considered: heterotrophic degradation of sinking particles, zooplankton migration and surface feeding, and lateral sources of

  6. Global deposition and transport efficiencies of radioactive species with respect to modelling credibility after Fukushima (Japan, 2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Balkanski, Yves; Florou, Heleni; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Cozic, Anne; Kritidis, Panayotis

    2015-01-01

    In this study we conduct a detailed comparison of the modelling response of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident with global and local observations. We use five different model versions characterized by different horizontal and vertical resolutions of the same General Circulation Model (GCM). Transport efficiencies of 137 Cs across the world are presented as an indication of the expected radioactive impact. Activity concentrations were well represented showing lower Normalized Mean Biases (NMBs) when the better resolved versions of the GCM were used. About 95% of the results using the zoom configuration over Europe (zEur) remained within a factor of 10 from the observations. Close to Japan, the model reproduced well 137 Cs concentrations using the zoom version over Asia (zAsia) showing high correlations, while more than 64% of the modelling results were found within a factor of two from the observations and more than 92% within a factor of 10. Labile and refractory rare radionuclides calculated indirectly showed larger deviations, with about 60% of the simulated concentrations within a factor of 10 from the observations. We estimate that around 23% of the released 137 Cs remained into Japan, while 76% deposited in the oceans. Around 163 TBq deposited over North America, among which 95 TBq over USA, 40 TBq over Canada and 5 TBq over Greenland). About 14 TBq deposited over Europe (mostly in the European part of Russia, Sweden and Norway) and 47 TBq over Asia (mostly in the Asian part of Russia, Philippines and South Korea), while traces were observed over Africa, Oceania and Antarctica. Since the radioactive plume followed a northward direction before its arrival to USA and then to Europe, a significant amount of about 69 TBq deposited in the Arctic, as well. These patterns of deposition are fully consistent with the most recent reports for the accident. - Highlights: • 5 versions of an Eulerian model were used to simulate the Fukushima

  7. Matter Tracking Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Matter Tracking Information System (MTIS) principle function is to streamline and integrate the workload and work activity generated or addressed by our 300 plus...

  8. Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates effects of wildfire emissions on air quality in Europe during an intense fire season that occurred in summer 2003. A meso-scale chemistry transport model CHIMERE is used, together with ground based and satellite aerosol optical measurements, to assess the dispersion of fire emissions and to quantify the associated radiative effects. The model has been improved to take into account a MODIS-derived daily smoke emission inventory as well as the injection altitude of smoke particles. The simulated aerosol optical properties are put into a radiative transfer model to estimate (off-line the effects of smoke particles on photolysis rates and atmospheric radiative forcing. We have found that the simulated wildfires generated comparable amounts of primary aerosol pollutants (130 kTons of PM2.5, fine particles to anthropogenic sources during August 2003, and caused significant changes in aerosol optical properties not only close to the fire source regions, but also over a large part of Europe as a result of the long-range transport of the smoke. Including these emissions into the model significantly improved its performance in simulating observed aerosol concentrations and optical properties. Quantitative comparison with MODIS and POLDER data during the major fire event (3–8 August 2003 showed the ability of the model to reproduce high aerosol optical thickness (AOT over Northern Europe caused by the advection of the smoke plume from the Portugal source region. Although there was a fairly good spatial agreement with satellite data (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.4 to 0.9, the temporal variability of AOT data at specific AERONET locations was not well captured by the model. Statistical analyses of model-simulated AOT data at AERONET ground stations showed a significant decrease in the model biases suggesting that wildfire emissions are responsible for a 30% enhancement in mean AOT values during the heat

  9. Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Bohn, B.; Massie, S.; Menut, L.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2007-08-01

    The present study investigates effects of wildfire emissions on air quality in Europe during an intense fire season that occurred in summer 2003. A meso-scale chemistry transport model CHIMERE is used, together with ground based and satellite aerosol optical measurements, to assess the dispersion of fire emissions and to quantify the associated radiative effects. The model has been improved to take into account a MODIS-derived daily smoke emission inventory as well as the injection altitude of smoke particles. The simulated aerosol optical properties are put into a radiative transfer model to estimate (off-line) the effects of smoke particles on photolysis rates and atmospheric radiative forcing. We have found that the simulated wildfires generated comparable amounts of primary aerosol pollutants (130 kTons of PM2.5, fine particles) to anthropogenic sources during August 2003, and caused significant changes in aerosol optical properties not only close to the fire source regions, but also over a large part of Europe as a result of the long-range transport of the smoke. Including these emissions into the model significantly improved its performance in simulating observed aerosol concentrations and optical properties. Quantitative comparison with MODIS and POLDER data during the major fire event (3-8 August 2003) showed the ability of the model to reproduce high aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over Northern Europe caused by the advection of the smoke plume from the Portugal source region. Although there was a fairly good spatial agreement with satellite data (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.4 to 0.9), the temporal variability of AOT data at specific AERONET locations was not well captured by the model. Statistical analyses of model-simulated AOT data at AERONET ground stations showed a significant decrease in the model biases suggesting that wildfire emissions are responsible for a 30% enhancement in mean AOT values during the heat-wave episode. The

  10. Isocyanic acid in a global chemistry transport model: Tropospheric distribution, budget, and identification of regions with potential health impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Paul. J.; Emmons, Louisa K.; Roberts, James M.; Lamarque, Jean-FrançOis; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Veres, Patrick; Vandenboer, Trevor C.

    2012-05-01

    This study uses a global chemical transport model to estimate the distribution of isocyanic acid (HNCO). HNCO is toxic, and concentrations exceeding 1 ppbv have been suggested to have negative health effects. Based on fire studies, HNCO emissions were scaled to those of hydrogen cyanide (30%), resulting in yearly total emissions of 1.5 Tg for 2008, from both anthropogenic and biomass burning sources. Loss processes included heterogeneous uptake (pH dependent), dry deposition (like formic acid), and reaction with the OH radical (k = 1 × 10-15 molecule-1 cm3 s-1). Annual mean surface HNCO concentrations were highest over parts of China (maximum of 470 pptv), but episodic fire emissions gave much higher levels, exceeding 4 ppbv in tropical Africa and the Amazon, and exceeding 10 ppbv in Southeast Asia and Siberia. This suggests that large biomass burning events could result in deleterious health effects for populations in these regions. For the tropospheric budget, using the model-calculated pH the HNCO lifetime was 37 days, with the split between dry deposition and heterogeneous loss being 95%:5%. Fixing the heterogeneous loss rate at pH = 7 meant that this process dominated, accounting for ˜70% of the total loss, giving a lifetime of 6 days, and resulting in upper tropospheric concentrations that were essentially zero. However, changing the pH does not notably impact the high concentrations found in biomass burning regions. More observational data is needed to evaluate the model, as well as a better representation of the likely underestimated biofuel emissions, which could mean more populations exposed to elevated HNCO concentrations.

  11. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  12. Active matter logic for autonomous microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    Chemically or optically powered active matter plays an increasingly important role in materials design, but its computational potential has yet to be explored systematically. The competition between energy consumption and dissipation imposes stringent physical constraints on the information transport in active flow networks, facilitating global optimization strategies that are not well understood. Here, we combine insights from recent microbial experiments with concepts from lattice-field theory and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics to introduce a generic theoretical framework for active matter logic. Highlighting conceptual differences with classical and quantum computation, we demonstrate how the inherent non-locality of incompressible active flow networks can be utilized to construct universal logical operations, Fredkin gates and memory storage in set-reset latches through the synchronized self-organization of many individual network components. Our work lays the conceptual foundation for developing autonomous microfluidic transport devices driven by bacterial fluids, active liquid crystals or chemically engineered motile colloids.

  13. Impact of the global economic crisis on metal levels in particulate matter (PM) at an urban area in the Cantabria Region (Northern Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruti, A.; Fernandez-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution by particulate matter is well linked with anthropogenic activities; the global economic crisis that broke out in the last year may be a proper indicator of this close relationship. Some economic indicators show the regional effects of the crisis on the Cantabria Region. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on PM10 levels and composition at the major city of the region, Santander. Some metals linked to anthropogenic activities were measured at Santander and studied by Positive Matrix Factorization; this statistical analysis allowed to identify three main factors: urban background, industrial and molybdenum-related factor. The main results show that the temporal trend of the levels of the industrial tracers found in the present study are well agree with the evolution of the studied economic indicators; nevertheless, the urban background tracers and PM10 concentration levels are not well correlated with the studied economic indicators. - Highlights: → The impact of the crisis is higher on the PM-bound metal levels than on the PM levels. → The crisis effects on the trace metal associated to the urban background are negligible. → The temporal trend of the industrial trace metals levels and the studied economic indicators is similar. → The crisis effects on the main industrial tracer levels in PM2.5 and PM10 are similar. - The study presents an evaluation of the economic crisis impact on PM levels and composition at a coastal urban area in the Region of Cantabria (Northern Spain).

  14. LIDAR vertical profiles over the Oil Sands Region: an important tool in understanding atmospheric particulate matter transport, mixing and transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawbridge, K. B.

    2013-12-01

    LIDAR technology is an excellent tool to probe the complex vertical structure of the atmosphere at high spatial and temporal resolution. This provides the critical vertical context for the interpretation of ground-based chemistry measurements, airborne measurements and model verification and validation. In recent years, Environment Canada has designed an autonomous aerosol LIDAR system that can be deployed to remote areas such as the oil sands. Currently two autonomous LIDAR systems are making measurements in the oil sands region, one since December, 2012 and the other since July, 2013. The LIDAR transmitter emits two wavelengths (1064nm and 532nm) and the detector assembly collects four channels (1064nm backscatter, 532nm backscatter and 532nm depolarization, 607 nm nitrogen channel). Aerosol profiles from near ground to 20 km are collected every 10-60 s providing sufficient resolution to probe atmospheric dynamics, mixing and transport. The depolarization channel provides key information in identifying and discriminating the various aerosol layers aloft such as dust, forest fire plumes, industrial plume sources or ice crystals. The vertical resolution of the LIDAR can determine whether industrial plumes remain aloft or mix down to the surface and also provide estimates as to the concentration of the particulate at various altitudes. It operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week except during precipitation events. The system is operated remotely and the data are updated every hour to a website to allow near real-time capability. An intensive measurement campaign will be carried out in August and September of 2013 and will provide coincident airborne and ground-based measurements for the two LIDAR systems. The first results from this field study will be presented as well as some statistics on the frequency and evolution of plume events that were detected by the LIDARs.

  15. Commuter exposure to particulate matter and particle-bound PAHs in three transportation modes in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Caiqing; Zheng, Mei; Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhang, Qunfang; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Yanjun; Fu, Huaiyu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhu, Tong; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to fine and ultrafine particles as well as particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by commuters in three transportation modes (walking, subway and bus) were examined in December 2011 in Beijing, China. During the study period, real-time measured median PM 2.5 mass concentration (PMC) for walking, riding buses and taking the subway were 26.7, 32.9 and 56.9 μg m −3 , respectively, and particle number concentrations (PNC) were 1.1 × 10 4 , 1.0 × 10 4 and 2.2 × 10 4  cm −3 . Commuters were exposed to higher PNC in air-conditioned buses and aboveground-railway, but higher PMC in underground-subway compared to aboveground-railway. PNC in roadway modes (bus and walking) peaked at noon, but was lower during traffic rush hours, negatively correlated with PMC. Toxic potential of particulate-PAHs estimated based on benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQs) showed that walking pedestrians were subjected to higher BaP TEQs than bus (2.7-fold) and subway (3.6-fold) commuters, though the highest PMC and PNC were observed in subway. - Highlights: • The highest PNC and PM 2.5 occurred around noon and late rush hours, respectively. • Higher PM 2.5 and PNC, but lower PAHs and BaP TEQ were found in Beijing subway. • Traffic congestion, roadside cooking, and construction evidently enhanced roadway PM. • Ventilation and air-conditioning system impact PM level in bus and subway cabins. - Higher PMC and PNC, but lower particulate PAHs and BaP TEQ were found in Beijing subway. PNC and PMC in on-roadway modes were peaked around noon and late rush hours, respectively

  16. CORRELATION BETWEEN PARTICULATE MATTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    Measurement of atmospheric particulate matter was carried out with a view to establish the potential influence of meteorological parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and global radiation on the mass concentration. Particulate matter (PM) in two size fractions ( 2.5 m and ...

  17. Few-Group Transport Analysis of the Core-Reflector Problem in Fast Reactor Cores via Equivalent Group Condensation and Local/Global Iteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong Hyuck; Cho, Nam Zin

    2011-01-01

    In deterministic neutron transport methods, a process called fine-group to few-group condensation is used to reduce the computational burden. However, recent results on the core-reflector problem in fast reactor cores show that use of a small number of energy groups has limitation to describe neutron flux around core reflector interface. Therefore, researches are still ongoing to overcome this limitation. Recently, the authors proposed I) direct application of equivalently condensed angle-dependent total cross section to discrete ordinates method to overcome the limitation of conventional multi-group approximations, and II) local/global iteration framework in which fine-group discrete ordinates calculation is used in local problems while few-group transport calculation is used in the global problem iteratively. In this paper, an analysis of the core-reflector problem is performed in few-group structure using equivalent angle-dependent total cross section with local/global iteration. Numerical results are obtained under S 12 discrete ordinates-like transport method with scattering cross section up to P1 Legendre expansion

  18. Understanding Global Climate Change Effects on Annual Average Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Concentrations in California Using 7-year Average Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, A. A.; Hixson, M.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, S.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change will transform meteorological patterns with unknown consequences for air quality in California. California’s extreme topography requires higher spatial resolution for climate-air quality studies compared to other regions of the United States. At the same time, the 7-year ENSO cycle requires long analysis periods in order to quantify climate impacts. The combination of these challenges results in a computationally intensive modeling problem that limits our ability to fully analyze climate impacts on California air quality. One possible approach to reduce this computational burden is to average several years of meteorological fields and then use these average inputs in a single set of air quality runs. The interactions between meteorology and air quality are non-linear, and so the averaging approach may introduce biases that need to be quantified. The objective of this research is to evaluate how upstream averaging of meteorological fields over several years influences air quality predictions in California. Hourly meteorological fields will be averaged over 7-years in the present-day (2000-2006) and the future (2047-2053). The meteorology for each period was down-scaled using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) from the business-as-usual output generated by the Parallel Climate Model (PCM). Emissions of biogenic and mobile-source volatile organic carbons (VOC) will be processed using meteorological fields from individual years, and using the averaged meteorological data. The UCD source-oriented photochemical air quality model will be employed to study the global climate change effects on the annual average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) throughout the entire state of California. The model predicts the size and composition distribution of airborne particulate matter in 15 size bins spanning the diameter range from 10nm - 10µm. The modeled concentrations from individual years will be averaged and compared with the concentrations

  19. Long-range transported dissolved organic matter, ions and black carbon deposited on Central Asian snow covered glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Kang, Shichang; Peltier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Ninety percent of the Central Asian population depend on water precipitated in the mountains stored in glaciers and snow cover. Accelerated melting of the snow and ice can be induced by the deposition of airborne impurities such as mineral dust, black carbon and co-emitted species leading to significant reductions of the surface albedo. However, Central Asia is a relatively understudied region and data on the source regions, chemical and microphysical characteristics as well as modelling studies of long-range transported air pollution and dust to the Tien Shan mountains is very scarce. We studied the atmospheric aerosol deposited most likely between summer 2012 and summer 2013on three different glaciers in the Kyrgyz Republic. Samples were taken from four snow pits on the glaciers Abramov (2 pits, 39.59 °N, 71.56 °E, 4390 m elevation, 240 cm deep, and 39.62°N, 71.52 °E, 4275 m elevation, 125 cm deep), Ak-Shiirak (41.80 °N, 78.18 °E, 4325 m elevation, 75 cm deep) and Suek (41.78 °N, 77.75 °E, 4341 m elevation, 200 cm deep). The latter two glaciers are located roughly within 6 and 38 km of an operating gold mine. The snow was analyzed for black carbon, ions, metals and organic carbon. We here focus on the results of inorganic ion measurements and organic carbon speciation based on analysis with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and potential pollution sources that can be deduced from the chemical information as well as back trajectories. Average contributions of snow impurities measured by the HR-ToF-AMS were dominated by organic carbon. Relative concentrations of organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in snow were 86 %, 3 %, 9 % and 2 % respectively for Abramov, 92 %, 1 %, 5 % and 1 % for Suek, and 95 %, 1 %, 3 % and 1 % for Ak-Shiirak. Generally, impurities on Suek and Ak-Shiirak were three and five times higher than on Abramov. Mass concentrations of organic carbon were on average 6 times higher in samples

  20. Modeling lightning-NOx chemistry on a sub-grid scale in a global chemical transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gressent

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a plume-in-grid approach is implemented in a chemical transport model (CTM to parameterize the effects of the nonlinear reactions occurring within high concentrated NOx plumes from lightning NOx emissions (LNOx in the upper troposphere. It is characterized by a set of parameters including the plume lifetime, the effective reaction rate constant related to NOx–O3 chemical interactions, and the fractions of NOx conversion into HNO3 within the plume. Parameter estimates were made using the Dynamical Simple Model of Atmospheric Chemical Complexity (DSMACC box model, simple plume dispersion simulations, and the 3-D Meso-NH (non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric model. In order to assess the impact of the LNOx plume approach on the NOx and O3 distributions on a large scale, simulations for the year 2006 were performed using the GEOS-Chem global model with a horizontal resolution of 2° × 2.5°. The implementation of the LNOx parameterization implies an NOx and O3 decrease on a large scale over the region characterized by a strong lightning activity (up to 25 and 8 %, respectively, over central Africa in July and a relative increase downwind of LNOx emissions (up to 18 and 2 % for NOx and O3, respectively, in July. The calculated variability in NOx and O3 mixing ratios around the mean value according to the known uncertainties in the parameter estimates is at a maximum over continental tropical regions with ΔNOx [−33.1, +29.7] ppt and ΔO3 [−1.56, +2.16] ppb, in January, and ΔNOx [−14.3, +21] ppt and ΔO3 [−1.18, +1.93] ppb, in July, mainly depending on the determination of the diffusion properties of the atmosphere and the initial NO mixing ratio injected by lightning. This approach allows us (i to reproduce a more realistic lightning NOx chemistry leading to better NOx and O3 distributions on the large scale and (ii to focus on other improvements to reduce remaining uncertainties from processes

  1. Segmentation of white matter hyperintensities using convolutional neural networks with global spatial information in routine clinical brain MRI with none or mild vascular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmadi, Muhammad Febrian; Valdés-Hernández, Maria Del C; Agan, Maria Leonora Fatimah; Di Perri, Carol; Komura, Taku

    2018-02-17

    We propose an adaptation of a convolutional neural network (CNN) scheme proposed for segmenting brain lesions with considerable mass-effect, to segment white matter hyperintensities (WMH) characteristic of brains with none or mild vascular pathology in routine clinical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). This is a rather difficult segmentation problem because of the small area (i.e., volume) of the WMH and their similarity to non-pathological brain tissue. We investigate the effectiveness of the 2D CNN scheme by comparing its performance against those obtained from another deep learning approach: Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM), two conventional machine learning approaches: Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF), and a public toolbox: Lesion Segmentation Tool (LST), all reported to be useful for segmenting WMH in MRI. We also introduce a way to incorporate spatial information in convolution level of CNN for WMH segmentation named global spatial information (GSI). Analysis of covariance corroborated known associations between WMH progression, as assessed by all methods evaluated, and demographic and clinical data. Deep learning algorithms outperform conventional machine learning algorithms by excluding MRI artefacts and pathologies that appear similar to WMH. Our proposed approach of incorporating GSI also successfully helped CNN to achieve better automatic WMH segmentation regardless of network's settings tested. The mean Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) values for LST-LGA, SVM, RF, DBM, CNN and CNN-GSI were 0.2963, 0.1194, 0.1633, 0.3264, 0.5359 and 5389 respectively. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of terrestrial organic matter transported through the Lena River Delta (NE Siberia) to its adjacent nearshore zone using lignin phenols, δ13C and Δ14C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterfeld, M.; Goni, M. A.; Just, J.; Hefter, J.; Han, P.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial organic matter (OMterr) from its southernmost reaches near Lake Baikal to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea and the Arctic Ocean. Permafrost soils from its vast catchment area store huge amounts of pre-aged OM, which is expected to be remobilized due to climate warming. To characterize the composition and vegetation sources of OM discharged by the Lena River, we analyzed the lignin phenol and carbon isotopic composition (δ13C and Δ14C) in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface waters collected in spring and summer, surface sediments from the Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta. A simple linear mixing model based on the lignin phenol distributions indicates OM in TSM samples from the delta and Buor Khaya Bay surface sediments contains comparable contributions from gymnosperm sources, which are primarily from the taiga forests south of the delta, and angiosperm material typical for tundra vegetation. Considering the small area covered by tundra (~12% of total catchment), the input of tundra-derived OM input is substantial and likely to increase in a warming Arctic. Radiocarbon compositions (Δ14C) of bulk OM in TSM samples varied from -55 to -391‰, i.e. 14C ages of 395 to 3920 yrs BP. Using δ13C compositions to estimate the fraction of phytoplankton-derived OM and assuming that this material has a modern 14C signature, we inferred the Δ14C compositions of OMterr in TSM exported by the Lena River to range between -190 and -700‰. Such variability in the ages of OMTERR (i.e. 1640 to 9720 14C yrs BP) reflects the heterogeneous composition and residence time of OM in the Lena River catchment soils (Holocene to Pleistocene ages). Lignin phenol and Δ14C compositions of surface sediments from the adjacent Buor Khaya Bay suggest that OMTERR deposited there is older and more degraded than materials present in river particles and catchment soils. Stronger

  3. Modelling of suspended matter transport and turnover in biofilters for waste water treatment; Modellierung von Stofftransport und -umsatz in Biofiltern zur Abwasserreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telgmann, U. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Horn, H. [Fachhochschule Magdeburg (Germany). Hydro- und Abfallchemie

    1999-07-01

    Essential elements of the presented model for biofilters are suspended matter transfer in the boundary layer water/biofilm, the gradient of concentration for substrate turnover in the biofilm with limited diffusion, and the gradient of concentration and biomass distribution both in the biofilm and over the height of the reactor. Problematic in biofilm modelling is linking the turnover of substrate in the biofilm affixed to the carrier material with changes in concentration along the reactor height. This means that concentration profiles need to be calculated both in the biofilm and over the height of the reactor. The presented model describes substrate turnover in the biofilm by means of a Monod kinetics, and diffusive suspended matter transport with the aid of Fick's second law. The change in concentration over the filter bed height is taken into account by dividing the reactor volume into five complete-mixing segments. Further elements of modelling are biomass production and the corresponding discharge from the biofilter. In exemplary manner, a biofilter for downstream denitrification with methanol was modelled and the results were compared with measurements taken at a semi-technical pilot plant. (orig.) [German] Wesentliche Elemente des hier vorgestellten Modells fuer Biofilter sind der Stoffuebergang in der Grenzschicht Wasser/Biofilm, der Konzentrationsgradient beim diffusionslimitierten Substratumsatz im Biofilm, der Konzentrationsgradient und die Biomasseverteilung sowohl im Biofilm als auch ueber die Reaktorhoehe. Problematik bei der Modellierung eines Biofilms ist die Verknuepfung von Substratumsatz in dem auf dem Traegermaterial haftenden Biofilm mit der Konzentrationsveraenderung entlang der Reaktorhoehe. Die Konzentrationsprofile muessen also sowohl im Biofilm als auch ueber die Reaktorhoehe berechnet werden. Im praesentierten Modell wird der Substratumsatz im Biofilm mit einer Monodkinetik und der diffusive Stofftransport mit Hilfe des 2. Fick

  4. Global riverine N and P transport to ocean increased during the 20th century despite increased retention along the aquatic continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Bouwman, Alexander F.; Van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Mogollón, José M.; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2016-04-01

    Various human activities - including agriculture, water consumption, river damming, and aquaculture - have intensified over the last century. This has had a major impact on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling in global continental waters. In this study, we use a coupled nutrient-input-hydrology-in-stream nutrient retention model to quantitatively track the changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th century. Our results suggest that, during this period, the global nutrient delivery to streams increased from 34 to 64 Tg N yr-1 and from 5 to 9 Tg P yr-1. Furthermore, in-stream retention and removal grew from 14 to 27 Tg N yr-1 and 3 to 5 Tg P yr-1. One of the major causes of increased retention is the growing number of reservoirs, which now account for 24 and 22 % of global N and P retention/removal in freshwater systems, respectively. This increase in nutrient retention could not balance the increase in nutrient delivery to rivers with the consequence that river nutrient transport to the ocean increased from 19 to 37 Tg N yr-1 and from 2 to 4 Tg P yr-1. Human activities have also led to a global increase in the molar N : P ratio in freshwater bodies.

  5. Pre-analytical effects of pneumatic tube system transport on routine haematology and coagulation tests, global coagulation assays and platelet function assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quellec, Sandra; Paris, Mickaël; Nougier, Christophe; Sobas, Frédéric; Rugeri, Lucia; Girard, Sandrine; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Négrier, Claude; Dargaud, Yesim

    2017-05-01

    Pneumatic tube system (PTS) in hospitals is commonly used for the transport of blood samples to clinical laboratories, as it is rapid and cost-effective. The aim was to compare the effects on haematology samples of a newly acquired ~2km-long PTS that links 2 hospitals with usual transport (non-pneumatic tube system, NPTS). Complete blood cell count, routine coagulation assays, platelet function tests (PFT) with light-transmission aggregometry and global coagulation assays including ROTEM® and thrombin generation assay (TGA) were performed on blood samples from 30 healthy volunteers and 9 healthy volunteers who agreed to take aspirin prior to blood sampling. The turnaround time was reduced by 31% (p<0.001) with the use of PTS. No statistically significant difference was observed for most routine haematology assays including PFT, and ROTEM® analysis. A statistically significant, but not clinically relevant, shortening of the APTT after sample transport by PTS was found (mean±SD: 30s±1.8 vs. 29.5s±2.1 for NPTS). D-dimer levels were 7.4% higher after transport through PTS but were not discordant. A statistically significant increase of thrombin generation was found in both platelet poor- and platelet rich- plasma samples after PTS transport compared to NPTS transport. PTS is suitable for the transport of samples prior to routine haematology assays including PFT, but should not be used for samples intended for thrombin generation measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using "CONNected objECT (CONNECT)" Algorithm to Explore Intense Global Water Vapor Transport to Investigate Impacts of Climate Variability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawzenuk, B.; Sellars, S. L.; Nguyen, P.; Ralph, F. M.; Sorooshian, S.

    2017-12-01

    The CONNected objECT (CONNECT) algorithm is applied to Integrated Water Vapor Transport (IVT) data from the NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications - Version 2 reanalysis product for the period 1980 to 2016 to study water vapor transport globally. The algorithm generates life-cycle records as statistical objects for the time and space location of the evolving strong vapor transport events. Global statistics are presented and used to investigate how climate variability impacts the events' location and frequency. Results show distinct water vapor object frequency and seasonal peaks during NH and SH Winter. Moreover, a positive linear trend in the annual number of objects is reported, increasing by 3.58 objects year-over-year (with 95% confidence, +/- 1.39). In addition, we show five distinct regions where these events typically exist (southeastern United States, eastern China, South Pacific south of 25°S, eastern South America and off the southern tip of South Africa), and where they rarely exist (eastern South Pacific Ocean and central southern Atlantic Ocean between 5°N-25°S). In addition, the event frequency and geographical location are also shown to be related to the Arctic Oscillation, Pacific North American Pattern, and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation.

  7. An energy-economic scenario analysis of alternative fuels for personal transport using the Global Multi-regional MARKAL model (GMM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guel, Timur; Kypreos, Socrates; Turton, Hal; Barreto, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the long-term prospects of alternative fuels in global personal transport. It aims at assessing key drivers and key bottlenecks for their deployment, focusing particularly on the role of biofuels and hydrogen in meeting climate policy objectives. The analysis is pursued using the Global Multi-regional MARKAL model (GMM), a perfect foresight 'bottom-up' model of the global energy system with a detailed representation of alternative fuel chains, linked to the Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Induced Climate Change (MAGICC). The analysis shows that biofuels are limited by the regional availability of low-cost biomass, but can be important for meeting mild climate policy targets. If policy-makers intend to pursue more stringent climate policy, then hydrogen becomes a competitive option. However, the analysis finds that the use of hydrogen in personal transport is restricted to very stringent climate policy, as only such policy provides enough incentive to build up the required delivery infrastructure. An analysis of costs additionally shows that 'keeping the hydrogen option open' does not take considerable investments compared to the investment needs in the power sector within the next decades, but allows the use of hydrogen for the pursuit of stringent climate policy in the second half of the century.

  8. Dissolved Organic Matter: a Master Variable for Predicting and Modeling the Effects of Climatic and Environmental Change on Mercury Transport and Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that dissolved organic matter (DOM) exerts strong controls on the transport and reactivity of Hg in aquatic systems. Our research has demonstrated that DOM binds Hg strongly, interacts with nanoparticulate HgS to stabilize and enhance reactivity, and controls, in part, the availability of Hg for methylation by micro-organisms. In many rivers and streams, DOM and dissolved Hg concentrations are strongly positively correlated and DOM optical properties have been shown to be excellent proxies for Hg concentration. Of particular importance is the hydrophobic acid fraction of DOM that contains primarily terrestrially derived aquatic humic substances. This fraction is derived, in large part, from watershed soils and plant litter, is chromophore-rich, and strongly influences DOM optical properties, such as ultraviolet (UV) absorbance, fluorescence, and specific UV absorbance (SUVA - an indicator of DOM aromaticity). In most rivers and streams studied by our group, the relationships between total dissolved Hg concentration and hydrophobic organic acid (HPOA) content are often stronger than those observed between dissolved Hg and DOM. These results and those of lab studies support the hypothesis that interactions between Hg and the HPOA fraction are important drivers for the transport and reactivity of dissolved Hg in aquatic systems. Therefore, understanding how climate or land use related changes may influence DOM and HPOA export and yield within a particular watershed is key to predicting in the fate and bioaccumulation of Hg in that system. Watershed hydrology, the nature of source materials, and biogeochemical processes throughout the entire ecosystem drive DOM composition. In particular, the abundance of wetlands within a river basin is an excellent indicator of DOM concentration, DOM optical properties, and the concentration of HPOA. For instance, for 17 major North American rivers we found significant positive correlations between basin wetland-cover and

  9. Transport, retention, and long-term release behavior of polymer-coated silver nanoparticles in saturated quartz sand: The impact of natural organic matters and electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jun; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Miao, Lingzhan; Xu, Yi; You, Guoxiang; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang; Liu, Zhilin

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the transport and long-term release of stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), including polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and bare AgNPs (Bare-AgNPs), in the presence of natural organic matters (NOMs; both humic acids (HA) and alginate (Alg)) and an electrolyte (Ca 2+ ) in a sand-packed column. Very low breakthrough rate (C/C 0 ) of AgNPs (below 0.04) occurred in the absence of NOM and the electrolyte. Increasing the concentration of NOM and decreasing the influent NOM solution's ionic strength (IS) reduced the retention of AgNPs. The reduced NP retention at high NOM and low IS was mainly attributed to the increased energy barrier between the AgNPs and the sand grain surface. Notably, the retention of PVP-AgNPs was enhanced at high Alg concentration and low IS, which mainly resulted from the improved hydrophobicity that could increase the interaction between the PVP-AgNPs and the collector. The total release amount of PVP-AgNPs (10.03%, 9.50%, 28.42%, 6.37%) and Bare-AgNPs (3.28%, 2.58%, 10.36%, 1.54%) were gained when exposed to four kinds of NOM solutions, including deionized water, an electrolyte solution (1 mM Ca 2+ ), HA with an electrolyte (1 mM Ca 2+ ), and a Alg (40 mg/L) solution with an electrolyte (1 mM Ca 2+ ). The long-term release of retained silver nanoparticles in the quartz sand was mostly through the form of released Ag NPs. The factors that increased the mobility of AgNPs in quartz sand could improve the release of the AgNPs. The release of AgNPs had no significant change in the presence Ca 2+ but were increased in the presence of HA. The Alg slightly decreased the release of AgNPs by increasing the hydrophobicity of AgNPs. The results of the study indicated that all the tested NOM and Ca 2+ have prominent influence on the transport and long-term release behavior of silver nanoparticles in saturated quartz sand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal progression of atmospheric particulate matter over an urban coastal region in peninsular India: Role of local meteorology and long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, P. S.; Sinha, P. R.; Boopathy, R.; Das, T.; Mohanty, S.; Sahu, S. C.; Gurjar, B. R.

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of particulate matter (PM) over an urban site with relatively high concentration of aerosol particles is critically important owing to its adverse health, environmental and climate impact. Here we present a 3 years' worth of measurements (January 2012 to December 2014) of PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm) and PM10 (aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm) along with meteorological parameters and seasonal variations at Bhubaneswar an urban-coastal site, in eastern India. The concentrations of PM were determined gravimetrically from the filter samples of PM2.5 and PM10. It revealed remarkable seasonal variations with winter values (55.0 ± 23.4 μg/m3; 147.3 ± 42.4 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) about 3.5 times higher than that in pre-monsoon (15.7 ± 6.2 μg/m3; 41.8 ± 15.3 μg/m3). PM2.5 and PM10 were well correlated while PM2.5/PM10 ratios were found to be 0.38 and 0.32 during winter and pre-monsoon, indicating the predominance of coarse particles, mainly originating from long range transport of pollutants from northern and western parts of India and parts of west Asia as well. Concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis revealed the IGP and North Western Odisha as the most potential sources of PM2.5 and PM10 during winter. The PM concentrations at Bhubaneswar were comparable with those at other coastal sites of India reported in the literature, but were lower than few polluted urban sites in India and Asia. Empirical model reproduced the observed seasonal variation of PM2.5 and PM10 very well over Bhubaneswar.

  11. Effects of emissions change, climate change and long-range transport on regional modeling of future U.S. particulate matter pollution and speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the future U.S. PM2.5 pollution under multiple emissions scenarios, climate states, and long-range transport (LRT) effects using the regional Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model integrated with a regional climate model. CMAQ with fixed chemical lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) successfully reproduces the present-day PM2.5 pollution and its major species in rural and suburban areas, but has some discrepancies in urban areas such as the Los Angeles Basin, where detailed emissions and meteorology conditions cannot be resolved by the 30 km grid. Its performance is slightly worsened when using dynamic chemical LBCs from global chemical transport model (CTM) simulations, which provide cleaner conditions into the CMAQ lateral boundaries. Under future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenarios, CMAQ projects large PM2.5 reductions (∼40% for A1B and ∼20% for A1Fi scenario) in the eastern United States, but slight to moderate increases (∼5% for A1B and ∼10% for A1Fi) in the western United States. The projected increases are particularly large (up to 30%) near the Mexico-U.S. border, suggesting that Mexico is a major source for future U.S. PM2.5 pollution. The effect from climate change alone is estimated to increase PM2.5 levels ubiquitously (∼5% for both A1B and A1Fi) over the United States, except for a small decrease in the Houston, Texas area, where anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions dominate. This climate penalty, however, is substantially smaller than effects of emissions change, especially in the eastern United States. Future PM2.5 pollution is affected substantially (up to -20%) by changes in SO2 emissions and moderately (3-5%) by changes in NOx and NH3 emissions. The long-range transport (LRT) effects, which are estimated by comparing CMAQ simulations with fixed and dynamic LBCs, are regional dependent, causing up to 10-20% decrease over the western United

  12. Global O3-CO correlations in a chemistry and transport model during July-August: evaluation with TES satellite observations and sensitivity to input meteorological data and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Deok; Liu, Hongyu; Crawford, James H.; Considine, David B.; Allen, Dale J.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Strahan, Susan E.; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Xiong; Damon, Megan R.; Steenrod, Stephen D.

    2017-07-01

    We examine the capability of the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model to reproduce global mid-tropospheric (618 hPa) ozone-carbon monoxide (O3-CO) correlations determined by the measurements from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard NASA's Aura satellite during boreal summer (July-August). The model is driven by three meteorological data sets (finite-volume General Circulation Model (fvGCM) with sea surface temperature for 1995, Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System Version 4 (GEOS-4 DAS) for 2005, and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for 2005), allowing us to examine the sensitivity of model O3-CO correlations to input meteorological data. Model simulations of radionuclide tracers (222Rn, 210Pb, and 7Be) are used to illustrate the differences in transport-related processes among the meteorological data sets. Simulated O3 values are evaluated with climatological profiles from ozonesonde measurements and satellite tropospheric O3 columns. Despite the fact that the three simulations show significantly different global and regional distributions of O3 and CO concentrations, they show similar patterns of O3-CO correlations on a global scale. All model simulations sampled along the TES orbit track capture the observed positive O3-CO correlations in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude continental outflow and the Southern Hemisphere subtropics. While all simulations show strong negative correlations over the Tibetan Plateau, northern Africa, the subtropical eastern North Pacific, and the Caribbean, TES O3 and CO concentrations at 618 hPa only show weak negative correlations over much narrower areas (i.e., the Tibetan Plateau and northern Africa). Discrepancies in regional O3-CO correlation patterns in the three simulations may be attributed to differences in convective transport, stratospheric influence, and subsidence, among other processes. To understand how various

  13. Biofuel scenarios in a water perspective: the global blue and green water footprint of road transport in 2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lienden, A.R.; Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2010-01-01

    The trend towards substitution of conventional transport fuels by biofuels requires additional water. The EU aims In the last two centuries, fossil fuels have been our major source of energy. However, issues concerning energy security and the quality of the environment have given an impulse to the

  14. Diffusional transport of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen in the interstitium of the globally ischaemic cat myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Sejrsen, P; Jensen, L T

    1996-01-01

    , no attention has yet been paid to the resistance to diffusion offered by the myocardial interstitium. We determined the diffusion coefficient of PIIINP in the interstitium of the globally ischaemic interstitium of the cat (D'37) by means of a "true transient diffusion' method, and compared with the free...

  15. Fine particulate matter events associated with synoptic weather patterns, long-range transport paths and mixing height in the Taipei Basin, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Asian dust storms (ADS) and PM2.5 (particle pollution) events have an evident influence on air quality in Taiwan. However, the synoptic weather patterns and atmospheric conditions on ADS days are not entirely similar to those related to PM2.5 event days. The aim of this study is to clarify the weather characteristics such as synoptic weather patterns, long-range transport paths, and stagnant conditions that precipitate PM2.5 events. Air quality and meteorological data from 2006 to 2013 were obtained from government-owned observation stations, and the mixing height was estimated in relation to the Nozaki planetary boundary layer height. This study used back trajectories as simulated gridded analysis data, which were based on kinematic trajectory analysis using NASA's GMAO (Global Modeling Assimilation Office) and NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) analyses. For testing the differences between means of two large, independent samples, the confidence interval of a common statistical indicator was employed. The results show that in comparison to low PM2.5 level days, weather features such as stagnant conditions, including low mixing height and low wind speed, low rainfall amount, and high solar hours, are favorable for inducing PM2.5 events. Eighty percent of the synoptic weather patterns on PM2.5 days were associated with either polar continental high pressure, a high-pressure system in mainland China moving from the continent to the sea, or a stationary front stretching from southern China to the East Sea, and moving eastwards. More than 81% of the contributing factors of the causes of PM2.5 events were found to be related to stagnant conditions. The pattern of the contributing factors causing the maximum-recorded concentration of PM2.5, (73.90 μg/m3) was attributed to local emissions, and a long-range transport time that was extended for a longer period over the land than over the sea. The synoptic weather patterns were also found to affect the

  16. Estimation of Turkish road transport emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2007-01-01

    Using the COPERT III program, an inventory of Turkish road transport emissions was calculated and the contributions of road transport to global and local air pollutant emissions were examined for the year 2004. It was observed that passenger cars are the main source of CO, HC, and Pb emissions while heavy duty vehicles are mainly responsible for NO x , particulate matter (PM), and SO 2 emissions. Taking the emissions for the year 2004 as the baseline, a parametric study was conducted to determine the emission reduction potentials of different road transport strategies. The results indicated that the following road transport strategies; fleet renewal, promotion of public transportation, and faster urban traffic speed are very effective strategies for reducing regulated emissions and fuel consumption (FC) from a technical point of view. It was also noted that replacement of two-stroke motorcycles with four-stroke motorcycles is as effective as fleet renewal in reducing HC emissions

  17. Designing a climate change policy for the international maritime transport sector: Market-based measures and technological options for global and regional policy actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miola, A.; Marra, M.; Ciuffo, B.

    2011-01-01

    The international maritime transport sector has a significant abatement potential and some technical improvements that reduce GHG emissions would already be profitable without any policy in place. This paper analyses in-depth the limits and opportunities of policy options currently under consideration at the international level to stimulate the sector to reduce its GHG emissions. In particular, in order for the maritime transport sector to become more environmentally friendly, the flexible nature of international market-based measures and the European Union Emission Trading Scheme provide a definite window of opportunity without placing unnecessary high burden on the sector. However, the development of a regional policy, such as at European level, for the international maritime transport sector faces several obstacles: allocation of emissions, carbon leakage, permit allocation, treatment of the great variety in ship type, size and usage, and transaction cost. Global market-based policies could overcome most of these challenges. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the policy instruments currently under discussion to reduce the sector's burden on the environment, and focuses on economic theory, legal principles, technological options, and the political framework that together make up the basis of decision-making regarding the international maritime transport sector's climate change policies. - Highlights: → Technologies for a more environmental friendly maritime transport sector and their cost-effectiveness. → How to combine ambitious CO 2 reduction goals with a sector-wide market-based policy. → Permits should be auctioned frequently and small emitters have to be excluded. → Inclusion of shipping in the EU ETS causes carbon leakage, so the policy should aim at expansion.

  18. Globalization and State Soverignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    computer technology have given new impetus to economy. Globalized capital is reorganizing business firms and undermining national politics. Globalization ...5 STATE VS NON-STATE ORGANIZATIONS IN GLOBALIZATION PROCESS................. 7 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT...communications, transportation, and computer technology have given new impetus to globalizers . Around the world, globalizing capital is reorganizing

  19. Enhancement of marine cloud albedo via controlled sea spray injections: a global model study of the influence of emission rates, microphysics and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Korhonen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Modification of cloud albedo by controlled emission of sea spray particles into the atmosphere has been suggested as a possible geoengineering option to slow global warming. Previous global studies have imposed changes in cloud drop concentration in low level clouds to explore the radiative and climatic effects. Here, we use a global aerosol transport model to quantify how an imposed flux of sea spray particles affects the natural aerosol processes, the particle size distribution, and concentrations of cloud drops. We assume that the proposed fleet of vessels emits sea spray particles with a wind speed-dependent flux into four regions of persistent stratocumulus cloud off the western coasts of continents. The model results show that fractional changes in cloud drop number concentration (CDNC vary substantially between the four regions because of differences in wind speed (which affects the spray efficiency of the vessels, transport and particle deposition rates, and because of variations in aerosols from natural and anthropogenic sources. Using spray emission rates comparable to those implied by previous studies we find that the predicted CDNC changes are very small (maximum 20% and in one of the four regions even negative. The weak or negative effect is because the added particles suppress the in-cloud supersaturation and prevent existing aerosol particles from forming cloud drops. A scenario with five times higher emissions (considerably higher than previously assumed increases CDNC on average by 45–163%, but median concentrations are still below the 375 cm−3 assumed in previous studies. An inadvertent effect of the spray emissions is that sulphur dioxide concentrations are suppressed by 1–2% in the seeded regions and sulphuric acid vapour by 64–68% due to chemical reactions on the additional salt particles. The impact of this suppression on existing aerosol is negligible in the model, but should be investigated further in

  20. The Global Food System as a Transport Pathway for Hazardous Chemicals: The Missing Link between Emissions and Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Carla A.; von Goetz, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food is a major pathway for human exposure to hazardous chemicals. The modern food system is becoming increasingly complex and globalized, but models for food-borne exposure typically assume locally derived diets or use concentrations directly measured in foods without accounting for food origin. Such approaches may not reflect actual chemical intakes because concentrations depend on food origin, and representative analysis is seldom available. Processing, packaging, storage, and ...

  1. Interannual to Decadal Variability of Meridional Transports Across the SAMOC Basin Wide Array (SAMBA) in Simulations with an Eddy-resolving Global Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, E. J.; Ambrizzi, T.

    2016-02-01

    Results of numerical experiments with ocean general circulation models show increasing trends in the Agulhas leakage and in the meridional heat transport in the South Atlantic. To further investigate impacts of interannual to interdecadal changes in the wind forcing on the circulation and meridional transports in the South Atlantic, a set of simulations is conducted with an eddy-resolving global implementation of the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Firstly, a climatological experiment is run, forced with monthly means of the NCEP Reanalysis products, with no interannual variability. The last ten years of a two-decades run are then analyzed. The mean circulation patterns in the South Atlantic are well represented, as compared with observations and results of other models. The outputs show no long term trends, ruling out the hypothesis of any noticeable model's internal drift. Another experiments is then run, forced with interannual variability, from 1949 to the present. The results are compared with those of the climatological experiment, focusing on the circulation, the inter-ocean exchanges, the Agulhas leakage and the meridional transports in the South Atlantic.

  2. HTAP_v2: a mosaic of regional and global emission gridmaps for 2008 and 2010 to study hemispheric transport of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Crippa, M.; Guizzardi, D.; Dentener, F.; Muntean, M.; Pouliot, G.; Keating, T.; Zhang, Q.; Kurokawa, J.; Wankmüller, R.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Klimont, Z.; Frost, G.; Darras, S.; Koffi, B.

    2015-04-01

    The mandate of the Task Force Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP) under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) is to improve the scientific understanding of the intercontinental air pollution transport, to quantify impacts on human health, vegetation and climate, to identify emission mitigation options across the regions of the Northern Hemisphere, and to guide future policies on these aspects. The harmonization and improvement of regional emission inventories is imperative to obtain consolidated estimates on the formation of global-scale air pollution. An emissions dataset has been constructed using regional emission gridmaps (annual and monthly) for SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10, PM2.5, BC and OC for the years 2008 and 2010, with the purpose of providing consistent information to global and regional scale modelling efforts. This compilation of different regional gridded inventories, including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s for USA, EPA and Environment Canada's for Canada, the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) and Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO)'s for Europe, and the Model Inter-comparison Study in Asia (MICS-Asia)'s for China, India and other Asian countries, was gap-filled with the emission gridmaps of the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.3) for the rest of the world (mainly South-America, Africa, Russia and Oceania). Emissions from seven main categories of human activities (power, industry, residential, agriculture, ground transport, aviation and shipping) were estimated and spatially distributed on a common grid of 0.1° × 0.1° longitude-latitude, to yield monthly, global, sector-specific gridmaps for each substance and year. The HTAP_v2.2 air pollutant gridmaps are considered to combine latest available regional information within a complete global dataset. The disaggregation by sectors, high spatial and temporal resolution and

  3. Seasonal Water Transport in the Atmosphere of Mars: Applications of a Mars General Circulation Model Using Mars Global Surveyor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Bridger, Alison F. C.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    This is a Final Report for a Joint Research Interchange (JRI) between NASA Ames Research Center and San Jose State University, Department of Meteorology. We present below a summary of progress made during the duration of this JRI. The focus of this JRI has been to investigate seasonal water vapor transport in the atmosphere of Mars and its effects on the planet's present climate. To this end, the primary task has been to adapt a new dynamical processor for the adiabatic tendencies of the atmospheric circulation into the NASA Ames Mars general circulation model (MGCM). Using identical boundary and initial conditions, several comparative tests between the new and old MGCMs have been performed and the nature of the simulated circulations have been diagnosed. With confidence that the updated version of the Ames MGCM produces quite similar mean and eddy circulation statistics, the new climate model is well poised as a tool to pursue fundamental questions related to the spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric water vapor on Mars, and to explore exchanges of water with non-atmospheric reservoirs and transport within its atmosphere. In particular, the role of surface sources and sinks can be explored, the range of water-vapor saturation altitudes can be investigated, and plausible precipitation mechanisms can be studied, for a range of atmospheric dust loadings. Such future investigations can contribute to a comprehensive study of surface inventories, exchange mechanisms, and the relative importance of atmospheric transport Mars' water cycle. A listing of presentations made and manuscripts submitted during the course of this project is provided.

  4. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kan; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George; Zhang, Jiachen; Tao, Wei; Cheng, Yanli; Tao, Shu

    2017-07-01

    The response of surface ozone (O3) concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR) analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage between basin-scale SST

  5. Response of the global surface ozone distribution to Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature changes: implications for long-range transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of surface ozone (O3 concentrations to basin-scale warming and cooling of Northern Hemisphere oceans is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM. Idealized, spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST anomalies of ±1 °C are individually superimposed onto the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and North Indian oceans. Our simulations suggest large seasonal and regional variability in surface O3 in response to SST anomalies, especially in the boreal summer. The responses of surface O3 associated with basin-scale SST warming and cooling have similar magnitude but are opposite in sign. Increasing the SST by 1 °C in one of the oceans generally decreases the surface O3 concentrations from 1 to 5 ppbv. With fixed emissions, SST increases in a specific ocean basin in the Northern Hemisphere tend to increase the summertime surface O3 concentrations over upwind regions, accompanied by a widespread reduction over downwind continents. We implement the integrated process rate (IPR analysis in CESM and find that meteorological O3 transport in response to SST changes is the key process causing surface O3 perturbations in most cases. During the boreal summer, basin-scale SST warming facilitates the vertical transport of O3 to the surface over upwind regions while significantly reducing the vertical transport over downwind continents. This process, as confirmed by tagged CO-like tracers, indicates a considerable suppression of intercontinental O3 transport due to increased tropospheric stability at lower midlatitudes induced by SST changes. Conversely, the responses of chemical O3 production to regional SST warming can exert positive effects on surface O3 levels over highly polluted continents, except South Asia, where intensified cloud loading in response to North Indian SST warming depresses both the surface air temperature and solar radiation, and thus photochemical O3 production. Our findings indicate a robust linkage

  6. Economic condition of the transport, freight forwarding and logistics sector in Poland in the situation of the global economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently trends of macroeconomic indicators show that economy in Poland, despite the general recession in the EU, is in the stage of economic development. The question is 20 Ryszard Rolbiecki whether these positive signals in the Polish economy in relation to domestic demand, external investment, volume of industrial production and construction are reflected also in the improvement of economic situation in Transport, Freight Forwarding and Logistics (TFL sector in Poland. Hence the goal of the article is to analyze the economic condition of the TFL sector, which is recognized as one of the most important barometers of the economic growth.

  7. The implications of megatrends in information and communication technology and transportation for changes in global physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratt, Michael; Sarmiento, Olga L; Montes, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity accounts for more than 3 million deaths per year, most from non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We used reviews of physical activity interventions and a simulation model to examine how megatrends in information and communication technology...... and transportation directly and indirectly aff ect levels of physical activity across countries of low, middle, and high income. The model suggested that the direct and potentiating eff ects of information and communication technology, especially mobile phones, are nearly equal in magnitude to the mean eff ects...

  8. Long-term (2002–2012 investigation of Saharan dust transport events at Mt. Cimone GAW global station, Italy (2165 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Duchi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mineral dust transport from North Africa towards the Mediterranean basin and Europe was monitored over an 11-y period (2002–2012 using the continuous observations made at Mt. Cimone WMO/GAW global station (CMN. CMN is in a strategic position for investigating the impact of mineral dust transported from northern Africa on the atmospheric composition of the Mediterranean basin and southern Europe. The identification of “dusty days” is based on coupling the measured in situ coarse aerosol particle number concentration with an analysis of modeled back trajectories tracing the origin of air masses from North Africa. More than 400 episodes of mineral dust transport were identified, accounting for 15.7% of the investigated period. Our analysis points to a clear seasonal cycle, with the highest frequency from spring to autumn, and a dust-induced variation of the coarse particle number concentration larger than 123% on a seasonal basis. In addition, FLEXTRA 10-d back trajectories showed that northwestern and central Africa are the major mineral dust source regions. Significant inter-annual variability of dust outbreak frequency and related mineral dust loading were detected and during spring the NAO index was positively correlated (R2 = 0.32 with dust outbreak frequency. Lastly, the impact of transported mineral dust on the surface O3 mixing ratio was quantified over the 11-y investigation period. Evidence of a non-linear and negative correlation between mineral dust and ozone concentrations was found, resulting in an average spring and summer decrease of the O3 mixing ratio down to 7%.

  9. Changes in white matter as determinant of global functional decline in older independent outpatients: three year follow-up of LADIS (leukoaraiosis and disability) study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inzitari, Domenico; Pracucci, Giovanni; Poggesi, Anna

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impairment in daily living activities in older people with age related changes in white matter according to the severity of these changes. DESIGN: Observational data collection and follow-up of a cohort of older people undergoing brain magnetic resonance imaging after non...

  10. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  11. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  12. Condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The condensed matter physics research in the Physics Department of Risoe National Laboratory is predominantly experimental utilising diffraction of neutrons and x-rays. The research topics range from studies of structure, excitations and phase transitions in model systems to studies of ion transport, texture and recrystallization kinetics with a more applied nature. (author)

  13. A global airport-based risk model for the spread of dengue infection via the air transport network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Lauren; Sarkar, Sahotra

    2013-01-01

    The number of travel-acquired dengue infections has seen a consistent global rise over the past decade. An increased volume of international passenger air traffic originating from regions with endemic dengue has contributed to a rise in the number of dengue cases in both areas of endemicity and elsewhere. This paper reports results from a network-based risk assessment model which uses international passenger travel volumes, travel routes, travel distances, regional populations, and predictive species distribution models (for the two vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) to quantify the relative risk posed by each airport in importing passengers with travel-acquired dengue infections. Two risk attributes are evaluated: (i) the risk posed by through traffic at each stopover airport and (ii) the risk posed by incoming travelers to each destination airport. The model results prioritize optimal locations (i.e., airports) for targeted dengue surveillance. The model is easily extendible to other vector-borne diseases.

  14. Changes in white matter as determinant of global functional decline in older independent outpatients: three year follow-up of LADIS (leukoaraiosis and disability) study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inzitari, Domenico; Pracucci, Giovanni; Poggesi, Anna

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impairment in daily living activities in older people with age related changes in white matter according to the severity of these changes. DESIGN: Observational data collection and follow-up of a cohort of older people undergoing brain magnetic resonance imaging after non-disabling...... complaints. SETTING: 11 European centres. PARTICIPANTS: 639 non-disabled older patients (mean age 74.1 (SD 5.0), 45.1% men) in whom brain magnetic resonance imaging showed mild, moderate, or severe age related changes in white matter (Fazekas scale). Magnetic resonance imaging assessment also included...... cerebral infarcts and atrophy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Transition from no disability (defined as a score of 0 or 1 on the instrumental activities of daily living scale) to disability (score >/=2) or death over three year follow-up. Secondary outcomes were incident dementia and stroke. RESULTS: Over a mean...

  15. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  16. High black carbon and ozone concentrations during pollution transport in the Himalayas: five years of continuous observations at NCO-P global GAW station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoni, A; Cristofanelli, P; Laj, P; Duchi, R; Putero, D; Calzolari, F; Landi, T C; Vuillermoz, E; Maione, M; Bonasoni, P

    2013-08-01

    To study the influence of polluted air-mass transport carrying ozone (O3) and black carbon (BC) in the high Himalayas, since March 2006 the Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid (NCO-P) GAW-WMO global station (Nepal, 5079 m a.s.l.) is operative. During the first 5-year measurements, the O3 and BC concentrations have shown a mean value of 48 +/- 12 ppb (+/- standard deviation) and 208 +/- 374 ng/m3, respectively. Both O3 and BC showed well defined seasonal cycles with maxima during pre-monsoon (O3: 61.3 +/- 7.7 ppbV; BC: 444 +/- 433 ng/m3) and minima during the summer monsoon (O3: 40.1 +/- 12.4 ppbV; BC: 64 +/- 101 ng/m3). The analysis of the days characterised by the presence of a significant BC increase with respect to the typical seasonal cycle identified 156 days affected by "acute" pollution events, corresponding to 9.1% of the entire data-set. Such events mostly occur in the pre-monsoon period, when the O3 diurnal variability is strongly related to the transport of polluted air-mass rich on BC. On average, these "acute" pollution events were characterised by dramatic increases of BC (352%) and O3 (29%) levels compared with the remaining days.

  17. Experiment-Model Comparisons of Turbulence, Transport, and Flows in a Magnetized Linear Plasma Using a Global Two-Fluid Braginskii Solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, M.; Fisher, D. M.; Kelly, R. F.; Hatch, M. W.; Rogers, B. N.

    2017-10-01

    Ongoing experiments and numerical modeling of the dynamics of electrostatic turbulence and transport in the presence of flow shear are being conducted in helicon plasmas in the linear HelCat (Helicon-Cathode) device. Modeling is being done using GBS, a 3D, global two-fluid Braginskii code that solves self-consistently for plasma equilibrium as well as fluctuations. Past experimental measurements of flows have been difficult to reconcile with simple expectations, such as azimuthal flows being dominated by Er x Bz rotation. Therefore, recent measurements have focused on understanding plasma flows, and the role of neutral dynamics. In the model, a set of two-fluid drift-reduced Braginskii equations are evolved using the Global Braginskii Solver Code (GBS). For low-field helicon-sourced Ar plasmas a non-negligible cross-field thermal collisional term must be added to shift the electric potential in the ion momentum and vorticity equations as the ions are unmagnetized. Significant radially and axially dependent neutral profiles are also included in the simulations to try and match those observed in HelCat. Ongoing simulations show a mode dependence on the axial magnetic field along with strong axial variations that suggest drift waves may be important in the low-field case. Supported by U.S. National Science Foundation Award 1500423.

  18. Using accelerometers and global positioning system devices to assess gender and age differences in children’s school, transport, leisure and home based physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge on domain-specific physical activity (PA) has the potential to advance public health interventions and inform new policies promoting children’s PA. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess domains (leisure, school, transport, home) and subdomains (e.g., recess, playgrounds, and urban green space) for week day moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) using objective measures and investigate gender and age differences. Methods Participants included 367 Danish children and adolescents (11–16 years, 52% girls) with combined accelerometer and Global Positioning System (GPS) data (mean 2.5 days, 12.7 hrs/day). The Personal Activity and Location Measurement System and a purpose-built database assessed data in 15-second epochs to determine PA and assign epochs to 4 domains and 11 subdomains. Frequencies and proportions of time spent in MVPA were determined and differences assessed using multi-level modeling. Results More than 90% of MVPA was objectively assigned to domains/subdomains. Boys accumulated more MVPA overall, in leisure, school and transport (all p sports facilities, urban green space and school grounds. Girls spent a significant proportion of time accumulating MVPA in active transport and playgrounds. No gender or age differences were found in the home domain. Conclusions Large variations were found in PA frequency and intensity across domains/subdomains. Significant gender differences were found, with girls being less active in almost all domains and subdomains. Objectively measured patterns of PA across domains/subdomains can be used to better tailor PA interventions and inform future policies for promoting child PA. PMID:24457029

  19. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  20. On the uses of a new linear scheme for stratospheric methane in global models: water source, transport tracer and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Monge-Sanz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates effects and applications of a new linear parameterisation for stratospheric methane and water vapour. The new scheme (CoMeCAT is derived from a 3-D full-chemistry-transport model (CTM. It is suitable for any global model, and is shown here to produce realistic profiles in the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT 3-D CTM and the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts general circulation model (GCM. Results from the new scheme are in good agreement with the full-chemistry CTM CH4 field and with observations from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE. The scheme is also used to derive stratospheric water increments, which in the CTM produce vertical and latitudinal H2O variations in fair agreement with satellite observations. Stratospheric H2O distributions in the ECMWF GCM show realistic overall features, although concentrations are smaller than in the CTM run (up to 0.5 ppmv smaller above 10 hPa. The potential of the new CoMeCAT tracer for evaluating stratospheric transport is exploited to assess the impacts of nudging the free-running GCM to ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalyses. The nudged GCM shows similar transport patterns to the offline CTM forced by the corresponding reanalysis data. The new scheme also impacts radiation and temperature in the model. Compared to the default CH4 climatology and H2O used by the ECMWF radiation scheme, the main effect on ECMWF temperatures when considering both CH4 and H2O from CoMeCAT is a decrease of up to 1.0 K over the tropical mid/low stratosphere. The effect of using the CoMeCAT scheme for radiative forcing (RF calculations is investigated using the offline Edwards–Slingo radiative transfer model. Compared to the default model option of a tropospheric global 3-D CH4 value, the CoMeCAT distribution produces an overall change in the annual mean net RF of up to −30 mW m−2.

  1. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: impacts of climate change, fine particulate matter formation, water consumption and land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Antón, Assumpció; Boulay, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-01

    ) framework and to recommend a non-comprehensive list of environmental indicators and LCIA characterization factors for (1) climate change, (2) fine particulate matter impacts on human health, (3) water consumption impacts (both scarcity and human health) and 4) land use impacts on biodiversity. Methods...... and land use change in LCA hotspot analyses. Conclusions: The recommended environmental indicators may be used to support the UN Sustainable Development Goals in order to quantify and monitor progress towards sustainable production and consumption. These indicators will be periodically updated...

  2. Perspectives on the terrestrial organic matter transport and burial along the land-deep sea continuum: Caveats in our understanding of biogeochemical processes and future needs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kandasamy, S.; Nath, B.N.

    The natural carbon cycle is immensely intricate to fully understand its sources, fluxes and the processes that are responsible for their cycling in different reservoirs and their balances on a global scale. Anthropogenic perturbations add another...

  3. Does Content Matter? Analyzing the Change in Global Awareness between Business- and Nonbusiness-Focused Short-Term Study Abroad Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Stephen B.; Kurt, Mark; Olitsky, Neal H.

    2015-01-01

    Business schools have long sought to increase students' global awareness. Short-term study abroad (STSA) experiences are becoming increasingly popular ways of generating awareness. While a handful of studies have found evidence of efficacy, none have specifically tested how courses with business content differ from other STSAs. Using a…

  4. Approach to Integrate Global-Sun Models of Magnetic Flux Emergence and Transport for Space Weather Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nagi N.; Wray, Alan A.; Mehrotra, Piyush; Henney, Carl; Arge, Nick; Godinez, H.; Manchester, Ward; Koller, J.; Kosovichev, A.; Scherrer, P.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Sun lies at the center of space weather and is the source of its variability. The primary input to coronal and solar wind models is the activity of the magnetic field in the solar photosphere. Recent advancements in solar observations and numerical simulations provide a basis for developing physics-based models for the dynamics of the magnetic field from the deep convection zone of the Sun to the corona with the goal of providing robust near real-time boundary conditions at the base of space weather forecast models. The goal is to develop new strategic capabilities that enable characterization and prediction of the magnetic field structure and flow dynamics of the Sun by assimilating data from helioseismology and magnetic field observations into physics-based realistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. The integration of first-principle modeling of solar magnetism and flow dynamics with real-time observational data via advanced data assimilation methods is a new, transformative step in space weather research and prediction. This approach will substantially enhance an existing model of magnetic flux distribution and transport developed by the Air Force Research Lab. The development plan is to use the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to develop Coupled Models for Emerging flux Simulations (CMES) that couples three existing models: (1) an MHD formulation with the anelastic approximation to simulate the deep convection zone (FSAM code), (2) an MHD formulation with full compressible Navier-Stokes equations and a detailed description of radiative transfer and thermodynamics to simulate near-surface convection and the photosphere (Stagger code), and (3) an MHD formulation with full, compressible Navier-Stokes equations and an approximate description of radiative transfer and heating to simulate the corona (Module in BATS-R-US). CMES will enable simulations of the emergence of magnetic structures from the deep convection zone to the corona. Finally, a plan

  5. Globalisation, transport and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    OECD and the International Transport Forum (ITF) held a GLobal Forum on Transport and Environment in a Globalising World, 10-12 November 2008 in Guadalajara, Mexico. There were around 200 participants from 23 countries at the global forum, representi...

  6. Prospective outcome of the influence of complexation by natural organic matter on enhanced or retarded transport of radionuclides: case of humic substances retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiller, P.

    2010-01-01

    This document takes a prospective stock of the natural organic matter influence on the possible effects on radionuclide migration, as well as a brief critical analysis of the literature data. A comparison with the retention of the 'simple' organic complexing agents is done in order to fix the limit of the 'simplistic' analogies done in the literature very often. It appears that the magnitude of the effects is function of the residence time in the medium, and of the possibilities for the organic complexes to be retained on the mineral surfaces. The contact time between radionuclides and the natural organic matter is also an influent parameter, as it influences part of the reversibility of this interaction vis-a-vis surface retention. Modelling of the metal-organic-surface systems is only satisfying up to now when accounting fractions of organic matter that are less susceptible to form colloidal aggregates, i.e., fulvic acids. These non-aggregated fractions could be considered as simple ligands in a first approximation. Conversely, when it comes to aggregated colloids of organic origin, i.e., humic acids, modelling are limited by the lack of theoretical understanding of their structure and of their evolution in response to geochemical condition variations, as ionic strength (harsh meteoric events), acidity or water composition (non-saturated water table). (author)

  7. Observational constraints for the source strengths, transport and partitioning of reactive nitrogen on regional and global scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Timothy Hugh

    Reactive nitrogen (NOy) exerts control over the production of tropospheric ozone (O3) and the destruction of stratospheric O 3, plays an important role in the formation of secondary organic aerosol and represents a critical link between the atmosphere and biosphere. Accurate estimates of the spatial and temporal distribution of nitrogen oxide (NO x) emissions and their subsequent transport and chemical processing are critical to furthering our understanding of these processes. In this dissertation, several new approaches to understanding the role of nitrogen oxides in atmospheric chemistry are developed. Most of the observations and analyses presented are based on aircraft measurements used to describe and understand the distribution of NOx from the surface to the upper troposphere (UT) and to provide an understanding of the accuracy of satellite measurements. First, new experiments to establish the absolute accuracy and long term precision of the standards maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are described. These standards serve as the references upon which calibration of the instruments used to make atmospheric measurements of O3, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are based. Gas-phase titration of ozone with nitric oxide was used to show that the O3, NO and NO2 standards are self-consistent to within 1%. Prior experiments had only established these three to be self-consistent to 4%. Following this, the implementation of the Thermal Dissociation - Laser Induced Fluorescence (TD-LIF) Technique for measurements of NO2, total peroxy nitrates (SigmaPNs), total alkyl nitrates (SigmaANs) and nitric acid (HNO3) from an aircraft platform is discussed and the measurements obtained are compared directly to analogous measurements made aboard the same aircraft or different aircraft during in-flight comparisons. Detailed observations of the partitioning of reactive nitrogen in the upper troposphere, during a period of intense

  8. Biodiversity and globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Heal, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    Reduction of the earth’s biodiversity as a result of human activities is a matter of great concern to prominent scientists. What are the economic aspects of this loss? In economic terms, what is biodiversity and why might it matter? And is the loss of biodiversity in any way connected with globalization of the economy?

  9. Maritime trade & transportation 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The marine transportation system contributes to U.S. economic growth, enhances global competitiveness, and supports national security objectives. This report is a cooperative effort of the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), the Maritime Admin...

  10. The Impact of Uncertainties in African Biomass Burning Emission Estimates on Modeling Global Air Quality, Long Range Transport and Tropospheric Chemical Lifetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido R. van der Werf

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the troposphere in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere (SH is significantly influenced by gaseous emissions released from African biomass burning (BB. Here we investigate how various emission estimates given in bottom-up BB inventories (GFEDv2, GFEDv3, AMMABB affect simulations of global tropospheric composition using the TM4 chemistry transport model. The application of various model parameterizations for introducing such emissions is also investigated. There are perturbations in near-surface ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO of ~60–90% in the tropics and ~5–10% in the SH between different inventories. Increasing the update frequency of the temporal distribution to eight days generally results in decreases of between ~5 and 10% in near-surface mixing ratios throughout the tropics, which is larger than the influence of increasing the injection heights at which BB emissions are introduced. There are also associated differences in the long range transport of pollutants throughout the SH, where the composition of the free troposphere in the SH is sensitive to the chosen BB inventory. Analysis of the chemical budget terms reveals that the influence of increasing the tropospheric CO burden due to BB on oxidative capacity of the troposphere is mitigated by the associated increase in NOx emissions (and thus O3 with the variations in the CO/N ratio between inventories being low. For all inventories there is a decrease in the tropospheric chemical lifetime of methane of between 0.4 and 0.8% regardless of the CO emitted from African BB. This has implications for assessing the effect of inter-annual variability in BB on the annual growth rate of methane.

  11. Compendium of NASA Data Base for the Global Tropospheric Experiment's Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific (TRACE-P). Volume 2; P-3B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleb, Mary M.; Scott, A. Donald, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This report provides a compendium of NASA aircraft data that are available from NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment's (GTE) Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) Mission. The broad goal of TRACE-P was to characterize the transit and evolution of the Asian outflow over the western Pacific. Conducted from February 24 through April 10, 2001, TRACE-P integrated airborne, satellite- and ground based observations, as well as forecasts from aerosol and chemistry models. The format of this compendium utilizes data plots (time series) of selected data acquired aboard the NASA/Dryden DC-8 (vol. 1) and NASA/Wallops P-3B (vol. 2) aircraft during TRACE-P. The purpose of this document is to provide a representation of aircraft data that are available in archived format via NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) and through the GTE Project Office archive. The data format is not intended to support original research/analyses, but to assist the reader in identifying data that are of interest.

  12. Compendium of NASA Data Base for the Global Tropospheric Experiment's Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific (TRACE-P). Volume 1; DC-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleb, Mary M.; Scott, A. Donald, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This report provides a compendium of NASA aircraft data that are available from NASA's Global Tropospheric Experiment's (GTE) Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) Mission. The broad goal of TRACE-P was to characterize the transit and evolution of the Asian outflow over the western Pacific. Conducted from February 24 through April 10, 2001, TRACE-P integrated airborne, satellite- and ground-based observations, as well as forecasts from aerosol and chemistry models. The format of this compendium utilizes data plots (time series) of selected data acquired aboard the NASA/Dryden DC-8 (vol. 1) and NASA/Wallops P-3B (vol. 2) aircraft during TRACE-P. The purpose of this document is to provide a representation of aircraft data that are available in archived format via NASA Langley s Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) and through the GTE Project Office archive. The data format is not intended to support original research/analyses, but to assist the reader in identifying data that are of interest.

  13. Gender gap matters in maternal mortality in low and lower-middle-income countries: A study of the global Gender Gap Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Seung-Ah; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Hongsoo

    2017-09-01

    Reducing maternal mortality has been a crucial part of the global development agenda. According to modernisation theory, the effect of gender equality on maternal health may differ depending on a country's economic development status. We explored the correlation between the Global Gender Gap Index (GGI) provided by the World Economic Forum and the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) obtained from the World Development Indicators database of the World Bank. The relationships between each score in the GGI, including its four sub-indices (measuring gender gaps in economic participation, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment), and the MMR were analysed. When the countries were stratified by gross national income per capita, the low and lower-middle-income countries had lower scores in the GGI, and lower scores in the economic participation, educational attainment, and political empowerment sub-indices than the high-income group. Among the four sub-indices, the educational attainment sub-index showed a significant inverse correlation with the MMR in low and lower-middle-income countries when controlling for the proportion of skilled birth attendance and public share of health expenditure. This finding suggests that strategic efforts to reduce the gender gap in educational attainment could lead to improvements in maternal health in low and lower-middle-income countries.

  14. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this second part we will see that even clusters of galaxies must harbour dark matter. As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of the ...

  15. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ...

  16. Fast Crystallization and improved Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells with Zn 2 SnO 4 Electron Transporting Layer: Interface Matters

    KAUST Repository

    Bera, Ashok

    2015-12-03

    Here we report that mesoporous ternary oxide Zn2SnO4 can significantly promotes the crystallization of hybrid perovskite layers and serves as an efficient electron transporting material in perovskite solar cells. Such devices exhibit an energy conversion efficiency of 13.34%, which is even higher than that achieved with the commonly used TiO2 in the similar experimental conditions (9.1%). Simple one-step spin coating of CH3NH3PbI3−xClx on Zn2SnO4 is found to lead to rapidly crystalized bilayer perovskite structure without any solvent engineering. Furthermore, ultrafast transient absorption measurement reveals efficient charge transfer at the Zn2SnO4/perovskite interface. Most importantly, solar cells with Zn2SnO4 as the electron-transporting material exhibit negligible electrical hysteresis and exceptionally high stability without encapsulation for over one month. Besides underscoring Zn2SnO4 as a highly promising electron transporting material for perovskite solar cells, our results demonstrate the significant role of interfaces on improving the perovskite crystallization and photovoltaic performance.

  17. Fate and Transport of Nitrogen and Carbon with Decomposition of Organic Matter in a Reduced Paddy Field Based on a Coupled Nitrogen-Carbon Cycling Model Using the HP1 Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toride, N.; Matsuoka, K.

    2017-12-01

    In order to predict the fate and transport of nitrogen in a reduced paddy field as a result of decomposition of organic matter, we implemented within the PHREEQC program a modified coupled carbon and nitrogen cycling model based on the LEACHM code. SOM decay processes from organic carbon (Org-C) to biomass carbon (Bio-C), humus carbon (Hum-C), and carbon dioxide (CO2) were described using first-order kinetics. Bio-C was recycled into the organic pool. When oxygen was available in an aerobic condition, O2 was used to produce CO2 as an electron accepter. When O2 availability is low, other electron acceptors such as NO3-, Mn4+, Fe3+, SO42-, were used depending on the redox potential. Decomposition of Org-N was related to the carbon cycle using the C/N ratio. Mineralization and immobilization were determined based on available NH4-N and the nitrogen demand for the formation of biomass and humus. Although nitrification was independently described with the first-order decay process, denitrification was linked with the SOM decay since NO3- was an electron accepter for the CO2 production. Proton reactions were coupled with the nitrification from NH4+ to NO3-, and the ammonium generation from NH3 to NH4+. Furthermore, cation and anion exchange reactions were included with the permanent negative charges and the pH dependent variable charges. The carbon and nitrogen cycling model described with PHREEQC was linked with HYDRUS-1D using the HP1 code. Various nitrogen and carbon transport scenarios were demonstrated for the application of organic matter to a saturated paddy soil.

  18. The role of nuclear physics in supernovae and the evolution of neutron stars Neutrino Opacities, Equation of State, Transport Coefficients, and Dark Matter Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rrapaj, Ermal

    A massive star, of at least eight solar masses, end their life cycle in a sudden, catastrophic collapse under its own gravity. In a thousandth of a second, it can shrink from thousands of kilometers across to a ball of ultra-condensed matter just a few kilometers across. Ultimately, it all ends in a cataclysmic explosion known as a supernova, and for a few short weeks it burns as brightly as several billion suns, briefly outshining the star's entire home galaxy. The visible light of a supernova, though, represents only about 1% of the released energy, the vast majority being in the form of ultraviolet light, x-rays, gamma rays and, especially neutrinos. In the first chapter of work, I study neutrino - nucleon interactions and their role in the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements. Another key ingredient is the equation of state, which relates the thermodynamic properties of these extreme environments to the micro physics of nuclear interactions, explored in the second chapter. As a supernova cools, a new neutron star is born. The thermal, electric properties and the shear viscosity of this object are analyzed in terms of a newly discovered interaction, among electrons and neutrons, in the third chapter. Given the enormous amount of energy released during the explosion, I study the possibility of producing light massive particles, candidates for what is commonly called dark matter, in the last chapter of this work. I find that supernovae are ideal environments where the interplay of all forces in nature can be observed, nuclear forces playing a paramount role.

  19. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  20. Using an Explicit Emission Tagging Method in Global Modeling of Source-Receptor Relationships for Black Carbon in the Arctic: Variations, Sources and Transport Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Singh, Balwinder; Zhang, Rudong; Ma, Po-Lun; Qian, Yun; Ghan, Steven J.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2014-11-27

    We introduce an explicit emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model to quantify source-region-resolved characteristics of black carbon (BC), focusing on the Arctic. Explicit tagging of BC source regions without perturbing the emissions makes it straightforward to establish source-receptor relationships and transport pathways, providing a physically consistent and computationally efficient approach to produce a detailed characterization of the destiny of regional BC emissions and the potential for mitigation actions. Our analysis shows that the contributions of major source regions to the global BC burden are not proportional to the respective emissions due to strong region-dependent removal rates and lifetimes, while the contributions to BC direct radiative forcing show a near-linear dependence on their respective contributions to the burden. Distant sources contribute to BC in remote regions mostly in the mid- and upper troposphere, having much less impact on lower-level concentrations (and deposition) than on burden. Arctic BC concentrations, deposition and source contributions all have strong seasonal variations. Eastern Asia contributes the most to the wintertime Arctic burden. Northern Europe emissions are more important to both surface concentration and deposition in winter than in summer. The largest contribution to Arctic BC in the summer is from Northern Asia. Although local emissions contribute less than 10% to the annual mean BC burden and deposition within the Arctic, the per-emission efficiency is much higher than for major non-Arctic sources. The interannual variability (1996-2005) due to meteorology is small in annual mean BC burden and radiative forcing but is significant in yearly seasonal means over the Arctic. When a slow aging treatment of BC is introduced, the increase of BC lifetime and burden is source-dependent. Global BC forcing-per-burden efficiency also increases primarily due to changes in BC vertical distributions. The

  1. Simulation of a relativistic heavy ions beam transport in the matter: contribution of the fragmentation process and biological implications; Simulation du transport d`un faisceau d`ions lourds relativistes dans la matiere: contribution du processus de fragmentation et implication sur le plan biologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibnouzahir, M.

    1995-03-01

    The study of relativistic heavy ion collisions permit an approach of the properties of dense and not hadronic matter, and an analysis of the reaction mechanisms. Such studies are also interesting on the biological point of view, since there exist now well defined projects concerning the radiotherapy with high LET particles as neutrons, protons, heavy ions. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the processes which occur in the propagation of a relativistic heavy ion beam (E{>=} 100 A.MeV) in matter. We have elaborated a three dimensional transport code, using a Monte Carlo method, in order to describe the propagation of Ne and Ar ions in water. Violent nuclear collisions giving fragmentation process have been taken into account by use of the FREESCO program. We have tested the validity of our transport model and we show an important change of the energy deposition at the vicinity of the Bragg peak; such a distortion, due mainly to fragmentation reactions, is of a great interest for biological applications. (author).

  2. The influence of castanhão reservoir on nutrient and suspended matter transport during rainy season in the ephemeral Jaguaribe river (CE, Brazil Influência do açude Castanhão no transporte de nutrientes e materiais em suspensão durante a estação chuvosa no intermitente rio Jaguaribe (CE, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM. Molisani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of nutrient and suspended matter concentrations and loads entering and leaving the Castanhão reservoir during the rainy season were carried out to assess the influence of this large reservoir on land-sea fluvial transport in the ephemeral Jaguaribe river basin. Spatial variation indicated statistically significant attenuation of concentrations only for total phosphorous and suspended matter across the reservoir. Strong retention of nutrients and suspended matter loads by the reservoir was observed with average trapping efficiency of 89% for dissolved silicon, 98% of soluble reactive phosphorus, 71% for ammonium, 87% for total nitrogen, 98% for total phosphorus and 97% for suspended matter compared to the reservoir inflow. The dam operational procedure defined by the ephemeral conditions of the river reduced water releases compared to reservoir inflow and induced strong retention of nutrient and suspended matter loads within the reservoir when fluvial transfer occurs in this semiarid watershed.Medidas de concentrações e fluxos de nutrientes e material particulado em suspensão de entrada e saída do Açude Castanhão foram efetuadas para determinar a influência de um grande reservatório no transporte fluvial entre o continente e o oceano na bacia hidrográfica intermitente do Rio Jaguaribe. A variação espacial indicou uma atenuação estatisticamente significativa ao longo do reservatório somente para as concentrações de fósforo total e material particulado em suspensão. Os resultados indicam uma forte retenção de nutrientes e do material particulado em suspensão com eficiências de retenção de 89% para sílica dissolvida, 98% para fósforo solúvel reativo, 71% para amônia, 87% para nitrogênio total, 98% para fósforo total e 97% para o material particulado em suspensão em relação aos fluxos de entrada no reservatório. A rotina de operação da barragem definida pela condição intermitente do Rio Jaguaribe

  3. Major emerging and re-emerging zoonoses in China: a matter of global health and socioeconomic development for 1.3 billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Cao, Lili; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-08-01

    Emerging and re-emerging zoonoses are a significant public health concern and cause considerable socioeconomic problems globally. The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, avian influenza H7N9, and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), and the re-emergence of rabies, brucellosis, and other zoonoses have had a significant effect on the national economy and public health in China, and have affected other countries. Contributing factors that continue to affect emerging and re-emerging zoonoses in China include social and environmental factors and microbial evolution, such as population growth, urbanization, deforestation, livestock production, food safety, climate change, and pathogen mutation. The Chinese government has devised new strategies and has taken measures to deal with the challenges of these diseases, including the issuing of laws and regulations, establishment of disease reporting systems, implementation of special projects for major infectious diseases, interdisciplinary and international cooperation, exotic disease surveillance, and health education. These strategies and measures can serve as models for the surveillance and response to continuing threats from emerging and re-emerging zoonoses in other countries. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Astrophysical probes of dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Travis J.

    In the ACDM model,≈ 26% of the matter-energy content of the Universe is in the form of an unidentified Cold Dark Matter. Observations indicate that the Dark Matter is a new exotic particle not accounted for in the Standard Model of particle physics. Identifying the Dark Matter particle is one of the most pressing problems in cosmology and particle physics. In this thesis we investigate several possible astrophysical signatures of Dark Matter: Dark Matter annihilations in cold White Dwarfs provide a source of luminosity that could halt their cooling. This effect can be used to constrain the Dark Matter density local to the White Dwarf. In the case of the coldest White Dwarf in a Globular Cluster, a constraint on the maximum Dark Matter content is derived. Globular Clusters do not appear to have Dark Matter halos today, but could have possessed them in the past. We investigate whether Globular Clusters could have lost their halos through multi-body gravitational interactions--we find that this scenario is unlikely. Finally, we explore the effects of Asymmetric Dark Matter on stellar evolution. Asymmetric Dark Matter can alter the transport of energy in the cores of stars. We show that this has potentially observable effects on low mass Main Sequence and post-Main Sequence stars. Our main conclusion is that astrophysical observations can potentially rule out some Dark Matter models. On the other hand, if the properties of the Dark Matter particle become known, then its astrophysical effects must be taken into account when evaluating observations.

  5. Dark matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. That is, not only is the night sky dark, but also most of the matter and the energy in the universe is dark. For every atom visible in planets, stars and galaxies today there exists at least five or six times as much 'Dark Matter' in the universe. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious but pervasive dark matter, which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. Dark energy remains even more elusive, as we lack candidate fields that emerge from well established physics. I will describe various attempts to measure dark matter by direct and indirect means, and discuss the prospects for progress in unravelling dark energy.

  6. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  7. 49 CFR 1108.3 - Matters subject to arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matters subject to arbitration. 1108.3 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ARBITRATION OF CERTAIN DISPUTES SUBJECT TO THE STATUTORY JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.3 Matters subject to arbitration. (a) Any...

  8. Effects of a Polymorphism of the Neuronal Amino Acid Transporter SLC6A15 Gene on Structural Integrity of White Matter Tracts in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunyoung; Han, Kyu-Man; Kang, June; Won, Eunsoo; Chang, Hun Soo; Tae, Woo Suk; Son, Kyu Ri; Kim, Su-Jin; Lee, Min-Soo; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    The SLC6A15 gene has been identified as a novel candidate gene for major depressive disorder (MDD). It is presumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of MDD through regulation of glutamate transmission in the brain. However, the involvement of this gene in microstructural changes in white matter (WM) tracts remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the influence of a polymorphism of this gene (rs1545853) on the structural integrity of WM tracts in the cortico-limbic network. Eighty-six patients with MDD and 64 healthy controls underwent T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and genotype analysis. We selected the genu of the corpus callosum, the uncinate fasciculus, cingulum, and fornix as regions of interest, and extracted fractional anisotropy (FA) values using the FMRIB Diffusion Toolbox software. FA values for the left parahippocampal cingulum (PHC) was significantly reduced in the patients with MDD compared to healthy control participants (p = 0.004). We also found that MDD patients with the A allele showed reduced FA values for the left PHC than did healthy controls with the A allele (p = 0.012). There was no significant difference in the FA value of left PHC for the comparison between the G homozygotes of MDD and healthy control group. We observed an association between the risk allele of the SLC6A15 gene rs1545843 and the WM integrity of the PHC in MDD patients, which is known to play an important role in the neural circuit involved in emotion processing.

  9. Effects of a Polymorphism of the Neuronal Amino Acid Transporter SLC6A15 Gene on Structural Integrity of White Matter Tracts in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyoung Choi

    Full Text Available The SLC6A15 gene has been identified as a novel candidate gene for major depressive disorder (MDD. It is presumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of MDD through regulation of glutamate transmission in the brain. However, the involvement of this gene in microstructural changes in white matter (WM tracts remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the influence of a polymorphism of this gene (rs1545853 on the structural integrity of WM tracts in the cortico-limbic network.Eighty-six patients with MDD and 64 healthy controls underwent T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, and genotype analysis. We selected the genu of the corpus callosum, the uncinate fasciculus, cingulum, and fornix as regions of interest, and extracted fractional anisotropy (FA values using the FMRIB Diffusion Toolbox software.FA values for the left parahippocampal cingulum (PHC was significantly reduced in the patients with MDD compared to healthy control participants (p = 0.004. We also found that MDD patients with the A allele showed reduced FA values for the left PHC than did healthy controls with the A allele (p = 0.012. There was no significant difference in the FA value of left PHC for the comparison between the G homozygotes of MDD and healthy control group.We observed an association between the risk allele of the SLC6A15 gene rs1545843 and the WM integrity of the PHC in MDD patients, which is known to play an important role in the neural circuit involved in emotion processing.

  10. Dark matter versus Mach's principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Borzeszkowski, H.-H.; Treder, H.-J.

    1998-02-01

    Empirical and theoretical evidence show that the astrophysical problem of dark matter might be solved by a theory of Einstein-Mayer type. In this theory up to global Lorentz rotations the reference system is determined by the motion of cosmic matter. Thus one is led to a "Riemannian space with teleparallelism" realizing a geometric version of the Mach-Einstein doctrine. The field equations of this gravitational theory contain hidden matter terms where the existence of hidden matter is inferred safely from its gravitational effects. It is argued that in the nonrelativistic mechanical approximation they provide an inertia-free mechanics where the inertial mass of a body is induced by the gravitational action of the comic masses. Interpreted form the Newtonian point of view this mechanics shows that the effective gravitational mass of astrophysical objects depends on r such that one expects the existence of dark matter.

  11. Generation and transport of fast electrons in the interaction of high intensity laser with matter; Generation et transport des electrons rapides dans l'interaction laser-matiere a haut flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, H

    2005-10-15

    The general context of this study is the Inertial Confinement for thermonuclear controlled fusion and, more precisely, the Fast Igniter (FI). In this context the knowledge of the generation and transport of fast electrons is crucial. This thesis is an experimental study of the generation and transport of fast electrons in the interaction of a high intensity laser ({>=} 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) with a solid target. The main diagnostic used here is the transition radiation. This radiation depends on the electrons which produce it and thus it gives important information on the electrons: energy, temperature, propagation geometry, etc. The spectral, temporal and spatial analysis permitted to put in evidence the acceleration of periodic electron bunches which, in this case, emit a Coherent Transition Radiation (CTR). During this thesis we have developed some theoretical models in order to explain the experimental results. We find this way two kinds of electron bunches, emitted either at the laser frequency ({omega}{sub 0}), either at the double of this frequency (2{omega}{sub 0}), involving several acceleration mechanisms: vacuum heating / resonance absorption and Lorentz force, respectively. These bunches are also observed in the PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. The electron temperature is of about 2 MeV in our experimental conditions. The electrons are emitted starting from a point source (which is the laser focal spot) and then propagate in a ballistic way through the target. In some cases they can be re-injected in the target by the electrostatic field from the target edges. This diagnostic is only sensitive to the coherent relativistic electrons, which explains the weak total energy that they contain (about a few mJ). The CTR signal emitted by those fast electrons is largely dominating the signal emitted by the less energetic electrons, even if they contain the major part of the energy (about 1 J). (author)

  12. Effects of Climate Change and Organic Matter Amendments on the Fate of Soil Carbon and the Global Warming Potential of CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions in an Upland Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, M.; Muehe, E. M.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Our current understanding of the mechanisms driving carbon stabilization in soil organic matter (SOM) and its release to the atmosphere is insufficient for predicting the response of soil carbon dynamics to future climatic conditions. The persistence of SOM has been studied primarily within the context of biochemical, physical, and geochemical protection from decomposition. More recently, bioenergetic constraints on SOM decomposition due to oxygen limitations have been demonstrated in submerged soils. However, the relevance of anaerobic domains in upland soils is uncertain. To better understand how upland soils will respond to climate change, we conducted a 52-day incubation of an upland soil at constant soil moisture (field capacity) under varying air temperatures (32°C and 37°C), CO2 concentrations (398 and 850 ppmv), and soil organic carbon contents (1.3%, 2.4%). Overall, we observed a stimulatory effect of future climate (elevated temperature and CO2) and higher carbon inputs on net SOM mineralization rates (higher CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions). Importantly, CH4 emissions were observed in the soils with added plant residue, indicating anaerobic microsites are relevant in upland soils, and significantly impact microbial respiration pathways, rates of SOM mineralization, and the global warming potential of trace gas emissions. These findings have important implications for positive soil carbon-climate feedbacks, and warrant further investigation into representing anaerobic soil domains of upland soils in biogeochemical models.

  13. Decaying dark matter from dark instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Erlich, Joshua; Primulando, Reinard

    2010-01-01

    We construct an explicit, TeV-scale model of decaying dark matter in which the approximate stability of the dark matter candidate is a consequence of a global symmetry that is broken only by instanton-induced operators generated by a non-Abelian dark gauge group. The dominant dark matter decay channels are to standard model leptons. Annihilation of the dark matter to standard model states occurs primarily through the Higgs portal. We show that the mass and lifetime of the dark matter candidate in this model can be chosen to be consistent with the values favored by fits to data from the PAMELA and Fermi-LAT experiments.

  14. Strategies for reducing the impacts of surface transportation on global climate change : a synthesis of policy research and state and local mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Climate change is likely to have more impact on the future of surface transportation than any other issue. The challenges and implications for surface transportation and for state DOTs include: the need to support major GHG reductions, the need to me...

  15. HTAP_v2.2: a mosaic of regional and global emission grid maps for 2008 and 2010 to study hemispheric transport of air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Crippa, M.; Guizzardi, D.; Dentener, F.; Muntean, M.; Pouliot, G.; Keating, T.; Zhang, Q.; Kurokawa, J.; Wankmüller, R.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Kuenen, J.J.P.; Klimont, Z.; Frost, G.; Darras, S.; Koffi, B.; Li, M.

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the Task Force Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) is to improve the scientific understanding of the intercontinental air pollution transport, to quantify impacts on human health, vegetation and

  16. Does age matter? Controls on the spatial organization of age and life expectancy in hillslopes, and implications for transport parameterization using rSAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.; Harman, C. J.; Troch, P. A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Hillslopes have been extensively explored as a natural fundamental unit for spatially-integrated hydrologic models. Much of this attention has focused on their use in predicting the quantity of discharge, but hillslope-based models can potentially be used to predict the composition of discharge (in terms of age and chemistry) if they can be parameterized terms of measurable physical properties. Here we present advances in the use of rank StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions to parameterize transport through hillslopes. These functions provide a mapping between the distribution of water ages in storage and in outfluxes in terms of a probability distribution over storage. It has previously been shown that rSAS functions are related to the relative partitioning and arrangement of flow pathways (and variabilities in that arrangement), while separating out the effect of changes in the overall rate of fluxes in and out. This suggests that rSAS functions should have a connection to the internal organization of flow paths in a hillslope.Using a combination of numerical modeling and theoretical analysis we examined: first, the controls of physical properties on internal spatial organization of age (time since entry), life expectancy (time to exit), and the emergent transit time distribution and rSAS functions; second, the possible parameterization of the rSAS function using the physical properties. The numerical modeling results showed the clear dependence of the rSAS function forms on the physical properties and relations between the internal organization and the rSAS functions. For the different rates of the exponential saturated hydraulic conductivity decline with depth the spatial organization of life expectancy varied dramatically and determined the rSAS function forms, while the organizaiton of the age showed less qualitative differences. Analytical solutions predicting this spatial organization and the resulting rSAS function were derived for simplified systems. These

  17. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces ... Author Affiliations. E Arunan1. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  18. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  19. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule Matters - Dinitrogen. A G Samuelson J Jabadurai. Volume 16 Issue 12 ... Author Affiliations. A G Samuelson1 J Jabadurai1. Department of Inroganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  20. Superdense matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    introduce effective theories that describe low energy excitations at high baryon density. Finally, we comment on the ... these conditions are maintained for essentially infinite periods of time and the material is quite cold. At low density ... exchange between quarks in a color anti-symmetric ¯3 state. High density quark matter is.

  1. Changes Matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Kimberly; Jensen, Anitra

    2012-01-01

    Being able to distinguish between physical and chemical changes of matter is a foundational chemistry concept that at first seems like a simple elementary concept to teach, but students often have misconceptions that hinder their understanding. These misconceptions are seen among elementary students, but these ideas are perpetuated throughout…

  2. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Molecule Matters - N-Heterocyclic Carbenes - The Stable Form of R2 C: Anil J Elias. Feature Article Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 456-467. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ics of small satellite galaxies around large galaxies have shown that the luminous part of galaxies must be immersed in a huge halo of non-luminous matter, much larger than what the studies from rotation curves of spiral galaxies would suggest (see Part 1 of this article). These studies essentially use the same arguments.

  4. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  6. Science Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Science Matters A Book for Curious Minds. Rohini Godbole. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 94-95. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0094-0095 ...

  7. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    interests include cinema, stamps and sketching. GENERAL I ARTICLE. Dark Matter. 1. What You See Ain'/ What You Got. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide.

  8. Transformation of India's transport sector under Global Warming of 2oC and 1.5oC Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhar, Subash; Pathak, Minal; Shukla, P.R.

    2017-01-01

    The Paris agreement stresses on concerted efforts to limit global temperature increase to 2°C and make efforts towards achieving 1.5°C temperature stabilization. Countries announced actions under the Nationally Determined Contributions outlining domestic mitigation actions to achieve the global...

  9. Investigating the global transport of trace species and the stratoshere-troposphere-exchange with the Lagrangian model ECHAM4/ATTILA; Untersuchungen zum globalen Spurenstofftransport und Stratosphaeren-Troposphaeren-Austausch mit dem Lagrangeschen Modell ECHAM4/ATTILA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reithmeier, C.

    2001-07-01

    Investigating the chemical composition of the atmosphere and its influence on the global climate involves a large number of trace species. Therefore, the Lagrangian transport scheme ATTILA has been developed in this thesis. ATTILA runs online in the general circulation model ECHAM4 and, thus, can be used efficiently for studies involving many tracers. The present study discusses the problems which arise when applying Lagrangian methods on long range and global scale, and describes in detail the solutions developed for ATTILA. Transport experiments with both short-lived and long-lived tracers clearly show that ATTILA is numerically much less diffusive than the operational semi-Lagrangian scheme of ECHAM. It could be shown that the enhanced meridional transport in the tropopause region and the overestimated downward flux through the tropopause in ECHAM are rather due to the numerical properties of the semi-Lagrangian scheme than due to an incorrect circulation. Furthermore, the stratospheric dynamics has been investigated in this study by analysing trajectories and by calculating age spectra and mass fluxes. (orig.)

  10. Quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June

  11. Nonlinear chiral transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Ishii, Takeaki; Pu, Shi; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    We study the nonlinear responses of relativistic chiral matter to the external fields such as the electric field E , gradients of temperature and chemical potential, ∇T and ∇μ . Using the kinetic theory with Berry curvature corrections under the relaxation time approximation, we compute the transport coefficients of possible new electric currents that are forbidden in usual chirally symmetric matter but are allowed in chirally asymmetric matter by parity. In particular, we find a new type of electric current proportional to ∇μ ×E due to the interplay between the effects of the Berry curvature and collisions. We also derive an analog of the "Wiedemann-Franz" law specific for anomalous nonlinear transport in relativistic chiral matter.

  12. Disorder Induced Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimel, Joshua; Kachman, Tal; Aragones, Juan; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    Transport of active or driven particles plays a crucial role in a myriad of processes ranging from biological systems to quantum ph