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Sample records for global laboratory-based influenza

  1. DoD Global Laboratory-Based Influenza Surveillance Program End-of-Year Report, 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-22

    Vaccine (trivalent) § Influenza Injectable Vaccine (quadrivalent) † Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (quadrivalent) 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48... Adenovirus 1 A(H1N1)pdm09 & Coronavirus 1 A(H1N1)pdm09 & Parainfluenza 2 A(H1N1)pdm09 & RSV 2 A(H1N1)pdm09 & Rhinovirus/Enterovirus 2 A/not...subtyped 2 Other Respiratory Pathogens 1,485 Adenovirus 86 Chlamydophila pneumoniae 32 Coronavirus 230 Human

  2. DoD Global, Laboratory-Based, Influenza Surveillance Program, End-of-Year Report, 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    5 Laughlin AFB, TX - 9 - - - - - - - - - 3 - 1 - 2 2 3 7 3 17 47 Little Rock AFB, AR - 18 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - 34 53 SAM M C, TX - 3... Rock AFB 4 California, Beale AFB 1 California, Edwards AFB 5 1 1 California, NHRC 9 1 California, Travis AFB 19 1 California, USCG Island Alameda 1...DJ. Long intervals of stasis punctuated by bursts of positive selection in the seasonal evolution of influenza A virus. Biol Direct. 2006; 1: 34

  3. The Department of Defense Global, Laboratory-Based Influenza Surveillance Program: Technical Report on Program Methods for the 2012-2013 Influenza Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    PNL (EPI)” in AHLTA/CHCS, where available To request col lection kits, use the current ve rsion of the “Supply Orde r Form ” avai lable (under...Influenza Surveillance Program Sentinel Sites • Order the “RESPIRATORY CULTURE PNL (EPI)” in AHLTA/CHCS, where available • Submit 6-10 specimens

  4. Emerging influenza virus: A global threat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Emerging influenza virus: A global threat. 475. J. Biosci. ... pathogens and are of major global health concern. Recently, ..... cases among persons in 14 countries in Asia, the Middle ... of influenza, investment in pandemic vaccine research and.

  5. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the global influenza B study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Sue Huang, Q.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kasjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Hereaud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5)

  6. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.J.; Feng, L.Z.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.G.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n=5)

  7. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, T.Q. le; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. METHODS: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n =

  8. A new laboratory-based surveillance system (Respiratory DataMart System) for influenza and other respiratory viruses in England: results and experience from 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Green, H; Lackenby, A; Donati, M; Ellis, J; Thompson, C; Bermingham, A; Field, J; Sebastianpillai, P; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm; Pebody, R

    2014-01-23

    During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, a new laboratory-based virological sentinel surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), was established in a network of 14 Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England (PHE)) and National Health Service (NHS) laboratories in England. Laboratory results (both positive and negative) were systematically collected from all routinely tested clinical respiratory samples for a range of respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The RDMS also monitored the occurrence of antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. Data from the RDMS for the 2009–2012 period showed that the 2009 pandemic influenza virus caused three waves of activity with different intensities during the pandemic and post pandemic periods. Peaks in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positivity (defined as number of positive samples per total number of samples tested) were seen in summer and autumn in 2009, with slightly higher peak positivity observed in the first post-pandemic season in 2010/2011. The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain almost completely disappeared in the second postpandemic season in 2011/2012. The RDMS findings are consistent with other existing community-based virological and clinical surveillance systems. With a large sample size, this new system provides a robust supplementary mechanism, through the collection of routinely available laboratory data at minimum extra cost, to monitor influenza as well as other respiratory virus activity. A near real-time, daily reporting mechanism in the RDMS was established during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Furthermore, this system can be quickly adapted and used to monitor future influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease, including novel pathogens.

  9. Global Surveillance of Emerging Influenza Virus Genotypes by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-30

    Intercontinental circulation of human influenza A( H1N2 ) reassortant viruses during the 2001–2002 influenza season. J Infect Dis 186: 1490–1493. 6. Taubenberger...Global Surveillance of Emerging Influenza Virus Genotypes by Mass Spectrometry Rangarajan Sampath1*, Kevin L. Russell2, Christian Massire1, Mark W...Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America Background. Effective influenza surveillance requires

  10. Avian Influenza: a global threat needing a global solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh GCH

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been three influenza pandemics since the 1900s, of which the 1919–1919 flu pandemic had the highest mortality rates. The influenza virus infects both humans and birds, and mutates using two mechanisms: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Currently, the H5N1 avian flu virus is limited to outbreaks among poultry and persons in direct contact to infected poultry, but the mortality rate among infected humans is high. Avian influenza (AI is endemic in Asia as a result of unregulated poultry rearing in rural areas. Such birds often live in close proximity to humans and this increases the chance of genetic re-assortment between avian and human influenza viruses which may produce a mutant strain that is easily transmitted between humans. Once this happens, a global pandemic is likely. Unlike SARS, a person with influenza infection is contagious before the onset of case-defining symptoms which limits the effectiveness of case isolation as a control strategy. Researchers have shown that carefully orchestrated of public health measures could potentially limit the spread of an AI pandemic if implemented soon after the first cases appear. To successfully contain and control an AI pandemic, both national and global strategies are needed. National strategies include source surveillance and control, adequate stockpiles of anti-viral agents, timely production of flu vaccines and healthcare system readiness. Global strategies such as early integrated response, curbing the disease outbreak at source, utilization of global resources, continuing research and open communication are also critical.

  11. Global spread and control of avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    H5 and H7 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses emerge from the mutation of H5 and H7 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAI) after circulation in terrestrial poultry for a few weeks to years. There have been 42 distinct HPAI epizootics since 1959. The largest being the H5N1 A/G...

  12. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential...

  13. Global Mortality Impact of the 1957-1959 Influenza Pandemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Fuentes, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantitative estimates of the global burden of the 1957 influenza pandemic are lacking. Here we fill this gap by modeling historical mortality statistics. METHODS: We used annual rates of age- and cause-specific deaths to estimate pandemic-related mortality in excess of background...... levels in 39 countries in Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and the Americas. We modeled the relationship between excess mortality and development indicators to extrapolate the global burden of the pandemic. RESULTS: The pandemic-associated excess respiratory mortality rate was 1.9/10,000 population (95...... excess deaths (95% CI, .7 million-1.5 million excess deaths) globally to the 1957-1959 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The global mortality rate of the 1957-1959 influenza pandemic was moderate relative to that of the 1918 pandemic but was approximately 10-fold greater than that of the 2009 pandemic. The impact...

  14. Global surveillance of emerging Influenza virus genotypes by mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangarajan Sampath

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective influenza surveillance requires new methods capable of rapid and inexpensive genomic analysis of evolving viral species for pandemic preparedness, to understand the evolution of circulating viral species, and for vaccine strain selection. We have developed one such approach based on previously described broad-range reverse transcription PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RT-PCR/ESI-MS technology.Analysis of base compositions of RT-PCR amplicons from influenza core gene segments (PB1, PB2, PA, M, NS, NP are used to provide sub-species identification and infer influenza virus H and N subtypes. Using this approach, we detected and correctly identified 92 mammalian and avian influenza isolates, representing 30 different H and N types, including 29 avian H5N1 isolates. Further, direct analysis of 656 human clinical respiratory specimens collected over a seven-year period (1999-2006 showed correct identification of the viral species and subtypes with >97% sensitivity and specificity. Base composition derived clusters inferred from this analysis showed 100% concordance to previously established clades. Ongoing surveillance of samples from the recent influenza virus seasons (2005-2006 showed evidence for emergence and establishment of new genotypes of circulating H3N2 strains worldwide. Mixed viral quasispecies were found in approximately 1% of these recent samples providing a view into viral evolution.Thus, rapid RT-PCR/ESI-MS analysis can be used to simultaneously identify all species of influenza viruses with clade-level resolution, identify mixed viral populations and monitor global spread and emergence of novel viral genotypes. This high-throughput method promises to become an integral component of influenza surveillance.

  15. Epidemiology of Hospital Admissions with Influenza during the 2013/2014 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season: Results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Barberà, Joan; Natividad-Sancho, Angels; Trushakova, Svetlana; Sominina, Anna; Pisareva, Maria; Ciblak, Meral A.; Badur, Selim; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.; El Guerche-Séblain, Clotilde; Mira-Iglesias, Ainara; Kisteneva, Lidiya; Stolyarov, Kirill; Yurtcu, Kubra; Feng, Luzhao; López-Labrador, Xavier; Burtseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network was established in 2012 to obtain valid epidemiologic data on hospital admissions with influenza-like illness. Here we describe the epidemiology of admissions with influenza within the Northern Hemisphere sites during the 2013/2014 influenza season, identify risk factors for severe outcomes and complications, and assess the impact of different influenza viruses on clinically relevant outcomes in at-risk populations. Methods Eligible consecutive admissions were screened for inclusion at 19 hospitals in Russia, Turkey, China, and Spain using a prospective, active surveillance approach. Patients that fulfilled a common case definition were enrolled and epidemiological data were collected. Risk factors for hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Findings 5303 of 9507 consecutive admissions were included in the analysis. Of these, 1086 were influenza positive (534 A(H3N2), 362 A(H1N1), 130 B/Yamagata lineage, 3 B/Victoria lineage, 40 untyped A, and 18 untyped B). The risk of hospitalization with influenza (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) was elevated for patients with cardiovascular disease (1.63 [1.33–2.02]), asthma (2.25 [1.67–3.03]), immunosuppression (2.25 [1.23–4.11]), renal disease (2.11 [1.48–3.01]), liver disease (1.94 [1.18–3.19], autoimmune disease (2.97 [1.58–5.59]), and pregnancy (3.84 [2.48–5.94]). Patients without comorbidities accounted for 60% of admissions with influenza. The need for intensive care or in-hospital death was not significantly different between patients with or without influenza. Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of confirmed influenza (adjusted odds ratio = 0.61 [0.48–0.77]). Conclusions Influenza infection was detected among hospital admissions with and without known risk factors. Pregnancy and underlying comorbidity increased the risk of detecting influenza

  16. 65 Years of influenza surveillance by a WHO-coordinated global network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Thedi; Mamahit, Awandha; Cox, Nancy J

    2018-05-04

    The 1918 devastating influenza pandemic left a lasting impact on influenza experts and the public, and the importance of global influenza surveillance was soon recognized. The WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN) was founded in 1952 and renamed to Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System in 2011 upon the adoption by the World Health Assembly, of the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework for the Sharing of Influenza Viruses and Access to Vaccines and Other Benefits ("PIP Framework"). The importance of influenza surveillance had been recognized and promoted by experts prior to the years leading up to the establishment of WHO. In the 65 years of its existence, the Network has grown to comprise 143 National Influenza Centers recognized by WHO, 6 WHO Collaborating Centers, 4 Essential Regulatory Laboratories, and 13 H5 Reference Laboratories. The Network has proven its excellence throughout these 65 years, providing detailed information on circulating seasonal influenza viruses, as well as immediate response to the influenza pandemics in 1957, 1968, and 2009, and to threats caused by animal influenza viruses and by zoonotic transmission of coronaviruses. For its central role in global public health, the Network has been highly recognized by its many partners and by international bodies. Several generations of world renown influenza scientists have brought the Network to where it is now and they will take it forward to the future, as influenza will remain a pre-eminent threat to humans and to animals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Influenza epidemiology and influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2014–2015 season: annual report from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Puig-Barberà

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN has established a prospective, active surveillance, hospital-based epidemiological study to collect epidemiological and virological data for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres over several consecutive seasons. It focuses exclusively on severe cases of influenza requiring hospitalization. A standard protocol is shared between sites allowing comparison and pooling of results. During the 2014–2015 influenza season, the GIHSN included seven coordinating sites from six countries (St. Petersburg and Moscow, Russian Federation; Prague, Czech Republic; Istanbul, Turkey; Beijing, China; Valencia, Spain; and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Here, we present the detailed epidemiological and influenza vaccine effectiveness findings for the Northern Hemisphere 2014–2015 influenza season.

  18. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Avian influenza: guidelines. recommendations, descriptions Global Influenza and Surveillance Response System (GISRS) Food safety authorities network OIE Avian Influenza ...

  19. Trends in global warming and evolution of nucleoproteins from influenza A viruses since 1918.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, S; Wu, G

    2010-12-01

    Global warming affects not only the environment where we live, but also all living species to different degree, including influenza A virus. We recently conducted several studies on the possible impact of global warming on the protein families of influenza A virus. More studies are needed in order to have a full picture of the impact of global warming on living organisms, especially its effect on viruses. In this study, we correlate trends in global warming with evolution of the nucleoprotein from influenza A virus and then analyse the trends with respect to northern/southern hemispheres, virus subtypes and sampling species. The results suggest that global warming may have an impact on the evolution of the nucleoprotein from influenza A virus. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. First-year results of the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network: 2012–2013 Northern hemisphere influenza season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network (GIHSN) was developed to improve understanding of severe influenza infection, as represented by hospitalized cases. The GIHSN is composed of coordinating sites, mainly affiliated with health authorities, each of which supervises and compiles data from one to seven hospitals. This report describes the distribution of influenza viruses A(H1N1), A(H3N2), B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata resulting in hospitalization during 2012–2013, the network’s first year. Methods In 2012–2013, the GIHSN included 21 hospitals (five in Spain, five in France, four in the Russian Federation, and seven in Turkey). All hospitals used a reference protocol and core questionnaire to collect data, and data were consolidated at five coordinating sites. Influenza infection was confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Hospitalized patients admitted within 7 days of onset of influenza-like illness were included in the analysis. Results Of 5034 patients included with polymerase chain reaction results, 1545 (30.7%) were positive for influenza. Influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and both B lineages co-circulated, although distributions varied greatly between coordinating sites and over time. All age groups were affected. A(H1N1) was the most common influenza strain isolated among hospitalized adults 18–64 years of age at four of five coordinating sites, whereas A(H3N2) and B viruses were isolated more often than A(H1N1) in adults ≥65 years of age at all five coordinating sites. A total of 16 deaths and 20 intensive care unit admissions were recorded among patients with influenza. Conclusions Influenza strains resulting in hospitalization varied greatly between coordinating sites and over time. These first-year results of the GIHSN are relevant, useful, and timely. Due to its broad regional representativeness and sustainable framework, this growing network should contribute substantially to understanding the

  1. Possible impact of global warming on the evolution of hemagglutinins from influenza a viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shaomin; Wu, Guang

    2011-02-01

    To determine if global warming has an impact on the evolution of hemagglutinins from influenza A viruses, because both global warming and influenza pandemics/epidemics threaten the world. 4 706 hemagglutinins from influenza A viruses sampled from 1956 to 2009 were converted to a time-series to show their evolutionary process and compared with the global, northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere temperatures, to determine if their trends run in similar or opposite directions. Point-to-point comparisons between temperature and quantified hemagglutinins were performed for all species and for the major prevailing species. The comparisons show that the trends for both hemagglutinin evolution and temperature change run in a similar direction. Global warming has a consistent and progressive impact on the hemagglutinin evolution of influenza A viruses.

  2. Global Surveillance of Emerging Influenza Virus Genotypes by Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampath, Rangarajan; Russell, Kevin L; Massire, Christian; Eshoo, Mark W; Harpin, Vanessa; Blyn, Lawrence B; Melton, Rachael; Ivy, Cristin; Pennella, Thuy; Li, Feng

    2007-01-01

    Effective influenza surveillance requires new methods capable of rapid and inexpensive genomic analysis of evolving viral species for pandemic preparedness, to understand the evolution of circulating...

  3. Genome-wide evolutionary dynamics of influenza B viruses on a global scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky Langat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The global-scale epidemiology and genome-wide evolutionary dynamics of influenza B remain poorly understood compared with influenza A viruses. We compiled a spatio-temporally comprehensive dataset of influenza B viruses, comprising over 2,500 genomes sampled worldwide between 1987 and 2015, including 382 newly-sequenced genomes that fill substantial gaps in previous molecular surveillance studies. Our contributed data increase the number of available influenza B virus genomes in Europe, Africa and Central Asia, improving the global context to study influenza B viruses. We reveal Yamagata-lineage diversity results from co-circulation of two antigenically-distinct groups that also segregate genetically across the entire genome, without evidence of intra-lineage reassortment. In contrast, Victoria-lineage diversity stems from geographic segregation of different genetic clades, with variability in the degree of geographic spread among clades. Differences between the lineages are reflected in their antigenic dynamics, as Yamagata-lineage viruses show alternating dominance between antigenic groups, while Victoria-lineage viruses show antigenic drift of a single lineage. Structural mapping of amino acid substitutions on trunk branches of influenza B gene phylogenies further supports these antigenic differences and highlights two potential mechanisms of adaptation for polymerase activity. Our study provides new insights into the epidemiological and molecular processes shaping influenza B virus evolution globally.

  4. Genome-wide evolutionary dynamics of influenza B viruses on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langat, Pinky; Bowden, Thomas A.; Edwards, Stephanie; Gall, Astrid; Rambaut, Andrew; Daniels, Rodney S.; Russell, Colin A.; Pybus, Oliver G.; McCauley, John

    2017-01-01

    The global-scale epidemiology and genome-wide evolutionary dynamics of influenza B remain poorly understood compared with influenza A viruses. We compiled a spatio-temporally comprehensive dataset of influenza B viruses, comprising over 2,500 genomes sampled worldwide between 1987 and 2015, including 382 newly-sequenced genomes that fill substantial gaps in previous molecular surveillance studies. Our contributed data increase the number of available influenza B virus genomes in Europe, Africa and Central Asia, improving the global context to study influenza B viruses. We reveal Yamagata-lineage diversity results from co-circulation of two antigenically-distinct groups that also segregate genetically across the entire genome, without evidence of intra-lineage reassortment. In contrast, Victoria-lineage diversity stems from geographic segregation of different genetic clades, with variability in the degree of geographic spread among clades. Differences between the lineages are reflected in their antigenic dynamics, as Yamagata-lineage viruses show alternating dominance between antigenic groups, while Victoria-lineage viruses show antigenic drift of a single lineage. Structural mapping of amino acid substitutions on trunk branches of influenza B gene phylogenies further supports these antigenic differences and highlights two potential mechanisms of adaptation for polymerase activity. Our study provides new insights into the epidemiological and molecular processes shaping influenza B virus evolution globally. PMID:29284042

  5. Trends in global warming and evolution of matrix protein 2 family from influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shao-Min; Wu, Guang

    2009-12-01

    The global warming is an important factor affecting the biological evolution, and the influenza is an important disease that threatens humans with possible epidemics or pandemics. In this study, we attempted to analyze the trends in global warming and evolution of matrix protein 2 family from influenza A virus, because this protein is a target of anti-flu drug, and its mutation would have significant effect on the resistance to anti-flu drugs. The evolution of matrix protein 2 of influenza A virus from 1959 to 2008 was defined using the unpredictable portion of amino-acid pair predictability. Then the trend in this evolution was compared with the trend in the global temperature, the temperature in north and south hemispheres, and the temperature in influenza A virus sampling site, and species carrying influenza A virus. The results showed the similar trends in global warming and in evolution of M2 proteins although we could not correlate them at this stage of study. The study suggested the potential impact of global warming on the evolution of proteins from influenza A virus.

  6. Inferring influenza global transmission networks without complete phylogenetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris-Brosou, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    Influenza is one of the most severe respiratory infections affecting humans throughout the world, yet the dynamics of its global transmission network are still contentious. Here, I describe a novel combination of phylogenetics, time series, and graph theory to analyze 14.25 years of data stratified in space and in time, focusing on the main target of the human immune response, the hemagglutinin gene. While bypassing the complete phylogenetic inference of huge data sets, the method still extracts information suggesting that waves of genetic or of nucleotide diversity circulate continuously around the globe for subtypes that undergo sustained transmission over several seasons, such as H3N2 and pandemic H1N1/09, while diversity of prepandemic H1N1 viruses had until 2009 a noncontinuous transmission pattern consistent with a source/sink model. Irrespective of the shift in the structure of H1N1 diversity circulation with the emergence of the pandemic H1N1/09 strain, US prevalence peaks during the winter months when genetic diversity is at its lowest. This suggests that a dominant strain is generally responsible for epidemics and that monitoring genetic and/or nucleotide diversity in real time could provide public health agencies with an indirect estimate of prevalence.

  7. Global Dynamics of Avian Influenza Epidemic Models with Psychological Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanhong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward avian influenza in the human population, a bird-to-human transmission model in which the avian population exhibits saturation effect is constructed. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number. The results demonstrate that the saturation effect within avian population and the psychological effect in human population cannot change the stability of equilibria but can affect the number of infected humans if the disease is prevalent. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results and sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters that are performed to seek for effective control measures for avian influenza.

  8. Global dynamics of avian influenza epidemic models with psychological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanhong; Pang, Liuyong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand and China after the outbreaks of the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 viruses show a high degree of awareness of human avian influenza in both urban and rural populations, a higher level of proper hygienic practice among urban residents, and in particular a dramatically reduced number of visits to live markets in urban population after the influenza A H7N9 outbreak in China in 2013. In this paper, taking into account the psychological effect toward avian influenza in the human population, a bird-to-human transmission model in which the avian population exhibits saturation effect is constructed. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number. The results demonstrate that the saturation effect within avian population and the psychological effect in human population cannot change the stability of equilibria but can affect the number of infected humans if the disease is prevalent. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results and sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number in terms of model parameters that are performed to seek for effective control measures for avian influenza.

  9. Global Role and Burden of Influenza in Pediatric Respiratory Hospitalizations, 1982-2012: A Systematic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Lafond

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of pediatric severe respiratory illness is substantial, and influenza viruses contribute to this burden. Systematic surveillance and testing for influenza among hospitalized children has expanded globally over the past decade. However, only a fraction of the data has been used to estimate influenza burden. In this analysis, we use surveillance data to provide an estimate of influenza-associated hospitalizations among children worldwide.We aggregated data from a systematic review (n = 108 and surveillance platforms (n = 37 to calculate a pooled estimate of the proportion of samples collected from children hospitalized with respiratory illnesses and positive for influenza by age group (<6 mo, <1 y, <2 y, <5 y, 5-17 y, and <18 y. We applied this proportion to global estimates of acute lower respiratory infection hospitalizations among children aged <1 y and <5 y, to obtain the number and per capita rate of influenza-associated hospitalizations by geographic region and socio-economic status. Influenza was associated with 10% (95% CI 8%-11% of respiratory hospitalizations in children <18 y worldwide, ranging from 5% (95% CI 3%-7% among children <6 mo to 16% (95% CI 14%-20% among children 5-17 y. On average, we estimated that influenza results in approximately 374,000 (95% CI 264,000 to 539,000 hospitalizations in children <1 y-of which 228,000 (95% CI 150,000 to 344,000 occur in children <6 mo-and 870,000 (95% CI 610,000 to 1,237,000 hospitalizations in children <5 y annually. Influenza-associated hospitalization rates were more than three times higher in developing countries than in industrialized countries (150/100,000 children/year versus 48/100,000. However, differences in hospitalization practices between settings are an important limitation in interpreting these findings.Influenza is an important contributor to respiratory hospitalizations among young children worldwide. Increasing influenza vaccination coverage among young

  10. Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Ip, Hon S.

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses affect both poultry production and public health. A subtype H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4) virus, following an outbreak in poultry in South Korea in January 2014, rapidly spread worldwide in 2014–2015. Our analysis of H5N8 viral sequences, epidemiological investigations, waterfowl migration, and poultry trade showed that long-distance migratory birds can play a major role in the global spread of avian influenza viruses. Further, we found that the hemagglutinin of clade 2.3.4.4 virus was remarkably promiscuous, creating reassortants with multiple neuraminidase subtypes. Improving our understanding of the circumpolar circulation of avian influenza viruses in migratory waterfowl will help to provide early warning of threats from avian influenza to poultry, and potentially human, health.

  11. Global Emerging Infection Surveillance and Response (GEIS)- Avian Influenza Pandemic Influenza (AI/PI) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    KEMRI operated reference laboratories for this work in Nairobi, Kericho, and Kisumu, including the arbovirus reference laboratory, the antimalarial ...in military and civilian populations, and monitor the pattern of antimalarial resistance across Kenya. 15. SUBJECT TERMS NOTHING LISTED 16...confirms our earlier assertion that as we progress away from the H1N1 pandemic, we have noticed a decline in influenza activity suggesting that the high

  12. Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Miranda-Novales, Ma. Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    La influenza es una infección viral aguda de las vías respiratorias, altamente contagiosa. Es causada por el virus de la influenza A, B y C. Puede afectar a todos los grupos etarios durante epidemias, aunque tiene mayor morbilidad en los extremos de la vida. La enfermedad frecuentemente requiere de atención médica y hospitalización, contribuyendo sustancialmente a pérdidas económicas, exceso en el número de días/cama-hospital y muertes. Considerando la epidemia reciente en México del virus de...

  13. Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forleo-Neto Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A influenza (gripe é doença infecciosa aguda de origem viral que acomete o trato respiratório e a cada inverno atinge mais de 100 milhões de pessoas na Europa, Japão e Estados Unidos, causando anualmente a morte de cerca de 20 a 40 mil pessoas somente neste último país. O agente etiológico é o Myxovirus influenzae, ou vírus da gripe. Este subdivide-se nos tipos A, B e C, sendo que apenas os do tipo A e B apresentam relevância clínica em humanos. O vírus influenza apresenta altas taxas de mutação, o que resulta freqüentemente na inserção de novas variantes virais na comunidade, para as quais a população não apresenta imunidade. São poucas as opções disponíveis para o controle da influenza. Dentre essas, a vacinação constitui a forma mais eficaz para o controle da doença e de suas complicações. Em função das mutações que ocorrem naturalmente no vírus influenza, recomenda-se que a vacinação seja realizada anualmente. No Brasil, segundo dados obtidos pelo Projeto VigiGripe - ligado à Universidade Federal de São Paulo -, verifica-se que a influenza apresenta pico de atividade entre os meses de maio e setembro. Assim, a época mais indicada para a vacinação corresponde aos meses de março e abril. Para o tratamento específico da influenza estão disponíveis quatro medicamentos antivirais: os fármacos clássicos amantadina e rimantidina e os antivirais de segunda geração oseltamivir e zanamivir. Os últimos, acrescentam alternativas para o tratamento da influenza e ampliam as opções disponíveis para o seu controle.

  14. Protecting public health and global freight transportation systems during an influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Thomas C; Rodrigue, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    The H5N1 influenza threat is resulting in global preparations for the next influenza pandemic. Pandemic influenza planners are prioritizing scarce vaccine, antivirals, and public health support for different segments of society. The freight, bulk goods, and energy transportation network comprise the maritime, rail, air, and trucking industries. It relies on small numbers of specialized workers who cannot be rapidly replaced if lost due to death, illness, or voluntary absenteeism. Because transportation networks link economies, provide critical infrastructures with working material, and supply citizens with necessary commodities, disrupted transportation systems can lead to cascading failures in social and economic systems. However, some pandemic influenza plans have assigned transportation workers a low priority for public health support, vaccine, and antivirals. The science of Transportation Geography demonstrates that transportation networks and workers are concentrated at, or funnel through, a small number of chokepoints and corridors. Chokepoints should be used to rapidly and efficiently vaccinate and prophylax the transportation worker cohort and to implement transmission prevention measures and thereby protect the ability to move goods. Nations, states, the transportation industry and unions, businesses, and other stakeholders must plan, resource, and exercise, and then conduct a transportation health assurance and security campaign for an influenza pandemic.

  15. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ning; Liu, Yun; Cheng, Yijie; Liu, Long; Yan, Zhe; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Xiuhua; Luo, Yanxia; Yan, Aoshuang

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus vaccine (IVV) is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this pa...

  16. "With human health it's a global thing": Canadian perspectives on ethics in the global governance of an influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alison K; Smith, Maxwell J; McDougall, Christopher W; Bensimon, Cécile; Perez, Daniel Felipe

    2015-03-01

    We live in an era where our health is linked to that of others across the globe, and nothing brings this home better than the specter of a pandemic. This paper explores the findings of town hall meetings associated with the Canadian Program of Research on Ethics in a Pandemic (CanPREP), in which focus groups met to discuss issues related to the global governance of an influenza pandemic. Two competing discourses were found to be at work: the first was based upon an economic rationality and the second upon a humanitarian rationality. The implications for public support and the long-term sustainability of new global norms, networks, and regulations in global public health are discussed.

  17. [Global public health: international health is tested to its limits by the human influenza A epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2009-06-01

    This article comes from the intense international pressure that follows a near-catastrophy, such as the human influenza A H1N1 epidemic, and the limited resources for confronting such events. The analysis covers prevailing 20th century trends in the international public health arena and the change-induced challenges brought on by globalization, the transition set in motion by what has been deemed the "new" international public health and an ever-increasing focus on global health, in the context of an international scenario of shifting risks and opportunities and a growing number of multinational players. Global public health is defined as a public right, based on a new appreciation of the public, a new paradigm centered on human rights, and altruistic philosophy, politics, and ethics that undergird the changes in international public health on at least three fronts: redefining its theoretical foundation, improving world health, and renewing the international public health system, all of which is the byproduct of a new form of governance. A new world health system, directed by new global public institutions, would aim to make public health a global public right and face a variety of staggering challenges, such as working on public policy management on a global scale, renewing and democratizing the current global governing structure, and conquering the limits and weaknesses witnessed by international health.

  18. Unifying Viral Genetics and Human Transportation Data to Predict the Global Transmission Dynamics of Human Influenza H3N2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Lemey (Philippe); A. Rambaut (Andrew); T. Bedford (Trevor); R. Faria (Rui); F. Bielejec (Filip); G. Baele (Guy); C.A. Russell (Colin); D.J. Smith (Derek James); O. Pybus (Oliver); K. Brockmann; M.A. Suchard (Marc)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInformation on global human movement patterns is central to spatial epidemiological models used to predict the behavior of influenza and other infectious diseases. Yet it remains difficult to test which modes of dispersal drive pathogen spread at various geographic scales using standard

  19. Stakeholders' perceptions of 10years of the Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) - Results from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannei, Claudia; Goldin, Shoshanna; Torelli, Guido; Fatima, Hiba; Kumar, Kaveri; Bubb-Humfryes, Oliver; Stenson, Bo; Sparrow, Erin

    2016-10-26

    Ten years after the launch of the Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP), the World Health Organization (WHO) surveyed stakeholders to understand their perceptions of what the programme had achieved. This article provides a summary of the findings; the full report will be available on-line on the GAP website in November 2016 (http://www.who.int/influenza_vaccines_plan/en/). Seventy-seven responses were received from stakeholders including medical doctors, national influenza center officials, country immunization programme teams, surveillance and disease centers, policy-makers, researchers, vaccine manufacturers, and non-governmental organizations from 28 countries, representing all six WHO regions. Respondents cited GAP's biggest successes as capacity building in developing countries; raising international awareness of global needs in the event of a pandemic; and collaborative alignment of influenza stakeholders. The most commonly reported challenges were the limited progress in development of a broadly protective or universal vaccine and the perceived absence of a major increase in seasonal demand. These findings aligned with the perception that less global progress had been made under the third GAP objective, focused on research and development of better vaccines, than on increasing seasonal vaccine use (objective 1) and pandemic vaccine production capacity (objective 2). Respondents explained what they saw as the major challenges to development of better vaccines, including to development of a universal influenza vaccine. The majority of respondents agreed that the goal chosen at the GAP II consultation is still relevant. Results highlighted the importance of promoting research and development of better vaccines, both for facilitating uptake of seasonal vaccines and for ensuring timely vaccine availability in the event of a pandemic. As the GAP concludes its mandate this year, these findings will contribute to discussions on the impact of programme

  20. A phylogeny-based global nomenclature system and automated annotation tool for H1 hemagglutinin genes from swine influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H1 subtype of influenza A viruses (IAV) has been circulating in swine since the 1918 human influenza pandemic. Over time, and aided by further introductions from non-swine hosts, swine H1 have diversified into three genetic lineages. Due to limited global data, these H1 lineages were named based...

  1. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Yan, Zhe; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Xiuhua; Luo, Yanxia; Yan, Aoshuang

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus vaccine (IVV) is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a) designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b) presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO) patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation. PMID:26372160

  2. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Liu, Yun; Cheng, Yijie; Liu, Long; Yan, Zhe; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Xiuhua; Luo, Yanxia; Yan, Aoshuang

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus vaccine (IVV) is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a) designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b) presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO) patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation.

  3. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chen

    Full Text Available Influenza virus vaccine (IVV is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation.

  4. Global dynamic analysis of a H7N9 avian-human influenza model in an outbreak region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongxue; Wen, Yongxian

    2015-02-21

    In 2013 in China a new type of avian influenza virus, H7N9, began to infect humans and had aroused severe fatality in the infected humans. We know that the spread is from poultry to humans, and the H7N9 avian influenza is low pathogenic in the poultry world but highly pathogenic in the human world, but the transmission mechanism is unclear. Since it has no signs of human-to-human transmission and outbreaks are isolated in some cities in China, in order to investigate the transmission mechanism of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza, an eco-epidemiological model in an outbreak region is proposed and analyzed dynamically. Researches and reports show that gene mutation makes the new virus be capable of infecting humans, therefore the mutation factor is taken into account in the model. The global dynamic analysis is conducted, different thresholds are identified, persistence and global qualitative behaviors are obtained. The impact of H7N9 avian influenza on the people population is concerned. Finally, the numerical simulations are carried out to support the theoretical analysis and to investigate the disease control measures. It seems that we may take people׳s hygiene and prevention awareness factor as a significant policy to achieve the aim of both the disease control and the economic returns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comprehensive global amino acid sequence analysis of PB1F2 protein of influenza A H5N1 viruses and the influenza A virus subtypes responsible for the 20th‐century pandemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Gunisha; Mishra, Akhilesh C.; Chakrabarti, Alok K.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Pasricha et al. (2012) Comprehensive global amino acid sequence analysis of PB1F2 protein of influenza A H5N1 viruses and the Influenza A virus subtypes responsible for the 20th‐century pandemics. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7(4), 497–505. Background  PB1F2 is the 11th protein of influenza A virus translated from +1 alternate reading frame of PB1 gene. Since the discovery, varying sizes and functions of the PB1F2 protein of influenza A viruses have been reported. Selection of PB1 gene segment in the pandemics, variable size and pleiotropic effect of PB1F2 intrigued us to analyze amino acid sequences of this protein in various influenza A viruses. Methods  Amino acid sequences for PB1F2 protein of influenza A H5N1, H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 subtypes were obtained from Influenza Research Database. Multiple sequence alignments of the PB1F2 protein sequences of the aforementioned subtypes were used to determine the size, variable and conserved domains and to perform mutational analysis. Results  Analysis showed that 96·4% of the H5N1 influenza viruses harbored full‐length PB1F2 protein. Except for the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, all the subtypes of the 20th‐century pandemic influenza viruses contained full‐length PB1F2 protein. Through the years, PB1F2 protein of the H1N1 and H3N2 viruses has undergone much variation. PB1F2 protein sequences of H5N1 viruses showed both human‐ and avian host‐specific conserved domains. Global database of PB1F2 protein revealed that N66S mutation was present only in 3·8% of the H5N1 strains. We found a novel mutation, N84S in the PB1F2 protein of 9·35% of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 influenza viruses. Conclusions  Varying sizes and mutations of the PB1F2 protein in different influenza A virus subtypes with pandemic potential were obtained. There was genetic divergence of the protein in various hosts which highlighted the host‐specific evolution of the virus

  6. Changing human mobility and the spreading rate of global influenza outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaa, Jan Willem

    2010-01-01

    Influenza, commonly called the flu, is an infectious disease which causes up to 500,000 deaths annually during seasonal epidemics. Influenza viruses circulate in many different types and in many species, such as birds, swines and humans. When a new human

  7. Strategies for antiviral stockpiling for future influenza pandemics: a global epidemic-economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Luis R; Lee, Vernon J; Chen, Mark I; Matchar, David B; Thompson, James P; Cook, Alex R

    2011-09-07

    Influenza pandemics present a global threat owing to their potential mortality and substantial economic impacts. Stockpiling antiviral drugs to manage a pandemic is an effective strategy to offset their negative impacts; however, little is known about the long-term optimal size of the stockpile under uncertainty and the characteristics of different countries. Using an epidemic-economic model we studied the effect on total mortality and costs of antiviral stockpile sizes for Brazil, China, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, New Zealand, Singapore, the UK, the USA and Zimbabwe. In the model, antivirals stockpiling considerably reduced mortality. There was greater potential avoidance of expected costs in the higher resourced countries (e.g. from $55 billion to $27 billion over a 30 year time horizon for the USA) and large avoidance of fatalities in those less resourced (e.g. from 11.4 to 2.3 million in Indonesia). Under perfect allocation, higher resourced countries should aim to store antiviral stockpiles able to cover at least 15 per cent of their population, rising to 25 per cent with 30 per cent misallocation, to minimize fatalities and economic costs. Stockpiling is estimated not to be cost-effective for two-thirds of the world's population under current antivirals pricing. Lower prices and international cooperation are necessary to make the life-saving potential of antivirals cost-effective in resource-limited countries.

  8. Chinese and global distribution of H9 subtype avian influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenming Jiang

    Full Text Available H9 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs are of significance in poultry and public health, but epidemiological studies about the viruses are scarce. In this study, phylogenetic relationships of the viruses were analyzed based on 1233 previously reported sequences and 745 novel sequences of the viral hemagglutinin gene. The novel sequences were obtained through large-scale surveys conducted in 2008-2011 in China. The results revealed distinct distributions of H9 subtype AIVs in different hosts, sites and regions in China and in the world: (1 the dominant lineage of H9 subtype AIVs in China in recent years is lineage h9.4.2.5 represented by A/chicken/Guangxi/55/2005; (2 the newly emerging lineage h9.4.2.6, represented by A/chicken/Guangdong/FZH/2011, has also become prevalent in China; (3 lineages h9.3.3, h9.4.1 and h9.4.2, represented by A/duck/Hokkaido/26/99, A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 and A/chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97, respectively, have become globally dominant in recent years; (4 lineages h9.4.1 and h9.4.2 are likely of more risk to public health than others; (5 different lineages have different transmission features and host tropisms. This study also provided novel experimental data which indicated that the Leu-234 (H9 numbering motif in the viral hemagglutinin gene is an important but not unique determinant in receptor-binding preference. This report provides a detailed and updated panoramic view of the epidemiological distributions of H9 subtype AIVs globally and in China, and sheds new insights for the prevention of infection in poultry and preparedness for a potential pandemic caused by the viruses.

  9. Accelerating policy decisions to adopt haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine: a global, multivariable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jessica C; Stack, Meghan L; Richmond, Marcie R; Bear, Allyson P; Hajjeh, Rana A; Bishai, David M

    2010-03-16

    Adoption of new and underutilized vaccines by national immunization programs is an essential step towards reducing child mortality. Policy decisions to adopt new vaccines in high mortality countries often lag behind decisions in high-income countries. Using the case of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, this paper endeavors to explain these delays through the analysis of country-level economic, epidemiological, programmatic and policy-related factors, as well as the role of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI Alliance). Data for 147 countries from 1990 to 2007 were analyzed in accelerated failure time models to identify factors that are associated with the time to decision to adopt Hib vaccine. In multivariable models that control for Gross National Income, region, and burden of Hib disease, the receipt of GAVI support speeded the time to decision by a factor of 0.37 (95% CI 0.18-0.76), or 63%. The presence of two or more neighboring country adopters accelerated decisions to adopt by a factor of 0.50 (95% CI 0.33-0.75). For each 1% increase in vaccine price, decisions to adopt are delayed by a factor of 1.02 (95% CI 1.00-1.04). Global recommendations and local studies were not associated with time to decision. This study substantiates previous findings related to vaccine price and presents new evidence to suggest that GAVI eligibility is associated with accelerated decisions to adopt Hib vaccine. The influence of neighboring country decisions was also highly significant, suggesting that approaches to support the adoption of new vaccines should consider supply- and demand-side factors.

  10. Global Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds: A Strategy to Capture Viral Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalaba, Catherine C.; Elwood, Sarah E.; Forcella, Simona; Smith, Kristine M.; Hamilton, Keith; Jebara, Karim B.; Swayne, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Mumford, Elizabeth; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Daszak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus. To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a World Organisation for Animal Health–administered survey, government reports to this organization, articles on Web of Knowledge, and the Influenza Research Database. At least 119 countries conducted avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds during 2008–2013, but coordination and standardization was lacking among surveillance efforts, and most focused on limited subsets of influenza viruses. Given high financial and public health burdens of recent avian influenza outbreaks, we call for sustained, cost-effective investments in locations with high avian influenza diversity in wild birds and efforts to promote standardized sampling, testing, and reporting methods, including full-genome sequencing and sharing of isolates with the scientific community. PMID:25811221

  11. Laboratory-based respiratory virus surveillance pilot project on select cruise ships in Alaska, 2013-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kimberly B; Roohi, Shahrokh; Uyeki, Timothy M; Montgomery, David; Parker, Jayme; Fowler, Nisha H; Xu, Xiyan; Ingram, Deandra J; Fearey, Donna; Williams, Steve M; Tarling, Grant; Brown, Clive M; Cohen, Nicole J

    2017-09-01

    Influenza outbreaks can occur among passengers and crews during the Alaska summertime cruise season. Ill travellers represent a potential source for introduction of novel or antigenically drifted influenza virus strains to the United States. From May to September 2013-2015, the Alaska Division of Public Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and two cruise lines implemented a laboratory-based public health surveillance project to detect influenza and other respiratory viruses among ill crew members and passengers on select cruise ships in Alaska. Cruise ship medical staff collected 2-3 nasopharyngeal swab specimens per week from passengers and crew members presenting to the ship infirmary with acute respiratory illness (ARI). Specimens were tested for respiratory viruses at the Alaska State Virology Laboratory (ASVL); a subset of specimens positive for influenza virus were sent to CDC for further antigenic characterization. Of 410 nasopharyngeal specimens, 83% tested positive for at least one respiratory virus; 71% tested positive for influenza A or B virus. Antigenic characterization of pilot project specimens identified strains matching predominant circulating seasonal influenza virus strains, which were included in the northern or southern hemisphere influenza vaccines during those years. Results were relatively consistent across age groups, recent travel history, and influenza vaccination status. Onset dates of illness relative to date of boarding differed between northbound (occurring later in the voyage) and southbound (occurring within the first days of the voyage) cruises. The high yield of positive results indicated that influenza was common among passengers and crews sampled with ARI. This finding reinforces the need to bolster influenza prevention and control activities on cruise ships. Laboratory-based influenza surveillance on cruise ships may augment inland influenza surveillance and inform control activities. However, these

  12. Global mortality estimates for the 2009 Influenza Pandemic from the GLaMOR project: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Lone; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Lustig, Roger; Taylor, Robert J; Fleming, Douglas M; Kroneman, Madelon; Van Kerkhove, Maria D; Mounts, Anthony W; Paget, W John

    2013-11-01

    Assessing the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza A H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm09) is essential for optimizing public health responses to future pandemics. The World Health Organization reported 18,631 laboratory-confirmed pandemic deaths, but the total pandemic mortality burden was substantially higher. We estimated the 2009 pandemic mortality burden through statistical modeling of mortality data from multiple countries. We obtained weekly virology and underlying cause-of-death mortality time series for 2005-2009 for 20 countries covering ∼35% of the world population. We applied a multivariate linear regression model to estimate pandemic respiratory mortality in each collaborating country. We then used these results plus ten country indicators in a multiple imputation model to project the mortality burden in all world countries. Between 123,000 and 203,000 pandemic respiratory deaths were estimated globally for the last 9 mo of 2009. The majority (62%-85%) were attributed to persons under 65 y of age. We observed a striking regional heterogeneity, with almost 20-fold higher mortality in some countries in the Americas than in Europe. The model attributed 148,000-249,000 respiratory deaths to influenza in an average pre-pandemic season, with only 19% in persons representation of low-income countries among single-country estimates and an inability to study subsequent pandemic waves (2010-2012). We estimate that 2009 global pandemic respiratory mortality was ∼10-fold higher than the World Health Organization's laboratory-confirmed mortality count. Although the pandemic mortality estimate was similar in magnitude to that of seasonal influenza, a marked shift toward mortality among persons Europe. A collaborative network to collect and analyze mortality and hospitalization surveillance data is needed to rapidly establish the severity of future pandemics. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  13. Comprehensive global amino acid sequence analysis of PB1F2 protein of influenza A H5N1 viruses and the influenza A virus subtypes responsible for the 20th-century pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Gunisha; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Chakrabarti, Alok K

    2013-07-01

    PB1F2 is the 11th protein of influenza A virus translated from +1 alternate reading frame of PB1 gene. Since the discovery, varying sizes and functions of the PB1F2 protein of influenza A viruses have been reported. Selection of PB1 gene segment in the pandemics, variable size and pleiotropic effect of PB1F2 intrigued us to analyze amino acid sequences of this protein in various influenza A viruses. Amino acid sequences for PB1F2 protein of influenza A H5N1, H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 subtypes were obtained from Influenza Research Database. Multiple sequence alignments of the PB1F2 protein sequences of the aforementioned subtypes were used to determine the size, variable and conserved domains and to perform mutational analysis. Analysis showed that 96·4% of the H5N1 influenza viruses harbored full-length PB1F2 protein. Except for the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, all the subtypes of the 20th-century pandemic influenza viruses contained full-length PB1F2 protein. Through the years, PB1F2 protein of the H1N1 and H3N2 viruses has undergone much variation. PB1F2 protein sequences of H5N1 viruses showed both human- and avian host-specific conserved domains. Global database of PB1F2 protein revealed that N66S mutation was present only in 3·8% of the H5N1 strains. We found a novel mutation, N84S in the PB1F2 protein of 9·35% of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 influenza viruses. Varying sizes and mutations of the PB1F2 protein in different influenza A virus subtypes with pandemic potential were obtained. There was genetic divergence of the protein in various hosts which highlighted the host-specific evolution of the virus. However, studies are required to correlate this sequence variability with the virulence and pathogenicity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Global Mortality Estimates for the 2009 Influenza Pandemic from the GLaMOR Project: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Lone; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Lustig, Roger; Taylor, Robert J.; Fleming, Douglas M.; Kroneman, Madelon; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Mounts, Anthony W.; Paget, W. John

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessing the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza A H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm09) is essential for optimizing public health responses to future pandemics. The World Health Organization reported 18,631 laboratory-confirmed pandemic deaths, but the total pandemic mortality burden was substantially higher. We estimated the 2009 pandemic mortality burden through statistical modeling of mortality data from multiple countries. Methods and Findings We obtained weekly virology and underlying cause-of-death mortality time series for 2005–2009 for 20 countries covering ∼35% of the world population. We applied a multivariate linear regression model to estimate pandemic respiratory mortality in each collaborating country. We then used these results plus ten country indicators in a multiple imputation model to project the mortality burden in all world countries. Between 123,000 and 203,000 pandemic respiratory deaths were estimated globally for the last 9 mo of 2009. The majority (62%–85%) were attributed to persons under 65 y of age. We observed a striking regional heterogeneity, with almost 20-fold higher mortality in some countries in the Americas than in Europe. The model attributed 148,000–249,000 respiratory deaths to influenza in an average pre-pandemic season, with only 19% in persons mortality was ∼10-fold higher than the World Health Organization's laboratory-confirmed mortality count. Although the pandemic mortality estimate was similar in magnitude to that of seasonal influenza, a marked shift toward mortality among persons mortality and hospitalization surveillance data is needed to rapidly establish the severity of future pandemics. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24302890

  15. Possible explanations for why some countries were harder hit by the pandemic influenza virus in 2009 - a global mortality impact modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales, K.F.; Paget, J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A global pandemic mortality study found prominent regional mortality variations in 2009 for Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Our study attempts to identify factors that explain why the pandemic mortality burden was high in some countries and low in others. METHODS: As a starting point, we

  16. DNA microarray global gene expression analysis of influenza virus-infected chicken and duck cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V. Kuchipudi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article pertain to the article by Kuchipudi et al. (2014 titled “Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Chickens But Not Ducks Is Associated with Elevated Host Immune and Pro-inflammatory Responses” [1]. While infection of chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes often leads to 100% mortality within 1 to 2 days, infection of ducks in contrast causes mild or no clinical signs. The rapid onset of fatal disease in chickens, but with no evidence of severe clinical symptoms in ducks, suggests underlying differences in their innate immune mechanisms. We used Chicken Genechip microarrays (Affymetrix to analyse the gene expression profiles of primary chicken and duck lung cells infected with a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI H2N3 virus and two HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes to understand the molecular basis of host susceptibility and resistance in chickens and ducks. Here, we described the experimental design, quality control and analysis that were performed on the data set. The data are publicly available through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEOdatabase with accession number GSE33389, and the analysis and interpretation of these data are included in Kuchipudi et al. (2014 [1].

  17. Global mortality estimates for the 2009 Influenza Pandemic from the GLaMOR project: a modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Simonsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza A H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm09 is essential for optimizing public health responses to future pandemics. The World Health Organization reported 18,631 laboratory-confirmed pandemic deaths, but the total pandemic mortality burden was substantially higher. We estimated the 2009 pandemic mortality burden through statistical modeling of mortality data from multiple countries.We obtained weekly virology and underlying cause-of-death mortality time series for 2005-2009 for 20 countries covering ∼35% of the world population. We applied a multivariate linear regression model to estimate pandemic respiratory mortality in each collaborating country. We then used these results plus ten country indicators in a multiple imputation model to project the mortality burden in all world countries. Between 123,000 and 203,000 pandemic respiratory deaths were estimated globally for the last 9 mo of 2009. The majority (62%-85% were attributed to persons under 65 y of age. We observed a striking regional heterogeneity, with almost 20-fold higher mortality in some countries in the Americas than in Europe. The model attributed 148,000-249,000 respiratory deaths to influenza in an average pre-pandemic season, with only 19% in persons <65 y. Limitations include lack of representation of low-income countries among single-country estimates and an inability to study subsequent pandemic waves (2010-2012.We estimate that 2009 global pandemic respiratory mortality was ∼10-fold higher than the World Health Organization's laboratory-confirmed mortality count. Although the pandemic mortality estimate was similar in magnitude to that of seasonal influenza, a marked shift toward mortality among persons <65 y of age occurred, so that many more life-years were lost. The burden varied greatly among countries, corroborating early reports of far greater pandemic severity in the Americas than in Australia, New Zealand, and Europe. A

  18. The global condition of epidemics: Panoramas in A (H1N1) influenza and their consequences for One World One Health programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Francisco; Gómez, Andrés; Rocamora, Verónica

    2015-03-01

    Among the most relevant elements contributing to define the One World One Health programme we find epidemics. The reason is that in recent decades, infectious diseases such as HIV/SIDA, SARS and Influenza have shown that we need new approaches and concepts in order to understand how biological emergencies and health alerts deploy new scales of action. Especially relevant has been the case of A(H1N1) influenza. This reached the status of global threat virtually from its onset, triggering an international response with a diffusion, visibility and rapidity unparalleled in previous health alerts. This article maintains that this global condition cannot be explained solely by the epidemiologic characteristics of the disease, such as mortality rate, severe cases, propagation capacity, etc. Resorting to the approach proposed by the Actor-Network Theory (ANT), this paper suggests that the action of certain socio-technical operators was what built a heterogeneous network of ideas, concepts and materials that turned the A (H1N1) influenza into a global-scale phenomenon with unprecedented speed. Among these operators, the most important ones were: the speaking position, a discourse about threat, the protocols and guidelines that were used and, lastly, the maps that allowed a real-time monitoring of the influenza. The paper ends with the notion of panorama, as defined by Bruno Latour: a suggestion to describe the common denominator of the aforementioned operators, and a means to foresee the development of global scales for certain health alerts. The paper will conclude by proposing that this type of analysis would allow the One World One Health to understand with greater precision the dynamic of epidemics and thus make its principles of action much more specific as well as its definition of what global health should be. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mars approach for global sensitivity analysis of differential equation models with applications to dynamics of influenza infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonok; Wu, Hulin

    2012-01-01

    Differential equation models are widely used for the study of natural phenomena in many fields. The study usually involves unknown factors such as initial conditions and/or parameters. It is important to investigate the impact of unknown factors (parameters and initial conditions) on model outputs in order to better understand the system the model represents. Apportioning the uncertainty (variation) of output variables of a model according to the input factors is referred to as sensitivity analysis. In this paper, we focus on the global sensitivity analysis of ordinary differential equation (ODE) models over a time period using the multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS) as a meta model based on the concept of the variance of conditional expectation (VCE). We suggest to evaluate the VCE analytically using the MARS model structure of univariate tensor-product functions which is more computationally efficient. Our simulation studies show that the MARS model approach performs very well and helps to significantly reduce the computational cost. We present an application example of sensitivity analysis of ODE models for influenza infection to further illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method.

  20. How integration of global omics-data could help preparing for pandemics - a scent of influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; de Jong, Menno D.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2014-01-01

    Pandemics caused by novel emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases could lead to high mortality and morbidity world-wide when left uncontrolled. In this perspective, we evaluate the possibility of integration of global omics-data in order to timely prepare for pandemics. Such an approach requires

  1. Influenza Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Polio Whooping cough Influenza (flu) Rabies Yellow fever Influenza Photos Photographs accompanied by text that reads "Courtesy ... of these photos are quite graphic. Shows how influenza germs spread through the air when someone coughs ...

  2. New treatments for influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barik Sailen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Influenza has a long history of causing morbidity and mortality in the human population through routine seasonal spread and global pandemics. The high mutation rate of the RNA genome of the influenza virus, combined with assortment of its multiple genomic segments, promote antigenic diversity and new subtypes, allowing the virus to evade vaccines and become resistant to antiviral drugs. There is thus a continuing need for new anti-influenza therapy using novel targets and creative strategies. In this review, we summarize prospective future therapeutic regimens based on recent molecular and genomic discoveries.

  3. New treatments for influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen

    2012-09-13

    Influenza has a long history of causing morbidity and mortality in the human population through routine seasonal spread and global pandemics. The high mutation rate of the RNA genome of the influenza virus, combined with assortment of its multiple genomic segments, promote antigenic diversity and new subtypes, allowing the virus to evade vaccines and become resistant to antiviral drugs. There is thus a continuing need for new anti-influenza therapy using novel targets and creative strategies. In this review, we summarize prospective future therapeutic regimens based on recent molecular and genomic discoveries.

  4. A Phylogeny-Based Global Nomenclature System and Automated Annotation Tool for H1 Hemagglutinin Genes from Swine Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, Catherine A.; Lewis, Nicola S.; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brown, Ian H.; Swenson, Sabrina L.; Simon, Gaëlle; Saito, Takehiko; Berhane, Yohannes; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice; Pereda, Ariel; Davis, C. Todd; Donis, Ruben O.; Webby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The H1 subtype of influenza A viruses (IAVs) has been circulating in swine since the 1918 human influenza pandemic. Over time, and aided by further introductions from nonswine hosts, swine H1 viruses have diversified into three genetic lineages. Due to limited global data, these H1 lineages were named based on colloquial context, leading to a proliferation of inconsistent regional naming conventions. In this study, we propose rigorous phylogenetic criteria to establish a globally consistent nomenclature of swine H1 virus hemagglutinin (HA) evolution. These criteria applied to a data set of 7,070 H1 HA sequences led to 28 distinct clades as the basis for the nomenclature. We developed and implemented a web-accessible annotation tool that can assign these biologically informative categories to new sequence data. The annotation tool assigned the combined data set of 7,070 H1 sequences to the correct clade more than 99% of the time. Our analyses indicated that 87% of the swine H1 viruses from 2010 to the present had HAs that belonged to 7 contemporary cocirculating clades. Our nomenclature and web-accessible classification tool provide an accurate method for researchers, diagnosticians, and health officials to assign clade designations to HA sequences. The tool can be updated readily to track evolving nomenclature as new clades emerge, ensuring continued relevance. A common global nomenclature facilitates comparisons of IAVs infecting humans and pigs, within and between regions, and can provide insight into the diversity of swine H1 influenza virus and its impact on vaccine strain selection, diagnostic reagents, and test performance, thereby simplifying communication of such data. IMPORTANCE A fundamental goal in the biological sciences is the definition of groups of organisms based on evolutionary history and the naming of those groups. For influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine, understanding the hemagglutinin (HA) genetic lineage of a circulating strain aids

  5. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  6. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Reeth, Van Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie; Meulen, Van der Karen; Schlegel, Michael; Bublot, Michel; Kellam, Paul; Watson, Simon; Lewis, Nicola S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Webby, Richard; Chen, Hualan; Vincent, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs

  7. Pandemic swine influenza virus: Preparedness planning | Ojogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread was declared a pandemic strain. The introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses often result in viruses of increased fitness ...

  8. Influenza as a human disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Influenza as a human disease. Commonly perceived as a mild disease, affects every one, sometimes a couple of times in a year. Globally, seasonal influenza epidemics result in about three to five million yearly cases of severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 yearly ...

  9. Global mortality estimates for the 2009 Influenza Pandemic from the GLaMOR project: a modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonsen, L.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Lustig, R.; Taylor, R.J.; Fleming, D.M.; Kroneman, M.; Kerkhove, M.D. Van; Mounts, A.W.; Paget, W.J.; Teams, G.L.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessing the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza A H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm09) is essential for optimizing public health responses to future pandemics. The World Health Organization reported 18,631 laboratory-confirmed pandemic deaths, but the total pandemic mortality burden was

  10. Global mortality estimates for the 2009 influenza pandemic from the GLaMOR Project: a modeling study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonsen, L.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Lustig, R.; Taylor, R.J.; Fleming, D.M.; Kroneman, M.; Kerkhove, M.D. van; Mounts, A.W.; Paget, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Assessing the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza A H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm09) is essential for optimizing public health responses to future pandemics. The World Health Organization reported 18,631 laboratory-confirmed pandemic deaths, but the total pandemic mortality burden was

  11. Meningitis - H. influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. influenzae meningitis; H. flu meningitis; Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis ... H. influenzae meningitis is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria. This illness is not the same ...

  12. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  13. Emerging influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Wit (Emmie); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn 1918 the Spanish influenza pandemic, caused by an avian H1N1 virus, resulted in over 50 million deaths worldwide. Several outbreaks of H7 influenza A viruses have resulted in human cases, including one fatal case. Since 1997, the outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)

  14. Animal and human influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  15. Salud pública global: un desafío a los límites de la salud internacional a propósito de la epidemia de influenza humana A Global public health: international health is tested to its limits by the human influenza A epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Franco-Giraldo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article comes from the intense international pressure that follows a near-catastrophy, such as the human influenza A H1N1 epidemic, and the limited resources for confronting such events. The analysis covers prevailing 20th century trends in the international public health arena and the change-induced challenges brought on by globalization, the transition set in motion by what has been deemed the "new" international public health and an ever-increasing focus on global health, in the context of an international scenario of shifting risks and opportunities and a growing number of multinational players. Global public health is defined as a public right, based on a new appreciation of the public, a new paradigm centered on human rights, and altruistic philosophy, politics, and ethics that undergird the changes in international public health on at least three fronts: redefining its theoretical foundation, improving world health, and renewing the international public health system, all of which is the byproduct of a new form of governance. A new world health system, directed by new global public institutions, would aim to make public health a global public right and face a variety of staggering challenges, such as working on public policy management on a global scale, renewing and democratizing the current global governing structure, and conquering the limits and weaknesses witnessed by international health.

  16. Poliovirus Laboratory Based Surveillance: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Asghar, Humayun; Sharif, Salmaan; Alam, Muhammad Masroor

    2016-01-01

    World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1988 encouraged the member states to launch Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) (resolution WHA41.28) against "the Crippler" called poliovirus, through strong routine immunization program and intensified surveillance systems. Since its launch, global incidence of poliomyelitis has been reduced by more than 99 % and the disease squeezed to only three endemic countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) out of 125. Today, poliomyelitis is on the verge of eradication, and their etiological agents, the three poliovirus serotypes, are on the brink of extinction from the natural environment. The last case of poliomyelitis due to wild type 2 strain occurred in 1999 in Uttar Pradesh, India whereas the last paralytic case due to wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) was seen in November, 2012 in Yobe, Nigeria. Despite this progress, undetected circulation cannot fully rule out the eradication as most of the poliovirus infections are entirely subclinical; hence sophisticated environmental surveillance is needed to ensure the complete eradication of virus. Moreover, the vaccine virus in under-immunized communities can sometimes revert and attain wild type characteristics posing a big challenge to the program.

  17. Influenza surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bednarska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method of fighting the virus, one of the major tasks of GISRS is developing an optimal antigenic composition of the vaccine for the current epidemic season. European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN has also developed over the years. EISN is running integrated epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance, to provide appropriate data to public health experts in member countries, to enable them undertaking relevant activities based on the current information about influenza activity. In close cooperation with GISRS and EISN are National Influenza Centres - national institutions designated by the Ministry of Health in each country.

  18. Bestrijding van aviaire influenza onder pluimvee: vaccinatie als aanvullende mogelijkheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarle, P van; Breytenbach, J; Schueller, S

    2006-01-01

    Since mid-December 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has caused an epidemic in the Asian poultry sector and avian influenza cases have been reported in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Human fatalities catapulted avian influenza into the public arena with fears of a possible global

  19. Influenza (Flu) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza (Flu) Viruses Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... influenza circulate and cause illness. More Information about Flu Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses Influenza A and ...

  20. Chalcones as novel influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza inflata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Nguyen, Phi Hung; Lee, Hong Sik

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of highly pathogenic influenza A virus strains, such as the new H1N1 swine influenza (novel influenza), represents a serious threat to global human health. During our course of an anti-influenza screening program on natural products, one new licochalcone G (1) and seven known (2-8) ...

  1. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  2. Virulence determinants of pandemic influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscherne, Donna M.; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause recurrent, seasonal epidemics and occasional global pandemics with devastating levels of morbidity and mortality. The ability of influenza A viruses to adapt to various hosts and undergo reassortment events ensures constant generation of new strains with unpredictable degrees of pathogenicity, transmissibility, and pandemic potential. Currently, the combination of factors that drives the emergence of pandemic influenza is unclear, making it impossible to foresee the details of a future outbreak. Identification and characterization of influenza A virus virulence determinants may provide insight into genotypic signatures of pathogenicity as well as a more thorough understanding of the factors that give rise to pandemics. PMID:21206092

  3. Concordance of programmatic and laboratory-based multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, E R; Podewils, L J; Mitnick, C D; Becerra, M C; Laserson, K F; Bonilla, C

    2012-01-01

    Confirmation of cure for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients requires laboratory tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth on culture media. Outcome decisions dictate patient management, and inaccuracies place patients at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and may contribute to continued transmission of MDR-TB. To examine concordance between programmatic and laboratory-based MDR-TB treatment outcomes. The study population included 1658 MDR-TB patients in Peru treated between 1996 and 2002 with both program and laboratory-based outcomes. Laboratory-based outcomes were assigned according to international standards requiring at least five consecutive negative cultures in the last 12 months of treatment to confirm cure. Compared to the global culture-defined standard classification, only 1.1% of treatment successes, but 54.3% of failures, were misclassified programmatically. Overall, 10.4% of patients identified by a clinician as having a successful treatment outcome still had cultures positive for MDR-TB. Most patients with successful treatment outcomes by strict culture definitions were also classified by clinicians as having successful outcomes. However, many culture-confirmed failures were missed. In light of delays and incomplete access to culture in MDR-TB programs, efforts should be made to improve the accuracy of programmatically determined treatment outcomes.

  4. Avian Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur.

  5. Avian Influenza Pandemic May Expand the Military Role in Disaster Relief

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherod, II, Frank W

    2006-01-01

    .... The next national disaster facing the U.S. could be an influenza pandemic. The bird flu virus H5N1 currently threatening Asia and Europe can potentially mutate into a deadly human influenza pandemic with global consequences...

  6. [An overview on swine influenza viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Zhu, Wen-Fei; Shu, Yue-Long

    2013-05-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory pathogens of pigs. They cause both economic bur den in livestock-dependent industries and serious global public health concerns in humans. Because of their dual susceptibility to human and avian influenza viruses, pigs are recognized as intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 circulate in swine populations around the world, with varied origin and genetic characteristics among different continents and regions. In this review, the role of pigs in evolution of influenza A viruses, the genetic evolution of SIVs and interspecies transmission of SIVs are described. Considering the possibility that pigs might produce novel influenza viruses causing more outbreaks and pandemics, routine epidemiological surveillance of influenza viruses in pig populations is highly recommended.

  7. Underdiagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection in Hospitalized Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Lauren; Zhu, Yuwei; Edwards, Kathryn M; Griffin, Marie R; Talbot, H Keipp

    2018-03-01

    To describe factors associated with provider-ordered influenza testing in hospitalized older adults. Information on participant demographics, symptoms, and provider-ordered influenza testing were collected by questionnaire and chart review. We conducted prospective laboratory-based surveillance using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the criterion standard for diagnosis of influenza, to determine how participant characteristics and provider-ordered testing affected accurate influenza diagnosis. One academic and three community hospitals in Davidson County, Tennessee. Adults aged 18 and older with acute respiratory illness or nonlocalizing fever (N=1,422). We compared characteristics of participants with and without provider-ordered testing for influenza using the Wilcoxon test and Pearson chi-square test. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify factors predictive of provider-ordered influenza testing. Twenty-eight percent (399/1,422) of participants had provider-ordered influenza testing. Participants who were tested were younger than those not tested (58 ± 18 vs 66 ± 15, p<.001) and more likely to have influenza-like illness (ILI) (71% vs 49%, p<.001). ILI decreased with increasing age (aged 18-49, 63%; aged 50-64, 60%; aged ≥65, 48%). ILI and younger age were independent predictors of provider-ordered testing. Of the 136 participants with influenza confirmed using RT-PCR, ILI was the only significant predictor of provider-ordered testing (adjusted odds ratio=3.43, 95% confidence interval=1.22-9.70). Adults aged 65 and older hospitalized with fever or respiratory symptoms during influenza season are less likely to undergo a provider-ordered influenza test than younger adults. Some, but not all, of this disparity is due to a lower likelihood of ILI. Further strategies are needed to increase clinician awareness and testing in this vulnerable group. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018

  8. Lessons learned from the global surveillance of pandemic influenza, the different communication strategies and the impact on Europe’s public health response.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, J. van der; Paget, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    After the first case of Mexican flu was reported in early spring 2009, a wave of reported cases went quickly through the (scientific) media. Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) activity was reported in all continents, but most countries were affected during summer 2009 in Latin America, Oceania and Asia,

  9. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  10. Pandemisk influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom; Almlund, Pernille

    danske myndigheder kommunikerede åbent og løbende om influenza-krisen og dens trusler. Indsatsen blev anerkendt fra alle sider og førte på intet tidspunkt til alvorlig og længerevarende kritik af myndighederne. Der var tale om en tilfredsstillende krisehåndtering, hvad angår den del, der fokuserede på...... kommunikation om denne tog en drejning i forhold til selve influenza-krisen. Myndighedernes kommunikation blev mere uklar, forvirringen voksede i befolkningen, og der blev rejst kritik i offentligheden. Forløbet rejser spørgsmålene om, den samlede håndtering af kommunikationsindsatsen kunne have været mere...

  11. Avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bicout, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Previous introductions of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) to the EU were most likely via migratory wild birds. A mathematical model has been developed which indicated that virus amplification and spread may take place when wild bird populations of sufficient size within EU become ...... of implementing specific biosecurity measures on reducing the probability of AIV entering into a poultry holding. Human diligence is pivotal to select, implement and maintain specific, effective biosecurity measures....

  12. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  13. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  14. Mathematical Assessment of Canada’s Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abba B Gumel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The presence of the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus in wild bird populations in several regions of the world, together with recurrent cases of H5N1 influenza arising primarily from direct contact with poultry, have highlighted the urgent need for prepared-ness and coordinated global strategies to effectively combat a potential influenza pandemic. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the Canadian pandemic influenza preparedness plan.

  15. Safety of influenza vaccination in children with allergic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hyeon-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Global guidelines strongly recommend annual influenza vaccination in people age 6 months and older, particularly in asthmatic children. There is no doubt about the benefit of influenza vaccination in asthmatic children. However, some of the vaccine's components may elicit an IgE mediated hypersensitivity or disease exacerbation, including life-threatening events, in children with allergic diseases. As a result, concerns regarding the safety of the vaccine still continue today. The influenza v...

  16. Strengthening the influenza vaccine virus selection and development process: Report of the 3rd WHO Informal Consultation for Improving Influenza Vaccine Virus Selection held at WHO headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland, 1-3 April 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ampofo, W.K.; Azziz-Baumgartner, E.; Bashir, U.; Cox, N.J.; Fasce, R.; Giovanni, M.; Grohmann, G.; Huang, S.; Katz, J.; Mironenko, A.; Mokhtari-Azad, T.; Sasono, P.M.; Rahman, M.; Sawanpanyalert, P.; Siqueira, M.; Waddell, A.L.; Waiboci, L.; Wood, J.; Zhang, W.; Ziegler, T.; Paget, W.J.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    Despite long-recognized challenges and constraints associated with their updating and manufacture, influenza vaccines remain at the heart of public health preparedness and response efforts against both seasonal and potentially pandemic influenza viruses. Globally coordinated virological and

  17. What happened after the initial global spread of pandemic human influenza virus A (H1N1? A population genetics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Hernandez Fernando

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral population evolution dynamics of influenza A is crucial for surveillance and control. In this paper we analyzed viral genetic features during the recent pandemic caused by the new influenza human virus A H1N1, using a conventional population genetics approach based on 4689 hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA sequences available in GenBank submitted between March and December of 2009. This analysis showed several relevant aspects: a a scarce initial genetic variability within the viral isolates from some countries that increased along 2009 when influenza was dispersed around the world; b a worldwide virus polarized behavior identified when comparing paired countries, low differentiation and high gene flow were found in some pairs and high differentiation and moderate or scarce gene flow in others, independently of their geographical closeness, c lack of positive selection in HA and NA due to increase of the population size of virus variants, d HA and NA variants spread in a few months all over the world being identified in the same countries in different months along 2009, and e containment of viral variants in Mexico at the beginning of the outbreak, probably due to the control measures applied by the government.

  18. Reduction in the incidence of influenza A but not influenza B associated with use of hand sanitizer and cough hygiene in schools: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Samuel; Cummings, Derek A T; Stark, James H; Vukotich, Chuck; Mitruka, Kiren; Thompson, William; Rinaldo, Charles; Roth, Loren; Wagner, Michael; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Dato, Virginia; Eng, Heather; Burke, Donald S

    2011-11-01

    Laboratory-based evidence is lacking regarding the efficacy of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as alcohol-based hand sanitizer and respiratory hygiene to reduce the spread of influenza. The Pittsburgh Influenza Prevention Project was a cluster-randomized trial conducted in 10 elementary schools in Pittsburgh, PA, during the 2007 to 2008 influenza season. Children in 5 intervention schools received training in hand and respiratory hygiene, and were provided and encouraged to use hand sanitizer regularly. Children in 5 schools acted as controls. Children with influenza-like illness were tested for influenza A and B by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. A total of 3360 children participated in this study. Using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, 54 cases of influenza A and 50 cases of influenza B were detected. We found no significant effect of the intervention on the primary study outcome of all laboratory-confirmed influenza cases (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54, 1.23). However, we did find statistically significant differences in protocol-specified ancillary outcomes. Children in intervention schools had significantly fewer laboratory-confirmed influenza A infections than children in control schools, with an adjusted IRR of 0.48 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.87). Total absent episodes were also significantly lower among the intervention group than among the control group; adjusted IRR 0.74 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.97). NPIs (respiratory hygiene education and the regular use of hand sanitizer) did not reduce total laboratory-confirmed influenza. However, the interventions did reduce school total absence episodes by 26% and laboratory-confirmed influenza A infections by 52%. Our results suggest that NPIs can be an important adjunct to influenza vaccination programs to reduce the number of influenza A infections among children.

  19. Reduction in the Incidence of Influenza A but Not Influenza B Associated with Use of Hand Sanitizer and Cough Hygiene in Schools: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEBBINS, SAMUEL; CUMMINGS, DEREK A.T.; STARK, JAMES H.; VUKOTICH, CHUCK; MITRUKA, KIREN; THOMPSON, WILLIAM; RINALDO, CHARLES; ROTH, LOREN; WAGNER, MICHAEL; WISNIEWSKI, STEPHEN R.; DATO, VIRGINIA; ENG, HEATHER; BURKE, DONALD S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Laboratory-based evidence is lacking regarding the efficacy of non-pharmaceutical interventions such as alcohol-based hand sanitizer and respiratory hygiene to reduce the spread of influenza. Methods The Pittsburgh Influenza Prevention Project was a cluster-randomized trial conducted in ten Pittsburgh, PA elementary schools during the 2007-2008 influenza season. Children in five intervention schools received training in hand and respiratory hygiene, and were provided and encouraged to use hand sanitizer regularly. Children in five schools acted as controls. Children with influenza-like illness were tested for influenza A and B by RT-PCR. Results 3360 children participated. Using RT-PCR, 54 cases of influenza A and 50 cases of influenza B were detected. We found no significant effect of the intervention on the primary study outcome of all laboratory confirmed influenza cases (IRR 0.81 95% CI 0.54, 1.23). However, we did find statistically significant differences in protocol-specified ancillary outcomes. Children in intervention schools had significantly fewer laboratory-confirmed influenza A infections than children in control schools, with an adjusted IRR of 0.48 (95% CI 0.26, 0.87). Total absent episodes were also significantly lower among the intervention group than among the control group; adjusted IRR 0.74 (95% CI 0.56, 0.97). Conclusions Non-pharmaceutical interventions (respiratory hygiene education and the regular use of hand sanitizer) did not reduce total laboratory confirmed influenza. However the interventions did reduce school total absence episodes by 26% and laboratory-confirmed influenza A infections by 52%. Our results suggest that NPIs can be an important adjunct to influenza vaccination programs to reduce the number of influenza A infections among children. PMID:21691245

  20. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of avian influenza epidemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanhong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza is a zoonotic disease caused by the transmission of the avian influenza A virus, such as H5N1 and H7N9, from birds to humans. The avian influenza A H5N1 virus has caused more than 500 human infections worldwide with nearly a 60% death rate since it was first reported in Hong Kong in 1997. The four outbreaks of the avian influenza A H7N9 in China from March 2013 to June 2016 have resulted in 580 human cases including 202 deaths with a death rate of nearly 35%. In this paper, we construct two avian influenza bird-to-human transmission models with different growth laws of the avian population, one with logistic growth and the other with Allee effect, and analyze their dynamical behavior. We obtain a threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza and investigate the local or global asymptotical stability of each equilibrium of these systems by using linear analysis technique or combining Liapunov function method and LaSalle's invariance principle, respectively. Moreover, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of periodic solutions in the avian influenza system with Allee effect of the avian population. Numerical simulations are also presented to illustrate the theoretical results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic Reassortment Among the Influenza Viruses (Avian Influenza, Human Influenza and Swine Influenza in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a hazardous virus and harm to respiratory tract. The virus infect birds, pigs, horses, dogs, mammals and humans. Pigs are important hosts in ecology of the influenza virus because they have two receptors, namely NeuAc 2,3Gal and NeuAc 2,6Gal which make the pigs are sensitive to infection of influenza virus from birds and humans and genetic reassortment can be occurred. Classical swine influenza H1N1 viruses had been circulated in pigs in North America and other countries for 80 years. In 1998, triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza viruses that contains genes of human influenza A virus (H3N2, swine influenza virus (H1N1 and avian influenza are reported as cause an outbreaks in pigs in North America. Furthermore, the circulation of triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus resulting reassortant H1N1 swine influenza and reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses cause infection in humans. Humans who were infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A virus (H1N1 usually made direct contact with pigs. Although without any clinical symptoms, pigs that are infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A (H1N1 can transmit infection to the humans around them. In June 2009, WHO declared that pandemic influenza of reassortant H1N1 influenza A virus (novel H1N1 has reached phase 6. In Indonesia until 2009, there were 1005 people were infected by H1N1 influenza A and 5 of them died. Novel H1N1 and H5N1 viruses have been circulated in humans and pigs in Indonesia. H5N1 reassortant and H1N1 viruses or the seasonal flu may could arise because of genetic reassortment between avian influenza and humans influenza viruses that infect pigs together.

  3. Secondary Bacterial Infections Associated with Influenza Pandemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Denise E.; Cleary, David W.; Clarke, Stuart C.

    2017-01-01

    Lower and upper respiratory infections are the fourth highest cause of global mortality (Lozano et al., 2012). Epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of respiratory infection are a major medical concern, often causing considerable disease and a high death toll, typically over a relatively short period of time. Influenza is a major cause of epidemic and pandemic infection. Bacterial co/secondary infection further increases morbidity and mortality of influenza infection, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus reported as the most common causes. With increased antibiotic resistance and vaccine evasion it is important to monitor the epidemiology of pathogens in circulation to inform clinical treatment and development, particularly in the setting of an influenza epidemic/pandemic. PMID:28690590

  4. Secondary Bacterial Infections Associated with Influenza Pandemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise E. Morris

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower and upper respiratory infections are the fourth highest cause of global mortality (Lozano et al., 2012. Epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of respiratory infection are a major medical concern, often causing considerable disease and a high death toll, typically over a relatively short period of time. Influenza is a major cause of epidemic and pandemic infection. Bacterial co/secondary infection further increases morbidity and mortality of influenza infection, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus reported as the most common causes. With increased antibiotic resistance and vaccine evasion it is important to monitor the epidemiology of pathogens in circulation to inform clinical treatment and development, particularly in the setting of an influenza epidemic/pandemic.

  5. Clinical and microbiological features of Haemophilus influenzae vulvovaginitis in young girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, R A; Slack, M P E

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To define the clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls whose genital swabs yielded Haemophilus influenzae. Methods: Laboratory based study and retrospective collection of clinical data from the requesting doctors. Results: Thirty eight isolates of non-capsulate Haemophilus influenzae and one of H parainfluenzae were isolated from 32 girls aged 18 months to 11 years. No other pathogens, such as β haemolytic streptococci or yeasts, were present with H influenzae. The most common biotype was biotype II, comprising 57% of the 26 isolates biotyped. Six children had more than one episode of vulvovaginitis caused by H influenzae and a total of 14 children had recurrent vaginal symptoms. Conclusion: Children who have H influenzae vulvovaginitis are at risk of recurrent symptoms. Biotype II is the one most commonly associated with this condition. PMID:12461068

  6. Prevalence of Influenza A (H1N1) Sero positivity in Unvaccinated Health care Workers in Scotland at the Height of the Global Pandemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.; Katikireddi, S.V.; Mackenzie, D.G.; Warner, P.; Williams, L.J.; Adamson, W.E.; Carman, W.F.; Dewart, P.; Templeton, K.; Denison, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background. We set out to identify the level of previous exposure to influenza A (H1N1) in unvaccinated health care workers (HCWs) at the peak of the pandemic outbreak in the UK, with control samples collected prior to the outbreak. Methods. Cross-sectional study (sero prevalence assessed before and at pandemic peak, with questionnaire data collected at peak of outbreak) in HCWs in Scotland. Results. The prevalence of sero positivity in 493 HCWs at pandemic peak was 10.3%, which was higher than the pre pandemic level by 3.7 percentage points (95% CI 0.3% to 7.3%, P=0.048). Sero positivity rates for front line and non front line HCWs were similar. Conclusion. At pandemic peak, only 10.3% of HCWs were seropositive for influenza A (H1N1), so the great majority were still susceptible to infection at the introduction of the vaccination programme. Few studies have reported on sero prevalence in unvaccinated and asymptomatic participants, so our findings may have relevance to the wider population

  7. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Avian Influenza Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  8. Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions of radiometric tarps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of radiometric tarp samples used in the vicarious calibration of Earth remote sensing satellite instruments are presented in this paper. The results illustrate the BRDF dependence on the orientation of the tarps' weft and warp threads. The study was performed using the GSFC scatterometer at incident zenith angles of 0 deg., 10 deg., and 30 deg.; scatter zenith angles from 0 deg. to 60 deg.; and scatter azimuth angles of 0 deg., 45 deg., 90 deg., 135 deg., and 180 deg.. The wavelengths were 485 nm, 550 nm, 633 nm, and 800 nm. The tarp's weft and warp dependence on BRDF is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. The BRDF difference can be as high as 8% at 0 deg. incident angle and 12% at 30 deg. incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps are reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well-pronounced forward scatter. The provided BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps is an excellent reference for anyone interested in using tarps for radiometric calibrations. The results are NIST traceable

  9. Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions of radiometric tarps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T; Butler, James J

    2008-06-20

    Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of radiometric tarp samples used in the vicarious calibration of Earth remote sensing satellite instruments are presented in this paper. The results illustrate the BRDF dependence on the orientation of the tarps' weft and warp threads. The study was performed using the GSFC scatterometer at incident zenith angles of 0 degrees, 10 degrees, and 30 degrees; scatter zenith angles from 0 degrees to 60 degrees; and scatter azimuth angles of 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, 135 degrees, and 180 degrees. The wavelengths were 485 nm, 550 nm, 633 nm, and 800 nm. The tarp's weft and warp dependence on BRDF is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. The BRDF difference can be as high as 8% at 0 degrees incident angle and 12% at 30 degrees incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps are reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well-pronounced forward scatter. The provided BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps is an excellent reference for anyone interested in using tarps for radiometric calibrations. The results are NIST traceable.

  10. Laboratory-Based BRDF Calibration of Radiometric Tarps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study provides the remote sensing community with important high accuracy laboratory-based BRDF calibration of radiometric tarps. The results illustrate the dependence of tarps' weft and warp threads orientation on BRDF. The study was done at incident angles of 0deg, 10deg, and 30deg; scatter zenith angles from 0deg to 60deg, and scatter azimuth angles of 0deg, 45deg, 90deg, 135deg, and 180deg. The wavelengths were 485nm, 550nm, 633nm and 800nm. The dependence is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. It can be as high as 8% at 0deg incident angle and 2% at 30deg incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps is reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well pronounced forward scatter. The BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps can be successfully extended to other structured surface fabric samples. The results are NIST traceable.

  11. Within-Host Evolution of Human Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Katherine S; Moncla, Louise H; Bedford, Trevor; Bloom, Jesse D

    2018-03-10

    The rapid global evolution of influenza virus begins with mutations that arise de novo in individual infections, but little is known about how evolution occurs within hosts. We review recent progress in understanding how and why influenza viruses evolve within human hosts. Advances in deep sequencing make it possible to measure within-host genetic diversity in both acute and chronic influenza infections. Factors like antigenic selection, antiviral treatment, tissue specificity, spatial structure, and multiplicity of infection may affect how influenza viruses evolve within human hosts. Studies of within-host evolution can contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary and epidemiological factors that shape influenza virus's global evolution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  13. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  14. Advances in influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza virus infections yearly cause high morbidity and mortality burdens in humans, and the development of a new influenza pandemic continues to threaten mankind as a Damoclean sword. Influenza vaccines have been produced by using egg-based virus growth and passaging techniques that

  15. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu (avian influenza) Overview Bird flu is caused by a type of influenza virus that rarely infects humans. More than a ... for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that seasonal influenza is responsible for ... heat destroys avian viruses, cooked poultry isn't a health threat. ...

  16. I costi dell’influenza in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lucioni

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The influenza is an acute viral infection that strikes respiratory tract and its diffusion is characteristic of epidemic and pandemic reoccurence. Globally the influenza represents, for the entity of its social impact (measurable in terms of morbility, hospitalization and mortality, a heavy healt care problem. In Italy the estimated incidence is 10-15%: the influenza is the third death cause for infectiuos disease, after AIDS and tubercolosis. This study is based on the Studio 606, the first italian study that allow us to pass from the presumptive phase to the observational one. The Studio 606 has been projected and realized by the Società Italiana di Medicina Generale (SIMG, involving about 200 general practitioners (MMG in two sample region, Lombardia and Puglia. The study has been developed between December the 15th, 1998 and March the 15th, 1999. The influenza causes especially indirect costs: most of people affected with influenza doesn’t go to work for about five days and these absences create an average cost per capita of £558.000. This indirect cost represents 87% of total average cost of one single influenza event.

  17. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Port Shepstone, South Africa. Introduction. Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 'swine flu' variant is currently a global pandemic.1 The infection associated with this virus is usually a mild, self-limiting illness. However, it may progress to severe pneumonia requiring intensive care unit (ICU) therapy in 31% of patients.2 This may.

  18. Increasing Scientific Literacy about Global Climate Change through a Laboratory-Based Feminist Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Linda A.; Brenner, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    The authors have developed and implemented a novel general education science course that examines scientific knowledge, laboratory experimentation, and science-related public policy through the lens of feminist science studies. They argue that this approach to teaching general science education is useful for improving science literacy. Goals for…

  19. The evolving history of influenza viruses and influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoun, Claude

    2013-09-01

    The isolation of influenza virus 80 years ago in 1933 very quickly led to the development of the first generation of live-attenuated vaccines. The first inactivated influenza vaccine was monovalent (influenza A). In 1942, a bivalent vaccine was produced after the discovery of influenza B. It was later discovered that influenza viruses mutated leading to antigenic changes. Since 1973, the WHO has issued annual recommendations for the composition of the influenza vaccine based on results from surveillance systems that identify currently circulating strains. In 1978, the first trivalent vaccine included two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain. Currently, there are two influenza B lineages circulating; in the latest WHO recommendations, it is suggested that a second B strain could be added to give a quadrivalent vaccine. The history of influenza vaccine and the associated technology shows how the vaccine has evolved to match the evolution of influenza viruses.

  20. Continental synchronicity of human influenza virus epidemics despite climactic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Jemma L; Saavedra, Aldo F; Duchêne, Sebastián; Sullivan, Sheena; Barr, Ian; Holmes, Edward C

    2018-01-01

    The factors that determine the pattern and rate of spread of influenza virus at a continental-scale are uncertain. Although recent work suggests that influenza epidemics in the United States exhibit a strong geographical correlation, the spatiotemporal dynamics of influenza in Australia, a country and continent of approximately similar size and climate complexity but with a far smaller population, are not known. Using a unique combination of large-scale laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance comprising >450,000 entries and genomic sequence data we determined the local-level spatial diffusion of this important human pathogen nationwide in Australia. We used laboratory-confirmed influenza data to characterize the spread of influenza virus across Australia during 2007-2016. The onset of established epidemics varied across seasons, with highly synchronized epidemics coinciding with the emergence of antigenically distinct viruses, particularly during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. The onset of epidemics was largely synchronized between the most populous cities, even those separated by distances of >3000 km and those that experience vastly diverse climates. In addition, by analyzing global phylogeographic patterns we show that the synchronized dissemination of influenza across Australian cities involved multiple introductions from the global influenza population, coupled with strong domestic connectivity, rather than through the distinct radial patterns of geographic dispersal that are driven by work-flow transmission as observed in the United States. In addition, by comparing the spatial structure of influenza A and B, we found that these viruses tended to occupy different geographic regions, and peak in different seasons, perhaps indicative of moderate cross-protective immunity or viral interference effects. The highly synchronized outbreaks of influenza virus at a continental-scale revealed here highlight the importance of coordinated public health responses in the

  1. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)5 ameliorates influenza infection via inhibition of EGFR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, Lukasz; Tate, Michelle D; Hsu, Alan C; Kolesnik, Tatiana B; Linossi, Edmond M; Dagley, Laura; Dong, Zhaoguang; Freeman, Sarah; Infusini, Giuseppe; Starkey, Malcolm R; Bird, Nicola L; Chatfield, Simon M; Babon, Jeffrey J; Huntington, Nicholas; Belz, Gabrielle; Webb, Andrew; Wark, Peter Ab; Nicola, Nicos A; Xu, Jianqing; Kedzierska, Katherine; Hansbro, Philip M; Nicholson, Sandra E

    2017-02-14

    Influenza virus infections have a significant impact on global human health. Individuals with suppressed immunity, or suffering from chronic inflammatory conditions such as COPD, are particularly susceptible to influenza. Here we show that suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) five has a pivotal role in restricting influenza A virus in the airway epithelium, through the regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Socs5 -deficient mice exhibit heightened disease severity, with increased viral titres and weight loss. Socs5 levels were differentially regulated in response to distinct influenza viruses (H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and H11N9) and were reduced in primary epithelial cells from COPD patients, again correlating with increased susceptibility to influenza. Importantly, restoration of SOCS5 levels restricted influenza virus infection, suggesting that manipulating SOCS5 expression and/or SOCS5 targets might be a novel therapeutic approach to influenza.

  2. Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A.; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F.; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A.; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C.; Smith, Derek J.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Summary Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited higher pathogenicity in mice and ferrets than an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

  3. Influenza seasonality in Madagascar: the mysterious African free-runner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Wladimir Jimenez; Guillebaud, Julia; Viboud, Cecile; Razanajatovo, Norosoa Harline; Orelle, Arnaud; Zhou, Steven Zhixiang; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2015-05-01

    The seasonal drivers of influenza activity remain debated in tropical settings where epidemics are not clearly phased. Antananarivo is a particularly interesting case study because it is in Madagascar, an island situated in the tropics and with quantifiable connectivity levels to other countries. We aimed at disentangling the role of environmental forcing and population fluxes on influenza seasonality in Madagascar. We compiled weekly counts of laboratory-confirmed influenza-positive specimens for the period 2002 to 2012 collected in Antananarivo, with data available from sub-Saharan countries and countries contributing most foreign travelers to Madagascar. Daily climate indicators were compiled for the study period. Overall, influenza activity detected in Antananarivo predated that identified in temperate Northern Hemisphere locations. This activity presented poor temporal matching with viral activity in other countries from the African continent or countries highly connected to Madagascar excepted for A(H1N1)pdm09. Influenza detection in Antananarivo was not associated with travel activity and, although it was positively correlated with all climatic variables studied, such association was weak. The timing of influenza activity in Antananarivo is irregular, is not driven by climate, and does not align with that of countries in geographic proximity or highly connected to Madagascar. This work opens fresh questions regarding the drivers of influenza seasonality globally particularly in mid-latitude and less-connected regions to tailor vaccine strategies locally. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Pacific region influenza surveillance for oseltamivir resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Heather B; Gose, Remedios B; Nagata, Mark T; Sciulli, Rebecca H; Whelen, A Christian

    2012-05-01

    Hawaii and the United States-affiliated Pacific islands (USAPI) host over 8 million travelers annually, most of whom originate in Asia, Australia, and the Americas where prevalence of oseltamivir resistance in 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) has been reported to be 2.5-3.5%. To survey a collection of samples from Hawaii and the USAPI that had tested positive for the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus by RTI-PCR to assess whether antiviral resistance emerged in these island communities during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We examined RNA extracted from Hawaiian and USAPI cases for the neuraminidase H275Y mutation associated with oseltamivir resistance by pyrosequencing. Two hundred and sixty-three (263) 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) positive specimens were tested and 263/263 (100%) were shown to lack the mutation most commonly associated with oseltamivir resistance. There was no evidence of oseltamivir resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 virus during the 2009 pandemic in the Pacific islands despite considerable travel exposure. Geographic isolation, the lack of a "second wave" of pandemic influenza, judicious antiviral use, aggressive vaccination, and below average tourism due to the global economic crisis may have been contributing factors. Continued surveillance and vigilance is necessary to monitor unpredictable influenza activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influenza vaccinations of health care personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Nitsch-Osuch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is one of the most common respiratory diseases affecting people of all age groups all over the world. Seasonal influenza leads to substantial morbidity and mortality on a global scale. Vaccines are undeniably one of the most important health advances of the past century, however, managing influenza in working populations remains a difficult issue. Vaccination of health care workers (HCW is an efficient way to reduce the risk of occupational infection and to prevent nosocomial transmission to vulnerable patients. Despite this, achieving high immunization rates among those professionals is a challenge. Knowledge and attitudes of healthcare providers have significant impact on the frequency with which vaccines are offered and accepted, but many HCWs are poorly equipped to make informed recommendations about vaccine merits and risks. Principal reasons for vaccination are the willing not to be infected and avoiding transmission to patients and the family. The main reasons for refusing is lack of time, a feeling of invulnerability to vaccination, conviction of not being at risk, of being too young or in good health. Misconceptions about influenza vaccine efficacy, like adverse effects, and fear of contracting illness from the vaccine are significantly associated with noncompliance with vaccination. Therefore, strategies to increase awareness of the importance of recommending influenza immunization among health professionals are required. Med Pr 2013;64(1:119–129

  6. Framing risk in pandemic influenza policy and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetoh, Theresa; Liverani, Marco; Coker, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article explores differing understandings of 'risk' in relation to pandemic influenza policy and control. After a preliminary overview of methodological and practical problems in risk analysis, ways in which risk was framed and managed in three historical cases were examined. The interdependence between scientific empiricism and political decision-making led to the mismanagement of the 1976 swine influenza scare in the USA. The 2004 H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in Thailand, on the other hand, was undermined by questions of national economic interest and concerns over global health security. Finally, the recent global emergency of pandemic influenza H1N1 in 2009 demonstrated the difficulties of risk management under a context of pre-established perceptions about the characteristics and inevitability of a pandemic. Following the analysis of these cases, a conceptual framework is presented to illustrate ways in which changing relationships between risk assessment, risk perception and risk management can result in differing policy strategies.

  7. Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Laurel Yong-Hwa; Anh, Ha Do Lien; Simmons, Cameron; de Jong, Menno D.; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Schumacher, Reto; Peng, Yan Chun; McMichael, Andrew J.; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Smith, Geoffrey L.; Townsend, Alain R. M.; Askonas, Brigitte A.; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Dong, Tao

    2008-01-01

    The threat of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans remains a global health concern. Current influenza vaccines stimulate antibody responses against the surface glycoproteins but are ineffective against strains that have undergone significant antigenic variation. An alternative approach is to

  8. Influenza A Subtyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Karen L.; Mangold, Kathy A.; Du, Hongyan; Pesavento, Kristen M.; Nawrocki, John; Nowak, Jan A.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza virus subtyping has emerged as a critical tool in the diagnosis of influenza. Antiviral resistance is present in the majority of seasonal H1N1 influenza A infections, with association of viral strain type and antiviral resistance. Influenza A virus subtypes can be reliably distinguished by examining conserved sequences in the matrix protein gene. We describe our experience with an assay for influenza A subtyping based on matrix gene sequences. Viral RNA was prepared from nasopharyngeal swab samples, and real-time RT-PCR detection of influenza A and B was performed using a laboratory developed analyte-specific reagent-based assay that targets a conserved region of the influenza A matrix protein gene. FluA-positive samples were analyzed using a second RT-PCR assay targeting the matrix protein gene to distinguish seasonal influenza subtypes based on differential melting of fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes. The novel H1N1 influenza strain responsible for the 2009 pandemic showed a melting profile distinct from that of seasonal H1N1 or H3N2 and compatible with the predicted melting temperature based on the published novel H1N1 matrix gene sequence. Validation by comparison with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention real-time RT-PCR for swine influenza A (novel H1N1) test showed this assay to be both rapid and reliable (>99% sensitive and specific) in the identification of the novel H1N1 influenza A virus strain. PMID:20595627

  9. Outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bal Ram; Shakya, Geeta; Upadhyay, Bishnu Prasad; Prakash Kc, Khagendra; Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Dhungana, Guna Raj

    2011-03-23

    The 2009 flu pandemic is a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 has posed a serious public health challenge world-wide. Nepal has started Laboratory diagnosis of Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 from mid June 2009 though active screening of febrile travellers with respiratory symptoms was started from April 27, 2009. Out of 609 collected samples, 302 (49.6%) were Universal Influenza A positive. Among the influenza A positive samples, 172(28.3%) were positive for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and 130 (21.3%) were Seasonal influenza A. Most of the pandemic cases (53%) were found among young people with ≤ 20 years. Case Fatality Ratio for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in Nepal was 1.74%. Upon Molecular characterization, all the isolated pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel influenza A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1)v type. The Pandemic 2009 influenza virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1)v type.

  10. Outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Sirjana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2009 flu pandemic is a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 has posed a serious public health challenge world-wide. Nepal has started Laboratory diagnosis of Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 from mid June 2009 though active screening of febrile travellers with respiratory symptoms was started from April 27, 2009. Results Out of 609 collected samples, 302 (49.6% were Universal Influenza A positive. Among the influenza A positive samples, 172(28.3% were positive for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and 130 (21.3% were Seasonal influenza A. Most of the pandemic cases (53% were found among young people with ≤ 20 years. Case Fatality Ratio for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in Nepal was 1.74%. Upon Molecular characterization, all the isolated pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel influenza A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1v type. Conclusion The Pandemic 2009 influenza virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1v type.

  11. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  12. Seasonal Influenza: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity…

  13. ADULT INFLUENZA VACCINATION GUIDELINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infections with the influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are associated with ... .well as the potential benefit and the safety of the vaccine ..... 4.6 Antiviral agents for influenza A2 ... persons who are to travel to other areas, e.g. northern.

  14. Combination Chemotherapy for Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Webster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in April 2009 and the continuous evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses underscore the urgency of novel approaches to chemotherapy for human influenza infection. Anti-influenza drugs are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir and to M2 ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine, although resistance to the latter class develops rapidly. Potential targets for the development of new anti-influenza agents include the viral polymerase (and endonuclease, the hemagglutinin, and the non-structural protein NS1. The limitations of monotherapy and the emergence of drug-resistant variants make combination chemotherapy the logical therapeutic option. Here we review the experimental data on combination chemotherapy with currently available agents and the development of new agents and therapy targets.

  15. Global patterns in seasonal activity of influenza A/H3N2, A/H1N1, and B from 1997 to 2005: viral coexistence and latitudinal gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Finkelman

    Full Text Available Despite a mass of research on the epidemiology of seasonal influenza, overall patterns of infection have not been fully described on broad geographic scales and for specific types and subtypes of the influenza virus. Here we provide a descriptive analysis of laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance data by type and subtype (A/H3N2, A/H1N1, and B for 19 temperate countries in the Northern and Southern hemispheres from 1997 to 2005, compiled from a public database maintained by WHO (FluNet. Key findings include patterns of large scale co-occurrence of influenza type A and B, interhemispheric synchrony for subtype A/H3N2, and latitudinal gradients in epidemic timing for type A. These findings highlight the need for more countries to conduct year-round viral surveillance and report reliable incidence data at the type and subtype level, especially in the Tropics.

  16. Perspective of Use of Antiviral Peptides against Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Skalickova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The threat of a worldwide influenza pandemic has greatly increased over the past decade with the emergence of highly virulent avian influenza strains. The increased frequency of drug-resistant influenza strains against currently available antiviral drugs requires urgent development of new strategies for antiviral therapy, too. The research in the field of therapeutic peptides began to develop extensively in the second half of the 20th century. Since then, the mechanisms of action for several peptides and their antiviral prospect received large attention due to the global threat posed by viruses. Here, we discussed the therapeutic properties of peptides used in influenza treatment. Peptides with antiviral activity against influenza can be divided into three main groups. First, entry blocker peptides such as a Flupep that interact with influenza hemagglutinin, block its binding to host cells and prevent viral fusion. Second, several peptides display virucidal activity, disrupting viral envelopes, e.g., Melittin. Finally, a third set of peptides interacts with the viral polymerase complex and act as viral replication inhibitors such as PB1 derived peptides. Here, we present a review of the current literature describing the antiviral activity, mechanism and future therapeutic potential of these influenza antiviral peptides.

  17. Pandemic influenza: certain uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY For at least five centuries, major epidemics and pandemics of influenza have occurred unexpectedly and at irregular intervals. Despite the modern notion that pandemic influenza is a distinct phenomenon obeying such constant (if incompletely understood) rules such as dramatic genetic change, cyclicity, “wave” patterning, virus replacement, and predictable epidemic behavior, much evidence suggests the opposite. Although there is much that we know about pandemic influenza, there appears to be much more that we do not know. Pandemics arise as a result of various genetic mechanisms, have no predictable patterns of mortality among different age groups, and vary greatly in how and when they arise and recur. Some are followed by new pandemics, whereas others fade gradually or abruptly into long-term endemicity. Human influenza pandemics have been caused by viruses that evolved singly or in co-circulation with other pandemic virus descendants and often have involved significant transmission between, or establishment of, viral reservoirs within other animal hosts. In recent decades, pandemic influenza has continued to produce numerous unanticipated events that expose fundamental gaps in scientific knowledge. Influenza pandemics appear to be not a single phenomenon but a heterogeneous collection of viral evolutionary events whose similarities are overshadowed by important differences, the determinants of which remain poorly understood. These uncertainties make it difficult to predict influenza pandemics and, therefore, to adequately plan to prevent them. PMID:21706672

  18. Seasonal influenza vaccine policy, use and effectiveness in the tropics and subtropics: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirve, S.; Lambach, P.; Paget, J.; Vandemaele, K.; Fitzner, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The evidence needed for tropical countries to take informed decisions on influenza vaccination is scarce. This paper reviews policy, availability, use and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in tropical and subtropical countries. Method: Global health databases were searched in three

  19. Sickness Absenteeism Rate in Iranian Schools during the 2009 Epidemic of Type a Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabbasi, Ata; Shirvani, Mahbubeh Ebrahimnegad; Khashayar, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Influenza pandemic was a global event in 2009 and intraschool transmission was its main spread method. The present study was designed to evaluate the absenteeism rate during the type A influenza epidemic. Four hundred and eight students from both a guidance school and high school in the Iranian capital were recruited in this retrospective study.…

  20. Seasonal influenza vaccine policy, use and effectiveness in the tropics and subtropics - a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirve, S.; Lambach, P.; Paget, J.; Vandemaele, K.; Fitzner, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The evidence needed for tropical countries to take informed decisions on influenza vaccination is scarce. This article reviews policy, availability, use and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in tropical and subtropical countries. METHOD: Global health databases were searched in three

  1. Avian influenza: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer K; Noppenberger, Jennifer

    2007-01-15

    A review of the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus, including human cases, viral transmission, clinical features, vaccines and antivirals, surveillance plans, infection control, and emergency response plans, is presented. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus a public health risk with pandemic potential. The next human influenza pandemic, if caused by the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus, is estimated to have a potential mortality rate of more than a hundred million. Outbreaks in poultry have been associated with human transmission. WHO has documented 258 confirmed human infections with a mortality rate greater than 50%. Bird-to-human transmission of the avian influenza virus is likely by the oral-fecal route. The most effective defense against an influenza pandemic would be a directed vaccine to elicit a specific immune response toward the strain or strains of the influenza virus. However, until there is an influenza pandemic, there is no evidence that vaccines or antivirals used in the treatment or prevention of such an outbreak would decrease morbidity or mortality. Surveillance of the bird and human populations for the highly pathogenic H5N1 is being conducted. Infection-control measures and an emergency response plan are discussed. Avian influenza virus A/H5N1 is a public health threat that has the potential to cause serious illness and death in humans. Understanding its pathology, transmission, clinical features, and pharmacologic treatments and preparing for the prevention and management of its outbreak will help avoid its potentially devastating consequences.

  2. Haemophilus influenzae: an underrated cause of vulvovaginitis in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, R A

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To establish the common pathogens associated with infective vulvovaginitis in young girls in the local population and to determine current management of this condition. METHODS: A prospective laboratory based survey was carried out over 19 months. A questionnaire was then sent to local general practitioners and hospital doctors. RESULTS: One hundred and six swabs were received during the study period of which 43 (40.5%) yielded organisms recognised as causes of vulvovaginitis. The most common pathogen was group A beta haemolytic streptococcus (19), with Haemophilus influenzae the second most common (11). Candida was isolated on nine occasions. The users' questionnaire had an overall response rate of 52%. Forty one per cent of respondents nominated candida as the most common cause of this condition. Forty six per cent were aware that beta haemolytic streptococci caused juvenile vulvovaginitis, but only four (3.6%) knew that H influenzae was a possible pathogen. The most popular agent for empirical treatment of vulvovaginitis was topical clotrimazole cream, although 24 respondents (22%) prescribed antibiotics that are active against both group A beta haemolytic streptococci and H influenzae. CONCLUSIONS: Although H influenzae is the second most common infective cause of juvenile vulvovaginitis in the local population, most doctors managing these patients were unaware of its importance and may not be prescribing appropriate empirical treatment. Images PMID:9389978

  3. Heterosybtypic T-cell immunity to influenza in humans: challenges for universal T-cell influenza vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya eSridhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV remains a significant global health issue causing annual epidemics, pandemics and sporadic human infections with highly pathogenic avian or swine influenza viruses. Current inactivated and live vaccines are the mainstay of the public health response to influenza although vaccine efficacy is lower against antigenically distinct viral strains. The first pandemic of the 21st century underlined the urgent need to develop new vaccines capable of protection against a broad range of influenza strains. Such universal influenza vaccines are based on the idea of heterosubtypic immunity wherein immune responses to epitopes conserved across IAV strains can confer protection against subsequent infection and disease. T-cells recognising conserved antigens are a key contributor to reducing viral load and limiting disease severity during heterosubtypic infection in animal models. Recent studies undertaken during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic provided key insights into the role of cross-reactive T-cells in mediating heterosubtypic protection in humans. This review focuses on human influenza to discuss the epidemiological observations that underpin cross-protective immunity, the role of T-cells as key players in mediating heterosubtypic immunity including recent data from natural history cohort studies and the ongoing clinical development of T-cell inducing universal influenza vaccines. The challenges and knowledge gaps for developing vaccines to generate long-lived protective T-cell responses is discussed.

  4. On avian influenza epidemic models with time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanhong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2015-12-01

    After the outbreak of the first avian influenza A virus (H5N1) in Hong Kong in 1997, another avian influenza A virus (H7N9) crossed the species barrier in mainland China in 2013 and 2014 and caused more than 400 human cases with a death rate of nearly 40%. In this paper, we take account of the incubation periods of avian influenza A virus and construct a bird-to-human transmission model with different time delays in the avian and human populations combining the survival probability of the infective avian and human populations at the latent time. By analyzing the dynamical behavior of the model, we obtain a threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza and investigate local and global asymptotical stability of equilibria of the system.

  5. Influenza and IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to person worldwide, most likely in a similar fashion to regular seasonal influenza viruses. For the this ... endorsement of a particular individual, group, company or product. Related Resources Order Patient Brochures Education & Support for ...

  6. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the United States Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service . Surveillance for Avian Influenza CDC, ... maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs Email ...

  7. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...

  8. Vírus influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de-Paris

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Um dos registros mais antigos da gripe descrita como doença é de autoria de Hipócrates, em meados do ano 412 a.C. Desta forma, seu agente etiológico, o vírus influenza, tem circulação entre a população humana há muito tempo.  Entretanto, o primeiro isolamento do vírus influenza humano ocorreu somente em 1933, realizado por Smith, Andrewes e Laidlaw, pesquisadores do “National Institute for Medical Research” – Londres. Este vírus isolado foi considerado o primeiro vírus influenza humano e denominado de “influenza A”.

  9. Underutilization of Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall K. Cheney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yearly influenza vaccination continues to be underutilized by those who would most benefit from it. The Health Belief Model was used to explain differences in beliefs about influenza vaccination among at-risk individuals resistant to influenza vaccination. Survey data were collected from 74 members of at-risk groups who were not vaccinated for influenza during the previous flu season. Accepting individuals were more likely to perceive flu as a threat to health and perceive access barriers, and cues to action were the most important influence on whether they plan to get vaccinated. In comparison, resistant individuals did not feel threatened by the flu, access barriers were not a problem, and they did not respond favorably to cues to action. Perceived threat, perceived access barriers, and cues to action were significantly associated with plans to be vaccinated for influenza in the next flu season. Participants who saw influenza as a threat to their health had 5.4 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated than those who did not. Participants reporting barriers to accessing influenza vaccination had 7.5 times the odds of reporting plans to be vaccinated. Those responding positively to cues to action had 12.2 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated in the next flu season than those who did not. Accepting and resistant individuals have significant differences in their beliefs, which require different intervention strategies to increase vaccination rates. These findings provide important information to researchers and practitioners working to increase influenza vaccination rates.

  10. Revision of clinical case definitions: influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasmieh, Saba; Mounts, Anthony Wayne; Alexander, Burmaa; Besselaar, Terry; Briand, Sylvie; Brown, Caroline; Clark, Seth; Dueger, Erica; Gross, Diane; Hauge, Siri; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Jorgensen, Pernille; Katz, Mark A; Mafi, Ali; Malik, Mamunur; McCarron, Margaret; Meerhoff, Tamara; Mori, Yuichiro; Mott, Joshua; Olivera, Maria Teresa da Costa; Ortiz, Justin R; Palekar, Rakhee; Rebelo-de-Andrade, Helena; Soetens, Loes; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Zhang, Wenqing; Vandemaele, Katelijn

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The formulation of accurate clinical case definitions is an integral part of an effective process of public health surveillance. Although such definitions should, ideally, be based on a standardized and fixed collection of defining criteria, they often require revision to reflect new knowledge of the condition involved and improvements in diagnostic testing. Optimal case definitions also need to have a balance of sensitivity and specificity that reflects their intended use. After the 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a technical consultation on global influenza surveillance. This prompted improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of the case definition for influenza – i.e. a respiratory disease that lacks uniquely defining symptomology. The revision process not only modified the definition of influenza-like illness, to include a simplified list of the criteria shown to be most predictive of influenza infection, but also clarified the language used for the definition, to enhance interpretability. To capture severe cases of influenza that required hospitalization, a new case definition was also developed for severe acute respiratory infection in all age groups. The new definitions have been found to capture more cases without compromising specificity. Despite the challenge still posed in the clinical separation of influenza from other respiratory infections, the global use of the new WHO case definitions should help determine global trends in the characteristics and transmission of influenza viruses and the associated disease burden. PMID:29403115

  11. Influenza pandemics and avian flu

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Douglas Fleming is general practitioner in a large suburban practice in Birmingham. In this article he seeks to clarify clinical issues relating to potential pandemics of influenza, including avian influenza

  12. Needle-free influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Huckriede, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination is the cornerstone of influenza control in epidemic and pandemic situations. Influenza vaccines are typically given by intramuscular injection. However, needle-free vaccinations could offer several distinct advantages over intramuscular injections: they are pain-free, easier to

  13. Influenza | Florida Department of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Women's Health WIC Program Community Health Minority Health & Health Equity People with influenza A viruses since early March. * This late-season circulation of influenza B is expected. View the

  14. Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español ...

  15. Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human-animal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I; Vincent, Amy L

    2015-03-01

    The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. The scale of global human-to-swine transmission represents the largest 'reverse zoonosis' of a pathogen documented to date. Overcoming the bias towards perceiving swine as sources of human viruses, rather than recipients, is key to understanding how the bidirectional nature of the human-animal interface produces influenza threats to both hosts. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses remains a complex challenge. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk asses...

  17. Global Disease Detectives

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-21

    This podcast documents U.S. efforts to prevent, detect, and control emerging infectious diseases, such as SARS and pandemic influenza.  Created: 9/21/2010 by CDC Center for Global Health.   Date Released: 9/21/2010.

  18. Influenza-Omics and the Host Response: Recent Advances and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joshua D.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV) continually evolve and have the capacity to cause global pandemics. Because IAV represents an ongoing threat, identifying novel therapies and host innate immune factors that contribute to IAV pathogenesis is of considerable interest. This review summarizes the relevant literature as it relates to global host responses to influenza infection at both the proteome and transcriptome level. The various-omics infection systems that include but are not limited to ferrets, mice, pigs, and even the controlled infection of humans are reviewed. Discussion focuses on recent advances, remaining challenges, and knowledge gaps as it relates to influenza-omics infection outcomes. PMID:28604586

  19. Considerations for sustainable influenza vaccine production in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannei, Claudia; Chadwick, Christopher; Fatima, Hiba; Goldin, Shoshanna; Grubo, Myriam; Ganim, Alexandra

    2016-10-26

    Through its Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP), the World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with the United States Department of Health and Human Services has produced a checklist to support policy-makers and influenza vaccine manufacturers in identifying key technological, political, financial, and logistical issues affecting the sustainability of influenza vaccine production. This checklist highlights actions in five key areas that are beneficial for establishing successful local vaccine manufacturing. These five areas comprise: (1) the policy environment and health-care systems; (2) surveillance systems and influenza evidence; (3) product development and manufacturing; (4) product approval and regulation; and (5) communication to support influenza vaccination. Incorporating the checklist into national vaccine production programmes has identified the policy gaps and next steps for countries involved in GAP's Technology Transfer Initiative. Lessons learnt from country experiences provide context and insight that complement the checklist's goal of simplifying the complexities of influenza prevention, preparedness, and vaccine manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Is sunspot activity a factor in influenza pandemics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jiangwen

    2016-09-01

    The 2009 AH1N1 pandemic became a global health concern, although fortunately, its worst anticipated effects were not realised. While the origins of such outbreaks remain poorly understood, it is very important to identify the precipitating factors in their emergence so that future pandemics can be detected as quickly as possible. Methords: Descriptive epidemiology was used to analyse the association between influenza pandemics and possible pandemics and relative number of sunspots. Non-conditional logistic regression was performed to analyse the statistical association between sunspot extremes and influenza pandemics to within plus or minus 1 year. Almost all recorded influenza/possible pandemics have occurred in time frames corresponding to sunspot extremes, or +/- 1 year within such extremes. These periods were identified as important risk factors in both possible and confirmed influenza pandemics (odds ratio: 3.87; 95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 13.85). Extremes of sunspot activity to within plus or minus 1 year may precipitate influenza pandemics. Mechanisms of epidemic initiation and early spread are discussed including primary causation by externally derived viral variants (from space via cometary dust). Efforts to construct a comprehensive early warning system for potential influenza and other viral pandemics that include analysis of sunspot activity and stratospheric sampling for viral variants should be supported. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Influenza Pandemic Infrastructure Response in Thailand

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Influenza viruses change antigenic properties, or drift, every year and they create seasonal outbreaks. Occasionally, influenza viruses change in a major way, called a “shift." If an influenza virus shifts, the entire human population is susceptible to the new influenza virus, creating the potential for a pandemic. On this podcast, CDC's Dr. Scott Dowell discusses responding to an influenza pandemic.

  2. Preliminary findings of a randomized trial of non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent influenza transmission in households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Cowling

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available There are sparse data on whether non-pharmaceutical interventions can reduce the spread of influenza. We implemented a study of the feasibility and efficacy of face masks and hand hygiene to reduce influenza transmission among Hong Kong household members.We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial of households (composed of at least 3 members where an index subject presented with influenza-like-illness of <48 hours duration. After influenza was confirmed in an index case by the QuickVue Influenza A+B rapid test, the household of the index subject was randomized to 1 control or 2 surgical face masks or 3 hand hygiene. Households were visited within 36 hours, and 3, 6 and 9 days later. Nose and throat swabs were collected from index subjects and all household contacts at each home visit and tested by viral culture. The primary outcome measure was laboratory culture confirmed influenza in a household contact; the secondary outcome was clinically diagnosed influenza (by self-reported symptoms. We randomized 198 households and completed follow up home visits in 128; the index cases in 122 of those households had laboratory-confirmed influenza. There were 21 household contacts with laboratory confirmed influenza corresponding to a secondary attack ratio of 6%. Clinical secondary attack ratios varied from 5% to 18% depending on case definitions. The laboratory-based or clinical secondary attack ratios did not significantly differ across the intervention arms. Adherence to interventions was variable.The secondary attack ratios were lower than anticipated, and lower than reported in other countries, perhaps due to differing patterns of susceptibility, lack of significant antigenic drift in circulating influenza virus strains recently, and/or issues related to the symptomatic recruitment design. Lessons learnt from this pilot have informed changes for the main study in 2008.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00425893 HKClinicalTrials.com HKCTR-365.

  3. Prevalence of influenza virus among the paediatric population in Mumbai during 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S; Patil, D; Dahake, R; Mukherjee, S; Athlekar, S V; Deshmukh, R A; Chowdhary, A

    2012-01-01

    Influenza has a major impact on public heath, annually affecting 15-20% of the global population. Information on the activity of influenza virus in Mumbai is limited. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of influenza viruses causing acute respiratory infections in children by molecular methods. To study the prevalence of influenza viruses among the paediatric population in Mumbai by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). From July 2007 to July 2009, 100 respiratory samples (nasal and throat swabs) were collected from paediatric patients with acute respiratory symptoms. attending out patients department, and admitted to the paediatric wards of B. J. Wadia Hospital for Children, Mumbai. The samples were collected and processed as per World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Viral RNA was extracted and one-step rRT-PCR was performed to detect influenza type A (H1 and H3) and influenza type B virus. Out of 100 samples processed by rRT-PCR, a total of 11 samples (11%) were positive for influenza virus. The typing for influenza A subtypes showed 1% (1) positivity for H1 and 5% (5) positivity for H3 subtypes and 5% (5) samples tested positive for influenza type B virus. It was observed that both influenza type A and B viruses were prevalent in Mumbai during the study period. Such surveillance data are important in the early detection of any antigenic variants that may be helpful in global influenza vaccine preparation and for any pandemic preparedness activity.

  4. Intranasal vaccination promotes detrimental Th17-mediated immunity against influenza infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Maroof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza disease is a global health issue that causes significant morbidity and mortality through seasonal epidemics. Currently, inactivated influenza virus vaccines given intramuscularly or live attenuated influenza virus vaccines administered intranasally are the only approved options for vaccination against influenza virus in humans. We evaluated the efficacy of a synthetic toll-like receptor 4 agonist CRX-601 as an adjuvant for enhancing vaccine-induced protection against influenza infection. Intranasal administration of CRX-601 adjuvant combined with detergent split-influenza antigen (A/Uruguay/716/2007 (H3N2 generated strong local and systemic immunity against co-administered influenza antigens while exhibiting high efficacy against two heterotypic influenza challenges. Intranasal vaccination with CRX-601 adjuvanted vaccines promoted antigen-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses and the generation of polyfunctional antigen-specific Th17 cells (CD4(+IL-17A(+TNFα(+. Following challenge with influenza virus, vaccinated mice transiently exhibited increased weight loss and morbidity during early stages of disease but eventually controlled infection. This disease exacerbation following influenza infection in vaccinated mice was dependent on both the route of vaccination and the addition of the adjuvant. Neutralization of IL-17A confirmed a detrimental role for this cytokine during influenza infection. The expansion of vaccine-primed Th17 cells during influenza infection was also accompanied by an augmented lung neutrophilic response, which was partially responsible for mediating the increased morbidity. This discovery is of significance in the field of vaccinology, as it highlights the importance of both route of vaccination and adjuvant selection in vaccine development.

  5. Evaluation of the influenza sentinel surveillance system in Madagascar, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoarisoa, Alain; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Tempia, Stefano; Guillebaud, Julia; Razanajatovo, Norosoa; Randriamampionona, Lea; Piola, Patrice; Halm, Ariane; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of influenza surveillance systems is poor, especially in Africa. In 2007, the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar and the Malagasy Ministry of Public Health implemented a countrywide system for the prospective syndromic and virological surveillance of influenza-like illnesses. In assessing this system's performance, we identified gaps and ways to promote the best use of resources. We investigated acceptability, data quality, flexibility, representativeness, simplicity, stability, timeliness and usefulness and developed qualitative and/or quantitative indicators for each of these attributes. Until 2007, the influenza surveillance system in Madagascar was only operational in Antananarivo and the observations made could not be extrapolated to the entire country. By 2014, the system covered 34 sentinel sites across the country. At 12 sites, nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal samples were collected and tested for influenza virus. Between 2009 and 2014, 177 718 fever cases were detected, 25 809 (14.5%) of these fever cases were classified as cases of influenza-like illness. Of the 9192 samples from patients with influenza-like illness that were tested for influenza viruses, 3573 (38.9%) tested positive. Data quality for all evaluated indicators was categorized as above 90% and the system also appeared to be strong in terms of its acceptability, simplicity and stability. However, sample collection needed improvement. The influenza surveillance system in Madagascar performed well and provided reliable and timely data for public health interventions. Given its flexibility and overall moderate cost, this system may become a useful platform for syndromic and laboratory-based surveillance in other low-resource settings.

  6. Evaluation of the performance of existing non-laboratory based cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The high burden and rising incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in resource constrained countries necessitates implementation of robust and pragmatic primary and secondary prevention strategies. Many current CVD management guidelines recommend absolute cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment as a clinically sound guide to preventive and treatment strategies. Development of non-laboratory based cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms enable absolute risk assessment in resource constrained countries. The objective of this review is to evaluate the performance of existing non-laboratory based CV risk assessment algorithms using the benchmarks for clinically useful CV risk assessment algorithms outlined by Cooney and colleagues. Methods A literature search to identify non-laboratory based risk prediction algorithms was performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ovid Premier Nursing Journals Plus, and PubMed databases. The identified algorithms were evaluated using the benchmarks for clinically useful cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms outlined by Cooney and colleagues. Results Five non-laboratory based CV risk assessment algorithms were identified. The Gaziano and Framingham algorithms met the criteria for appropriateness of statistical methods used to derive the algorithms and endpoints. The Swedish Consultation, Framingham and Gaziano algorithms demonstrated good discrimination in derivation datasets. Only the Gaziano algorithm was externally validated where it had optimal discrimination. The Gaziano and WHO algorithms had chart formats which made them simple and user friendly for clinical application. Conclusion Both the Gaziano and Framingham non-laboratory based algorithms met most of the criteria outlined by Cooney and colleagues. External validation of the algorithms in diverse samples is needed to ascertain their performance and applicability to different populations and to enhance clinicians’ confidence in them. PMID:24373202

  7. Influenza pandemic planning guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    An influenza pandemic will have serious economic impacts on the natural gas industry due to absenteeism as well as downstream effects due to supply disruption.This guide was prepared to assist gas distribution companies in planning for an influenza epidemic. The guide aimed to minimize the risks that an influenza pandemic might pose to the health and safety of employees and the continuity of business operations. The guide discussed 5 critical aspects of emergency planning: (1) prevention and threat mitigation; (2) preparedness; (3) response; (4) business continuity; and (5) communication. The legal context of the emergency plans were discussed. The plans were also discussed to other essential infrastructure emergency response plans. Recommendations were presented for infection control, decentralization and access restriction. Outlines for pandemic response planning teams and training and exercise programs were provided. Issues related to alert, mobilization, and response procedures were also discussed. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  8. Equine influenza in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Filippsen Favaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus (EIV (H3N8 and H7N7 is the causative agent of equine influenza, or equine flu. The H7N7 subtype has been considered to be extinct worldwide since 1980. Affected animals have respiratory symptoms that can be worsened by secondary bacterial respiratory infection, thereby leading to great economic losses in the horse-breeding industry. In Brazil, equine influenza outbreaks were first reported in 1963 and studies on hemagglutination antibodies against viral subtypes in Brazilian horses have been conducted since then. The objective of the present review was to present the history of the emergence of EIV around the world and in Brazil and the studies that have thus far been developed on EIV in Brazilian equines.

  9. Trends of influenza B during the 2010-2016 seasons in 2 regions of north and south Italy: The impact of the vaccine mismatch on influenza immunisation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Andrea; Colomba, Giuseppina Maria Elena; Pojero, Fanny; Calamusa, Giuseppe; Alicino, Cristiano; Trucchi, Cecilia; Canepa, Paola; Ansaldi, Filippo; Vitale, Francesco; Tramuto, Fabio

    2018-03-04

    Influenza A and B viruses are responsible for respiratory infections, representing globally seasonal threats to human health. The 2 viral types often co-circulate and influenza B plays an important role in the spread of infection. A 6-year retrospective surveillance study was conducted between 2010 and 2016 in 2 large administrative regions of Italy, located in the north (Liguria) and in the south (Sicily) of the country, to describe the burden and epidemiology of both B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages in different healthcare settings. Influenza B viruses were detected in 5 of 6 seasonal outbreaks, exceeding influenza A during the season 2012-2013. Most of influenza B infections were found in children aged ≤ 14 y and significant differences were observed in the age-groups infected by the different lineages. B/Victoria strains prevailed in younger population than B/Yamagata, but also were more frequently found in the community setting. Conversely, B/Yamagata viruses were prevalent among hospitalized cases suggesting their potential role in the development of more severe disease. The relative proportions of viral lineages varied from year to year, resulting in different lineage-level mismatch for the B component of trivalent influenza vaccine. Our findings confirmed the need for continuous virological surveillance of seasonal epidemics and bring attention to the adoption of universal influenza immunization program in the childhood. The use of tetravalent vaccine formulations may be useful to improve the prevention and control of the influenza burden in general population.

  10. Highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L

    2000-08-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) (HPAI) is an extremely contagious, multi-organ systemic disease of poultry leading to high mortality, and caused by some H5 and H7 subtypes of type A influenza virus, family Orthomyxoviridae. However, most AI virus strains are mildly pathogenic (MP) and produce either subclinical infections or respiratory and/or reproductive diseases in a variety of domestic and wild bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is a List A disease of the Office International des Epizooties, while MPAI is neither a List A nor List B disease. Eighteen outbreaks of HPAI have been documented since the identification of AI virus as the cause of fowl plague in 1955. Mildly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are maintained in wild aquatic bird reservoirs, occasionally crossing over to domestic poultry and causing outbreaks of mild disease. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses do not have a recognised wild bird reservoir, but can occasionally be isolated from wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been documented to arise from MPAI viruses through mutations in the haemagglutinin surface protein. Prevention of exposure to the virus and eradication are the accepted methods for dealing with HPAI. Control programmes, which imply allowing a low incidence of infection, are not an acceptable method for managing HPAI, but have been used during some outbreaks of MPAI. The components of a strategy to deal with MPAI or HPAI include surveillance and diagnosis, biosecurity, education, quarantine and depopulation. Vaccination has been used in some control and eradication programmes for AI.

  11. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations.

  12. Emerging influenza virus: A global threat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    The major cause of health concern that claims a large number of lives worldwide every year are the infectious diseases (Ministry of Health Report 1920). The advent of antibiotics and vaccines has lessened the impact of a number of infectious diseases but they are still the number one cause of mortality. These emerging ...

  13. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Tom; Rivetti, Alessandro; Di Pietrantonj, Carlo; Demicheli, Vittorio

    2018-02-01

    The consequences of influenza in children and adults are mainly absenteeism from school and work. However, the risk of complications is greatest in children and people over 65 years of age. This is an update of a review published in 2011. Future updates of this review will be made only when new trials or vaccines become available. Observational data included in previous versions of the review have been retained for historical reasons but have not been updated because of their lack of influence on the review conclusions. To assess the effects (efficacy, effectiveness, and harm) of vaccines against influenza in healthy children. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 12), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to 31 December 2016), Embase (1974 to 31 December 2016), WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; 1 July 2017), and ClinicalTrials.gov (1 July 2017). Randomised controlled trials comparing influenza vaccines with placebo or no intervention in naturally occurring influenza in healthy children under 16 years. Previous versions of this review included 19 cohort and 11 case-control studies. We are no longer updating the searches for these study designs but have retained the observational studies for historical purposes. Review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We used GRADE to rate the certainty of evidence for the key outcomes of influenza, influenza-like illness (ILI), complications (hospitalisation, ear infection), and adverse events. Due to variation in control group risks for influenza and ILI, absolute effects are reported as the median control group risk, and numbers needed to vaccinate (NNVs) are reported accordingly. For other outcomes aggregate control group risks are used. We included 41 clinical trials (> 200,000 children). Most of the studies were conducted in children over the

  14. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barre Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodd, Caitlin N.; Romio, Silvana A.; Black, Steven; Vellozzi, Claudia; Andrews, Nick; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Zuber, Patrick; Hua, Wei; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Buttery, Jim; Crawford, Nigel; Deceuninck, Genevieve; de Vries, Corinne; De Wals, Philippe; Gutierrez-Gimeno, M. Victoria; Heijbel, Harald; Hughes, Hayley; Hur, Kwan; Hviid, Anders; Kelman, Jeffrey; Kilpi, Tehri; Chuang, S. K.; Macartney, Kristine; Rett, Melisa; Lopez-Callada, Vesta Richardson; Salmon, Daniel; Sanchez, Francisco Gimenez; Sanz, Nuria; Silverman, Barbara; Storsaeter, Jann; Thirugnanam, Umapathi; van der Maas, Nicoline; Yih, Katherine; Zhang, Tao; Izurieta, Hector

    2013-01-01

    Background: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), which has been an

  15. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people has ranged from mild to severe. Avian Influenza Transmission Avian Influenza Transmission Infographic [555 KB, 2 pages] Spanish [ ... important for public health. Signs and Symptoms of Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans The reported signs ...

  16. Equine influenza: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Waghmare

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus is a leading cause of respiratory disease in the horses. The disease is the OIE listed disease of equines, ponies, mules and donkeys and spreads very fast. The sporadic outbreaks of the disease have occurred all over the country. Many cases have been reported in Delhi, Meerut, Saharanpur, Jaipur, Hisar, Calcutta, Ahmedabad. Nearly all the horses at Matheran (Hill station were infected with influenza. The disease has spread like wildfire at the stables of Royal Western India Turf Club (RWITC at Pune and suspended the Mumbai racing season for prolonged period of time resulting in marked economic losses. After affecting racing in Mumbai, Calcutta and New Delhi, the dreaded equine influenza has spread to Karnataka and Mysore. An outbreak of disease has marred the racing season across the country. The disease was first detected in Jammu & Kashmir before entering the central region Horses at the army polo clubs and Delhi equestrian center were also affected. As per the recent survey conducted by the army across India, it has been found that 5400 horses are infected so far, especially thoroughbred most severely. Nearly, 95 % of horses on a major farm in India are suspected of suffering from equine influenza. The government also banned inter-state movement of horses for three months to contain the disease. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 194-197

  17. Hablemos de la Influenza

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-08

    En la charla, un médico responde a las preguntas frecuentes sobre la vacuna contra la influenza (gripe).  Created: 12/8/2010 by Centro Nacional para la Inmunización y Enfermedades Respiratorias (NCIRD).   Date Released: 12/8/2010.

  18. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not provide protection against the...

  19. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, A R [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, S J [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Hall, C J [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Rogers, K D [Department of Materials and Medical Sciences, Cranfield University, Swindon, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Glatter, O [Department of Chemistry, University of Graz (Austria); Wess, T [School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3NB, Wales (United Kingdom); Ellis, I O [Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-07

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique.

  20. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Round, A R; Wilkinson, S J; Hall, C J; Rogers, K D; Glatter, O; Wess, T; Ellis, I O

    2005-01-01

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique

  1. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, A. R.; Wilkinson, S. J.; Hall, C. J.; Rogers, K. D.; Glatter, O.; Wess, T.; Ellis, I. O.

    2005-09-01

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique.

  2. Pollen structure visualization using high-resolution laboratory-based hard X-ray tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Gluch, Jürgen; Krüger, Peter; Gall, Martin; Neinhuis, Christoph; Zschech, Ehrenfried

    2016-10-14

    A laboratory-based X-ray microscope is used to investigate the 3D structure of unstained whole pollen grains. For the first time, high-resolution laboratory-based hard X-ray microscopy is applied to study pollen grains. Based on the efficient acquisition of statistically relevant information-rich images using Zernike phase contrast, both surface- and internal structures of pine pollen - including exine, intine and cellular structures - are clearly visualized. The specific volumes of these structures are calculated from the tomographic data. The systematic three-dimensional study of pollen grains provides morphological and structural information about taxonomic characters that are essential in palynology. Such studies have a direct impact on disciplines such as forestry, agriculture, horticulture, plant breeding and biodiversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. DAMPs and influenza virus infection in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Lim, Lina H K

    2015-11-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a serious global health problem worldwide due to frequent and severe outbreaks. IAV causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population, due to the ineffectiveness of the vaccine and the alteration of T cell immunity with ageing. The cellular and molecular link between ageing and virus infection is unclear and it is possible that damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) may play a role in the raised severity and susceptibility of virus infections in the elderly. DAMPs which are released from damaged cells following activation, injury or cell death can activate the immune response through the stimulation of the inflammasome through several types of receptors found on the plasma membrane, inside endosomes after endocytosis as well as in the cytosol. In this review, the detriment in the immune system during ageing and the links between influenza virus infection and ageing will be discussed. In addition, the role of DAMPs such as HMGB1 and S100/Annexin in ageing, and the enhanced morbidity and mortality to severe influenza infection in ageing will be highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards Future T Cell-Mediated Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi H. O. Nguyen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAVs infections impact significantly on global health, being particularly problematic in children, the elderly, pregnant women, indigenous populations and people with co-morbidities. Antibody-based vaccines require annual administration to combat rapidly acquired mutations modifying the surface haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA glycoproteins. Conversely, influenza-specific CD8+ T cell responses directed at peptides derived from the more conserved internal virus proteins are known to be protective, suggesting that T cell-based vaccines may provide long-lasting cross-protection. This review outlines the importance of CD8+ T cell immunity to seasonal influenza and pandemic IAVs and summarises current vaccination strategies for inducing durable CD8+ T cell memory. Aspects of future IAV vaccine design and the use of live virus challenge in humans to establish proof of principle are also discussed.

  5. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Bethany J; Munster, Vincent J; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Klaassen, Marcel; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2010-12-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian influenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations still present major challenges. We critically reviewed current surveillance to distill a series of considerations pertinent to avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds, including consideration of what, when, where, and how many to sample in the context of survey objectives. Recognizing that wildlife disease surveillance is logistically and financially constrained, we discuss pragmatic alternatives for achieving probability-based sampling schemes that capture this host-pathogen system. We recommend hypothesis-driven surveillance through standardized, local surveys that are, in turn, strategically compiled over broad geographic areas. Rethinking the use of existing surveillance infrastructure can thereby greatly enhance our global understanding of avian influenza and other zoonotic diseases.

  6. MANAGEMENT PATIENT OF SWINE INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Gunawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is an acute respiratory diseases caused by various influenza virus which infect the upper and lower respiratory tract and often accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, headache and muscle pain. Influenza spreads through the air. Swine influenza comes from swine and can cause an outbreaks in pig flocks. Even this is a kind of a rare case but the swine influenza could be transmitted to human by direct contact with infected swine or through environment that already being contaminated by swine influenza virus. There are 3 types of swine influenza virus namely H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. Type H1N1 swine-virus had been known since 1918. Avian influenza virus infection is transmitted from one person to another through secret containing virus. Virus is binded into the mucous cells of respiratory tract before it is finally infecting the cells itself. Management patients with H1N1 influenza is based on the complications and the risk. Besides, it is also need to consider the clinical criteria of the patient. Therapy medicamentosa is applied to the patients by giving an antiviral, antibiotics and symptomatic therapy. Prevention can be done by avoid contact with infected animal or environment, having antiviral prophylaxis and vaccination.

  7. Inter-Seasonal Influenza is Characterized by Extended Virus Transmission and Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson Ross, Zoe; Komadina, Naomi; Deng, Yi-Mo; Spirason, Natalie; Kelly, Heath A.; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Barr, Ian G.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    The factors that determine the characteristic seasonality of influenza remain enigmatic. Current models predict that occurrences of influenza outside the normal surveillance season within a temperate region largely reflect the importation of viruses from the alternate hemisphere or from equatorial regions in Asia. To help reveal the drivers of seasonality we investigated the origins and evolution of influenza viruses sampled during inter-seasonal periods in Australia. To this end we conducted an expansive phylogenetic analysis of 9912, 3804, and 3941 hemagglutinnin (HA) sequences from influenza A/H1N1pdm, A/H3N2, and B, respectively, collected globally during the period 2009-2014. Of the 1475 viruses sampled from Australia, 396 (26.8% of Australian, or 2.2% of global set) were sampled outside the monitored temperate influenza surveillance season (1 May – 31 October). Notably, rather than simply reflecting short-lived importations of virus from global localities with higher influenza prevalence, we documented a variety of more complex inter-seasonal transmission patterns including “stragglers” from the preceding season and “heralds” of the forthcoming season, and which included viruses sampled from clearly temperate regions within Australia. We also provide evidence for the persistence of influenza B virus between epidemic seasons, in which transmission of a viral lineage begins in one season and continues throughout the inter-seasonal period into the following season. Strikingly, a disproportionately high number of inter-seasonal influenza transmission events occurred in tropical and subtropical regions of Australia, providing further evidence that climate plays an important role in shaping patterns of influenza seasonality. PMID:26107631

  8. Analysis of Viral Genetics for Estimating Diffusion of Influenza A H6N1

    OpenAIRE

    Scotch, Matthew; Suchard, Marc A.; Rabinowitz, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    H6N1 influenza A is an avian virus but in 2013 infected a human in Taiwan. We studied the phylogeography of avian origin H6N1 viruses in the Influenza Research Database and the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data EpiFlu Database in order to characterize their recent evolutionary spread. Our results suggest that the H6N1 virus that infected a human in Taiwan is derived from a diversity of avian strains of H6N1 that have circulated for at least seven years in this region. Understa...

  9. Influenza vaccinations : who needs them and when?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, Eelko; Hoes, Arno W; Verheij, Theo J M

    2002-01-01

    Influenza vaccination programmes should aim at reducing the burden from influenza among those who need it most. The primary aim of this literature review is to identify who should receive priority in influenza vaccination programmes. Risk factors for severe post-influenza complications include

  10. Influenza Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Engel, Gregory A.; Feeroz, M.M.; San, Sorn; Rompis, Aida; Lee, Benjamin P. Y.-H.; Shaw, Eric; Oh, Gunwha; Schillaci, Michael A.; Grant, Richard; Heidrich, John; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether nonhuman primates are infected with influenza viruses in nature, we conducted serologic and swab studies among macaques from several parts of the world. Our detection of influenza virus and antibodies to influenza virus raises questions about the role of nonhuman primates in the ecology of influenza. PMID:23017256

  11. [Summary of Guangdong provincial seminar on avian influenza and influenza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shou-yi; Chen, Qing; Hu, Gui-fang

    2005-12-01

    On 8th November 2005, an academic seminar on avian influenza and influenza in Guangdong Province was held by Guangdong Society of Tropical Medicine and the Epidemiology Committee of the Guangdong Preventive Medicine Society in Southern Medical University, addressing the current problems in epidemics of avian influenza. The specialists attending the conference arrived at the common consideration that at present, the avian influenza virus H5N1 has not the capacity to trigger an pandemic in human population, but scattered cases had been reported to increase the suspicions of H5N1 virus transmission between humans. Due attention should be paid to the tendency of expansion of the host range and epidemic area, and the possibility of disastrous influenza pandemic among human populations persists, for which rational consideration is called for, and the role of specialists should be fully recognized who are endeavoring to examine the possible scale of influenza occurrence and devise strategy to deal with the epidemic in Guangdong province according to the practical situation in China. Increased funds and investment in scientific research on avian influenza is urged for influenza prediction and surveillance, rapid and early diagnostic assays, understanding of virus variation, mechanism of H5N1 virus adaptation to human hosts, effective medicines and vaccines for prevention and therapy of avian influenza. Laboratory bio-safety control should be enforced to prevent infections originated from laboratories. The specialists appeal that the media report the news objectively and issue the public warnings against avian influenza after consulting specialists, so as to avoid unnecessary social panic.

  12. Influenza: prevention, prophylaxis and treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three and five million cases of severe illness and between a quarter and half a million ... period from 1997 to 2001, influenza and pneumonia combined was one of the top five ... be a consequence of the influenza or due to secondary bacterial .... community-acquired pneumonia in children – South African Thoracic Society.

  13. Avian influenza surveillance and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection and accurate identification of low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) is critical to controlling infections and disease in poultry. Test selection and algorithms for the detection and diagnosis of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry may vary somewhat among differ...

  14. Influenza-associated thrombotic microangiopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzan, Martin; Zieg, Jakub

    2017-09-07

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) refers to phenotypically similar disorders, including hemolytic uremic syndromes (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This review explores the role of the influenza virus as trigger of HUS or TTP. We conducted a literature survey in PubMed and Google Scholar using HUS, TTP, TMA, and influenza as keywords, and extracted and analyzed reported epidemiological and clinical data. We identified 25 cases of influenza-associated TMA. Five additional cases were linked to influenza vaccination and analyzed separately. Influenza A was found in 83%, 10 out of 25 during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic. Two patients had bona fide TTP with ADAMTS13 activity rational treatment approaches.

  15. Implementing hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections caused by influenza and other respiratory pathogens in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q Sue Huang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent experience with pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09 highlighted the importance of global surveillance for severe respiratory disease to support pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. Improved surveillance in the southern hemisphere is needed to provide critical data on influenza epidemiology, disease burden, circulating strains and effectiveness of influenza prevention and control measures. Hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI cases was established in New Zealand on 30 April 2012. The aims were to measure incidence, prevalence, risk factors, clinical spectrum and outcomes for SARI and associated influenza and other respiratory pathogen cases as well as to understand influenza contribution to patients not meeting SARI case definition. Methods/Design: All inpatients with suspected respiratory infections who were admitted overnight to the study hospitals were screened daily. If a patient met the World Health Organization’s SARI case definition, a respiratory specimen was tested for influenza and other respiratory pathogens. A case report form captured demographics, history of presenting illness, co-morbidities, disease course and outcome and risk factors. These data were supplemented from electronic clinical records and other linked data sources. Discussion: Hospital-based SARI surveillance has been implemented and is fully functioning in New Zealand. Active, prospective, continuous, hospital-based SARI surveillance is useful in supporting pandemic preparedness for emerging influenza A(H7N9 virus infections and seasonal influenza prevention and control.

  16. Performance of the inFLUenza Patient-Reported Outcome (FLU-PRO) diary in patients with influenza-like illness (ILI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Elizabeth D.; Leidy, Nancy K.; Poon, Jiat-Ling; Stringer, Sonja; Memoli, Matthew J.; Han, Alison; Fairchok, Mary P.; Coles, Christian; Owens, Jackie; Chen, Wei-Ju; Arnold, John C.; Danaher, Patrick J.; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Burgess, Timothy H.; Millar, Eugene V.; Ridore, Michelande; Hernández, Andrés; Rodríguez-Zulueta, Patricia; Ortega-Gallegos, Hilda; Galindo-Fraga, Arturo; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M.; Pett, Sarah; Fischer, William; Gillor, Daniel; Moreno Macias, Laura; DuVal, Anna; Rothman, Richard; Dugas, Andrea; Guerrero, M. Lourdes

    2018-01-01

    Background The inFLUenza Patient Reported Outcome (FLU-PRO) measure is a daily diary assessing signs/symptoms of influenza across six body systems: Nose, Throat, Eyes, Chest/Respiratory, Gastrointestinal, Body/Systemic, developed and tested in adults with influenza. Objectives This study tested the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of FLU-PRO scores in adults with influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods Data from the prospective, observational study used to develop and test the FLU-PRO in influenza virus positive patients were analyzed. Adults (≥18 years) presenting with influenza symptoms in outpatient settings in the US, UK, Mexico, and South America were enrolled, tested for influenza virus, and asked to complete the 37-item draft FLU-PRO daily for up to 14-days. Analyses were performed on data from patients testing negative. Reliability of the final, 32-item FLU-PRO was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha (α; Day 1) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC; 2-day reproducibility). Convergent and known-groups validity were assessed using patient global assessments of influenza severity (PGA). Patient report of return to usual health was used to assess responsiveness (Day 1–7). Results The analytical sample included 220 ILI patients (mean age = 39.3, 64.1% female, 88.6% white). Sixty-one (28%) were hospitalized at some point in their illness. Internal consistency reliability (α) of FLU-PRO Total score was 0.90 and ranged from 0.72–0.86 for domain scores. Reproducibility (Day 1–2) was 0.64 for Total, ranging from 0.46–0.78 for domain scores. Day 1 FLU-PRO scores correlated (≥0.30) with the PGA (except Gastrointestinal) and were significantly different across PGA severity groups (Total: F = 81.7, pFLU-PRO scores are reliable, valid, and responsive in adults with influenza-like illness. PMID:29566007

  17. Influenza Pandemics: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chia Hsieh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is well known for its capability for genetic changes either through antigen drift or antigen shift. Antigen shift is derived from reassortment of gene segments between viruses, and may result in an antigenically novel virus that is capable of causing a worldwide pandemic. As we trace backwards through the history of influenza pandemics, a repeating pattern can be observed, namely, a limited wave in the first year followed by global spread in the following year. In the 20th century alone, there were three overwhelming pandemics, in 1918, 1957 and 1968, caused by H1N1 (Spanish flu, H2N2 (Asian flu and H3N2 (Hong Kong flu, respectively. In 1957 and 1968, excess mortality was noted in infants, the elderly and persons with chronic diseases, similar to what occurred during interpandemic periods. In 1918, there was one distinct peak of excess death in young adults aged between 20 and 40 years old; leukopenia and hemorrhage were prominent features. Acute pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic pneumonia contributed to rapidly lethal outcome in young adults. Autopsies disclosed multiple-organ involvement, including pericarditis, myocarditis, hepatitis and splenomegaly. These findings are, in part, consistent with clinical manifestations of human infection with avian influenza A H5N1 virus, in which reactive hemophagocytic syndrome was a characteristic pathologic finding that accounted for pancytopenia, abnormal liver function and multiple organ failure. All the elements of an impending pandemic are in place. Unless effective measures are implemented, we will likely observe a pandemic in the coming seasons. Host immune response plays a crucial role in disease caused by newly emerged influenza virus, such as the 1918 pandemic strain and the recent avian H5N1 strain. Sustained activation of lymphocytes and macrophages after infection results in massive cytokine response, thus leading to severe systemic inflammation. Further investigations into how

  18. Reassortment and evolution of current human influenza A and B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiyan; Lindstrom, Stephen E; Shaw, Michael W; Smith, Catherine B; Hall, Henrietta E; Mungall, Bruce A; Subbarao, Kanta; Cox, Nancy J; Klimov, Alexander

    2004-07-01

    During the 2001-2002 influenza season, human influenza A (H1N2) reassortant viruses were detected globally. The hemagglutinin (HA) of these H1N2 viruses was similar to that of the A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) vaccine strain both antigenically and genetically, while their neuraminidase (NA) was antigenically and genetically related to that of recent human influenza H3N2 reference viruses such as A/Moscow/10/99. All six internal genes of the H1N2 reassortants originated from an H3N2 virus. After being detected only in eastern Asia during the past 10 years, Influenza B/Victoria/2/87 lineage viruses reappeared in many countries outside of Asia in 2001. Additionally, reassortant influenza B viruses possessing an HA similar to that of B/Shandong/7/97, a recent B/Victoria/2/87 lineage reference strain, and an NA closely related to that of B/Sichuan/379/99, a recent B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage reference strain, were isolated globally and became the predominant influenza B epidemic strain. The current influenza vaccine is expected to provide good protection against H1N2 viruses because it contains A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) and A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2) like viruses whose H1 HA or N2 NA are antigenically similar to those of recent circulating H1N2 viruses. On the other hand, widespread circulation of influenza B Victoria lineage viruses required inclusion of a strain from this lineage in influenza vaccines for the 2002-2003 season.

  19. Associations between seasonal influenza and meteorological parameters in Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P; Clara, Wilfrido A; Jara, Jorge; Balmaseda, Angel; Lara, Jenny; Lopez Moya, Mariel; Palekar, Rakhee; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K

    2015-11-04

    Seasonal influenza affects a considerable proportion of the global population each year. We assessed the association between subnational influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in three Central America countries, i.e. Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua. Using virologic data from each country's national influenza centre, rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and air temperature and specific humidity data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System, we applied logistic regression methods for each of the five sub-national locations studied. Influenza activity was represented by the weekly proportion of respiratory specimens that tested positive for influenza. The models were adjusted for the potentially confounding co-circulating respiratory viruses, seasonality and previous weeks' influenza activity. We found that influenza activity was proportionally associated (P<0.05) with specific humidity in all locations [odds ratio (OR) 1.21-1.56 per g/kg], while associations with temperature (OR 0.69-0.81 per °C) and rainfall (OR 1.01-1.06 per mm/day) were location-dependent. Among the meteorological parameters, specific humidity had the highest contribution (~3-15%) to the model in all but one location. As model validation, we estimated influenza activity for periods, in which the data was not used in training the models. The correlation coefficients between the estimates and the observed were ≤0.1 in 2 locations and between 0.6-0.86 in three others. In conclusion, our study revealed a proportional association between influenza activity and specific humidity in selected areas from the three Central America countries.

  20. viruses associated with human and animal influenza - a review 40

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    These include Influenza A,B and C. Influenza viruses are members of the family. Orthomyxoviridae. .... low pathogenicity avian influenza may be as mild as ruffled feathers, a ... influenza A viruses are zoonotic agents recognized as continuing ...

  1. Avian Influenza spread and transmission dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Takekawa, John Y.; Wu, Jianhong; Chen, Dongmei; Moulin, Bernard; Wu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of type A of subtype H5N1 has been a serious threat to global public health. Understanding the roles of various (migratory, wild, poultry) bird species in the transmission of these viruses is critical for designing and implementing effective control and intervention measures. Developing appropriate models and mathematical techniques to understand these roles and to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies have been a challenge. Recent development of the global health surveillance (especially satellite tracking and GIS techniques) and the mathematical theory of dynamical systems combined have gradually shown the promise of some cutting-edge methodologies and techniques in mathematical biology to meet this challenge.

  2. Influenza vaccination guidelines and vaccine sales in southeast Asia: 2008-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Southeast Asia is a region with great potential for the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus. Global efforts to improve influenza surveillance in this region have documented the burden and seasonality of influenza viruses and have informed influenza prevention strategies, but little information exists about influenza vaccination guidelines and vaccine sales. METHODS: To ascertain the existence of influenza vaccine guidelines and define the scope of vaccine sales, we sent a standard three-page questionnaire to the ten member nations of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. We also surveyed three multinational manufacturers who supply influenza vaccines in the region. RESULTS: Vaccine sales in the private sector were <1000 per 100,000 population in the 10 countries. Five countries reported purchasing vaccine for use in the public sector. In 2011, Thailand had the highest combined reported rate of vaccine sales (10,333 per 100,000. In the 10 countries combined, the rate of private sector sales during 2010-2011 (after the A(H1N12009pdm pandemic exceeded 2008 pre-pandemic levels. Five countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam had guidelines for influenza vaccination but only two were consistent with global guidelines. Four recommended vaccination for health care workers, four for elderly persons, three for young children, three for persons with underlying disease, and two for pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of vaccine sales in Southeast Asia remains low, but there was a positive impact in sales after the A(H1N12009pdm pandemic. Low adherence to global vaccine guidelines suggests that more work is needed in the policy arena.

  3. Mathematical assessment of Canada's pandemic influenza preparedness plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumel, Abba B; Nuño, Miriam; Chowell, Gerardo

    2008-03-01

    The presence of the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus in wild bird populations in several regions of the world, together with recurrent cases of H5N1 influenza arising primarily from direct contact with poultry, have highlighted the urgent need for prepared-ness and coordinated global strategies to effectively combat a potential influenza pandemic. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the Canadian pandemic influenza preparedness plan. A mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of influenza was used to keep track of the population according to risk of infection (low or high) and infection status (susceptible, exposed or infectious). The model was parametrized using available Canadian demographic data. The model was then used to evaluate the key components outlined in the Canadian plan. The results indicated that the number of cases, mortalities and hospitalizations estimated in the Canadian plan may have been underestimated; the use of antivirals, administered therapeutically, prophylactically or both, is the most effective single intervention followed by the use of a vaccine and basic public health measures; and the combined use of pharmaceutical interventions (antivirals and vaccine) can dramatically minimize the burden of the pending influenza pandemic in Canada. Based on increasing concerns of Oseltamivir resistance (wide-scale implementation), coupled with the expected unavailability of a suitable vaccine during the early stages of a pandemic, the present study evaluated the potential impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) which were not emphasized in the current Canadian plan. To this end, the findings suggest that the use of NPIs can drastically reduce the burden of a pandemic in Canada. A deterministic model was designed and used to assess Canada's pandemic preparedness plan. The study showed that the estimates of pandemic influenza burden given in the Canada pandemic preparedness plan may be an underestimate, and that Canada

  4. Evaluating the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program for science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amolins, Michael Wayne

    The development of effective science educators has been a long-standing goal of the American education system. Numerous studies have suggested a breadth of professional development programs that have sought to utilize constructivist principles in order to orchestrate movement toward student-led, inquiry-based instruction. Very few, however, have addressed a missing link between the modern scientific laboratory and the traditional science classroom. While several laboratory-based training programs have begun to emerge in recent years, the skills necessary to translate this information into the classroom are rarely addressed. The result is that participants are often left without an outlet or the confidence to integrate these into their lessons. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program focused on classroom integration and reformed science teaching principles. This was measured by the ability to invigorate its seven participants in order to achieve higher levels of success and fulfillment in the classroom. These participants all taught at public high schools in South Dakota, including both rural and urban locations, and taught a variety of courses. Participants were selected for this study through their participation in the Sanford Research/USD Science Educator Research Fellowship Program. Through the use of previously collected data acquired by Sanford Research, this study attempted to detail the convergence of three assessments in order to demonstrate the growth and development of its participants. First, pre- and post-program surveys were completed in order to display the personal and professional growth of its participants. Second, pre- and post-program classroom observations employing the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol allowed for the assessment of pedagogical modifications being integrated by each participant, as well as the success of such modifications in constructively

  5. Non-stationary dynamics of climate variability in synchronous influenza epidemics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-09-01

    Seasonal variation in the incidence of influenza is widely assumed. However, few studies have examined non-stationary relationships between global climate factors and influenza epidemics. We examined the monthly incidence of influenza in Fukuoka, Japan, from 2000 to 2012 using cross-wavelet coherency analysis to assess the patterns of associations between indices for the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The monthly incidence of influenza showed cycles of 1 year with the IOD and 2 years with ENSO indices (Multivariate, Niño 4, and Niño 3.4). These associations were non-stationary and appeared to have major influences on the synchrony of influenza epidemics. Our study provides quantitative evidence that non-stationary associations have major influences on synchrony between the monthly incidence of influenza and the dynamics of the IOD and ENSO. Our results call for the consideration of non-stationary patterns of association between influenza cases and climatic factors in early warning systems.

  6. Now and future influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, F L

    1990-03-01

    Influenza is a modern day plague. In the young, the clinical picture is classical, but in the elderly, the disease may go unsuspected until complications such as pneumonia develop. Influenza A and B viruses are responsible, and these viruses mutate with great regularity. Antibodies to the HA and NA surface antigens of influenza viruses, both naturally and vaccine induced, are protective. The earliest influenza vaccines were crude, toxic, and ineffective. With modern purification techniques, the egg-grown viruses have been turned into safe, immunogenic, and effective killed-virus vaccines--whole virus and split virus. Surveillance permits the correct virus strains to be incorporated into each new vaccine. Those who have been experiencing the worst effects of influenza have been identified. These individuals need to be immunized each year. In the future, live influenza virus vaccines may offer the benefits of ease of administration and longer-lasting protection. Synthetic peptides, genetically engineered antigens, and even nonantigen (anti-idiotype) vaccines are possible, but such vaccines will require adjuvant enhancement. For the present, greater efforts must be made to use existing influenza vaccines.

  7. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-04-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to have a predilection to cause conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness (ILI), although HPAI H7N7 virus has also caused fatal respiratory disease. Low pathogenic H9N2 viruses have caused mild ILI and its occurrence may be under-recognised for this reason. In contrast, contemporary HPAI H5N1 viruses are exceptional in their virulence for humans and differ from human seasonal influenza viruses in their pathogenesis. Patients have a primary viral pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Over 380 human cases have been confirmed to date, with an overall case fatality of 63%. The zoonotic transmission of avian influenza is a rare occurrence, butthe greater public health concern is the adaptation of such viruses to efficient human transmission, which could lead to a pandemic. A better understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses and the biological determinants of transmissibility and pathogenicity in humans is important for pandemic preparedness.

  8. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barré Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Dodd (Caitlin); S.A. Romio (Silvana); S. Black (Steve); C. Vellozzi (Claudia); N.J. Andrews (Nick); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); P. Zuber (Patrick); W. Hua (Wei); J. Bonhoeffer (Jan); J. Buttery (Jim); N. Crawford (Nigel); G. Deceuninck (Genevieve); C.S. de Vries (Corinne); P. de Wals (Philippe); D. Gimeno (David); H. Heijbel (Harald); H. Hughes (Hayley); K. Hur (Kwan); A. Hviid (Anders); J. Kelman (Jeffrey); T. Kilpi (Tehri); S.K. Chuang (S.); T. Macartney (Thomas); M. Rett (Melisa); V.R. Lopez-Callada (Vesta Richardson); D. Salmon (Daniel); F.G. Sanchez (Francisco Gimenez); N. Sanz (Nuria); B. Silverman (Bernard); J. Storsaeter (Jann); U. Thirugnanam (Umapathi); N.A.T. van der Maas (Nicoline); K. Yih (Katherine); T. Zhang (Teng Fei); H.S. Izurieta (Hector); B.J. Addis; A. Akhtar (Aysha); J. Cope (Judith); R.L. Davis (Robert); P. Gargiullo (Paul); X. Kurz (Xavier); B. Law (Barbara); I. Sahinovic (Isabelle); J. Tokars (Jerry); P. Serrano (Pedro); A. Cheng (Aixin); N.J. Andrews (Nick); P. Charles (Pat); H. Clothier (Hazel); B. Day (Bruce); T. Day (Timothy); P. Gates (Peter); R. MacDonnell (Richard); L. Roberts (Les); V. Rodriguez-Casero (Vic-toria); T. Wijeratne (Tissa); H.A.L. Kiers (Henk); C. Blyth (Christopher); R. Booy (Robert); E. Elliott (Elizabeth); M.R. Gold (Michael); H. Marshall; P. McIntyre (Peter); P. Richmond (Peter); J. Royle (Jenny); N.W. Wood (Nicholas); Y. Zurynski (Yvonne); G. Calvo (Gonzalo); M. Campins (Magda); N. Corominas (Nuria); F. Torres (Ferran); V. Valls; A. Vilella (Ángels); A. Dutra (Amalia); A. Eick-Cost (Angelia); H.M. Jackson (Henry); K. Garman (Katherine); Z. Hu (Zheng); J. Rigo; J. Badoo (Judith); D Cho (David); L.L. Polakowski (Laura); S.K. Sandhu (Sukhminder); G. Sun (Guoying); H.-S.S. Chan (Hoi-Shan Sophelia); K.-Y. Chan (Kwok-Yin); R. Cheung (Raymond); Y-F. Cheung (Yuk-Fai); S. Cherk (Sharon); S.K Chuang (S.); D. Fok (Dennis); B.-H. Fung (Bun-Hey); K.-F. Ko (Kwai-Fu); K.W. Lau (Ka Wing); K.-K. Lau (Kwok-Kwong); P. Li (Pulin); H.-T. Liu (Hui-Tung); S.-H. Liu (Shao-Haei); K. Mok (Kin); J. So (Joanna); W. Wong (Winnie); S.-P. Wu (Shun-Ping); V. Avagyan (Vardan); R. Ball (Robert); D. Burwen (Dale); R.L. Franks (Riley); J.M. Gibbs (Jonathan); R.E. Kliman (Rebecca); S. Kropp (Silke); T.E. MaCurdy (Thomas); D.B. Martin (David); S.-D.K. Sandhu (Sukhmin-Der); B.B. Worrall (Bradford B.); D.E.F. Fuentes (Dra. Elvira Fuentes); P.C.O. González (Paola Carolina Ojeda); V.F. Reyna (Valerie ); M. Kulldorff (Martin); G. Lee (Grace); T.A. Lieu (Tracy); S. Platt; G.D. Serres (Gaston De); K. Jabin (Kamilah); B.L.S. Soh (Bee Leng Sally); L. Arnheim-Dahlström (Lisen); A. Castot (Anne); H.E. de Melker (Hester); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); J. Hallgren (Jonal); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); K. Johansen (Kari); P Kramarz (Piotr); M. Lapeyre (Maryse); T. Leino (Tuija); D. Mølgaard-Nielsen (Ditte); M. Mosseveld (Mees); H.K. Olberg (Henning K); C.-M. Sammon (Cor-Mac); C. Saussier (Christel); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); A. Sommet (Agnès); P. Sparen (Pär); H. Svanström (Henrik); A.M. Vanrolleghem (Ann M.); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); J.D. Domingo (Javier Diez); J.L. Esparza (José LuísMicó); R.M.O. Lucas (Rafael M. Ortí); J.B.M. Maseres (Juan B. Mollar); J.L.A. Sánchez (José Luís Alfonso); M.G. Sánchez (Mercedes Garcés); V.Z. Viguer (Vicente Zanón); F. Cunningham (Francesca); B. Thakkar (Bharat); R. Zhang (Rongping)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which

  9. Revealing all: misleading self-disclosure rates in laboratory-based online research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Diana E; Graff, Martin G; Davies, Joanne

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory-based experiments in online self-disclosure research may be inadvertently compromising the accuracy of research findings by influencing some of the factors known to affect self-disclosure behavior. Disclosure-orientated interviews conducted with 42 participants in the laboratory and in nonlaboratory settings revealed significantly greater breadth of self-disclosure in laboratory interviews, with message length and intimacy of content also strongly related. These findings suggest that a contrived online setting with a researcher presence may stimulate motivation for greater self-disclosure than would occur naturally in an online environment of an individual's choice. The implications of these findings are that researchers should consider the importance of experimental context and motivation in self-disclosure research.

  10. DebriSat - A Planned Laboratory-Based Satellite Impact Experiment for Breakup Fragment Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Werremeyer, M.; Huynh, T.; Voelker, M.; Opiela, J.

    2012-01-01

    DebriSat is a planned laboratory ]based satellite hypervelocity impact experiment. The goal of the project is to characterize the orbital debris that would be generated by a hypervelocity collision involving a modern satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The DebriSat project will update and expand upon the information obtained in the 1992 Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), which characterized the breakup of a 1960 's US Navy Transit satellite. There are three phases to this project: the design and fabrication of an engineering model representing a modern, 50-cm/50-kg class LEO satellite known as DebriSat; conduction of a laboratory-based hypervelocity impact to catastrophically break up the satellite; and characterization of the properties of breakup fragments down to 2 mm in size. The data obtained, including fragment size, area ]to ]mass ratio, density, shape, material composition, optical properties, and radar cross ]section distributions, will be used to supplement the DoD fs and NASA fs satellite breakup models to better describe the breakup outcome of a modern satellite. Updated breakup models will improve mission planning, environmental models, and event response. The DebriSat project is sponsored by the Air Force fs Space and Missile Systems Center and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. The design and fabrication of DebriSat is led by University of Florida with subject matter experts f support from The Aerospace Corporation. The major milestones of the project include the complete fabrication of DebriSat by September 2013, the hypervelocity impact of DebriSat at the Air Force fs Arnold Engineering Development Complex in early 2014, and fragment characterization and data analyses in late 2014.

  11. Assessing the ecotoxicologic hazards of a pandemic influenza medical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Andrew C; Colizza, Vittoria; Schmitt, Heike; Andrews, Johanna; Balcan, Duygu; Huang, Wei E; Keller, Virginie D J; Vespignani, Alessandro; Williams, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    The global public health community has closely monitored the unfolding of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic to best mitigate its impact on society. However, little attention has been given to the impact of this response on the environment. Antivirals and antibiotics prescribed to treat influenza are excreted into wastewater in a biologically active form, which presents a new and potentially significant ecotoxicologic challenge to microorganisms responsible for wastewater nutrient removal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and receiving rivers. We assessed the ecotoxicologic risks of a pandemic influenza medical response. To evaluate this risk, we coupled a global spatially structured epidemic model that simulates the quantities of antivirals and antibiotics used during an influenza pandemic of varying severity and a water quality model applied to the Thames catchment to determine predicted environmental concentrations. An additional model was then used to assess the effects of antibiotics on microorganisms in WWTPs and rivers. Consistent with expectations, our model projected a mild pandemic to exhibit a negligible ecotoxicologic hazard. In a moderate and severe pandemic, we projected WWTP toxicity to vary between 0-14% and 5-32% potentially affected fraction (PAF), respectively, and river toxicity to vary between 0-14% and 0-30% PAF, respectively, where PAF is the fraction of microbial species predicted to be growth inhibited (lower and upper 95% reference range). The current medical response to pandemic influenza might result in the discharge of insufficiently treated wastewater into receiving rivers, thereby increasing the risk of eutrophication and contamination of drinking water abstraction points. Widespread drugs in the environment could hasten the generation of drug resistance. Our results highlight the need for empirical data on the effects of antibiotics and antiviral medications on WWTPs and freshwater ecotoxicity.

  12. Influenza em animais heterotérmicos Influenza in heterothermics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino do tipo A e tipo B. O mesmo ocorreu com serpentes recém chegadas. Quanto ao teste de inibição da hemaglutinação dos soros dos répteis observou-se títulos protetores de anticorpos aos vírus influenza tipo A (origens humana e eqüina e tipo B. Com soro de sapo não se observou reação de inibição da hemaglutinação porém, 83,3% das rãs obtiveram médias de 40UIH para algumas cepas. Conclui-se que animais heterotérmicos podem oferecer condições de hospedeiros aos vírus influenza, assim como susceptibilidade à infecção.The objective was to study Orthomyxovirus in heterothermic animals. Blood samples from snakes (genus Bothrops and Crotalus and from toads and frogs (genus Bufo and Rana were collected to evaluate the red cell receptors and antibodies specific to influenza virus by the hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests, respectively. Both snakes and toads kept in captivity presented receptors in their red cells and antibodies specific to either influenza virus type A (human and equine origin or influenza type B. The same was observed with recently captured snakes. Concerning the influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibodies protective levels were observed in the reptiles' serum, against influenza type A and type B. Unlike the toads, 83.3% of the frogs presented mean levels of Ab 40HIU for some influenza strains. It was concluded that heterothermic animals could offer host conditions to the influenza

  13. Avian Influenza: Myth or Mass Murder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Louie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article was to determine whether avian influenza (AI is capable of causing a pandemic. Using research from a variety of medical journals, books and texts, the present paper evaluates the probability of the AI virus becoming sufficiently virulent to pose a global threat. Previous influenza A pandemics from the past century are reviewed, focusing on the mortality rate and the qualities of the virus that distinguish it from other viruses. Each of the influenza A viruses reviewed were classified as pandemic because they met three key criteria: first, the viruses were highly pathogenic within the human population; second, the viruses were easily transmissible from person to person; and finally, the viruses were novel, such that a large proportion of the population was susceptible to infection. Information about the H5N1 subtype of AI has also been critically assessed. Evidence suggests that this AI subtype is both novel and highly pathogenic. The mortality rate from epidemics in Thailand in 2004 was as high as 66%. Clearly, this virus is aggressive. It causes a high death rate, proving that humans have a low immunity to the disease. To date, there has been little evidence to suggest that AI can spread among humans. There have been cases where the virus has transferred from birds to humans, in settings such as farms or open markets with live animal vending. If AI were to undergo a genetic reassortment that allowed itself to transmit easily from person to person, then a serious pandemic could ensue, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Experts at the World Health Organization and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention agree that AI has the potential to undergo an antigenic shift, thus triggering the next pandemic.

  14. Avian influenza (bird flu) outbreak news scare and its economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian influenza (bird flu) outbreak news scare and its economic implication on poultry enterprises in Adamawa state, Nigeria. MR Ja'afar-Furo, HG Balla, B Yakubu. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 6 (1) 2007: pp. 61-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjass.v6i1.2302 · AJOL African Journals ...

  15. Multi-Omics Studies towards Novel Modulators of Influenza A Virus–Host Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Söderholm

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human influenza A viruses (IAVs cause global pandemics and epidemics. These viruses evolve rapidly, making current treatment options ineffective. To identify novel modulators of IAV–host interactions, we re-analyzed our recent transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, phosphoproteomics, and genomics/virtual ligand screening data. We identified 713 potential modulators targeting 199 cellular and two viral proteins. Anti-influenza activity for 48 of them has been reported previously, whereas the antiviral efficacy of the 665 remains unknown. Studying anti-influenza efficacy and immuno/neuro-modulating properties of these compounds and their combinations as well as potential viral and host resistance to them may lead to the discovery of novel modulators of IAV–host interactions, which might be more effective than the currently available anti-influenza therapeutics.

  16. Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Sridhar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2–17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

  17. Influenza Vaccination in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: The PARADIGM-HF Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardeny, Orly; Claggett, Brian; Udell, Jacob A; Packer, Milton; Zile, Michael; Rouleau, Jean; Swedberg, Karl; Desai, Akshay S; Lefkowitz, Martin; Shi, Victor; McMurray, John J V; Solomon, Scott D

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to examine the prevalence and predictors of influenza vaccination among participants in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) study and investigate associations between receiving influenza vaccine and cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalizations, all-cause hospitalizations, and cardiopulmonary or influenza-related hospitalizations. Influenza is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events in patients with heart failure. We used data from the PARADIGM-HF trial in which patients with heart failure were randomized to the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor LCZ696 (sacubitril/valsartan) or enalapril. We assessed predictors of receiving influenza vaccination, and examined the relationship between influenza vaccination and outcomes in a propensity-adjusted model. Of 8,099 study participants, 1,769 (21%) received influenza vaccination. We observed significant regional variation in vaccination rates, with highest rates in the Netherlands (77.5%), Great Britain (77.2%), and Belgium (67.5%), and lowest rates in Asia (2.6%), with intermediate rates in North America (52.8%). Top predictors of vaccination included enrolling country, white race, implanted defibrillator, older age, lower New York Heart Association functional class, lower heart rate, and a history of diabetes mellitus. Influenza vaccination was associated with a reduced risk for all-cause mortality in propensity-adjusted (hazard ratio: 0.81; 95% confidence interval: 0.67 to 0.97; p = 0.015) models. Influenza vaccination rates varied widely in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction enrolled in the PARADIGM-HF trial, and vaccination was associated with reduced risk for death, although whether this association was causal cannot be determined. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Three randomized trials of maternal influenza immunization in Mali, Nepal, and South Africa: Methods and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Saad B; Richards, Jennifer L; Madhi, Shabir A; Tapia, Milagritos D; Steinhoff, Mark C; Aqil, Anushka R; Wairagkar, Niteen

    2015-07-31

    Influenza infection in pregnancy can have adverse impacts on maternal, fetal, and infant outcomes. Influenza vaccination in pregnancy is an appealing strategy to protect pregnant women and their infants. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is supporting three large, randomized trials in Nepal, Mali, and South Africa evaluating the efficacy and safety of maternal immunization to prevent influenza disease in pregnant women and their infants <6 months of age. Results from these individual studies are expected in 2014 and 2015. While the results from the three maternal immunization trials are likely to strengthen the evidence base regarding the impact of influenza immunization in pregnancy, expectations for these results should be realistic. For example, evidence from previous influenza vaccine studies - conducted in general, non-pregnant populations - suggests substantial geographic and year-to-year variability in influenza incidence and vaccine efficacy/effectiveness. Since the evidence generated from the three maternal influenza immunization trials will be complementary, in this paper we present a side-by-side description of the three studies as well as the similarities and differences between these trials in terms of study location, design, outcome evaluation, and laboratory and epidemiological methods. We also describe the likely remaining knowledge gap after the results from these trials become available along with a description of the analyses that will be conducted when the results from these individual data are pooled. Moreover, we highlight that additional research on logistics of seasonal influenza vaccine supply, surveillance and strain matching, and optimal delivery strategies for pregnant women will be important for informing global policy related to maternal influenza immunization. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous and complete genome sequencing of influenza A and B with high coverage by Illumina MiSeq Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Chinnawirotpisan, Piyawan; Simasathien, Sriluck; Shrestha, Sanjaya K; Yoon, In-Kyu; Klungthong, Chonticha; Fernandez, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Active global surveillance and characterization of influenza viruses are essential for better preparation against possible pandemic events. Obtaining comprehensive information about the influenza genome can improve our understanding of the evolution of influenza viruses and emergence of new strains, and improve the accuracy when designing preventive vaccines. This study investigated the use of deep sequencing by the next-generation sequencing (NGS) Illumina MiSeq Platform to obtain complete genome sequence information from influenza virus isolates. The influenza virus isolates were cultured from 6 respiratory acute clinical specimens collected in Thailand and Nepal. DNA libraries obtained from each viral isolate were mixed and all were sequenced simultaneously. Total information of 2.6 Gbases was obtained from a 455±14 K/mm2 density with 95.76% (8,571,655/8,950,724 clusters) of the clusters passing quality control (QC) filters. Approximately 93.7% of all sequences from Read1 and 83.5% from Read2 contained high quality sequences that were ≥Q30, a base calling QC score standard. Alignments analysis identified three seasonal influenza A H3N2 strains, one 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 strain and two influenza B strains. The nearly entire genomes of all six virus isolates yielded equal or greater than 600-fold sequence coverage depth. MiSeq Platform identified seasonal influenza A H3N2, 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1and influenza B in the DNA library mixtures efficiently. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Flu (Influenza): Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PARENTS | DISEASES and the VACCINES THAT PREVENT THEM | Flu (Influenza) and the Vaccine to Prevent It Last updated October 2017 The best way to protect against flu is by getting a flu vaccine. Doctors recommend ...

  1. Pandemic Influenza: Domestic Preparedness Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lister, Sarah A

    2005-01-01

    .... Though influenza pandemics occur with some regularity, and the United States has been involved in specific planning efforts since the early 1990s, the H5N1 situation has created a sense of urgency...

  2. Characteristics of seasonal influenza A and B in Latin America: influenza surveillance data from ten countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Alonso, W.J.; Balmaseda, A.; Bruno, A.; Busto, P.; Castillo, L.; Lozano, C. de; Mora, D. de; Fasce, R. A.; Ferreira de Almeida, W.A.; Kusznierz, G.F.; Lara, J.; Matute, M.L.; Moreno, B.; Pessanha Henriques, C.M.; Rudi, J.M.; El-Guerche Séblain, C.; Schellevis, F.; Paget, J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The increased availability of influenza surveillance data in recent years justifies an actual and more complete overview of influenza epidemiology in Latin America. We compared the influenza surveillance systems and assessed the epidemiology of influenza A and B, including the

  3. Characteristics of seasonal influenza A and B in Latin America: Influenza surveillance data from ten countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Alonso, W.J.; Balmaseda, A.; Bruno, A.; Bustos, P.; Castillo, L.; Lozano, C.; Mora, D. De; Fasce, R.A.; Ferreira de Almeida, W.A.; Kusznierz, G.F.; Lara, J.; Matute, M.L.; Moreno, B.; Henriques, C.M.; Rudi, J.M.; El-Guerche Seblain, C.; Schellevis, F.; Paget, J.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The increased availability of influenza surveillance data in recent years justifies an actual and more complete overview of influenza epidemiology in Latin America. We compared the influenza surveillance systems and assessed the epidemiology of influenza A and B, including the

  4. Cyclosporin A inhibits the propagation of influenza virus by interfering with a late event in the virus life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Itsuki; Harazaki, Kazuhiro; Inase, Naohiko; Takaku, Hiroshi; Tashiro, Masato; Yamamoto, Norio

    2013-01-01

    Influenza is a global public health problem that causes a serious respiratory disease. Influenza virus frequently undergoes amino acid substitutions, which result in the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. To control influenza viruses that are resistant to currently available drugs, it is essential to develop new antiviral drugs with a novel molecular target. Here, we report that cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits the propagation of influenza virus in A549 cells by interfering with a late event in the virus life cycle. CsA did not affect adsorption, internalization, viral RNA replication, or synthesis of viral proteins in A549 cells, but inhibited the step(s) after viral protein synthesis, such as assembly or budding. In addition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of the expression of the major CsA targets, namely cyclophilin A (CypA), cyclophilin B (CypB), and P-glycoprotein (Pgp), did not inhibit influenza virus propagation. These results suggest that CsA inhibits virus propagation by mechanism(s) independent of the inhibition of the function of CypA, CypB, and Pgp. CsA may target an unknown molecule that works as a positive regulator in the propagation of influenza virus. Our findings would contribute to the development of a novel anti-influenza virus therapy and clarification of the regulatory mechanism of influenza virus multiplication.

  5. Strengthening the influenza vaccine virus selection and development process: Report of the 3rd WHO Informal Consultation for Improving Influenza Vaccine Virus Selection held at WHO headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland, 1-3 April 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, William K; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Bashir, Uzma; Cox, Nancy J; Fasce, Rodrigo; Giovanni, Maria; Grohmann, Gary; Huang, Sue; Katz, Jackie; Mironenko, Alla; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat; Sasono, Pretty Multihartina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Siqueira, Marilda; Waddell, Anthony L; Waiboci, Lillian; Wood, John; Zhang, Wenqing; Ziegler, Thedi

    2015-08-26

    Despite long-recognized challenges and constraints associated with their updating and manufacture, influenza vaccines remain at the heart of public health preparedness and response efforts against both seasonal and potentially pandemic influenza viruses. Globally coordinated virological and epidemiological surveillance is the foundation of the influenza vaccine virus selection and development process. Although national influenza surveillance and reporting capabilities are being strengthened and expanded, sustaining and building upon recent gains has become a major challenge. Strengthening the vaccine virus selection process additionally requires the continuation of initiatives to improve the timeliness and representativeness of influenza viruses shared by countries for detailed analysis by the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). Efforts are also continuing at the national, regional, and global levels to better understand the dynamics of influenza transmission in both temperate and tropical regions. Improved understanding of the degree of influenza seasonality in tropical countries of the world should allow for the strengthening of national vaccination policies and use of the most appropriate available vaccines. There remain a number of limitations and difficulties associated with the use of HAI assays for the antigenic characterization and selection of influenza vaccine viruses by WHOCCs. Current approaches to improving the situation include the more-optimal use of HAI and other assays; improved understanding of the data produced by neutralization assays; and increased standardization of serological testing methods. A number of new technologies and associated tools have the potential to revolutionize influenza surveillance and response activities. These include the increasingly routine use of whole genome next-generation sequencing and other high-throughput approaches. Such approaches could not only become key elements in outbreak

  6. Hib Disease (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hib Disease (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hib Disease (Haemophilus Influenzae ...

  7. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español ...

  8. Methods for molecular surveillance of influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruixue; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2010-01-01

    Molecular-based techniques for detecting influenza viruses have become an integral component of human and animal surveillance programs in the last two decades. The recent pandemic of the swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1) and the continuing circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1) further stress the need for rapid and accurate identification and subtyping of influenza viruses for surveillance, outbreak management, diagnosis and treatment. There has been remarkable pr...

  9. Screening for influenza viruses in 7804 patients with influenza-like symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuehui Li; Nan Lv; Chen Hangwe; Lanhua You; Huimin Wang

    2010-01-01

    To screen a large number of patients with influenza-like symptoms by using the gold-immunochromatographic assay kit. All patients with influenza-like symptoms visiting the outpatient department of the General Hospital of Beijing Military Region, Beijing, China between May 2009 and January 2010 were enrolled in the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected immediately after the patient visited, then a gold-immunochromatographic assay was performed for screening of influenza A and B viruses according to the kit protocol. Among the 7804 patients enrolled in this study, 202 patients were influenza virus-positive; the positive cases accounted for 2.6% of all cases detected. Among the 202 influenza virus-positive patients, 171 patients were influenza virus A-positive, 24 were influenza virus B-positive, and 7 were co-infected with influenza virus A and B. More than 57% of the virus-positive patients were younger than 30 years old. Symptoms such as fever, sore throat, nasal congestion, sneezing, runny nose, and joint pain were more frequently observed in influenza virus A-positive patients than in influenza virus B-positive and influenza virus-negative patients. The gold immunochromatographic assay kit is very useful for screening a large number of patients with influenza-like symptoms. A higher number of influenza virus A-positive patients have sore throat, nasal congestion, sneezing, runny nose, and joint pain than influenza virus B-positive and influenza virus-negative patients (Author).

  10. DebriSat - A Planned Laboratory-Based Satellite Impact Experiment for Breakup Fragment Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Clark, S.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Huynh, T.; Opiela, J.; Polk, M.; Roebuck, B.; Rushing, R.; Sorge, M.; Werremeyer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the DebriSat project is to characterize fragments generated by a hypervelocity collision involving a modern satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The DebriSat project will update and expand upon the information obtained in the 1992 Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), which characterized the breakup of a 1960 s US Navy Transit satellite. There are three phases to this project: the design and fabrication of DebriSat - an engineering model representing a modern, 60-cm/50-kg class LEO satellite; conduction of a laboratory-based hypervelocity impact to catastrophically break up the satellite; and characterization of the properties of breakup fragments down to 2 mm in size. The data obtained, including fragment size, area-to-mass ratio, density, shape, material composition, optical properties, and radar cross-section distributions, will be used to supplement the DoD s and NASA s satellite breakup models to better describe the breakup outcome of a modern satellite.

  11. Laboratory-Based Surveillance and Molecular Characterization of Dengue Viruses in Taiwan, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Fen; Yang, Cheng-Fen; Hsu, Tung-Chieh; Su, Chien-Ling; Lin, Chien-Chou; Shu, Pei-Yun

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of a laboratory-based surveillance of dengue in Taiwan in 2014. A total of 240 imported dengue cases were identified. The patients had arrived from 16 countries, and Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and China were the most frequent importing countries. Phylogenetic analyses showed that genotype I of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) and the cosmopolitan genotype of DENV-2 were the predominant DENV strains circulating in southeast Asia. The 2014 dengue epidemic was the largest ever to occur in Taiwan since World War II, and there were 15,492 laboratory-confirmed indigenous dengue cases. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the explosive dengue epidemic in southern Taiwan was caused by a DENV-1 strain of genotype I imported from Indonesia. There were several possible causes of this outbreak, including delayed notification of the outbreak, limited staff and resources for control measures, abnormal weather conditions, and a serious gas pipeline explosion in the dengue hot spot areas in Kaohsiung City. However, the results of this surveillance indicated that both active and passive surveillance systems should be strengthened so appropriate public health measures can be taken promptly to prevent large-scale dengue outbreaks. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Current situation on highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses can cause a range of clinical disease in poultry. Viruses that cause severe disease and mortality are referred to as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. The Asian ...

  13. Influenza and risk of later celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kårhus, Line Lund; Gunnes, Nina; Størdal, Ketil

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Influenza has been linked to autoimmune conditions, but its relationship to subsequent celiac disease (CD) is unknown. Our primary aim was to determine the risk of CD after influenza. A secondary analysis examined the risk of CD following pandemic influenza vaccination. METHODS...

  14. Influenza Vaccination in Community Dwelling Elderly Persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.G. Voordouw (Bettie)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAn influenza epidemic was first described in 1173, although there are reports of influenza as early as 412 BC. Recurrent epidemics and incidental pandemics caused by influenza virus are documented since the last 400 years. These were based upon clinical observation and epidemiology.

  15. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    .... APHIS-2006-0074] RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The interim rule also imposed... avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian...

  16. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074] RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant... regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is considered to exist. The interim... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056...

  17. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM

    2011-12-20

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  18. History and evolution of influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovari, P; Alberti, M; Alicino, C

    2011-09-01

    Since the isolation of influenza virus in 1933, a great deal of work was carried out in order to develop influenza vaccines and improve these fundamental tools of prevention in terms of production, quality control, safety and tolerability, and immunogenicity. The paper summarizes the cornerstones of the continuous evolution of influenza vaccines and the most recent and promising developments in this field.

  19. Influenza B viruses : not to be discounted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sandt, Carolien E; Bodewes, Rogier; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; de Vries, Rory D

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to influenza A viruses, which have been investigated extensively, influenza B viruses have attracted relatively little attention. However, influenza B viruses are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population and full understanding of their biological and

  20. Rapid Diagnostic Assay for Intact Influenza Virus Using a High Affinity Hemagglutinin Binding Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Caitlin E; Holstein, Carly A; Strauch, Eva-Maria; Bennett, Steven; Chevalier, Aaron; Nelson, Jorgen; Fu, Elain; Baker, David; Yager, Paul

    2017-06-20

    Influenza is a ubiquitous and recurring infection that results in approximately 500 000 deaths globally each year. Commercially available rapid diagnostic tests are based upon detection of the influenza nucleoprotein, which are limited in that they are unable to differentiate by species and require an additional viral lysis step. Sample preprocessing can be minimized or eliminated by targeting the intact influenza virus, thereby reducing assay complexity and leveraging the large number of hemagglutinin proteins on the surface of each virus. Here, we report the development of a paper-based influenza assay that targets the hemagglutinin protein; the assay employs a combination of antibodies and novel computationally designed, recombinant affinity proteins as the capture and detection agents. This system leverages the customizability of recombinant protein design to target the conserved receptor-binding pocket of the hemagglutinin protein and to match the trimeric nature of hemagglutinin for improved avidity. Using this assay, we demonstrate the first instance of intact influenza virus detection using a combination of antibody and affinity proteins within a porous network. The recombinant head region binder based assays yield superior analytical sensitivity as compared to the antibody based assay, with lower limits of detection of 3.54 × 10 7 and 1.34 × 10 7 CEID 50 /mL for the mixed and all binder stacks, respectively. Not only does this work describe the development of a novel influenza assay, it also demonstrates the power of recombinant affinity proteins for use in rapid diagnostic assays.

  1. The scientific rationale for the World Organisation for Animal Health standards and recommendations on avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, J; Kahn, S

    2014-12-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) prescribes standards for the diagnosis and control of avian influenza, as well as health measures for safe trade in birds and avian products, which are based on up-to-date scientific information and risk management principles, consistent with the role of the OIE as a reference standard-setting body for the World Trade Organization (WTO). These standards and recommendations continue to evolve, reflecting advances in technology and scientific understanding of this important zoonotic disease. The avian influenza viruses form part of the natural ecosystem by virtue of their ubiquitous presence in wild aquatic birds, a fact that human intervention cannot change. For the purposes of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code), avian influenza is defined as an infection of poultry. However, the scope of the OIE standards and recommendations is not restricted to poultry, covering the diagnosis, early detection and management of avian influenza, including sanitary measures for trade in birds and avian products. The best way to manage avian influenza-associated risks to human and animal health is for countries to conduct surveillance using recommended methods, to report results in a consistent and transparent manner, and to applythe sanitary measures described in the Terrestrial Code. Surveillance for and timely reporting of avian influenza in accordance with OIE standards enable the distribution of relevant, up-to-date information to the global community.

  2. Educating youth swine exhibitors on influenza A virus transmission at agricultural fairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, J M; Midla, J; Whittington, M S; Scheer, S D; Bowman, A S

    2018-02-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major zoonotic pathogen that threatens global public health. Novel strains of influenza A viruses pose a significant risk to public health due to their pandemic potential, and transmission of influenza A viruses from animals to humans is an important mechanism in the generation and introduction of IAVs that threaten human health. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to develop real-life training scenarios to better inform swine exhibitors of the risks they may encounter when influenza A viruses are present in swine. Educational activities were implemented in five Ohio counties where exhibition swine had historically been shedding influenza A viruses during the county fair. A total of 146 youth swine exhibitors participated in the educational programme, and an increase in the knowledge base of these youth was documented. It is expected that educating youth exhibitors about exposure to influenza A virus infections in the swine they are exhibiting will result in altered behaviours and animal husbandry practices that will improve both human and animal health. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. A Review of the Antiviral Susceptibility of Human and Avian Influenza Viruses over the Last Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ding Yuan; Hurt, Aeron C.

    2014-01-01

    Antivirals play an important role in the prevention and treatment of influenza infections, particularly in high-risk or severely ill patients. Two classes of influenza antivirals have been available in many countries over the last decade (2004–2013), the adamantanes and the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). During this period, widespread adamantane resistance has developed in circulating influenza viruses rendering these drugs useless, resulting in the reliance on the most widely available NAI, oseltamivir. However, the emergence of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A(H1N1) viruses in 2008 demonstrated that NAI-resistant viruses could also emerge and spread globally in a similar manner to that seen for adamantane-resistant viruses. Previously, it was believed that NAI-resistant viruses had compromised replication and/or transmission. Fortunately, in 2013, the majority of circulating human influenza viruses remain sensitive to all of the NAIs, but significant work by our laboratory and others is now underway to understand what enables NAI-resistant viruses to retain the capacity to replicate and transmit. In this review, we describe how the susceptibility of circulating human and avian influenza viruses has changed over the last ten years and describe some research studies that aim to understand how NAI-resistant human and avian influenza viruses may emerge in the future. PMID:24800107

  4. Universal influenza vaccines, science fiction or soon reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D; Altenburg, Arwen F; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

    2015-01-01

    Currently used influenza vaccines are only effective when the vaccine strains match the epidemic strains antigenically. To this end, seasonal influenza vaccines must be updated almost annually. Furthermore, seasonal influenza vaccines fail to afford protection against antigenically distinct pandemic influenza viruses. Because of an ever-present threat of the next influenza pandemic and the continuous emergence of drift variants of seasonal influenza A viruses, there is a need for an universal influenza vaccine that induces protective immunity against all influenza A viruses. Here, we summarize some of the efforts that are ongoing to develop universal influenza vaccines.

  5. Effective influenza vaccines for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhoff, Angelika; Stoddard, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal influenza causes clinical illness and hospitalization in all age groups; however, conventional inactivated vaccines have only limited efficacy in young children. MF59®, an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, has been used since the 1990s to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in the elderly, a population with waning immune function due to immunosenescence.   Clinical trials now provide information to support a favorable immunogenicity and safety profile of MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in young children. Published data indicate that Fluad®, a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine with MF59, was immunogenic and well tolerated in young children, with a benefit/risk ratio that supports routine clinical use. A recent clinical trial also shows that Fluad provides high efficacy against PCR-confirmed influenza. Based on the results of clinical studies in children, the use of MF59-adjuvanted vaccine offers the potential to enhance efficacy and make vaccination a viable prevention and control strategy in this population. PMID:22327501

  6. Laboratory preparedness in EU/EEA countries for detection of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, May 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, E; Pereyaslov, D; Struelens, M; Palm, D; Meijer, A; Ellis, J; Zambon, M; McCauley, J; Daniels, R

    2015-01-01

    Following human infections with novel avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe and the European Reference Laboratory Network for Human Influenza (ERLI-Net) rapidly posted relevant information, including real-time RT-PCR protocols. An influenza RNA sequence-based computational assessment of detection capabilities for this virus was conducted in 32 national influenza reference laboratories in 29 countries, mostly WHO National Influenza Centres participating in the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). Twenty-seven countries considered their generic influenza A virus detection assay to be appropriate for the novel A(H7N9) viruses. Twenty-two countries reported having containment facilities suitable for its isolation and propagation. Laboratories in 27 countries had applied specific H7 real-time RT-PCR assays and 20 countries had N9 assays in place. Positive control virus RNA was provided by the WHO Collaborating Centre in London to 34 laboratories in 22 countries to allow evaluation of their assays. Performance of the generic influenza A virus detection and H7 and N9 subtyping assays was good in 24 laboratories in 19 countries. The survey showed that ERLI-Net laboratories had rapidly developed and verified good capability to detect the novel A(H7N9) influenza viruses. PMID:24507469

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program for science educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amolins, Michael W; Ezrailson, Cathy M; Pearce, David A; Elliott, Amy J; Vitiello, Peter F

    2015-12-01

    The process of developing effective science educators has been a long-standing objective of the broader education community. Numerous studies have recommended not only depth in a teacher's subject area but also a breadth of professional development grounded in constructivist principles, allowing for successful student-centered and inquiry-based instruction. Few programs, however, have addressed the integration of the scientific research laboratory into the science classroom as a viable approach to professional development. Additionally, while occasional laboratory training programs have emerged in recent years, many lack a component for translating acquired skills into reformed classroom instruction. Given the rapid development and demand for knowledgeable employees and an informed population from the biotech and medical industries in recent years, it would appear to be particularly advantageous for the physiology and broader science education communities to consider this issue. The goal of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program focused on the integration of reformed teaching principles into the classrooms of secondary teachers. This was measured through the program's ability to instill in its participants elevated academic success while gaining fulfillment in the classroom. The findings demonstrated a significant improvement in the use of student-centered instruction and other reformed methods by program participants as well as improved self-efficacy, confidence, and job satisfaction. Also revealed was a reluctance to refashion established classroom protocols. The combination of these outcomes allowed for construction of an experiential framework for professional development in applied science education that supports an atmosphere of reformed teaching in the classroom. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  8. Characterization of Orbital Debris Photometric Properties Derived from Laboratory-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, H.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.; Seitzer, P.; Schildknecht, T.

    2010-01-01

    To better characterize and model optical data acquired from ground-based telescopes, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC attempts to emulate illumination conditions seen in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations. The OMC uses a 75 Watt Xenon arc lamp as a solar simulator, an SBIG CCD camera with standard Johnson/Bessel filters, and a robotic arm to simulate an object's position and rotation. The laboratory uses known shapes, materials suspected to be consistent with the orbital debris population, and three phase angles to best match the lighting conditions of the telescope based data. The fourteen objects studied in the laboratory are fragments or materials acquired through ground-tests of scaled-model satellites/rocket bodies as well as material samples in more/less "flight-ready" condition. All fragments were measured at 10 increments in a full 360 rotation at 6 , 36 , and 60 phase angles. This paper will investigate published color photometric data for a series of orbital debris targets and compare it to the empirical photometric measurements generated in the OMC. Using the data acquired over specific rotational angles through different filters (B, V, R, I), a color index is acquired (B-R, R-I). Using these values and their associated lightcurves, this laboratory data is compared to observational data obtained on the 1 m telescope of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AUIB), the 0.9 m operated by the Small- and Medium-Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) Consortium and the Curtis-Schmidt 0.6 m Michigan Orbital Debris Space Debris Telescope both located at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). An empirical based optical characterization model will be presented to provide preliminary correlations between laboratory based and telescope-based data in the context of classification of GEO debris objects.

  9. Open-circuit respirometry: real-time, laboratory-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Susan A

    2018-05-04

    This review explores the conceptual and technological factors integral to the development of laboratory-based, automated real-time open-circuit mixing-chamber and breath-by-breath (B × B) gas-exchange systems, together with considerations of assumptions and limitations. Advances in sensor technology, signal analysis, and digital computation led to the emergence of these technologies in the mid-20th century, at a time when investigators were beginning to recognise the interpretational advantages of nonsteady-state physiological-system interrogation in understanding the aetiology of exercise (in)tolerance in health, sport, and disease. Key milestones include the 'Auchincloss' description of an off-line system to estimate alveolar O 2 uptake B × B during exercise. This was followed by the first descriptions of real-time automated O 2 uptake and CO 2 output B × B measurement by Beaver and colleagues and by Linnarsson and Lindborg, and mixing-chamber measurement by Wilmore and colleagues. Challenges to both approaches soon emerged: e.g., the influence of mixing-chamber washout kinetics on mixed-expired gas concentration determination, and B × B alignment of gas-concentration signals with respired flow. The challenging algorithmic and technical refinements required for gas-exchange estimation at the alveolar level have also been extensively explored. In conclusion, while the technology (both hardware and software) underpinning real-time automated gas-exchange measurement has progressively advanced, there are still concerns regarding accuracy especially under the challenging conditions of changing metabolic rate.

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program for science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amolins, Michael W.; Ezrailson, Cathy M.; Pearce, David A.; Elliott, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    The process of developing effective science educators has been a long-standing objective of the broader education community. Numerous studies have recommended not only depth in a teacher's subject area but also a breadth of professional development grounded in constructivist principles, allowing for successful student-centered and inquiry-based instruction. Few programs, however, have addressed the integration of the scientific research laboratory into the science classroom as a viable approach to professional development. Additionally, while occasional laboratory training programs have emerged in recent years, many lack a component for translating acquired skills into reformed classroom instruction. Given the rapid development and demand for knowledgeable employees and an informed population from the biotech and medical industries in recent years, it would appear to be particularly advantageous for the physiology and broader science education communities to consider this issue. The goal of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program focused on the integration of reformed teaching principles into the classrooms of secondary teachers. This was measured through the program's ability to instill in its participants elevated academic success while gaining fulfillment in the classroom. The findings demonstrated a significant improvement in the use of student-centered instruction and other reformed methods by program participants as well as improved self-efficacy, confidence, and job satisfaction. Also revealed was a reluctance to refashion established classroom protocols. The combination of these outcomes allowed for construction of an experiential framework for professional development in applied science education that supports an atmosphere of reformed teaching in the classroom. PMID:26628658

  11. Astrophysics Laboratory-Based Lecture Material Development of Solarscope with Integration and Interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asih Melati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of laboratory-based lecture materials with integrated and interconnected value is a requirement for study and practical materials and in line with the vision and mission of UIN Sunan Kalijaga. As a result, the optimization of laboratory’s equipment is urgently needed. Although UIN Sunan Kalijaga Laboratory have had Solarscope telescope – which have a guidebook in German language – for six years, it was not optimally used even it can be used to satisfy the desires to observe astronomical objects economically, accurately and easy to operate. Based on above, this research propose to create a lab-work module for Solarscope with integration and interconnection value. This research used 4D methodology (Define, Design, Develop and Disseminate and have passed the assessment and validation phase from material, media and integrated-interconnected value experts. The data analysis of the module which was mapped by Sukarja into 5 scale mark resulted in good grade in the module assessment by material experts with 80% from the ideal mark with most of the complaint is in the formula typing which is not clear in its derivative. The module assessment by media experts scored very good grade with 88.89% from the ideal mark regarding the content and the figures of the module. Lastly, from the integrated-interconnected value experts marked in good grade with 73.50% from the ideal mark and suggested the addition of supported Al-Qur’an verses and relevant exclamation of the Al-Qur’an’s passages. With all of these assessment results, this module can be used as the material of astrophysics lab-work and for supporting students’ researches with integration-interconnection value and enhance the university’s book collection which will support the vision and mission of UIN Sunan Kalijaga

  12. Influenza Pandemic Infrastructure Response in Thailand

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-05

    Influenza viruses change antigenic properties, or drift, every year and they create seasonal outbreaks. Occasionally, influenza viruses change in a major way, called a “shift." If an influenza virus shifts, the entire human population is susceptible to the new influenza virus, creating the potential for a pandemic. On this podcast, CDC's Dr. Scott Dowell discusses responding to an influenza pandemic.  Created: 3/5/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/5/2009.

  13. Influenza vaccine coverage, influenza-associated morbidity and all-cause mortality in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M Pilar; Soldevila, Núria; Martínez, Anna; Carmona, Glòria; Batalla, Joan; Acosta, Lesly M; Domínguez, Angela

    2011-07-12

    The objective of this work was to study the behaviour of influenza with respect to morbidity and all-cause mortality in Catalonia, and their association with influenza vaccination coverage. The study was carried out over 13 influenza seasons, from epidemiological week 40 of 1994 to week 20 of 2007, and included confirmed cases of influenza and all-cause mortality. Two generalized linear models were fitted: influenza-associated morbidity was modelled by Poisson regression and all-cause mortality by negative binomial regression. The seasonal component was modelled with the periodic function formed by the sum of the sinus and cosines. Expected influenza mortality during periods of influenza virus circulation was estimated by Poisson regression and its confidence intervals using the Bootstrap approach. Vaccination coverage was associated with a reduction in influenza-associated morbidity (pcase of influenza-associated morbidity, an increase of 5% in vaccination coverage represented a reduction of 3% in the incidence rate of influenza. There was a positive association between influenza-associated morbidity and all-cause mortality. Excess mortality attributable to influenza epidemics was estimated as 34.4 (95% CI: 28.4-40.8) weekly deaths. In conclusion, all-cause mortality is a good indicator of influenza surveillance and vaccination coverage is associated with a reduction in influenza-associated morbidity but not with all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren‐Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Warren‐Gash et al. (2012) Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12015. Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low‐quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower–middle‐income setting. There was high‐quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high‐quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low‐income setting. There was moderate‐ to high‐quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. PMID:23043518

  15. Effect of the one-child policy on influenza transmission in China: a stochastic transmission model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: China's one-child-per-couple policy, introduced in 1979, led to profound demographic changes for nearly a quarter of the world's population. Several decades later, the consequences include decreased fertility rates, population aging, decreased household sizes, changes in family structure, and imbalanced sex ratios. The epidemiology of communicable diseases may have been affected by these changes since the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases depend on demographic characteristics of the population. Of particular interest is influenza because China and Southeast Asia lie at the center of a global transmission network of influenza. Moreover, changes in household structure may affect influenza transmission. Is it possible that the pronounced demographic changes that have occurred in China have affected influenza transmission? METHODS AND FINDINGS: To address this question, we developed a continuous-time, stochastic, individual-based simulation model for influenza transmission. With this model, we simulated 30 years of influenza transmission and compared influenza transmission rates in populations with and without the one-child policy control. We found that the average annual attack rate is reduced by 6.08% (SD 2.21% in the presence of the one-child policy compared to a population in which no demographic changes occurred. There was no discernible difference in the secondary attack rate, -0.15% (SD 1.85%, between the populations with and without a one-child policy. We also forecasted influenza transmission over a ten-year time period in a population with a two-child policy under a hypothesis that a two-child-per-couple policy will be carried out in 2015, and found a negligible difference in the average annual attack rate compared to the population with the one-child policy. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the average annual attack rate is slightly lowered in a population with a one-child policy, which may have resulted from a

  16. Severe mortality impact of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Fuentes, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological studies of the 1957 influenza pandemic are scarce, particularly from lower income settings. METHODS: We analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1957 influenza pandemic in Chile including detailed age-specific mortality data from a large city...... with high baseline mortality (R2=41.8%; P=0.02), but not with latitude (P>0.7). Excess mortality rates increased sharply with age. Transmissibility declined from R=1.4-2.1 to R=1.2-1.4 between the two pandemic waves. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated A/H2N2 mortality burden in Chile is the highest on record...... for this pandemic - about 3-5 times as severe as that experienced in wealthier nations. The global impact of this pandemic may be substantially underestimated from previous studies based on high-income countries....

  17. Modeling Influenza Transmission Using Environmental Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Kiang, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza is an acute viral respiratory disease that has significant mortality, morbidity and economic burden worldwide. It infects approximately 5-15% of the world population, and causes 250,000 500,000 deaths each year. The role of environments on influenza is often drawn upon the latitude variability of influenza seasonality pattern. In regions with temperate climate, influenza epidemics exhibit clear seasonal pattern that peak during winter months, but it is not as evident in the tropics. Toward this end, we developed mathematical model and forecasting capabilities for influenza in regions characterized by warm climate Hong Kong (China) and Maricopa County (Arizona, USA). The best model for Hong Kong uses Land Surface Temperature (LST), precipitation and relative humidity as its covariates. Whereas for Maricopa County, we found that weekly influenza cases can be best modelled using mean air temperature as its covariates. Our forecasts can further guides public health organizations in targeting influenza prevention and control measures such as vaccination.

  18. Chemistry, manufacturing and control (CMC) and clinical trial technical support for influenza vaccine manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Rahnuma; Holt, Renee; Hjorth, Richard; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco

    2016-10-26

    With the support of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) of the US Department of Health and Human Services, PATH has contributed to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) by providing technical and clinical assistance to several developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). GAP builds regionally based independent and sustainable influenza vaccine production capacity to mitigate the overall global shortage of influenza vaccines. The program also ensures adequate influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity in the event of an influenza pandemic. Since 2009, PATH has worked closely with two DCVMs in Vietnam: the Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC) and VABIOTECH. Beginning in 2013, PATH also began working with Torlak Institute in Serbia; Instituto Butantan in Brazil; Serum Institute of India Private Ltd. in India; and Changchun BCHT Biotechnology Co. (BCHT) in China. The DCVMs supported under the GAP program all had existing influenza vaccine manufacturing capability and required technical support from PATH to improve vaccine yield, process efficiency, and product formulation. PATH has provided customized technical support for the manufacturing process to each DCVM based on their respective requirements. Additionally, PATH, working with BARDA and WHO, supported several DCVMs in the clinical development of influenza vaccine candidates progressing toward national licensure or WHO prequalification. As a result of the activities outlined in this review, several companies were able to make excellent progress in developing state-of-the-art manufacturing processes and completing early phase clinical trials. Licensure trials are currently ongoing or planned for several DCVMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus potential of catechin and gallic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Huey-Ling; Huang, Chao-Chun; Chen, Chung-Jen; Chang, Cheng-Chin; Liao, Pei-Lin; Huang, Sheng-Teng

    2018-05-01

    The pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread worldwide and infected a large proportion of the human population. Discovery of new and effective drugs for the treatment of influenza is a crucial issue for the global medical community. According to our previous study, TSL-1, a fraction of the aqueous extract from the tender leaf of Toonasinensis, has demonstrated antiviral activities against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) through the down-regulation of adhesion molecules and chemokine to prevent viral attachment. The aim of the present study was to identify the active compounds in TSL-1 which exert anti-influenza A (H1N1) virus effects. XTT assay was used to detect the cell viability. Meanwhile, the inhibitory effect on the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus was analyzed by observing plaque formation, qRT-PCR, neuraminidase activity, and immunofluorescence staining of influenza A-specific glycoprotein. Both catechin and gallic acid were found to be potent inhibitors in terms of influenza virus mRNA replication and MDCK plaque formation. Additionally, both compounds inhibited neuraminidase activities and viral glycoprotein. The 50% effective inhibition concentration (EC 50 ) of catechin and gallic acid for the influenza A (H1N1) virus were 18.4 μg/mL and 2.6 μg/mL, respectively; whereas the 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC 50 ) of catechin and gallic acid were >100 μg/mL and 22.1 μg/mL, respectively. Thus, the selectivity indexes (SI) of catechin and gallic acid were >5.6 and 22.1, respectively. The present study demonstrates that catechin might be a safe reagent for long-term use to prevent influenza A (H1N1) virus infection; whereas gallic acid might be a sensitive reagent to inhibit influenza virus infection. We conclude that these two phyto-chemicals in TSL-1 are responsible for exerting anti-pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  20. On the epidemiology of influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scragg Robert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, "seemingly unmindful of traditional infectious disease behavioral patterns." Recent discoveries indicate vitamin D upregulates the endogenous antibiotics of innate immunity and suggest that the incongruities explored by Hope-Simpson may be secondary to the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency. We identify – and attempt to explain – nine influenza conundrums: (1 Why is influenza both seasonal and ubiquitous and where is the virus between epidemics? (2 Why are the epidemics so explosive? (3 Why do they end so abruptly? (4 What explains the frequent coincidental timing of epidemics in countries of similar latitude? (5 Why is the serial interval obscure? (6 Why is the secondary attack rate so low? (7 Why did epidemics in previous ages spread so rapidly, despite the lack of modern transport? (8 Why does experimental inoculation of seronegative humans fail to cause illness in all the volunteers? (9 Why has influenza mortality of the aged not declined as their vaccination rates increased? We review recent discoveries about vitamin D's effects on innate immunity, human studies attempting sick-to-well transmission, naturalistic reports of human transmission, studies of serial interval, secondary attack rates, and relevant animal studies. We hypothesize that two factors explain the nine conundrums: vitamin D's seasonal and population effects on innate immunity, and the presence of a subpopulation of "good infectors." If true, our revision of Edgar Hope-Simpson's theory has profound implications for the prevention of influenza.

  1. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  2. The role of rodents in avian influenza outbreaks in poultry farms : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, Francisca C; Blokhuis, Simon J; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J B; Burt, Sara A

    2017-01-01

    Wild migratory birds are associated with global avian influenza virus (AIV) spread. Although direct contact with wild birds and contaminated fomites is unlikely in modern non-free range poultry farms applying biosecurity measures, AIV outbreaks still occur. This suggests involvement of other

  3. Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Kim Torchetti, Mia; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G.; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Killian, Mary Lea; Pederson, Janice C.; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.

  4. Avian influenza (H7N9) virus infection in Chinese tourist in Malaysia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Timothy; Thevarajah, Bharathan; Lee, Shiu Fee; Suleiman, Maria; Jeffree, Mohamad Saffree; Menon, Jayaram; Saat, Zainah; Thayan, Ravindran; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Yeo, Tsin Wen

    2015-01-01

    Of the ≈400 cases of avian influenza (H7N9) diagnosed in China since 2003, the only travel-related cases have been in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Detection of a case in a Chinese tourist in Sabah, Malaysia, highlights the ease with which emerging viral respiratory infections can travel globally.

  5. Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Killian, Mary Lea; Pedersen, Janice C; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2015-05-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.

  6. Reviewing the History of Pandemic Influenza: Understanding Patterns of Emergence and Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders-Hastings, Patrick R.; Krewski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, novel strains of influenza have emerged to produce human pandemics, causing widespread illness, death, and disruption. There have been four influenza pandemics in the past hundred years. During this time, globalization processes, alongside advances in medicine and epidemiology, have altered the way these pandemics are experienced. Drawing on international case studies, this paper provides a review of the impact of past influenza pandemics, while examining the evolution of our understanding of, and response to, these viruses. This review argues that pandemic influenza is in part a consequence of human development, and highlights the importance of considering outbreaks within the context of shifting global landscapes. While progress in infectious disease prevention, control, and treatment has improved our ability to respond to such outbreaks, globalization processes relating to human behaviour, demographics, and mobility have increased the threat of pandemic emergence and accelerated global disease transmission. Preparedness planning must continue to evolve to keep pace with this heightened risk. Herein, we look to the past for insights on the pandemic experience, underlining both progress and persisting challenges. However, given the uncertain timing and severity of future pandemics, we emphasize the need for flexible policies capable of responding to change as such emergencies develop. PMID:27929449

  7. Avian Influenza (H7N9) Virus Infection in Chinese Tourist in Malaysia, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    William, Timothy; Thevarajah, Bharathan; Lee, Shiu Fee; Suleiman, Maria; Jeffree, Mohamad Saffree; Menon, Jayaram; Saat, Zainah; Thayan, Ravindran; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Yeo, Tsin Wen

    2015-01-01

    Of the ?400 cases of avian influenza (H7N9) diagnosed in China since 2003, the only travel-related cases have been in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Detection of a case in a Chinese tourist in Sabah, Malaysia, highlights the ease with which emerging viral respiratory infections can travel globally.

  8. Laboratory-based Interpretation of Seismological Models: Dealing with Incomplete or Incompatible Experimental Data (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, I.; Kennett, B. L.; Faul, U. H.

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with cooperative developments in seismology during the past 25 years, there have been phenomenal advances in mineral/rock physics making laboratory-based interpretation of seismological models increasingly useful. However, the assimilation of diverse experimental data into a physically sound framework for seismological application is not without its challenges as demonstrated by two examples. In the first example, that of equation-of-state and elasticity data, an appropriate, thermodynamically consistent framework involves finite-strain expansion of the Helmholz free energy incorporating the Debye approximation to the lattice vibrational energy, as advocated by Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni. Within this context, pressure, specific heat and entropy, thermal expansion, elastic constants and their adiabatic and isothermal pressure derivatives are all calculable without further approximation in an internally consistent manner. The opportunities and challenges of assimilating a wide range of sometimes marginally incompatible experimental data into a single model of this type will be demonstrated with reference to MgO, unquestionably the most thoroughly studied mantle mineral. A neighbourhood-algorithm inversion has identified a broadly satisfactory model, but uncertainties in key parameters associated particularly with pressure calibration remain sufficiently large as to preclude definitive conclusions concerning lower-mantle chemical composition and departures from adiabaticity. The second example is the much less complete dataset concerning seismic-wave dispersion and attenuation emerging from low-frequency forced-oscillation experiments. Significant progress has been made during the past decade towards an understanding of high-temperature, micro-strain viscoelastic relaxation in upper-mantle materials, especially as regards the roles of oscillation period, temperature, grain size and melt fraction. However, the influence of other potentially important

  9. Influenza virus infection among pediatric patients reporting diarrhea and influenza-like illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyeki Timothy M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization among children. While less often reported in adults, gastrointestinal symptoms have been associated with influenza in children, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Methods From September 2005 and April 2008, pediatric patients in Indonesia presenting with concurrent diarrhea and influenza-like illness were enrolled in a study to determine the frequency of influenza virus infection in young patients presenting with symptoms less commonly associated with an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. Stool specimens and upper respiratory swabs were assayed for the presence of influenza virus. Results Seasonal influenza A or influenza B viral RNA was detected in 85 (11.6% upper respiratory specimens and 21 (2.9% of stool specimens. Viable influenza B virus was isolated from the stool specimen of one case. During the time of this study, human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1 virus were common in the survey area. However, among 733 enrolled subjects, none had evidence of H5N1 virus infection. Conclusions The detection of influenza viral RNA and viable influenza virus from stool suggests that influenza virus may be localized in the gastrointestinal tract of children, may be associated with pediatric diarrhea and may serve as a potential mode of transmission during seasonal and epidemic influenza outbreaks.

  10. Anti-influenza Hyperimmune Immunoglobulin Enhances Fc-functional Antibody Immunity during Human Influenza Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderven, Hillary A; Wragg, Kathleen; Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Fernanda; Kristensen, Anne B; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Wheatley, Adam K; Wentworth, Deborah; Wines, Bruce D; Hogarth, P Mark; Rockman, Steve; Kent, Stephen J

    2018-05-31

    New treatments for severe influenza are needed. Passive transfer of influenza-specific hyperimmune pooled immunoglobulin (Flu-IVIG) boosts neutralising antibody responses to past strains in influenza-infected subjects. The effect of Flu-IVIG on antibodies with Fc-mediated functions, which may target diverse influenza strains, is unclear. We studied the capacity of Flu-IVIG, relative to standard IVIG, to bind to Fc receptors and mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in vitro. The effect of Flu-IVIG infusion, compared to placebo infusion, was examined in serial plasma samples from 24 subjects with confirmed influenza infection in the INSIGHT FLU005 pilot study. Flu-IVIG contains higher concentrations of Fc-functional antibodies than IVIG against a diverse range of influenza hemagglutinins. Following infusion of Flu-IVIG into influenza-infected subjects, a transient increase in Fc-functional antibodies was present for 1-3 days against infecting and non-infecting strains of influenza. Flu-IVIG contains antibodies with Fc-mediated functions against influenza virus and passive transfer of Flu-IVIG increases anti-influenza Fc-functional antibodies in the plasma of influenza-infected subjects. Enhancement of Fc-functional antibodies to a diverse range of influenza strains suggests that Flu-IVIG infusion could prove useful in the context of novel influenza virus infections, when there may be minimal or no neutralising antibodies in the Flu-IVIG preparation.

  11. Sentinel surveillance of influenza-like-illness in two cities of the tropical country of Ecuador: 2006-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W Douce

    Full Text Available Tropical countries are thought to play an important role in the global behavior of respiratory infections such as influenza. The tropical country of Ecuador has almost no documentation of the causes of acute respiratory infections. The objectives of this study were to identify the viral agents associated with influenza like illness (ILI in Ecuador, describe what strains of influenza were circulating in the region along with their epidemiologic characteristics, and perform molecular characterization of those strains.This is a prospective surveillance study of the causes of ILI based on viral culture of oropharyngeal specimens and case report forms obtained in hospitals from two cities of Ecuador over 4 years. Out of 1,702 cases of ILI, nine viral agents were detected in 597 patients. During the time of the study, seven genetic variants of influenza circulated in Ecuador, causing six periods of increased activity. There appeared to be more heterogeneity in the cause of ILI in the tropical city of Guayaquil when compared with the Andean city of Quito.This was the most extensive documentation of the viral causes of ILI in Ecuador to date. Influenza was a common cause of ILI in Ecuador, causing more than one outbreak per year. There was no well defined influenza season although there were periods of time when no influenza was detected alternating with epidemics of different variant strains.

  12. Prevention of influenza-related illness in young infants by maternal vaccination during pregnancy [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C Nunes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influenza virus circulates yearly and causes global epidemics. Influenza infection affects all age groups and causes mild to severe illness, and young infants are at particular risk for serious disease. The most effective measure to prevent influenza disease is vaccination; however, no vaccine is licensed for use in infants younger than 6 months old. Thus, there is a crucial need for other preventive strategies in this high-risk age group. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy protects both the mothers and the young infants against influenza infection. Vaccination during pregnancy boosts the maternal antibodies and increases the transfer of immunoglobulin G from the mother to the fetus through the placenta, which confers protection against infection in infants too young to be vaccinated. Data from clinical trials and observational studies did not demonstrate adverse effects to the mother, the fetus, or the infant after maternal influenza vaccination. We present the current data on the effectiveness and safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy in preventing disease in the young infant.

  13. Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-Like-Illness in Two Cities of the Tropical Country of Ecuador: 2006–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douce, Richard W.; Aleman, Washington; Chicaiza-Ayala, Wilson; Madrid, Cesar; Sovero, Merly; Delgado, Franklin; Rodas, Mireya; Ampuero, Julia; Chauca, Gloria; Perez, Juan; Garcia, Josefina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Background Tropical countries are thought to play an important role in the global behavior of respiratory infections such as influenza. The tropical country of Ecuador has almost no documentation of the causes of acute respiratory infections. The objectives of this study were to identify the viral agents associated with influenza like illness (ILI) in Ecuador, describe what strains of influenza were circulating in the region along with their epidemiologic characteristics, and perform molecular characterization of those strains. Methodology/Findings This is a prospective surveillance study of the causes of ILI based on viral culture of oropharyngeal specimens and case report forms obtained in hospitals from two cities of Ecuador over 4 years. Out of 1,702 cases of ILI, nine viral agents were detected in 597 patients. During the time of the study, seven genetic variants of influenza circulated in Ecuador, causing six periods of increased activity. There appeared to be more heterogeneity in the cause of ILI in the tropical city of Guayaquil when compared with the Andean city of Quito. Conclusions/Significance This was the most extensive documentation of the viral causes of ILI in Ecuador to date. Influenza was a common cause of ILI in Ecuador, causing more than one outbreak per year. There was no well defined influenza season although there were periods of time when no influenza was detected alternating with epidemics of different variant strains. PMID:21887216

  14. Influenza (Flu) vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... flulive.html . CDC review information for Live, Intranasal Influenza VIS: Vaccine Information Statement Influenza Page last reviewed: ...

  15. Flu (Influenza) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/fluinfluenzatest.html Flu (Influenza) Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Flu (Influenza) Test? Influenza, known as the flu , is ...

  16. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  17. Formulation of influenza T cell peptides : in search of a universal influenza vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soema, Peter Christiaan

    2015-01-01

    Current seasonal influenza vaccines rely on the induction of antibodies to neutralize the virus. However, influenza viruses frequently undergo genetic mutations due to antigenic drift and shift, altering the surface proteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase to which antibodies usually bind. This

  18. Control strategies against avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1959, 40 epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred (Figure 1). Thirty-five of these epizootic HPAI viruses were geographically-limited (mostly to single countries), involved farm-to-farm spread and were eradicated from poultry by stamping-out programs; i.e. the HPAI...

  19. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu? Treatment ? Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Th?ophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebu...

  20. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Hall et al. (2012) Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2012.00358.x. Background  Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are l...

  1. Avian and human influenza virus compatible sialic acid receptors in little brown bats

    OpenAIRE

    Shubhada K. Chothe; Gitanjali Bhushan; Ruth H. Nissly; Yin-Ting Yeh; Justin Brown; Gregory Turner; Jenny Fisher; Brent J. Sewall; DeeAnn M. Reeder; Mauricio Terrones; Bhushan M. Jayarao; Suresh V. Kuchipudi

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) continue to threaten animal and human health globally. Bats are asymptomatic reservoirs for many zoonotic viruses. Recent reports of two novel IAVs in fruit bats and serological evidence of avian influenza virus (AIV) H9 infection in frugivorous bats raise questions about the role of bats in IAV epidemiology. IAVs bind to sialic acid (SA) receptors on host cells, and it is widely believed that hosts expressing both SA ?2,3-Gal and SA ?2,6-Gal receptors could facilit...

  2. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of human influenza A viruses isolated in Iran during the 2014-2015 season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moasser, Elham; Behzadian, Farida; Moattari, Afagh; Fotouhi, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Amir; Zaraket, Hassan; Hosseini, Seyed Younes

    2017-07-01

    Influenza A viruses are an important cause of severe infectious diseases in humans and are characterized by their fast evolution rate. Global monitoring of these viruses is critical to detect newly emerging variants during annual epidemics. Here, we sought to genetically characterize influenza A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 viruses collected in Iran during the 2014-2015 influenza season. A total of 200 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from patients with influenza-like illnesses. Swabs were screened for influenza A and B using real-time PCR. Furthermore, positive specimens with high virus load underwent virus isolation and genetic characterization of their hemagglutinin (HA) and M genes. Of the 200 specimens, 80 were influenza A-positive, including 44 A/H1N1pdm09 and 36 A/H3N2, while 18 were influenza B-positive. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes of the A/H1N1pdm09 viruses revealed the circulation of clade 6C, characterized by amino acid substitutions D97N, V234I and K283E. Analysis of the A/H3N2 viruses showed a genetic drift from the vaccine strain A/Texas/50/2012 with 5 mutations (T128A, R142G, N145S, P198S and S219F) belonging to the antigenic sites A, B, and D of the HA protein. The A/H3N2 viruses belonged to phylogenetic clades 3C.2 and 3C.3. The M gene trees of the Iranian A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 mirrored the clustering patterns of their corresponding HA trees. Our results reveal co-circulation of several influenza A virus strains in Iran during the 2014-2015 influenza season.

  3. Effects of influenza vaccination and influenza illness on exacerbations in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Zwanikken, C

    1998-01-01

    Despite reports that influenza vaccination appears to be safe in multiple sclerosis there is uncertainty which patients may benefit from it. By using a questionnaire we compared the effects of influenza illness (1995-1996 season) and influenza vaccination (autumn of 1996) on neurologic symptoms in

  4. Molecular detection and typing of influenza viruses. Are we ready for an influenza pandemic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacKay, W.G.; Loon, A.M. van; Niedrig, M.; Meijer, A.; Lina, B.; Niesters, H.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We cannot predict when an influenza pandemic will occur or which variant of the virus will cause it. Little information is currently available on the ability of laboratories to detect and subtype influenza viruses including the avian influenza viruses. OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability

  5. Antigenic and genomic characterization of human influenza A and B viruses circulating in Argentina after the introduction of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mara L; Pontoriero, Andrea V; Benedetti, Estefania; Czech, Andrea; Avaro, Martin; Periolo, Natalia; Campos, Ana M; Savy, Vilma L; Baumeister, Elsa G

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Argentinean Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses Surveillance Network, in the context of the Global Influenza Surveillance carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO). The objective was to study the activity and the antigenic and genomic characteristics of circulating viruses for three consecutive seasons (2010, 2011 and 2012) in order to investigate the emergence of influenza viral variants. During the study period, influenza virus circulation was detected from January to December. Influenza A and B, and all current subtypes of human influenza viruses, were present each year. Throughout the 2010 post-pandemic season, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, unexpectedly, almost disappeared. The haemagglutinin (HA) of the A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses studied were segregated in a different genetic group to those identified during the 2009 pandemic, although they were still antigenically closely related to the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009. Influenza A(H3N2) viruses were the predominant strains circulating during the 2011 season, accounting for nearly 76 % of influenza viruses identified. That year, all HA sequences of the A(H3N2) viruses tested fell into the A/Victoria/208/2009 genetic clade, but remained antigenically related to A/Perth/16/2009 (reference vaccine recommended for this three-year period). A(H3N2) viruses isolated in 2012 were antigenically closely related to A/Victoria/361/2011, recommended by the WHO as the H3 component for the 2013 Southern Hemisphere formulation. B viruses belonging to the B/Victoria lineage circulated in 2010. A mixed circulation of viral variants of both B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages was detected in 2012, with the former being predominant. A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses remained antigenically closely related to the vaccine virus A/California/7/2009; A(H3N2) viruses continually evolved into new antigenic clusters and both B lineages, B/Victoria/2/87-like and B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses, were observed

  6. Evolution of Therapeutic Antibodies, Influenza Virus Biology, Influenza, and Influenza Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urai Chaisri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This narrative review article summarizes past and current technologies for generating antibodies for passive immunization/immunotherapy. Contemporary DNA and protein technologies have facilitated the development of engineered therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in a variety of formats according to the required effector functions. Chimeric, humanized, and human monoclonal antibodies to antigenic/epitopic myriads with less immunogenicity than animal-derived antibodies in human recipients can be produced in vitro. Immunotherapy with ready-to-use antibodies has gained wide acceptance as a powerful treatment against both infectious and noninfectious diseases. Influenza, a highly contagious disease, precipitates annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, resulting in high health and economic burden worldwide. Currently available drugs are becoming less and less effective against this rapidly mutating virus. Alternative treatment strategies are needed, particularly for individuals at high risk for severe morbidity. In a setting where vaccines are not yet protective or available, human antibodies that are broadly effective against various influenza subtypes could be highly efficacious in lowering morbidity and mortality and controlling unprecedented epidemic/pandemic. Prototypes of human single-chain antibodies to several conserved proteins of influenza virus with no Fc portion (hence, no ADE effect in recipients are available. These antibodies have high potential as a novel, safe, and effective anti-influenza agent.

  7. Swine influenza and vaccines: an alternative approach for decision making about pandemic prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Marcello; Ferrini, Silvia; Montomoli, Emanuele

    2013-08-01

    During the global pandemic of A/H1N1/California/07/2009 (A/H1N1/Cal) influenza, many governments signed contracts with vaccine producers for a universal influenza immunization program and bought hundreds of millions of vaccines doses. We argue that, as Health Ministers assumed the occurrence of the worst possible scenario (generalized pandemic influenza) and followed the strong version of the Precautionary Principle, they undervalued the possibility of mild or weak pandemic wave. An alternative decision rule, based on the non-extensive entropy principle, is introduced, and a different Precautionary Principle characterization is applied. This approach values extreme negative results (catastrophic events) in a different way and predicts more plausible and mild events. It introduces less pessimistic forecasts in the case of uncertain influenza pandemic outbreaks. A simplified application is presented using seasonal data of morbidity and severity among Italian children influenza-like illness for the period 2003-10. Established literature results predict an average attack rate of not less than 15% for the next pandemic influenza [Meltzer M, Cox N, Fukuda K. The economic impact of pandemic influenza in the United States: implications for setting priorities for interventions. Emerg Infect Dis 1999;5:659-71; Meltzer M, Cox N, Fukuda K. Modeling the Economic Impact of Pandemic Influenza in the United States: Implications for Setting Priorities for Intervention. Background paper. Atlanta, GA: CDC, 1999. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no5/melt_back.htm (7 January 2011, date last accessed))]. The strong version of the Precautionary Principle would suggest using this prediction for vaccination campaigns. On the contrary, the non-extensive maximum entropy principle predicts a lower attack rate, which induces a 20% saving in public funding for vaccines doses. The need for an effective influenza pandemic prevention program, coupled with an efficient use of public

  8. Modeling and Statistical Analysis of the Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Seasonal Influenza in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katriel, Guy; Yaari, Rami; Roll, Uri; Stone, Lewi

    2012-01-01

    a similar main strain of influenza, combined with population mixing serve to enhance local and global influenza synchronization within an influenza season. PMID:23056192

  9. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Clar,Christine; Oseni,Zainab; Flowers,Nadine; Keshtkar-Jahromi,Maryam; Rees,Karen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: This is an update of the original review published in 2008. The risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is increased with influenza-like infection, and vaccination against influenza may improve cardiovascular outcomes.OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential benefits of influenza vaccination for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.METHODS:Search methods:We searched the following electronic databases on 18 October 2013: The Cochrane Library (including Coch...

  10. Influenza in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Spencer T; Torabi, Mina J; Gabardi, Steven

    2012-02-01

    To review available data describing the epidemiology, outcomes, prevention, and treatment of influenza virus in the solid organ transplant population and to evaluate the strengths and limitations of the current literature, with a focus on literature reviewing annual influenza strains and the recent pandemic novel influenza A/H1N1 strain. A systematic literature search (July 1980-June 2011) was performed via PubMed using the following key words: influenza, human; influenza; novel influenza A H1/N1; transplantation; solid organ transplantation; kidney transplant; renal transplant; lung transplant; heart transplant; and liver transplant. Papers were excluded if they were not written in English or were animal studies or in vitro studies. Data from fully published studies and recent reports from international conferences were included. The influenza virus presents a constant challenge to immunocompromised patients and their health care providers. The annual influenza strain introduces a highly infectious and pathogenic risk to solid organ transplant recipients. In 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic as a result of a novel influenza A/H1N1 strain. The pandemic introduced an additional viral threat to solid organ transplant patients at increased risk for infectious complications. The mainstay for prevention of influenza infection in all at-risk populations is appropriate vaccination. Antiviral therapies against influenza for chemoprophylaxis and treatment of infection are available; however, dosing strategies in the solid organ transplant population are not well defined. The solid organ transplant population is at an increased risk of severe complications from influenza infection. Identifying risks, preventing illness, and appropriately treating active infection is essential in this patient population.

  11. Influenza Seasonal Summary, 2014-2015 Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Influenza Seasonal Summarv 2014-2015 Season EpiData Center Department Communicable Disease Division NMCPHC-EDC-TR-394-2015 REPORT DOCUMENTATION... Influenza Seasonal Summary, 2014-2015 Season Sb. GRANT NUMBER $c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHORjS) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Ashleigh K McCabe, Kristen R...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 1<l. ABSTRACT This report summartzes influenza activity among Department of Navy (DON) and Depar1ment of Defense (DOD

  12. National seasonal influenza vaccination survey in Europe, 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mereckiene, J

    2008-10-23

    A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with the European Union (EU) Member States and Norway and Iceland to describe seasonal influenza immunisation in the 2006-7 season, in particular to identify country-specific recommendations for risk groups, obtain vaccine uptake information and allow comparison with global recommendations. A standardised questionnaire was completed electronically by each country\\'s project gatekeeper. Of the 29 countries surveyed, 28 recommended seasonal influenza vaccination for older age groups (22 for those aged > 65 years), and in one country vaccine was recommended for all age groups. All countries recommended vaccinating patients with chronic pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases and most countries advised to immunise patients with haematologic or metabolic disorders (n=28), immunologic disorders (n=27) and renal disease (n=27), as well as residents of long-term care facilities (n=24). Most countries recommended vaccination for staff in hospitals (n=25), long-term care facilities (n=25) and outpatient clinics (n=23), and one-third had such recommendations for workers in essential (n=10), military (n=10) and veterinary services (n=10) and poultry industry (n=13). Eight countries recommended vaccine for pregnant women; and five advised to vaccinate children (with age limits ranging from 6 months to 5 years). Twenty countries measured influenza vaccine uptake among those aged > 65 years (range 1.8%-82.1%), seven reported uptake in healthcare workers (range 14%-48%) and seven assessed coverage in persons with underlying medical conditions (range 27.6%-75.2%). The data provided by this study can assist EU states to assess and compare their influenza vaccination programme performance with other countries. The information provides a comprehensive overview of policies and programmes and their outcomes and can be used to inform joint discussions on how the national policies in the EU might be standardised in the future to achieve optimal

  13. National seasonal influenza vaccination survey in Europe, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereckiene, J; Cotter, S; Nicoll, A; Levy-Bruhl, D; Ferro, A; Tridente, G; Zanoni, G; Berra, P; Salmaso, S; O'Flanagan, D; O Flanagan, D

    2008-10-23

    A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with the European Union (EU) Member States and Norway and Iceland to describe seasonal influenza immunisation in the 2006-7 season, in particular to identify country-specific recommendations for risk groups, obtain vaccine uptake information and allow comparison with global recommendations. A standardised questionnaire was completed electronically by each country's project gatekeeper. Of the 29 countries surveyed, 28 recommended seasonal influenza vaccination for older age groups (22 for those aged > 65 years), and in one country vaccine was recommended for all age groups. All countries recommended vaccinating patients with chronic pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases and most countries advised to immunise patients with haematologic or metabolic disorders (n=28), immunologic disorders (n=27) and renal disease (n=27), as well as residents of long-term care facilities (n=24). Most countries recommended vaccination for staff in hospitals (n=25), long-term care facilities (n=25) and outpatient clinics (n=23), and one-third had such recommendations for workers in essential (n=10), military (n=10) and veterinary services (n=10) and poultry industry (n=13). Eight countries recommended vaccine for pregnant women; and five advised to vaccinate children (with age limits ranging from 6 months to 5 years). Twenty countries measured influenza vaccine uptake among those aged > 65 years (range 1.8%-82.1%), seven reported uptake in healthcare workers (range 14%-48%) and seven assessed coverage in persons with underlying medical conditions (range 27.6%-75.2%). The data provided by this study can assist EU states to assess and compare their influenza vaccination programme performance with other countries. The information provides a comprehensive overview of policies and programmes and their outcomes and can be used to inform joint discussions on how the national policies in the EU might be standardised in the future to achieve optimal

  14. Hampered foraging and migratory performance in swans infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza A virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A van Gils

    Full Text Available It is increasingly acknowledged that migratory birds, notably waterfowl, play a critical role in the maintenance and spread of influenza A viruses. In order to elucidate the epidemiology of influenza A viruses in their natural hosts, a better understanding of the pathological effects in these hosts is required. Here we report on the feeding and migratory performance of wild migratory Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii Yarrell naturally infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI A viruses of subtypes H6N2 and H6N8. Using information on geolocation data collected from Global Positioning Systems fitted to neck-collars, we show that infected swans experienced delayed migration, leaving their wintering site more than a month after uninfected animals. This was correlated with infected birds travelling shorter distances and fuelling and feeding at reduced rates. The data suggest that LPAI virus infections in wild migratory birds may have higher clinical and ecological impacts than previously recognised.

  15. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy in a child with H1N1 influenza infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, Jane B.; Remigio, Cheryl; Milligan, Thomas; Deline, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Since the World Health Organization declared a global pandemic of novel influenza A H1N1 in June 2009, there has been a sustained rise in the number of cases of this strain of influenza. Although most cases are mild with complete and uneventful recovery, multiple cases of severe infection with complications including death have been reported. To the best of our knowledge, the majority of fatal outcomes in the United States have been related to pulmonary complications. We report a 12-year-old girl infected with influenza A H1N1 whose clinical course was complicated by rapid progressive neurologic deterioration and striking CT and MRI findings consistent with acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE). To our knowledge this has not been reported in the pediatric radiology literature. We hope this case will alert radiologists to this complication and familiarize radiologists with imaging findings that herald ANE. (orig.)

  16. Sickness absenteeism rate in Iranian schools during the 2009 epidemic of type a influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabbasi, Ata; Shirvani, Mahbubeh Ebrahimnegad; Khashayar, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Influenza pandemic was a global event in 2009 and intraschool transmission was its main spread method. The present study was designed to evaluate the absenteeism rate during the type A influenza epidemic. Four hundred and eight students from both a guidance school and high school in the Iranian capital were recruited in this retrospective study. The number of days of absenteeism, since the beginning of the school year until the end of the epidemic was recorded. Two hundred and thirteen students missed school during the disease epidemic because of related causes. In other words, 581 person day absences were reported during this period. The influenza pandemic has led to an increase in the absenteeism rate and may negatively affect the academic performance of the students. Teaching precautionary measures is an effective tool in reducing the number of days of sickness.

  17. Impact of quadrivalent influenza vaccine on public health and influenza-related costs in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Jamotte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annual trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV containing three influenza strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and one B have been recommended for the prevention of influenza. However, worldwide co-circulation of two distinct B lineages (Victoria and Yamagata and difficulties in predicting which lineage will predominate each season have led to the development of quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV, which include both B lineages. Our analysis evaluates the public health benefit and associated influenza-related costs avoided which would have been obtained by using QIV rather than TIV in Australia over the period 2002–2012. Methods A static model stratified by age group was used, focusing on people at increased risk of influenza as defined by the Australian vaccination recommendations. B-lineage cross-protection was accounted for. We calculated the potential impact of QIV compared with TIV over the seasons 2002–2012 (2009 pandemic year excluded using Australian data on influenza circulation, vaccine coverage, hospitalisation and mortality rates as well as unit costs, and international data on vaccine effectiveness, influenza attack rate, GP consultation rate and working days lost. Third-party payer and societal influenza-related costs were estimated in 2014 Australian dollars. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results Using QIV instead of TIV over the period 2002–2012 would have prevented an estimated 68,271 additional influenza cases, 47,537 GP consultations, 3,522 hospitalisations and 683 deaths in the population at risk of influenza. These results translate into influenza-related societal costs avoided of $46.5 million. The estimated impact of QIV was higher for young children and the elderly. The overall impact of QIV depended mainly on vaccine effectiveness and the influenza attack rate attributable to the mismatched B lineage. Conclusion The broader protection offered by QIV would have reduced the number of influenza infections

  18. Environmental contaminant mixtures modulate in vitro influenza infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Bandoro, Christopher; Shehata, Laila

    2018-01-01

    Environmental chemicals, particularly organochlorinated contaminants (OCs), are associated with a ranged of adverse health effects, including impairment of the immune system and antiviral immunity. Influenza A virus (IAV) is an infectious disease of major global public health concern and exposure...... studies such as ours can shed light on the complex processes underlying host-pathogen-pollutant interactions....... to OCs can increase the susceptibility, morbidity, and mortality to disease. It is however unclear how pollutants are interacting and affecting the outcome of viral infections at the cellular level. In this study, we investigated the effects of a mixture of environmentally relevant OCs on IAV infectivity...

  19. MicroRNA regulation of human protease genes essential for influenza virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Meliopoulos

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics and periodic pandemics threatening the health of millions of people each year. Vaccination is an effective strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality, and in the absence of drug resistance, the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis is comparable to that of vaccines. However, the rapid emergence of drug resistance has emphasized the need for new drug targets. Knowledge of the host cell components required for influenza replication has been an area targeted for disease intervention. In this study, the human protease genes required for influenza virus replication were determined and validated using RNA interference approaches. The genes validated as critical for influenza virus replication were ADAMTS7, CPE, DPP3, MST1, and PRSS12, and pathway analysis showed these genes were in global host cell pathways governing inflammation (NF-κB, cAMP/calcium signaling (CRE/CREB, and apoptosis. Analyses of host microRNAs predicted to govern expression of these genes showed that eight miRNAs regulated gene expression during virus replication. These findings identify unique host genes and microRNAs important for influenza replication providing potential new targets for disease intervention strategies.

  20. MicroRNA regulation of human protease genes essential for influenza virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliopoulos, Victoria A; Andersen, Lauren E; Brooks, Paula; Yan, Xiuzhen; Bakre, Abhijeet; Coleman, J Keegan; Tompkins, S Mark; Tripp, Ralph A

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics and periodic pandemics threatening the health of millions of people each year. Vaccination is an effective strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality, and in the absence of drug resistance, the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis is comparable to that of vaccines. However, the rapid emergence of drug resistance has emphasized the need for new drug targets. Knowledge of the host cell components required for influenza replication has been an area targeted for disease intervention. In this study, the human protease genes required for influenza virus replication were determined and validated using RNA interference approaches. The genes validated as critical for influenza virus replication were ADAMTS7, CPE, DPP3, MST1, and PRSS12, and pathway analysis showed these genes were in global host cell pathways governing inflammation (NF-κB), cAMP/calcium signaling (CRE/CREB), and apoptosis. Analyses of host microRNAs predicted to govern expression of these genes showed that eight miRNAs regulated gene expression during virus replication. These findings identify unique host genes and microRNAs important for influenza replication providing potential new targets for disease intervention strategies.

  1. Laboratory-Based Surveillance of Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Wu, Qingqing; Xu, Shuiyang; Zhong, Jieming; Chen, Songhua; Xu, Jinghang; Zhu, Liping; He, Haibo; Wang, Xiaomeng

    2017-03-01

    With 25% of the global burden, China has the highest incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in the world. However, surveillance data on extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) from China are scant. To estimate the prevalence of XDR-TB in Zhejiang, Eastern China, 30 of 90 TB treatment centers in Zhejiang were recruited. Patients with suspected TB who reported to the clinics for diagnosis were requested to undergo a smear sputum test. Positive sputum samples were tested for drug susceptibility. Data on anti-TB drug resistance from 1999 to 2008 were also collected to assess drug resistance trends. A total of 931 cases were recruited for drug susceptibility testing (DST). Among these, 23.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.8-24.4) were resistant to any of the following drugs: isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, and ethambutol. Multidrug resistant (MDR) strains were identified in 5.1% of all cases (95% CI, 3.61-6.49). Among MDR-TB cases, 6.4% were XDR (95% CI, 1.7-18.6) and 8.9% (95% CI, 7.0-10.8) of all cases were resistant to either isoniazid or rifampin (but not both). Among MDR-TB cases, 23.4% (95% CI, 12.8-38.4) were resistant to either fluoroquinolones or a second-line anti-TB injectable drug, but not both. From 1999 to 2014, the percentage of MDR cases decreased significantly, from 8.6% to 5.1% (p = 0.00). The Global Fund to Fight TB program showed signs of success in Eastern China. However, drug-resistant TB, MDR-TB, and XDR-TB still pose a challenge for TB control in Eastern China. High-quality directly observed treatment, short-course, and universal DST for TB cases to determine appropriate treatment regimens are urgently needed to prevent acquired drug resistance.

  2. Characterization of Seasonal Influenza Virus Type and Subtypes Isolated from Influenza Like Illness Cases of 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, B P; Ghimire, P; Tashiro, M; Banjara, M R

    Background Seasonal influenza is one of the increasing public health burdens in Nepal. Objective The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize the influenza virus type and subtypes of Nepal. Method A total of 1536 throat swab specimens were collected from January to December 2012. Total ribonucleic acid was extracted using Qiagen viral nucleic acid extraction kit and polymerase chain reaction assay was performed following the US; CDC Real-time PCR protocol. Ten percent of positive specimens were inoculated onto Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells. Isolates were characterized by using reference ferret antisera. Result Of the total specimens (n=1536), influenza virus type A was detected in 196 (22%) cases; of which 194 (99%) were influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and 2 (1 %) were influenza A/H3 subtype. Influenza B was detected in 684 (76.9%) cases. Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, A/H3 and influenza B virus were antigenically similar to the recommended influenza virus vaccine candidate of the year 2012. Although sporadic cases of influenza were observed throughout the year, peak was observed during July to November. Conclusion Similar to other tropical countries, A (H1N1) pdm09, A/H3 and influenza B viruses were co-circulated in Nepal.

  3. Influenza Vaccination in Young Children Reduces Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Older Adults, 2002–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven A.; Chui, Kenneth K.H.; Naumova, Elena N.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess how influenza vaccination coverage in children is related to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) in US seniors and if these associations are modified by sociodemographic factors. DESIGN We abstracted approximately 5 million hospitalization records from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for four influenza years, 2002–2006. We estimated a single year age distribution of rates of P&I hospitalization by state for each influenza season and observed an exponential acceleration in the P&I rates with age for each influenza season. State-and season-specific P&I rate accelerations were regressed against the percentage of vaccinated children, seniors, or both using mixed effects models. SETTING United States population, 2002–2006 PARTICIPANTS US population aged 65 and above MEASUREMENTS State-level influenza annual vaccination coverage data in children and seniors were obtained from the National Immunization Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respectively. RESULTS Child influenza vaccination coverage was negatively associated with age acceleration in P&I, whereas influenza vaccination in the seniors themselves was not significantly associated with P&I in seniors. CONCLUSION Vaccination of children against influenza may induce herd immunity against influenza for seniors and has the potential to be more beneficial to seniors than the existing policy to prevent influenza by vaccinating seniors themselves. PMID:21275932

  4. Information technology systems for critical care triage and medical response during an influenza pandemic: a review of current systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandayrel, Kristofer; Lapinsky, Stephen; Christian, Michael

    2013-06-01

    To assess local, state, federal, and global pandemic influenza preparedness by identifying pandemic plans at the local, state, federal, and global levels, and to identify any information technology (IT) systems in these plans to support critical care triage during an influenza pandemic in the Canadian province of Ontario. The authors used advanced MEDLINE and Google search strategies and conducted a comprehensive review of key pandemic influenza Web sites. Descriptive data extraction and analysis for IT systems were conducted on all of the included pandemic plans. A total of 155 pandemic influenza plans were reviewed: 29 local, 62 state, 63 federal, and 1 global. We found 70 plans that examined IT systems (10 local, 33 state, 26 federal, 1 global), and 85 that did not (19 local, 29 state, 37 federal). Of the 70 plans, 64 described surveillance systems (10 local, 32 state, 21 federal, 1 global), 2 described patient data collection systems (1 state, 1 federal); 4 described other types of IT systems (4 federal), and none were intended for triage. Although several pandemic plans have been drafted, the majority are high-level general documents that do not describe IT systems. The plans that discuss IT systems focus strongly on surveillance, which fails to recognize the needs of a health care system responding to an influenza pandemic. The best examples of the types of IT systems to guide decision making during a pandemic were found in the Kansas and the Czech Republic pandemic plans, because these systems were designed to collect both patient and surveillance data. Although Ontario has yet to develop such an IT system, several IT systems are in place that could be leveraged to support critical care triage and medical response during an influenza pandemic.

  5. Travellers and influenza: risks and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeijenbier, M; van Genderen, P; Ward, B J; Wilder-Smith, A; Steffen, R; Osterhaus, A D M E

    2017-01-01

    Influenza viruses are among the major causes of serious human respiratory tract infection worldwide. In line with the high disease burden attributable to influenza, these viruses play an important, but often neglected, role in travel medicine. Guidelines and recommendations regarding prevention and management of influenza in travellers are scarce. Of special interest for travel medicine are risk populations and also circumstances that facilitate influenza virus transmission and spread, like travel by airplane or cruise ship and mass gatherings. We conducted a PUBMED/MEDLINE search for a combination of the MeSH terms Influenza virus, travel, mass gathering, large scale events and cruise ship. In addition we gathered guidelines and recommendations from selected countries and regarding influenza prevention and management in travellers. By reviewing these search results in the light of published knowledge in the fields of influenza prevention and management, we present best practice advice for the prevention and management of influenza in travel medicine. Seasonal influenza is among the most prevalent infectious diseases in travellers. Known host-associated risk factors include extremes of age and being immune-compromised, while the most relevant environmental factors are associated with holiday cruises and mass gatherings. Pre-travel advice should address influenza and its prevention for travellers, whenever appropriate on the basis of the epidemiological situation concerned. Preventative measures should be strongly recommended for travellers at high-risk for developing complications. In addition, seasonal influenza vaccination should be considered for any traveller wishing to reduce the risk of incapacitation, particularly cruise ship crew and passengers, as well as those participating in mass gatherings. Besides advice concerning preventive measures and vaccination, advice on the use of antivirals may be considered for some travellers. © International Society of

  6. Stockpiling Ventilators for Influenza Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Chan; Araz, Ozgur M; Morton, David P; Johnson, Gregory P; Damien, Paul; Clements, Bruce; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2017-06-01

    In preparing for influenza pandemics, public health agencies stockpile critical medical resources. Determining appropriate quantities and locations for such resources can be challenging, given the considerable uncertainty in the timing and severity of future pandemics. We introduce a method for optimizing stockpiles of mechanical ventilators, which are critical for treating hospitalized influenza patients in respiratory failure. As a case study, we consider the US state of Texas during mild, moderate, and severe pandemics. Optimal allocations prioritize local over central storage, even though the latter can be deployed adaptively, on the basis of real-time needs. This prioritization stems from high geographic correlations and the slightly lower treatment success assumed for centrally stockpiled ventilators. We developed our model and analysis in collaboration with academic researchers and a state public health agency and incorporated it into a Web-based decision-support tool for pandemic preparedness and response.

  7. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  8. Identification and Epidemiology of Severe Respiratory Disease due to Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 Virus Infection in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zahariadis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In March 2009, global surveillance started detecting cases of influenza-like illness in Mexico. By mid-April 2009, two pediatric patients were identified in the United States who were confirmed to be infected by a novel influenza A (H1N1 strain. The present article describes the first identified severe respiratory infection and the first death associated with pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 in Canada.

  9. Development of stable influenza vaccine powder formulations : Challenges and possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorij, J-P; Huckriede, A; Wilschut, J; Frijlink, H W; Hinrichs, W L J

    2008-01-01

    Influenza vaccination represents the cornerstone of influenza prevention. However, today all influenza vaccines are formulated as liquids that are unstable at ambient temperatures and have to be stored and distributed under refrigeration. In order to stabilize influenza vaccines, they can be brought

  10. Recommendations pertaining to the use of influenza vaccines and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaccination is the most effective strategy to prevent influenza. It is recommended that influenza vaccine be administered each year before the influenza season, i.e. from March to June, although for individuals at increased risk of severe influenza in whom vaccination was missed, vaccine may be administered later.

  11. Viruses associated with human and animal influenza - a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review, the most important viruses associated with human and animal influenza are reported. These include Influenza A,B and C. Influenza viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Influenza A virus being the most pathogenic and wide spread with many subtypes has constantly cause epidemics in several ...

  12. Increasing Influenza Vaccine Uptake. A Comprehensive Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijmans - van den Akker, I.

    2009-01-01

    General introduction: To prevent influenza virus infection, immunization against influenza has been recommended for individuals with increased risk of complications. These groups comprise individuals of 60 years and older, individuals with risk-elevating co-morbid conditions, residents of nursing

  13. Protective immunity against influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, Peter Paul

    2002-01-01

    Swine influenza is a highly contagious acute viral disease of the respiratory tract in pigs, which is prevalent world-wide. The disease causes considerable economic damage primarily due to reduced weight gain in finishing pigs and reduced reproductive performance of sows. In addition, influenza is a

  14. Societal and economic consequences of influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Pedro A

    2008-10-01

    High rates of vaccination coverage for preschool and school-aged children can reduce morbidity and mortality related to influenza outbreak. More focused and effective influenza prevention strategies are necessary to improve quality of life and to limit the burden of flu complications.

  15. Dried influenza vaccines : Over the counter vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, Vinay; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2010-01-01

    Since last year influenza pandemic has struck again after 40 years, this is the right moment to discuss the different available formulation options for influenza vaccine. Looking back to the last 4 decades, most vaccines are still formulated as liquid solution. These vaccines have shown a poor

  16. Spontaneous Subconjunctival Abscess Because of Haemophilus influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    any recent sexually transmitted diseases, vaginal discharge, or sores. Her past medical history included mild seasonal allergies and no history of...culture confirmed a nontypeable strain of H. influenzae. DISCUSSION H. influenzae is a small aerobic Gram-negative cocco- bacillus found mainly in the

  17. Avian Influenza: A growing threat to Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) is probably the most widespread avian influenza subtype in poultry around the world being endemic in a large part of Asia, the Middle East, Northern Africa, and in Germany. Currently, there is no standardized clade system to describe the antigenic vari...

  18. Pandemic Influenza Pediatric Office Plan Template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    This is a planning tool developed by pediatric stakeholders that is intended to assist pediatric medical offices that have no pandemic influenza plan in place, but may experience an increase in patient calls/visits or workload due to pandemic influenza.

  19. Published sequences do not support transfer of oseltamivir resistance mutations from avian to human influenza A virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Peter; Lindh, Magnus; Olofsson, Sigvard

    2015-03-28

    Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate ester, OE) is a widely used antiviral active against influenza A virus. Its active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is chemically stable and secreted into wastewater treatment plants. OC contamination of natural habitats of waterfowl might induce OC resistance in influenza viruses persistently infecting waterfowl, and lead to transfer of OC-resistance from avian to human influenza. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether such has occurred. A genomics approach including phylogenetic analysis and probability calculations for homologous recombination was applied on altogether 19,755 neuraminidase (N1 and N2) genes from virus sampled in humans and birds, with and without resistance mutations. No evidence for transfer of OE resistance mutations from avian to human N genes was obtained, and events suggesting recombination between human and avian influenza virus variants could not be traced in the sequence material studied. The results indicate that resistance in influenza viruses infecting humans is due to the selection pressure posed by the global OE administration in humans rather than transfer from avian influenza A virus strains carrying mutations induced by environmental exposure to OC.

  20. Adaptation of high-growth influenza H5N1 vaccine virus in Vero cells: implications for pandemic preparedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fen Tseng

    Full Text Available Current egg-based influenza vaccine production technology can't promptly meet the global demand during an influenza pandemic as shown in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Moreover, its manufacturing capacity would be vulnerable during pandemics caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Therefore, vaccine production using mammalian cell technology is becoming attractive. Current influenza H5N1 vaccine strain (NIBRG-14, a reassortant virus between A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1 virus and egg-adapted high-growth A/PR/8/1934 virus, could grow efficiently in eggs and MDCK cells but not Vero cells which is the most popular cell line for manufacturing human vaccines. After serial passages and plaque purifications of the NIBRG-14 vaccine virus in Vero cells, one high-growth virus strain (Vero-15 was generated and can grow over 10(8 TCID(50/ml. In conclusion, one high-growth H5N1 vaccine virus was generated in Vero cells, which can be used to manufacture influenza H5N1 vaccines and prepare reassortant vaccine viruses for other influenza A subtypes.

  1. The integrated information architecture: a pilot study approach to leveraging logistics management with regard to influenza preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chinho; Lin, Chun-Mei; Yen, David C; Wu, Wu-Han

    2012-02-01

    Pandemic influenza is considered catastrophic to global health, with severe economic and social effects. Consequently, a strategy for the rapid deployment of essential medical supplies used for the prevention of influenza transmission and to alleviate public panic caused by the expected shortage of such supplies needs to be developed. Therefore, we employ integrated information concepts to develop a simulated influenza medical material supply system to facilitate a rapid response to such a crisis. Various scenarios are analyzed to estimate the appropriate inventory policy needed under different pandemic influenza outbreaks, and to establish a mechanism to evaluate the necessary stockpiles of medications and other requirements in the different phases of the pandemic. This study constructed a web-based decision support system framework prototype that displayed transparent data related to medical stockpiles in each district and integrated expert opinion about the best distribution of these supplies in the influenza pandemic scenarios. A data collection system was also designed to gather information through a daily VPN transmitted into one central repository for reporting and distribution purposes. This study provides timely and transparent medical supplies distribution information that can help decision makers to make the appropriate decisions under different pandemic influenza outbreaks, and also attempts to establish a mechanism of evaluating the stockpiles and requirements in the different phases of the pandemic.

  2. Influenza-associated encephalopathy: no evidence for neuroinvasion by influenza virus nor for reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 or 7.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeijl, J.H.; Bakkers, J.; Wilbrink, B.; Melchers, W.J.; Mullaart, R.A.; Galama, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    During 2 consecutive influenza seasons we investigated the presence of influenza virus, human herpesvirus (HHV) type 6, and HHV-7 in cerebrospinal fluid samples from 9 white children suffering from influenza-associated encephalopathy. We conclude that it is unlikely that neuroinvasion by influenza

  3. Viral vector-based influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice. This systematic review discusses results obtained with vectored influenza virus vaccines and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available viral vectors. PMID:27455345

  4. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  5. The 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, G.; Viboud, C.; Simonsen, L.; Miller, M.A.; Hurtado, J.; Soto, G.; Vargas, R.; Guzman, M.A.; Ulloa, M.; Munayco, C.V.

    2011-01-01

    respiratory mortality during November 1918-February 1919 in Lima, Iquitos, Ica, followed by asynchronous recrudescent waves in 1920. Cumulative data from quantitative studies of the 1918 influenza pandemic in Latin American settings have confirmed the high mortality impact associated with this pandemic. Further historical studies in lesser-studied regions of Latin America, Africa, and Asia are warranted for a full understanding of the global impact of the 1918 pandemic virus. PMID:21757099

  6. Gauging U.S. Emergency Medical Services workers' willingness to respond to pandemic influenza using a threat- and efficacy-based assessment framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Barnett

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medical Services workers' willingness to report to duty in an influenza pandemic is essential to healthcare system surge amidst a global threat. Application of Witte's Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM has shown utility for revealing influences of perceived threat and efficacy on non-EMS public health providers' willingness to respond in an influenza pandemic. We thus propose using an EPPM-informed assessment of EMS workers' perspectives toward fulfilling their influenza pandemic response roles.We administered an EPPM-informed snapshot survey about attitudes and beliefs toward pandemic influenza response, to a nationally representative, stratified random sample of 1,537 U.S. EMS workers from May-June 2009 (overall response rate: 49%. Of the 586 respondents who met inclusion criteria (currently active EMS providers in primarily EMS response roles, 12% indicated they would not voluntarily report to duty in a pandemic influenza emergency if asked, 7% if required. A majority (52% indicated their unwillingness to report to work if risk of disease transmission to family existed. Confidence in personal safety at work (OR = 3.3 and a high threat/high efficacy ("concerned and confident" EPPM profile (OR = 4.7 distinguished those who were more likely to voluntarily report to duty. Although 96% of EMS workers indicated that they would probably or definitely report to work if they were guaranteed a pandemic influenza vaccine, only 59% had received an influenza immunization in the preceding 12 months.EMS workers' response willingness gaps pose a substantial challenge to prehospital surge capacity in an influenza pandemic. "Concerned and confident" EMS workers are more than four times as likely to fulfill pandemic influenza response expectations. Confidence in workplace safety is a positively influential modifier of their response willingness. These findings can inform insights into interventions for enhancing EMS workers' willingness to respond

  7. (Highly pathogenic) Avian Influenza as a zoonotic agent

    OpenAIRE

    Kalthoff , Donata; Globig , Anja; Beer , Martin

    2010-01-01

    Summary Zoonotic agents challenging the world every year afresh are influenza A viruses. In the past, human pandemics caused by influenza A viruses had been occurring periodically. Wild aquatic birds are carriers of the full variety of influenza virus A subtypes, and thus, most probably constitute the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses. Whereas avian influenza viruses in their natural avian reservoir are generally of low pathogenicity (LPAIV), some have gained virulence b...

  8. Understanding influenza vaccine protection in the community: an assessment of the 2013 influenza season in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carville, Kylie S; Grant, Kristina A; Sullivan, Sheena G; Fielding, James E; Lane, Courtney R; Franklin, Lucinda; Druce, Julian; Kelly, Heath A

    2015-01-03

    The influenza virus undergoes frequent antigenic drift, necessitating annual review of the composition of the influenza vaccine. Vaccination is an important strategy for reducing the impact and burden of influenza, and estimating vaccine effectiveness (VE) each year informs surveillance and preventative measures. We aimed to describe the influenza season and to estimate the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in Victoria, Australia, in 2013. Routine laboratory notifications, general practitioner sentinel surveillance (including a medical deputising service) data, and sentinel hospital admission surveillance data for the influenza season (29 April to 27 October 2013) were collated in Victoria, Australia, to describe influenza-like illness or confirmed influenza during the season. General practitioner sentinel surveillance data were used to estimate VE against medically-attended laboratory confirmed influenza. VE was estimated using the case test negative design as 1-adjusted odds ratio (odds of vaccination in cases compared with controls) × 100%. Cases tested positive for influenza while non-cases (controls) tested negative. Estimates were adjusted for age group, week of onset, time to swabbing and co-morbidities. The 2013 influenza season was characterised by relatively low activity with a late peak. Influenza B circulation preceded that of influenza A(H1)pdm09, with very little influenza A(H3) circulation. Adjusted VE for all influenza was 55% (95%CI: -11, 82), for influenza A(H1)pdm09 was 43% (95%CI: -132, 86), and for influenza B was 56% (95%CI: -51, 87) Imputation of missing data raised the influenza VE point estimate to 64% (95%CI: 13, 85). Clinicians can continue to promote a positive approach to influenza vaccination, understanding that inactivated influenza vaccines prevent at least 50% of laboratory-confirmed outcomes in hospitals and the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance of the Quidel Sofia Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Test During the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 Influenza Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Performance of the Quidel Sofia rapid influenza diagnostic test during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons Peter E. Kammerer, Jennifer M... Influenza A+B Fluorescent Immunoassay was used to test nasal swab specimens from patients with influenza -like illness at US–Mexico border-area clinics in...the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons. Compared with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the overall sensitivities and

  10. Technology transfer of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant manufacturing for pandemic influenza vaccine production in Romania: Preclinical evaluation of split virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine with adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavaru, Crina; Onu, Adrian; Lupulescu, Emilia; Tucureanu, Catalin; Rasid, Orhan; Vlase, Ene; Coman, Cristin; Caras, Iuliana; Ghiorghisor, Alina; Berbecila, Laurentiu; Tofan, Vlad; Bowen, Richard A; Marlenee, Nicole; Hartwig, Airn; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Baldwin, Susan L; Van Hoeven, Neal; Vedvick, Thomas S; Huynh, Chuong; O'Hara, Michael K; Noah, Diana L; Fox, Christopher B

    2016-04-02

    Millions of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine doses containing oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant have been administered in order to enhance and broaden immune responses and to facilitate antigen sparing. Despite the enactment of a Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines and a multi-fold increase in production capabilities over the past 10 years, worldwide capacity for pandemic influenza vaccine production is still limited. In developing countries, where routine influenza vaccination is not fully established, additional measures are needed to ensure adequate supply of pandemic influenza vaccines without dependence on the shipment of aid from other, potentially impacted first-world countries. Adaptation of influenza vaccine and adjuvant technologies by developing country influenza vaccine manufacturers may enable antigen sparing and corresponding increases in global influenza vaccine coverage capacity. Following on previously described work involving the technology transfer of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant manufacturing to a Romanian vaccine manufacturing institute, we herein describe the preclinical evaluation of inactivated split virion H5N1 influenza vaccine with emulsion adjuvant, including immunogenicity, protection from virus challenge, antigen sparing capacity, and safety. In parallel with the evaluation of the bioactivity of the tech-transferred adjuvant, we also describe the impact of concurrent antigen manufacturing optimization activities. Depending on the vaccine antigen source and manufacturing process, inclusion of adjuvant was shown to enhance and broaden functional antibody titers in mouse and rabbit models, promote protection from homologous virus challenge in ferrets, and facilitate antigen sparing. Besides scientific findings, the operational lessons learned are delineated in order to facilitate adaptation of adjuvant technologies by other developing country institutes to enhance global pandemic influenza preparedness.

  11. A review of simulation modelling approaches used for the spread of zoonotic influenza viruses in animal and human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorjee, S; Poljak, Z; Revie, C W; Bridgland, J; McNab, B; Leger, E; Sanchez, J

    2013-09-01

    Increasing incidences of emerging and re-emerging diseases that are mostly zoonotic (e.g. severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza H5N1, pandemic influenza) has led to the need for a multidisciplinary approach to tackling these threats to public and animal health. Accordingly, a global movement of 'One-Health/One-Medicine' has been launched to foster collaborative efforts amongst animal and human health officials and researchers to address these problems. Historical evidence points to the fact that pandemics caused by influenza A viruses remain a major zoonotic threat to mankind. Recently, a range of mathematical and computer simulation modelling methods and tools have increasingly been applied to improve our understanding of disease transmission dynamics, contingency planning and to support policy decisions on disease outbreak management. This review provides an overview of methods, approaches and software used for modelling the spread of zoonotic influenza viruses in animals and humans, particularly those related to the animal-human interface. Modelling parameters used in these studies are summarized to provide references for future work. This review highlights the limited application of modelling research to influenza in animals and at the animal-human interface, in marked contrast to the large volume of its research in human populations. Although swine are widely recognized as a potential host for generating novel influenza viruses, and that some of these viruses, including pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009, have been shown to be readily transmissible between humans and swine, only one study was found related to the modelling of influenza spread at the swine-human interface. Significant gaps in the knowledge of frequency of novel viral strains evolution in pigs, farm-level natural history of influenza infection, incidences of influenza transmission between farms and between swine and humans are clearly evident. Therefore, there is a need to direct

  12. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low-quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower-middle-income setting. There was high-quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high-quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low-income setting. There was moderate- to high-quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A/H3N2 viruses circulating in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis K Byarugaba

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of complete influenza virus genomes is deepening our understanding of influenza evolutionary dynamics and facilitating the selection of vaccine strains. However, only one complete African influenza virus sequence is available in the public domain. Here we present a complete genome analysis of 59 influenza A/H3N2 viruses isolated from humans in Uganda during the 2008 and 2009 season. Isolates were recovered from hospital-based sentinel surveillance for influenza-like illnesses and their whole genome sequenced. The viruses circulating during these two seasons clearly differed from each other phylogenetically. They showed a slow evolution away from the 2009/10 recommended vaccine strain (A/Brisbane/10/07, instead clustering with the 2010/11 recommended vaccine strain (A/Perth/16/09 in the A/Victoria/208/09 clade, as observed in other global regions. All of the isolates carried the adamantane resistance marker S31N in the M2 gene and carried several markers of enhanced transmission; as expected, none carried any marker of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance. The hemagglutinin gene of the 2009 isolates differed from that of the 2008 isolates in antigenic sites A, B, D, and to a lesser extent, C and E indicating evidence of an early phylogenetic shift from the 2008 to 2009 viruses. The internal genes of the 2009 isolates were similar to those of one 2008 isolate, A/Uganda/MUWRP-050/2008. Another 2008 isolate had a truncated PB1-F2 protein. Whole genome sequencing can enhance surveillance of future seasonal changes in the viral genome which is crucial to ensure that selected vaccine strains are protective against the strains circulating in Eastern Africa. This data provides an important baseline for this surveillance. Overall the influenza virus activity in Uganda appears to mirror that observed in other regions of the southern hemisphere.

  14. Preclinical evaluation of the saponin derivative GPI-0100 as an immunostimulating and dose-sparing adjuvant for pandemic influenza vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Heng; Bungener, Laura; ter Veer, Wouter; Coller, Beth-Ann; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2011-01-01

    With the current global influenza vaccine production capacity the large demand for vaccines in case of a pandemic can only be fulfilled when antigen dose sparing strategies are employed. Here we used a murine challenge model to evaluate the potential of GPI-0100, a semi-synthetic saponin derivative,

  15. Reliability, Validity, and Responsiveness of InFLUenza Patient-Reported Outcome (FLU-PRO©) Scores in Influenza-Positive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, John H; Bacci, Elizabeth D; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Stringer, Sonja; Kim, Katherine; Memoli, Matthew J; Han, Alison; Fairchok, Mary P; Chen, Wei-Ju; Arnold, John C; Danaher, Patrick J; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Ridoré, Michelande; Burgess, Timothy H; Millar, Eugene V; Hernández, Andrés; Rodríguez-Zulueta, Patricia; Smolskis, Mary C; Ortega-Gallegos, Hilda; Pett, Sarah; Fischer, William; Gillor, Daniel; Macias, Laura Moreno; DuVal, Anna; Rothman, Richard; Dugas, Andrea; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M

    2018-02-01

    To assess the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of InFLUenza Patient-Reported Outcome (FLU-PRO©) scores for quantifying the presence and severity of influenza symptoms. An observational prospective cohort study of adults (≥18 years) with influenza-like illness in the United States, the United Kingdom, Mexico, and South America was conducted. Participants completed the 37-item draft FLU-PRO daily for up to 14 days. Item-level and factor analyses were used to remove items and determine factor structure. Reliability of the final tool was estimated using Cronbach α and intraclass correlation coefficients (2-day reliability). Convergent and known-groups validity and responsiveness were assessed using global assessments of influenza severity and return to usual health. Of the 536 patients enrolled, 221 influenza-positive subjects comprised the analytical sample. The mean age of the patients was 40.7 years, 60.2% were women, and 59.7% were white. The final 32-item measure has six factors/domains (nose, throat, eyes, chest/respiratory, gastrointestinal, and body/systemic), with a higher order factor representing symptom severity overall (comparative fit index = 0.92; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06). Cronbach α was high (total = 0.92; domain range = 0.71-0.87); test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, day 1-day 2) was 0.83 for total scores and 0.57 to 0.79 for domains. Day 1 FLU-PRO domain and total scores were moderately to highly correlated (≥0.30) with Patient Global Rating of Flu Severity (except nose and throat). Consistent with known-groups validity, scores differentiated severity groups on the basis of global rating (total: F = 57.2, P FLU-PRO score improvement by day 7 than did those who did not, suggesting score responsiveness. Results suggest that FLU-PRO scores are reliable, valid, and responsive to change in influenza-positive adults. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes

  16. Corrosion Screening of EV31A Magnesium and Other Magnesium Alloys using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion and Electro-Chemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Spray. Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention 2008, 8 (2), 164–175. 34. Aluminium Alloy 5083, Plate and Sheet; SAE-AMS-QQ-A-250/6S; SAE...Corrosion Screening of EV31A Magnesium and Other Magnesium Alloys Using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion and Electro-chemical Methods...Magnesium and Other Magnesium Alloys Using Laboratory-Based Accelerated Corrosion and Electro-chemical Methods Brian E. Placzankis, Joseph P

  17. Avian influenza virus transmission to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfst, S; Imai, M; Kawaoka, Y; Fouchier, R A M

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics. In addition, zoonotic influenza A viruses sporadically infect humans and may cause severe respiratory disease and fatalities. Fortunately, most of these viruses do not have the ability to be efficiently spread among humans via aerosols or respiratory droplets (airborne transmission) and to subsequently cause a pandemic. However, adaptation of these zoonotic viruses to humans by mutation or reassortment with human influenza A viruses may result in airborne transmissible viruses with pandemic potential. Although our knowledge of factors that affect mammalian adaptation and transmissibility of influenza viruses is still limited, we are beginning to understand some of the biological traits that drive airborne transmission of influenza viruses among mammals. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of airborne transmission may aid in assessing the risks posed by avian influenza viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. This chapter summarizes recent discoveries on the genetic and phenotypic traits required for avian influenza viruses to become airborne transmissible between mammals.

  18. Characterization of influenza virus among influenza like illness cases in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Soumen; Dahake, Ritwik; Patil, Deepak; Tawde, Shweta; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Athlekar, Shrikant; Chowdhary, Abhay; Deshmukh, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to monitor influenza viruses by identifying the virus and studying the seasonal variation during 2007-2009 in Mumbai. A total of 193 clinical respiratory samples (nasal and throat swab) were collected from patients having influenza like illness in Mumbai region. One-step real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rRTPCR) was used to detect Influenza type A (H1 and H3) and Influenza type B virus. Isolation of the virus was carried out using in vitro system which was further confirmed and typed by hemagglutination assay and hemagglutination inhibition assay. Out of 193 samples 24 (12.4 3%) samples tested positive for influenza virus, of which 13 (6.73 %) were influenza type A virus and 10 (5.18 %) were influenza type B virus, while 1 sample (0.51 %) was positive for both. By culture methods, 3 (1.55 %) viral isolates were obtained. All the three isolates were found to be Influenza type B/Malaysia (Victoria lineage) by Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay. The data generated from the present study reveals that both Influenza type A and B are prevalent in Mumbai with considerable activity. The peak activity was observed during monsoon season.

  19. Characterization of influenza virus among influenza like illness cases in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Soumen; Dahake, Ritwik; Patil, Deepak; Tawde, Shweta; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Athlekar, Shrikant; Chowdhary, Abhay; Deshmukh, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to monitor influenza viruses by identifying the virus and studying the seasonal variation during 2007–2009 in Mumbai. A total of 193 clinical respiratory samples (nasal and throat swab) were collected from patients having influenza like illness in Mumbai region. One-step real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rRTPCR) was used to detect Influenza type A (H1 and H3) and Influenza type B virus. Isolation of the virus was carried out using in vitro system which was...

  20. Protocol: Transmission and prevention of influenza in Hutterites: Zoonotic transmission of influenza A: swine & swine workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among swine, reassortment of influenza virus genes from birds, pigs, and humans could generate influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Humans with acute infection might also be a source of infection for swine production units. This article describes the study design and methods being used to assess influenza A transmission between swine workers and pigs. We hypothesize that transmission of swine influenza viruses to humans, transmission of human influenza viruses to swine, and reassortment of human and swine influenza A viruses is occurring. The project is part of a Team Grant; all Team Grant studies include active surveillance for influenza among Hutterite swine farmers in Alberta, Canada. This project also includes non-Hutterite swine farms that are experiencing swine respiratory illness. Methods/Design Nurses conduct active surveillance for influenza-like-illness (ILI, visiting participating communally owned and operated Hutterite swine farms twice weekly. Nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent sera are obtained from persons with any two such symptoms. Swabs are tested for influenza A and B by a real time RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at the Alberta Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab. Test-positive participants are advised that they have influenza. The occurrence of test-positive swine workers triggers sampling (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology of the swine herd by veterinarians. Specimens obtained from swine are couriered to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN for testing. Veterinarians and herd owners are notified if animal specimens are test-positive for influenza. If swine ILI occurs, veterinarians obtain samples from the pigs; test-positives from the animals trigger nurses to obtain specimens (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology from the swine workers. ProvLab cultures influenza virus from human specimens, freezes these cultures and

  1. Naturligt forekommende oseltamivirresistens hos influenza A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Laura; Nielsen, Alex; Lundgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    in the development of resistance. The best prevention strategy remains vaccination of the general population to avoid immunity. Future antiviral treatment calls for knowledge about resistance to existing types of influenza and the availability of all three types of antiviral medication.......During the last two influenza seasons, one of the predominant influenza A types (H1N1) has developed complete resistance to oseltamivir, the primary treatment option. The virus does, however, remain sensitive to zanamavir and amantadine. There is no unequivocal explanation for this slide...

  2. [Naturally occurring oseltamivir resistance in influenza A.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Laura; Nielsen, Alex; Lundgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    in the development of resistance. The best prevention strategy remains vaccination of the general population to avoid immunity. Future antiviral treatment calls for knowledge about resistance to existing types of influenza and the availability of all three types of antiviral medication. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Aug......During the last two influenza seasons, one of the predominant influenza A types (H1N1) has developed complete resistance to oseltamivir, the primary treatment option. The virus does, however, remain sensitive to zanamavir and amantadine. There is no unequivocal explanation for this slide...

  3. [Naturally occurring oseltamivir resistance in influenza A.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Laura; Nielsen, Alex; Lundgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    During the last two influenza seasons, one of the predominant influenza A types (H1N1) has developed complete resistance to oseltamivir, the primary treatment option. The virus does, however, remain sensitive to zanamavir and amantadine. There is no unequivocal explanation for this slide...... in the development of resistance. The best prevention strategy remains vaccination of the general population to avoid immunity. Future antiviral treatment calls for knowledge about resistance to existing types of influenza and the availability of all three types of antiviral medication. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Aug...

  4. Naturligt forekommende oseltamivirresistens hos influenza A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Laura; Nielsen, Alex; Lundgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    During the last two influenza seasons, one of the predominant influenza A types (H1N1) has developed complete resistance to oseltamivir, the primary treatment option. The virus does, however, remain sensitive to zanamavir and amantadine. There is no unequivocal explanation for this slide...... in the development of resistance. The best prevention strategy remains vaccination of the general population to avoid immunity. Future antiviral treatment calls for knowledge about resistance to existing types of influenza and the availability of all three types of antiviral medication....

  5. Physician's knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza, and highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infections of humans in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mangiri, Amalya; Iuliano, A. Danielle; Wahyuningrum, Yunita; Praptiningsih, Catharina Y.; Lafond, Kathryn E.; Storms, Aaron D.; Samaan, Gina; Ariawan, Iwan; Soeharno, Nugroho; Kreslake, Jennifer M.; Storey, J. Douglas; Uyeki, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia has reported highest number of fatal human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N1) virus infection worldwide since 2005. There are limited data available on seasonal and pandemic influenza in Indonesia. During 2012, we conducted a survey of clinicians in two districts in western Java, Indonesia, to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of clinical diagnosis, testing, and treatment of patients with seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza, or HPAI H5N1 vir...

  6. Lethal influenza virus infection in macaques is associated with early dysregulation of inflammatory related genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Cillóniz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The enormous toll on human life during the 1918-1919 Spanish influenza pandemic is a constant reminder of the potential lethality of influenza viruses. With the declaration by the World Health Organization of a new H1N1 influenza virus pandemic, and with continued human cases of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection, a better understanding of the host response to highly pathogenic influenza viruses is essential. To this end, we compared pathology and global gene expression profiles in bronchial tissue from macaques infected with either the reconstructed 1918 pandemic virus or the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 virus A/Vietnam/1203/04. Severe pathology was observed in respiratory tissues from 1918 virus-infected animals as early as 12 hours after infection, and pathology steadily increased at later time points. Although tissues from animals infected with A/Vietnam/1203/04 also showed clear signs of pathology early on, less pathology was observed at later time points, and there was evidence of tissue repair. Global transcriptional profiles revealed that specific groups of genes associated with inflammation and cell death were up-regulated in bronchial tissues from animals infected with the 1918 virus but down-regulated in animals infected with A/Vietnam/1203/04. Importantly, the 1918 virus up-regulated key components of the inflammasome, NLRP3 and IL-1beta, whereas these genes were down-regulated by A/Vietnam/1203/04 early after infection. TUNEL assays revealed that both viruses elicited an apoptotic response in lungs and bronchi, although the response occurred earlier during 1918 virus infection. Our findings suggest that the severity of disease in 1918 virus-infected macaques is a consequence of the early up-regulation of cell death and inflammatory related genes, in which additive or synergistic effects likely dictate the severity of tissue damage.

  7. Micro-RNAs in regenerating lungs: an integrative systems biology analysis of murine influenza pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kai Sen; Choi, Hyungwon; Jiang, Xiaoou; Yin, Lu; Seet, Ju Ee; Patzel, Volker; Engelward, Bevin P; Chow, Vincent T

    2014-07-11

    Tissue regeneration in the lungs is gaining increasing interest as a potential influenza management strategy. In this study, we explored the role of microRNAs, short non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional regulation, during pulmonary regeneration after influenza infection. We profiled miRNA and mRNA expression levels following lung injury and tissue regeneration using a murine influenza pneumonia model. BALB/c mice were infected with a sub-lethal dose of influenza A/PR/8(H1N1) virus, and their lungs were harvested at 7 and 15 days post-infection to evaluate the expression of ~300 miRNAs along with ~36,000 genes using microarrays. A global network was constructed between differentially expressed miRNAs and their potential target genes with particular focus on the pulmonary repair and regeneration processes to elucidate the regulatory role of miRNAs in the lung repair pathways. The miRNA arrays revealed a global down-regulation of miRNAs. TargetScan analyses also revealed specific miRNAs highly involved in targeting relevant gene functions in repair such as miR-290 and miR-505 at 7 dpi; and let-7, miR-21 and miR-30 at 15 dpi. The significantly differentially regulated miRNAs are implicated in the activation or suppression of cellular proliferation and stem cell maintenance, which are required during the repair of the damaged lungs. These findings provide opportunities in the development of novel repair strategies in influenza-induced pulmonary injury.

  8. Building leadership among laboratory-based and clinical and translational researchers: the University of California, San Francisco experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wides, Cynthia; Mertz, Elizabeth; Lindstaedt, Bill; Brown, Jeanette

    2014-02-01

    In 2005 the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) implemented the Scientific Leadership and Management (SLM) course, a 2-day leadership training program to assist laboratory-based postdoctoral scholars in their transition to independent researchers managing their own research programs. In 2011, the course was expanded to clinical and translational junior faculty and fellows. The course enrollment was increased from approximate 100 to 123 participants at the same time. Based on course evaluations, the number and percent of women participants appears to have increased over time from 40% (n = 33) in 2007 to 53% (n = 58) in 2011. Course evaluations also indicated that participants found the course to be relevant and valuable in their transition to academic leadership. This paper describes the background, structure, and content of the SLM and reports on participant evaluations of the course offerings from 2007 through 2011. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A CMOS active pixel sensor system for laboratory- based x-ray diffraction studies of biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohndiek, Sarah E; Cook, Emily J; Arvanitis, Costas D; Olivo, Alessandro; Royle, Gary J; Clark, Andy T; Prydderch, Mark L; Turchetta, Renato; Speller, Robert D

    2008-01-01

    X-ray diffraction studies give material-specific information about biological tissue. Ideally, a large area, low noise, wide dynamic range digital x-ray detector is required for laboratory-based x-ray diffraction studies. The goal of this work is to introduce a novel imaging technology, the CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) that has the potential to fulfil all these requirements, and demonstrate its feasibility for coherent scatter imaging. A prototype CMOS APS has been included in an x-ray diffraction demonstration system. An industrial x-ray source with appropriate beam filtration is used to perform angle dispersive x-ray diffraction (ADXRD). Optimization of the experimental set-up is detailed including collimator options and detector operating parameters. Scatter signatures are measured for 11 different materials, covering three medical applications: breast cancer diagnosis, kidney stone identification and bone mineral density calculations. Scatter signatures are also recorded for three mixed samples of known composition. Results are verified using two independent models for predicting the APS scatter signature: (1) a linear systems model of the APS and (2) a linear superposition integral combining known monochromatic scatter signatures with the input polychromatic spectrum used in this case. Cross validation of experimental, modelled and literature results proves that APS are able to record biologically relevant scatter signatures. Coherent scatter signatures are sensitive to multiple materials present in a sample and provide a means to quantify composition. In the future, production of a bespoke APS imager for x-ray diffraction studies could enable simultaneous collection of the transmitted beam and scattered radiation in a laboratory-based coherent scatter system, making clinical transfer of the technique attainable

  10. Laboratory-based recording of holographic fine structure in X-ray absorption anisotropy using polycapillary optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowski, K.M. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Korecki, P., E-mail: pawel.korecki@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Holographic fine structures in X-ray absorption recorded using a tabletop setup. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Setup based on polycapillary collimating optics and an HOPG crystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of element sensitivity by detection of X-ray fluorescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential of laboratory-based experiments for heavily doped crystals and thin films. - Abstract: A tabletop setup composed of a collimating polycapillary optics and a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite monochromator (HOPG) was characterized and used for recording two-dimensional maps of X-ray absorption anisotropy (XAA). XAA originates from interference of X-rays directly inside the sample. Depending on experimental conditions, fine structures in XAA can be interpreted in terms of X-ray holograms or X-ray standing waves and can be used for an element selective atomic-resolved structural analysis. The implementation of polycapillary optics resulted in a two-order of magnitude gain in the radiant intensity (photons/s/solid angle) as compared to a system without optics and enabled efficient recording of XAA with a resolution of 0.15 Degree-Sign for Mo K{alpha} radiation. Element sensitivity was demonstrated by acquisition of distinct XAA signals for Ga and As atoms in a GaAs (1 1 1) wafer by using X-ray fluorescence as a secondary signal. These results indicate the possibility of performing laboratory-based XAA experiments for heavily doped single crystals or thin films. So far, because of the weak holographic modulation of XAA, such experiments could be only performed using synchrotron radiation.

  11. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine and Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Preventing Influenza-Like Illness among US Service Members, 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    controlled studies. Vaccine 2012; 30:886–92. 11. Piedra PA, Gaglani MJ, Kozinetz CA, et al. Trivalent live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine...120:e553–64. 12. Halloran ME, Piedra PA, Longini IM Jr, et al. Efficacy of trivalent, cold-adapted, influenza virus vaccine against influenza A (Fujian

  12. The impact that the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic had on news reporting in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel-Lima, Sandra Mara; Rasia, José Miguel; Bagatelli, Rodrigo Cechelero; Gontarski, Giseli; Colares, Máximo José D

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze how influenza A (H1N1) in 2009 was reported in the state of Paraná. A total of 189 articles were analyzed in two newspapers from Paraná. Pursuant to analysis, four themes were identified: the spread of the virus; the pandemic and fear; influenza in the health service; and influenza in public policies. By studying how influenza A was reported in the media, it was possible to see the social impact that the H1N1 pandemic represented for society, presenting challenges for public institutions and ordinary citizens, who sensed that they were in a high-risk group exposed to a potentially lethal virus. This disease radically changed the habits of a globalized community seeking to escape from vulnerability.

  13. Characterization of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from Nepalese and Indian outbreak patients in early 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuya; Shirakura, Masayuki; Fujisaki, Seiichiro; Kishida, Noriko; Burke, David F; Smith, Derek J; Kuwahara, Tomoko; Takashita, Emi; Takayama, Ikuyo; Nakauchi, Mina; Chadha, Mandeep; Potdar, Varsha; Bhushan, Arvind; Upadhyay, Bishnu Prasad; Shakya, Geeta; Odagiri, Takato; Kageyama, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Shinji

    2017-09-01

    We characterized influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 isolates from large-scale outbreaks that occurred in Nepal and India in early 2015. Although no specific viral features, which may have caused the outbreaks, were identified, an S84N substitution in hemagglutinin was frequently observed. Chronological phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Nepalese and Indian viruses possessing the S84N substitution constitute potential ancestors of the novel genetic subclade 6B.1 virus that spread globally in the following (2015/16) influenza season. Thus, active surveillance of circulating influenza viruses in the Southern Asia region, including Nepal and India, would be beneficial for detecting novel variant viruses prior to their worldwide spread. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The impact that the influenza A (H1N1 pandemic had on news reporting in the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Maciel-Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze how influenza A (H1N1 in 2009 was reported in the state of Paraná. A total of 189 articles were analyzed in two newspapers from Paraná. Pursuant to analysis, four themes were identified: the spread of the virus; the pandemic and fear; influenza in the health service; and influenza in public policies. By studying how influenza A was reported in the media, it was possible to see the social impact that the H1N1 pandemic represented for society, presenting challenges for public institutions and ordinary citizens, who sensed that they were in a high-risk group exposed to a potentially lethal virus. This disease radically changed the habits of a globalized community seeking to escape from vulnerability.

  15. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  16. Awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult people of Thimi Municipality, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, K; Chataut, J; Khanal, K; Shrestha, A; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, S

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza is considered as a threat to global public health. Prevention and control depends on the awareness of the general population as well as high risk-groups. The avian influenza should be viewed more seriously because it may lead to pandemic influenza when the virus mutates its strain with the common human influenza. Thus, this study aims to explore the awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult population of Thimi Municipality. The objective of this study was to explore awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult population of Thimi Municipality. It is a cross-sectional, population based study. It was carried out in Thimi Municipality from May 15 to June 15, 2012. Pre tested structured questionnaire was used for face to face interview with randomly selected 250 subjects. Out of 250 subjects, 123 (49.2 %) were males. The mean age of subjects was 36 ± 11.8 year. Among total subjects, 94.4 percent had heard about avian influenza. The main source of information was television (94.1%). Majority of subjects (84.9 %) thought that keeping infected birds and poultry as the mode of transmission followed by eating not well cooked poultry meat (82.8 %). Out of total study subjects, 165 (66.0 percent) mentioned fever and 138 (55.2 percent) thought fatigue as the signs and symptoms. As for knowledge about preventive measures, majority (85.6%) stated that cleaning the surfaces that had come in contact with the poultry could prevent the disease and 83.2 % had knowledge that the infection could be prevented by washing hands with soap and water after poultry handling. Awareness regarding preventive measures was found significantly low in females, middle adults, illiterates, and house wives. The awareness regarding avian influenza was quite satisfactory among the adult people of Thimi Municipality. However level of awareness was seen lower in female, illiterate and middle adult. So that along with large

  17. Origins and Evolutionary Dynamics of H3N2 Canine Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Henan; Hughes, Joseph; Murcia, Pablo R

    2015-05-01

    the mechanisms underpinning viral emergence. An avian-origin canine influenza virus (CIV) has recently emerged in dogs and is spreading in Asia. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of CIV and show that it originated from both Eurasian and North American avian lineages. We also identified the mutations that might have been responsible for the cross-species jump. Finally, we provide evidence of multiple reassortment events between CIV and other influenza viruses (including an H5N1 avian virus). This is a cause for concern, as there is a large global dog population to which humans are highly exposed. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. A subregional analysis of epidemiologic and genetic characteristics of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Africa: Senegal, Cape Verde, Mauritania, and Guinea, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Ndongo; Ndiaye, Mbayame Niang; Monteiro, Maria de Lourdes; Koivogui, Lamine; Bara, Mohamed Ould; Diop, Ousmane M

    2013-05-01

    During the pandemic 2009 episode, we conducted laboratory-based surveillance in four countries from West Africa: Senegal, Mauritania, Cape Verde, and Guinea. Specimens were obtained from 3,155 patients: 2,264 patients from Senegal, 498 patients from Cape Verde, 227 patients from Mauritania, and 166 patients from Guinea; 911 (28.9%) patients were positive for influenza, 826 (90.7%) patients were positive for influenza A, and 85 (9.3%) patients were positive for influenza B. Among the influenza A positives, 503 (60.9%) positives were H1N1pdm09, 314 (38.0%) positives were H3N2, and 9 (1.1%) positives were seasonal H1N1. The highest detection rate for seasonal influenza viruses (17.1%) occurred in the 5-14 years age group. However, for A(H1N1)pdm09, the detection rate was highest in the 15-24 years age group (35.8%). Based on the present study data, the timeline of detection of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses in these four countries should be Cape Verde, Guinea, Mauritania, and finally, Senegal. Genetic and antigenic analyses were performed in some isolates.

  19. A Subregional Analysis of Epidemiologic and Genetic Characteristics of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Africa: Senegal, Cape Verde, Mauritania, and Guinea, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Ndongo; Ndiaye, Mbayame Niang; Monteiro, Maria de Lourdes; Koivogui, Lamine; Bara, Mohamed Ould; Diop, Ousmane M.

    2013-01-01

    During the pandemic 2009 episode, we conducted laboratory-based surveillance in four countries from West Africa: Senegal, Mauritania, Cape Verde, and Guinea. Specimens were obtained from 3,155 patients: 2,264 patients from Senegal, 498 patients from Cape Verde, 227 patients from Mauritania, and 166 patients from Guinea; 911 (28.9%) patients were positive for influenza, 826 (90.7%) patients were positive for influenza A, and 85 (9.3%) patients were positive for influenza B. Among the influenza A positives, 503 (60.9%) positives were H1N1pdm09, 314 (38.0%) positives were H3N2, and 9 (1.1%) positives were seasonal H1N1. The highest detection rate for seasonal influenza viruses (17.1%) occurred in the 5–14 years age group. However, for A(H1N1)pdm09, the detection rate was highest in the 15–24 years age group (35.8%). Based on the present study data, the timeline of detection of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses in these four countries should be Cape Verde, Guinea, Mauritania, and finally, Senegal. Genetic and antigenic analyses were performed in some isolates. PMID:23509122

  20. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic.

  1. Towards mutual trust, transparency and equity in virus sharing mechanism: the avian influenza case of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedyaningsih, Endang R; Isfandari, Siti; Soendoro, Triono; Supari, Siti Fadilah

    2008-06-01

    As the country hardest hit by avian influenza, both in poultry and in human, Indonesia's decision to withhold samples of avian influenza virus A (H5N1) has fired up a global controversy. The objective of this paper is to describe the position taken by Indonesia in the events leading to the decision and in those conducted to resolve the situation. The sources for this paper are the Indonesian human influenza A(H5N1) case reports and study results, summaries, minutes and reports of national and international meetings of virus sharing, and other related Indonesian and WHO documents. The International Health Regulations 2005 have been applied in different ways based on different interpretations. While one party insists on the importance of free, non-conditional, virus sharing for risk assessment and risk response, Indonesia--as supported by most of the developing countries--stresses on the more basic principles such as sovereignty of a country over its biological materials, transparency of the global system, and equity between developed and developing nations. This event demonstrates the unresolved imbalance between the affluent high-tech countries and the poor agriculture-based countries. Regional, global and in-country meetings must continue to be conducted to find solutions acceptable to all.

  2. Avian Influenza Policy Analysis | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... to the loss of tens of millions of birds, either to disease or preventive culling. ... is to stimulate regional collaboration on avian influenza prevention and control. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  3. NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  4. Influenza in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansbury, Louise E; Brown, Caroline S; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2017-09-01

    Long-term care facility environments and the vulnerability of their residents provide a setting conducive to the rapid spread of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens. Infections may be introduced by staff, visitors or new or transferred residents, and outbreaks of influenza in such settings can have devastating consequences for individuals, as well as placing extra strain on health services. As the population ages over the coming decades, increased provision of such facilities seems likely. The need for robust infection prevention and control practices will therefore remain of paramount importance if the impact of outbreaks is to be minimised. In this review, we discuss the nature of the problem of influenza in long-term care facilities, and approaches to preventive and control measures, including vaccination of residents and staff, and the use of antiviral drugs for treatment and prophylaxis, based on currently available evidence. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza - 2014. In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  9. Carcass Management During Avian Influenza Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page on Avian Influenza (AI) describes carcass management during Avian Flu outbreaks, including who oversees carcass management, how they're managed, environmental concerns from carcass management, and disinfection. The page also describes what AI is.

  10. Potent peptidic fusion inhibitors of influenza virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Juraszek, Jarek; Brandenburg, Boerries; Buyck, Christophe; Schepens, Wim B. G.; Kesteleyn, Bart; Stoops, Bart; Vreeken, Rob J.; Vermond, Jan; Goutier, Wouter; Tang, Chan; Vogels, Ronald; Friesen, Robert H. E.; Goudsmit, Jaap; van Dongen, Maria J. P.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2017-09-28

    Influenza therapeutics with new targets and mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat potential pandemics, emerging viruses, and constantly mutating strains in circulation. We report here on the design and structural characterization of potent peptidic inhibitors of influenza hemagglutinin. The peptide design was based on complementarity-determining region loops of human broadly neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (FI6v3 and CR9114). The optimized peptides exhibit nanomolar affinity and neutralization against influenza A group 1 viruses, including the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and avian H5N1 strains. The peptide inhibitors bind to the highly conserved stem epitope and block the low pH–induced conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion. These peptidic compounds and their advantageous biological properties should accelerate the development of new small molecule– and peptide-based therapeutics against influenza virus.

  11. Influenza [Perspectives in medical virology, v. 7

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potter, C. W

    2002-01-01

    ..." [publisher's web site]. "Since the influenza virus was first isolated in the laboratory some 70 years ago, the disease has been the subject of intense study, and our knowledge has escalated as the newer techniques...

  12. Uptake of the Influenza Vaccination in Pregnancy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crosby, DA

    2016-09-01

    Influenza is caused by a highly infectious RNA virus, which usually occurs in a seasonal pattern with epidemics in the winter months. The objective of this study was to determine the uptake of the influenza vaccine in a pregnant population and ascertain the reasons why some women did not receive it. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a two-week period in January 2016 in the National Maternity Hospital Dublin, a tertiary referral maternity hospital delivering over 9000 infants per year. There were 504 women studied over the 2-week period. Overall, 197(39.1%) women received the vaccine at a mean gestational age 20.9 weeks (SD 7.0). Given the increased rates of influenza in the community and the associated implications for mother and infant, it is important that pregnant women are educated regarding the risks of influenza in pregnancy and encourage this cohort to be vaccinated.

  13. Mink kan også have influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Krog, Jesper Schak; Larsen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    , hvis der opstår mistanke om influenza ved obduktionen, eller hvis der er alvorlige langvarige udbrud. For at kunne iværksætte foranstaltninger, der begrænser forekomsten af influenza hos mink, er det nødvendigt at kende udbredelsen af influenzavirus blandt farmede mink i Danmark. Formålet med denne...... minkobduktionskursus, samt vilde mink. Der blev påvist influenza A virus i mink fra otte farme. Genetiske analyser indikerede, at disse virus stammede fra både danske svin og mennesker. For at forebygge udbrud af influenza i farmede mink anbefales det, at undgå kontakt mellem mink og influenzasyge personer, samt sikre...

  14. NADPH oxidases as novel pharmacologic targets against influenza A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Ross; Selemidis, Stavros

    2014-12-01

    Influenza A viruses represent a major global health care challenge, with imminent pandemics, emerging antiviral resistance, and long lag times for vaccine development, raising a pressing need for novel pharmacologic strategies that ideally target the pathology irrespective of the infecting strain. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) pervade all facets of cell biology with both detrimental and protective properties. Indeed, there is compelling evidence that activation of the NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) isoform of the NADPH oxidase family of ROS-producing enzymes promotes lung oxidative stress, inflammation, injury, and dysfunction resulting from influenza A viruses of low to high pathogenicity, as well as impeding virus clearance. By contrast, the dual oxidase isoforms produce ROS that provide vital protective antiviral effects for the host. In this review, we propose that inhibitors of NOX2 are better alternatives than broad-spectrum antioxidant approaches for treatment of influenza pathologies, for which clinical efficacy may have been limited owing to poor bioavailability and inadvertent removal of beneficial ROS. Finally, we briefly describe the current suite of NADPH oxidase inhibitors and the molecular features of the NADPH oxidase enzymes that could be exploited by drug discovery for development of more specific and novel inhibitors to prevent or treat disease caused by influenza. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Pandemic influenza preparedness: an ethical framework to guide decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Jennifer L

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Planning for the next pandemic influenza outbreak is underway in hospitals across the world. The global SARS experience has taught us that ethical frameworks to guide decision-making may help to reduce collateral damage and increase trust and solidarity within and between health care organisations. Good pandemic planning requires reflection on values because science alone cannot tell us how to prepare for a public health crisis. Discussion In this paper, we present an ethical framework for pandemic influenza planning. The ethical framework was developed with expertise from clinical, organisational and public health ethics and validated through a stakeholder engagement process. The ethical framework includes both substantive and procedural elements for ethical pandemic influenza planning. The incorporation of ethics into pandemic planning can be helped by senior hospital administrators sponsoring its use, by having stakeholders vet the framework, and by designing or identifying decision review processes. We discuss the merits and limits of an applied ethical framework for hospital decision-making, as well as the robustness of the framework. Summary The need for reflection on the ethical issues raised by the spectre of a pandemic influenza outbreak is great. Our efforts to address the normative aspects of pandemic planning in hospitals have generated interest from other hospitals and from the governmental sector. The framework will require re-evaluation and refinement and we hope that this paper will generate feedback on how to make it even more robust.

  16. Defining the sizes of airborne particles that mediate influenza transmission in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Wei, Jianjian; Choy, Ka-Tim; Sia, Sin Fun; Rowlands, Dewi K; Yu, Dan; Wu, Chung-Yi; Lindsley, William G; Cowling, Benjamin J; McDevitt, James; Peiris, Malik; Li, Yuguo; Yen, Hui-Ling

    2018-03-06

    Epidemics and pandemics of influenza are characterized by rapid global spread mediated by non-mutually exclusive transmission modes. The relative significance between contact, droplet, and airborne transmission is yet to be defined, a knowledge gap for implementing evidence-based infection control measures. We devised a transmission chamber that separates virus-laden particles by size and determined the particle sizes mediating transmission of influenza among ferrets through the air. Ferret-to-ferret transmission was mediated by airborne particles larger than 1.5 µm, consistent with the quantity and size of virus-laden particles released by the donors. Onward transmission by donors was most efficient before fever onset and may continue for 5 days after inoculation. Multiple virus gene segments enhanced the transmissibility of a swine influenza virus among ferrets by increasing the release of virus-laden particles into the air. We provide direct experimental evidence of influenza transmission via droplets and fine droplet nuclei, albeit at different efficiency. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  17. Influenza forecasting with Google Flu Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Andrea Freyer; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    We developed a practical influenza forecast model based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, designed to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the expected number of influenza cases, thus allowing for sufficient time to implement interventions. Secondly, we evaluated the effects of incorporating a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, and meteorological and temporal information on forecast accuracy. Forecast models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004-2011) divided into seven training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear models (GLM), and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GARMA) methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. A GARMA(3,0) forecast model with Negative Binomial distribution integrating Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. The model, on the average, predicts weekly influenza cases during 7 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 83% of estimates. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information to provide statistically significant forecast improvements over the base model in four of the seven out-of-sample verification sets. Overall, the p-value of adding this external information to the model is 0.0005. The other exogenous variables did not yield a statistically significant improvement in any of the verification sets. Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This accessible and flexible forecast model can be used by

  18. [Contemporary threat of influenza virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2010-01-01

    Swine-origine H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV) caused a great mobilization of health medical service over the world. Now it is well known that a vaccine against novel virus is expected as a key point in that battle. In the situation when recommended treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors is not sufficient to control influenza A/H1N1 viral infection the quick and precisely diagnostic procedures should be applied to save and protect our patients.

  19. Isolation of avian influenza virus in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S E; Naqi, S A; Grumbles, L C

    1981-01-01

    An avian influenza virus with surface antigens similar to those of fowl plague virus (Hav 1 Nav 2) was isolated in 1979 from 2 commercial turkey flocks in Central Texas. Two flocks in contact with these infected flocks developed clinical signs, gross lesions, and seroconversion but yielded no virus. This was the first recorded incidence of clinical avian influenza in Texas turkeys and only the second time that an agent with these surface antigens was isolated from turkeys in U.S.

  20. Reverse Genetics Approaches for the Development of Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Aitor; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics of human respiratory disease. Influenza virus infections represent a serious public health and economic problem, which are most effectively prevented through vaccination. However, influenza viruses undergo continual antigenic variation, which requires either the annual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines or the rapid generation of vaccines against potential pandemic virus strains. The segmented nature of influenza virus allows for the reassortment between two or more viruses within a co-infected cell, and this characteristic has also been harnessed in the laboratory to generate reassortant viruses for their use as either inactivated or live-attenuated influenza vaccines. With the implementation of plasmid-based reverse genetics techniques, it is now possible to engineer recombinant influenza viruses entirely from full-length complementary DNA copies of the viral genome by transfection of susceptible cells. These reverse genetics systems have provided investigators with novel and powerful approaches to answer important questions about the biology of influenza viruses, including the function of viral proteins, their interaction with cellular host factors and the mechanisms of influenza virus transmission and pathogenesis. In addition, reverse genetics techniques have allowed the generation of recombinant influenza viruses, providing a powerful technology to develop both inactivated and live-attenuated influenza vaccines. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of state-of-the-art, plasmid-based, influenza reverse genetics approaches and their implementation to provide rapid, convenient, safe and more effective influenza inactivated or live-attenuated vaccines. PMID:28025504

  1. A High Diversity of Eurasian Lineage Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Viruses Circulate among Wild Birds Sampled in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Jones, Joyce; Simpson, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; ElBadry, Maha Adel; Baghat, Verina; Rusev, Ivan; de Mattos, Cecilia C.; de Mattos, Carlos A.; Zonkle, Luay Elsayed Ahmed; Kis, Zoltan; Davis, C. Todd; Yingst, Sam; Cornelius, Claire; Soliman, Atef; Mohareb, Emad; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian). The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring. PMID:23874653

  2. Main achievements of the World Organisation for Animal Health/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization network on animal influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hamilton, Keith; Kim, L Mia; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Capua, Ilaria; Edwards, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) joint network of expertise on animal influenza (OFFLU) includes all ten OIE/FAO reference laboratories and collaborating centers for avian influenza, other diagnostic laboratories, research and academic institutions, and experts in the fields of virology, epidemiology, vaccinology, and molecular biology. OFFLU has made significant progress in improving its infrastructure, in identifying and addressing technical gaps, and in establishing associations among leading veterinary institutions. Interaction with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Program is also critical, and mechanisms for permanent interaction are being developed. OFFLU played a key role in the WHO/OIE/FAO Joint Technical Consultation held in Verona (October 7-9, 2008), which provided an opportunity to highlight and share knowledge and identify potential gaps regarding issues at the human-animal interface for avian influenza. OFFLU experts also contributed to the working group for the Unified Nomenclature System for H5N1 influenza viruses based on hemagglutinin gene phylogeny (WHO/OIE/FAO, H5N1 Evolution Working Group, Towards a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:el, 2008). OFFLU technical activities, led by expert scientists from OIE/FAO reference institutions and coordinated by OIE and FAO focal points, have been prioritized to include commercial diagnostic kit evaluation, applied epidemiology, biosafety, vaccination, proficiency testing, development of standardized reference materials for sera and RNA, and issues at the human-animal interface. The progress to date and future plans for these groups will be presented. OFFLU is also involved in two national projects implemented by FAO in Indonesia and Egypt that seek to establish sustainable mechanisms for monitoring virus circulation, including viral

  3. siRNA for Influenza Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailen Barik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is one of the most prevalent and ancient infections in humans. About a fifth of world's population is infected by influenza virus annually, leading to high morbidity and mortality, particularly in infants, the elderly and the immunocompromised. In the US alone, influenza outbreaks lead to roughly 30,000 deaths each year. Current vaccines and anti-influenza drugs are of limited use due to high mutation rate of the virus and side effects. In recent years, RNA interference, triggered by synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA, has rapidly evolved as a potent antiviral regimen. Properly designed siRNAs have been shown to function as potent inhibitors of influenza virus replication. The siRNAs outperform traditional small molecule antivirals in a number of areas, such as ease of design, modest cost, and fast turnaround. Although specificity and tissue delivery remain major bottlenecks in the clinical applications of RNAi in general, intranasal application of siRNA against respiratory viruses including, but not limited to influenza virus, has experienced significant success and optimism, which is reviewed here.

  4. siRNA for Influenza Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen

    2010-07-01

    Influenza virus is one of the most prevalent and ancient infections in humans. About a fifth of world's population is infected by influenza virus annually, leading to high morbidity and mortality, particularly in infants, the elderly and the immunocompromised. In the US alone, influenza outbreaks lead to roughly 30,000 deaths each year. Current vaccines and anti-influenza drugs are of limited use due to high mutation rate of the virus and side effects. In recent years, RNA interference, triggered by synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA), has rapidly evolved as a potent antiviral regimen. Properly designed siRNAs have been shown to function as potent inhibitors of influenza virus replication. The siRNAs outperform traditional small molecule antivirals in a number of areas, such as ease of design, modest cost, and fast turnaround. Although specificity and tissue delivery remain major bottlenecks in the clinical applications of RNAi in general, intranasal application of siRNA against respiratory viruses including, but not limited to influenza virus, has experienced significant success and optimism, which is reviewed here.

  5. History of Swine influenza viruses in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huachen; Webby, Richard; Lam, Tommy T Y; Smith, David K; Peiris, Joseph S M; Guan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The pig is one of the main hosts of influenza A viruses and plays important roles in shaping the current influenza ecology. The occurrence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus demonstrated that pigs could independently facilitate the genesis of a pandemic influenza strain. Genetic analyses revealed that this virus was derived by reassortment between at least two parent swine influenza viruses (SIV), from the northern American triple reassortant H1N2 (TR) and European avian-like H1N1 (EA) lineages. The movement of live pigs between different continents and subsequent virus establishment are preconditions for such a reassortment event to occur. Asia, especially China, has the largest human and pig populations in the world, and seems to be the only region frequently importing pigs from other continents. Virological surveillance revealed that not only classical swine H1N1 (CS), and human-origin H3N2 viruses circulated, but all of the EA, TR and their reassortant variants were introduced into and co-circulated in pigs in this region. Understanding the long-term evolution and history of SIV in Asia would provide insights into the emergence of influenza viruses with epidemic potential in swine and humans.

  6. [History of pandemic influenza in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Keizo

    2010-09-01

    In Japan, influenza like epidemics were described many times since Heian era. However, Spanish flu as the modern medicine invaded Japan in 1918, thus almost infected 390,000 patients died with associated pneumonia. After the discovery of influenza virus in 1933, Japan experienced pandemic influenza--Asian flu(H2N2) in 1957. After about 10 years, Hong Kong flu (H3N2) came to Japan at 1968. However, we had many reliable antibiotics but had not any antiviral drug at the early time. After year 2000, we fortunately obtained reliable three antiviral drugs such as amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. Moreover, very useful rapid test kits for influenza A and B viruses were developed and used in Japan. 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic occured in Japan after the great epidemic in Mexico and North America but elderly patient was few. With together, host conditions regarding with high risk are changing. Lessons from past several pandemic influenza are those that many issues for changing high risk conditions, viral genetic changes, developing antiviral agents, developing new useful vaccins and determinating bacterial secondary pathogens are important.

  7. Challenges and Strategies of Laboratory Diagnosis for Newly Emerging Influenza Viruses in Taiwan: A Decade after SARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Hui Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS in Taiwan was identified in March 2003, viral respiratory infections, in particular the influenza virus, have become a national public health concern. Taiwan would face a serious threat of public health problems if another SARS epidemic overlapped with a flu outbreak. After SARS, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control accelerated and strengthened domestic research on influenza and expanded the exchange of information with international counterparts. The capacity of influenza A to cross species barriers presents a potential threat to human health. Given the mutations of avian flu viruses such as H7N9, H6N1, and H10N8, all countries, including Taiwan, must equip themselves to face a possible epidemic or pandemic. Such preparedness requires global collaboration.

  8. Influenza research database: an integrated bioinformatics resource for influenza virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Influenza Research Database (IRD) is a U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-sponsored Bioinformatics Resource Center dedicated to providing bioinformatics support for influenza virus research. IRD facilitates the research and development of vaccines, diagnostics, an...

  9. Seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine protects against 1918 Spanish influenza virus in ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influenza H1N1 pandemic of 1918 was one of the worst medical disasters in human history. Recent studies have demonstrated that the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the 1918 virus and 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus, the latter now a component of the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV),...

  10. Annually repeated influenza vaccination improves humoral responses to several influenza virus strains in healthy elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. de Bruijn (Iris); E.J. Remarque (Edmond); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); S. le Cessie (Saskia); N. Masurel (Nic); G.L. Ligthart (Gerard)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe benefit of annually repeated influenza vaccination on antibody formation is still under debate. In this study the effect of annually repeated influenza vaccination on haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibody formation in the elderly is investigated. Between 1990 and 1993 healthy

  11. Emerging influenza viruses and the prospect of a universal influenza virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and pandemics at irregular intervals. Several cases of human infections with avian and swine influenza viruses have been detected recently, warranting enhanced surveillance and the development of more effective countermeasures to address the pandemic potential of these viruses. The most effective countermeasure against influenza virus infection is the use of prophylactic vaccines. However, vaccines that are currently in use for seasonal influenza viruses have to be re-formulated and re-administered in a cumbersome process every year due to the antigenic drift of the virus. Furthermore, current seasonal vaccines are ineffective against novel pandemic strains. This paper reviews zoonotic influenza viruses with pandemic potential and technological advances towards better vaccines that induce broad and long lasting protection from influenza virus infection. Recent efforts have focused on the development of broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccines that can provide immunity against drifted seasonal influenza virus strains but also against potential pandemic viruses. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Barba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus remains a serious health and potential economic problem throughout most parts of the world, despite intensive vaccination programs in some horse populations. The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has multiple functions involved in the regulation of several cellular and viral processes during influenza infection. We review the strategies that NS1 uses to facilitate virus replication and inhibit antiviral responses in the host, including sequestering of double-stranded RNA, direct modulation of protein kinase R activity and inhibition of transcription and translation of host antiviral response genes such as type I interferon. Details are provided regarding what it is known about NS1 in equine influenza, especially concerning C-terminal truncation. Further research is needed to determine the role of NS1 in equine influenza infection, which will help to understand the pathophysiology of complicated cases related to cytokine imbalance and secondary bacterial infection, and to investigate new therapeutic and vaccination strategies.

  13. Impact of influenza vaccination on mortality risk among the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, R. H. H.; Hoes, A. W.; Hak, E.

    Estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness have mostly been derived from nonrandomised studies and therefore are potentially confounded. The aim of the current study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing mortality among the elderly, taking both measured and unmeasured

  14. Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) and Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts About Influenza (Flu) Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Flu Treating Flu What is Influenza (also called Flu)? The flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused ...

  15. Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Influenza viruses that normally circulate in pigs are called “variant” ...

  16. Mapping of the US Domestic Influenza Virologic Surveillance Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Barbara; Schwerzmann, Joy; Mustaquim, Desiree; Aden, Tricia; Brammer, Lynnette; Humes, Rosemary; Shult, Pete; Shahangian, Shahram; Gubareva, Larisa; Xu, Xiyan; Miller, Joseph; Jernigan, Daniel

    2018-07-17

    Influenza virologic surveillance is critical each season for tracking influenza circulation, following trends in antiviral drug resistance, detecting novel influenza infections in humans, and selecting viruses for use in annual seasonal vaccine production. We developed a framework and process map for characterizing the landscape of US influenza virologic surveillance into 5 tiers of influenza testing: outpatient settings (tier 1), inpatient settings and commercial laboratories (tier 2), state public health laboratories (tier 3), National Influenza Reference Center laboratories (tier 4), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention laboratories (tier 5). During the 2015-16 season, the numbers of influenza tests directly contributing to virologic surveillance were 804,000 in tiers 1 and 2; 78,000 in tier 3; 2,800 in tier 4; and 3,400 in tier 5. With the release of the 2017 US Pandemic Influenza Plan, the proposed framework will support public health officials in modeling, surveillance, and pandemic planning and response.

  17. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to influenza in serum...

  18. tion and/or treatment of influenza virus infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    more frequent in children and more seri- ous in the elderly, ... The main option for the prevention of influenza and ... rapid development of influenza virus resistance ... drugs that affect the CNS, particu- .... include employees of hospitals, clinics ...

  19. Influenza Virus and Glycemic Variability in Diabetes: A Killer Combination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina D. Hulme

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus pandemic, numerous studies identified the striking link between diabetes mellitus and influenza disease severity. Typically, influenza virus is a self-limiting infection but in individuals who have a pre-existing chronic illness, such as diabetes mellitus, severe influenza can develop. Here, we discuss the latest clinical and experimental evidence for the role of diabetes in predisposing the host to severe influenza. We explore the possible mechanisms that underlie this synergy and highlight the, as yet, unexplored role that blood glucose oscillations may play in disease development. Diabetes is one of the world’s fastest growing chronic diseases and influenza virus represents a constant and pervasive threat to human health. It is therefore imperative that we understand how diabetes increases influenza severity in order to mitigate the burden of future influenza epidemics and pandemics.

  20. Novel Platforms for the Development of a Universal Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite advancements in immunotherapeutic approaches, influenza continues to cause severe illness, particularly among immunocompromised individuals, young children, and elderly adults. Vaccination is the most effective way to reduce rates of morbidity and mortality caused by influenza viruses. Frequent genetic shift and drift among influenza-virus strains with the resultant disparity between circulating and vaccine virus strains limits the effectiveness of the available conventional influenza vaccines. One approach to overcome this limitation is to develop a universal influenza vaccine that could provide protection against all subtypes of influenza viruses. Moreover, the development of a novel or improved universal influenza vaccines may be greatly facilitated by new technologies including virus-like particles, T-cell-inducing peptides and recombinant proteins, synthetic viruses, broadly neutralizing antibodies, and nucleic acid-based vaccines. This review discusses recent scientific advances in the development of next-generation universal influenza vaccines.

  1. Cross talk between animal and human influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Makoto; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Although outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild and domestic birds have been posing the threat of a new influenza pandemic for the past decade, the first pandemic of the twenty-first century came from swine viruses. This fact emphasizes the complexity of influenza viral ecology and the difficulty of predicting influenza viral dynamics. Complete control of influenza viruses seems impossible. However, we must minimize the impact of animal and human influenza outbreaks by learning lessons from past experiences and recognizing the current status. Here, we review the most recent influenza virology data in the veterinary field, including aspects of zoonotic agents and recent studies that assess the pandemic potential of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

  2. No MERS-CoV but positive influenza viruses in returning Hajj pilgrims, China, 2013–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezheng Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is global health concern that the mass movement of pilgrims to and from Mecca annually could contribute to the international spread of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV. In China, about 11,000 Muslim pilgrims participate in the Hajj gathering in Mecca annually. This is the first report of MERS-CoV and respiratory virus molecular screening of returning pilgrims at points of entry in China from 2013 to 2015. Methods and results A total of 847 returning Hajj pilgrims participated in this study. The test results indicated that of the travelers, 34 tested positive for influenza A virus, 14 for influenza B virus, 4 for metapneumo virus, 2 for respiratory syncytial virus, and 3 for human coronavirus. There was a significant difference in the rates of positive and negative influenza virus tests between Hajj pilgrims with symptoms and those without. The detection rates of influenza virus were not significantly different among the three years studied, at 5.3, 6.0 and 6.3% for 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Discussion and conclusion The MERS-CoV and respiratory viruses detection results at points of entry in China from 2013 to 2015 indicated that there were no MERS-CoV infection but a 5.7% positive influenza viruses in returning Chinese pilgrims.

  3. Establishing a laboratory network of influenza diagnosis in Indonesia: an experience from the avian flu (H5N1 outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawaty V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vivi Setiawaty, Krisna NA Pangesti, Ondri D SampurnoNational Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, IndonesiaAbstract: Indonesia has been part of the global influenza surveillance since the establishment of a National Influenza Center (NIC at the National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD by the Indonesian Ministry of Health in 1975. When the outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1 occurred, the NIC and US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 were the only diagnostic laboratories equipped for etiology confirmation. The large geographical area of the Republic of Indonesia poses a real challenge to provide prompt and accurate diagnosis nationally. This was the main reason to establish a laboratory network for H5N1 diagnosis in Indonesia. Currently, 44 laboratories have been included in the network capable of performing polymerase chain reaction testing for influenza A. Diagnostic equipment and standard procedures of biosafety and biosecurity of handling specimens have been adopted largely from World Health Organization recommendations.Keywords: influenza, laboratory, networking

  4. Differences in Influenza Seasonality by Latitude, Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broor, Shobha; Saha, Siddhartha; Barnes, John; Smith, Catherine; Shaw, Michael; Chadha, Mandeep; Lal, Renu B.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonality of influenza in the tropics complicates vaccination timing. We investigated influenza seasonality in northern India and found influenza positivity peaked in Srinagar (34.09°N) in January–March but peaked in New Delhi (28.66°N) in July–September. Srinagar should consider influenza vaccination in October–November, but New Delhi should vaccinate in May–June. PMID:25279651

  5. Epidemiological characteristics of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A novel influenza A virus strain (H1N1-2009) spread first in Mexico and the United Stated in late April 2009, leading to the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1-2009) in ...

  6. Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buynder, Paul G.; Carcione, Dale; Rettura, Vince; Daly, Alison; Woods, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Van Buynder et al. (2010) Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(1), 33–38. Objectives  After a cluster of rapidly fulminant influenza related toddler deaths in a Western Australian metropolis, children aged six to 59 months were offered influenza vaccination in subsequent winters. Some parental resistance was expected and previous poor uptake of paediatric influenza vaccination overseas was noted. A marketing campaign addressing barriers to immunization was developed to maximise uptake. Design  Advertising occurred in major statewide newspapers, via public poster displays and static ‘eye‐lite’ displays, via press releases, via a series of rolling radio advertisements, via direct marketing to child care centres, and via a linked series of web‐sites. Parents were subsequently surveyed to assess reasons for vaccination. Main Outcome Results  The campaign produced influenza vaccination coverage above that previously described elsewhere and led to a proportionate reduction in influenza notifications in this age group compared to previous seasons. Conclusions  Influenza in children comes with significant morbidity and some mortality. Paediatric influenza vaccination is safe, well tolerated and effective if two doses are given. A targeted media campaign can increase vaccine uptake if it reinforces the seriousness of influenza and addresses community ‘myths’ about influenza and influenza vaccine. The lessons learned enabling enhancements of similar programs elsewhere. PMID:21138538

  7. Epidemiological characteristics of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... novel influenza A virus strain (H1N1-2009) spread first in Mexico and the United Stated in late April 2009, leading to the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1-2009) in Zhanjiang, China ...

  8. Influenza: the next pandemic?: a review | Adungo, | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the diversity of susceptible reservoirs of influenza viruses and the interspecies transmission recently reported, a mutated strain of the virus to which people have no immunity could cause an influenza pandemic once the virus gains efficient and sustained human-to-human transmission. The fear that avian influenza ...

  9. 77 FR 13329 - Pandemic Influenza Vaccines-Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Pandemic Influenza Vaccines... Secretary issued a declaration for pandemic influenza vaccines, which has been amended a number of times. The original pandemic influenza vaccine declaration was published on January 26, 2007,\\1\\ and was...

  10. Haemophilus influenzae Type a Meningitis in Immunocompetent Child, Oman, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawardekar, Kiran P

    2017-07-01

    Meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was eliminated in Oman after the introduction of Hib vaccine in 2001. However, a case of H. influenzae type a meningitis was diagnosed in a child from Oman in 2015, which highlights the need to monitor the incidence of invasive non-Hib H. influenzae disease.

  11. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  12. Workplace health and safety during pandemic influenza : CAGC guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    Pandemic influenza is a possible biological hazard that employers must take into account during hazard assessment and emergency planning. This report presented a guideline to all workplaces in Alberta and provided information on legislated requirements, best practices, guidelines and strategies in workplace health and safety and employment standards in the event of a pandemic influenza. The report explained the difference between a pandemic and a pandemic influenza, and why scientists expect another pandemic influenza. Pandemic influenza was described as being different from seasonal influenza. This document also explained how pandemic influenza relates to the worker and the workplace, and how the workplace can prepare for and respond to pandemic influenza. Pandemic influenza hazard categories were also listed along with steps in the hazard assessment and control of pandemic influenza. The steps involve listing the types of work and work-related activities; identifying the hazard; assessing the hazards; implementing controls; communicating the information to workers and providing training; and evaluating the effectiveness of controls. The guide also addressed emergency response plan development for pandemic influenza; first aid; and employment standards during pandemic influenza. refs., tabs.

  13. Considerable progress in European preparations for a potential influenza pandemic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, J.

    2005-01-01

    The threat of an influenza pandemic has been heightened in the past two years by outbreaks of avian influenza concentrated in South East Asia which have resulted in human deaths. So far, the avian influenza virus seems difficult to transmit from human to human, but changes in the virus genome may

  14. Contextual information management: An example of independent-checking in the review of laboratory-based bloodstain pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Nikola K P; Taylor, Michael C

    2018-05-01

    This article describes a New Zealand forensic agency's contextual information management protocol for bloodstain pattern evidence examined in the laboratory. In an effort to create a protocol that would have minimal impact on current work-flow, while still effectively removing task-irrelevant contextual information, the protocol was designed following an in-depth consultation with management and forensic staff. The resulting design was for a protocol of independent-checking (i.e. blind peer-review) where the checker's interpretation of the evidence is conducted in the absence of case information and the original examiner's notes or interpretation(s). At the conclusion of a ten-case trial period, there was widespread agreement that the protocol had minimal impact on the number of people required, the cost, or the time to complete an item examination. The agency is now looking to adopt the protocol into standard operating procedures and in some cases the protocol has been extended to cover other laboratory-based examinations (e.g. fabric damage, shoeprint examination, and physical fits). The protocol developed during this trial provides a useful example for agencies seeking to adopt contextual information management into their workflow. Copyright © 2018 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement agreement between a newly developed sensing insole and traditional laboratory-based method for footstrike pattern detection in runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy T H Cheung

    Full Text Available This study introduced a novel but simple method to continuously measure footstrike patterns in runners using inexpensive force sensors. Two force sensing resistors were firmly affixed at the heel and second toe of both insoles to collect the time signal of foot contact. A total of 109 healthy young adults (42 males and 67 females were recruited in this study. They ran on an instrumented treadmill at 0°, +10°, and -10° inclinations and attempted rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot landings using real time visual biofeedback. Intra-step strike index and onset time difference between two force sensors were measured and analyzed with univariate linear regression. We analyzed 25,655 footfalls and found that onset time difference between two sensors explained 80-84% of variation in the prediction model of strike index (R-squared = 0.799-0.836, p<0.001. However, the time windows to detect footstrike patterns on different surface inclinations were not consistent. These findings may allow laboratory-based gait retraining to be implemented in natural running environments to aid in both injury prevention and performance enhancement.

  16. Sleep and Sleepiness among First-Time Postpartum Parents: A Field- and Laboratory-Based Multimethod Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2012-01-01

    The study aim was to compare sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance among first-time mothers and fathers during their early postpartum period. Participants were 21 first-time postpartum mother-father dyads (N=42) and seven childless control dyads (N=14). Within their natural environment, participants completed one week of wrist actigraphy monitoring, along with multi-day self-administered sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance measures. The assessment week was followed by an objective laboratory based test of sleepiness. Mothers obtained more sleep compared to fathers, but mothers’ sleep was more disturbed by awakenings. Fathers had greater objectively measured sleepiness than mothers. Mothers and fathers did not differ on subjectively measured sleep quality, sleepiness, or fatigue; however, mothers had worse neurobehavioral performance than fathers. Compared to control dyads, postpartum parents experienced greater sleep disturbance, sleepiness, and sleepiness associated impairments. Study results inform social policy, postpartum sleep interventions, and research on postpartum family systems and mechanisms that propagate sleepiness. PMID:22553114

  17. Measurement agreement between a newly developed sensing insole and traditional laboratory-based method for footstrike pattern detection in runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Roy T. H.; An, Winko W.; Au, Ivan P. H.; Zhang, Janet H.; Chan, Zoe Y. S.; Man, Alfred; Lau, Fannie O. Y.; Lam, Melody K. Y.; Lau, K. K.; Leung, C. Y.; Tsang, N. W.; Sze, Louis K. Y.; Lam, Gilbert W. K.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduced a novel but simple method to continuously measure footstrike patterns in runners using inexpensive force sensors. Two force sensing resistors were firmly affixed at the heel and second toe of both insoles to collect the time signal of foot contact. A total of 109 healthy young adults (42 males and 67 females) were recruited in this study. They ran on an instrumented treadmill at 0°, +10°, and -10° inclinations and attempted rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot landings using real time visual biofeedback. Intra-step strike index and onset time difference between two force sensors were measured and analyzed with univariate linear regression. We analyzed 25,655 footfalls and found that onset time difference between two sensors explained 80–84% of variation in the prediction model of strike index (R-squared = 0.799–0.836, p<0.001). However, the time windows to detect footstrike patterns on different surface inclinations were not consistent. These findings may allow laboratory-based gait retraining to be implemented in natural running environments to aid in both injury prevention and performance enhancement. PMID:28599003

  18. A review on the neural bases of episodic odor memory: from laboratory-based to autobiographical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saive, Anne-Lise; Royet, Jean-Pierre; Plailly, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Odors are powerful cues that trigger episodic memories. However, in light of the amount of behavioral data describing the characteristics of episodic odor memory, the paucity of information available on the neural substrates of this function is startling. Furthermore, the diversity of experimental paradigms complicates the identification of a generic episodic odor memory network. We conduct a systematic review of the literature depicting the current state of the neural correlates of episodic odor memory in healthy humans by placing a focus on the experimental approaches. Functional neuroimaging data are introduced by a brief characterization of the memory processes investigated. We present and discuss laboratory-based approaches, such as odor recognition and odor associative memory, and autobiographical approaches, such as the evaluation of odor familiarity and odor-evoked autobiographical memory. We then suggest the development of new laboratory-ecological approaches allowing for the controlled encoding and retrieval of specific multidimensional events that could open up new prospects for the comprehension of episodic odor memory and its neural underpinnings. While large conceptual differences distinguish experimental approaches, the overview of the functional neuroimaging findings suggests relatively stable neural correlates of episodic odor memory. PMID:25071494

  19. Do sediment type and test durations affect results of laboratory-based, accelerated testing studies of permeable pavement clogging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Peter W B; White, Richard; Lucke, Terry

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have attempted to quantify the clogging processes of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers (PICPs) using accelerated testing methods. However, the results have been variable. This study investigated the effects that three different sediment types (natural and silica), and different simulated rainfall intensities, and testing durations had on the observed clogging processes (and measured surface infiltration rates) of laboratory-based, accelerated PICP testing studies. Results showed that accelerated simulated laboratory testing results are highly dependent on the type, and size of sediment used in the experiments. For example, when using real stormwater sediment up to 1.18 mm in size, the results showed that neither testing duration, nor stormwater application rate had any significant effect on PICP clogging. However, the study clearly showed that shorter testing durations generally increased clogging and reduced the surface infiltration rates of the models when artificial silica sediment was used. Longer testing durations also generally increased clogging of the models when using fine sediment (<300 μm). Results from this study will help researchers and designers better anticipate when and why PICPs are susceptible to clogging, reduce maintenance and extend the useful life of these increasingly common stormwater best management practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Myoanatomy of the velvet worm leg revealed by laboratory-based nanofocus X-ray source tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mark; de Sena Oliveira, Ivo; Allner, Sebastian; Ferstl, Simone; Bidola, Pidassa; Mechlem, Korbinian; Fehringer, Andreas; Hehn, Lorenz; Dierolf, Martin; Achterhold, Klaus; Gleich, Bernhard; Hammel, Jörg U; Jahn, Henry; Mayer, Georg; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2017-11-21

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a powerful noninvasive technique for investigating the inner structure of objects and organisms. However, the resolution of laboratory CT systems is typically limited to the micrometer range. In this paper, we present a table-top nanoCT system in conjunction with standard processing tools that is able to routinely reach resolutions down to 100 nm without using X-ray optics. We demonstrate its potential for biological investigations by imaging a walking appendage of Euperipatoides rowelli , a representative of Onychophora-an invertebrate group pivotal for understanding animal evolution. Comparative analyses proved that the nanoCT can depict the external morphology of the limb with an image quality similar to scanning electron microscopy, while simultaneously visualizing internal muscular structures at higher resolutions than confocal laser scanning microscopy. The obtained nanoCT data revealed hitherto unknown aspects of the onychophoran limb musculature, enabling the 3D reconstruction of individual muscle fibers, which was previously impossible using any laboratory-based imaging technique.

  1. A review on the neural bases of episodic odor memory: from laboratory-based to autobiographical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise eSaive

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Odors are powerful cues that trigger episodic memories. However, in light of the amount of behavioral data describing the characteristics of episodic odor memory, the paucity of information available on the neural substrates of this function is startling. Furthermore, the diversity of experimental paradigms complicates the identification of a generic episodic odor memory network. We conduct a systematic review of the literature depicting the current state of the neural correlates of episodic odor memory in healthy humans by placing a focus on the experimental approaches. Functional neuroimaging data are introduced by a brief characterization of the memory processes investigated. We present and discuss laboratory-based approaches, such as odor recognition and odor associative memory, and autobiographical approaches, such as the evaluation of odor familiarity and odor-evoked autobiographical memory. We then suggest the development of new laboratory-ecological approaches allowing for the controlled encoding and retrieval of specific multidimensional events that could open up new prospects for the comprehension of episodic odor memory and its neural underpinnings. While large conceptual differences distinguish experimental approaches, the overview of the functional neuroimaging findings suggests relatively stable neural correlates of episodic odor memory.

  2. Influenza A induced cellular signal transduction pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Paul; Brabant, Danielle; Bleiblo, Farag; Ramana, Chilakamarti V.; Rutherford, Michael; Khurana, Sandhya; Tai, T.C.; Kumar, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A is a negative sense single stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae Family. This enveloped virus contains 8 segments of viral RNA which encodes 11 viral proteins. Influenza A infects humans and is the causative agent of the flu. Annually it infects approximately 5% to 15% of the population world wide and results in an estimated 250,000 to 500,000 deaths a year. The nature of influenza A replication results in a high mutation rate which results in the need for seasonal vaccinations. In addition the zoonotic nature of the influenza virus allows for recombination of viral segments from different strains creating new variants that have not been encountered before. This type of mutation is the method by which pandemic strains of the flu arises. Infection with influenza results in a respiratory illness that for most individuals is self limiting. However in susceptible populations which include individuals with pre-existing pulmonary or cardiac conditions, the very young and the elderly fatal complications may arise. The most serious of these is the development of viral pneumonia which may be accompanied by secondary bacterial infections. Progression of pneumonia leads to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute lung injury (ALI) and potentially respiratory failure. This progression is a combined effect of the host immune system response to influenza infection and the viral infection itself. This review will focus on molecular aspects of viral replication in alveolar cells and their response to infection. The response of select innate immune cells and their contribution to viral clearance and lung epithelial damage will also be discussed. Molecular aspects of antiviral response in the cells in particular the protein kinase RNA dependent response, and the oligoadenylate synthetase RNAse L system in relation to influenza infection. PMID:23977434

  3. School-based influenza vaccination: parents' perspectives.

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    Candace Lind

    Full Text Available School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns.We explored parents' perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program.Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone.Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV, Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support, families (e.g. convenience, the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities, the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles. Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized, families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions and the education sector (loss of instructional time. Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process.Parents perceived advantages and disadvantages to delivering annual seasonal

  4. Predictive validation of an influenza spread model.

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    Ayaz Hyder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modeling plays a critical role in mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. Complex simulation models are currently at the forefront of evaluating optimal mitigation strategies at multiple scales and levels of organization. Given their evaluative role, these models remain limited in their ability to predict and forecast future epidemics leading some researchers and public-health practitioners to question their usefulness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive ability of an existing complex simulation model of influenza spread. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used extensive data on past epidemics to demonstrate the process of predictive validation. This involved generalizing an individual-based model for influenza spread and fitting it to laboratory-confirmed influenza infection data from a single observed epidemic (1998-1999. Next, we used the fitted model and modified two of its parameters based on data on real-world perturbations (vaccination coverage by age group and strain type. Simulating epidemics under these changes allowed us to estimate the deviation/error between the expected epidemic curve under perturbation and observed epidemics taking place from 1999 to 2006. Our model was able to forecast absolute intensity and epidemic peak week several weeks earlier with reasonable reliability and depended on the method of forecasting-static or dynamic. CONCLUSIONS: Good predictive ability of influenza epidemics is critical for implementing mitigation strategies in an effective and timely manner. Through the process of predictive validation applied to a current complex simulation model of influenza spread, we provided users of the model (e.g. public-health officials and policy-makers with quantitative metrics and practical recommendations on mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. This methodology may be applied to other models of communicable infectious diseases to test and potentially improve

  5. Predictive Validation of an Influenza Spread Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Ayaz; Buckeridge, David L.; Leung, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background Modeling plays a critical role in mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. Complex simulation models are currently at the forefront of evaluating optimal mitigation strategies at multiple scales and levels of organization. Given their evaluative role, these models remain limited in their ability to predict and forecast future epidemics leading some researchers and public-health practitioners to question their usefulness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive ability of an existing complex simulation model of influenza spread. Methods and Findings We used extensive data on past epidemics to demonstrate the process of predictive validation. This involved generalizing an individual-based model for influenza spread and fitting it to laboratory-confirmed influenza infection data from a single observed epidemic (1998–1999). Next, we used the fitted model and modified two of its parameters based on data on real-world perturbations (vaccination coverage by age group and strain type). Simulating epidemics under these changes allowed us to estimate the deviation/error between the expected epidemic curve under perturbation and observed epidemics taking place from 1999 to 2006. Our model was able to forecast absolute intensity and epidemic peak week several weeks earlier with reasonable reliability and depended on the method of forecasting-static or dynamic. Conclusions Good predictive ability of influenza epidemics is critical for implementing mitigation strategies in an effective and timely manner. Through the process of predictive validation applied to a current complex simulation model of influenza spread, we provided users of the model (e.g. public-health officials and policy-makers) with quantitative metrics and practical recommendations on mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. This methodology may be applied to other models of communicable infectious diseases to test and potentially improve their predictive

  6. Identification of novel conserved functional motifs across most Influenza A viral strains

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    El-Azab Iman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A virus poses a continuous threat to global public health. Design of novel universal drugs and vaccine requires a careful analysis of different strains of Influenza A viral genome from diverse hosts and subtypes. We performed a systematic in silico analysis of Influenza A viral segments of all available Influenza A viral strains and subtypes and grouped them based on host, subtype, and years isolated, and through multiple sequence alignments we extrapolated conserved regions, motifs, and accessible regions for functional mapping and annotation. Results Across all species and strains 87 highly conserved regions (conservation percentage > = 90% and 19 functional motifs (conservation percentage = 100% were found in PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS segments. The conservation percentage of these segments ranged between 94 - 98% in human strains (the most conserved, 85 - 93% in swine strains (the most variable, and 91 - 94% in avian strains. The most conserved segment was different in each host (PB1 for human strains, NS for avian strains, and M for swine strains. Target accessibility prediction yielded 324 accessible regions, with a single stranded probability > 0.5, of which 78 coincided with conserved regions. Some of the interesting annotations in these regions included sites for protein-protein interactions, the RNA binding groove, and the proton ion channel. Conclusions The influenza virus has evolved to adapt to its host through variations in the GC content and conservation percentage of the conserved regions. Nineteen universal conserved functional motifs were discovered, of which some were accessible regions with interesting biological functions. These regions will serve as a foundation for universal drug targets as well as universal vaccine design.

  7. Intranasal Immunization with Pressure Inactivated Avian Influenza Elicits Cellular and Humoral Responses in Mice.

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    Shana P C Barroso

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses pose a serious global health threat, particularly in light of newly emerging strains, such as the avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 viruses. Vaccination remains the primary method for preventing acquiring influenza or for avoiding developing serious complications related to the disease. Vaccinations based on inactivated split virus vaccines or on chemically inactivated whole virus have some important drawbacks, including changes in the immunogenic properties of the virus. To induce a greater mucosal immune response, intranasally administered vaccines are highly desired as they not only prevent disease but can also block the infection at its primary site. To avoid these drawbacks, hydrostatic pressure has been used as a potential method for viral inactivation and vaccine production. In this study, we show that hydrostatic pressure inactivates the avian influenza A H3N8 virus, while still maintaining hemagglutinin and neuraminidase functionalities. Challenged vaccinated animals showed no disease signs (ruffled fur, lethargy, weight loss, and huddling. Similarly, these animals showed less Evans Blue dye leakage and lower cell counts in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with the challenged non-vaccinated group. We found that the whole inactivated particles were capable of generating a neutralizing antibody response in serum, and IgA was also found in nasal mucosa and feces. After the vaccination and challenge we observed Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion with a prevalence of IFN-γ. Our data indicate that the animals present a satisfactory immune response after vaccination and are protected against infection. Our results may pave the way for the development of a novel pressure-based vaccine against influenza virus.

  8. Vaccination has minimal impact on the intrahost diversity of H3N2 influenza viruses.

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    Kari Debbink

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While influenza virus diversity and antigenic drift have been well characterized on a global scale, the factors that influence the virus' rapid evolution within and between human hosts are less clear. Given the modest effectiveness of seasonal vaccination, vaccine-induced antibody responses could serve as a potent selective pressure for novel influenza variants at the individual or community level. We used next generation sequencing of patient-derived viruses from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of vaccine efficacy to characterize the diversity of influenza A virus and to define the impact of vaccine-induced immunity on within-host populations. Importantly, this study design allowed us to isolate the impact of vaccination while still studying natural infection. We used pre-season hemagglutination inhibition and neuraminidase inhibition titers to quantify vaccine-induced immunity directly and to assess its impact on intrahost populations. We identified 166 cases of H3N2 influenza over 3 seasons and 5119 person-years. We obtained whole genome sequence data for 119 samples and used a stringent and empirically validated analysis pipeline to identify intrahost single nucleotide variants at ≥1% frequency. Phylogenetic analysis of consensus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase sequences showed no stratification by pre-season HAI and NAI titer, respectively. In our study population, we found that the vast majority of intrahost single nucleotide variants were rare and that very few were found in more than one individual. Most samples had fewer than 15 single nucleotide variants across the entire genome, and the level of diversity did not significantly vary with day of sampling, vaccination status, or pre-season antibody titer. Contrary to what has been suggested in experimental systems, our data indicate that seasonal influenza vaccination has little impact on intrahost diversity in natural infection and that vaccine-induced immunity may be only a

  9. Influenza A Virus-Host Protein Interactions Control Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengmeng; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Shitao

    2017-08-01

    The influenza A virus (IAV), a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, is a highly transmissible respiratory pathogen and represents a continued threat to global health with considerable economic and social impact. IAV is a zoonotic virus that comprises a plethora of strains with different pathogenic profiles. The different outcomes of viral pathogenesis are dependent on the engagement between the virus and the host cellular protein interaction network. The interactions may facilitate virus hijacking of host molecular machinery to fulfill the viral life cycle or trigger host immune defense to eliminate the virus. In recent years, much effort has been made to discover the virus-host protein interactions and understand the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we review the recent advances in our understanding of IAV-host interactions and how these interactions contribute to host defense and viral pathogenesis.

  10. Adolescent Attitudes toward Influenza Vaccination and Vaccine Uptake in a School-Based Influenza Vaccination Intervention: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Pazol, Karen; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Orenstein, Walter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based vaccination programs may provide an effective strategy to immunize adolescents against influenza. This study examined whether adolescent attitudes toward influenza vaccination mediated the relationship between receipt of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention and vaccine uptake. Methods: Participants were…

  11. Effectiveness of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, G.; Tacken, M.; Bos, J.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Korevaar, J.C.; Stolk, R.P.; Wolters, B.; Bijl, M.; Postma, M.J.; Wilschut, J.; Nichol, K.L.; Hak, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we conducted a study in the adults belonging to the risk groups to assess the A(H1N1)pdm09 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine effectiveness. Methods: VE against influenza and/or pneumonia was

  12. Seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza in 2012-2013 : A hospital-based case-control study in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Rahamat-Langendoen, Janette; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Mickiene, Aukse; Jancoriene, Ligita; Kuliese, Monika; Velyvyte, Daiva; Niesters, Hubert; Stolk, Ronald P.; Zagminas, Kestutis; Hak, Eelko

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to scarce information on seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (SIVE) against severe clinical influenza outcomes in risk populations, we conducted a case-control study to assess its effects against laboratory-confirmed influenza in hospitalized patients during the 2012-2013

  13. Influenza in the immediate post-pandemic era : A comparison with seasonal and pandemic influenza in hospitalized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahamat-Langendoen, J. C.; Tutuhatunewa, E. D.; Scholvinck, E. H.; Hak, E.; Koopmans, M.; Niesters, H. G. M.; Riezebos-Brilman, A.

    Background: Comparative data on severity and treatment of seasonal, pandemic and post-pandemic influenza virus infections are scarce. Objectives: To systematically analyze characteristics of hospitalized patients with influenza in the post-pandemic period compared to seasonal and pandemic influenza.

  14. Induction and Subversion of Human Protective Immunity: Contrasting Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Stephanie; Paterson, Suzanna; Chiu, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    functionality. Here, we discuss the differences in clinical outcome and immune response following influenza and RSV. Specifically, we focus on differences in their recognition by innate immunity; the strategies used by each virus to evade these early immune responses; and effects across the innate-adaptive interface that may prevent long-lived memory generation. Thus, by comparing these globally important pathogens, we highlight mechanisms by which optimal antiviral immunity may be better induced and discuss the potential for these insights to inform novel vaccines. PMID:29552008

  15. Induction and Subversion of Human Protective Immunity: Contrasting Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ascough

    2018-03-01

    generation and functionality. Here, we discuss the differences in clinical outcome and immune response following influenza and RSV. Specifically, we focus on differences in their recognition by innate immunity; the strategies used by each virus to evade these early immune responses; and effects across the innate-adaptive interface that may prevent long-lived memory generation. Thus, by comparing these globally important pathogens, we highlight mechanisms by which optimal antiviral immunity may be better induced and discuss the potential for these insights to inform novel vaccines.

  16. Phylogeography of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Peru, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollett, Simon; Nelson, Martha I; Kasper, Matthew; Tinoco, Yeny; Simons, Mark; Romero, Candice; Silva, Marita; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B; Wentworth, David; Holmes, Edward C; Bausch, Daniel G

    2015-08-01

    It remains unclear whether lineages of influenza A(H3N2) virus can persist in the tropics and seed temperate areas. We used viral gene sequence data sampled from Peru to test this source-sink model for a Latin American country. Viruses were obtained during 2010-2012 from influenza surveillance cohorts in Cusco, Tumbes, Puerto Maldonado, and Lima. Specimens positive for influenza A(H3N2) virus were randomly selected and underwent hemagglutinin sequencing and phylogeographic analyses. Analysis of 389 hemagglutinin sequences from Peru and 2,192 global sequences demonstrated interseasonal extinction of Peruvian lineages. Extensive mixing occurred with global clades, but some spatial structure was observed at all sites; this structure was weakest in Lima and Puerto Maldonado, indicating that these locations may experience greater viral traffic. The broad diversity and co-circulation of many simultaneous lineages of H3N2 virus in Peru suggests that this country should not be overlooked as a potential source for novel pandemic strains.

  17. Phylogeography of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Peru, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I.; Kasper, Matthew; Tinoco, Yeny; Simons, Mark; Romero, Candice; Silva, Marita; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Wentworth, David; Holmes, Edward C.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    It remains unclear whether lineages of influenza A(H3N2) virus can persist in the tropics and seed temperate areas. We used viral gene sequence data sampled from Peru to test this source–sink model for a Latin American country. Viruses were obtained during 2010–2012 from influenza surveillance cohorts in Cusco, Tumbes, Puerto Maldonado, and Lima. Specimens positive for influenza A(H3N2) virus were randomly selected and underwent hemagglutinin sequencing and phylogeographic analyses. Analysis of 389 hemagglutinin sequences from Peru and 2,192 global sequences demonstrated interseasonal extinction of Peruvian lineages. Extensive mixing occurred with global clades, but some spatial structure was observed at all sites; this structure was weakest in Lima and Puerto Maldonado, indicating that these locations may experience greater viral traffic. The broad diversity and co-circulation of many simultaneous lineages of H3N2 virus in Peru suggests that this country should not be overlooked as a potential source for novel pandemic strains. PMID:26196599

  18. Dual Infection of Novel Influenza Viruses A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 in a Cluster of Cambodian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    influenza viruses as well as the avian influenza virus A/H5N1...on full genome sequencing. This incident confirms dual influenza virus infections and highlights the risk of zoonotic and seasonal influenza viruses ...North American swine influenza viruses , North American avian influenza viruses , human influenza viruses , and a Eurasian swine influenza virus . 18

  19. Unique Structural Features of Influenza Virus H15 Hemagglutinin

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    Tzarum, Netanel; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Peng, Wenjie; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps)

    2017-04-12

    Influenza A H15 viruses are members of a subgroup (H7-H10-H15) of group 2 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes that include H7N9 and H10N8 viruses that were isolated from humans during 2013. The isolation of avian H15 viruses is, however, quite rare and, until recently, geographically restricted to wild shorebirds and waterfowl in Australia. The HAs of H15 viruses contain an insertion in the 150-loop (loop beginning at position 150) of the receptor-binding site common to this subgroup and a unique insertion in the 260-loop compared to any other subtype. Here, we show that the H15 HA has a high preference for avian receptor analogs by glycan array analyses. The H15 HA crystal structure reveals that it is structurally closest to H7N9 HA, but the head domain of the H15 trimer is wider than all other HAs due to a tilt and opening of the HA1 subunits of the head domain. The extended 150-loop of the H15 HA retains the conserved conformation as in H7 and H10 HAs. Furthermore, the elongated 260-loop increases the exposed HA surface and can contribute to antigenic variation in H15 HAs. Since avian-origin H15 HA viruses have been shown to cause enhanced disease in mammalian models, further characterization and immune surveillance of H15 viruses are warranted.

    IMPORTANCEIn the last 2 decades, an apparent increase has been reported for cases of human infection by emerging avian influenza A virus subtypes, including H7N9 and H10N8 viruses isolated during 2013. H15 is the other member of the subgroup of influenza A virus group 2 hemagglutinins (HAs) that also include H7 and H10. H15 viruses have been restricted to Australia, but recent isolation of H15 viruses in western Siberia suggests that they could be spread more globally via the avian flyways that converge and emanate from this region. Here we report on characterization of the three-dimensional structure and receptor specificity of the H15 hemagglutinin, revealing distinct features and specificities that can

  20. Sentinel surveillance for influenza in Senegal, 1996-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Mbayame Ndiaye; Dosseh, Annick; Ndiaye, Kader; Sagna, Monique; Gregory, Victoria; Goudiaby, Deborah; Hay, Alan; Diop, Ousmane M

    2012-12-15

    Data on influenza in tropical and resource-limited countries are scarce. In this study we present results from 14 years of influenza surveillance in Senegal, one of the few tropical countries in Africa from which longitudinal data are available. From 1996 to 2009, we collected respiratory specimens from outpatients presenting with influenza-like illness at 13 facilities in order to investigate the epidemiology of seasonal influenza and the characteristics of the circulating influenza viruses. Specimens were tested for influenza using viral isolation and/or reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). From 1996 to 2009, specimens were obtained from 9176 patients; 1233 (13%) were influenza-positive by virus isolation and/or RT-PCR. Among positive samples, 958 (77%) were influenza A, 268 (22%) influenza B, and 7 (1%) influenza type C; of influenza A viruses, 619 (65%) were A(H3) and 339 (35%) A(H1), of which 13 (1%) were identified as H1N2. The proportion positive was similar for children 55 years (9%). Although influenza A(H1), A(H3), and B all circulated during most years, influenza A(H3N2) predominated during 9 of the 14 years. Influenza activity consistently peaked during the rainy season (July-September). Phylogenetic analysis showed that viruses circulating in Senegal were similar to contemporary viruses circulating elsewhere in the world. Our data confirm that influenza is prevalent in Senegal, occurs in seasonal epidemics, and contributes to the burden of respiratory diseases in all age groups.

  1. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  2. Expanding severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) surveillance beyond influenza: The process and data from 1 year of implementation in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, Karen A; Do, Trang Thuy; Tran, Phu Dac; Dang, Tan Quang; Vu, Long Ngoc; Le, Nga Thi Hang; Dang, Anh Duc; Ngu, Nghia Duy; Ngo, Tu Huy; Hoang, Phuong Vu Mai; Phan, Lan Trong; Nguyen, Thuong Vu; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Nguyen, Thinh Viet; Vien, Mai Quang; Le, Huy Xuan; Dao, Anh The; Nguyen, Trieu Bao; Pham, Duoc Tho; Nguyen, Van Thi Tuyet; Pham, Thanh Ngoc; Phan, Binh Hai; Whitaker, Brett; Do, Thuy Thi Thu; Dao, Phuong Anh; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Mounts, Anthony W

    2018-05-13

    In 2016, as a component of the Global Health Security Agenda, the Vietnam Ministry of Health expanded its existing influenza sentinel surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) to include testing for 7 additional viral respiratory pathogens. This article describes the steps taken to implement expanded SARI surveillance in Vietnam and reports data from 1 year of expanded surveillance. The process of expanding the suite of pathogens for routine testing by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) included laboratory trainings, procurement/distribution of reagents, and strengthening and aligning SARI surveillance epidemiology practices at sentinel sites and regional institutes (RI). Surveillance data showed that of 4003 specimens tested by the RI laboratories, 20.2% (n = 810) were positive for influenza virus. Of the 3193 influenza-negative specimens, 41.8% (n = 1337) were positive for at least 1 non-influenza respiratory virus, of which 16.2% (n = 518), 13.4% (n = 428), and 9.6% (n = 308) tested positive for respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, and adenovirus, respectively. The Government of Vietnam has demonstrated that expanding respiratory viral surveillance by strengthening and building upon an influenza platform is feasible, efficient, and practical. © 2018 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Experimental infection with H1N1 European swine influenza virus protects pigs from an infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Núria; Segalés, Joaquim; Córdoba, Lorena; Mussá, Tufaria; Crisci, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard E; Simon-Grifé, Meritxell; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Pérez-Maíllo, Monica; Núñez, Jose I; Abad, Francesc X; Fraile, Lorenzo; Pina, Sonia; Majó, Natalia; Bensaid, Albert; Domingo, Mariano; Montoya, María

    2010-01-01

    The recent pandemic caused by human influenza virus A(H1N1) 2009 contains ancestral gene segments from North American and Eurasian swine lineages as well as from avian and human influenza lineages. The emergence of this A(H1N1) 2009 poses a potential global threat for human health and the fact that it can infect other species, like pigs, favours a possible encounter with other influenza viruses circulating in swine herds. In Europe, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes of swine influenza virus currently have a high prevalence in commercial farms. To better assess the risk posed by the A(H1N1) 2009 in the actual situation of swine farms, we sought to analyze whether a previous infection with a circulating European avian-like swine A/Swine/Spain/53207/2004 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as SwH1N1) generated or not cross-protective immunity against a subsequent infection with the new human pandemic A/Catalonia/63/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus (hereafter referred to as pH1N1) 21 days apart. Pigs infected only with pH1N1 had mild to moderate pathological findings, consisting on broncho-interstitial pneumonia. However, pigs inoculated with SwH1N1 virus and subsequently infected with pH1N1 had very mild lung lesions, apparently attributed to the remaining lesions caused by SwH1N1 infection. These later pigs also exhibited boosted levels of specific antibodies. Finally, animals firstly infected with SwH1N1 virus and latter infected with pH1N1 exhibited undetectable viral RNA load in nasal swabs and lungs after challenge with pH1N1, indicating a cross-protective effect between both strains. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  4. Influenza newspaper reports and the influenza epidemic: an observational study in Fukuoka City, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Akihito; Onozuka, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Shougo; Abe, Takeru

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether the weekly number of newspaper articles reporting on influenza was related to the incidence of influenza in a large city. Design Prospective, non-randomised, observational study. Setting Registry data of influenza cases in Fukuoka City, Japan. Participants A total of 83 613 cases of influenza cases that occurred between October 1999 and March 2007 in Fukuoka City, Japan. Main outcome measure A linear model with autoregressive time series errors was fitted to time series data on the incidence of influenza and the accumulated number of influenza-related newspaper articles with different time lags in Fukuoka City, Japan. In order to obtain further evidence that the number of newspaper articles a week with specific time lags is related to the incidence of influenza, Granger causality was also tested. Results Of the 16 models including ‘number of newspaper articles’ with different time lags between 2 and 17 weeks (xt-2 to t-17), the β coefficients of ‘number of newspaper articles’ at time lags between t-5 and t-13 were significant. However, the β coefficients of ‘number of newspaper articles’ that are significant with respect to the Granger causality tests (pnewspaper articles at time lags between t-6 and t-10 (time shift of 10 weeks, β=−0.301, pnewspaper articles reporting on influenza in a week was related to the incidence of influenza 6–10 weeks after media coverage in a large city in Japan. PMID:26719323

  5. Human influenza is more effective than avian influenza at antiviral suppression in airway cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Alan Chen-Yu; Barr, Ian; Hansbro, Philip M; Wark, Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Airway epithelial cells are the initial site of infection with influenza viruses. The innate immune responses of airway epithelial cells to infection are important in limiting virus replication and spread. However, relatively little is known about the importance of this innate antiviral response to infection. Avian influenza viruses are a potential source of future pandemics; therefore, it is critical to examine the effectiveness of the host antiviral system to different influenza viruses. We used a human influenza (H3N2) and a low-pathogenic avian influenza (H11N9) to assess and compare the antiviral responses of Calu-3 cells. After infection, H3N2 replicated more effectively than the H11N9 in Calu-3 cells. This was not due to differential expression of sialic acid residues on Calu-3 cells, but was attributed to the interference of host antiviral responses by H3N2. H3N2 induced a delayed antiviral signaling and impaired type I and type III IFN induction compared with the H11N9. The gene encoding for nonstructural (NS) 1 protein was transfected into the bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), and the H3N2 NS1 induced a greater inhibition of antiviral responses compared with the H11N9 NS1. Although the low-pathogenic avian influenza virus was capable of infecting BECs, the human influenza virus replicated more effectively than avian influenza virus in BECs, and this was due to a differential ability of the two NS1 proteins to inhibit antiviral responses. This suggests that the subversion of human antiviral responses may be an important requirement for influenza viruses to adapt to the human host and cause disease.

  6. Employee influenza vaccination in residential care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apenteng, Bettye A; Opoku, Samuel T

    2014-03-01

    The organizational literature on infection control in residential care facilities is limited. Using a nationally representative dataset, we examined the organizational factors associated with implementing at least 1 influenza-related employee vaccination policy/program, as well as the effect of vaccination policies on health care worker (HCW) influenza vaccine uptake in residential care facilities. The study was a cross-sectional study using data from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to address the study's objectives. Facility size, director's educational attainment, and having a written influenza pandemic preparedness plan were significantly associated with the implementation of at least 1 influenza-related employee vaccination policy/program, after controlling for other facility-level factors. Recommending vaccination to employees, providing vaccination on site, providing vaccinations to employees at no cost, and requiring vaccination as a condition of employment were associated with higher employee influenza vaccination rates. Residential care facilities can improve vaccination rates among employees by adopting effective employee vaccination policies. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Survival of influenza virus on banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yves; Vogel, Guido; Wunderli, Werner; Suter, Patricia; Witschi, Mark; Koch, Daniel; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent

    2008-05-01

    Successful control of a viral disease requires knowledge of the different vectors that could promote its transmission among hosts. We assessed the survival of human influenza viruses on banknotes given that billions of these notes are exchanged daily worldwide. Banknotes were experimentally contaminated with representative influenza virus subtypes at various concentrations, and survival was tested after different time periods. Influenza A viruses tested by cell culture survived up to 3 days when they were inoculated at high concentrations. The same inoculum in the presence of respiratory mucus showed a striking increase in survival time (up to 17 days). Similarly, B/Hong Kong/335/2001 virus was still infectious after 1 day when it was mixed with respiratory mucus. When nasopharyngeal secretions of naturally infected children were used, influenza virus survived for at least 48 h in one-third of the cases. The unexpected stability of influenza virus in this nonbiological environment suggests that unusual environmental contamination should be considered in the setting of pandemic preparedness.

  8. Survival of Influenza Virus on Banknotes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yves; Vogel, Guido; Wunderli, Werner; Suter, Patricia; Witschi, Mark; Koch, Daniel; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Successful control of a viral disease requires knowledge of the different vectors that could promote its transmission among hosts. We assessed the survival of human influenza viruses on banknotes given that billions of these notes are exchanged daily worldwide. Banknotes were experimentally contaminated with representative influenza virus subtypes at various concentrations, and survival was tested after different time periods. Influenza A viruses tested by cell culture survived up to 3 days when they were inoculated at high concentrations. The same inoculum in the presence of respiratory mucus showed a striking increase in survival time (up to 17 days). Similarly, B/Hong Kong/335/2001 virus was still infectious after 1 day when it was mixed with respiratory mucus. When nasopharyngeal secretions of naturally infected children were used, influenza virus survived for at least 48 h in one-third of the cases. The unexpected stability of influenza virus in this nonbiological environment suggests that unusual environmental contamination should be considered in the setting of pandemic preparedness. PMID:18359825

  9. Original antigenic sin responses to influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyang; Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

    2009-09-01

    Most immune responses follow Burnet's rule in that Ag recruits specific lymphocytes from a large repertoire and induces them to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. However, the phenomenon of "original antigenic sin" stands out as a paradox to Burnet's rule of B cell engagement. Humans, upon infection with a novel influenza strain, produce Abs against older viral strains at the expense of responses to novel, protective antigenic determinants. This exacerbates the severity of the current infection. This blind spot of the immune system and the redirection of responses to the "original Ag" rather than to novel epitopes were described fifty years ago. Recent reports have questioned the existence of this phenomenon. Hence, we revisited this issue to determine the extent to which original antigenic sin is induced by variant influenza viruses. Using two related strains of influenza A virus, we show that original antigenic sin leads to a significant decrease in development of protective immunity and recall responses to the second virus. In addition, we show that sequential infection of mice with two live influenza virus strains leads to almost exclusive Ab responses to the first viral strain, suggesting that original antigenic sin could be a potential strategy by which variant influenza viruses subvert the immune system.

  10. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; Antinori, Maria E. Barnett de; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; hide

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/ Findings: Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31) and 1.32 (1.08-1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and 1.97 (1.34-2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86) and 0.79 (0.69-0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9). Conclusions/Significance: The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific

  11. Evaluation of Commercial Diagnostic Assays for the Specific Detection of Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus RNA Using a Quality-Control Panel and Clinical Specimens in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suhong; Wang, Dayan; Li, Changgui; Wu, Xing; Li, Lili; Bai, Dongting; Zhang, Chuntao; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-01-01

    A novel avian influenza A H7N9-subtype virus emerged in China in 2013 and threatened global public health. Commercial kits that specifically detect avian influenza A (H7N9) virus RNA are urgently required to prepare for the emergence and potential pandemic of this novel influenza virus. The safety and effectiveness of three commercial molecular diagnostic assays were evaluated using a quality-control panel and clinical specimens collected from over 90 patients with confirmed avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infections. The analytical performance evaluation showed that diverse influenza H7N9 viruses can be detected with high within- and between-lot reproducibility and without cross-reactivity to other influenza viruses (H1N1 pdm09, seasonal H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and influenza B). The detection limit of all the commercial assays was 2.83 Log10 copies/μl [0.7 Log10TCID50/mL of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus strain A/Zhejiang/DTID-ZJU01/2013], which is comparable to the method recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, using a WHO-Chinese National Influenza Center (CNIC) method as a reference for clinical evaluation, positive agreement of more than 98% was determined for all of the commercial kits, while negative agreement of more than 99% was observed. In conclusion, our findings provide comprehensive evidence for the high performance of three commercial diagnostic assays and suggest the application of these assays as rapid and effective diagnostic tools for avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in the routine clinical practice of medical laboratories. PMID:26361351

  12. European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs: Surveillance Programs, Diagnostic Tools and Swine Influenza Virus Subtypes Identified in 14 European Countries from 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Gaelle; Larsen, Lars Erik; Duerrwald, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    : avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence....... For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some......Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs...

  13. Comparison of Influenza Epidemiological and Virological Characteristics between Outpatients and Inpatients in Zhejiang Province, China, March 2011–June 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapid rate of global spread and consequently healthcare costs related to influenza, surveillance plays an important role in monitoring the emerging pandemics in China. However, the characteristics of influenza in Southeast of China haven’t been fully studied. Our study use the surveillance data collected from 16 sentinel hospitals across Zhejiang Province during March 2011 through June 2015, including the demographic information and respiratory specimens from influenza-like illness (ILI patients and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI patients. As analysis results, most SARI and ILI patients were in the age group of 0–4 years old (62.38% of ILI and 71.54% of SARI. The respiratory specimens have statistically significantly higher positive rate for influenza among ILI patients than that among SARI patients (p < 0.001. The comparison between ILI patients and SARI patients shows no statistically significantly difference in detecting influenza virus type and influenza A virus subtype. The SARI and ILI patients were found to be positively correlated for overall positive rate (r = 0.63, p < 0.001, the weekly percentage of A(H1N1pdm09 (r = 0.51, p < 0.001, influenza B virus (r = 0.17, p = 0.013, and A/H3N2 (r = 0.43, p < 0.001 among all the positive numbers. Our study demonstrated that the activities of influenza virus, including its subtypes, had a similar temporal pattern between ILI and SARI cases.

  14. Microstructure of atmospheric particles revealed by TXM and a new mode of influenza virus transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, L.M., E-mail: baoliangman@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang, G.L., E-mail: zhangguilin@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Lei, Q.T.; Li, Y.; Li, X.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Hwu, Y.K. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Yi, J.M. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne 60439 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    For control of influenza, firstly it is important to find the real virus transmission media. Atmospheric aerosol particles are presumably one of the media. In this study, three typical atmospheric inhaled particles in Shanghai were studied by the synchrotron based transmission X-ray microscopes (TXM). Three dimensional microstructure of the particles reveals that there are many pores contained in, particularly the coal combustion fly particles which may be possible virus carrier. The particles can transport over long distance and cause long-range infections due to its light weight. We suggest a mode which is droplet combining with aerosol mode. By this mode the transmission of global and pandemic influenzas and infection between inland avian far from population and poultry or human living in cities along coast may be explained.

  15. Migration and persistence of human influenza A viruses, Vietnam, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Mai Quynh; Lam, Ha Minh; Cuong, Vuong Duc; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Halpin, Rebecca A; Wentworth, David E; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thanh, Le Thi; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Horby, Peter; Boni, Maciej F

    2013-11-01

    Understanding global influenza migration and persistence is crucial for vaccine strain selection. Using 240 new human influenza A virus whole genomes collected in Vietnam during 2001-2008, we looked for persistence patterns and migratory connections between Vietnam and other countries. We found that viruses in Vietnam migrate to and from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Cambodia, Japan, South Korea, and the United States. We attempted to reduce geographic bias by generating phylogenies subsampled at the year and country levels. However, migration events in these phylogenies were still driven by the presence or absence of sequence data, indicating that an epidemiologic study design that controls for prevalence is required for robust migration analysis. With whole-genome data, most migration events are not detectable from the phylogeny of the hemagglutinin segment alone, although general migratory relationships between Vietnam and other countries are visible in the hemagglutinin phylogeny. It is possible that virus lineages in Vietnam persisted for >1 year.

  16. Migration and Persistence of Human Influenza A Viruses, Vietnam, 2001–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Mai Quynh; Lam, Ha Minh; Cuong, Vuong Duc; Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Halpin, Rebecca A; Wentworth, David E; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Thanh, Le Thi; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Horby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Understanding global influenza migration and persistence is crucial for vaccine strain selection. Using 240 new human influenza A virus whole genomes collected in Vietnam during 2001–2008, we looked for persistence patterns and migratory connections between Vietnam and other countries. We found that viruses in Vietnam migrate to and from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Cambodia, Japan, South Korea, and the United States. We attempted to reduce geographic bias by generating phylogenies subsampled at the year and country levels. However, migration events in these phylogenies were still driven by the presence or absence of sequence data, indicating that an epidemiologic study design that controls for prevalence is required for robust migration analysis. With whole-genome data, most migration events are not detectable from the phylogeny of the hemagglutinin segment alone, although general migratory relationships between Vietnam and other countries are visible in the hemagglutinin phylogeny. It is possible that virus lineages in Vietnam persisted for >1 year. PMID:24188643

  17. Polyarteritis nodosa related with influenza vaccine = Poliarteritis nodosa relacionada con vacuna contra la influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Escobar, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasculitis can be secondary to various processes, among them infections, malignancies, connective tissue diseases or medications, or primary, generally idiopathic. The reported adverse events after vaccination can be mild and transient or more serious such as autoimmune diseases. Possibly the most frequently described autoimmune phenomena after influenza vaccination are different forms of vasculitis. We report the case of a patient who presented a clinical picture of vasculitis classified as polyarteritis nodosa that began two weeks after receiving the influenza vaccine. After critically reviewing the literature, this would be the first clearly documented case of polyarteritis nodosa associated with vaccination against influenza.

  18. Quantification of diagenetic overprint processes deduced from fossil carbonate shells and laboratory-based hydrothermal alteration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesshaber, Erika; Casella, Laura; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin; Immenhauser, Adrian; Schmahl, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Benthic and nektonic marine biogenic carbonate archives represent the foundation of numerous studies aiming at reconstructions of past climate dynamics and environmental change. However, living organisms are not in thermodynamic equilibrium and create local chemical environments where physiologic processes such as biomineralization takes place. After the death of the organism the former physiologic disequilibrium conditions are not sustained any more and all biological tissues are altered by equilibration according to the surrounding environment: diagenesis. With increasing diagenetic alteration, the biogenic structure and fingerprint fades away and is replaced by inorganic features. Thus, recrystallization of organism-specific microstructure is a clear indicator for diagenetic overprint. Microstructural data, which mirror recrystallization, are of great value for interpreting geochemical proxies for paleo-environment reconstruction. Despite more than a century of research dealing with carbonate diagenesis, many of the controlling processes and factors are only understood in a qualitative manner. One of the main issues is that diagenetically altered carbonates are usually present as the product of a complex preceding diagenetic pathway with an unknown number of intermediate steps. In this contribution we present and discuss laboratory based alteration experiments with the aim to investigate time-series data sets in a controlled manner. We conducted hydrothermal alteration experiments with modern Arctica islandica (bivalvia) and Notosaria nigricans (brachiopoda) in order to mimic diagenetic overprint. We explore first the potential of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements together with statistical data evaluation as a tool to quantify diagenetic alteration of carbonate skeletons. Subsequently, we compare microstructural patterns obtained from experimentally altered shell material with those of fossil specimens that have undergone variable degrees of

  19. Application of CO2 Snow Jet Cleaning in Conjunction with Laboratory Based Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, M.; Burnett, D. S.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriquez, M.; Tripa, C. E.; Veryovkin, I. V.

    2013-01-01

    The Genesis mission was the first mission returning solar material to Earth since the Apollo program [1,2]. Unfortunately the return of the space craft on September 8, 2004 resulted in a crash landing, which shattered the samples into small fragments and exposed them to desert soil and other debris. Thus only small fragments of the original collectors are available, each having different degrees of surface contamination. Thorough surface cleaning is required to allow for subsequent analysis of solar wind material embedded within. An initial cleaning procedure was developed in coordination with Johnson Space Center which focused on removing larger sized particulates and a thin film organic contamination acquired during collection in space [3]. However, many of the samples have additional residues and more rigorous and/or innovative cleaning steps might be necessary. These cleaning steps must affect only the surface to avoid leaching and re-distribution of solar wind material from the bulk of the collectors. To aid in development and identification of the most appropriate cleaning procedures each sample has to be thoroughly inspected before and after each cleaning step. Laboratory based total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry lends itself to this task as it is a non-destructive and surface sensitive analytical method permitting analysis of elements from aluminum onward present at and near the surface of a flat substrate [4]. The suitability of TXRF has been demonstrated for several Genesis solar wind samples before and after various cleaning methods including acid treatment, gas cluster ion beam, and CO2 snow jet [5 - 7]. The latter one is non-invasive and did show some promise on one sample [5]. To investigate the feasibility of CO2 snow jet cleaning further, several flown Genesis samples were selected to be characterized before and after CO2 snow application with sample 61052 being discussed below.

  20. Laboratory-supported influenza surveillance in Victorian sentinel general practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, H; Murphy, A; Leong, W; Leydon, J; Tresise, P; Gerrard, M; Chibo, D; Birch, C; Andrews, R; Catton, M

    2000-12-01

    Laboratory-supported influenza surveillance is important as part of pandemic preparedness, for identifying and isolating candidate vaccine strains, for supporting trials of anti-influenza drugs and for refining the influenza surveillance case definition in practice. This study describes the implementation of laboratory-supported influenza surveillance in Victorian sentinel general practices and provides an estimate of the proportion of patients with an influenza-like illness proven to have influenza. During 1998 and 1999, 25 sentinel general practices contributed clinical surveillance data and 16 metropolitan practices participated in laboratory surveillance. Serological, virus-antigen detection, virus culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedures were used to establish the diagnosis of influenza. Two laboratories at major teaching hospitals in Melbourne provided additional data on influenza virus identification. General practice sentinel surveillance and laboratory identification of influenza provided similar data on the pattern of influenza in the community between May and September. The clinical suspicion of influenza was confirmed in 49 to 54 per cent of cases seen in general practice.

  1. Universal Influenza Vaccines, a Dream to Be Realized Soon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to frequent viral antigenic change, current influenza vaccines need to be re-formulated annually to match the circulating strains for battling seasonal influenza epidemics. These vaccines are also ineffective in preventing occasional outbreaks of new influenza pandemic viruses. All these challenges call for the development of universal influenza vaccines capable of conferring broad cross-protection against multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses. Facilitated by the advancement in modern molecular biology, delicate antigen design becomes one of the most effective factors for fulfilling such goals. Conserved epitopes residing in virus surface proteins including influenza matrix protein 2 and the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin draw general interest for improved antigen design. The present review summarizes the recent progress in such endeavors and also covers the encouraging progress in integrated antigen/adjuvant delivery and controlled release technology that facilitate the development of an affordable universal influenza vaccine.

  2. Influenza vaccine strategies for solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirzel, Cédric; Kumar, Deepali

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to highlight recent evidence on important aspects of influenza vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients. Influenza vaccine is the most evaluated vaccine in transplant recipients. The immunogenicity of the vaccine is suboptimal after transplantation. Newer formulations such as inactivated unadjuvanted high-dose influenza vaccine and the administration of a booster dose within the same season have shown to increase response rates. Intradermal vaccination and adjuvanted vaccines did not show clear benefit over standard influenza vaccines. Recent studies in transplant recipients do not suggest a higher risk for allograft rejection, neither after vaccination with a standard influenza vaccine nor after the administration of nonstandard formulation (high-dose, adjuvanted vaccines), routes (intradermally) or a booster dose. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine coverage in transplant recipients is still unsatisfactory low, potentially due to misinterpretation of risks and benefits. Annual influenza vaccination is well tolerated and is an important part of long-term care of solid organ transplant recipients.

  3. Laboratory-based surveillance in the molecular era: The typened model, a joint data-sharing platform for clinical and public health laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); J.W. Rossen (John); H.G.A.M. van der Avoort (Harrie); D. Baas; K. Benschop (Kimberley); E.C.J. Claas (Eric); A. Kroneman; N.M. van Maarseveen (Noortje); S.D. Pas (Suzan); W. van Pelt (Wilfred); J. Rahamat-Langendoen (Janette); R. Schuurman (Rob); H. Vennema (Harry); L. Verhoef; K.C. Wolthers (Katja); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractLaboratory-based surveillance, one of the pillars of monitoring infectious disease trends, relies on data produced in clinical and/or public health laboratories. Currently, diagnostic laboratories worldwide submit strains or samples to a relatively small number of reference laboratories

  4. Laboratory-based surveillance in the molecular era : the TYPENED model, a joint data-sharing platform for clinical and public health laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesters, H G; Rossen, J W; van der Avoort, H; Baas, D; Benschop, K; Claas, E C; Kroneman, A; van Maarseveen, N; Pas, S; van Pelt, W; Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; Schuurman, R; Vennema, H; Verhoef, L; Wolthers, K; Koopmans, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-based surveillance, one of the pillars of monitoring infectious disease trends, relies on data produced in clinical and/or public health laboratories. Currently, diagnostic laboratories worldwide submit strains or samples to a relatively small number of reference laboratories for

  5. Laboratory-based surveillance in the molecular era: the TYPENED model, a joint data-sharing platform for clinical and public health laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesters, H. G.; Rossen, J. W.; van der Avoort, H.; Baas, D.; Benschop, K.; Claas, E. C.; Kroneman, A.; van Maarseveen, N.; Pas, S.; van Pelt, W.; Rahamat-Langendoen, J. C.; Schuurman, R.; Vennema, H.; Verhoef, L.; Wolthers, K.; Koopmans, M.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-based surveillance, one of the pillars of monitoring infectious disease trends, relies on data produced in clinical and/or public health laboratories. Currently, diagnostic laboratories worldwide submit strains or samples to a relatively small number of reference laboratories for

  6. Characteristics and management of patients with influenza in a German hospital during the 2014/2015 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Stefan; Ludewig, Katrin; Moeser, Anne; Baier, Michael; Löffler, Bettina; Schleenvoigt, Benjamin; Forstner, Christina; Pletz, Mathias W

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to review the management of patients with influenza during the influenza season 2014/2015 (n = 197). Our study revealed a high rate of healthcare-associated influenza infection (35.5 %) and a correlation between the total number of patients with HA influenza and the number of nurses on sick leave. The results of the study underline the importance of strict hygiene management. Furthermore, widespread influenza vaccination for both high-risk patients and health care workers is recommended.

  7. Influenza vaccines: Evaluation of the safety profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Claudia Maria; Gianchecchi, Elena; Montomoli, Emanuele

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The safety of vaccines is a critical factor in maintaining public trust in national vaccination programs. Vaccines are recommended for children, adults and elderly subjects and have to meet higher safety standards, since they are administered to healthy subjects, mainly healthy children. Although vaccines are strictly monitored before authorization, the possibility of adverse events and/or rare adverse events cannot be totally eliminated. Two main types of influenza vaccines are currently available: parenteral inactivated influenza vaccines and intranasal live attenuated vaccines. Both display a good safety profile in adults and children. However, they can cause adverse events and/or rare adverse events, some of which are more prevalent in children, while others with a higher prevalence in adults. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of influenza vaccine safety according to target groups, vaccine types and production methods. PMID:29297746

  8. Microneedle and mucosal delivery of influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Moo; Song, Jae-Min; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2017-01-01

    In recent years with the threat of pandemic influenza and other public health needs, alternative vaccination methods other than intramuscular immunization have received great attention. The skin and mucosal surfaces are attractive sites probably because of both non-invasive access to the vaccine delivery and unique immunological responses. Intradermal vaccines using a microinjection system (BD Soluvia) and intranasal vaccines (FluMist) are licensed. As a new vaccination method, solid microneedles have been developed using a simple device that may be suitable for self-administration. Because coated micorneedle influenza vaccines are administered in the solid state, developing formulations maintaining the stability of influenza vaccines is an important issue to be considered. Marketable microneedle devices and clinical trials remain to be developed. Other alternative mucosal routes such as oral and intranasal delivery systems are also attractive for inducing cross protective mucosal immunity but effective non-live mucosal vaccines remain to be developed. PMID:22697052

  9. Burden of paediatric influenza in Western Europe: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova Evgeniya N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza illness in children causes significant clinical and economic burden. Although some European countries have adopted influenza immunisation policies for healthy children, the debate about paediatric influenza vaccination in most countries of the European Union is ongoing. Our aim was to summarise influenza burden (in terms of health outcomes and economic burden in children in Western Europe via a systematic literature review. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (1970-April 2011 and extracted data on influenza burden in children (defined as aged ≤ 18 years from 50 publications (13 reporting laboratory-confirmed influenza; 37 reporting influenza-like illness. Results Children with laboratory-confirmed influenza experienced hospitalisations (0.3%-20%, medical visits (1.7-2.8 visits per case, antibiotic prescriptions (7%-55%, and antipyretic or other medications for symptomatic relief (76%-99%; young children and those with severe illness had the highest rates of health care use. Influenza in children also led to absenteeism from day care, school, or work for the children, their siblings, and their parents. Average (mean or median length of absence from school or day care associated with confirmed influenza ranged from 2.8 to 12.0 days for the children, from 1.3 to 6.0 days for their siblings, and from 1.3 to 6.3 days for their parents. Influenza negatively affected health-related quality of life in children with asthma, including symptoms and activities; this negative effect was smaller in vaccinated children than in non-vaccinated children. Conclusions Influenza burden in children is substantial and has a significant direct impact on the ill children and an indirect impact on their siblings and parents. The identified evidence regarding the burden of influenza may help inform both influenza antiviral use in children and paediatric immunisation policies in

  10. Characterisation and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus (AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza is caused by Influenza A virus which is a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A virus is enveloped single stranded RNA with eight-segmented, negative polarity and filament or oval form, 50 – 120 by 200 – 300 nm diameters. Influenza A viruses have been found to infect birds, human, pig, horse and sometimes in the other mammalian such as seal and whale. The viruses are divided into different subtypes based on the antigenic protein which covers the virus surface i.e. Haemaglutinin (HA and Neuraminidase (NA. In addition, the nomenclature of subtype virus is based on HA and NA i.e HxNx, for example H5N1, H9N2 and the others. According to pathogenic, it could be divided into two distinct groups, they are Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI. The Avian Influenza viruses have been continuously occurred and spread out in some continents such us America, Europe, Africa and Asian countries. The outbreak of Avian Influenza caused high mortality on birds and it has been reported that in human case Avian Influenza subtype H5N1 virus has caused several deaths. To anticipate this condition, an effort to prevent the transmission of Avian Influenza is needed. These strategic attempts include biosecurity, depopulation, vaccination, control of virus movement, monitoring and evaluation. Laboratory diagnostic plays an important role for successful prevention, control and eradication programs of Avian Influenza. Recently, there are two diagnostic methods for Avian Influenza. They are conventional (virological diagnosis and molecular methods. The conventional method is usually used for initial diagnostic of Avian Influenza. The conventional method takes more time and more costly, whereas the molecular method is more effective than conventional method. Based on the available diagnostic technique, basically diagnostic of Avian Influenza is done by serology test, isolation and identification as well

  11. Ultraviolet air disinfection for protection against influenza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Three converging lines of evidence support the belief that it may be possible, under appropriate circumstances, to interrupt the airborne transmission of influenza by ultraviolet (UV) air disinfection. These lines of evidence are: (a) that influenza is airborne; (b) that UV irradiation of the upper air of a room can provide safe and effective disinfection of air in the lower part of the room; and (c) that epidemic spread of airborne viral infections in humans can be prevented if the population under consideration remains in the UV-protected environment

  12. Future directions for the European influenza reference laboratory network in influenza surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, N; Rebelo-de-Andrade, H; Meijer, A; McCauley, J; Daniels, R; Zambon, M

    2015-07-30

    By defining strategic objectives for the network of influenza laboratories that have national influenza centre status or national function within European Union Member States, Iceland and Norway, it is possible to align their priorities in undertaking virological surveillance of influenza. This will help maintain and develop the network to meet and adapt to new challenges over the next 3-5 years and underpin a longer-term strategy over 5-10 years. We analysed the key activities undertaken by influenza reference laboratories in Europe and categorised them into a framework of four key strategic objectives areas: enhancing laboratory capability, ensuring laboratory capacity, providing emergency response and translating laboratory data into information for public health action. We make recommendations on the priority areas for future development.

  13. Pulmonary immunization of chickens using non-adjuvanted spray-freeze dried whole inactivated virus vaccine completely protects against highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Ben; Tonnis, Wouter F.; Murugappan, Senthil; Rottier, Peter; Koch, Guus; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Huckriede, Anke; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus is a major threat to public health as well as to the global poultry industry. Most fatal human infections are caused by contact with infected poultry. Therefore, preventing the virus from entering the poultry population is a priority. This is,

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis and the incidence of influenza and influenza-related complications: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumentals William A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA are known to be at increased risk of infection, particularly if they are taking drugs with immunomodulatory effects. There is a need for more information on the risk of influenza in patients with RA. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out using data gathered from a large US commercial health insurance database (Thomson Reuters Medstat MarketScan from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2007. Patients were ≥18 years of age, with at least two RA claims diagnoses. The database was scanned for incidence of seasonal influenza and its complications on or up to 30 days after an influenza diagnosis in RA patients and matched controls. Other factors accounted for included medical conditions, use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs, use of biological agents, influenza vaccination and high- or low-dose corticosteroids. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs were calculated for influenza and its complications in patients with RA. Results 46,030 patients with RA and a matching number of controls had a median age of 57 years. The incidence of influenza was higher in RA patients than in controls (409.33 vs 306.12 cases per 100,000 patient-years, and there was a 2.75-fold increase in incidence of complications in RA. Presence or absence of DMARDs or biologics had no significant effect. The adjusted IRR of influenza was statistically significant in patients aged 60–69 years, and especially among men. A significantly increased rate of influenza complications was observed in women and in both genders combined (but not in men only when all age groups were combined. In general, the risk of influenza complications was similar in RA patients not receiving DMARDs or biologics to that in all RA patients. Pneumonia rates were significantly higher in women with RA. Rates of stroke/myocardial infarction (MI were higher in men, although statistical significance was borderline. Conclusions RA is

  15. Effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in elderly persons in years of low influenza activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Brith; Pauksen, Karlis; Sylvan, Staffan P E

    2008-04-28

    The present prospective study was conducted from 2003-2005, among all individuals 65 years and older in Uppsala County, a region with 300 000 inhabitants situated close to the Stockholm urban area.The objective of this study was to assess the preventive effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in reducing hospitalisation and length of hospital stay (LOHS) even during periods of low influenza activity. The specificity of the apparent vaccine associations were evaluated in relation to the influenza seasons. In 2003, the total study population was 41,059, of which 12,907 (31%) received influenza vaccine of these, 4,447 (11%) were administered the pneumococcal vaccine. In 2004, 14,799 (34%) individuals received the influenza vaccine and 8,843 (21%) the pneumococcal vaccine and in 2005 16,926 (39%) individuals were given the influenza vaccine and 12,340 (28%) the pneumococcal vaccine.Our findings indicated that 35% of the vaccinated cohort belonged to a medical risk category (mainly those persons that received the pneumococcal vaccine). Data on hospitalisation and mortality during the 3-year period were obtained from the administrative database of the Uppsala county council. During the influenza seasons, reduction of hospital admissions and significantly shorter in-hospital stay for influenza was observed in the vaccinated cohort (below 80 years of age). For individuals who also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, a significant reduction of hospital admissions and of in-hospital stay was observed for invasive pneumococcal disease and for pneumococcal pneumonia. Effectiveness was observed for cardiac failure even in persons that also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, despite that the pneumococcal vaccinated mainly belonged to a medical risk category. Reduction of death from all causes was observed during the influenza season of 2004, in the 75-84-year old age group and in all age-groups during the influenza season 2005. The present study confirmed the

  16. Effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in elderly persons in years of low influenza activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvan Staffan PE

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present prospective study was conducted from 2003–2005, among all individuals 65 years and older in Uppsala County, a region with 300 000 inhabitants situated close to the Stockholm urban area. The objective of this study was to assess the preventive effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in reducing hospitalisation and length of hospital stay (LOHS even during periods of low influenza activity. The specificity of the apparent vaccine associations were evaluated in relation to the influenza seasons. Results In 2003, the total study population was 41,059, of which 12,907 (31% received influenza vaccine of these, 4,447 (11% were administered the pneumococcal vaccine. In 2004, 14,799 (34% individuals received the influenza vaccine and 8,843 (21% the pneumococcal vaccine and in 2005 16,926 (39% individuals were given the influenza vaccine and 12,340 (28% the pneumococcal vaccine. Our findings indicated that 35% of the vaccinated cohort belonged to a medical risk category (mainly those persons that received the pneumococcal vaccine. Data on hospitalisation and mortality during the 3-year period were obtained from the administrative database of the Uppsala county council. During the influenza seasons, reduction of hospital admissions and significantly shorter in-hospital stay for influenza was observed in the vaccinated cohort (below 80 years of age. For individuals who also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, a significant reduction of hospital admissions and of in-hospital stay was observed for invasive pneumococcal disease and for pneumococcal pneumonia. Effectiveness was observed for cardiac failure even in persons that also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, despite that the pneumococcal vaccinated mainly belonged to a medical risk category. Reduction of death from all causes was observed during the influenza season of 2004, in the 75–84-year old age group and in all age-groups during the influenza

  17. Codon usage bias and the evolution of influenza A viruses. Codon Usage Biases of Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Emily HM

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influenza A virus is an important infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and was responsible for 3 pandemics in the 20th century. As the replication of the influenza virus is based on its host's machinery, codon usage of its viral genes might be subject to host selection pressures, especially after interspecies transmission. A better understanding of viral evolution and host adaptive responses might help control this disease. Results Relative Synonymous Codon Usage (RSCU values of the genes from segment 1 to segment 6 of avian and human influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1, were studied via Correspondence Analysis (CA. The codon usage patterns of seasonal human influenza viruses were distinct among their subtypes and different from those of avian viruses. Newly isolated viruses could be added to the CA results, creating a tool to investigate the host origin and evolution of viral genes. It was found that the 1918 pandemic H1N1 virus contained genes with mammalian-like viral codon usage patterns, indicating that the introduction of this virus to humans was not through in toto transfer of an avian influenza virus. Many human viral genes had directional changes in codon usage over time of viral isolation, indicating the effect of host selection pressures. These changes reduced the overall GC content and the usage of G at the third codon position in the viral genome. Limited evidence of translational selection pressure was found in a few viral genes. Conclusions Codon usage patterns from CA allowed identification of host origin and evolutionary trends in influenza viruses, providing an alternative method and a tool to understand the evolution of influenza viruses. Human influenza viruses are subject to selection pressure on codon usage which might assist in understanding the characteristics of newly emerging viruses.

  18. Global warning, global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarde, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

  19. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Clar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: This is an update of the original review published in 2008. The risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is increased with influenza-like infection, and vaccination against influenza may improve cardiovascular outcomes.OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential benefits of influenza vaccination for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.METHODS:Search methods:We searched the following electronic databases on 18 October 2013: The Cochrane Library (including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE, Economic Evaluation Database (EED and Health Technology Assessment database (HTA, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science and ongoing trials registers (www.controlled-trials.com/ and www.clinicaltrials.gov. We examined reference lists of relevant primary studies and systematic reviews. We performed a limited PubMed search on 20 February 2015, just before publication.Selection criteria:Randomised controlled trials (RCTs of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no treatment in participants with or without cardiovascular disease, assessing cardiovascular death or non-fatal cardiovascular events.Data collection and analysis:We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We carried out meta-analyses only for cardiovascular death, as other outcomes were reported too infrequently. We expressed effect sizes as risk ratios (RRs, and we used random-effects models.MAIN RESULTS: We included eight trials of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no vaccination, with 12,029 participants receiving at least one vaccination or control treatment. We included six new studies (n = 11,251, in addition to the two included in the previous version of the review. Four of these trials (n = 10,347 focused on prevention of influenza in the general or elderly population

  20. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clar, Christine; Oseni, Zainab; Flowers, Nadine; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Rees, Karen

    2015-05-05

    This is an update of the original review published in 2008. The risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is increased with influenza-like infection, and vaccination against influenza may improve cardiovascular outcomes. To assess the potential benefits of influenza vaccination for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We searched the following electronic databases on 18 October 2013: The Cochrane Library (including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Economic Evaluation Database (EED) and Health Technology Assessment database (HTA)), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science and ongoing trials registers (www.controlled-trials.com/ and www.clinicaltrials.gov). We examined reference lists of relevant primary studies and systematic reviews. We performed a limited PubMed search on 20 February 2015, just before publication. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no treatment in participants with or without cardiovascular disease, assessing cardiovascular death or non-fatal cardiovascular events. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We carried out meta-analyses only for cardiovascular death, as other outcomes were reported too infrequently. We expressed effect sizes as risk ratios (RRs), and we used random-effects models. We included eight trials of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no vaccination, with 12,029 participants receiving at least one vaccination or control treatment. We included six new studies (n = 11,251), in addition to the two included in the previous version of the review. Four of these trials (n = 10,347) focused on prevention of influenza in the general or elderly population and reported cardiovascular outcomes among their safety analyses; four trials (n = 1682) focused on prevention of

  1. Determining 'age at death' for forensic purposes using human bone by a laboratory-based biomechanical analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioupos, P; Williams, A; Christodoulou, G; Giles, R

    2014-05-01

    Determination of age-at-death (AAD) is an important and frequent requirement in contemporary forensic science and in the reconstruction of past populations and societies from their remains. Its estimation is relatively straightforward and accurate (±3yr) for immature skeletons by using morphological features and reference tables within the context of forensic anthropology. However, after skeletal maturity (>35yr) estimates become inaccurate, particularly in the legal context. In line with the general migration of all the forensic sciences from reliance upon empirical criteria to those which are more evidence-based, AAD determination should rely more-and-more upon more quantitative methods. We explore here whether well-known changes in the biomechanical properties of bone and the properties of bone matrix, which have been seen to change with age even after skeletal maturity in a traceable manner, can be used to provide a reliable estimate of AAD. This method charts a combination of physical characteristics some of which are measured at a macroscopic level (wet & dry apparent density, porosity, organic/mineral/water fractions, collagen thermal degradation properties, ash content) and others at the microscopic level (Ca/P ratios, osteonal and matrix microhardness, image analysis of sections). This method produced successful age estimates on a cohort of 12 donors of age 53-85yr (7 male, 5 female), where the age of the individual could be approximated within less than ±1yr. This represents a vastly improved level of accuracy than currently extant age estimation techniques. It also presents: (1) a greater level of reliability and objectivity as the results are not dependent on the experience and expertise of the observer, as is so often the case in forensic skeletal age estimation methods; (2) it is purely laboratory-based analytical technique which can be carried out by someone with technical skills and not the specialised forensic anthropology experience; (3) it can

  2. 76 FR 78658 - Webinar Overview of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee Healthcare Personnel Influenza...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Committee Healthcare Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup's Draft Report and Draft Recommendations for Achieving the Healthy People 2020 Annual Coverage Goals for Influenza Vaccination in Healthcare Personnel... Influenza Vaccination Subgroup (HCPIVS), will host an informational webinar to introduce the committee's...

  3. Implementation of the community network of reference laboratories for human influenza in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.; Valette, M.; Manuguerra, J.C.; Perez-Brena, P.; Paget, J.; Brown, C.; Velden, K. van der

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increased need for accurate influenza laboratory surveillance data in the European Union required formalisation of the existing network of collaborating national influenza reference laboratories participating in the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS). OBJECTIVE: To

  4. Influenza-Like Illnesses in Senegal: Not Only Focus on Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Ndongo; Diene Sarr, Fatoumata; Thiam, Diamilatou; Faye Sarr, Tening; Espié, Emmanuelle; OmarBa, Ibrahim; Coly, Malang; Niang, Mbayame; Richard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Influenza surveillance in African countries was initially restricted to the identification of circulating strains. In Senegal, the network has recently been enhanced (i) to include epidemiological data from Dakar and other regions and (ii) to extend virological surveillance to other respiratory viruses. Epidemiological data from the sentinel sites is transmitted daily by mobile phone. The data include those for other febrile syndromes similar to influenza-like illnesses (ILI), corresponding to integrated approach. Also, clinical samples are randomly selected and analyzed for influenza and other respiratory viruses. There were 101,640 declared visits to the 11 sentinel sites between week 11-2012 and week 35-2013; 22% of the visits were for fever syndromes and 23% of the cases of fever syndrome were ILI. Influenza viruses were the second most frequent cause of ILI (20%), after adenoviruses (21%) and before rhinoviruses (18%) and enteroviruses (15%). Co-circulation and co-infection were frequent and were responsible for ILI peaks. The first months of implementation of the enhanced surveillance system confirmed that viruses other the influenza make large contributions to influenza-like illnesses. It is therefore important to consider these etiologies in the development of strategies to reduce respiratory infections. More informative tools and research studies are required to assess the burden of respiratory infections in developing countries. PMID:24675982

  5. Impaired clearance of influenza A virus in obese, leptin receptor deficient mice is independent of leptin signaling in the lung epithelium and macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A Radigan

    Full Text Available During the recent H1N1 outbreak, obese patients had worsened lung injury and increased mortality. We used a murine model of influenza A pneumonia to test the hypothesis that leptin receptor deficiency might explain the enhanced mortality in obese patients.We infected wild-type, obese mice globally deficient in the leptin receptor (db/db and non-obese mice with tissue specific deletion of the leptin receptor in the lung epithelium (SPC-Cre/LepR fl/fl or macrophages and alveolar type II cells (LysM-Cre/Lepr fl/fl with influenza A virus (A/WSN/33 [H1N1] (500 and 1500 pfu/mouse and measured mortality, viral clearance and several markers of lung injury severity.The clearance of influenza A virus from the lungs of mice was impaired in obese mice globally deficient in the leptin receptor (db/db compared to normal weight wild-type mice. In contrast, non-obese, SP-C-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl and LysM-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl had improved viral clearance after influenza A infection. In obese mice, mortality was increased compared with wild-type mice, while the SP-C-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl and LysM-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl mice exhibited improved survival.Global loss of the leptin receptor results in reduced viral clearance and worse outcomes following influenza A infection. These findings are not the result of the loss of leptin signaling in lung epithelial cells or macrophages. Our results suggest that factors associated with obesity or with leptin signaling in non-myeloid populations such as natural killer and T cells may be associated with worsened outcomes following influenza A infection.

  6. Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buynder, Paul G; Carcione, Dale; Rettura, Vince; Daly, Alison; Woods, Emily

    2011-01-01

    After a cluster of rapidly fulminant influenza related toddler deaths in a Western Australian metropolis, children aged six to 59 months were offered influenza vaccination in subsequent winters. Some parental resistance was expected and previous poor uptake of paediatric influenza vaccination overseas was noted. A marketing campaign addressing barriers to immunization was developed to maximise uptake. Advertising occurred in major statewide newspapers, via public poster displays and static 'eye-lite' displays, via press releases, via a series of rolling radio advertisements, via direct marketing to child care centres, and via a linked series of web-sites. Parents were subsequently surveyed to assess reasons for vaccination. The campaign produced influenza vaccination coverage above that previously described elsewhere and led to a proportionate reduction in influenza notifications in this age group compared to previous seasons. Influenza in children comes with significant morbidity and some mortality. Paediatric influenza vaccination is safe, well tolerated and effective if two doses are given. A targeted media campaign can increase vaccine uptake if it reinforces the seriousness of influenza and addresses community 'myths' about influenza and influenza vaccine. The lessons learned enabling enhancements of similar programs elsewhere. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The Role of Extracellular Histones in Influenza Virus Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashar, Harshini K; Mueller, Nathan C; Rudd, Jennifer M; Snider, Timothy A; Achanta, Mallika; Prasanthi, Maram; Pulavendran, Sivasami; Thomas, Paul G; Ramachandran, Akhilesh; Malayer, Jerry R; Ritchey, Jerry W; Rajasekhar, Rachakatla; Chow, Vincent T K; Esmon, Charles T; Teluguakula, Narasaraju

    2018-01-01

    Although exaggerated host immune responses have been implicated in influenza-induced lung pathogenesis, the etiologic factors that contribute to these events are not completely understood. We previously demonstrated that neutrophil extracellular traps exacerbate pulmonary injury during influenza pneumonia. Histones are the major protein components of neutrophil extracellular traps and are known to have cytotoxic effects. Here, we examined the role of extracellular histones in lung pathogenesis during influenza. Mice infected with influenza virus displayed high accumulation of extracellular histones, with widespread pulmonary microvascular thrombosis. Occluded pulmonary blood vessels with vascular thrombi often exhibited endothelial necrosis surrounded by hemorrhagic effusions and pulmonary edema. Histones released during influenza induced cytotoxicity and showed strong binding to platelets within thrombi in infected mouse lungs. Nasal wash samples from influenza-infected patients also showed increased accumulation of extracellular histones, suggesting a possible clinical relevance of elevated histones in pulmonary injury. Although histones inhibited influenza growth in vitro, in vivo treatment with histones did not yield antiviral effects and instead exacerbated lung pathology. Blocking with antihistone antibodies caused a marked decrease in lung pathology in lethal influenza-challenged mice and improved protection when administered in combination with the antiviral agent oseltamivir. These findings support the pathogenic effects of extracellular histones in that pulmonary injury during influenza was exacerbated. Targeting histones provides a novel therapeutic approach to influenza pneumonia. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Universal immunity to influenza must outwit immune evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Manuel Quinones-Parra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although an influenza vaccine has been available for 70 years, influenza virus still causes seasonal epidemics and worldwide pandemics. Currently available vaccines elicit strain-specific antibody responses to the surface haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA proteins, but these can be ineffective against serologically-distinct viral variants and novel subtypes. Thus, there is a need for cross-protective or universal influenza vaccines to overcome the necessity for annual immunisation against seasonal influenza and to provide immunity to reduce the severity of infection with pandemic or outbreak viruses. It is well established that natural influenza infection can provide cross-reactive immunity that can reduce the impact of infection with distinct influenza type A strains and subtypes, including H1N1, H3N2, H2N2, H5N1 and H7N9. The key to generating universal influenza immunity via vaccination is to target functionally-conserved regions of the virus, which include epitopes on the internal proteins for cross-reactive T cell immunity or on the HA stem for broadly reactive antibody responses. In the wake of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, broadly neutralizing antibodies have been characterized and isolated from convalescent and vaccinated individuals, inspiring development of new vaccination techniques to elicit such responses. Induction of influenza-specific T cell responses through vaccination has also been examined in clinical trials. Strong evidence is available from human and animal models of influenza to show that established influenza-specific T cell memory can reduce viral shedding and symptom severity. However, the published evidence also shows that CD8+ T cells can efficiently select immune escape mutants early after influenza virus infection. Here, we discuss universal immunity to influenza viruses mediated by both cross-reactive T cells and antibodies, the mechanisms of immune evasion in influenza, and how to counteract commonly occurring

  9. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts....... Only by employing this as a critical practice will we be analytically able to gain a dynamic understanding of the forces of globalization as they unfold today and as they have developed historically....

  10. Influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and IgG isotype profiles after immunization of mice with influenza A subunit vaccine using various adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benne, CA; Harmsen, M; vanderGraaff, W; Verheul, AFM; Snippe, H; Kraaijeveld, CA

    The influence of various adjuvants on the development of influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and distribution of anti-influenza virus IgG isotypes after immunization of mice with influenza A (H3N2) subunit vaccine was investigated. Serum titres of influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and

  11. FAO-OIE-WHO Joint Technical Consultation on Avian Influenza at the Human-Animal Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tara; Capua, Ilaria; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Donis, Ruben; Fouchier, Ron; Mumford, Elizabeth; Peiris, Malik; Swayne, David; Thiermann, Alex

    2010-05-01

    For the past 10 years, animal health experts and human health experts have been gaining experience in the technical aspects of avian influenza in mostly separate fora. More recently, in 2006, in a meeting of the small WHO Working Group on Influenza Research at the Human Animal Interface (Meeting report available from: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/influenza/WHO_CDS_EPR_GIP_2006_3/en/index.html) in Geneva allowed influenza experts from the animal and public health sectors to discuss together the most recent avian influenza research. Ad hoc bilateral discussions on specific technical issues as well as formal meetings such as the Technical Meeting on HPAI and Human H5N1 Infection (Rome, June, 2007; information available from: http://www.fao.org/avianflu/en/conferences/june2007/index.html) have increasingly brought the sectors together and broadened the understanding of the topics of concern to each sector. The sectors have also recently come together at the broad global level, and have developed a joint strategy document for working together on zoonotic diseases (Joint strategy available from: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/ajl37e/ajl37e00.pdf). The 2008 FAO-OIE-WHO Joint Technical Consultation on Avian Influenza at the Human Animal Interface described here was the first opportunity for a large group of influenza experts from the animal and public health sectors to gather and discuss purely technical topics of joint interest that exist at the human-animal interface. During the consultation, three influenza-specific sessions aimed to (1) identify virological characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) important for zoonotic and pandemic disease, (2) evaluate the factors affecting evolution and emergence of a pandemic influenza strain and identify existing monitoring systems, and (3) identify modes of transmission and exposure sources for human zoonotic influenza infection (including discussion of specific exposure risks by affected countries). A

  12. Promoting Influenza Vaccination to Restaurant Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Meredith C; Harris, Jeffrey R; Hannon, Peggy A; Hammerback, Kristen; Parrish, Amanda T; Ahmed, Faruque; Zhou, Chuan; Allen, Claire L

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate an evidence-based workplace approach to increasing adult influenza vaccination levels applied in the restaurant setting We implemented an intervention and conducted a pre/post analysis to determine effect on vaccination. Eleven Seattle-area restaurants. Restaurants with 25+ employees speaking English or Spanish and over 18 years. Restaurants received influenza vaccination promotion materials, assistance arranging on-site vaccination events, and free influenza vaccinations for employees. Pre/post employee surveys of vaccination status with direct observation and employer interviews to evaluate implementation. We conducted descriptive analysis of employee survey data and performed qualitative analysis of implementation data. To assess intervention effect, we used a mixed-effects logistic regression model with a restaurant-specific random effect. Vaccination levels increased from 26% to 46% (adjusted odds ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval 1.69, 3.22), with 428 employees surveyed preintervention, 305 surveyed postintervention, and response rates of 73% and 55%, respectively. The intervention was effective across subgroups, but there were restaurant-level differences. An access-based workplace intervention can increase influenza vaccination levels in restaurant employees, but restaurant-level factors may influence success. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  13. Conducting polymers as sorbents of influenza viruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivanova, V. T.; Garina, E. O.; Burtseva, E. I.; Kirillova, E. S.; Ivanova, M. V.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Sapurina, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 495-503 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14199 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : influenza viruses * conducting polymers * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  14. Preventing drug resistance in severe influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolny, Hana; Deecke, Lucas

    2015-03-01

    Severe, long-lasting influenza infections are often caused by new strains of influenza. The long duration of these infections leads to an increased opportunity for the emergence of drug resistant mutants. This is particularly problematic for new strains of influenza since there is often no vaccine, so drug treatment is the first line of defense. One strategy for trying to minimize drug resistance is to apply periodic treatment. During treatment the wild-type virus decreases, but resistant virus might increase; when there is no treatment, wild-type virus will hopefully out-compete the resistant virus, driving down the number of resistant virus. We combine a mathematical model of severe influenza with a model of drug resistance to study emergence of drug resistance during a long-lasting infection. We apply periodic treatment with two types of antivirals: neuraminidase inhibitors, which block release of virions; and adamantanes, which block replication of virions. We compare the efficacy of the two drugs in reducing emergence of drug resistant mutants and examine the effect of treatment frequency on the emergence of drug resistant mutants.

  15. The shifting demographic landscape of pandemic influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza spreads around the globe, it strikes school-age children more often than adults. Although there is some evidence of pre-existing immunity among older adults, this alone may not explain the significant gap in age-specific infection rates.Based on a retrospective analysis of pandemic strains of influenza from the last century, we show that school-age children typically experience the highest attack rates in primarily naive populations, with the burden shifting to adults during the subsequent season. Using a parsimonious network-based mathematical model which incorporates the changing distribution of contacts in the susceptible population, we demonstrate that new pandemic strains of influenza are expected to shift the epidemiological landscape in exactly this way.Our analysis provides a simple demographic explanation for the age bias observed for H1N1/09 attack rates, and suggests that this bias may shift in coming months. These results have significant implications for the allocation of public health resources for H1N1/09 and future influenza pandemics.

  16. Medical students' attitude towards influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Birthe A; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wicker, Sabine; Chapman, Gretchen; Kok, Gerjo

    2015-04-15

    Influenza vaccination is recommended for all healthcare personnel (HCP) and most institutions offer vaccination for free and on site. However, medical students do not always have such easy access, and the predictors that might guide the motivation of medical students to get vaccinated are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study among pre-clinical medical students in a German University hospital to assess the social cognitive predictors of influenza vaccination, as well as reasons for refusal and acceptance of the vaccine. Findings show that pre-clinical medical students have comparable knowledge gaps and negative attitudes towards influenza vaccination that have previously been reported among HCP. Lower injunctive norms and higher feelings of autonomy contribute to no intention to get vaccinated against influenza, while a positive instrumental attitude and higher feelings of autonomy contribute to a high intention to get vaccinated. The variables in the regression model explained 20% of the variance in intention to get vaccinated. The identified factors should be addressed early in medical education, and hospitals might benefit from a more inclusive vaccination program and accessibility of free vaccines for their medical students.

  17. Avian influenza A (H5N1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Menno D.; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2006-01-01

    Since their reemergence in 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses have reached endemic levels among poultry in several southeast Asian countries and have caused a still increasing number of more than 100 reported human infections with high mortality. These developments have ignited

  18. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  19. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine . You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from ...

  20. Planar Hall Sensor for Influenza Immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing, Louise Wellendorph

    2006-01-01

    følsomt kan detektere magnetiske nanokugler. Indledende biodetektionsforsøg rettet mod detektion af influenza-virus blev udført i samarbejde med Statens Serum-Institut. Det blev demonstreret, at sensorerne har et stort potentiale til biodetektion men også at den uspecifikke binding af magnetiske kugler...