WorldWideScience

Sample records for global hawk capability

  1. New opportunities for the study of Mediterranean storms: the unique capabilities of the Global Hawk aircraft

    Cairo, F.; Curry, R. E.; Carli, B.

    2009-09-01

    Airborne measurements have often played a pivotal role in unravelling critical processess and improving our understanding of the genesis and development of atmospheric disturbances. The availability of innovative aerial platforms now opens new perspectives for the scientific research. One of these platforms is the high altitude long endurance unmanned aircraft Global Hawk (GH), which has unique capabilities in terms of altitude, range of operation, diurnal coverage and flexibility. The GH has an endurance of 31 hrs, a service ceiling of 20000 m and can host a payload of 680 kg. Since it can operate at altitudes close to the boundary conditions of radiative processes, can follow the diurnal variation of aerosol and clouds, can rapidly deploy new instruments with space-time coverage comparable to space-borne ones, it is a platform which is at the same time complementary and competitive with satellites. In fact it combines the short time deployment of aircraft instruments with the global coverage of satellite instruments, while its flight altitude allows better spatial resolution than a satellite and its endurance provides a sufficiently broad overview at a scale relevant for sinoptic meteorology studies. NASA has recently acquired two of such unmanned high altitude aircraft to address a variety of Earth Science objectives, and Italy has a decade long experience of stratospheric in-situ and remote sensing science missions using the Russian M-55 "Geophysica" high altitude piloted aircraft. There is a common interest in a bilateral cooperative program in climate change science using the GH. The collaboration between NASA and Italian scientific institutions may offer the opportunity of deploying the GH over the Mediterranean Basin. The Mediterranean area is of particular interest under many respects. As instance, it would be of great interest to measure, when possible, the 3-dimensional structure and evolution of the aerosol content over the Mediterranean, with

  2. NASA Global Hawk: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    Hall, Phill

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Global Hawk, a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that NASA plans to use for Earth Sciences research. The Global Hawk is the world's first fully autonomous high-altitude, long-endurance aircraft, and is capable of conducting long duration missions. Plans are being made for the use of the aircraft on missions in the Arctic, Pacific and Western Atlantic Oceans. There are slides showing the Global Hawk Operations Center (GHOC), Flight Control and Air Traffic Control Communications Architecture, and Payload Integration and Accommodations on the Global Hawk. The first science campaign, planned for a study of the Pacific Ocean, is reviewed.

  3. NASA 3D Models: Global Hawk

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability of the Global Hawk air vehicle to autonomously fly long distances and remain aloft for extended periods of time means that measuring, monitoring, and...

  4. Verification of Meteorological Data Reports from the RQ-4A Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Callis, Steven

    2004-01-01

    ... intelligence for military planners. The value of any dataset is directly related to its accuracy and this research determined the accuracy of weather data obtained from a particular UAV, the RQ-4A Global Hawk...

  5. GRIP NOAA GLOBAL HAWK IN-FLIGHT TURBULENCE SENSOR (GHIS) V1

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NOAA Global Hawk In-flight Turbulence Sensor (GHIS) instrument measures acceleration at the location of the instrument. Two accelerometers (2g and 5g full scale)...

  6. Global Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere obtained during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR field campaign

    J. M. Intrieri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In February and March of 2011, the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS was deployed over the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR field campaign. The WISPAR science missions were designed to (1 mprove our understanding of Pacific weather systems and the polar atmosphere; (2 evaluate operational use of unmanned aircraft for investigating these atmospheric events; and (3 demonstrate operational and research applications of a UAS dropsonde system at high latitudes. Dropsondes deployed from the Global Hawk successfully obtained high-resolution profiles of temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind information between the stratosphere and surface. The 35 m wingspan Global Hawk, which can soar for ~ 31 h at altitudes up to ~ 20 km, was remotely operated from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB in California. During the 25 h polar flight on 9–10 March 2011, the Global Hawk released 35 sondes between the North Slope of Alaska and 85° N latitude, marking the first UAS Arctic dropsonde mission of its kind. The polar flight transected an unusually cold polar vortex, notable for an associated record-level Arctic ozone loss, and documented polar boundary layer variations over a sizable ocean–ice lead feature. Comparison of dropsonde observations with atmospheric reanalyses reveal that, for this day, large-scale structures such as the polar vortex and air masses are captured by the reanalyses, while smaller-scale features, including low-level jets and inversion depths, are mischaracterized. The successful Arctic dropsonde deployment demonstrates the capability of the Global Hawk to conduct operations in harsh, remote regions. The limited comparison with other measurements and reanalyses highlights the potential value of Arctic atmospheric dropsonde observations where routine in situ measurements are practically nonexistent.

  7. Anomalies and Hawking radiation from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole with a global monopole

    Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin

    2007-01-01

    We extend the work by Iso, Umetsu and Wilczek (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 151302) to derive the Hawking flux via gauge and gravitational anomalies of a most general two-dimensional non-extremal black hole spacetime with the determinant of its diagonal metric differing from unity √ (-g)1) ≠ 1 and use it to investigate Hawking radiation from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole with a global monopole by requiring the cancellation of anomalies at the horizon. It is shown that the compensating energy-momentum and gauge fluxes required to cancel gravitational and gauge anomalies at the horizon are precisely equivalent to the (1 + 1)-dimensional thermal fluxes associated with Hawking radiation emanating from the horizon at the Hawking temperature. These fluxes are universally determined by the value of anomalies at the horizon

  8. HURRICANE AND SEVERE STORM SENTINEL (HS3) GLOBAL HAWK HIGH ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Global Hawk High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) datasets include measurements gathered by the HAMSR...

  9. HURRICANE AND SEVERE STORM SENTINEL (HS3) GLOBAL HAWK ADVANCED VERTICAL ATMOSPHERIC PROFILING SYSTEM (AVAPS) DROPSONDE SYSTEM V2

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Global Hawk Advanced Vertical Atmospheric Profiling System (AVAPS) Dropsonde System dataset was collected by the...

  10. NASA Global Hawk Project Update and Future Plans: A New Tool for Earth Science Research

    Naftel, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Science objectives include: First demonstration of the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS) for NASA and NOAA Earth science research and applications; Validation of instruments on-board the Aura satellite; Exploration of trace gases, aerosols, and dynamics of remote upper Troposphere/lower Stratosphere regions; Sample polar vortex fragments and atmospheric rivers; Risk reduction for future missions that will study hurricanes and atmospheric rivers.

  11. When does the Hawking into Unruh mapping for global embeddings work?

    Paston, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss for which smooth global embeddings of a metric into a Minkowskian spacetime the Hawking into Unruh mapping takes place. There is a series of examples of global embeddings into the Minkowskian spacetime (GEMS) with such mapping for physically interesting metrics. These examples use Fronsdal-type embeddings for which timelines are hyperbolas. In the present work we show that for some new embeddings (non Fronsdal-type) of the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström metrics there is no mapping. We give also the examples of hyperbolic and non hyperbolic type embeddings for the de Sitter metric for which there is no mapping. For the Minkowski metric where there is no Hawking radiation we consider a non trivial embedding with hyperbolic timelines, hence in the ambient space the Unruh effect takes place, and it follows that there is no mapping too. The considered examples show that the meaning of the Hawking into Unruh mapping for global embeddings remains still insufficiently clear and requires further investigations.

  12. The High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer on the GLOBAL HAWK: From Technology Development to Science Discovery

    Brown, Shannon; Denning, Richard; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Lim, Boon; Tanabe, Jordan; Tanner, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) during three recent field campaigns on the Global Hawk Unmanned Ariel Vehicles (UAV), focusing on the enabling technology that led to unprecedented observations of significant weather phenomenon, such as thermodynamic evolution of the tropical cyclone core during rapid intensification and the high resolution three dimensional mapping of several atmospheric river events. HAMSR is a 25 channel cross-track scanning microwave sounder with channels near the 60 and 118 GHz oxygen lines and the 183 GHz water vapor line. HAMSR was originally designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a technology demonstrator in 1998. Subsequent to this, HAMSR participated in three NASA hurricane field campaigns, CAMEX-4, TCSP and NAMMA. Beginning in 2008, HAMSR was extensively upgraded to deploy on the NASA Global Hawk (GH) platform and serve as an asset to the NASA sub-orbital program. HAMSR has participated on the Global Hawk during the 2010 Genesis and Rapid Intensification (GRIP) campaign, the 2011 Winter Storms and Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR) campaign and is currently participating in the NASA Ventures Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) campaign (2011-2015).

  13. Oceanic Weather Decision Support for Unmanned Global Hawk Science Missions into Hurricanes with Tailored Satellite Derived Products

    Feltz, Wayne; Griffin, Sarah; Velden, Christopher; Zipser, Ed; Cecil, Daniel; Braun, Scott

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to identify in-flight hazards to high-altitude aircraft, namely the Global Hawk. The Global Hawk was used during Septembers 2012-2016 as part of two NASA funded Hurricane Sentinel-3 field campaigns to over-fly hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean. This talk identifies the cause of severe turbulence experienced over Hurricane Emily (2005) and how a combination of NOAA funded GOES-R algorithm derived cloud top heights/tropical overshooting tops using GOES-13/SEVIRI imager radiances, and lightning information are used to identify areas of potential turbulence for near real-time navigation decision support. Several examples will demonstrate how the Global Hawk pilots remotely received and used real-time satellite derived cloud and lightning detection information to keep the aircraft safely above clouds and avoid regions of potential turbulence.

  14. Hawking and Unruh Effects of a 5-Dimensional Minimal Gauged Supergravity Black Hole by a Global Embedding Approach

    Li-Chun Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the new global embedding approach we investigate Unruh/Hawking temperature of the 5-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity black hole with double rotating parameters in a general (1 + 1 space-time. Our results verify that views of Banerjee and Majhi, and extend this approach to a higher dimension situation.

  15. Hawking Radiation from Horizons of Reissner-Nordstroem de Sitter Black Hole with a Global Monopole via Anomalies

    Chen Shiwu; Liu Xiongwei; Lin Kai; Zeng Xiaoxiong; Yang Shuzheng

    2008-01-01

    Hawking radiation from cosmological horizon and event horizon of the Reissner-Nordstroem de Sitter black hole with a global monopole is studied via a new method that was propounded by Robinson and Wilzek and elaborated by Banerjee and Kulkarni. The results show that the gauge current and energy-momentum tensor fluxes, which required keeping gauge covariance and general coordinate invariance at the quantum level in the effective field theory, are exactly equivalent to those of Hawking radiation from the event horizon and the cosmological horizon, respectively

  16. Industrial global brand leadership : a capabilities view

    Beverland, M.; Napoli, J.; Lindgreen, A.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the global branding programs of five New Zealand industrial firms and identify the salient components and capabilities underpinning these programs. The cases built their respective brand identities around adaptability to customer needs and the provision of a total solution. This identity

  17. EURO HAWK Project Overview

    2003-01-01

    Briefing charts from presentation on a EURO HAWK project overview; an airborne system with stand-off capability for wide-area intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance meeting European NATO countries' ISR requirements...

  18. Operational Impact of Data Collected from the Global Hawk Unmanned Aircraft During SHOUT

    Wick, G. A.; Dunion, J. P.; Sippel, J.; Cucurull, L.; Aksoy, A.; Kren, A.; Christophersen, H.; Black, P.

    2017-12-01

    The primary scientific goal of the Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT) Project was to determine the potential utility of observations from high-altitude, long-endurance unmanned aircraft systems such as the Global Hawk (GH) aircraft to improve operational forecasts of high-impact weather events or mitigate potential degradation of forecasts in the event of a future gap in satellite coverage. Hurricanes and tropical cyclones are among the most potentially destructive high-impact weather events and pose a major forecasting challenge to NOAA. Major winter storms over the Pacific Ocean, including atmospheric river events, which make landfall and bring strong winds and extreme precipitation to the West Coast and Alaska are also important to forecast accurately because of their societal impact in those parts of the country. In response, the SHOUT project supported three field campaigns with the GH aircraft and dedicated data impact studies exploring the potential for the real-time data from the aircraft to improve the forecasting of both tropical cyclones and landfalling Pacific storms. Dropsonde observations from the GH aircraft were assimilated into the operational Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting (HWRF) and Global Forecast System (GFS) models. The results from several diverse but complementary studies consistently demonstrated significant positive forecast benefits spanning the regional and global models. Forecast skill improvements within HWRF reached up to about 9% for track and 14% for intensity. Within GFS, track skill improvements for multi-storm averages exceeded 10% and improvements for individual storms reached over 20% depending on forecast lead time. Forecasted precipitation was also improved. Impacts for Pacific winter storms were smaller but still positive. The results are highly encouraging and support the potential for operational utilization of data from a platform like the GH. This presentation summarizes the

  19. Weather Avoidance Guidelines for NASA Global Hawk High-Altitude UAS

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Zipser, Edward J.; Velden, Chris; Monette, Sarah; Heymsfield, Gerry; Braun, Scott; Newman, Paul; Black, Pete; Black, Michael; Dunion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    NASA operates two Global Hawk unmanned aircraft systems for Earth Science research projects. In particular, they are used in the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) project during 2012, 2013, and 2014 to take measurements from the environment around tropical cyclones, and from directly above tropical cyclones. There is concern that strict adherence to the weather avoidance rules used in 2012 may sacrifice the ability to observe important science targets. We have proposed modifications to these weather avoidance rules that we believe will improve the ability to observe science targets without compromising aircraft safety. The previous guidelines, used in 2012, specified: Do not approach thunderstorms within 25 nm during flight at FL500 or below. When flying above FL500: Do not approach reported lightning within 25NM in areas where cloud tops are reported at FL500 or higher. Aircraft should maintain at least 10000 ft vertical separation from reported lightning if cloud tops are below FL500. No over-flight of cumulus tops higher than FL500. No flight into forecast or reported icing conditions. No flight into forecast or reported moderate or severe turbulence Based on past experience with high-altitude flights over tropical cyclones, we have recommended changing this guidance to: Do not approach thunderstorms within 25 nm during flight at FL500 or below. Aircraft should maintain at least 5000 ft vertical separation from significant convective cloud tops except: a) When cloud tops above FL500: In the event of reported significant lightning activity or indicators of significant overshooting tops, do not approach within 10-25 nm, depending on pilot discretion and advice from Mission Scientist. b) When cloud tops are below FL500, maintain 10000 ft separation from reported significant lightning or indicators of significant overshooting tops. No flight into forecasted or reported icing conditions. No flight into forecasted or reported moderate or severe turbulence The

  20. Greenhouse Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST): a novel shortwave infrared spectrometer developed for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle

    Humpage, Neil; Boesch, Hartmut; Palmer, Paul; Parr-Burman, Phil; Vick, Andy; Bezawada, Naidu; Black, Martin; Born, Andy; Pearson, David; Strachan, Jonathan; Wells, Martyn

    2014-05-01

    The tropospheric distribution of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is dependent on surface flux variations, atmospheric chemistry and transport processes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Errors in assumed atmospheric transport can adversely affect surface flux estimates inferred from surface, aircraft or satellite observations of greenhouse gas concentrations using inverse models. We present a novel, compact shortwave infrared spectrometer (GHOST) for installation on the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle to provide tropospheric column observations of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O and HDO over the ocean to address the need for large-scale, simultaneous, finely resolved measurements of key GHGs. These species cover a range of lifetimes and source processes, and measurements of their tropospheric columns will reflect the vertically integrated signal of their vertical and horizontal transport within the troposphere. The primary science objectives of GHOST are to: 1) provide observations which can be used to test atmospheric transport models; 2) validate satellite observations of GHG column observations over oceans, thus filling a critical gap in current validation capabilities; and 3) complement in-situ tropopause transition layer tracer observations from other instrumentation on board the Global Hawk to provide a link between upper and lower troposphere concentration measurements. The GHOST spectrometer system comprises a target acquisition module (TAM), a fibre slicer and feed system, and a multiple order spectrograph. The TAM design utilises a gimbal behind an optical dome, which is programmed to direct solar radiation reflected by the ocean surface into a fibre optic bundle. The fibre slicer and feed system then splits the light into the four spectral bands using order sorting filters. The fibres corresponding to each band are arranged with a small sideways offset to correctly centre each spectrum on the detector array. The spectrograph design is unique in that a

  1. Global dynamics, capabilities and the crisis

    Fagerberg, J.; Srholec, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2016), s. 765-784 ISSN 0936-9937 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : technological capabilities * social capabilities * competitiveness Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.862, year: 2016

  2. Global dynamics, capabilities and the crisis

    Fagerberg, J.; Srholec, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2016), s. 765-784 ISSN 0936-9937 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/2310 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : technological capabilities * social capabilities * competitiveness Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.862, year: 2016

  3. Hawking radiation

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  4. Cluster-based global firms' use of local capabilities

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Bøllingtoft, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Despite growing interest in clusters role for the global competitiveness of firms, there has been little research into how globalization affects cluster-based firms’ (CBFs) use of local knowledge resources and the combination of local and global knowledge used. Using the cluster......’s knowledge base as a mediating variable, the purpose of this paper is to examine how globalization affected the studied firms’ use of local cluster-based knowledge, integration of local and global knowledge, and networking capabilities. Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative case studies of nine firms...... in three clusters strongly affected by increasing global division of labour. Findings – The paper suggests that globalization has affected how firms use local resources and combine local and global knowledge. Unexpectedly, clustered firms with explicit procedures and established global fora for exchanging...

  5. Ferruginous hawk

    Hall, R.S.; Glinski, R.L.; Ellis, D.H.; Ramakka, J.M.; Base, D.L.; Glinski, Richard L.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; Moss, Mary Beth; LeFranc, Maurice N.=; Millsap, Brian A.; Hoffman, Stephen W.

    1988-01-01

    In the Southwest, the ferruginous hawk is a local and isolated breeder and an uncommon but consistent winter visitor. Apparently, the breeding range of this species in the Southwest was historically much greater than today. The ferruginous hawk is being considered for listing by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service but remains unclassified by the individual states comprising the Southwest region. Habitat and diet information is summarized. Nest location and structure, breeding, and wintering biology are also discussed. Long-term and seasonal monitoring is conducted annually at several nest locations in New Mexico, while documented reproductive efforts in Arizona, Texas and Oklahoma are extremely rare and isolated. Research and management recommendations include population and habitat surveys, dietary and reproductive investigations, and habitat protection.

  6. Helicopter Approach Capability Using the Differential Global Positioning System

    Kaufmann, David N.

    1994-01-01

    The results of flight tests to determine the feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the Differential mode (DGPS) to provide high accuracy, precision navigation and guidance for helicopter approaches to landing are presented. The airborne DGPS receiver and associated equipment is installed in a NASA UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. The ground-based DGPS reference receiver is located at a surveyed test site and is equipped with a real-time VHF data link to transmit correction information to the airborne DGPS receiver. The corrected airborne DGPS information, together with the preset approach geometry, is used to calculate guidance commands which are sent to the aircraft's approach guidance instruments. The use of DGPS derived guidance for helicopter approaches to landing is evaluated by comparing the DGPS data with the laser tracker truth data. The errors indicate that the helicopter position based on DGPS guidance satisfies the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category 1 (CAT 1) lateral and vertical navigational accuracy requirements.

  7. The Alliance Capability of Technology-Based Born Globals

    Oxtorp, Liliya Altshuler; Elg, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the aspects comprising the alliance capability of technology-based born globals. Alliance capability is regarded as a set of organizational skills necessary from the decision to search for a partner for a technology collaboration, which may also involve a marketing...... and risks of collaborating with MNEs.Methodology: A longitudinal process study of a Danish technology born global with three embedded cases of its R&D and marketing alliances with Asian MNEs.Findings: The organisational skills comprising the alliance capability are defined to be internal and external...

  8. It Takes Two: NASA and NOAA's Shared Path of Hurricane Science Flights with the Global Hawk. Time for the Research To Operations (R2O) Transition?

    Emory, A. E.; Wick, G. A.; Dunion, J. P.; McLinden, M.; Schreier, M. M.; Black, P.; Hood, R. E.; Sippel, J.; Tallapragada, V.

    2017-12-01

    The impacts of Harvey, Irma, and Maria during the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season re-emphasized the critical need for accurate operational forecasts. The combined NASA East Pacific Origins and Characteristics of Hurricanes (EPOCH) and NOAA UAS field campaign during August 2017 was the fourth campaign in a series of dual agency partnerships between NASA and NOAA to improve forecasting accuracy in tropical cyclogenesis and rapid intensification. A brief history of Global Hawk (GH) hurricane field campaigns, including GRIP (2010), HS3 (2012-2014), NOAA-SHOUT (2015-2016) and EPOCH (2017), will show the incremental steps taken over the last eight years to bring the GH from a research platform to a candidate for operational hurricane reconnaissance. GH dropsondes were assimilated into the ECMWF and HWRF forecast models during the 2015-2016 NOAA SHOUT campaigns. EPOCH marked the first time that GH dropsondes were assimilated in real-time into NOAA's GFS forecast model. Early results show that assimilating dropsonde data significantly increases skill in predicting intensity change, which is game changing since the National Hurricane Center intensity error trend has remained virtually unchanged, particularly at 24 hours, over the last 25 years. The results from the past few years suggest that a paradigm shift of sampling the environment with a high-altitude, long-duration UAS like the GH that is capable of deploying up to 90 dropsondes ahead of and over the top of a developing or strengthening tropical cyclone could produce the best return on hurricane forecast predictions in subsequent years. Recommendations for the future, including lessons learned and the potential for R2O transition will be discussed.

  9. Development of the Hawk/Nike Hawk sounding rocket vehicles

    Flowers, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    A new sounding rocket family, the Hawk and Nike-Hawk Vehicles, have been developed, flight tested and added to the NASA Sounding Rocket Vehicle Stable. The Hawk is a single-stage vehicle that will carry 35.6 cm diameter payloads weighing 45.5 kg to 91 kg to altitudes of 78 km to 56 km, respectively. The two-stage Nike-Hawk will carry payloads weighing 68 kg to 136 kg to altitudes of 118 km to 113 km, respectively. Both vehicles utilize the XM22E8 Hawk rocket motor which is available in large numbers as a surplus item from the U.S. Army. The Hawk fin and tail can hardware were designed in-house. The Nike tail can and fin hardware are surplus Nike-Ajax booster hardware. Development objectives were to provide a vehicle family with a larger diameter, larger volume payload capability than the Nike-Apache and Nike-Tomahawk vehicles at comparable cost. Both vehicles performed nominally in flight tests.

  10. Thermodynamic Geometry and Hawking Radiation

    Bellucci, S

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the role of thermodynamic fluctuations in the two parameter Hawking radiating black hole configurations. The system is characterized by an ensemble of arbitrary mass and radiation frequency of the black holes. In the due course of the Hawking radiations, we find that the intrinsic geometric description exhibits an intriguing set of exact pair correction functions and global correlation lengths. We investigate the nature of the constant amplitude radiation and find that it's not stable under fluctuations of the mass and frequency. Subsequently, the consideration of the York model decreasing amplitude radiation demonstrates that thermodynamic fluctuations are globally stable in the small frequency region. In connection with quantum gravity refinements, we take an account of the logarithmic correction into the constant amplitude and York amplitude over the Hawking radiation. In both considerations, we notice that the nature of the possible parametric fluctuations may precisely be ascertained w...

  11. Global embedding of D-dimensional black holes with a cosmological constant in Minkowskian spacetimes: Matching between Hawking temperature and Unruh temperature

    Santos, Nuno Loureiro; Dias, Oscar J.C.; Lemos, Jose P.S.

    2004-01-01

    We study the matching between the Hawking temperature of a large class of static D-dimensional black holes and the Unruh temperature of the corresponding higher dimensional Rindler spacetime. In order to accomplish this task we find the global embedding of the D-dimensional black holes into a higher dimensional Minkowskian spacetime, called the global embedding Minkowskian spacetime procedure (GEMS procedure). These global embedding transformations are important on their own, since they provide a powerful tool that simplifies the study of black hole physics by working instead, but equivalently, in an accelerated Rindler frame in a flat background geometry. We discuss neutral and charged Tangherlini black holes with and without cosmological constant, and in the negative cosmological constant case, we consider the three allowed topologies for the horizons (spherical, cylindrical/toroidal, and hyperbolic)

  12. Improving global laboratory capabilities for emergency radionuclide bioassay

    Li, C.; Jourdain, J.; Kramer, G. H.

    2012-01-01

    During a radiological or nuclear emergency, first-responders and the general public may be internally contaminated with the radionuclide(s) involved. A timely radionuclide bioassay provides important information about contamination, for subsequent dose assessment and medical management. Both technical and operational gaps are discussed in this paper. As many people may need to be assessed in a short period of time, any single laboratory may find its capabilities insufficient. Laboratories from other regions or other countries may be called upon for assistance. This paper proposes a road-map to improve global capabilities in emergency radionuclide bioassay, suggesting a phased approach for establishing a global laboratory network. Existing international collaboration platforms could provide the base on which to build such a network. (authors)

  13. Helicopter precision approach capability using the Global Positioning System

    Kaufmann, David N.

    1992-01-01

    The period between 1 July and 31 December, 1992, was spent developing a research plan as well as a navigation system document and flight test plan to investigate helicopter precision approach capability using the Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition, all hardware and software required for the research was acquired, developed, installed, and verified on both the test aircraft and the ground-based reference station.

  14. Knowledge capabilities for sustainable development in global classrooms - local challenges

    Elise Anderberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Young Masters Programme provides young people around the worldwith a net–based global–local learning environment for sustainable development. The present study investigates certain aspects of the implementation of this programme in the secondary schools of a Swedish municipality, in the context of the Lund Calling project. The research focuses on critical abilities to act globally, referred to as “knowledge capabilities”, and how they relate to the implementation process of initiating global learning for sustainabledevelopment (GLSD. A phenomenographic approach and semi–structuredinterviews were used in the investigation of the experiences of secondary school pupils, teachers and headmasters who participated in the project. Participants’ experiences of the changes carried out are described in relation to examples of knowledge capabilities needed for GLSD. Critical knowledge capabilities found to have been developed through the implementation were: to take command, and to collaborate. Critical knowledge capabilities perceived asnecessary, but not developed through the programme were: to be prepared, to act in a transdisciplinary manner, and to lead for a holistic understanding.

  15. Hawking's acting roles

    Castell, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    In the wake of Stephen Hawking's appearance on the TV show The Big Bang Theory, last month's "Quanta" page (May p3), included a request: "If you think Hawking should appear in any other TV shows, then let us know".

  16. Global justice, capabilities approach and commercial surrogacy in India.

    Saravanan, Sheela

    2015-08-01

    Inequalities, ineffective governance, unclear surrogacy regulations and unethical practices make India an ideal environment for global injustice in the process of commercial surrogacy. This article aims to apply the 'capabilities approach' to find possibilities of global justice through human fellowship in the context of commercial surrogacy. I draw primarily on my research findings supplemented by other relevant empirical research and documentary films on surrogacy. The paper reveals inequalities and inadequate basic entitlements among surrogate mothers as a consequence of which they are engaged in unjust contracts. Their limited entitlements also limit their opportunities to engage in enriching goals. It is the role of the state to provide all its citizens with basic entitlements and protect their basic human rights. Individuals in India evading their basic duty also contribute to the existing inequalities. Individual responsibilities of the medical practitioners and the intended parents are in question here as they are more inclined towards self-interest rather than commitment towards human fellowship. At the global level, the injustice in transnational commercial surrogacy practices in developing countries calls for an international declaration of women and child rights in third party reproduction with a normative vision of mutual fellowship and human dignity.

  17. Global Monitoring of the CTBT: Progress, Capabilities and Plans (Invited)

    Zerbo, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), established in 1996, is tasked with building up the verification regime of the CTBT. The regime includes a global system for monitoring the earth, the oceans and the atmosphere for nuclear tests, and an on-site inspection (OSI) capability. More than 80% of the 337 facilities of the International Monitoring System (IMS) have been installed and are sending data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria for processing. These IMS data along with IDC processed and reviewed products are available to all States that have signed the Treaty. Concurrent with the build-up of the global monitoring networks, near-field geophysical methods are being developed and tested for OSIs. The monitoring system is currently operating in a provisional mode, as the Treaty has not yet entered into force. Progress in installing and operating the IMS and the IDC and in building up an OSI capability will be described. The capabilities of the monitoring networks have progressively improved as stations are added to the IMS and IDC processing techniques refined. Detection thresholds for seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide events have been measured and in general are equal to or lower than the predictions used during the Treaty negotiations. The measurements have led to improved models and tools that allow more accurate predictions of future capabilities and network performance under any configuration. Unplanned tests of the monitoring network occurred when the DPRK announced nuclear tests in 2006, 2009, and 2013. All three tests were well above the detection threshold and easily detected and located by the seismic monitoring network. In addition, noble gas consistent with the nuclear tests in 2006 and 2013 (according to atmospheric transport models) was detected by stations in the network. On-site inspections of these tests were not conducted as the Treaty has not entered

  18. Hawking radiation from a rotating acoustic black hole

    Zhang Lichun; Li Huaifan; Zhao Ren

    2011-01-01

    Using the new global embedding approach and analytical continuation method of wave function we discuss Hawking radiation of acoustic black holes. Unruh-Hawking temperature of the acoustic black hole is derived. The corresponding relation between these methods calculating Hawking radiation of acoustic black hole is established. The calculation result shows that the contributions of chemical potential to the ingoing wave and the outgoing wave are the same.

  19. Hawking, Stephen W (1942-)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Cosmologist and theoretical astrophysicist, born in Oxford, England, where he studied physics at University College. Moved to Cambridge to take up research in general relativity and cosmology, became Lucasian professor (an appointment earlier held by ISAAC NEWTON, with whom Hawking has been compared). Hawking worked to develop a valid mathematical treatment of the `singularities' in the theor...

  20. Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Patricia L. Kennedy; Rob Yaksich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    The Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) is intermediate in size between the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus), northern North America's other two accipiters. The two sexes are almost alike in plumage, but as in both of the other species, the female is noticeably larger. According to Wheeler and Clark (1995), a...

  1. The Hawking effect

    Saffary, T.

    2001-02-01

    The subject of this diploma thesis is the Hawking effect. We study Fredenhagen and Haag's proof of the Hawking radiation in the framework of a semiclassical theory, the quantum field theory in curved spacetime. In particular we give an exact derivation for the short distance behaviour of the two-point function on the Schwarzschild radius

  2. Global operations networks in motion: Managing configurations and capabilities

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Jørgensen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    In the past, the ‘Made in the World’ label, although capturing what may lie ahead, seemed awkward and futuristic. Today, it has become a reality. An ample array of global products are built up of numerous components and modules manufactured by global networks of differentiated partners rather than...... within the boundaries of one national entity. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to bridging the empirical gap in the area of global operations networks and provide insights into how they change over time. The paper is based on the cases of three Danish companies and their global operations...

  3. Hawking temperature of constant curvature black holes

    Cai Ronggen; Myung, Yun Soo

    2011-01-01

    The constant curvature (CC) black holes are higher dimensional generalizations of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. It is known that these black holes have the unusual topology of M D-1 xS 1 , where D is the spacetime dimension and M D-1 stands for a conformal Minkowski spacetime in D-1 dimensions. The unusual topology and time-dependence for the exterior of these black holes cause some difficulties to derive their thermodynamic quantities. In this work, by using a globally embedding approach, we obtain the Hawking temperature of the CC black holes. We find that the Hawking temperature takes the same form when using both the static and global coordinates. Also, it is identical to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature of the boundary de Sitter spaces of these CC black holes.

  4. Education and Capabilities for a Global ‘Great Transition’

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ What are the implications for education of the emergent global challenges of sustainability? Various studies suggest that major changes are required in predominant human values during the next two generations, to ensure politically and environmentally sustainable

  5. Hawking Radiation As Tunneling

    Parikh, Maulik K.; Wilczek, Frank

    2000-01-01

    We present a short and direct derivation of Hawking radiation as a tunneling process, based on particles in a dynamical geometry. The imaginary part of the action for the classically forbidden process is related to the Boltzmann factor for emission at the Hawking temperature. Because the derivation respects conservation laws, the exact spectrum is not precisely thermal. We compare and contrast the problem of spontaneous emission of charged particles from a charged conductor

  6. Two autographs: Cecile Dewitt and Robert Hawking (for Steven Hawking)

    Gaina, Alex

    2007-12-01

    Two autographs given to author by professor Cecile Dewitt and Robert Hawking (the son of Steven Hawking for his father) in 1987 during the Quantum Gravity Seminar in Moscow are presented. The first was given during a visit to Physical Institute of the Academy of sciences of the USSR, where a seminar held in the Theoretical department. the second was given during a lunch with Steven Hawking, Andrei Linde and Robert Hawking at the 2-nd floor of the Conference floor.

  7. Steven Hawking with Robert Aymar

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Steven Hawking is seen meeting with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar. Hawking visited CERN between 24 September and 1 October 2006. During his stay he gave two lectures and toured the LHC, which may provide insights into Hawking's most famous area of study, black holes.

  8. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  9. Canadian institute honours Hawking

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-11-01

    The Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada, has announced that a major new extension to its campus will be known as the Stephen Hawking Centre. The extension, which is currently being built, is due to open in 2011 and will double the size of the institute. It will also provide a home for the institute's Masters students, the first of whom joined the Perimeter Institute this autumn as part of its Perimeter Scholars international programme.

  10. Is Hawking radiation physically reasonable?

    Ahmed, M.

    1995-07-01

    Hawking radiation is observed in a general spacetime which includes all the black hole spacetimes as well as various types of other spacetimes which are not interesting form the physical point of view like black hole spacetimes. Even Hawking radiation is observed in NUT spacetime which is sometimes considered as unphysical. So naturally arises the question whether Hawking radiation is physically reasonable. (author). 22 refs

  11. Helicopter approach capability using the differential global positioning system. M.S. Thesis

    Kaufmann, David N.

    1993-01-01

    The results of flight tests to determine the feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the differential mode (DGPS) to provide high accuracy, precision navigation, and guidance for helicopter approaches to landing are presented. The airborne DGPS receiver and associated equipment is installed in a NASA UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. The ground-based DGPS reference receiver is located at a surveyed test site and is equipped with a real-time VHF data link to transmit correction information to the airborne DGPS receiver. The corrected airborne DGPS information, together with the preset approach geometry, is used to calculate guidance commands which are sent to the aircraft's approach guidance instruments. The use of DGPS derived guidance for helicopter approaches to landing is evaluated by comparing the DGPS data with the laser tracker truth data. Both standard (3 deg) and steep (6 deg and 9 deg) glideslope straight-in approaches were flown. DGPS positioning accuracy based on a time history analysis of the entire approach was 0.2 m (mean) +/- 1.8 m (2 sigma) laterally and -2.0 m (mean) +/- 3.5 m (2 sigma) vertically for 3 deg glideslope approaches, -0.1 m (mean) +/- 1.5 m (2 sigma) laterally and -1.1 m (mean) +/- 3.5 m (2 sigma) vertically for 6 deg glideslope approaches and 0.2 m (mean) +/- 1.3 m (2 sigma) laterally and -1.0 m (mean) +/- 2.8 m (2 sigma) vertically for 9 deg glideslope approaches. DGPS positioning accuracy at the 200 ft decision height (DH) on a standard 3 deg slideslope approach was 0.3 m (mean) +/- 1.5 m (2 sigma) laterally and -2.3 m (mean) +/- 1.6 m (2 sigma) vertically. These errors indicate that the helicopter position based on DGPS guidance satisfies the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category 1 (CAT 1) lateral and vertical navigational accuracy requirements.

  12. Quantifying the Global Fresh Water Budget: Capabilities from Current and Future Satellite Sensors

    Hildebrand, Peter; Zaitchik, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The global water cycle is complex and its components are difficult to measure, particularly at the global scales and with the precision needed for assessing climate impacts. Recent advances in satellite observational capabilities, however, are greatly improving our knowledge of the key terms in the fresh water flux budget. Many components of the of the global water budget, e.g. precipitation, atmospheric moisture profiles, soil moisture, snow cover, sea ice are now routinely measured globally using instruments on satellites such as TRMM, AQUA, TERRA, GRACE, and ICESat, as well as on operational satellites. New techniques, many using data assimilation approaches, are providing pathways toward measuring snow water equivalent, evapotranspiration, ground water, ice mass, as well as improving the measurement quality for other components of the global water budget. This paper evaluates these current and developing satellite capabilities to observe the global fresh water budget, then looks forward to evaluate the potential for improvements that may result from future space missions as detailed by the US Decadal Survey, and operational plans. Based on these analyses, and on the goal of improved knowledge of the global fresh water budget under the effects of climate change, we suggest some priorities for the future, based on new approaches that may provide the improved measurements and the analyses needed to understand and observe the potential speed-up of the global water cycle under the effects of climate change.

  13. Origin of Hawking radiation

    Hajicek, P.

    1987-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, the possible influence that quantum corrections could have on the existence and position of an event horizon in a spherically symmetric collapse is studied. A counterexample is constructed proving that the small value of near the gravitational radius does not guarantee the formation of an event horizon. In an exactly solvable model of black-hole evaporation, the spacetime structure is manipulated in the Planck neighborhood of the singularity so that the event horizon is shifted arbitrarily to the future or removed completely. This change in the position of the event horizon has no observable consequences until the retarded time of the end of the black-hole evaporation is reached. However, even in the absence of the event horizon, the Hawking radiation survives. In the second part of the paper, its origin is studied. The old idea is adopted that it is coming from a neighborhood of the so-called ergosphere. The concept of the ergosphere is generalized to nonstationary, spherically symmetric spacetimes using the notion of Hawking quasilocal mass. The boundary of such an ergosphere is shown to coincide with the locus of apparent horizons. It seems, therefore, that the Hawking effect is associated with the apparent rather than the event horizon. An extrapolation of some properties of from a neighborhood of the Schwarzschild horizon to that of an apparent horizon forming in a collapse leads to the result that too much energy is radiated away already before the apparent horizon forms, similarly as in the Boulware scenario of gravitational collapse

  14. Hawking temperature from tunnelling formalism

    Mitra, P.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the attempt to understand Hawking radiation as tunnelling across black hole horizons produces a Hawking temperature double the standard value. It is explained here how one can obtain the standard value in the same tunnelling approach.

  15. Hawking radiation in string theories

    Sakai, N.

    1986-01-01

    String theories in a uniform gravitational field are studied to examine the Hawking radiation. An upper limit is found for the strength of the possible gravitational field: the corresponding Hawking temperature cannot be larger than the Hagedorn limiting temperature divided by π

  16. Between Efficiency, Capability and Recognition: Competing Epistemes in Global Governance Reforms

    Chan, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article examines global governance reforms as a site of contestation between three different "truths"/epistemes (the market, human rights principles, and cultural identity) in terms of the competing principles of efficiency, capability, and recognition. Nancy Fraser's conceptions of participation parity and a dialogical approach of…

  17. A Human Development and Capabilities "Prospective Analysis" of Global Higher Education Policy

    Walker, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    In global times, university education policy that holds the greatest promise for social responsibility is the focus here; the argument made is that such policy ought to be conceptualised using a normative human development and capabilities approach, drawing on the work of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. Their ideas offer a values-based way of…

  18. Developing global capabilities for the observation and predication of harmful algal blooms

    Bernard, S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ). The GEO Blue Planet HAB initiative seeks to consolidate and expand on existing capabilities, building a global community to develop and maximise the use and societal benefits of an integrated HAB observation and prediction system. Such a system would...

  19. Managing Human Resource Capabilities for Sustainable Competitive Advantage: An Empirical Analysis from Indian Global Organisations

    Khandekar, Aradhana; Sharma, Anuradha

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine the role of human resource capability (HRC) in organisational performance and sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) in Indian global organisations. Design/Methodology/Approach: To carry out the present study, an empirical research on a random sample of 300 line or human resource managers from…

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory Training Capabilities (Possible Applications in the Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention Program)

    Martin, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04

    The briefing provides an overview of the training capabilities at Los Alamos National Laboratory that can be applied to nonproliferation/responsible science education at nuclear institutes in the Former Soviet Union, as part of the programmatic effort under the Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention program (GIPP).

  1. Universality of the Hawking effect

    Unruh, William G.; Schuetzhold, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    Addressing the question of whether the Hawking effect depends on degrees of freedom at ultrahigh (e.g., Planckian) energies/momenta, we propose three rather general conditions on these degrees of freedom under which the Hawking effect is reproduced to lowest order. As a generalization of Corley's results, we present a rather general model based on nonlinear dispersion relations satisfying these conditions together with a derivation of the Hawking effect for that model. However, we also demonstrate counter-examples, which do not appear to be unphysical or artificial, displaying strong deviations from Hawking's result. Therefore, whether real black holes emit Hawking radiation remains an open question and could give nontrivial information about Planckian physics

  2. Managerial capabilities of the home base in an intra-organisational global network

    Mykhaylenko, Alona

    of the HB change in the process of its global intra-organisational network evolution. In particular, the four papers constituting this thesis investigate how global intra-organisational networks evolve, how the types of network management capabilities of the HB change along with such network evolution....... This investigation was conducted through a retrospective longitudinal case study of one Danish original equipment manufacturer and its three subsidiaries in China, Slovakia, and the US. The findings, first of all, support, extend, and modify the revised Uppsala globalisation model with regard to the types...

  3. Particle energy and Hawking temperature

    Ding Chikun; Wang Mengjie; Jing Jiliang

    2009-01-01

    Some authors have recently found that the tunneling approach gives a different Hawking temperature for a Schwarzschild black hole in a different coordinate system. In this Letter, we find that to work out the Hawking temperature in a different coordinate system by the tunneling approach, we must use the correct definition of the energy of the radiating particles. By using a new definition of the particle energy, we obtain the correct Hawking temperature for a Schwarzschild black hole in two dynamic coordinate systems, the Kruskal-Szekers and dynamic Lemaitre coordinate systems.

  4. Bayesian inference for Hawkes processes

    Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    The Hawkes process is a practically and theoretically important class of point processes, but parameter-estimation for such a process can pose various problems. In this paper we explore and compare two approaches to Bayesian inference. The first approach is based on the so-called conditional...... intensity function, while the second approach is based on an underlying clustering and branching structure in the Hawkes process. For practical use, MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo) methods are employed. The two approaches are compared numerically using three examples of the Hawkes process....

  5. Bayesian inference for Hawkes processes

    Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2013-01-01

    The Hawkes process is a practically and theoretically important class of point processes, but parameter-estimation for such a process can pose various problems. In this paper we explore and compare two approaches to Bayesian inference. The first approach is based on the so-called conditional...... intensity function, while the second approach is based on an underlying clustering and branching structure in the Hawkes process. For practical use, MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo) methods are employed. The two approaches are compared numerically using three examples of the Hawkes process....

  6. Boltzmann factor and Hawking radiation

    Ryskin, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Hawking radiation has thermal spectrum corresponding to the temperature T H =(8πM) −1 , where M is the mass (energy) of the black hole. Corrections to the Hawking radiation spectrum were discovered by Kraus and Wilczek (1995) and Parikh and Wilczek (2000). Here I show that these corrections follow directly from the basic principles of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. In essence, it is the Boltzmann factor that ought to be corrected; corrections to the Hawking (or any other) radiation spectrum then follow necessarily

  7. Hawking from Catalan

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2016-05-01

    The Virasoro algebra determines all `graviton' matrix elements in AdS3/CFT2. We study the explicit exchange of any number of Virasoro gravitons between heavy and light CFT2 operators at large central charge. These graviton exchanges can be written in terms of new on-shell tree diagrams, organized in a perturbative expansion in h H /c, the heavy operator dimension divided by the central charge. The Virasoro vacuum conformal block, which is the sum of all the tree diagrams, obeys a differential recursion relation generalizing that of the Catalan numbers. We use this recursion relation to sum the on-shell diagrams to all orders, computing the Virasoro vacuum block. Extrapolating to large h H /c determines the Hawking temperature of a BTZ black hole in dual AdS3 theories.

  8. The Global Modeling Test Bed - Building a New National Capability for Advancing Operational Global Modeling in the United States.

    Toepfer, F.; Cortinas, J. V., Jr.; Kuo, W.; Tallapragada, V.; Stajner, I.; Nance, L. B.; Kelleher, K. E.; Firl, G.; Bernardet, L.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA develops, operates, and maintains an operational global modeling capability for weather, sub seasonal and seasonal prediction for the protection of life and property and fostering the US economy. In order to substantially improve the overall performance and accelerate advancements of the operational modeling suite, NOAA is partnering with NCAR to design and build the Global Modeling Test Bed (GMTB). The GMTB has been established to provide a platform and a capability for researchers to contribute to the advancement primarily through the development of physical parameterizations needed to improve operational NWP. The strategy to achieve this goal relies on effectively leveraging global expertise through a modern collaborative software development framework. This framework consists of a repository of vetted and supported physical parameterizations known as the Common Community Physics Package (CCPP), a common well-documented interface known as the Interoperable Physics Driver (IPD) for combining schemes into suites and for their configuration and connection to dynamic cores, and an open evidence-based governance process for managing the development and evolution of CCPP. In addition, a physics test harness designed to work within this framework has been established in order to facilitate easier like-to-like comparison of physics advancements. This paper will present an overview of the design of the CCPP and test platform. Additionally, an overview of potential new opportunities of how physics developers can engage in the process, from implementing code for CCPP/IPD compliance to testing their development within an operational-like software environment, will be presented. In addition, insight will be given as to how development gets elevated to CPPP-supported status, the pre-cursor to broad availability and use within operational NWP. An overview of how the GMTB can be expanded to support other global or regional modeling capabilities will also be presented.

  9. Hawk and Handsaw

    Usher, Peter D.

    2008-05-01

    In Shakespeare's Hamlet, Prince Hamlet states, "I am but mad north-north-west. When the wind is southerly, I know a hawk from a handsaw." This celebrated yet perennially baffling passage is readily understood in the context of the cosmic allegorical interpretation of the play (BAAS 28, 1305, 1996; Hamlet's Universe, 2006). The first direction points from Tycho Brahe's observatory on Hven to the fictional home of the geocentric Pyolemaic worldview at Elsinore, and the second from Hven to the home of Copernican heliocentricism at Wittenberg. The directions correspond to the two influences on Tycho's geo-heliocentric World model. Anyone at Elsinore who advocates the new organon of the New Philosophy is "mad," whereas sanity prevails at Wittenberg. "Hawk" refers to a bird of prey, the leonard, and to Leonard Digges, inventor of the world's first two-element telescope. "Handsaw" refers to the artistic tool necessary to sever the hands depicted in de Gheyn's two quasi-mirror-imaged portraits of Tycho at age 40, which show hands affixed to the wrong arms. Elsewhere in Hamlet, Shakespeare substantiates the New Astronomy through descriptions of planets and stars that could only have been determined telescopically. Therefore, the passage in question contrasts two modes of observing in the early modern era, viz. visual and telescopic. Shakespeare completed writing Hamlet in about 1601 and the Second Quarto appeared in 1604, so the first substantial account of astronomical telescopy is now over 400 years old. In addition, 432 years ago Thomas Digges published the first account of the New Astronomy in a popular almanac. These two means of presentation may seem odd by present standards, but contemporary culture was intolerant of 'natural magic,' and furthermore, it was prudent to minmize the risk of domestic persecution and threats from Continental armies and the European and Spanish Inquisitions.

  10. Mapping the Technological Capabilities of Ethiopian-owned Firms in the Apparel Global Value Chain

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Staritz, Cornelia

    firms and their positions within the apparel global value chain, as well as how they have fared and which challenges they continue to face. Generally, the 14 local exporting firms have low technological capabilities and struggle to meet export requirements, despite important diversity among them...... exporting apparel or made-up textiles. To export, local firms have to be able to deliver consistently products at a certain price and quality and to meet delivery deadlines, which require developing new technological capabilities. This paper analyses the level of capabilities among Ethiopian-owned exporting......, quality and delivery standards of export markets. Therefore, most local firms use the domestic market as a means to subsidize the cost of learning to compete, but they also use what they learn through exporting in terms of productivity, quality and design for their domestic market business....

  11. Perfect simulation of Hawkes processes

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    This article concerns a perfect simulation algorithm for unmarked and marked Hawkes processes. The usual stratihtforward simulation algorithm suffers from edge effects, whereas our perfect simulation algorithm does not. By viewing Hawkes processes as Poisson cluster processes and using...... their branching and conditional independence structure, useful approximations of the distribution function for the length of a cluster are derived. This is used to construct upper and lower processes for the perfect simulation algorithm. Examples of applications and empirical results are presented....

  12. Vacuum polarization and Hawking radiation

    Rahmati, Shohreh

    Quantum gravity is one of the interesting fields in contemporary physics which is still in progress. The purpose of quantum gravity is to present a quantum description for spacetime at 10-33cm or find the 'quanta' of gravitational interaction.. At present, the most viable theory to describe gravitational interaction is general relativity which is a classical theory. Semi-classical quantum gravity or quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an approximation to a full quantum theory of gravity. This approximation considers gravity as a classical field and matter fields are quantized. One interesting phenomena in semi-classical quantum gravity is Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation was derived by Stephen Hawking as a thermal emission of particles from the black hole horizon. In this thesis we obtain the spectrum of Hawking radiation using a new method. Vacuum is defined as the possible lowest energy state which is filled with pairs of virtual particle-antiparticle. Vacuum polarization is a consequence of pair creation in the presence of an external field such as an electromagnetic or gravitational field. Vacuum polarization in the vicinity of a black hole horizon can be interpreted as the cause of the emission from black holes known as Hawking radiation. In this thesis we try to obtain the Hawking spectrum using this approach. We re-examine vacuum polarization of a scalar field in a quasi-local volume that includes the horizon. We study the interaction of a scalar field with the background gravitational field of the black hole in the desired quasi-local region. The quasi-local volume is a hollow cylinder enclosed by two membranes, one inside the horizon and one outside the horizon. The net rate of particle emission can be obtained as the difference of the vacuum polarization from the outer boundary and inner boundary of the cylinder. Thus we found a new method to derive Hawking emission which is unitary and well defined in quantum field theory.

  13. National innovation system capabilities among leader and follower countries: Widening gaps or global convergence?

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    The concept of technological catch-up, as it refers to a situation where some less developed countries have been able to catch up to the world leaders in terms of innovation, has inspired an abundant amount of scholarly attention. However, studies comprehensively focusing on factors considered...... are widening. Still, whereas on a global scale convergence is far from being the reality, the analysis was able to indicate a group of countries that have been able to catch-up to the “best in class” countries. Accordingly, there seems to be a clear association between NIS capabilities and the levels...

  14. Thermality of the Hawking flux

    Visser, Matt [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Operations Research,Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

    2015-07-03

    Is the Hawking flux “thermal”? Unfortunately, the answer to this seemingly innocent question depends on a number of often unstated, but quite crucial, technical assumptions built into modern (mis-)interpretations of the word “thermal”. The original 1850’s notions of thermality — based on classical thermodynamic reasoning applied to idealized “black bodies” or “lamp black surfaces” — when supplemented by specific basic quantum ideas from the early 1900’s, immediately led to the notion of the black-body spectrum, (the Planck-shaped spectrum), but without any specific assumptions or conclusions regarding correlations between the quanta. Many (not all) modern authors (often implicitly and unintentionally) add an extra, quite unnecessary, assumption that there are no correlations in the black-body radiation; but such usage is profoundly ahistorical and dangerously misleading. Specifically, the Hawking flux from an evaporating black hole, (just like the radiation flux from a leaky furnace or a burning lump of coal), is only approximately Planck-shaped over an explicitly bounded range of frequencies. Standard physics (phase space and adiabaticity effects) explicitly bound the frequency range over which the Hawking flux is approximately Planck-shaped from both above and below — the Hawking flux is certainly not exactly Planckian, and there is no compelling physics reason to assume the Hawking photons are uncorrelated.

  15. Thermality of the Hawking flux

    Visser, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Is the Hawking flux “thermal”? Unfortunately, the answer to this seemingly innocent question depends on a number of often unstated, but quite crucial, technical assumptions built into modern (mis-)interpretations of the word “thermal”. The original 1850’s notions of thermality — based on classical thermodynamic reasoning applied to idealized “black bodies” or “lamp black surfaces” — when supplemented by specific basic quantum ideas from the early 1900’s, immediately led to the notion of the black-body spectrum, (the Planck-shaped spectrum), but without any specific assumptions or conclusions regarding correlations between the quanta. Many (not all) modern authors (often implicitly and unintentionally) add an extra, quite unnecessary, assumption that there are no correlations in the black-body radiation; but such usage is profoundly ahistorical and dangerously misleading. Specifically, the Hawking flux from an evaporating black hole, (just like the radiation flux from a leaky furnace or a burning lump of coal), is only approximately Planck-shaped over an explicitly bounded range of frequencies. Standard physics (phase space and adiabaticity effects) explicitly bound the frequency range over which the Hawking flux is approximately Planck-shaped from both above and below — the Hawking flux is certainly not exactly Planckian, and there is no compelling physics reason to assume the Hawking photons are uncorrelated.

  16. Towards a Global Hub and a Network for Collaborative Advancing of Space Weather Predictive Capabilities.

    Kuznetsova, M. M.; Heynderickz, D.; Grande, M.; Opgenoorth, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    The COSPAR/ILWS roadmap on space weather published in 2015 (Advances in Space Research, 2015: DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2015.03.023) prioritizes steps to be taken to advance understanding of space environment phenomena and to improve space weather forecasting capabilities. General recommendations include development of a comprehensive space environment specification, assessment of the state of the field on a 5-yr basis, standardization of meta-data and product metrics. To facilitate progress towards roadmap goals there is a need for a global hub for collaborative space weather capabilities assessment and development that brings together research, engineering, operational, educational, and end-user communities. The COSPAR Panel on Space Weather is aiming to build upon past progress and to facilitate coordination of established and new international space weather research and development initiatives. Keys to the success include creating flexible, collaborative, inclusive environment and engaging motivated groups and individuals committed to active participation in international multi-disciplinary teams focused on topics addressing emerging needs and challenges in the rapidly growing field of space weather. Near term focus includes comprehensive assessment of the state of the field and establishing an internationally recognized process to quantify and track progress over time, development of a global network of distributed web-based resources and interconnected interactive services required for space weather research, analysis, forecasting and education.

  17. Stephen Hawking: To Understand the Universe

    Hartle, James B.

    2018-01-01

    A brief remembrance of some aspects of the author's scientific interaction with Stephen Hawking contributed to Physics Today's March 14, 2018 article in which Stephen Hawking is remembered by his colleagues.

  18. Stephen Hawking: An Unfettered Mind

    Ferguson, Kitty

    2012-02-23

    Kitty Ferguson, biographer of physicist Stephen Hawking, will give an informal, nontechnical talk about the experience of writing her two books about the celebrated cosmologist and also of helping Hawking edit his own “The Universe in a Nutshell”. Hawking thinks and works somewhat differently from others because he must work almost entirely in his head, and he has a practice of pulling the rug out from under his own discoveries and assertions. As he has approached his recent 70th birthday, he has devoted an increasing amount of his time in efforts to share his science and particularly the adventure of it with people without a science background and young people who may be scientists of the future. Ferguson will discuss Hawking’s place in the science community (he is not and has never claimed to be on par with Einstein), the unique contributions he is able to make, and what his legacy might be.

  19. Second order analysis for spatial Hawkes processes

    Møller, Jesper; Torrisi, Giovanni Luca

    We derive summary statistics for stationary Hawkes processes which can be considered as spatial versions of classical Hawkes processes. Particularly, we derive the intensity, the pair correlation function and the Bartlett spectrum. Our results for Gaussian fertility rates and the extension...... to marked Hawkes processes are discussed....

  20. Perfect simulation of Hawkes processes

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2005-01-01

    Our objective is to construct a perfect simulation algorithm for unmarked and marked Hawkes processes. The usual straightforward simulation algorithm suffers from edge effects, whereas our perfect simulation algorithm does not. By viewing Hawkes processes as Poisson cluster processes and using...... their branching and conditional independence structures, useful approximations of the distribution function for the length of a cluster are derived. This is used to construct upper and lower processes for the perfect simulation algorithm. A tail-lightness condition turns out to be of importance...... for the applicability of the perfect simulation algorithm. Examples of applications and empirical results are presented....

  1. Concentrator photovoltaic module architectures with capabilities for capture and conversion of full global solar radiation

    Lee, Kyu Tae

    2016-12-06

    Emerging classes ofconcentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules reach efficiencies that are far greater than those of even the highest performance flat-plate PV technologies, with architectures that have the potential to provide the lowest cost of energy in locations with high direct normal irradiance (DNI). A disadvantage is their inability to effectively use diffuse sunlight, thereby constraining widespread geographic deployment and limiting performance even under the most favorable DNI conditions. This study introduces a module design that integrates capabilities in flat-plate PV directly with the most sophisticated CPV technologies, for capture of both direct and diffuse sunlight, thereby achieving efficiency in PV conversion of the global solar radiation. Specific examples of this scheme exploit commodity silicon (Si) cells integrated with two different CPV module designs, where they capture light that is not efficiently directed by the concentrator optics onto large-scale arrays of miniature multijunction (MJ) solar cells that use advanced III-V semiconductor technologies. In this CPV scheme (

  2. Concentrator photovoltaic module architectures with capabilities for capture and conversion of full global solar radiation

    Lee, Kyu Tae; Yao, Yuan; He, Junwen; Fisher, Brent; Sheng, Xing; Lumb, Matthew; Xu, Lu; Anderson, Mikayla A.; Scheiman, David; Han, Seungyong; Kang, Yongseon; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Lee, Jung Woo; Paik, Ungyu; Bronstein, Noah D.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Meitl, Matthew; Burroughs, Scott; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Lee, Jeong Chul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging classes ofconcentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules reach efficiencies that are far greater than those of even the highest performance flat-plate PV technologies, with architectures that have the potential to provide the lowest cost of energy in locations with high direct normal irradiance (DNI). A disadvantage is their inability to effectively use diffuse sunlight, thereby constraining widespread geographic deployment and limiting performance even under the most favorable DNI conditions. This study introduces a module design that integrates capabilities in flat-plate PV directly with the most sophisticated CPV technologies, for capture of both direct and diffuse sunlight, thereby achieving efficiency in PV conversion of the global solar radiation. Specific examples of this scheme exploit commodity silicon (Si) cells integrated with two different CPV module designs, where they capture light that is not efficiently directed by the concentrator optics onto large-scale arrays of miniature multijunction (MJ) solar cells that use advanced III-V semiconductor technologies. In this CPV scheme (

  3. Stephen Hawking's Universe. Teacher's Guide.

    Thompson, Malcolm H.; Rameau, Jonathan D.

    This program guide is meant to help teachers assist their students in viewing the six-part public television series, "Stephen Hawking's Universe." The guide features program summaries that give background information and brief synopses of the programs; previewing activities that familiarize students with the subject; vocabulary that…

  4. Approximate simulation of Hawkes processes

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    This article concerns a simulation algorithm for unmarked and marked Hawkes processes. The algorithm suffers from edge effects but is much faster than the perfect simulation algorithm introduced in our previous work. We derive various useful measures for the error committed when using the algorithm......, and we discuss various empirical results for the algorithm compared with perfect simulations....

  5. Hawking Colloquium Packed CERN Auditoriums

    2006-01-01

    Stephen Hawking's week long visit to CERN included an 'exceptional CERN colloquium' which filled six auditoriums. Stephen Hawking during his visit to the ATLAS experiment. Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Cambridge University, visited the Theory Unit of the Physics Department from 24 September to 1 October 2006. As part of his visit, he gave two lectures in the main auditorium - a theoretical seminar on 'The Semi-Classical Birth of The Universe', attended by about 120 specialists; and a colloquium titled 'The Origin of The Universe'. As a key public figure in theoretical physics, his presence was eagerly awaited on both occasions. Those who wanted to attend the colloquium had to arrive early and be equipped with plenty of patience. An hour before it was due to begin, the 400 capacity of the main auditorium was already full. The lecture, simultaneously broadcast to five other fully packed CERN auditoriums, was attended by an estimated total of 850. Stephen Hawking attracted a large CERN crowd, filling ...

  6. Capabilities of the NASA/IPAC extragalactic database in the era of a global virtual observatory

    Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Madore, Barry F.; Helou, George

    2001-11-01

    We review the capabilities of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED, http://ned.ipac.caltech.edu) for information retrieval and knowledge discovery in the context of a globally distributed virtual observatory. Since it's inception in 1990, NED has provided astronomers world-wide with the results of a systematic cross-correlation of catalogs covering all wavelengths, along with thousands of extragalactic observations culled from published journal articles. NED is continuously being expanded and revised to include new catalogs and published observations, each undergoing a process of cross-identification to capture the current state of knowledge about extragalactic sources in a panchromatic fashion. In addition to assimilating data from the literature, the team in incrementally folding in millions of observations from new large-scale sky surveys such as 2MASS, NVSS, APM, and SDSS. At the time of writing the system contains over 3.3 million unique objects with 4.2 million cross-identifications. We summarize the recent evolution of NED from its initial emphasis on object name-, position-, and literature-based queries into a research environment that also assists statistical data exploration and discovery using large samples of objects. Newer capabilities enable intelligent Web mining of entries in geographically distributed astronomical archives that are indexed by object names and positions in NED, sample building using constraints on redshifts, object types and other parameters, as well as image and spectral archives for targeted or serendipitous discoveries. A pilot study demonstrates how NED is being used in conjunction with linked survey archives to characterize the properties of galaxy classes to form a training set for machine learning algorithms; an initial goal is production of statistical likelihoods that newly discovered sources belong to known classes, represent statistical outliers, or candidates for fundamentally new types of objects. Challenges and

  7. Capabilities for Innovation in a Globalizing World: from Nearby or at a Distance?

    Martin GJELSVIK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This  paper  addresses  the  question  of  how  clustering  affects  firms’ capabilities to innovate. This paper uses a specifically tailored survey carried out in 2013 of the geographical distance and scope of collaboration for innovation of 2002 firms located in the four largest Norwegian city-regions with the rest of the country as a separate category. We find that a majority of firms are located in regional clusters. However, the  number  of  international  relations  increases  the  capacity  to  innovate.  An international  business  environment  stimulates  the  capability  to  innovate  more  than being part of a regional cluster. Firms that successfully develop global pipelines to knowledge  sources  in  distant  locations  often  sidestep the  risk  of  lock-in,  associated with relying solely on local sources of information (Malecki, 2010; Fitjar & RodríguezPose, 2011. Our  findings  suggest  that  caution  should  be  exercised when  invoking  the  concept  of  regional  clusters  to  explain  or  define  regional competitiveness.  The  cluster  model  obviously  assigns too  much  importance  to  the regional  business  context,  and  to  local  interaction  and externalities.  These  findings suggest that policies to advance the capabilities to  innovate in Norwegian firms and regions may need to be revised.

  8. Approximate simulation of Hawkes processes

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2006-01-01

    Hawkes processes are important in point process theory and its applications, and simulation of such processes are often needed for various statistical purposes. This article concerns a simulation algorithm for unmarked and marked Hawkes processes, exploiting that the process can be constructed...... as a Poisson cluster process. The algorithm suffers from edge effects but is much faster than the perfect simulation algorithm introduced in our previous work Møller and Rasmussen (2004). We derive various useful measures for the error committed when using the algorithm, and we discuss various empirical...... results for the algorithm compared with perfect simulations. Extensions of the algorithm and the results to more general types of marked point processes are also discussed....

  9. HAWKING'S Theory of Quantum Cosmology

    Zhi, Fang Li; Chao, Wu Zhong

    The most important problem in cosmology is the birth of the universe. Recently Hartle and Hawking put forward a ground state proposal for the quantum state of the universe which incorporates the idea that the universe must come from nothing. Many models have been discussed in quantum cosmology with this boundary condition. It has been shown that every model is a step towards to a realistic universe, i.e. a 4-dimensional isotropic universe with a long inflationary stage.

  10. Stephen Hawking returns to CERN

    2009-01-01

    Stephen Hawking visiting the CERN Control Centre.If you happened to pass through Building 4 during the first weeks of September, you might have noticed the name of Stephen Hawking on one of the doors on the second floor, which hosts most of CERN theorists’ offices. Three years after his last visit to CERN, Stephen Hawking gladly accepted the invitation from the University of Geneva to hold a public lecture on the occasion of its 450th anniversary and requested an office at CERN for the length of his stay. The "master of the Universe", as the Geneva University journal dubbed him, attracted over 4000 people to his lecture on "The Creation of the Universe" held on 15 September in the Main Auditorium of Uni Dufour. His more technical colloquium on the same subject at CERN a week earlier, was no less popular and quite "provocative" according to some of the physicists in the audience. With his repeated reference to the "non-need" for a "creating agent" for the Universe, mo...

  11. The temperature in Hawking radiation as tunneling

    Zhang Baocheng; Cai Qingyu; Zhan Mingsheng

    2009-01-01

    The quasi-classical method of deriving Hawking radiation under the consideration of canonical invariance is investigated. We find that the horizon should be regarded as a two-way barrier and the ingoing amplitude should be calculated according to the negative energy particles tunneling into the black hole because of the whole space-time interchange and thus the standard Hawking temperature is recovered. We also discuss the advantage of the Painleve coordinates in Hawking radiation as tunneling

  12. Concentrator photovoltaic module architectures with capabilities for capture and conversion of full global solar radiation

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Yao, Yuan; He, Junwen; Fisher, Brent; Sheng, Xing; Lumb, Matthew; Xu, Lu; Anderson, Mikayla A.; Scheiman, David; Han, Seungyong; Kang, Yongseon; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Lee, Jung Woo; Paik, Ungyu; Bronstein, Noah D.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Meitl, Matthew; Burroughs, Scott; Mustafa Hussain, Muhammad; Lee, Jeong Chul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.

    2016-12-01

    Emerging classes of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules reach efficiencies that are far greater than those of even the highest performance flat-plate PV technologies, with architectures that have the potential to provide the lowest cost of energy in locations with high direct normal irradiance (DNI). A disadvantage is their inability to effectively use diffuse sunlight, thereby constraining widespread geographic deployment and limiting performance even under the most favorable DNI conditions. This study introduces a module design that integrates capabilities in flat-plate PV directly with the most sophisticated CPV technologies, for capture of both direct and diffuse sunlight, thereby achieving efficiency in PV conversion of the global solar radiation. Specific examples of this scheme exploit commodity silicon (Si) cells integrated with two different CPV module designs, where they capture light that is not efficiently directed by the concentrator optics onto large-scale arrays of miniature multijunction (MJ) solar cells that use advanced III-V semiconductor technologies. In this CPV+ scheme (“+” denotes the addition of diffuse collector), the Si and MJ cells operate independently on indirect and direct solar radiation, respectively. On-sun experimental studies of CPV+ modules at latitudes of 35.9886° N (Durham, NC), 40.1125° N (Bondville, IL), and 38.9072° N (Washington, DC) show improvements in absolute module efficiencies of between 1.02% and 8.45% over values obtained using otherwise similar CPV modules, depending on weather conditions. These concepts have the potential to expand the geographic reach and improve the cost-effectiveness of the highest efficiency forms of PV power generation.

  13. Global Hawk Systems Engineering. Case Study

    2010-01-01

    Management Core System ( TBMCS ) (complex software development) • F-111 Fighter (joint program with significant involvement by the Office of the...Software Requirements Specification TACC Tailored Airworthiness Certification Criteria TBMCS Theater Battle Management Core System TEMP Test and

  14. Building the foundations for sustainable development: a case for global investment in the capabilities of adolescents.

    Sheehan, Peter; Sweeny, Kim; Rasmussen, Bruce; Wils, Annababette; Friedman, Howard S; Mahon, Jacqueline; Patton, George C; Sawyer, Susan M; Howard, Eric; Symons, John; Stenberg, Karin; Chalasani, Satvika; Maharaj, Neelam; Reavley, Nicola; Shi, Hui; Fridman, Masha; Welsh, Alison; Nsofor, Emeka; Laski, Laura

    2017-10-14

    Investment in the capabilities of the world's 1·2 billion adolescents is vital to the UN's Sustainable Development Agenda. We examined investments in countries of low income, lower-middle income, and upper-middle income covering the majority of these adolescents globally to derive estimates of investment returns given existing knowledge. The costs and effects of the interventions were estimated by adapting existing models and by extending methods to create new modelling tools. Benefits were valued in terms of increased gross domestic product and averted social costs. The initial analysis showed high returns for the modelled interventions, with substantial variation between countries and with returns generally higher in low-income countries than in countries of lower-middle and upper-middle income. For interventions targeting physical, mental, and sexual health (including a human papilloma virus programme), an investment of US$4·6 per capita each year from 2015 to 2030 had an unweighted mean benefit to cost ratio (BCR) of more than 10·0, whereas, for interventions targeting road traffic injuries, a BCR of 5·9 (95% CI 5·8-6·0) was achieved on investment of $0·6 per capita each year. Interventions to reduce child marriage ($3·8 per capita each year) had a mean BCR of 5·7 (95% CI 5·3-6·1), with the effect high in low-income countries. Investment to increase the extent and quality of secondary schooling is vital but will be more expensive than other interventions-investment of $22·6 per capita each year from 2015 to 2030 generated a mean BCR of 11·8 (95% CI 11·6-12·0). Investments in health and education will not only transform the lives of adolescents in resource-poor settings, but will also generate high economic and social returns. These returns were robust to substantial variation in assumptions. Although the knowledge base on the impacts of interventions is limited in many areas, and a major research effort is needed to build a more complete

  15. Hawking radiation of black rings from anomalies

    Chen Bin; He Wei

    2008-01-01

    We derive Hawking radiation of five-dimensional black rings from gauge and gravitational anomalies using the method proposed by Robinson and Wilczek. We find, as in the black hole case, that the problem could reduce to a (1+1)-dimensional field theory and the anomalies result in correct Hawking temperature for neutral, dipole and charged black rings

  16. Hawk: A Runtime System for Partitioned Objects

    Ben Hassen, S.; Bal, H.E.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Hawk is a language-independent runtime system for writing data-parallel programs using partitioned objects. A partitioned object is a multidimensional array of elements that can be partitioned and distributed by the programmer. The Hawk runtime system uses the user-defined partitioning of objects

  17. Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus)

    Scott H. Stoleson; Giancarlo Sadoti

    2010-01-01

    The Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus) might well be dubbed "the Great Pretender" because it so closely resembles the ubiquitous Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) in appearance and behavior as to be frequently mistaken for it. In the border regions where it lives, it may be confused as well with another "Mexican" raptor, the Common Black-Hawk (...

  18. Conference | From Newton to Hawking and beyond | 28 May

    2013-01-01

    From Newton to Hawking and beyond: Why disability equality is relevant to the world of particle physics, Dr Tom Shakespeare.    Tuesday, 28 May 2013 - 11.30 am - 1 pm Main Auditorium – Room 500-1-001 Conference organised by the CERN Diversity Programme English with French interpretation According to the recent world report on disability, 15% of the world’s population is disabled.  Among that group could be numbered famous physicists such as Isaac Newton and Paul Dirac, neither of whom could be classed as “neuro-typical”, and Stephen Hawking.  This presentation will provide some basic data about global disability, and the socially imposed barriers which disabled people face.  It will also include some stories about high achieving people with disabilities.  Finally, some practical suggestions will be offered on how to respect and include people with disabilities in the workplace. Tom Shakespeare is a social sci...

  19. Hawking into Unruh mapping for embeddings of hyperbolic type

    Paston, S A

    2015-01-01

    We study the conditions of the existence of Hawking into Unruh mapping for hyperbolic (Fronsdal-type) metric embeddings into the Minkowski space, for which timelines are hyperbolas. Many examples are known for global embeddings into the Minkowskian spacetime (GEMS), with such mapping for physically interesting metrics with some symmetry. However, examples of embeddings, both smooth and hyperbolic, for which there is no mapping, were also given. In the present work we prove that Hawking into Unruh mapping takes place for a hyperbolic embedding of an arbitrary metric with a time-like Killing vector and a Killing horizon if the embedding of such type exists and smoothly covers the horizon. At the same time, we do not assume any symmetry (spherical, for example), except the time translational invariance, which corresponds to the existence of a time-like Killing vector. We show that the known examples of the absence of mapping do not satisfy the formulated conditions of its existence. (paper)

  20. Globalization of R&D: Leveraging Offshoring for Innovative Capability and Organizational Flexibility

    D. Moitra (Deependra)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWithin the realm of globalization of R&D, offshoring is a relatively recent and still emerging phenomenon. Rooted in the notion of comparative advantage, offshoring of R&D involves disaggregation and global distribution of the firm’s R&D value chain activities to leverage innovation

  1. Global Vigilance, Reach, and Power? Made Possible only with a Robust Tanker Capability

    Uyehata, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    ...). Therefore, the CCs should place aerial refueling capability and the recapitalization of the multiple tanker fleets at the top of their integrated priority lists and should also take sufficient...

  2. The pair correlation function of spatial Hawkes processes

    Møller, Jesper; Torrisi, Giovanni Luca

    2007-01-01

    Spatial Hawkes processes can be considered as spatial versions of classical Hawkes processes. We derive the pair correlation function of stationary spatial Hawkes processes and discuss the connection to the Bartlett spectrum and other summary statistics. Particularly, results for Gaussian fertility...... rates and the extension to spatial Hawkes processes with random fertility rates are discussed....

  3. Global Security Scan for Canadian Science Capabilities (2015-2020): Report of Proceedings

    2008-03-01

    Capability About the NCIT • Managed $80M of collaborative research since 2000 • Telecom & eCommerce – Identity theft – Network and data...nations • Environmentalists • Anti-globalists, rural interests • Disaffected youth • Xenophobic reactionaries • Increased militancy of imported

  4. Deformation of contour and Hawking temperature

    Ding Chikun; Jing Jiliang

    2010-01-01

    It was found that, in an isotropic coordinate system, the tunneling approach brings a factor of 1/2 for the Hawking temperature of a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper, we address this kind of problem by studying the relation between the Hawking temperature and the deformation of the integral contour for the scalar and Dirac particles tunneling. We find that the correct Hawking temperature can be obtained exactly as long as the integral contour deformed corresponding to the radial coordinate transform if the transformation is a non-regular or zero function at the event horizon.

  5. Canonising the Hartle-Hawking proposal

    Louko, J.

    1988-01-01

    The canonical formulation of the Hartle-Hawking proposal is discussed in a class of spatially homogeneous minisuperspace models. Relying on arguments of consistency with the classical variational principle, we find a set of canonical variables in which the Hartle-Hawking boundary condition is abtained by fixing in the path integral the final values of the canonical coordinates but the initial values of the canonical momenta. A canonical measure of this kind offers a natural starting point for skeletonising the minisuperspace Hartle-Hawking path integral. (orig.)

  6. Generalized Bekenstein-Hawking system: logarithmic correction

    Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2014-01-01

    The present work is a generalization of the recent work [arXiv.1206.1420] on the modified Hawking temperature on the event horizon. Here the Hawking temperature is generalized by multiplying the modified Hawking temperature by a variable parameter α representing the ratio of the growth rate of the apparent horizon to that of event horizon. It is found that both the first and the generalized second law of thermodynamics are valid on the event horizon for any fluid distribution. Subsequently, the Bekenstein entropy is modified on the event horizon and the thermodynamical laws are examined. Finally, an interpretation of the parameters involved is presented. (orig.)

  7. Entropy Budget for Hawking Evaporation

    Ana Alonso-Serrano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackbody radiation, emitted from a furnace and described by a Planck spectrum, contains (on average an entropy of 3 . 9 ± 2 . 5 bits per photon. Since normal physical burning is a unitary process, this amount of entropy is compensated by the same amount of “hidden information” in correlations between the photons. The importance of this result lies in the posterior extension of this argument to the Hawking radiation from black holes, demonstrating that the assumption of unitarity leads to a perfectly reasonable entropy/information budget for the evaporation process. In order to carry out this calculation, we adopt a variant of the “average subsystem” approach, but consider a tripartite pure system that includes the influence of the rest of the universe, and which allows “young” black holes to still have a non-zero entropy; which we identify with the standard Bekenstein entropy.

  8. Cultivating humanity? : Education and capabilities for a global ‘great transition’

    D.R. Gasper (Des); S. George (Shanti)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractVarious studies suggest that major changes are required in predominant human values during the next two generations, to ensure politically and environmentally sustainable societies and a sustainable global order: away from consumerism to a focus on quality of life; away from a certain

  9. Building human resources capability in health care: a global analysis of best practice--Part III.

    Zairi, M

    1998-01-01

    This is the last part of a series of three papers which discussed very comprehensively best practice applications in human resource management by drawing special inferences to the healthcare context. It emerged from parts I and II that high performing organisations plan and intend to build sustainable capability through a systematic consideration of the human element as the key asset and through a continuous process of training, developing, empowering and engaging people in all aspects of organisational excellence. Part III brings this debate to a close by demonstrating what brings about organisational excellence and proposes a road map for effective human resource development and management, based on world class standards. Healthcare human resource professionals can now rise to the challenge and plan ahead for building organisational capability and sustainable performance.

  10. UH-60M Black Hawk Helicopter (UH-60M Black Hawk)

    2016-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-341 UH-60M Black Hawk Helicopter (UH-60M Black Hawk ) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 21, 2016 18:25:45 UNCLASSIFIED UH-60M Black Hawk December 2015 SAR March 21, 2016 18...Operational Requirements Document OSD - Office of the Secretary of Defense O&S - Operating and Support PAUC - Program Acquisition Unit Cost UH-60M Black Hawk

  11. The Global Detection Capability of the IMS Seismic Network in 2013 Inferred from Ambient Seismic Noise Measurements

    Gaebler, P. J.; Ceranna, L.

    2016-12-01

    All nuclear explosions - on the Earth's surface, underground, underwater or in the atmosphere - are banned by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). As part of this treaty, a verification regime was put into place to detect, locate and characterize nuclear explosion testings at any time, by anyone and everywhere on the Earth. The International Monitoring System (IMS) plays a key role in the verification regime of the CTBT. Out of the different monitoring techniques used in the IMS, the seismic waveform approach is the most effective technology for monitoring nuclear underground testing and to identify and characterize potential nuclear events. This study introduces a method of seismic threshold monitoring to assess an upper magnitude limit of a potential seismic event in a certain given geographical region. The method is based on ambient seismic background noise measurements at the individual IMS seismic stations as well as on global distance correction terms for body wave magnitudes, which are calculated using the seismic reflectivity method. From our investigations we conclude that a global detection threshold of around mb 4.0 can be achieved using only stations from the primary seismic network, a clear latitudinal dependence for the detection thresholdcan be observed between northern and southern hemisphere. Including the seismic stations being part of the auxiliary seismic IMS network results in a slight improvement of global detection capability. However, including wave arrivals from distances greater than 120 degrees, mainly PKP-wave arrivals, leads to a significant improvement in average global detection capability. In special this leads to an improvement of the detection threshold on the southern hemisphere. We further investigate the dependence of the detection capability on spatial (latitude and longitude) and temporal (time) parameters, as well as on parameters such as source type and percentage of operational IMS stations.

  12. Hawking's Israel boycott sparks heated response

    Dacey, James

    2013-06-01

    The controversial decision by Stephen Hawking to boycott a prominent conference in Jerusalem in protest against the policies of the Israeli government has provoked strong responses from academics and commentators.

  13. On the stringy Hartle-Hawking state

    Ben-Israel, Roy; Giveon, Amit; Itzhaki, Nissan; Liram, Lior

    2016-03-01

    We argue that non-perturbative α' stringy effects render the Hartle-Hawking state associated with the SL(2)/U(1) eternal black hole singular at the horizon. We discuss implications of this observation on firewalls in string theory.

  14. Hawking radiation from quasilocal dynamical horizons

    2016-01-06

    Jan 6, 2016 ... Abstract. In completely local settings, we establish that a dynamically evolving spherically symmetric black hole horizon can be assigned a Hawking temperature and with the emission of flux, radius of the horizon shrinks.

  15. 'Splendeurs et miseres' of Hawking's effect

    Hajicek, P [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with the emission of particles from a black hole, in particular Hawking's effect. Quantum field theory is applied in curved space-time. Spherically symmetrical gravitational collapse is considered.

  16. Global Strategy Implementation at the Business Unit Level: Operational Capabilities and Administrative Mechanisms

    Kendall Roth; David M Schweiger; Allen J Morrison

    1991-01-01

    The study examines the impact of internationally strategy on organizational design and the influence of the organizational design on effectiveness at the business unit level. The empirical findings are based on survey responses from eighty-two business units competing in global industries. The findings are supportive of the contingency notion which suggests that business unit effectiveness is a function of the fit between the international strategy and the organizational design.© 1991 JIBS. J...

  17. Software Assessment of the Global Force Management (GFM) Search Capability Study

    2017-02-01

    MOS Capability Vector Work 3 3.3 Schema and Database Work Breakdown 4 3.3.1 Overall Generation 4 3.3.2 Algorithm Descriptions 5 3.3.3 Java API...battalion for example) and makes sure the results have a known name (not ‘%NKN’). 3.3.3 Java API Description Generation API call: GenerateAll.run...Database Login Username databaseUsername=root #Database Login Password databasePassword= mysql #Application Database Name appDatabaseName=Simple_GFM

  18. Capabilities for Innovation in a Globalizing World: from Nearby or at a Distance?

    Martin GJELSVIK

    2014-01-01

    This  paper  addresses  the  question  of  how  clustering  affects  firms’ capabilities to innovate. This paper uses a specifically tailored survey carried out in 2013 of the geographical distance and scope of collaboration for innovation of 2002 firms located in the four largest Norwegian city-regions with the rest of the country as a separate category. We find that a majority of firms are located in regional clusters. However, the  number  of  international  relations  ...

  19. Ferruginous hawks on the Yakima Training Center

    Mazaika, R.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1994-07-01

    Habitat quality for ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) is largely determined by availability of nest sites and adequate prey base. A limitation of one of these will limit the number of hawks in an area. In general, ferruginous hawks are adaptable to various nesting substrates and will nest in proximity to other closely related sympatric species (e.g., red-tailed hawk, Swainson`s hawk). This analysis focused on an assessment of prey base availability and habitat disturbance in the vicinity of historic nest sites and small mammal trap sites on the Yakima Training Center (YTC) in Washington State. The primary ground-disturbing activities on the YTC are associated with military training, fire, and grazing. In addition to the direct effect these activities can have on ferruginous hawks, indirect effects may result from changes in composition, density, and structure of vegetation that subsequently alter faunal population numbers and species diversity. A summary of results of small mammal trapping, population estimation, vegetative analysis and disturbance rating at seven trap sites during the time period of June through August of 1993 are presented.

  20. Toward Global Drought Early Warning Capability - Expanding International Cooperation for the Development of a Framework for Monitoring and Forecasting

    Pozzi, Will; Sheffield, Justin; Stefanski, Robert; Cripe, Douglas; Pulwarty, Roger; Vogt, Jurgen V.; Heim, Richard R., Jr.; Brewer, Michael J.; Svoboda, Mark; Westerhoff, Rogier; hide

    2013-01-01

    Drought has had a significant impact on civilization throughout history in terms of reductions in agricultural productivity, potable water supply, and economic activity, and in extreme cases this has led to famine. Every continent has semiarid areas, which are especially vulnerable to drought. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has noted that average annual river runoff and water availability are projected to decrease by 10 percent-13 percent over some dry and semiarid regions in mid and low latitudes, increasing the frequency, intensity, and duration of drought, along with its associated impacts. The sheer magnitude of the problem demands efforts to reduce vulnerability to drought by moving away from the reactive, crisis management approach of the past toward a more proactive, risk management approach that is centered on reducing vulnerability to drought as much as possible while providing early warning of evolving drought conditions and possible impacts. Many countries, unfortunately, do not have adequate resources to provide early warning, but require outside support to provide the necessary early warning information for risk management. Furthermore, in an interconnected world, the need for information on a global scale is crucial for understanding the prospect of declines in agricultural productivity and associated impacts on food prices, food security, and potential for civil conflict. This paper highlights the recent progress made toward a Global Drought Early Warning Monitoring Framework (GDEWF), an underlying partnership and framework, along with its Global Drought Early Warning System (GDEWS), which is its interoperable information system, and the organizations that have begun working together to make it a reality. The GDEWF aims to improve existing regional and national drought monitoring and forecasting capabilities by adding a global component, facilitating continental monitoring and forecasting (where lacking), and improving these tools at

  1. Red-tailed Hawk movements and use of habitat in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico

    Vilella, Francisco; Nimitz, Wyatt F.

    2012-01-01

    The Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) is a top predator of upland ecosystems in the Greater Antilles. Little information exists on the ecology of the insular forms of this widely distributed species. We studied movements and resource use of the Red-tailed Hawk from 2000 to 2002 in the montane forests of northeastern Puerto Rico. We captured 32 and used 21 radio-marked Red-tailed Hawks to delineate home range, core area shifts, and macrohabitat use in the Luquillo Mountains. Red-tailed Hawks in the Luquillo Mountains frequently perched near the top of canopy emergent trees and were characterized by wide-ranging capabilities and extensive spatial overlap. Home range size averaged 5,022.6 6 832.1 ha (305–11,288 ha) and core areas averaged 564.8 6 90.7 ha (150–1,230 ha). This species had large mean weekly movements (3,286.2 6 348.5 m) and a preference for roadside habitats. Our findings suggest fragmentation of contiguous forest outside protected areas in Puerto Rico may benefit the Red-tailed Hawk

  2. Thermodynamics and Hawking radiation of five-dimensional rotating charged Goedel black holes

    Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin

    2011-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of Goedel-type rotating charged black holes in five-dimensional minimal supergravity. These black holes exhibit some peculiar features such as the presence of closed timelike curves and the absence of a globally spatial-like Cauchy surface. We explicitly compute their energies, angular momenta, and electric charges that are consistent with the first law of thermodynamics. Besides, we extend the covariant anomaly cancellation method, as well as the approach of the effective action, to derive their Hawking fluxes. Both the methods of the anomaly cancellation and the effective action give the same Hawking fluxes as those from the Planck distribution for blackbody radiation in the background of the charged rotating Goedel black holes. Our results further support that Hawking radiation is a quantum phenomenon arising at the event horizon.

  3. Breeding ecology of ferruginous hawks, Swainson’s hawks, and northern harriers in south-central North Dakota : Proposal

    Department of the Interior — Project proposal for research survey to document the breeding ecology of ferruginous hawks, Swainson’s hawk, and northern harrier in Kulm Wetland Management District...

  4. Evidence of hawking (falconry) from bird and mammal bones

    Prummel, W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the archaeozoological and archaeological evidence for hawking, or falconry. The methods and history of hawking in Europe are described, after which five types of evidence for hawking are discussed. These are illustrated with material from the Slavonic stronghold of Oldenburg in

  5. Distribution, density, and productivity of accipiter hawks breeding in Oregon

    Richard T. Reynolds; Howard M. Wight

    1978-01-01

    Density of nests and productivity of Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus), Cooper's Hawks (A. cooperii), and Goshawks (A. gentilis) within Oregon are of interest because of recent declines of accipiter hawks in the eastern United States (Schriver 1969, Hackman and Henny 1971, Henny and Wight 1972). One...

  6. Defect Localization Capabilities of a Global Detection Scheme: Spatial Pattern Recognition Using Full-field Vibration Test Data in Plates

    Saleeb, A. F.; Prabhu, M.; Arnold, S. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a conceptually simple approach, based on the notion of defect energy in material space has been developed and extensively studied (from the theoretical and computational standpoints). The present study focuses on its evaluation from the viewpoint of damage localization capabilities in case of two-dimensional plates; i.e., spatial pattern recognition on surfaces. To this end, two different experimental modal test results are utilized; i.e., (1) conventional modal testing using (white noise) excitation and accelerometer-type sensors and (2) pattern recognition using Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), a full field method capable of analyzing the mechanical vibration of complex structures. Unlike the conventional modal testing technique (using contacting accelerometers), these emerging ESPI technologies operate in a non-contacting mode, can be used even under hazardous conditions with minimal or no presence of noise and can simultaneously provide measurements for both translations and rotations. Results obtained have clearly demonstrated the robustness and versatility of the global NDE scheme developed. The vectorial character of the indices used, which enabled the extraction of distinct patterns for localizing damages proved very useful. In the context of the targeted pattern recognition paradigm, two algorithms were developed for the interrogation of test measurements; i.e., intensity contour maps for the damaged index, and the associated defect energy vector field plots.

  7. Total spectral distributions from Hawking radiation

    Broda, Boguslaw [University of Lodz, Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, Lodz (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    Taking into account the time dependence of the Hawking temperature and finite evaporation time of the black hole, the total spectral distributions of the radiant energy and of the number of particles have been explicitly calculated and compared to their temporary (initial) blackbody counterparts (spectral exitances). (orig.)

  8. Extraocular muscle architecture in hawks and owls.

    Plochocki, Jeffrey H; Segev, Tamar; Grow, Wade; Hall, Margaret I

    2018-02-06

    A complete and accurate understanding of extraocular muscle function is important to the veterinary care of the avian eye. This is especially true for birds of prey, which rely heavily on vision for survival and yet are prone to ocular injury and disease. To better understand the function of extraocular muscles in birds of prey, we studied extraocular muscle architecture grossly and histologically. This sample was composed of two each of the following species: red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), and barn owl (Tyto alba). All extraocular muscles were dissected and weighed. To analyze muscle fiber architecture, the superior oblique and quadratus muscles were dissected, weighed, and sectioned at 5 μm thickness in the transverse plane. We calculated the physiologic cross-sectional area and the ratio of muscle mass to predicted effective maximum tetanic tension. Hawk and owl extraocular muscles exhibit significant physiological differences that play roles in ocular movements and closure of the nictitating membrane. Owls, which do not exhibit extraocular movement, have muscle architecture suited to stabilize the position of a massive, tubular eye that protrudes significantly from the orbit. Hawks, which have a more globose eye that is largely contained within the orbit, do not require as much muscular stability and instead have muscle architecture that facilitates rapid eye movement. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. On the stringy Hartle-Hawking state

    Ben-Israel, Roy; Giveon, Amit; Itzhaki, Nissan; Liram, Lior

    2016-01-01

    We argue that non-perturbative α"′ stringy effects render the Hartle-Hawking state associated with the SL(2)/U(1) eternal black hole singular at the horizon. We discuss implications of this observation on firewalls in string theory.

  10. On the stringy Hartle-Hawking state

    Ben-Israel, Roy [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Itzhaki, Nissan; Liram, Lior [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2016-03-03

    We argue that non-perturbative α{sup ′} stringy effects render the Hartle-Hawking state associated with the SL(2)/U(1) eternal black hole singular at the horizon. We discuss implications of this observation on firewalls in string theory.

  11. Naked singularity, firewall, and Hawking radiation.

    Zhang, Hongsheng

    2017-06-21

    Spacetime singularity has always been of interest since the proof of the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorem. Naked singularity naturally emerges from reasonable initial conditions in the collapsing process. A recent interesting approach in black hole information problem implies that we need a firewall to break the surplus entanglements among the Hawking photons. Classically, the firewall becomes a naked singularity. We find some vacuum analytical solutions in R n -gravity of the firewall-type and use these solutions as concrete models to study the naked singularities. By using standard quantum theory, we investigate the Hawking radiation emitted from the black holes with naked singularities. Here we show that the singularity itself does not destroy information. A unitary quantum theory works well around a firewall-type singularity. We discuss the validity of our result in general relativity. Further our result demonstrates that the temperature of the Hawking radiation still can be expressed in the form of the surface gravity divided by 2π. This indicates that a naked singularity may not compromise the Hakwing evaporation process.

  12. Stephen Hawking a life in science

    White, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This biography of the author of "A Brief History of Time", pays particular attention to Hawking's considerable scientific achievement, as well as to the tragic progress of his illnesss and his extraordinary will to survive and to continue working despite major progressive handicap.

  13. Hawking radiation inside a Schwarzschild black hole

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.

    2018-05-01

    The boundary of any observer's spacetime is the boundary that divides what the observer can see from what they cannot see. The boundary of an observer's spacetime in the presence of a black hole is not the true (future event) horizon of the black hole, but rather the illusory horizon, the dimming, redshifting surface of the star that collapsed to the black hole long ago. The illusory horizon is the source of Hawking radiation seen by observers both outside and inside the true horizon. The perceived acceleration (gravity) on the illusory horizon sets the characteristic frequency scale of Hawking radiation, even if that acceleration varies dynamically, as it must do from the perspective of an infalling observer. The acceleration seen by a non-rotating free-faller both on the illusory horizon below and in the sky above is calculated for a Schwarzschild black hole. Remarkably, as an infaller approaches the singularity, the acceleration becomes isotropic, and diverging as a power law. The isotropic, power-law character of the Hawking radiation, coupled with conservation of energy-momentum, the trace anomaly, and the familiar behavior of Hawking radiation far from the black hole, leads to a complete description of the quantum energy-momentum inside a Schwarzschild black hole. The quantum energy-momentum near the singularity diverges as r^{-6}, and consists of relativistic Hawking radiation and negative energy vacuum in the ratio 3 : - 2. The classical back reaction of the quantum energy-momentum on the geometry, calculated using the Einstein equations, serves merely to exacerbate the singularity. All the results are consistent with traditional calculations of the quantum energy-momentum in 1 + 1 spacetime dimensions.

  14. Conformal nature of the Hawking radiation

    Materassi, M.

    2000-01-01

    String theory usually represents quantum black holes as systems whose statistical mechanics reproduces Hawking's thermodynamics in a very satisfactory way. Complicated brane theoretical models are worked out, as quantum versions of Supergravity solutions. These models are then assumed to be in thermal equilibrium: this is a little cheating, because one is looking for an explanation of the seeming thermodynamical nature of black holes, so they cannot be assumed to be finite temperature systems! In the model presented here, the black body spectrum arises with no statistical hypothesis as an approximation of the unitary evolution of microscopic black holes, which are always described by a 1+1 conformal field theory, characterized by some Virasoro algebra. At the end, one can state that the Hawking-thermodynamics of the system is a by-product of the algebraic Virasoro-symmetric nature of the event horizon. This is the central result of the present work. (author)

  15. Patterns and processes of diversification in a widespread and ecologically diverse avian group, the buteonine hawks (Aves, Accipitridae).

    do Amaral, Fábio Raposo; Sheldon, Frederick H; Gamauf, Anita; Haring, Elisabeth; Riesing, Martin; Silveira, Luís F; Wajntal, Anita

    2009-12-01

    Buteonine hawks represent one of the most diverse groups in the Accipitridae, with 58 species distributed in a variety of habitats on almost all continents. Variations in migratory behavior, remarkable dispersal capability, and unusual diversity in Central and South America make buteonine hawks an excellent model for studies in avian evolution. To evaluate the history of their global radiation, we used an integrative approach that coupled estimation of the phylogeny using a large sequence database (based on 6411 bp of mitochondrial markers and one nuclear intron from 54 species), divergence time estimates, and ancestral state reconstructions. Our findings suggest that Neotropical buteonines resulted from a long evolutionary process that began in the Miocene and extended to the Pleistocene. Colonization of the Nearctic, and eventually the Old World, occurred from South America, promoted by the evolution of seasonal movements and development of land bridges. Migratory behavior evolved several times and may have contributed not only to colonization of the Holarctic, but also derivation of insular species. In the Neotropics, diversification of the buteonines included four disjunction events across the Andes. Adaptation of monophyletic taxa to wet environments occurred more than once, and some relationships indicate an evolutionary connection among mangroves, coastal and várzea environments. On the other hand, groups occupying the same biome, forest, or open vegetation habitats are not monophyletic. Refuges or sea-level changes or a combination of both was responsible for recent speciation in Amazonian taxa. In view of the lack of concordance between phylogeny and classification, we propose numerous taxonomic changes.

  16. Thermal hadron production by QCD Hawking radiation

    Satz, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    The QCD counterpart of Hawking radiation from black holes leads to thermal hadron production in high energy collisions, from e + e - annihilation to heavy ion interactions. This hadronic radiation is emitted at a universal temperature T≅(σ/2π) 1/2 , where the string tension σ measures the colour field at the event horizon of confinement. Moreover, the emitted radiation is thermal 'at birth'; since the event horizon prevents all information transfer, no memory has to be destroyed kinetically. (author)

  17. Local Hawking temperature for dynamical black holes

    Hayward, S A; Criscienzo, R Di; Nadalini, M; Vanzo, L; Zerbini, S

    2009-01-01

    A local Hawking temperature is derived for any future outer trapping horizon in spherical symmetry, using a Hamilton-Jacobi variant of the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method. It is given by a dynamical surface gravity as defined geometrically. The operational meaning of the temperature is that Kodama observers just outside the horizon measure an invariantly redshifted temperature, diverging at the horizon itself. In static, asymptotically flat cases, the Hawking temperature as usually defined by the Killing vector agrees in standard cases, but generally differs by a relative redshift factor between the horizon and infinity, this being the temperature measured by static observers at infinity. Likewise, the geometrical surface gravity reduces to the Newtonian surface gravity in the Newtonian limit, while the Killing definition instead reflects measurements at infinity. This may resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the Hawking temperature for the extremal limit of the charged stringy black hole, namely that it is the local temperature which vanishes. In general, this confirms the quasi-stationary picture of black-hole evaporation in early stages. However, the geometrical surface gravity is generally not the surface gravity of a static black hole with the same parameters. (fast track communication)

  18. Fatal pox infection in a rough-legged hawk

    Pearson, G.L.; Pass, D.A.; Beggs, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation resulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions.

  19. Modulated Hawking radiation and a nonviolent channel for information release

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    Unitarization of black hole evaporation requires that quantum information escapes a black hole; an important question is to identify the mechanism or channel by which it does so. Accurate counting of black hole states via the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy would indicate this information should be encoded in radiation with average energy flux matching Hawking's. Information can be encoded with no change in net flux via fine-grained modulation of the Hawking radiation. In an approximate effective ...

  20. Notes on breeding sharp-shinned hawks and Cooper’s hawks in Barnwell County, South Carolina.

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-07-01

    Abstract - Breeding records of Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawks) in the southeastern US are scattered and isolated. We documented a Sharp-shinned Hawk and Accipiter cooperii (Cooper’s Hawk) nest while conducting a telemetry study on Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpeckers) in Barnwell County, SC in 2006 and 2007. We report the first known nest of a Sharp-shinned Hawk in Barnwell County, SC and the first report of Sharp-shinned Hawks preying upon Red-headed Woodpeckers. Thirteen of 93 (13.9 %) woodpeckers were killed by accipiters in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Large, contiguous forests managed for Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpeckers) may be used by breeding Sharp-shinned Hawks. The bright plumage, loud calls, and behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers, particularly during the nestling stage, may make them conspicuous prey for accipiters.

  1. Notes on breeding sharp-shinned hawks and cooper’s hawks in Barnwell County, South Carolina

    Mark Vukovich; John C. Kilgo

    2009-01-01

    Breeding records of Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawks) in the southeastern US are scattered and isolated. We documented a Sharp-shinned Hawk and Accipiter cooperii (Cooper’s Hawk) nest while conducting a telemetry study on Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpeckers) in Barnwell County, SC in 2006 and 2007. We report the first known nest of a Sharp-shinned...

  2. Hawking temperature: an elementary approach based on Newtonian mechanics and quantum theory

    Pinochet, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    In 1974, the British physicist Stephen Hawking discovered that black holes have a characteristic temperature and are therefore capable of emitting radiation. Given the scientific importance of this discovery, there is a profuse literature on the subject. Nevertheless, the available literature ends up being either too simple, which does not convey the true physical significance of the issue, or too technical, which excludes an ample segment of the audience interested in science, such as physics teachers and their students. The present article seeks to remedy this shortcoming. It develops a simple and plausible argument that provides insight into the fundamental aspects of Hawking’s discovery, which leads to an approximate equation for the so-called Hawking temperature. The exposition is mainly intended for physics teachers and their students, and it only requires elementary algebra, as well as basic notions of Newtonian mechanics and quantum theory.

  3. Development of food safety capability in Ghana to enhance access to the Global Food Manufacturing Value Chain (GFMVC)

    Mensah, L. D.

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrating compliance with food safety requirements of the global economy is a prerequisite for access. As tariff barriers diminish, developing countries are exposed to greater opportunities for repositioning their food manufacturing sectors in global value chains (GVCs). At the same time, the measures for the protection of public health and safety are becoming more stringent because of the series of food safety crises that characterised the global food value chain in the 19...

  4. Building dynamic capabilities in large global advertising agency networks: managing the shift from mass communication to digital interactivity

    Suheimat, Wisam; Prætorius, Thim; Brambini-Pedersen, Jan Vang

    2018-01-01

    Interactive digital technologies result in significant managerial challenges for the largest global advertising agency networks. This paper, based on original data from in-depth case research in three of the largest global advertising networks, investigates how advertising agency networks manage...

  5. Hawking radiation and strong gravity black holes

    Qadir, A.; Sayed, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the strong gravity theory of Salam et al. places severe restrictions on black hole evaporation. Two major implications are that: mini blck holes (down to masses approximately 10 -16 kg) would be stable in the present epoch; and that some suggested mini black hole mechanisms to explain astrophysical phenomena would not work. The first result implies that f-gravity appears to make black holes much safer by removing the possibility of extremely violent black hole explosions suggested by Hawking. (Auth.)

  6. ''Splendeurs et miseres'' of Hawking's effect

    Hijicek, P

    1977-01-01

    The Hawking effect, the result that a Schwarzschild black hole will emit particles as if it were a hot body with a given temperature depending upon the mass of the hole and the sun, the Planck, Newton, and Boltzmann constants, and the light velocity, is considered. Restriction is made to the Schwarzschild space-time, in order to suppress the geometrical, purely general relativistic aspects as far as possible. The treatment includes quantum field theory in curved space--times, and spherically symmetric collapse. 23 references. (JFP)

  7. The death of Philosophy: A response to Stephen Hawking | Scott ...

    In his 2010 work, The Grand Design, Stephen Hawking, argues that '… philosophy is dead' (2010: 5). While not a Philosopher, Hawking provides strong argument for his thesis, principally that philosophers have not taken science sufficiently seriously and so Philosophy is no longer relevant to knowledge claims.

  8. Hawking Temperature of Acoustic Black Hole Zhi Kun Xie

    Abstract. Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, the Hawking radiation of the acoustic black hole was discussed by studying the Klein–. Gordon equation of scalar particles in the curve space-time. It was found that the Hawking temperature is connected with time and position on the event horizon. Key words.

  9. Hawking Temperature of an Arbitrarily Accelerating Black Hole Wei ...

    Introduction. In 1974, Hawking (1974) made a striking discovery that black holes could produce thermal radiation. In this paper, we will obtain Hawking temperature of an arbitrarily accelerating black hole based on the Klein–Gordon equation, which is identical to the one obtained by the Hamilton–Jacobi equation under the ...

  10. 3-minute Stephen Hawking. His life, theories and influence

    Parsons, Paul; Dixon, Gail

    2013-01-01

    3-minutes Stephen Hawking offers a compact introduction to life and work of this impressing scientist. This book is devided into three parts: Hawking's life, his theories, his influence. Each part offers fascinating reading material for one hour. The partial themes of this book are served up in practical 3-minute portions.

  11. Hawking radiation, the Stefan–Boltzmann law, and unitarization

    Giddings, Steven B., E-mail: giddings@physics.ucsb.edu

    2016-03-10

    Where does Hawking radiation originate? A common picture is that it arises from excitations very near or at the horizon, and this viewpoint has supported the “firewall” argument and arguments for a key role for the UV-dependent entanglement entropy in describing the quantum mechanics of black holes. However, closer investigation of both the total emission rate and the stress tensor of Hawking radiation supports the statement that its source is a near-horizon quantum region, or “atmosphere,” whose radial extent is set by the horizon radius scale. This is potentially important, since Hawking radiation needs to be modified to restore unitarity, and a natural assumption is that the scales relevant to such modifications are comparable to those governing the Hawking radiation. Moreover, related discussion suggests a resolution to questions regarding extra energy flux in “nonviolent” scenarios, that does not spoil black hole thermodynamics as governed by the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy.

  12. Hawking radiation, the Stefan–Boltzmann law, and unitarization

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Where does Hawking radiation originate? A common picture is that it arises from excitations very near or at the horizon, and this viewpoint has supported the “firewall” argument and arguments for a key role for the UV-dependent entanglement entropy in describing the quantum mechanics of black holes. However, closer investigation of both the total emission rate and the stress tensor of Hawking radiation supports the statement that its source is a near-horizon quantum region, or “atmosphere,” whose radial extent is set by the horizon radius scale. This is potentially important, since Hawking radiation needs to be modified to restore unitarity, and a natural assumption is that the scales relevant to such modifications are comparable to those governing the Hawking radiation. Moreover, related discussion suggests a resolution to questions regarding extra energy flux in “nonviolent” scenarios, that does not spoil black hole thermodynamics as governed by the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy.

  13. Hawking radiation from the cosmological horizon in a FRW universe

    Hu Yapeng

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that there is a Hawking radiation from the cosmological horizon of the de Sitter spacetime, and the de Sitter spacetime can be a special case of a FRW universe. Therefore, there may be a corresponding Hawking radiation in a FRW universe. Indeed, there have been several clues showing that there is a Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of a FRW universe. In our Letter, however, we find that the Hawking radiation may come from the cosmological horizon. Moreover, we also find that the Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of a FRW universe in some previous works can be a special case in our result, and the condition is that the variation rate of cosmological horizon r . H is zero. Note that, this condition is also consistent with the underlying integrable condition in these works from the apparent horizon.

  14. Understanding Hawking radiation in the framework of open quantum systems

    Yu Hongwei; Zhang Jialin

    2008-01-01

    We study the Hawking radiation in the framework of open quantum systems by examining the time evolution of a detector (modeled by a two-level atom) interacting with vacuum massless scalar fields. The dynamics of the detector is governed by a master equation obtained by tracing over the field degrees of freedom from the complete system. The nonunitary effects are studied by analyzing the time behavior of a particular observable of the detector, i.e., its admissible state, in the Unruh, Hartle-Hawking, as well as Boulware vacua outside a Schwarzschild black hole. We find that the detector in both the Unruh and Hartle-Hawking vacua would spontaneously excite with a nonvanishing probability the same as what one would obtain if there is thermal radiation at the Hawking temperature from the black hole, thus reproducing the basic results concerning the Hawking effect in the framework of open quantum systems

  15. Addressing the Global Sustainability Challenge: The Potential and Pitfalls of Private Governance from the Perspective of Human Capabilities

    Kalfagianni, A.

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary global politics is characterized by an increasing trend toward experimental forms of governance, with an emphasis on private governance. A plurality of private standards, codes of conduct and quality assurance schemes currently developed particularly, though not exclusively, by TNCs

  16. The Hawking effect in abelian gauge theories

    Stephens, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to compare and contrast gravity with other field theories an investigation is made into whether the Hawking effect is a peculiarly gravitational phenomenon. It is found that the effect exists for a particular background abelian gauge field configuration, as well as certain background gravitational field configurations. Specifically, pair production in a uniform electric field is shown to admit a thermal interpretation. In an effort to find out just what is singular about gravity it is found that the Hawking temperature characteristic of a particular gravitational field configuration is independent of the properties of the quantum fields propagating theorem, in direct contrast to the gauge field case. This implies that if the one loop approximation is to be valid the electric field must be ''cold'' relative to the energy scales set by the quantum fields. In gravity, however, because of the existence of a fundamental scale, the Planck length, the gravitational field can be ''hot'' or ''cold'' and a one loop approximation still remain valid. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  17. Plumage polymorphism and fitness in Swainson's hawks.

    Briggs, C W; Collopy, M W; Woodbridge, B

    2011-10-01

    We examine the maintenance of a plumage polymorphism, variation in plumages among the same age and sex class within a population, in a population of Swainson's Hawks. We take advantage of 32 years of data to examine two prevalent hypotheses used to explain the persistence of morphs: apostatic selection and heterozygous advantage. We investigate differences in fitness among three morph classes of a melanistic trait in Swainson's Hawks: light (7% of the local breeding population), intermediate (57%) and dark (36%). Specifically, we examined morph differences in adult apparent survival, breeding success, annual number of fledglings produced, probability of offspring recruitment into the breeding population and lifetime reproductive success (LRS). If apostatic selection were a factor in maintaining morphs, we would expect that individuals with the least frequent morph would perform best in one or more of these fitness categories. Alternatively, if heterozygous advantage played a role in the maintenance of this polymorphism, we would expect heterozygotes (i.e. intermediate morphs) to have one or more increased rates in these categories. We found no difference in adult apparent survival between morph classes. Similarly, there were no differences in breeding success, nest productivity, LRS or probability of recruitment of offspring between parental morph. We conclude that neither apostatic selection nor heterozygous advantage appear to play a role in maintaining morphs in this population. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. What the White "Squaws" Want from Black Hawk: Gendering the Fan-Celebrity Relationship

    Helton, Tena L.

    2010-01-01

    Americans in the East were great fans of Black Hawk, whose popularity on tour overtook that of Andrew Jackson's parallel tour of the Northeast. Undoubtedly, then, Black Hawk was a celebrity. He remained popular even in 1837, when he attended Catlin's gallery opening in New York, which included his 1832 painting of Black Hawk. Black Hawk may also…

  19. Covariant anomalies and Hawking radiation from charged rotating black strings in anti-de Sitter spacetimes

    Peng Junjin; Wu Shuangqing

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the success of the recently proposed method of anomaly cancellation to derive Hawking fluxes from black hole horizons of spacetimes in various dimensions, we have further extended the covariant anomaly cancellation method shortly simplified by Banerjee and Kulkarni to explore the Hawking radiation of the (3+1)-dimensional charged rotating black strings and their higher dimensional extensions in anti-de Sitter spacetimes, whose horizons are not spherical but can be toroidal, cylindrical or planar, according to their global identifications. It should be emphasized that our analysis presented here is very general in the sense that the determinant of the reduced (1+1)-dimensional effective metric from these black strings need not be equal to one (√(-g)≠1). Our results indicate that the gauge and energy-momentum fluxes needed to cancel the (1+1)-dimensional covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies are compatible with the Hawking fluxes. Besides, thermodynamics of these black strings are studied in the case of a variable cosmological constant

  20. No Hawking-Page phase transition in three dimensions

    Myung, Y.S.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate whether or not the Hawking-Page phase transition is possible to occur in three dimensions. Starting with the simplest class of Lanczos-Lovelock action, thermodynamic behavior of all AdS-type black holes without charge falls into two classes: Schwarzschild-AdS black holes in even dimensions and Chern-Simons black holes in odd dimensions. The former class can provide the Hawking-Page transition between Schwarzschild-AdS black holes and thermal AdS space. On the other hand, the latter class is exceptional and thus the Hawking-Page transition is hard to occur. In three dimensions, a second-order phase transition might occur between the non-rotating BTZ black hole and the massless BTZ black hole (thermal AdS space), instead of the first-order Hawking-Page transition between the non-rotating BTZ black hole and thermal AdS space

  1. Hawk-I - First results from science verification

    Kissler-Patig, M.; Larsen, S.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833347; Wehner, E.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314114688

    2008-01-01

    The VLT wide-field near-infrared imager HAWK-I was commissioned in 2007 and Science Verification (SV) programmes were conducted in August 2007. A selection of results from among the twelve Science Verfication proposals are summarised.

  2. Analogue Hawking radiation from astrophysical black-hole accretion

    Das, Tapas K

    2004-01-01

    We show that spherical accretion onto astrophysical black holes can be considered as a natural example of an analogue system. We provide, for the first time, an exact analytical scheme for calculating the analogue Hawking temperature and surface gravity for general relativistic accretion onto astrophysical black holes. Our calculation may bridge the gap between the theory of transonic astrophysical accretion and the theory of analogue Hawking radiation. We show that the domination of the analogue Hawking temperature over the actual Hawking temperature may be a real astrophysical phenomenon, though observational tests of this fact will at best be difficult and at worst might prove to be impossible. We also discuss the possibilities of the emergence of analogue white holes around astrophysical black holes. Our calculation is general enough to accommodate accreting black holes with any mass

  3. Hawking radiation due to photon and gravitino tunneling

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Samanta, Saurav

    2010-01-01

    Applying the Hamilton-Jacobi method we investigate the tunneling of photon across the event horizon of a static spherically symmetric black hole. The necessity of the gauge condition on the photon field, to derive the semiclassical Hawking temperature, is explicitly shown. Also, the tunneling of photon and gravitino beyond this semiclassical approximation are presented separately. Quantum corrections of the action for both cases are found to be proportional to the semiclassical contribution. Modifications to the Hawking temperature and Bekenstein-Hawking area law are thereby obtained. Using this corrected temperature and Hawking's periodicity argument, the modified metric for the Schwarzschild black hole is given. This corrected version of the metric, up to h order is equivalent to the metric obtained by including one loop back reaction effect. Finally, the coefficient of the leading order correction of entropy is shown to be related to the trace anomaly.

  4. Hawking radiation of a vector field and gravitational anomalies

    Murata, Keiju; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the relation between Hawking radiation and gravitational anomalies has been used to estimate the flux of Hawking radiation for a large class of black objects. In this paper, we extend the formalism, originally proposed by Robinson and Wilczek, to the Hawking radiation of vector particles (photons). It is explicitly shown, with the Hamiltonian formalism, that the theory of an electromagnetic field on d-dimensional spherical black holes reduces to one of an infinite number of massive complex scalar fields on 2-dimensional spacetime, for which the usual anomaly-cancellation method is available. It is found that the total energy emitted from the horizon for the electromagnetic field is just (d-2) times that for a scalar field. The results support the picture that Hawking radiation can be regarded as an anomaly eliminator on horizons. Possible extensions and applications of the analysis are discussed

  5. Hawking radiation of an apparent horizon in a FRW universe

    Cai Ronggen; Cao Liming; Hu Yapeng

    2009-01-01

    Hawking radiation is an important quantum phenomenon of a black hole, which is closely related to the existence of an event horizon of a black hole. The cosmological event horizon of de Sitter space is also of Hawking radiation with a thermal spectrum. By use of the tunneling approach, we show that there is indeed a Hawking radiation with temperature, T=1/(2πr-tilde A , for a locally defined apparent horizon of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with any spatial curvature, where r-tilde A is the apparent horizon radius. Thus we fill in the gap existing in the literature investigating the relation between the first law of thermodynamics and Friedmann equations; there the apparent horizon is assumed to have such a temperature without any proof. In addition, we stress the implication of the Hawking temperature associated with the apparent horizon.

  6. Regional variation in diets of breeding Red-shouldered hawks

    Strobel, Bradley N.; Boal, Clint W.

    2010-01-01

    We collected data on breeding season diet composition of Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus) in south Texas and compared these data, and those reported from studies elsewhere to examine large scale spatial variation in prey use in eastern North America. Red-shouldered Hawk diets aligned into two significantly different groups, which appear to correlate with latitude. The diets of Red-shouldered Hawks in group 1, which are of more northern latitudes, had significantly more mammalian prey and significantly less amphibian prey than those in group 2, which are at more southerly latitudes. Our meta-analysis demonstrated the dietary flexibility of Red-shouldered Hawks, which likely accounts for their broad distribution by exploiting regional variations in taxon-specific prey availability.

  7. Swainson's Hawk Survey Grid - DFG Region 2 [ds697

    California Natural Resource Agency — 5 km x 5 km landscape blocks used for Ca. Dept. of Fish and Game central valley Swainson's hawk nest surveys since 2000, edited for 2009 surveys using the following...

  8. Influence of poisoned prey on foraging behavior of ferruginous hawks

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Kuncir, Frank; Clinton, Criss C.

    2017-01-01

    We recorded 19 visits by ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) over 6 d at two black–tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) subcolonies poisoned with the rodenticide Rozol® Prairie Dog Bait (0.005% chlorophacinone active ingredient) and at an adjacent untreated subcolony. Before Rozol® application ferruginous hawks foraged in the untreated and treated subcolonies but after Rozol® application predation by ferruginous hawks was only observed in the treated subcolonies. We suggest that ferruginous hawks' preference for hunting in the treated subcolonies after Rozol® application was influenced by the availability of easy-to-capture prey, presumably due to Rozol® poisoning. The energetically beneficial behavior of favoring substandard prey may increase raptor encounters with rodenticide exposed animals if prey vulnerability has resulted from poisoning.

  9. Stephen Hawking ja tema kuulsad kihlveod / Andi Hektor

    Hektor, Andi, 1975-

    2010-01-01

    Ratastooli aheldatud füüsikaikoon Hawking armastab sõlmida kihlvedusid. Viimane kihlvedu, mis puudutab gravitatsioonilainete ja inflatsiooni olemasolu, on taas päevakorda tõusnud, sest eelmisel aastal alustas mõõtmisi Plancki satelliit

  10. Hawking receives top US award at White House

    Banks, Michael

    2009-09-01

    The Cambridge physicist Stephen Hawking has been awarded the highest US civilian honour - the presidential medal of freedom. At a ceremony at the White House last month, Hawking, together with 15 other recipients, received the 2009 award from President Barack Obama. The medal is given to individuals who make a contribution "to the security or national interests of the US, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavours".

  11. Street Hawking: Oppressing the Girl Child or Family Economic Supplement?

    Umar, Fatima M.

    2009-01-01

    Street hawking in its simplest form is the selling of things along the roads and from one place to the other. In Nigeria this is done almost all the time by young children both males and females. The girl hawkers come to the cities in groups and then go in different directions of the city to hawk their goods. They remain in the city from the early…

  12. Ward identities in the derivation of Hawking radiation from anomalies

    Umetsu, Koichiro

    2008-01-01

    Robinson and Wilczek suggested a new method of deriving Hawking radiation by the consideration of anomalies. The basic idea of their approach is that the flux of Hawking radiation is determined by anomaly cancellation conditions in the Schwarzschild black hole (BH) background. Iso et al. extended the method to a charged Reissner-Nordstroem BH and a rotating Kerr BH, and they showed that the flux of Hawking radiation can also be determined by anomaly cancellation conditions and regularity conditions of currents at the horizon. Their formulation gives the correct Hawking flux for all the cases at infinity and thus provides a new attractive method of understanding Hawking radiation. We present some arguments clarifying for this derivation. We show that the Ward identities and boundary conditions for covariant currents without referring to the Wess-Zumino terms and the effective action are sufficient to derive Hawking radiation. Our method, which does not use step functions, thus simplifies some of the technical aspects of the original formulation. (author)

  13. Hélène Mialet, Hawking Incorporated. Stephen Hawking and the Anthropology of the Knowing subject

    Popescu, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Situé dans la tradition de recherche développée autour de la théorie de l’acteur-réseau (actor-network theory), le livre de Hélène Mialet choisit d’explorer la figure particulière du physicien anglais Stephen Hawking. À travers sept chapitres complémentaires, le lecteur découvre à la fois « Hawking l’individu » et « Hawking le génie en physique ». C’est une distinction qui ne paraît pas toute de suite évidente au non-initié, mais, nous allons le comprendre rapidement, le Hawking des médias, n...

  14. Global view of the mechanisms of improved learning and memory capability in mice with music-exposure by microarray.

    Meng, Bo; Zhu, Shujia; Li, Shijia; Zeng, Qingwen; Mei, Bing

    2009-08-28

    Music has been proved beneficial to improve learning and memory in many species including human in previous research work. Although some genes have been identified to contribute to the mechanisms, it is believed that the effect of music is manifold, behind which must concern a complex regulation network. To further understand the mechanisms, we exposed the mice to classical music for one month. The subsequent behavioral experiments showed improvement of spatial learning capability and elevation of fear-motivated memory in the mice with music-exposure as compared to the naïve mice. Meanwhile, we applied the microarray to compare the gene expression profiles of the hippocampus and cortex between the mice with music-exposure and the naïve mice. The results showed approximately 454 genes in cortex (200 genes up-regulated and 254 genes down-regulated) and 437 genes in hippocampus (256 genes up-regulated and 181 genes down-regulated) were significantly affected in music-exposing mice, which mainly involved in ion channel activity and/or synaptic transmission, cytoskeleton, development, transcription, hormone activity. Our work may provide some hints for better understanding the effects of music on learning and memory.

  15. Hawking Incorporated Stephen Hawking and the Anthropology of the Knowing Subject

    Mialet, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    These days, the idea of the cyborg is less the stuff of science fiction and more a reality, as we are all, in one way or another, constantly connected, extended, wired, and dispersed in and through technology. One wonders where the individual, the person, the human, and the body are-or, alternatively, where they stop. These are the kinds of questions Hélène Mialet explores in this fascinating volume, as she focuses on a man who is permanently attached to assemblages of machines, devices, and collectivities of people: Stephen Hawking. Drawing on an extensive and in-depth series of interviews wi

  16. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae): multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification

    do Amaral, Fabio S Raposo; Miller, Matthew J; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Wajntal, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The family Accipitridae (hawks, eagles and Old World vultures) represents a large radiation of predatory birds with an almost global distribution, although most species of this family occur in the Neotropics. Despite great morphological and ecological diversity, the evolutionary relationships in the family have been poorly explored at all taxonomic levels. Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes (12S, ATP8, ATP6, and ND6), we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Neotro...

  17. Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy and Strange Metals

    Subir Sachdev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine models of fermions with infinite-range interactions that realize non-Fermi liquids with a continuously variable U(1 charge density Q and a nonzero entropy density S at vanishing temperature. Real-time correlators of operators carrying U(1 charge q at a low temperature T are characterized by a Q-dependent frequency ω_{S}=(qT/ℏ(∂S/∂Q, which determines a spectral asymmetry. We show that the correlators match precisely with those of the two-dimensional anti–de Sitter (AdS_{2} horizons of extremal charged black holes. On the black hole side, the matching employs S as the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy density and the laws of black hole thermodynamics that relate (∂S/∂Q/(2π to the electric field strength in AdS_{2}. The fermion model entropy is computed using the microscopic degrees of freedom of a UV complete theory without supersymmetry.

  18. Capability Paternalism

    Claassen, R.J.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269266224

    A capability approach prescribes paternalist government actions to the extent that it requires the promotion of specific functionings, instead of the corresponding capabilities. Capability theorists have argued that their theories do not have much of these paternalist implications, since promoting

  19. Meeting Earth Observation Requirements for Global Agricultural Monitoring: An Evaluation of the Revisit Capabilities of Current and Planned Moderate Resolution Optical Earth Observing Missions

    Alyssa K. Whitcraft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a highly dynamic process in space and time, with many applications requiring data with both a relatively high temporal resolution (at least every 8 days and fine-to-moderate (FTM < 100 m spatial resolution. The relatively infrequent revisit of FTM optical satellite observatories coupled with the impacts of cloud occultation have translated into a barrier for the derivation of agricultural information at the regional-to-global scale. Drawing upon the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM Initiative’s general satellite Earth observation (EO requirements for monitoring of major production areas, Whitcraft et al. (this issue have described where, when, and how frequently satellite data acquisitions are required throughout the agricultural growing season at 0.05°, globally. The majority of areas and times of year require multiple revisits to probabilistically yield a view at least 70%, 80%, 90%, or 95% clear within eight days, something that no present single FTM optical observatory is capable of delivering. As such, there is a great potential to meet these moderate spatial resolution optical data requirements through a multi-space agency/multi-mission constellation approach. This research models the combined revisit capabilities of seven hypothetical constellations made from five satellite sensors—Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS, Resourcesat-2 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (Resourcesat-2 AWiFS, Sentinel-2A Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI, and Sentinel-2B MSI—and compares these capabilities with the revisit frequency requirements for a reasonably cloud-free clear view within eight days throughout the agricultural growing season. Supplementing Landsat 7 and 8 with missions from different space agencies leads to an improved capacity to meet requirements, with Resourcesat-2 providing the largest

  20. Hawking radiation, the Stefan–Boltzmann law, and unitarization

    Steven B. Giddings

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Where does Hawking radiation originate? A common picture is that it arises from excitations very near or at the horizon, and this viewpoint has supported the “firewall” argument and arguments for a key role for the UV-dependent entanglement entropy in describing the quantum mechanics of black holes. However, closer investigation of both the total emission rate and the stress tensor of Hawking radiation supports the statement that its source is a near-horizon quantum region, or “atmosphere,” whose radial extent is set by the horizon radius scale. This is potentially important, since Hawking radiation needs to be modified to restore unitarity, and a natural assumption is that the scales relevant to such modifications are comparable to those governing the Hawking radiation. Moreover, related discussion suggests a resolution to questions regarding extra energy flux in “nonviolent” scenarios, that does not spoil black hole thermodynamics as governed by the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy.

  1. Hawking's bid to save quantum theory from black holes

    Cho, Adrian

    2018-03-01

    When Albert Einstein died in 1955, he had spent lonely decades trying in vain to unify the theories of gravity and electromagnetism. Stephen Hawking, the great British physicist who died last week at age 76, also worked until the end. But he focused on perhaps the most important problem in his area of physics, one his own work had posed: How do black holes preserve information encoded in the material that falls into them? Hawking realized in 1974 that through a subtle quantum effect a black hole can radiate energy and evaporate. But then a black hole should destroy any infalling information, which cannot come back out in the random radiation. Such information loss would wreck quantum mechanics, and Hawking spent much of his later years trying to figure out how a black hole could preserve information after all, even as the degenerative nerve disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis rendered him immobile and able to speak only through a computerized voice synthesizer. Ironically, Hawking's disability may have helped him avoid the isolation that enveloped Einstein, as Hawking had to rely on collaborators to flesh out his ideas and so remained connected to his peers.

  2. Hawking radiation of five-dimensional charged black holes with scalar fields

    Yan-Gang Miao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the Hawking radiation cascade from the five-dimensional charged black hole with a scalar field coupled to higher-order Euler densities in a conformally invariant manner. We give the semi-analytic calculation of greybody factors for the Hawking radiation. Our analysis shows that the Hawking radiation cascade from this five-dimensional black hole is extremely sparse. The charge enhances the sparsity of the Hawking radiation, while the conformally coupled scalar field reduces this sparsity.

  3. Performance updates of HAWK-I and preparation for the commissioning of the system GRAAL+HAWK-I

    Hibon, Pascale; Paufique, Jerome; Kuntschner, Harald; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Le Louarn, Miska; Valenti, Elena; Neeser, Mark; Pompei, Emanuela; Arsenault, Robin; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Petr-Gotzens, Monika; La Fuente, Carlos; Urrutia, Josefina; Valenzuela, Javier; Castillo, Roberto; Baksai, Pedro; Garcia Dabo, Cesar Enrique; Jost, Andreas; Argomedo, Javier; Kolb, Johann; Kiekebusch, Mario; Hubin, Norbert; Duhoux, Philippe; Conzelmann, Ralf Dieter; Donaldson, Robert; Tordo, Sebastien; Huber, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    The High Acuity Wide field K-band Imager (HAWK-I) instrument is a cryogenic wide field imager operating in the wavelength range 0.9 to 2.5 microns. It has been in operations since 2007 on the UT4 at the Very Large Telescope Observatory in seeing-limited mode. In 2017-2018, GRound Layer Adaptive optics Assisted by Lasers module (GRAAL) will be in operation and the system GRAAL+HAWK-I will be commissioned. It will allow: deeper exposures for nearly point-source objects, or shorter exposure times for reaching the same magnitude, and/or deeper detection limiting magnitude. With GRAAL, HAWK-I will operate more than 80% of the time with an equivalent K-band seeing of 0.55" (instead of 0.7" without GRAAL). GRAAL is already installed and the operations without adaptive optics were commissioned in 2015. We discuss here the latest updates on performance from HAWK-I without Adaptive Optics (AO) and the preparation for the commissioning of the system GRAAL+HAWK-I.

  4. Hawking radiation from dilatonic black holes via anomalies

    Jiang Qingquan; Cai Xu; Wu Shuangqing

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Hawking radiation from a Schwarzschild-type black hole via a gravitational anomaly at the horizon has been derived by Robinson and Wilczek. Their result shows that, in order to demand general coordinate covariance at the quantum level to hold in the effective theory, the flux of the energy-momentum tensor required to cancel the gravitational anomaly at the horizon of the black hole is exactly equal to that of (1+1)-dimensional blackbody radiation at the Hawking temperature. In this paper, we attempt to apply the analysis to derive Hawking radiation from the event horizons of static, spherically symmetric dilatonic black holes with arbitrary coupling constant α, and that from the rotating Kaluza-Klein (α=√(3)) as well as the Kerr-Sen (α=1) black holes via an anomalous point of view. Our results support Robinson and Wilczek's opinion. In addition, the properties of the obtained physical quantities near the extreme limit are qualitatively discussed

  5. Habitat segregation in two congeric hawk-eagles (Spizaetus bartelsi abd S. cirrhatus) in Java, Indonesia

    Nijman, V.

    2004-01-01

    On the island of Java, Indonesia, two congeneric hawk-eagles occur, i.e. the endemic Javan hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi and the wide-ranging changeable hawk-eagle S. cirrhatus. Comparisons with similar species-pairs in South East Asia suggest that these species may be competitors both in habitat

  6. A 38-year Summary of Raptor Banding at Hawk Ridge, Duluth, Minnesota, USA

    Consistent banding of raptors at Hawk Ridge was initiated in 1972 and has continued for 38 years to the present. A total of 99,505 raptors or 2,619 per year have been banded at Hawk Ridge including 23 different species. The majority of birds banded were Sharp-shinned Hawks (Acci...

  7. A Rapid Global Effects Capability

    2016-06-01

    Comparison of Attitudes and Values Between West Point Cadets and College Students. Westminister , MD: Western Maryland College, as published in the...Comments by Mr. Christopher Ingraham, Senior Legislative Assistant, Congressman Jim Bridenstine. Washington D.C., 5 May 2016. Secure World

  8. Hawking radiation of a high-dimensional rotating black hole

    Zhao, Ren; Zhang, Lichun; Li, Huaifan; Wu, Yueqin [Shanxi Datong University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Datong (China)

    2010-01-15

    We extend the classical Damour-Ruffini method and discuss Hawking radiation spectrum of high-dimensional rotating black hole using Tortoise coordinate transformation defined by taking the reaction of the radiation to the spacetime into consideration. Under the condition that the energy and angular momentum are conservative, taking self-gravitation action into account, we derive Hawking radiation spectrums which satisfy unitary principle in quantum mechanics. It is shown that the process that the black hole radiates particles with energy {omega} is a continuous tunneling process. We provide a theoretical basis for further studying the physical mechanism of black-hole radiation. (orig.)

  9. Fairness and Reciprocity in the Hawk-Dove Game

    Poulsen, Anders; Neugebauer, Tibor; Schram, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    We study fairness and reciprocity in a Hawk-Dove game, using an experimental approach. This allows us to test various models in one framework. We observe a large extent of selfish and rational behavior. Our results are inconsistent with leading models in this field.......We study fairness and reciprocity in a Hawk-Dove game, using an experimental approach. This allows us to test various models in one framework. We observe a large extent of selfish and rational behavior. Our results are inconsistent with leading models in this field....

  10. Hawking radiation, the Stefan-Boltzmann law, and unitarization

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Where does Hawking radiation originate? A common picture is that it arises from excitations very near or at the horizon, and this viewpoint has supported the “firewall” argument and arguments for a key role for the UV-dependent entanglement entropy in describing the quantum mechanics of black holes. However, closer investigation of both the total emission rate and the stress tensor of Hawking radiation supports the statement that its source is a near-horizon quantum region, or “atmosphere,” w...

  11. Quantum Signature of Analog Hawking Radiation in Momentum Space.

    Boiron, D; Fabbri, A; Larré, P-É; Pavloff, N; Westbrook, C I; Ziń, P

    2015-07-10

    We consider a sonic analog of a black hole realized in the one-dimensional flow of a Bose-Einstein condensate. Our theoretical analysis demonstrates that one- and two-body momentum distributions accessible by present-day experimental techniques provide clear direct evidence (i) of the occurrence of a sonic horizon, (ii) of the associated acoustic Hawking radiation, and (iii) of the quantum nature of the Hawking process. The signature of the quantum behavior persists even at temperatures larger than the chemical potential.

  12. Hawking temperatures of Myers-Perry black holes from tunneling

    Ma Zhengze

    2009-01-01

    Using the tunneling method of Parikh and Wilczek, we derive the Hawking temperature of a general higher-dimensional rotating black hole which is equal to its surface gravity on the horizon divided by 2π. In order to eliminate the motion on the rotating degrees of freedom of a tunneling particle from a higher-dimensional rotating black hole, we choose a reference system that is co-rotating with the black hole horizon. Then, we apply the obtained result to the Myers-Perry higher-dimensional asymptotically flat black holes and reproduce their Hawking temperatures using the tunneling approach.

  13. Multivariate Hawkes process models of the occurrence of regulatory elements

    Carstensen, L; Sandelin, A; Winther, Ole

    2010-01-01

    distribution of the occurrences of these TREs along the genome. RESULTS: We present a model of TRE occurrences known as the Hawkes process. We illustrate the use of this model by analyzing two different publically available data sets. We are able to model, in detail, how the occurrence of one TRE is affected....... For each of the two data sets we provide two results: first, a qualitative description of the dependencies among the occurrences of the TREs, and second, quantitative results on the favored or avoided distances between the different TREs. CONCLUSIONS: The Hawkes process is a novel way of modeling the joint...

  14. Hawking radiation, effective actions and covariant boundary conditions

    Banerjee, Rabin; Kulkarni, Shailesh

    2008-01-01

    From an appropriate expression for the effective action, the Hawking radiation from charged black holes is derived, using only covariant boundary conditions at the event horizon. The connection of our approach with the Unruh vacuum and the recent analysis [S.P. Robinson, F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 011303, (gr-qc/0502074); S. Iso, H. Umetsu, F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 151302, (hep-th/0602146); R. Banerjee, S. Kulkarni, (arXiv: 0707.2449 [hep-th])] of Hawking radiation using anomalies is established

  15. Cyanide poisoning of a Cooper’s hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Franson, J. Christian

    2017-01-01

    A Cooper’s hawk (Accipiter cooperii) was found dead in a ditch leading from a heap leach pad at a gold mine in Nevada. Observations at autopsy included an absence of external lesions, traces of subcutaneous and coronary fat, no food in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and no lesions in the viscera. Cyanide concentrations (µg/g ww) were 5.04 in blood, 3.88 in liver, and 1.79 in brain. No bacteria or viruses were isolated from tissues, and brain cholinesterase activity was within the normal range for a Cooper’s hawk.

  16. Higher curvature self-interaction corrections to Hawking radiation

    Fairoos, C.; Sarkar, Sudipta; Yogendran, K. P.

    2017-07-01

    The purely thermal nature of Hawking radiation from evaporating black holes leads to the information loss paradox. A possible route to its resolution could be if (enough) correlations are shown to be present in the radiation emitted from evaporating black holes. A reanalysis of Hawking's derivation including the effects of self-interactions in general relativity shows that the emitted radiation does deviate from pure thermality; however no correlations exist between successively emitted Hawking quanta. We extend the calculations to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and investigate if higher curvature corrections to the action lead to some new correlations in the Hawking spectra. The effective trajectory of a massless shell is determined by solving the constraint equations and the semiclassical tunneling probability is calculated. As in the case of general relativity, the radiation is no longer thermal and there is no correlation between successive emissions. The absence of any extra correlations in the emitted radiations even in Gauss-Bonnet gravity suggests that the resolution of the paradox is beyond the scope of semiclassical gravity.

  17. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  18. Ambiguity of the equivalence principle and Hawking's temperature

    Hooft, G. 't

    1984-01-01

    There are two inequivalent ways in which the laws of physics in a gravitational field can be related to the laws in an inertial frame, when quantum mechanical effects are taken into account. This leads to an ambiguity in the derivation of Hawking's radiation temperature for a black hole: it could be

  19. Red-shouldered hawk nesting habitat preference in south Texas

    Strobel, Bradley N.; Boal, Clint W.

    2010-01-01

    We examined nesting habitat preference by red-shouldered hawks Buteo lineatus using conditional logistic regression on characteristics measured at 27 occupied nest sites and 68 unused sites in 2005–2009 in south Texas. We measured vegetation characteristics of individual trees (nest trees and unused trees) and corresponding 0.04-ha plots. We evaluated the importance of tree and plot characteristics to nesting habitat selection by comparing a priori tree-specific and plot-specific models using Akaike's information criterion. Models with only plot variables carried 14% more weight than models with only center tree variables. The model-averaged odds ratios indicated red-shouldered hawks selected to nest in taller trees and in areas with higher average diameter at breast height than randomly available within the forest stand. Relative to randomly selected areas, each 1-m increase in nest tree height and 1-cm increase in the plot average diameter at breast height increased the probability of selection by 85% and 10%, respectively. Our results indicate that red-shouldered hawks select nesting habitat based on vegetation characteristics of individual trees as well as the 0.04-ha area surrounding the tree. Our results indicate forest management practices resulting in tall forest stands with large average diameter at breast height would benefit red-shouldered hawks in south Texas.

  20. Comment on 'Hawking radiation from fluctuating black holes'

    Khavkine, I.

    2010-01-01

    Takahashi and Soda (2010 Class. Quantum Grav. 27 175008) have recently considered the effect (at lowest non-trivial order) of dynamical, quantized gravitational fluctuations on the spectrum of scalar Hawking radiation from a collapsing Schwarzschild black hole. However, due to an unfortunate choice

  1. Remarks on Hawking radiation as tunneling from a uniformly ...

    Abstract. Motivated by the Hamilton–Jacobi method of Angheben et al, we investigate the Hawking tunneling radiation from a uniformly accelerating rectilinear black hole for which the horizons and entropy are functions of θ. After several coordinate transforma- tions, we conclude that when the self-gravitational interaction ...

  2. Hawking Radiations from an Arbitrarily Accelerating Kerr Black Hole ...

    Introduction. In 1976, Damour & Ruffini (1976) presented a method proving Hawking radiation. Zhao et al. (1994) improved the method of Damour and Ruffini, and calculated the location of the event horizon and the temperature of the varying black holes at the same time. It is a pivotal step to introduce a tortoise coordinate ...

  3. Kas inimkond näeb aastat 2106? / Stephen Hawking

    Hawking, Stephen W., 1942-

    2006-01-01

    Briti füüsik Stephen Hawking avas Yahoo! internetifoorumis debati, küsides foorumikasutajatelt: "Maailmas valitseb poliitiline, sotsiaalne ja ökoloogiline kaos - kuidas suudab inimkond järgmised sada aastat üle elada?". Kommenteerivad julgeolekuekspert Eerik-Niiles Kross, meditsiiniteaduste doktor Mari Järvelaid ja keskkonnaekspert Marek Strandberg

  4. Spizaetus hawk-eagles as predators of arboreal colobines.

    Fam, S D; Nijman, V

    2011-04-01

    The predation pressure put on primates by diurnal birds of prey differs greatly between continents. Africa and South America have specialist raptors (e.g. crowned hawk-eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus and harpy eagle Harpia harpyja) whereas in Asia the only such specialist's (Philippine eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi) distribution is largely allopatric with primates. The almost universal absence of polyspecific groups in Asia (common in Africa and South America) may indicate reduced predation pressure. As such there is almost no information on predation pressures on primates in Asia by raptors. Here we report successful predation of a juvenile banded langur Presbytis femoralis (~2 kg) by a changeable hawk-eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus. The troop that was attacked displayed no signs of being alarmed, and no calls were made before the event. We argue that in insular Southeast Asia, especially, large Spizaetus hawk-eagles (~2 kg) are significant predators of arboreal colobines. Using data on the relative size of sympatric Spizaetus hawk-eagles and colobines we make predictions on where geographically we can expect the highest predation pressure (Thai-Malay Peninsula) and which colobines are least (Nasalis larvatus, Trachypithecus auratus, P. thomasi) and most (P. femoralis, T. cristatus) affected.

  5. Larry Echo Hawk: A Rising Star from Idaho.

    Wisecarver, Charmaine

    1993-01-01

    Larry Echo Hawk, Idaho attorney general and former state legislator, discusses success factors in college and law school; early experiences as an Indian lawyer; first election campaign; and his views on tribal sovereignty, state-tribal relationship, gambling, and his dual responsibility to the general public and Native American issues. (SV)

  6. Comparison of the breeding biology of sympatric red-tailed Hawks, White-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras in south Texas

    Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.

    2009-01-01

    We compared the breeding biology of sympatric nesting Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in south Texas during 2003 and 2004. We monitored 46 breeding attempts by Red-tailed Hawks, 56 by White-tailed Hawks, and 27 by Crested Caracaras. Observed nesting success was similar for Red-tailed Hawks (62%) and Crested Caracaras (61%), but lower for White-tailed Hawks (51%). Daily survival rates (0.99) were the same for all three species. Red-tailed Hawks and White-tailed Hawks both fledged 1.13 young per nesting pair and Crested Caracaras fledged 1.39 young per nesting pair. All three species nested earlier in 2004 than in 2003; in addition, the overall nesting density of these three species almost doubled from 2003 (1.45 pairs/km2) to 2004 (2.71 pairs/km2). Estimated productivity of all three species was within the ranges reported from other studies. Given extensive and progressive habitat alteration in some areas of south Texas, and the limited distributions of White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracaras, the presence of large ranches managed for free-range cattle production and hunting leases likely provides important habitat and may be key areas for conservation of these two species. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  7. Hawking radiation in the Swiss-cheese universe

    Saida, Hiromi

    2002-01-01

    The Hawking radiation forms the essential basis of black-hole thermodynamics. Black-hole thermodynamics denotes a good correspondence between black-hole kinematics and the laws of ordinary thermodynamics, but has so far been considered only in an asymptotically flat case. Does such correspondence rely strongly on the feature of gravity vanishing at infinity? In order to resolve this question, extending the Hawking radiation to a case with a dynamical boundary condition like an expanding universe should be considered. Therefore, the Hawking radiation in an expanding universe is discussed in this paper. As a concrete model of a black hole in an expanding universe, we use the 'Swiss-cheese' universe which is a spacetime including a Schwarzschild black hole in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. Further, for simplicity, our calculation is performed in two dimensions. The resultant spectrum of the Hawking radiation measured by a comoving observer is generally different from a thermal one. We find that the qualitative behaviour of the non-thermal spectrum is of dumping oscillation as a function of the frequency measured by the observer, and that the intensity of the Hawking radiation is enhanced by the presence of a cosmological expansion. It is appropriate to say that a black hole with an asymptotically flat boundary condition stays in a lowest energy thermal equilibrium state, and that once a black hole is put into an expanding universe, it is excited to a non-equilibrium state and emits its mass energy with stronger intensity than a thermal one

  8. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  9. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  10. Capability ethics

    Robeyns, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological theories, virtue ethics, or pragmatism. As I will argue in this chapter, at present the core of the capability approach is an account of value, which together with some other (more minor) normative comm...

  11. Dynamic Capabilities

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The findings reveal a positive relationship between dynamic capabilities and innovation performance in the case enterprises, as we would expect. It was, however, not possible to establish a positive relationship between innovation performance and profitability. Nor was there any positive...... relationship between dynamic capabilities and profitability....

  12. Capability ethics

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological

  13. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  14. 3-minute Stephen Hawking. His life, theories and influence; Stephen Hawking im 3-Minuten-Takt. Sein Leben, sein Werk, sein Einfluss

    Parsons, Paul; Dixon, Gail

    2013-09-01

    3-minutes Stephen Hawking offers a compact introduction to life and work of this impressing scientist. This book is devided into three parts: Hawking's life, his theories, his influence. Each part offers fascinating reading material for one hour. The partial themes of this book are served up in practical 3-minute portions.

  15. Hawk-Eyes on Science and in Space

    Durow, Lillie

    2017-08-01

    For more than ten years the successful and well received outreach programs, Hawk-Eyes On Science and Hawk-Eyes in Space, have brought the excitement of science demonstrations to Iowans of all ages. However, the creation of a successful, sustainable outreach program requires the coordination of many aspects. In many respects, the demonstrations and hands-on activities are of secondary importance when weighed against the problems of funding, transportation, staffing, etc. In addition to showing examples of demonstrations that we use, I will also focus on a few of the problems and some of the solutions that we have found while coordinating our long running outreach programs at the University of Iowa Department of Physics and Astronomy.

  16. Testing the causality of Hawkes processes with time reversal

    Cordi, Marcus; Challet, Damien; Muni Toke, Ioane

    2018-03-01

    We show that univariate and symmetric multivariate Hawkes processes are only weakly causal: the true log-likelihoods of real and reversed event time vectors are almost equal, thus parameter estimation via maximum likelihood only weakly depends on the direction of the arrow of time. In ideal (synthetic) conditions, tests of goodness of parametric fit unambiguously reject backward event times, which implies that inferring kernels from time-symmetric quantities, such as the autocovariance of the event rate, only rarely produce statistically significant fits. Finally, we find that fitting financial data with many-parameter kernels may yield significant fits for both arrows of time for the same event time vector, sometimes favouring the backward time direction. This goes to show that a significant fit of Hawkes processes to real data with flexible kernels does not imply a definite arrow of time unless one tests it.

  17. Soft hair of dynamical black hole and Hawking radiation

    Chu, Chong-Sun; Koyama, Yoji

    2018-04-01

    Soft hair of black hole has been proposed recently to play an important role in the resolution of the black hole information paradox. Recent work has emphasized that the soft modes cannot affect the black hole S-matrix due to Weinberg soft theorems. However as soft hair is generated by supertranslation of geometry which involves an angular dependent shift of time, it must have non-trivial quantum effects. We consider supertranslation of the Vaidya black hole and construct a non-spherical symmetric dynamical spacetime with soft hair. We show that this spacetime admits a trapping horizon and is a dynamical black hole. We find that Hawking radiation is emitted from the trapping horizon of the dynamical black hole. The Hawking radiation has a spectrum which depends on the soft hair of the black hole and this is consistent with the factorization property of the black hole S-matrix.

  18. Gossiping Capabilities

    Mogensen, Martin; Frey, Davide; Guerraoui, Rachid

    Gossip-based protocols are now acknowledged as a sound basis to implement collaborative high-bandwidth content dissemination: content location is disseminated through gossip, the actual contents being subsequently pulled. In this paper, we present HEAP, HEterogeneity Aware gossip Protocol, where...... nodes dynamically adjust their contribution to gossip dissemination according to their capabilities. Using a continuous, itself gossip-based, approximation of relative capabilities, HEAP dynamically leverages the most capable nodes by (a) increasing their fanouts (while decreasing by the same proportion...... declare a high capability in order to augment their perceived quality without contributing accordingly. We evaluate HEAP in the context of a video streaming application on a 236 PlanetLab nodes testbed. Our results shows that HEAP improves the quality of the streaming by 25% over a standard gossip...

  19. A remark on the energy conditions for Hawking's area theorem

    Lesourd, Martin

    2018-06-01

    Hawking's area theorem is a fundamental result in black hole theory that is universally associated with the null energy condition. That this condition can be weakened is illustrated by the formulation of a strengthened version of the theorem based on an energy condition that allows for violations of the null energy condition. With the semi-classical context in mind, some brief remarks pertaining to the suitability of the area theorem and its energy condition are made.

  20. Top scientists join Stephen Hawking at Perimeter Institute

    Banks, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Nine leading researchers are to join Stephen Hawking as visiting fellows at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Ontario, Canada. The researchers, who include string theorists Leonard Susskind from Stanford University and Asoka Sen from the Harisch-Chandra Research Institute in India, will each spend a few months of the year at the institute as "distinguished research chairs". They will be joined by another 30 scientists to be announced at a later date.

  1. Kajian Kritis Terhadap Praanggapan Metafisis-Epistemologis Kosmologi Stephen Hawking

    Sindung Tjahyadi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini pada dasarnya merupakan kajian filosofis terhadap suatu "kosmologi ilmiah".Dengan demikian terdapat dua pendekatan yang digunakan,yakni,pertama,hampiran filsafatilmu, terkait dengan aspek-aspek metodologis dari kosmologi ilmiah;dan kedua, hampirankosmologi filsafat, terkait dengan evaluasi kritis atas kosmologi Hawking dalam dimensikosmologi filsafati, terutama berkenaan dengan posisi yang diambinya terhadap unsur hakikipembangun realitas dan peran pengkosmos di dalamnya khususnya terkait dengan konsepruang-wakru, prinsip determinisme, dan hukum kekekalan energi.

  2. Steven Hawking to visit Texas A&M in spring

    Xavier, D

    2002-01-01

    Stephen Hawking will visit Texas A&M University from Feb. 24 to March 21 2003 to participate in the inaugural meeting of the George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics. This institute will bring several of the world's top physicists to A&M for a month-long exploration of the latest ideas on topics ranging from superstrings to M-theory and supergravity (1/2 page).

  3. PRS and POS/PRS coupling experiments on Hawk

    Peterson, G G; Apruzese, J P; Commisso, R J [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div.; and others

    1997-12-31

    Experiments are being conducted on Hawk to investigate the electrical coupling of a plasma opening switch (POS) to a neon plasma radiation source (PRS) and to evaluate the K SHELL x-ray yield scaling of implosions with different initial radii, mass, and implosion times. Understanding the coupling and scaling is important for optimizing the performance of more powerful inductive-storage generators that rely on POS technology. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 7 refs.

  4. Ecology of a nesting red-shouldered hawk population

    Stewart, R.E.

    1949-01-01

    An ecological study of a nesting Red-shouldered Hawk population was made over a 185 square mile area on the Coastal Plain of Maryland in 1947. The courting and nesting season extended from late February until late June.....During the nesting season a combination of fairly extensive flood-plain forest with adjacent clearings appears to meet the major ecological requirements of the Red-shouldered Hawk in this region. A total of 51 pairs was found in the study area, occupying about 42 square miles or 23% of the total area studied. The population density on the land that was suitable for this species was about 1 pair per .8 of a square mile, while the density for the entire study area would be only about 1 pair per 3.6 square miles.....Nests were spaced fairly evenly over most of the flood-plain forests, especially in areas where the width.of the flood plain was relatively constant. There was an inverse correlation between the width of the flood plain and the distances between nests in adjacent territories. The nests were all situated in fairly large trees and were from 28 feet to 77 feet above the ground, averaging 50. They were found in 14 different species of trees, all deciduous.....The Barred Owl and Red-shouldered Hawk were commonly associated together in the same lowland habitats. Other raptores were all largely restricted to upland habitats....The average number of young in 47 occupied nests following the hatching period was 2.7 with extremes of 1 and 4. Only 3 out of 52 nests (6%) were found deserted at this time....The food habits of nestling Red-shouldered Hawks are very diversified. They feed on many types of warm-blooded and cold-blooded vertebrates as well as invertebrates.

  5. Capabilities for innovation

    Nielsen, Peter; Nielsen, Rene Nesgaard; Bamberger, Simon Grandjean

    2012-01-01

    is a survey that collected information from 601 firms belonging to the private urban sector in Denmark. The survey was carried out in late 2010. Keywords: dynamic capabilities/innovation/globalization/employee/employer cooperation/Nordic model Acknowledgment: The GOPA study was financed by grant 20080053113......Technological developments combined with increasing levels of competition related to the ongoing globalization imply that firms find themselves in dynamic, changing environments that call for dynamic capabilities. This challenges the internal human and organizational resources of firms in general...

  6. Hawking radiation from a spherical loop quantum gravity black hole

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    We introduce quantum field theory on quantum space-times techniques to characterize the quantum vacua as a first step toward studying black hole evaporation in spherical symmetry in loop quantum gravity and compute the Hawking radiation. We use as quantum space-time the recently introduced exact solution of the quantum Einstein equations in vacuum with spherical symmetry and consider a spherically symmetric test scalar field propagating on it. The use of loop quantum gravity techniques in the background space-time naturally regularizes the matter content, solving one of the main obstacles to back-reaction calculations in more traditional treatments. The discreteness of area leads to modifications of the quantum vacua, eliminating the trans-Planckian modes close to the horizon, which in turn eliminates all singularities from physical quantities, like the expectation value of the stress–energy tensor. Apart from this, the Boulware, Hartle–Hawking and Unruh vacua differ little from the treatment on a classical space-time. The asymptotic modes near scri are reproduced very well. We show that the Hawking radiation can be computed, leading to an expression similar to the conventional one but with a high frequency cutoff. Since many of the conclusions concern asymptotic behavior, where the spherical mode of the field behaves in a similar way as higher multipole modes do, the results can be readily generalized to non spherically symmetric fields. (paper)

  7. Modulated Hawking radiation and a nonviolent channel for information release

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    Unitarization of black hole evaporation requires that quantum information escapes a black hole; an important question is to identify the mechanism or channel by which it does so. Accurate counting of black hole states via the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy would indicate this information should be encoded in radiation with average energy flux matching Hawking's. Information can be encoded with no change in net flux via fine-grained modulation of the Hawking radiation. In an approximate effective field theory description, couplings to the stress tensor of the black hole atmosphere that depend on the internal state of the black hole are a promising alternative for inducing such modulation. These can be picturesquely thought of as due to state-dependent metric fluctuations in the vicinity of the horizon. Such couplings offer the prospect of emitting information without extra energy flux, and can be shown to do so at linear order in the couplings, with motivation given for possible extension of this result to higher orders. The potential advantages of such couplings to the stress tensor thus extend beyond their universality, which is helpful in addressing constraints from black hole mining

  8. Hawking radiation from AdS black holes

    Hubeny, Veronika E; Rangamani, Mukund; Marolf, Donald

    2010-01-01

    We study Hartle-Hawking-like states of quantum field theories on asymptotically AdS black hole backgrounds, with particular regard to the phase structure of interacting theories. By a suitable analytic continuation we show that the equilibrium dynamics of field theories on large asymptotically AdS black holes can be related to the low-temperature states of the same field theory on the AdS soliton (or pure AdS) background. This allows us to gain insight into Hartle-Hawking-like states on large-radius Schwarzschild- or rotating-AdS black holes. Furthermore, we exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence to explore the physics of strongly coupled large N theories on asymptotically AdS black holes. In particular, we exhibit a plausibly complete set of phases for the M2-brane world-volume superconformal field theory on a BTZ black hole background. Our analysis partially resolves puzzles previously raised in connection with Hawking radiation on large AdS black holes.

  9. Modulated Hawking radiation and a nonviolent channel for information release

    Giddings, Steven B., E-mail: giddings@physics.ucsb.edu

    2014-11-10

    Unitarization of black hole evaporation requires that quantum information escapes a black hole; an important question is to identify the mechanism or channel by which it does so. Accurate counting of black hole states via the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy would indicate this information should be encoded in radiation with average energy flux matching Hawking's. Information can be encoded with no change in net flux via fine-grained modulation of the Hawking radiation. In an approximate effective field theory description, couplings to the stress tensor of the black hole atmosphere that depend on the internal state of the black hole are a promising alternative for inducing such modulation. These can be picturesquely thought of as due to state-dependent metric fluctuations in the vicinity of the horizon. Such couplings offer the prospect of emitting information without extra energy flux, and can be shown to do so at linear order in the couplings, with motivation given for possible extension of this result to higher orders. The potential advantages of such couplings to the stress tensor thus extend beyond their universality, which is helpful in addressing constraints from black hole mining.

  10. The Hawking cascade from a black hole is extremely sparse

    Gray, Finnian; Schuster, Sebastian; Van–Brunt, Alexander; Visser, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The average time between emission of subsequent quanta in the Hawking process is extremely large. While this sparsity result has been known for a long time, it is neither well-known, nor do (semi-)analytic results currently exist, the prior focus being placed on numerical results. We define several ways of quantifying this sparsity, and starting from a black body approximation for the Schwarzschild case, we derive analytic expressions for a lower bound on this average time. We also check the validity of the results in presence of greybody factors by numerical analysis. Furthermore, we show how to separate the super-radiance in the low-frequency regime from the genuine Hawking effect itself. This enables us to extend the previous lower bounds to Reissner–Nordström, Kerr and dirty black holes in addition to different particle species. Lastly, we want to draw attention to some of the physical consequences of this under-appreciated fact of the Hawking process. (paper)

  11. Hawking radiation from black holes in de Sitter spaces

    Jiang Qingquan

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Hawking radiation has been treated, by Robinson and Wilczek (2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 011303), as a compensating flux of the energy-momentum tensor required to cancel a gravitational anomaly at the event horizon (EH) of a Schwarzschild-type black hole. In this paper, motivated by this work, Hawking radiation from the event horizon (EH) and the de Sitter cosmological horizon (CH) of black holes in de Sitter spaces, specifically including the purely de Sitter black hole and the static, spherically symmetric Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole as well as the rotating Kerr-de Sitter black hole, have been studied by anomalies. The results show that the gauge-current and energy-momentum tensor fluxes, required to restore gauge invariance and general coordinate covariance at the EH and the CH, are precisely equal to those of Hawking radiation from the EH and the CH, respectively. It should be noted that gauge and gravitational anomalies taking place at the CH arise from the fact that the effective field theory is formulated inside the CH to integrate out the classically irrelevant outgoing modes at the CH, which are different from those at the black hole horizon

  12. Black hole state evolution, final state and Hawking radiation

    Ahn, D

    2012-01-01

    The effect of a black hole state evolution on the Hawking radiation is studied using the final state boundary condition. It is found that the thermodynamic or statistical mechanical properties of a black hole depend strongly on the unitary evolution operator S, which determines the black hole state evolution. When the operator S is random unitary or pseudo-random unitary, a black hole emits thermal radiation as predicted by Hawking three decades ago. In particular, when the black hole mass of the final state vanishes, Hawking’s original result is retrieved. On the other hand, it is found that the emission of the Hawking radiation could be suppressed when the evolution of a black hole state is determined by the generator of the coherent state. Such a case can occur for some primordial black holes with Planck scale mass formed by primordial density fluctuations through the process of squeezing the zero-point quantum fluctuation of a scalar field. Those primordial black holes can survive until the present time and can contribute to cold dark matter. (paper)

  13. Critical reflexivity in financial markets: a Hawkes process analysis

    Hardiman, Stephen J.; Bercot, Nicolas; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2013-10-01

    We model the arrival of mid-price changes in the E-mini S&P futures contract as a self-exciting Hawkes process. Using several estimation methods, we find that the Hawkes kernel is power-law with a decay exponent close to -1.15 at short times, less than ≈ 103 s, and crosses over to a second power-law regime with a larger decay exponent ≈-1.45 for longer times scales in the range [ 103,106 ] seconds. More importantly, we find that the Hawkes kernel integrates to unity independently of the analysed period, from 1998 to 2011. This suggests that markets are and have always been close to criticality, challenging a recent study which indicates that reflexivity (endogeneity) has increased in recent years as a result of increased automation of trading. However, we note that the scale over which market events are correlated has decreased steadily over time with the emergence of higher frequency trading.

  14. Numerical observation of Hawking radiation from acoustic black holes in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates

    Carusotto, Iacopo; Recati, Alessio; Fagnocchi, Serena; Balbinot, Roberto; Fabbri, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    We report numerical evidence of Hawking emission of Bogoliubov phonons from a sonic horizon in a flowing one-dimensional atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. The presence of Hawking radiation is revealed from peculiar long-range patterns in the density-density correlation function of the gas. Quantitative agreement between our fully microscopic calculations and the prediction of analog models is obtained in the hydrodynamic limit. New features are predicted and the robustness of the Hawking signal against a finite temperature discussed.

  15. Microelectronic Status Analysis and Secondary Part Procureability Assessment of the HAWK Weapon System

    Maddux, Gary

    2000-01-01

    The MT Division, Engineering Directorate (ED), RDEC, AMCOM has the mission and function of providing microelectronic technology assessments, and producibility and supportability analyses for the HAWK weapon system...

  16. Microelectronic Status Analysis and Secondary Part Procureability Assessment of the HAWK Weapon System

    Maddux, Gary

    1999-01-01

    The Industrial Operations Division (IOD), SEPD, RDEC, AMCOM has the mission and function of providing microelectronic technology assessments, and producibility and supportability analyses for the HAWK weapon system...

  17. Hawking radiation temperatures in non-stationary Kerr black holes with different tortoise coordinate transformations

    Lan, X.G. [Southwest Jiaotong University, Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, Chengdu (China); China West Normal University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanchong (China); Jiang, Q.Q. [China West Normal University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanchong (China); Wei, L.F. [Southwest Jiaotong University, Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, Chengdu (China); Sun Yat-Sen University, State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-04-15

    We apply the Damour-Ruffini-Sannan method to study the Hawking radiations of scalar and Dirac particles in non-stationary Kerr black holes under different tortoise coordinate transformations. We found that all the relevant Hawking radiation spectra show still the blackbody ones, while the Hawking temperatures are strongly related to the used tortoise coordinate transformations. The properties of these dependences are discussed analytically and numerically. Our results imply that proper selections of tortoise coordinate transformations should be important in the studies of Hawking radiations and the correct selection would be given by the experimental observations in the future. (orig.)

  18. Hawkes process as a model of social interactions: a view on video dynamics

    Mitchell, Lawrence; Cates, Michael E, E-mail: lawrence.mitchell@ed.ac.u [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, JCMB Kings Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-29

    We study by computer simulation the 'Hawkes process' that was proposed in a recent paper by Crane and Sornette (2008 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105 15649) as a plausible model for the dynamics of YouTube video viewing numbers. We test the claims made there that robust identification is possible for classes of dynamic response following activity bursts. Our simulated time series for the Hawkes process indeed fall into the different categories predicted by Crane and Sornette. However, the Hawkes process gives a much narrower spread of decay exponents than the YouTube data, suggesting limits to the universality of the Hawkes-based analysis.

  19. The Hawking evaporation process of rapidly-rotating black holes: an almost continuous cascade of gravitons

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emek Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-07-15

    It is shown that rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes are characterized by the dimensionless ratio τ{sub gap}/τ{sub emission} = O(1), where τ{sub gap} is the average time gap between the emissions of successive Hawking quanta and τ{sub emission} is the characteristic timescale required for an individual Hawking quantum to be emitted from the black hole. This relation implies that the Hawking cascade from rapidly-rotating black holes has an almost continuous character. Our results correct some inaccurate claims that recently appeared in the literature regarding the nature of the Hawking black-hole evaporation process. (orig.)

  20. Observing Hawking radiation in Bose-Einstein condensates via correlation measurements

    Fabbri, A.

    2013-01-01

    Observing quantum particle creation by black holes (Hawking radiation) in the astrophysical context is, in ordinary situations, hopeless. Nevertheless the Hawking effect, which depends only on kinematical properties of wave propagation in the presence of horizons, is present also in the non gravitational contexts, for instance in stationary fluids undergoing supersonic flow. We present results on how to observe the analog Hawking radiation in Bose-Einstein condensates by a direct measurement of the density correlations due to the phonon pairs (Hawking-quanta– partner) created by the acoustic horizon.

  1. The Hawking evaporation process of rapidly-rotating black holes: an almost continuous cascade of gravitons

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that rapidly-rotating Kerr black holes are characterized by the dimensionless ratio τ gap /τ emission = O(1), where τ gap is the average time gap between the emissions of successive Hawking quanta and τ emission is the characteristic timescale required for an individual Hawking quantum to be emitted from the black hole. This relation implies that the Hawking cascade from rapidly-rotating black holes has an almost continuous character. Our results correct some inaccurate claims that recently appeared in the literature regarding the nature of the Hawking black-hole evaporation process. (orig.)

  2. Hawkes process as a model of social interactions: a view on video dynamics

    Mitchell, Lawrence; Cates, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    We study by computer simulation the 'Hawkes process' that was proposed in a recent paper by Crane and Sornette (2008 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105 15649) as a plausible model for the dynamics of YouTube video viewing numbers. We test the claims made there that robust identification is possible for classes of dynamic response following activity bursts. Our simulated time series for the Hawkes process indeed fall into the different categories predicted by Crane and Sornette. However, the Hawkes process gives a much narrower spread of decay exponents than the YouTube data, suggesting limits to the universality of the Hawkes-based analysis.

  3. Hawkes process as a model of social interactions: a view on video dynamics

    Mitchell, Lawrence; Cates, Michael E, E-mail: lawrence.mitchell@ed.ac.u [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, JCMB Kings Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-29

    We study by computer simulation the 'Hawkes process' that was proposed in a recent paper by Crane and Sornette (2008 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105 15649) as a plausible model for the dynamics of YouTube video viewing numbers. We test the claims made there that robust identification is possible for classes of dynamic response following activity bursts. Our simulated time series for the Hawkes process indeed fall into the different categories predicted by Crane and Sornette. However, the Hawkes process gives a much narrower spread of decay exponents than the YouTube data, suggesting limits to the universality of the Hawkes-based analysis.

  4. Capability approach

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Lærebogen er den første samlede danske præsentation af den af Amartya Sen og Martha Nussbaum udviklede Capability Approach. Bogen indeholder en præsentation og diskussion af Sen og Nussbaums teoretiske platform. I bogen indgår eksempler fra såvel uddannelse/uddannelsespolitik, pædagogik og omsorg....

  5. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  6. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  7. ENTREPRENEURIAL CAPABILITIES

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Nielsen, Thorkild

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse entrepreneurship from an action research perspective. What is entrepreneurship about? Which are the fundamental capabilities and processes of entrepreneurship? To answer these questions the article includes a case study of a Danish entrepreneur and his networ....... Finally, the article discuss, how more long term action research methods could be integrated into the entrepreneurial processes and the possible impacts of such an implementation?...

  8. Spin One Hawking Radiation from Dirty Black Holes

    Petarpa Boonserm; Tritos Ngampitipan; Matt Visser

    2013-01-01

    A “clean” black hole is a black hole in vacuum such as the Schwarzschild black hole. However in real physical systems, there are matter fields around a black hole. Such a black hole is called a “dirty black hole”. In this paper, the effect of matter fields on the black hole and the greybody factor is investigated. The results show that matter fields make a black hole smaller. They can increase the potential energy to a black hole to obstruct Hawking radiation to propagate. This causes the gre...

  9. Lorentz Invariance Violation and Modified Hawking Fermions Tunneling Radiation

    Shu-Zheng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently the modified Dirac equation with Lorentz invariance violation has been proposed, which would be helpful to resolve some issues in quantum gravity theory and high energy physics. In this paper, the modified Dirac equation has been generalized in curved spacetime, and then fermion tunneling of black holes is researched under this correctional Dirac field theory. We also use semiclassical approximation method to get correctional Hamilton-Jacobi equation, so that the correctional Hawking temperature and correctional black hole’s entropy are derived.

  10. Recent trends in counts of migrant hawks from northeastern North America

    Titus, K.; Fuller, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Using simple regression, pooled-sites route-regression, and nonparametric rank-trend analyses, we evaluated trends in counts of hawks migrating past 6 eastern hawk lookouts from 1972 to 1987. The indexing variable was the total count for a season. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), merlin (F. columbarius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) counts increased using route-regression and nonparametric methods (P 0.10). We found no consistent trends (P > 0.10) in counts of sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), northern goshawks (A. gentilis) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), red-tailed hawks (B. jamaicensis), rough-legged hawsk (B. lagopus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius). Broad-winged hawk (B. platypterus) counts declined (P < 0.05) based on the route-regression method. Empirical comparisons of our results with those for well-studied species such as the peregrine falcon, bald eagle, and osprey indicated agreement with nesting surveys. We suggest that counts of migrant hawks are a useful and economical method for detecting long-term trends in species across regions, particularly for species that otherwise cannot be easily surveyed.

  11. Low prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in urban and migratory Cooper's Hawks in northcentral North America

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Taft, Stephen J.; Stout, William E.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Evans, David L.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is a digestive tract disease caused by ingestion of the protozoan Trichomonas gallinae. This disease can be a significant source of mortality. No deaths of nestlings could be attributed to trichomoniasis in Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) breeding in urban and rural environs in Wisconsin, North Dakota, and British Columbia. We detected T. gallinae in four (5.2%) of 77 nestling Cooper's Hawks during 2006 and 2007 among 42 urban nests on new study areas in southeast Wisconsin and eastern North Dakota/western Minnesota. All four infected young fledged. We did not detect T. gallinae in 52 breeding adult Cooper's Hawks on two urban study sites, nor in 28 migrant hatching year (n  =  24) and adult (n  =  4) Cooper's Hawks at Hawk Ridge Nature Reserve, Duluth, Minnesota in 2006–2007. Overall, we detected T. gallinae in only 2.5% of 157 Cooper's Hawks in northcentral North America. These results suggest a low prevalence of T. gallinae in Cooper's Hawks in the northern part of this hawk's breeding range.

  12. Hawking temperature and scalar field fluctuations in the de-Sitter space

    Rozhanskij, L.V.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that diffusion equation for scalar field fluctuations in the de-Sitter space corresponds to Hawking temperature. The relationship between stationary solution of the equation and Hartle-Hawking instanton at random space dimensionality and any type of gravitational effect has been established

  13. Health evaluation of Galapagos Hawks (Buteo galapagoensis) on Santiago Island, Galapagos.

    Deem, Sharon L; Rivera-Parra, Jose Luis; Parker, Patricia G

    2012-01-01

    Galapagos Hawks (Buteo galapagoensis), the only endemic, diurnal raptor species in Galapagos, are currently distributed on eight Galapagos Islands having been extirpated from three of the human-inhabited islands. In January 2009, we performed health assessments of 89 Galapagos Hawks on Santiago Island, Galapagos. Four of the 89 Galapagos Hawks (4%) evaluated had physical abnormalities. Blood parameters did not differ between males and females, except for aspartate transaminase values, which were significantly higher in females than males. No Galapagos Hawks tested positive for antibodies to avian encephalitis virus, Marek virus, and paramyxovirus-1 or to haemosporidian antigen. Chlamydophila psittaci antigen was detected in 2 of 86 Galapagos Hawks (2%), with 24 of 43 Galapagos Hawks (56%) antibody-positive for avian adenovirus-1 and 1 of 48 Galapagos Hawks (2%) antibody positive for Toxoplasma gondii. There were no significant differences in infectious disease results based on sex. This study contributes to the understanding of the health status of the Galapagos Hawk and to the establishment of baseline information for the species.

  14. Bogoliubov theory of the Hawking effect in Bose-Einstein condensates

    Leonhardt, U; Kiss, T; Oehberg, P

    2003-01-01

    Artificial black holes may demonstrate some of the elusive quantum properties of the event horizon, in particular Hawking radiation. One promising candidate is a sonic hole in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We clarify why Hawking radiation emerges from the condensate and how this condensed-matter analogue reflects some of the intriguing aspects of quantum black holes

  15. Autumn raptor banding at hawk Ridge, Duluth, Minnesota USA, 1972-2009: An overview

    This manuscript is targeted to a specialized audience: ornithologists who work specifically on raptors (hawks and owls). The goal of the paper is to describe the last 38 years of banding at Hawk Ridge Bird Observatory and to put out some preliminary results on species’ annual dy...

  16. Re-Occupancy of Breeding Territories by Ferruginous Hawks in Wyoming: Relationships to Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors.

    Wallace, Zachary P; Kennedy, Patricia L; Squires, John R; Oakleaf, Robert J; Olson, Lucretia E; Dugger, Katie M

    2016-01-01

    Grassland and shrubland birds are declining globally due in part to anthropogenic habitat modification. Because population performance of these species is also influenced by non-anthropogenic factors, it is important to incorporate all relevant ecological drivers into demographic models. We used design-based sampling and occupancy models to test relationships of environmental factors that influence raptor demographics with re-occupancy of breeding territories by ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) across Wyoming, USA, 2011-2013. We also tested correlations of territory re-occupancy with oil and gas infrastructure-a leading cause of habitat modification throughout the range of this species of conservation concern. Probability of re-occupancy was not related to any covariates we investigated in 2011, had a strong negative relationship with cover of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) in 2012, was slightly higher for territories with artificial platforms than other nest substrates in 2013, and had a positive relationship with abundance of ground squirrels (Urocitellus spp.) that was strong in 2012 and weak in 2013. Associations with roads were weak and varied by year, road-type, and scale: in 2012, re-occupancy probability had a weak positive correlation with density of roads not associated with oil and gas fields at the territory-scale; however, in 2013 re-occupancy had a very weak negative correlation with density of oil and gas field roads near nest sites (≤500 m). Although our results indicate re-occupancy of breeding territories by ferruginous hawks was compatible with densities of anthropogenic infrastructure in our study area, the lack of relationships between oil and gas well density and territory re-occupancy may have occurred because pre-treatment data were unavailable. We used probabilistic sampling at a broad spatial extent, methods to account for imperfect detection, and conducted extensive prey sampling; nonetheless, future research using before

  17. Hawking radiation, entanglement, and teleportation in the background of an asymptotically flat static black hole

    Pan Qiyuan; Jing Jiliang

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the Hawking temperature on the entanglement and teleportation for the scalar field in a most general, static, and asymptotically flat black hole with spherical symmetry has been investigated. It has been shown that the same 'initial entanglement' for the state parameter α and its 'normalized partners'√(1-α 2 ) will be degraded by the Hawking effect with increasing Hawking temperature along two different trajectories except for the maximally entangled state. In the infinite Hawking temperature limit, corresponding to the case of the black hole evaporating completely, the state no longer has distillable entanglement for any α. It is interesting to note that the mutual information in this limit is equal to just half of the 'initially mutual information'. It has also been demonstrated that the fidelity of teleportation decreases as the Hawking temperature increases, which indicates the degradation of entanglement.

  18. Comparative morphology among northern populations of breeding Cooper's Hawks

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Bielefeldt, John; Murphy, Robert K.; Stewart, Andrew C.; Stout, William E.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies at a broad geographical scale have characterized intraspecific variation in morphology of woodland hawks in the genus Accipiter. From 1999 to 2007 we investigated morphological variation in large samples of live Cooper's Hawks (A. cooperii) nesting in four study areas: coniferous woodland around Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, isolated deciduous woodlands in short-grass prairies of northwestern North Dakota, towns and rural deciduous woodlands along the border of North Dakota and Minnesota, and urban and rural mixed deciduous and coniferous landscapes of Wisconsin. These sites span 2660 km across the northern part of the species' breeding range. We measured body mass (i.e., size), wing chord, tail length, tarsus diameter, hallux length, and culmen length of breeding adults, finding significant and clinal variation in body mass (or size). The smallest and most similar-sized birds occurred in British Columbia and western North Dakota, larger birds along the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, and the largest birds in Wisconsin. Several other characters varied significantly when mass was used as a covariate. Variation by study site in mean indices of sexual size dimorphism was negligible and not significant. We speculate that the morphological differences we found, in part, are the result of geographic isolation, where diets, migratory behavior, and structural characteristics of nesting habitats vary across landscape types.

  19. Nesting habitat and productivity of Swainson's Hawks in southeastern Arizona

    Nishida, Catherine; Boal, Clint W.; DeStefano, Stephen; Hobbs, Royden J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) in southeastern Arizona to assess the status of the local breeding population. Nest success (≥1 young fledged) was 44.4% in 1999 with an average of 1.43 ± 0.09 (SE) young produced per successful pair. Productivity was similar in 2000, with 58.2% nesting success and 1.83 ± 0.09 fledglings per successful pair. Mesquite (Prosopis velutina) and cottonwood (Populus fremontii) accounted for >50% of 167 nest trees. Nest trees were taller than surrounding trees and random trees, and overall there was more vegetative cover at nest sites than random sites. This apparent requirement for cover around nest sites could be important for management of the species in Arizona. However, any need for cover at nest sites must be balanced with the need for open areas for foraging. Density of nesting Swainson's Hawks was higher in agriculture than in grasslands and desert scrub. Breeding pairs had similar success in agricultural and nonagricultural areas, but the effect of rapid and widespread land-use change on breeding distribution and productivity continues to be a concern throughout the range of the species.

  20. Mean-field inference of Hawkes point processes

    Bacry, Emmanuel; Gaïffas, Stéphane; Mastromatteo, Iacopo; Muzy, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    We propose a fast and efficient estimation method that is able to accurately recover the parameters of a d-dimensional Hawkes point-process from a set of observations. We exploit a mean-field approximation that is valid when the fluctuations of the stochastic intensity are small. We show that this is notably the case in situations when interactions are sufficiently weak, when the dimension of the system is high or when the fluctuations are self-averaging due to the large number of past events they involve. In such a regime the estimation of a Hawkes process can be mapped on a least-squares problem for which we provide an analytic solution. Though this estimator is biased, we show that its precision can be comparable to the one of the maximum likelihood estimator while its computation speed is shown to be improved considerably. We give a theoretical control on the accuracy of our new approach and illustrate its efficiency using synthetic datasets, in order to assess the statistical estimation error of the parameters. (paper)

  1. Automation of processing and photometric data analysis for transiting exoplanets observed with ESO NIR instrument HAWK-I

    Blažek, M.; Kabáth, P.; Klocová, T.; Skarka, M.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, when amount of data still increases, it is necessary to automatise their processing. State-of-the-art instruments are capable to produce even tens of thousands of images during a single night. One of them is HAWK-I that is a part of Very Large Telescope of European Southern Observatory. This instrument works in near-infrared band. In my Master thesis, I dealt with developing a pipeline to process data obtained by the instrument. It is written in Python programming language using commands of IRAF astronomical software and it is developed directly for "Fast Photometry Mode" of HAWK-I. In this mode, a large number of data has been obtained during secondary eclipses of exoplanets by their host star. The pipeline was tested by a data set from sorting of the images to making a light curve. The data of WASP-18 system contained almost 40 000 images observed by using a filter centered at 2.09 μm wavelength and there is a plan to process other data sets. A goal of processing of WASP-18 and the other data sets is consecutive analysis of exoplanetary atmospheres of the observed systems.

  2. Responding to the Gender and Education Millennium Development Goals in South Africa and Kenya: Reflections on Education Rights, Gender Equality, Capabilities and Global Justice

    Unterhalter, Elaine; North, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores understandings of gender equality and education and the nature of global goal and target setting, drawing on empirical data collected in central and local government departments in Kenya and South Africa reflecting on their implementation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1, concerned with poverty, MDG 2, concerned with…

  3. Hawking radiation and tunneling mechanism for a new class of black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Muneyuki, Kenji; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    We study Hawking radiation in a new class of black hole solutions in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory. The black hole has been argued to have vanishing mass and entropy, but finite Hawking temperature. To check if it really emits radiation, we analyze Hawking radiation using the original method of quantization of a scalar field in the black hole background and with the quantum tunneling method, and confirm that it emits radiation at the Hawking temperature. A general formula is derived for the Hawking temperature and backreaction in the tunneling approach. Physical implications of these results are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Stephen Hawking's Community-Bound Voice A Functional Investigation of Self-Mentions in Stephen Hawking's Scientific Prose

    Davud Kuhi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the development of the concept of metadiscourse, it is now widely acknowledged that academic/scientific writing is not only concerned with communicating purely propositional meanings: what is communicated through academic/scientific communication is seen to be intertwined with the negotiation of social and interpersonal meanings. While a large number of so called metadiscoursal resources contribute to the simultaneous negotiation of propositional and interpersonal meanings, the present study aimed at investigating the functions self-mention forms can fulfill in academic/scientific communication. Two of Stephen Hawking's scientific books were selected as the corpus of the research, and based on Tang and John's (1999 model, the constructed corpus was analyzed in terms of the functions self-mention forms can fulfill in academic/scientific writing. The findings revealed that from among the different roles identified by Tang and John, the representative role constituted the most frequent self-mention function in the corpus. The remarkably heavy presence of representative role in Hawking's scientific prose was interpreted as a further evidence for the claim that scientists are more likely to persuade readers of their ideas if they frame their messages in ways which appeal to appropriate community-recognized relationships.

  5. Campus Capability Plan

    Adams, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Arsenlis, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bailey, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bergman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brase, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brenner, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Camara, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Carlton, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cheng, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chrzanowski, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Colson, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); East, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Farrell, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ferranti, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gursahani, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hansen, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Helms, L. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hernandez, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jeffries, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Larson, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lu, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McNabb, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mercer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Skeate, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sueksdorf, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zucca, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Le, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ancria, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scott, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Leininger, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gagliardi, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gash, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bronson, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chung, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hobson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meeker, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanchez, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zagar, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Quivey, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sommer, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Atherton, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Campus Capability Plan for 2018-2028. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is one of three national laboratories that are part of the National Nuclear Security Administration. LLNL provides critical expertise to strengthen U.S. security through development and application of world-class science and technology that: Ensures the safety, reliability, and performance of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile; Promotes international nuclear safety and nonproliferation; Reduces global danger from weapons of mass destruction; Supports U.S. leadership in science and technology. Essential to the execution and continued advancement of these mission areas are responsive infrastructure capabilities. This report showcases each LLNL capability area and describes the mission, science, and technology efforts enabled by LLNL infrastructure, as well as future infrastructure plans.

  6. Backreaction of Hawking radiation on a gravitationally collapsing star I: Black holes?

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Particle creation leading to Hawking radiation is produced by the changing gravitational field of the collapsing star. The two main initial conditions in the far past placed on the quantum field from which particles arise, are the Hartle–Hawking vacuum and the Unruh vacuum. The former leads to a time-symmetric thermal bath of radiation, while the latter to a flux of radiation coming out of the collapsing star. The energy of Hawking radiation in the interior of the collapsing star is negative and equal in magnitude to its value at future infinity. This work investigates the backreaction of Hawking radiation on the interior of a gravitationally collapsing star, in a Hartle–Hawking initial vacuum. It shows that due to the negative energy Hawking radiation in the interior, the collapse of the star stops at a finite radius, before the singularity and the event horizon of a black hole have a chance to form. That is, the star bounces instead of collapsing to a black hole. A trapped surface near the last stage of the star's collapse to its minimum size may still exist temporarily. Its formation depends on the details of collapse. Results for the case of Hawking flux of radiation with the Unruh initial state, will be given in a companion paper II

  7. Hawking fluxes and anomalies in rotating regular black holes with a time-delay

    Takeuchi, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Based on the anomaly cancellation method we compute the Hawking fluxes (the Hawking thermal flux and the total flux of energy-momentum tensor) from a four-dimensional rotating regular black hole with a time-delay. To this purpose, in the three metrics proposed in [1], we try to perform the dimensional reduction in which the anomaly cancellation method is feasible at the near-horizon region in a general scalar field theory. As a result we can demonstrate that the dimensional reduction is possible in two of those metrics. Hence we perform the anomaly cancellation method and compute the Hawking fluxes in those two metrics. Our Hawking fluxes involve three effects: (1) quantum gravity effect regularizing the core of the black holes, (2) rotation of the black hole, (3) time-delay. Further in this paper toward the metric in which the dimensional could not be performed, we argue that it would be some problematic metric, and mention its cause. The Hawking fluxes we compute in this study could be considered to correspond to more realistic Hawking fluxes. Further what Hawking fluxes can be obtained from the anomaly cancellation method would be interesting in terms of the relation between a consistency of quantum field theories and black hole thermodynamics. (paper)

  8. Connecting anomaly and tunneling methods for the Hawking effect through chirality

    Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    The role of chirality is discussed in unifying the anomaly and the tunneling formalisms for deriving the Hawking effect. Using the chirality condition and starting from the familiar form of the trace anomaly, the chiral (gravitational) anomaly, manifested as a nonconservation of the stress tensor, near the horizon of a black hole, is derived. Solution of this equation yields the stress tensor whose asymptotic infinity limit gives the Hawking flux. Finally, use of the same chirality condition in the tunneling formalism gives the Hawking temperature that is compatible with the flux obtained by anomaly method.

  9. Hawking radiation of Dirac particles in the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman spacetime

    Ahmed, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Hawking radiation of charged Dirac particles on the horizons of the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman spacetime is studied in this paper. To this end, we obtain the radial decoupled Dirac equation for the electron in the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman spacetime. Next we solve the Dirac equation near the horizons. Finally, by analytic continuation, the Hawking thermal spectrum formula of Dirac particles is obtained. The problem of the Hawking evaporation of Dirac particles in the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman background is thus solved. (orig.)

  10. Migration and habitat preferences of Swainson's Hawks at an autumn stopover site in northwestern Texas

    Littlefield, Carroll D.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most raptors, the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) migrates long distances between breeding and wintering ranges, which elevates the importance of stopover sites for foraging. We conducted three years of fall surveys in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Migrant Swainson's Hawks moved through the area mostly between July and mid-October, peaking in September. Subadults tended to migrate earlier than adults, and light morphs before dark morphs. Favored foraging habitats included silage corn, green beans, and alfalfa, but the hawks foraged primarily where ongoing agricultural activities disturbed prey and made them more available.

  11. New coordinates for BTZ black hole and Hawking radiation via tunnelling

    Liu Wenbiao

    2006-01-01

    Hawking radiation can usefully be viewed as a semi-classical tunnelling process that originates at the black hole horizon. For the stationary axisymmetric BTZ black hole, a generalized Painleve coordinate system (Painleve-BTZ coordinates) is introduced, and Hawking radiation as tunnelling under the effect of self-gravitation is investigated. The corrected radiation is obtained which is not precise thermal spectrum. The result is consistent with the underlying unitary theory. Moreover, Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of BTZ black hole is not necessarily corrected when we choose appropriate coordinate system to study the tunnelling effect

  12. Black hole in a waveguide: Hawking radiation or self-phase modulation?

    Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2015-01-01

    Recently it was suggested that Hawking radiation may be observed in a nonlinear electromagnetic waveguide upon propagation of an optical pulse. We show that the spectral characteristics of the Hawking effect in such a waveguide are indistinguishable from the well-known effect of frequency broadening of an optical pulse due to self-phase modulation. Furthermore, we derive an estimate on the critical optical power at which Hawking effect is dominated by the self-phase modulation. It appears that optical experiments reported so far are clearly dominated by self-phase modulation. (paper)

  13. Hawking spectrum for a fiber-optical analog of the event horizon

    Bermudez, David; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2016-05-01

    Hawking radiation has been regarded as a more general phenomenon than in gravitational physics, in particular in laboratory analogs of the event horizon. Here we consider the fiber-optical analog of the event horizon, where intense light pulses in fibers establish horizons for probe light. Then, we calculate the Hawking spectrum in an experimentally realizable system. We found that the Hawking radiation is peaked around group-velocity horizons in which the speed of the pulse matches the group velocity of the probe light. The radiation nearly vanishes at the phase horizon where the speed of the pulse matches the phase velocity of light.

  14. Comprehensive study of endurance for IAR-99 Hawk

    Dorin LOZICI-BRINZEI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some methods of on-ground and in-flight calibration for strain gauges, intended to the development of complex programs which analyze the endurance phenomena for aerospace structures, with direct application to the IAR-99 Hawk. The strain gauges have the advantage of being sensitive to load and therefore to aerodynamic phenomena, thereby providing indications of the loads supported by the structure. The effects size of loads type phenomena caused by wind gusts or buffet can be measured only by strain gauges or accelerometres70 and they cannot be recorded by flight or fatigue parameters counters. The installation of a strain gauge is made using a pattern (its position and orientation are crucial and the strain gauge selected for installation should not be fragile or unstable. Routines should be established for periodic inspection of strain gauges and those which are defective should be replaced immediately.

  15. Mate replacement and alloparental care in Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis)

    Datta, Shubham; Inselman, Will M.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Jensen, Kent C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Klaver, Robert W.; Sasmal, Indrani; Grovenburg, Troy W.

    2015-01-01

    Alloparental care (i.e., care for unrelated offspring) has been documented in various avian species (Maxson 1978, Smith et al. 1996, Tella et al. 1997, Lislevand et al. 2001, Literak and Mraz 2011). A male replacement mate that encounters existing broods has options, which include alloparental care or infanticide. Infanticide may be beneficial in some species (Rohwer 1986, Kermott et al. 1990), but in long-lived avian species, like the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) that do not renest within a season, infanticide might be detrimental. Adoption and rearing success likely provide direct evidence of competence of replacement mates as potential parents for future seasons, a benefit that might outweigh the investment of time and effort associated with adoption and rearing (after Rohwer 1986). Anticipated mating opportunity at the cost of adoption (Gori et al. 1996, Rohwer et al. 1999) may explain step-parental benevolence and therefore, in such a scenario would enhance individual fitness through subsequent recruitment of related young.

  16. One Hair Postulate for Hawking Radiation as Tunneling Process

    Dong Hui; Sun Chang-Pu; Cai Qing-Yu; Liu Xu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    For Hawking radiation, treated as a tunneling process, the no-hair theorem of black hole together with the law of energy conservation is utilized to postulate that the tunneling rate only depends on the external qualities (e.g., the mass for the Schwarzschild black hole) and the energy of the radiated particle. This postulate is justified by the WKB approximation for calculating the tunneling probability. Based on this postulate, a general formula for the tunneling probability is derived without referring to the concrete form of black hole metric. This formula implies an intrinsic correlation between the successive processes of the black hole radiation of two or more particles. It also suggests a kind of entropy conservation and thus resolves the puzzle of black hole information loss in some sense. (general)

  17. Vision and foraging in cormorants: more like herons than hawks?

    Craig R White

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo L. show the highest known foraging yield for a marine predator and they are often perceived to be in conflict with human economic interests. They are generally regarded as visually-guided, pursuit-dive foragers, so it would be expected that cormorants have excellent vision much like aerial predators, such as hawks which detect and pursue prey from a distance. Indeed cormorant eyes appear to show some specific adaptations to the amphibious life style. They are reported to have a highly pliable lens and powerful intraocular muscles which are thought to accommodate for the loss of corneal refractive power that accompanies immersion and ensures a well focussed image on the retina. However, nothing is known of the visual performance of these birds and how this might influence their prey capture technique. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured the aquatic visual acuity of great cormorants under a range of viewing conditions (illuminance, target contrast, viewing distance and found it to be unexpectedly poor. Cormorant visual acuity under a range of viewing conditions is in fact comparable to unaided humans under water, and very inferior to that of aerial predators. We present a prey detectability model based upon the known acuity of cormorants at different illuminances, target contrasts and viewing distances. This shows that cormorants are able to detect individual prey only at close range (less than 1 m. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that cormorants are not the aquatic equivalent of hawks. Their efficient hunting involves the use of specialised foraging techniques which employ brief short-distance pursuit and/or rapid neck extension to capture prey that is visually detected or flushed only at short range. This technique appears to be driven proximately by the cormorant's limited visual capacities, and is analogous to the foraging techniques employed by herons.

  18. High prevalence of Sarcocystis calchasi sporocysts in European Accipiter hawks.

    Olias, Philipp; Olias, Lena; Krücken, Jürgen; Lierz, Michael; Gruber, Achim D

    2011-02-10

    The emerging Sarcocystis calchasi induces a severe and lethal central nervous disease in its intermediate host, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica). Experimental studies have identified the Northern goshawk (Accipiter g. gentilis) as final host. Phylogenetically closely related European sparrowhawks (Accipiter n. nisus) and wood pigeons (Columba palumbus) have been found to harbor genetically closely related Sarcocystis spp. However, data on the prevalence and potential interspecies occurrence of these parasites are lacking. Here, we report that European Accipiter hawks (Accipitrinae) are highly infected with S. calchasi, S. columbae and Sarcocystis sp. ex A. nisus in their small intestine. Thirty-one of 50 (62%) Northern goshawks necropsied during 1997-2008 were positive for S. calchasi in a newly established species-specific semi-nested PCR assay based on the first internal transcribed spacer region. Unexpectedly, 14 of 20 (71.4%) European sparrowhawks tested also positive. In addition, birds of both species were found to be infested with S. columbae and an, as yet, unnamed Sarcocystis sp. recently isolated from European sparrowhawks. These findings raise new questions about the host specificity of S. calchasi and its high virulence in domestic pigeons, since sparrowhawks only rarely prey on pigeons. Notably, isolated sporocysts from both infected Accipiter spp. measured 8 μm × 11.9 μm, precluding a preliminary identification of S. calchasi in feces of Accipiter hawks based on morphology alone. Importantly, three of four Northern goshawks used in falconry tested positive for S. calchasi. In conclusion, the results indicate that both European Accipter spp. in Germany serve as natural final hosts of S. calchasi and suggest that falconry and pigeon sport may serve as risk factors for the spread of this pathogen in domestic pigeons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Christopher Hawkes and the International Summer Courses of Ampurias

    Margarita Díaz-Andreu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide an initial analysis of the early connections between Christopher Hawkes and Spanish archaeology in the context of his participation in two of the international summer courses in Ampurias in 1947 and 1950. The documentation used for this article comes mainly from the Pericot Archive in the Library of Catalonia, in which there are 43 letters from Hawkes to Pericot between 1940 and 1975. In addition, other correspondence in the British Museum and in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs will be mentioned. This study forms part of a larger project of recovering the memory of twentieth-century British-Spanish relations, of which a first phase has centred on the assessment of Gordon Childe’s contacts with Spain (Díaz-Andreu 1998; forthcoming–a; forthcoming–b. As in Gordon Childe’s case, all memory of Hawkes’ visits, and indeed of his relationships with Spanish archaeologists, has since been lost. Unfortunately, this situation is not exceptional: most of the links between Spanish archaeologists and British and American archaeologists in the twenty years around the Spanish Civil War have dropped out of archaeological memory. To the names mentioned in a recent seminar (Gordon Childe, Edward Thurlow Leeds, Eoin MacWhite, Hubert Savory (Armada Pita 2006, many others could be added. As this article will show, however, there were many contacts and these help to explain some developments in the archaeological thinking and practice of the participants involved in these exchanges, as well as some events in the international organisation of archaeology.

  20. Dyadic Event Attribution in Social Networks with Mixtures of Hawkes Processes.

    Li, Liangda; Zha, Hongyuan

    2013-01-01

    In many applications in social network analysis, it is important to model the interactions and infer the influence between pairs of actors, leading to the problem of dyadic event modeling which has attracted increasing interests recently. In this paper we focus on the problem of dyadic event attribution, an important missing data problem in dyadic event modeling where one needs to infer the missing actor-pairs of a subset of dyadic events based on their observed timestamps. Existing works either use fixed model parameters and heuristic rules for event attribution, or assume the dyadic events across actor-pairs are independent. To address those shortcomings we propose a probabilistic model based on mixtures of Hawkes processes that simultaneously tackles event attribution and network parameter inference, taking into consideration the dependency among dyadic events that share at least one actor. We also investigate using additive models to incorporate regularization to avoid overfitting. Our experiments on both synthetic and real-world data sets on international armed conflicts suggest that the proposed new method is capable of significantly improve accuracy when compared with the state-of-the-art for dyadic event attribution.

  1. Researching on Hawking Effect in a Kerr Space Time via Open Quantum System Approach

    Liu, Wen-Biao; Liu, Xian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that Hawking radiation from a Schwarzschild or a de Sitter spacetime can be understood as the manifestation of thermalization phenomena in the framework of an open quantum system. Through examining the time evolution of a detector interacting with vacuum massless scalar fields, it is found that the detector would spontaneously excite with a probability the same as the thermal radiation at Hawking temperature. Following the proposals, the Hawking effect in a Kerr space time is investigated in the framework of an open quantum systems. It is shown that Hawking effect of the Kerr space time can also be understood as the the manifestation of thermalization phenomena via open quantum system approach. Furthermore, it is found that near horizon local conformal symmetry plays the key role in the quantum effect of the Kerr space time

  2. Low-frequency analogue Hawking radiation: The Bogoliubov-de Gennes model

    Coutant, Antonin; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2018-01-01

    We analytically study the low-frequency properties of the analogue Hawking effect in Bose-Einstein condensates. We show that in one-dimensional flows displaying an analogue horizon, the Hawking effect is dominant in the low-frequency regime. This happens despite nonvanishing grey-body factors, that is, the coupling of the Hawking mode and its partner to the mode propagating with the flow. To show this, we obtained analytical expressions for the scattering coefficients, in general flows and taking into account the full Bogoliubov dispersion relation. We discuss the obtained expressions for the grey-body factors. In particular, we show that they can be significantly decreased if the flow obeys a conformal coupling condition. We argue that in the presence of a small but non-zero temperature, reducing grey-body factors greatly facilitates the observation of entanglement, that is, establishing that the state of the Hawking mode and its partner is non-separable.

  3. Minimal conditions for the existence of a Hawking-like flux

    Barcelo, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano; Visser, Matt

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the minimal conditions that an asymptotically flat general relativistic spacetime must satisfy in order for a Hawking-like Planckian flux of particles to arrive at future null infinity. We demonstrate that there is no requirement that any sort of horizon form anywhere in the spacetime. We find that the irreducible core requirement is encoded in an approximately exponential 'peeling' relationship between affine coordinates on past and future null infinity. As long as a suitable adiabaticity condition holds, then a Planck-distributed Hawking-like flux will arrive at future null infinity with temperature determined by the e-folding properties of the outgoing null geodesics. The temperature of the Hawking-like flux can slowly evolve as a function of time. We also show that the notion of peeling of null geodesics is distinct from the usual notion of 'inaffinity' used in Hawking's definition of surface gravity.

  4. Higgs v Hawking: a battle of the heavyweights that has shaken the world of theoretical physics

    Connor, S

    2002-01-01

    Stephen Hawking was accused yesterday of receiving instant credibility because of his celebrity status. His accuser was Professor Peter Higgs, who predicted the existence of the elementary particle, the Higgs Boson, in the 1960s (1 page).

  5. Hawking radiation of Dirac particles from the Myers-Perry black hole

    Mao, Pu-Jian; Jia, Lin-Yu; Li, Ran; Ren, Ji-Rong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the quantum anomaly cancelation method and the effective action approach as well as the method of Damour-Ruffini-Sannan to derive Hawking radiation of Dirac particles from the Myers-Perry black hole. Using the dimensional reduction technique, we find that the fermionic field in the background of the Myers-Perry black hole can be treated as an infinite collection of quantum fields in (1+1)-dimensional background coupled with the dilaton field and the U(1) gauge field near the horizon. Thus Hawking temperature and fluxes are found. The Hawking temperature obtained agrees with the surface gravity formula while the Hawking fluxes derived from the anomaly cancelation method and the effective action approach are in complete agreement with the ones obtained from integrating the Planck distribution. (orig.)

  6. Information-carrying Hawking radiation and the number of microstate for a black hole

    Cai, Qing-yu; Sun, Chang-pu; You, Li

    2016-01-01

    We present a necessary and sufficient condition to falsify whether a Hawking radiation spectrum indicates unitary emission process or not from the perspective of information theory. With this condition, we show the precise values of Bekenstein–Hawking entropies for Schwarzschild black holes and Reissner–Nordström black holes can be calculated by counting the microstates of their Hawking radiations. In particular, for the extremal Reissner–Nordström black hole, its number of microstate and the corresponding entropy we obtain are found to be consistent with the string theory results. Our finding helps to refute the dispute about the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy of extremal black holes in the semiclassical limit.

  7. Information-carrying Hawking radiation and the number of microstate for a black hole

    Cai, Qing-yu, E-mail: qycai@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Sun, Chang-pu, E-mail: cpsun@csrc.ac.cn [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); You, Li, E-mail: lyou@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2016-04-15

    We present a necessary and sufficient condition to falsify whether a Hawking radiation spectrum indicates unitary emission process or not from the perspective of information theory. With this condition, we show the precise values of Bekenstein–Hawking entropies for Schwarzschild black holes and Reissner–Nordström black holes can be calculated by counting the microstates of their Hawking radiations. In particular, for the extremal Reissner–Nordström black hole, its number of microstate and the corresponding entropy we obtain are found to be consistent with the string theory results. Our finding helps to refute the dispute about the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy of extremal black holes in the semiclassical limit.

  8. Information-carrying Hawking radiation and the number of microstate for a black hole

    Qing-yu Cai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a necessary and sufficient condition to falsify whether a Hawking radiation spectrum indicates unitary emission process or not from the perspective of information theory. With this condition, we show the precise values of Bekenstein–Hawking entropies for Schwarzschild black holes and Reissner–Nordström black holes can be calculated by counting the microstates of their Hawking radiations. In particular, for the extremal Reissner–Nordström black hole, its number of microstate and the corresponding entropy we obtain are found to be consistent with the string theory results. Our finding helps to refute the dispute about the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy of extremal black holes in the semiclassical limit.

  9. Comparative Studies on Bioactive Constituents in Hawk Tea Infusions with Different Maturity Degree and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Ming Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawk tea (Litsea coreana var. lanuginose is a very popular herbal tea in the southwest of China. According to the maturity degree of raw materials, Hawk tea can usually be divided into three types: Hawk bud tea (HB, Hawk primary leaf tea (HP, and Hawk mature leaf tea (HM. In this study, some of the bioactive constituents and antioxidant properties of the three kinds of Hawk tea infusions were comparatively investigated. The results showed that the contents of total flavonoids, vitamin C, and carbohydrates in Hawk bud tea infusion (HBI were higher than those in Hawk primary leaf tea infusion (HPI and Hawk mature leaf tea infusion (HMI. HPI had higher contents of total polyphenols and exhibited better DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing activity power. HBI could provide more effective protection against erythrocyte hemolysis. As age is going from bud to mature leaf, the ability to inhibit the formation of low density lipoprotein (LDL conjugated diene and the loss of tryptophan fluorescence decreased. The bioactive constituents and antioxidant activities of Hawk tea infusions were significantly affected by the maturity degree of the raw material.

  10. Hawkes-diffusion process and the conditional probability of defaults in the Eurozone

    Kim, Jungmu; Park, Yuen Jung; Ryu, Doojin

    2016-05-01

    This study examines market information embedded in the European sovereign CDS (credit default swap) market by analyzing the sovereign CDSs of 13 Eurozone countries from January 1, 2008, to February 29, 2012, which includes the recent Eurozone debt crisis period. We design the conditional probability of defaults for the CDS prices based on the Hawkes-diffusion process and obtain the theoretical prices of CDS indexes. To estimate the model parameters, we calibrate the model prices to empirical prices obtained from individual sovereign CDS term structure data. The estimated parameters clearly explain both cross-sectional and time-series data. Our empirical results show that the probability of a huge loss event sharply increased during the Eurozone debt crisis, indicating a contagion effect. Even countries with strong and stable economies, such as Germany and France, suffered from the contagion effect. We also find that the probability of small events is sensitive to the state of the economy, spiking several times due to the global financial crisis and the Greek government debt crisis.

  11. Hawking radiation from the dilaton—(anti) de Sitter black hole via covariant anomaly

    Yi-Wen, Han; Yun, Hong; Zhi-Qing, Bao

    2009-01-01

    Adopting the anomaly cancellation method, initiated by Robinson and Wilczek recently, this paper discusses Hawking radiation from the dilaton—(anti) de Sitter black hole. To save the underlying gauge and general covariance, it introduces covariant fluxes of gauge and energy-momentum tensor to cancel the gauge and gravitational anomalies. The result shows that the introduced compensating fluxes are equivalent to those of a 2-dimensional blackbody radiation at Hawking temperature with appropriate chemical potential. (general)

  12. MIGRATION PATTERNS, USE OF STOPOVER AREAS, AND AUSTRAL SUMMER MOVEMENTS OF SWAINSON’S HAWKS

    Kochert, Michael N.; Fuller, Mark R.; Schueck, Linda S.; Bond, Laura; Bechard, Marc J.; Woodbridge, Brian; Holroyd, Geoff; Martell, Mark; Banasch, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    From 1995–1998, we tracked movements of adult Swainson’s Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) using satellite telemetry to characterize migration, important stopover areas, and austral summer movements. We tagged 46 hawks from July - September on their nesting grounds in seven U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Swainson’s Hawks basically followed three routes south on a broad front, converged along the east coast of central Mexico, and followed a concentrated corridor to a communal austral summer area in central Argentina. North of 20° N, southward and northward tracks differed little for individuals from east of the Continental Divide but differed greatly (up to 1700 km) for individuals from west of the Continental Divide. Hawks left the breeding grounds mid-August to mid-October; departure dates did not differ by location, year, or sex. South migration lasted 42 to 98 days, and north migration took 51 to 82 days. On south migration, 36% of the Swainson’s Hawks departed the nesting grounds nearly 3 weeks earlier than the other radio marked hawks and made stopovers 9.0 – 26.0 days long in seven separate areas, mainly in the southern Great Plains, southern Arizona and New Mexico, and north-central Mexico. The austral period lasted 76 to 128 days. All Swainson’s Hawks used a core area in central Argentina within 23% of the 738800 km2 austral summer range where they frequently moved long distances (up to 1600 km). Conservation of Swainson’s Hawks must be an international effort that considers habitats used during nesting and non-nesting seasons including migration stopovers. PMID:26380528

  13. MIGRATION PATTERNS, USE OF STOPOVER AREAS, AND AUSTRAL SUMMER MOVEMENTS OF SWAINSON'S HAWKS.

    Kochert, Michael N; Fuller, Mark R; Schueck, Linda S; Bond, Laura; Bechard, Marc J; Woodbridge, Brian; Holroyd, Geoff; Martell, Mark; Banasch, Ursula

    From 1995-1998, we tracked movements of adult Swainson's Hawks ( Buteo swainsoni ) using satellite telemetry to characterize migration, important stopover areas, and austral summer movements. We tagged 46 hawks from July - September on their nesting grounds in seven U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Swainson's Hawks basically followed three routes south on a broad front, converged along the east coast of central Mexico, and followed a concentrated corridor to a communal austral summer area in central Argentina. North of 20° N, southward and northward tracks differed little for individuals from east of the Continental Divide but differed greatly (up to 1700 km) for individuals from west of the Continental Divide. Hawks left the breeding grounds mid-August to mid-October; departure dates did not differ by location, year, or sex. South migration lasted 42 to 98 days, and north migration took 51 to 82 days. On south migration, 36% of the Swainson's Hawks departed the nesting grounds nearly 3 weeks earlier than the other radio marked hawks and made stopovers 9.0 - 26.0 days long in seven separate areas, mainly in the southern Great Plains, southern Arizona and New Mexico, and north-central Mexico. The austral period lasted 76 to 128 days. All Swainson's Hawks used a core area in central Argentina within 23% of the 738800 km 2 austral summer range where they frequently moved long distances (up to 1600 km). Conservation of Swainson's Hawks must be an international effort that considers habitats used during nesting and non-nesting seasons including migration stopovers.

  14. Hawking radiation of spin-1 particles from a three-dimensional rotating hairy black hole

    Sakalli, I.; Ovgun, A., E-mail: ali.ovgun@emu.edu.tr [Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus, Department of Physics (Turkey)

    2015-09-15

    We study the Hawking radiation of spin-1 particles (so-called vector particles) from a three-dimensional rotating black hole with scalar hair using a Hamilton–Jacobi ansatz. Using the Proca equation in the WKB approximation, we obtain the tunneling spectrum of vector particles. We recover the standard Hawking temperature corresponding to the emission of these particles from a rotating black hole with scalar hair.

  15. Stephen Hawking, the Grand Design and the mass media communication: Philosophy, Science and Religion

    Leandro Sequeiros

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The return of summer vacances 2010 coincide with the notice concerning the inminent publication of a provocative and scandalous book by the eminent Phisicist Stephen Hawking. The Grand Design came out on September 7 in EE.UU. and on 9 in United Kingdom. On November 15th, the Spanish edition have been issued. The Spanish newpapers have published some fragments, which apparently show Hawking intends to prove scientifically that God not exists. The communications media remark by different ways the scarce frangments of the text: «God is not necessary», «Hawking proves God not exists», «Creator God is a destroyed mith», «Hawking scientifically proves God not exists», «God expeled of the Universe»… We have tracked more than hundred web-pages in which the contents of Hawking book are comment. Rationalists and religious sectors have standed in the debate. But, what has Hawking really defended in The Grand Design?

  16. Bee-hawking by the wasp, Vespa velutina, on the honeybees Apis cerana and A. mellifera.

    Tan, K; Radloff, S E; Li, J J; Hepburn, H R; Yang, M X; Zhang, L J; Neumann, P

    2007-06-01

    The vespine wasps, Vespa velutina, specialise in hawking honeybee foragers returning to their nests. We studied their behaviour in China using native Apis cerana and introduced A. mellifera colonies. When the wasps are hawking, A. cerana recruits threefold more guard bees to stave off predation than A. mellifera. The former also utilises wing shimmering as a visual pattern disruption mechanism, which is not shown by A. mellifera. A. cerana foragers halve the time of normal flight needed to dart into the nest entrance, while A. mellifera actually slows down in sashaying flight manoeuvres. V. velutina preferentially hawks A. mellifera foragers when both A. mellifera and A. cerana occur in the same apiary. The pace of wasp-hawking was highest in mid-summer but the frequency of hawking wasps was three times higher at A. mellifera colonies than at the A. cerana colonies. The wasps were taking A. mellifera foragers at a frequency eightfold greater than A. cerana foragers. The final hawking success rates of the wasps were about three times higher for A. mellifera foragers than for A. cerana. The relative success of native A. cerana over European A. mellifera in thwarting predation by the wasp V. velutina is interpreted as the result of co-evolution between the Asian wasp and honeybee, respectively.

  17. Stable occupancy by breeding hawks (Buteo spp.) over 25 years on a privately managed bunchgrass prairie in northeastern Oregon, USA

    Kennedy, Patricia L.; Bartuszevige, Anne M.; Houle, Marcy; Humphrey, Ann B.; Dugger, Katie M.; Williams, John

    2014-01-01

    Potential for large prairie remnants to provide habitat for grassland-obligate wildlife may be compromised by nonsustainable range-management practices. In 1979–1980, high nesting densities of 3 species of hawks in the genus Buteo—Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), and Swainson's Hawk (B. swainsoni)—were documented on the Zumwalt Prairie and surrounding agricultural areas (34,361 ha) in northeastern Oregon, USA. This area has been managed primarily as livestock summer range since it was homesteaded. Unlike in other prairie remnants, land management on the Zumwalt Prairie was consistent over the past several decades; thus, we predicted that territory occupancy of these 3 species would be stable. We also predicted that territory occupancy would be positively related to local availability of nesting structures within territories. We evaluated these hypotheses using a historical dataset, current survey and habitat data, and occupancy models. In support of our predictions, territory occupancy of all 3 species has not changed over the study period of ∼25 yr, which suggests that local range-management practices are not negatively affecting these taxa. Probability of Ferruginous Hawk occupancy increased with increasing area of aspen, an important nest structure for this species in grasslands. Probability of Swainson's Hawk occupancy increased with increasing area of large shrubs, and probability of Red-tailed Hawk occupancy was weakly associated with area of conifers. In the study area, large shrubs and conifers are commonly used as nesting structures by Swainson's Hawks and Red-tailed Hawks, respectively. Availability of these woody species is changing (increases in conifers and large shrubs, and decline in aspen) throughout the west, and these changes may result in declines in Ferruginous Hawk occupancy and increases in Swainson's Hawk and Red-tailed Hawk occupancy in the future.

  18. Ω-deformed SYM on a Gibbons-Hawking space

    Dey, Anindya

    2015-01-01

    We study an N=2, pure U(1) SYM theory on a Gibbons-Hawking space Ω-deformed using the U(1) isometry. The resultant 3D theory, after an appropriate “Nekrasov-Witten" change of variables, is asymptotically equivalent to the undeformed theory at spatial infinity but differs from it as one approaches the NUT centers which are fixed points under the U(1) action. The 3D theory may be recast in the form of a generalized hyperkähler sigma model introduced in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2014)158 where the target space is a one-parameter family of hyperkähler spaces. The hyperkähler fibers have a preferred complex structure which for the deformed theory depends on the parameter of Ω-deformation. The metric on the hyperkähler fiber can be reduced to a standard metric on ℂ×T 2 with the modular parameter of the torus depending explicitly on the Ω-deformation parameter. The contribution of the NUT center to the sigma model path integral, expected to be a holomorphic section of a holomorphic line bundle over the target space on grounds of supersymmetry, turns out to be a Jacobi theta function in terms of certain “deformed" variables.

  19. The three-body problem from Pythagoras to Hawking

    Valtonen, Mauri; Kholshevnikov, Konstantin; Mylläri, Aleksandr; Orlov, Victor; Tanikawa, Kiyotaka

    2016-01-01

    This book, written for a general readership, reviews and explains the three-body problem in historical context reaching to latest developments in computational physics and gravitation theory. The three-body problem is one of the oldest problems in science and it is most relevant even in today’s physics and astronomy. The long history of the problem from Pythagoras to Hawking parallels the evolution of ideas about our physical universe, with a particular emphasis on understanding gravity and how it operates between astronomical bodies. The oldest astronomical three-body problem is the question how and when the moon and the sun line up with the earth to produce eclipses. Once the universal gravitation was discovered by Newton, it became immediately a problem to understand why these three-bodies form a stable system, in spite of the pull exerted from one to the other. In fact, it was a big question whether this system is stable at all in the long run. Leading mathematicians attacked this problem over more than...

  20. Productivity, mortality, and response to disturbance of nesting Swainson's hawks on the Hanford Site

    Poole, L.D.; Marr, N.V.; McCorquodale, S.M.

    1988-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainson) use of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site and to evaluate the potential for engineering and other human activities on the Hanford Site to negatively affect the nesting Swainson's hawk population. Activities associated with the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) were used as the primary external stimuli in studying hawk responses to potential human disturbance. Parked and moving vehicles were the most common disturbance sources observed in Swainson's hawk territories. Hawks appeared to be sensitive to disturbance from pedestrians and slow-moving vehicles near nests. Novel stimuli were much more likely to evoke strong responses than were recurring events. Adult hawks reacted more frequently and vigorously than did juveniles. When disturbed, adult hawks usually flew toward the location of the disturbance; juvenile hawks usually flew away from disturbances. Human activity associated with BWIP may have had negative on one pair of nesting Swainson's hawks and may have precluded the use of an additional traditional nesting territory. Negative impacts to nesting Swainson's hawks from human activity could be minimized by confining activities to the non-nesting period or to distances greater than 2.2 km from nest sites. Tree groves and elevated perches, including utility poles, across the Hanford Site are probably critical to the success of nesting Swainson's hawks. Potential mitigation strategies associated with energy research and development activities on the Hanford Site could include provisions for maintenance and establishment of drought-tolerant trees and native vegetation. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Characterization of Sarcocystis from four species of hawks from Georgia, USA.

    Yabsley, Michael J; Ellis, Angela E; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2009-02-01

    During 2001 to 2004, 4 species of hawks (Buteo and Accipiter spp.) from Georgia were surveyed for Sarcocystis spp. infections by examining intestinal sections. In total, 159 of 238 (66.8%) hawks examined were infected with Sarcocystis spp. Samples from 10 birds were characterized by sequence analysis of a portion of the 18S rRNA gene (783 base pairs). Only 3 of the 10 sequences from the hawks were identical; the remainder differed by at least 1 nucleotide. Phylogenetic analysis failed to resolve the position of the hawk Sarcocystis species, but they were closely related several Sarcocystis species from raptors, rodents, and Sarcocystis neurona. The high genetic diversity of Sarcocystis suggests that more than 1 species infects these 4 hawk species; however, additional molecular or experimental work will be required to determine the speciation and diversity of parasites infecting these avian hosts. In addition to assisting with determining species richness of Sarcocystis in raptors, molecular analysis should be useful in the identification of potential intermediate hosts.

  2. Comparison of transcoelomic, contrast transcoelomic, and transesophageal echocardiography in anesthetized red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Pariaut, Romain; Rodriguez, Daniel; Nevarez, Javier G; Tully, Thomas N

    2012-10-01

    To assess the agreement and reliability of cardiac measurements obtained with 3 echocardiographic techniques in anesthetized red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). 10 red-tailed hawks. Transcoelomic, contrast transcoelomic, and transesophageal echocardiographic evaluations of the hawks were performed, and cineloops of imaging planes were recorded. Three observers performed echocardiographic measurements of cardiac variables 3 times on 3 days. The order in which hawks were assessed and echocardiographic techniques were used was randomized. Results were analyzed with linear mixed modeling, agreement was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients, and variation was estimated with coefficients of variation. Significant differences were evident among the 3 echocardiographic methods for most measurements, and the agreement among findings was generally low. Interobserver agreement was generally low to medium. Intraobserver agreement was generally medium to high. Overall, better agreement was achieved for the left ventricular measurements and for the transesophageal approach than for other measurements and techniques. Echocardiographic measurements in hawks were not reliable, except when the left ventricle was measured by the same observer. Furthermore, cardiac morphometric measurements may not be clinically important. When measurements are required, one needs to consider that follow-up measurements should be performed by the same echocardiographer and should show at least a 20% difference from initial measurements to be confident that any difference is genuine.

  3. Behavioral ecology of the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) in Washington

    Fitzner, R.E.

    1980-12-01

    This study examines the breeding ecology and behavior of the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) on its breeding ground in southeastern Washington. Seasonal movements and distribution of the buteo are also described. The birds were observed from blinds, or filmed by Super-8mm time-lapse cameras, during courtship, nest building, egg laying, incubation, and nestling and post-fledging development. Food habits were examined during the nestling and post-fledging periods. Snakes, especially the abundant Western Yellow-bellied racers, were a prey staple, and insects became an important food source during the post-fledging period. It was apparent that Swainson's Hawks feed on smaller and more diverse prey than sympatric buteos (Red-tailed and Ferruginous Hawks), thus reducing competition with neighboring congenerics. Interactions with buteos and other raptor genera were observed, and nearest neighbor distances measured. Organochlorine pesticides in prey species consumed by Swainson's Hawks are concentrated from prey to predator through the food chain. The hawk pellets (regurgitated castings) would contain those concentrations and could easily be monitored without sacrificing any part of the food chain.

  4. Cyber Capabilities for Global Strike in 2035

    2012-02-15

    Internet’s Cyber Future.” Charlie Rose Show (MSNBC), 19 February 2009. Rosin, Col Randolph. “To Kill a Mockingbird : The Deconstruction of Information...http://www.af.mil/information/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=182 (accessed: 6 February 2012). 75 Colonel Randolph Rosin, “To Kill a Mockingbird : The...functional effects” are analogous to conventional “ kill mechanisms.”67 The simplest warfare functional effect in cyberspace is deliberate disruption of

  5. A Global Survey and Interactive Map Suite of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges: (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D)

    Tynan, M. C.; Russell, G. P.; Perry, F.; Kelley, R.; Champenois, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    This global survey presents a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information reflected in four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies, sites, or disposal facilities; 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding deep underground "facilities", history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database [http://gis.inl.gov/globalsites/] provide each facility's approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not all encompassing, it is a comprehensive review of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development as a communication tool applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Meilensteine der Astronomie - Von Aristoteles bis Hawking

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Hamel, J.

    2006-12-01

    A writer, more specific a writer on the history of astronomy, might from time to time look at the collected document folders with all the research material and reprints, and might wonder: has this been all? Especially at a time when recycling is in vogue? And, perhaps with a request or an invitation to submit something, he or she might consider re-using the material before its definitive disposal. Well, such are my feelings when I looked at Jurgen Hamel's new book Milestones of Astronomy - From Aristoteles to Hawking . A slight chance for survival of medium-sized publishers like Kosmos is to offer popular books, and a title must attract potential buyers: Aristoteles means the "old" times, and as concerns the "mad scientist" of modern times, Stephen Hawking has by now dethroned Einstein. In 1998, Hamel had published a Geschichte der Astronomie - Von den Anfangen bis zur Gegenwart (History of astronomy, from the beginnings to the present), which, of course, he could not simply copy. This time, he selected some stones from his research areas - milestones, touchstones, stumbling blocks in the long road of astronomical evolution - and put them between the covers of his new book. So let us look at these (mile)stones . The reader is informed about Aristoteles on 2 pages, but his medieval interpreter Johannes de Sacrobosco gets 8 pages! Copernicus' life and achievements are described on 9 pages, closely followed by his devotee and translator Rothmann with 8 pages; Copernicus' contemporary, Peter Apian, however, gets about 13! Bessel's and Herschel's lifes and works are described on well-deserved 13 and 15 pages, while the achievements of the two Lucasian professors, Isaac Newton and Stephen Hawking, are just outlined in a single paragraph! Thus, importance is sometimes inversely proportional to text length... But let us become serious now. Why should an active historian outline, for the hundreth time, the life of Copernicus, while there are so many interesting, and often

  7. A simple proof of the recent generalizations of Hawking's black hole topology theorem

    Racz, Istvan [RMKI, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary)], E-mail: iracz@sunserv.kfki.hu

    2008-08-21

    A key result in four-dimensional black hole physics, since the early 1970s, is Hawking's topology theorem assertion that the cross-sections of an 'apparent horizon', separating the black hole region from the rest of the spacetime, are topologically 2-spheres. Later, during the 1990s, by applying a variant of Hawking's argument, Gibbons and Woolgar could also show the existence of a genus-dependent lower bound for the entropy of topological black holes with negative cosmological constant. Recently, Hawking's black hole topology theorem, along with the results of Gibbons and Woolgar, has been generalized to the case of black holes in higher dimensions. Our aim here is to give a simple self-contained proof of these generalizations, which also makes their range of applicability transparent. (fast track communication)

  8. Hawking radiation from astrophysical black holes to analogous systems in lab

    Belgiorno, Francesco D

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide the reader with a guide to Hawking radiation through a dual approach to the problem. In the first part of the book, we summarize some basic knowledge about black holes and quantum field theory in curved spacetime. In the second part, we present a survey of methods for deriving and studying Hawking radiation from astrophysical black holes, from the original calculation by S W Hawking to the most recent contributions involving gravitational anomalies and tunneling. In the third part, we introduce analogue gravity models, with particular attention to dielectric black hole systems, to which the studies of the present authors are devoted. The mutual interchange of knowledge between the aforementioned parts is addressed to render a more comprehensive picture of this very fascinating quantum phenomenon associated with black holes.

  9. The effect of the Gauss-Bonnet term on Hawking radiation from arbitrary dimensional black brane

    Kuang, Xiao-Mei [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Yangzhou University, Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangzhou (China); Saavedra, Joel [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Oevguen, Ali [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Eastern Mediterranean University, Physics Department, Famagusta, Northern Cyprus (Country Unknown)

    2017-09-15

    We investigate the probabilities of the tunneling and the radiation spectra of massive spin-1 particles from arbitrary dimensional Gauss-Bonnet-Axions (GBA) Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black branes, via using the WKB approximation to the Proca spin-1 field equation. The tunneling probabilities and Hawking temperature of the arbitrary dimensional GBA AdS black brane is calculated via the Hamilton-Jacobi approach. We also compute the Hawking temperature via the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling approach. The results obtained from the two methods are consistent. In our setup, the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) coupling affects the Hawking temperature if and only if the momentum of the axion fields is non-vanishing. (orig.)

  10. Hawking radiation as tunneling from the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes

    Jiang Qingqan; Wu Shuangqing; Cai Xu

    2006-01-01

    Recent work, which treats the Hawking radiation as a semiclassical tunneling process at the horizon of the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstroem spacetimes, indicates that the exact radiant spectrum is no longer pure thermal after considering the black hole background as dynamical and the conservation of energy. In this paper, we extend the method to investigate Hawking radiation as massless particles tunneling across the event horizon of the Kerr black hole and that of charged particles from the Kerr-Newman black hole by taking into account the energy conservation, the angular momentum conservation, and the electric charge conservation. Our results show that when self-gravitation is considered, the tunneling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum, but is consistent with an underlying unitary theory

  11. Hartle-Hawking wave function and large-scale power suppression of CMB*

    Yeom Dong-han

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation, we first describe the Hartle-Hawking wave function in the Euclidean path integral approach. After we introduce perturbations to the background instanton solution, following the formalism developed by Halliwell-Hawking and Laflamme, one can obtain the scale-invariant power spectrum for small-scales. We further emphasize that the Hartle-Hawking wave function can explain the large-scale power suppression by choosing suitable potential parameters, where this will be a possible window to confirm or falsify models of quantum cosmology. Finally, we further comment on possible future applications, e.g., Euclidean wormholes, which can result in distinct signatures to the power spectrum.

  12. Hawking radiation in a d-dimensional static spherically symmetric black hole surrounded by quintessence

    Chen Songbai; Wang Bin; Su Rukeng

    2008-01-01

    We present a solution of Einstein equations with quintessential matter surrounding a d-dimensional black hole, whose asymptotic structures are determined by the state of the quintessential matter. We examine the thermodynamics of this black hole and find that the mass of the black hole depends on the equation of state of the quintessence, while the first law is universal. Investigating the Hawking radiation in this black hole background, we observe that the Hawking radiation dominates on the brane in the low-energy regime. For different asymptotic structures caused by the equation of state of the quintessential matter surrounding the black hole, we learn that the influences by the state parameter of the quintessence on Hawking radiation are different

  13. Hawking radiation via anomaly cancellation for the black holes of five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity

    Porfyriadis, Achilleas P.

    2009-01-01

    The anomaly cancellation method proposed by Wilczek et al. is applied to the general charged rotating black holes in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. Thus Hawking temperature and fluxes are found. The Hawking temperature obtained agrees with the surface gravity formula. The black holes have charge and two unequal angular momenta, and these give rise to appropriate terms in the effective U(1) gauge field of the reduced (1+1)-dimensional theory. In particular, it is found that the terms in this U(1) gauge field correspond exactly to the correct electrostatic potential and the two angular velocities on the horizon of the black holes, and so the results for the Hawking fluxes derived here from the anomaly cancellation method are in complete agreement with the ones obtained from integrating the Planck distribution.

  14. Hawking Radiation-Quasinormal Modes Correspondence for Large AdS Black Holes

    Dao-Quan Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the nonstrictly thermal character of the Hawking radiation spectrum generates a natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and black hole quasinormal modes. This main issue has been analyzed in the framework of Schwarzschild black holes, Kerr black holes, and nonextremal Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. In this paper, by introducing the effective temperature, we reanalyze the nonstrictly thermal character of large AdS black holes. The results show that the effective mass corresponding to the effective temperature is approximatively the average one in any dimension. And the other effective quantities can also be obtained. Based on the known forms of frequency in quasinormal modes, we reanalyze the asymptotic frequencies of the large AdS black hole in three and five dimensions. Then we get the formulas of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the horizon’s area quantization with functions of the quantum “overtone” number n.

  15. The trilinear Hamiltonian: a zero-dimensional model of Hawking radiation from a quantized source

    Nation, Paul D; Blencowe, Miles P

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a quantum parametric amplifier with dynamical pump mode, viewed as a zero-dimensional model of Hawking radiation from an evaporating black hole. We derive the conditions under which the spectrum of particles generated from vacuum fluctuations deviates from the thermal spectrum predicted for the conventional parametric amplifier. We find that significant deviations arise when the pump mode (black hole) has emitted nearly half of its initial energy into the signal (Hawking radiation) and idler (in-falling particle) modes. As a model of black hole dynamics, this finding lends support to the view that late-time Hawking radiation contains information about the quantum state of the black hole and is entangled with the black hole's quantum gravitational degrees of freedom.

  16. The effect of the Gauss-Bonnet term on Hawking radiation from arbitrary dimensional black brane

    Kuang, Xiao-Mei; Saavedra, Joel; Oevguen, Ali

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the probabilities of the tunneling and the radiation spectra of massive spin-1 particles from arbitrary dimensional Gauss-Bonnet-Axions (GBA) Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black branes, via using the WKB approximation to the Proca spin-1 field equation. The tunneling probabilities and Hawking temperature of the arbitrary dimensional GBA AdS black brane is calculated via the Hamilton-Jacobi approach. We also compute the Hawking temperature via the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling approach. The results obtained from the two methods are consistent. In our setup, the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) coupling affects the Hawking temperature if and only if the momentum of the axion fields is non-vanishing. (orig.)

  17. Hawking radiation and quantum anomaly in AdS2/CFT1 correspondence

    Morita, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand a boundary description of Hawking radiation in the AdS/CFT correspondence, we investigate the trace anomaly method in AdS 2 space. In this method, Hawking radiation is derived from the trace anomaly of the energy-momentum tensor in the bulk. We find a correspondence between the energy-momentum tensor and a composite operator in CFT 1 and understand the anomalous properties of the energy-momentum tensor in terms of this composite operator. By using this correspondence, we reproduce Hawking radiation from the boundary description. In addition, we find a correspondence between higher-spin currents in the bulk and composite operators in the boundary.

  18. The Hawkes process with different excitation functions and its asymptotoc behavior

    Fierro, Raúl; Leiva, Víctor; Møller, Jesper

    The standard Hawkes process is constructed from a homogeneous Poisson process and using the same exciting function for dierent generations of offspring. We propose an extension of this process by considering different exciting functions. This consideration could be important to be taken into acco......The standard Hawkes process is constructed from a homogeneous Poisson process and using the same exciting function for dierent generations of offspring. We propose an extension of this process by considering different exciting functions. This consideration could be important to be taken...... into account in a number of fields; e.g. in seismology, where main shocks produce aftershocks with possibly different intensities. The main results are devoted to the asymptotic behavior of this extension of the Hawkes process. Indeed, a law of large numbers and a central limit theorem are stated...

  19. Anomalies and Hawking fluxes from the black holes of topologically massive gravity

    Porfyriadis, Achilleas P. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)], E-mail: apporfyr@mit.edu

    2009-05-11

    The anomaly cancellation method proposed by Wilczek et al. is applied to the black holes of topologically massive gravity (TMG) and topologically massive gravito-electrodynamics (TMGE). Thus the Hawking temperature and fluxes of the ACL and ACGL black holes are found. The Hawking temperatures obtained agree with the surface gravity formula. Both black holes are rotating and this gives rise to appropriate terms in the effective U(1) gauge field of the reduced (1+1)-dimensional theory. It is found that the terms in this U(1) gauge field correspond exactly to the correct angular velocities on the horizon of both black holes as well as the correct electrostatic potential of the ACGL black hole. So the results for the Hawking fluxes derived here from the anomaly cancellation method, are in complete agreement with the ones obtained from integrating the Planck distribution.

  20. Four-center bubbled BPS solutions with a Gibbons-Hawking base

    Heidmann, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    We construct four-center bubbled BPS solutions with a Gibbons-Hawking base space. We give a systematic procedure to build scaling solutions: starting from three-supertube configurations and using generalized spectral flows and gauge transformations to extend to solutions with four Gibbons-Hawking centers. This allows us to construct very large families of smooth horizonless solutions that have the same charges and angular momentum as supersymmetric black holes with a macroscopically large horizon area. Our construction reveals that all scaling solutions with four Gibbons Hawking centers have an angular momentum at around 99% of the cosmic censorship bound. We give both an analytical and a numerical explanation for this unexpected feature.

  1. Hawking versus Unruh effects, or the difficulty of slowly crossing a black hole horizon

    Barbado, Luis C. [Quantenoptik, Quantennanophysik und Quanteninformation, Fakultät für Physik,Universität Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Departamento de Astronomía Extragaláctica, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC),Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Barceló, Carlos [Departamento de Astronomía Extragaláctica, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC),Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Garay, Luis J. [Departamento de Física Teórica II, Facultad de Ciencias Fśicas,Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria,Plaza Ciencias 1, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Química y Física Teóricas, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (CSIC),Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Jannes, Gil [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnología, Universidad Europea de Madrid,Calle Tajo s/n, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-28

    When analyzing the perception of Hawking radiation by different observers, the Hawking effect becomes mixed with the Unruh effect. The separation of both effects is not always clear in the literature. Here we propose an inconsistency-free interpretation of what constitutes a Hawking effect and what an Unruh effect. An appropriate interpretation is important in order to elucidate what sort of effects a detector might experience depending on its trajectory and the state of the quantum field. Under simplifying assumptions we introduce an analytic formula that separates these two effects. Armed with the previous interpretation we argue that for a free-falling detector to cross the horizon without experiencing high-energy effects, it is necessary that the horizon crossing is not attempted at low velocities.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of a single dose of voriconazole administered orally with and without food to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensus)

    Parsley, Ruth A; Tell, Lisa A; Gehring, Ronette

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole administered PO with or without food to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensus) and whether any observed variability could be explained by measured covariates to inform dose adjustments. ANIMALS 7 adult red-tailed hawks. PROCEDURES In a

  3. Hawking radiation as tunneling from the event horizon of NUT-Kerr-Newman de Sitter black hole

    Hui-Ling, Li; Shu-Shenh, Yang; Qing-Quan, Jiang; De-Jiang, Qi

    2005-01-01

    Adopting the method of quantum radiation as tunneling, Hawking radiation as tunneling from the event horizon of NUT-Kerr-Newman de Sitter black hole is studied. The result indicates that the tunneling rate of the particle on the event horizon is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the real spectrum is not strictly thermal at all

  4. Buteo Nesting Ecology: Evaluating Nesting of Swainson’s Hawks in the Northern Great Plains

    Inselman, Will M.; Datta, Shubham; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Jensen, Kent C.; Grovenburg, Troy W.

    2015-01-01

    Swainson’s hawks (Buteo swainsoni) are long-distance migratory raptors that nest primarily in isolated trees located in areas of high grassland density. In recent years, anthropogenic conversion of grassland habitat has raised concerns about the status of the breeding population in the northern Great Plains. In 2013, we initiated a study to investigate the influence of extrinsic factors influencing Swainson’s hawk nesting ecology in north-central South Dakota and south-central North Dakota. Using ground and aerial surveys, we located and monitored nesting Swainson’s hawk pairs: 73 in 2013 and 120 in 2014. We documented 98 successful breeding attempts that fledged 163 chicks; 1.52 and 1.72 fledglings per successful nest in 2013 and 2014, respectively. We used Program MARK to evaluate the influence of land cover on nest survival. The top model, S Dist2Farm+%Hay, indicated that nest survival (fledging at least one chick) decreased as nests were located farther from farm sites and as the percent of hay cover increased within 1200-m of the nest site (34.4%; 95% CI = 27.6%–42.3%). We used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the influence of landscape variables on nest-site selection; Swainson’s hawks selected for nest sites located closer to roads. We suggest that tree belts associated with farm sites, whether occupied or not, provide critical breeding sites for Swainson’s hawks. Additionally, poor breeding success may be related to the late migratory behavior of this species which requires them to occupy marginal habitat due to other raptors occupying the most suitable habitat prior to Swainson’s hawks arriving to the breeding grounds. PMID:26327440

  5. Buteo Nesting Ecology: Evaluating Nesting of Swainson's Hawks in the Northern Great Plains.

    Inselman, Will M; Datta, Shubham; Jenks, Jonathan A; Jensen, Kent C; Grovenburg, Troy W

    2015-01-01

    Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) are long-distance migratory raptors that nest primarily in isolated trees located in areas of high grassland density. In recent years, anthropogenic conversion of grassland habitat has raised concerns about the status of the breeding population in the northern Great Plains. In 2013, we initiated a study to investigate the influence of extrinsic factors influencing Swainson's hawk nesting ecology in north-central South Dakota and south-central North Dakota. Using ground and aerial surveys, we located and monitored nesting Swainson's hawk pairs: 73 in 2013 and 120 in 2014. We documented 98 successful breeding attempts that fledged 163 chicks; 1.52 and 1.72 fledglings per successful nest in 2013 and 2014, respectively. We used Program MARK to evaluate the influence of land cover on nest survival. The top model, SDist2Farm+%Hay, indicated that nest survival (fledging at least one chick) decreased as nests were located farther from farm sites and as the percent of hay cover increased within 1200-m of the nest site (34.4%; 95% CI = 27.6%-42.3%). We used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the influence of landscape variables on nest-site selection; Swainson's hawks selected for nest sites located closer to roads. We suggest that tree belts associated with farm sites, whether occupied or not, provide critical breeding sites for Swainson's hawks. Additionally, poor breeding success may be related to the late migratory behavior of this species which requires them to occupy marginal habitat due to other raptors occupying the most suitable habitat prior to Swainson's hawks arriving to the breeding grounds.

  6. Integral method for the calculation of Hawking radiation in dispersive media. II. Asymmetric asymptotics.

    Robertson, Scott

    2014-11-01

    Analog gravity experiments make feasible the realization of black hole space-times in a laboratory setting and the observational verification of Hawking radiation. Since such analog systems are typically dominated by dispersion, efficient techniques for calculating the predicted Hawking spectrum in the presence of strong dispersion are required. In the preceding paper, an integral method in Fourier space is proposed for stationary 1+1-dimensional backgrounds which are asymptotically symmetric. Here, this method is generalized to backgrounds which are different in the asymptotic regions to the left and right of the scattering region.

  7. A note on a perfect simulation algorithm for marked Hawkes processes

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2004-01-01

    The usual straightforward simulation algorithm for (marked or unmarked) Hawkes processes suffers from edge effect. In this note we describe a perfect simulation algorithm which is partly derived as in Brix and Kendall (2002) and partly using upper and lower processes as in the Propp......-Wilson algorithm (1996), or rather as in the dominated CFTP algorithm by Kendall and Moller (2000). Various monotonicity properties and approximations of the cumulative distribution function for the length of a so-called cluster in a marked Hawkes process play an important role....

  8. A novel porous Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings acoustic methodology for complex geometries

    Nitzkorski, Zane Lloyd

    Predictive noise calculations from high Reynolds number flows in complex engineering geometry are becoming a possibility with the high performance computing resources that have become available in recent years. Increasing the applicability and reliability of solution methodologies have been two key challenges toward this goal. This dissertation develops a porous Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings methodology that uses a novel endcap methodology, and can be applied to unstructured grids. The use of unstructured grids allows complex geometry to be represented while porous formulation eliminates difficulties with the choice of acoustic Green's function. Specifically, this dissertation (1) proposes and examines a novel endcap procedure to account for spurious noise, (2) uses the proposed methodology to investigate noise production from a range of subcritical Reynolds number circular cylinders, and (3) investigates a trailing edge geometry for noise production and to illustrate the generality of the Green's function. Porous acoustic analogies need an endcap scheme in order to prevent spurious noise due to truncation errors. A dynamic end cap methodology is proposed to account for spurious contributions to the far--field sound within the context of the Ffowcs--Williams and Hawkings (FW--H) acoustic analogy. The quadrupole source terms are correlated over multiple planes to obtain a convection velocity which is then used to determine a corrective convective flux at the FW--H porous surface. The proposed approach is first demonstrated for a convecting potential vortex. The correlation is investigated by examining it pass through multiple exit planes. It is then evaluated by computing the sound emitted by flow over a circular cylinder at Reynolds number of 150 and compared to other endcap methods, such as Shur et al. [1]. Insensitivity to end plane location and spacing and the effect of the dynamic convection velocity are computed. Subcritical Reynolds number circular cylinder

  9. Rights, goals, and capabilities

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    This article analyses the relationship between rights and capabilities in order to get a better grasp of the kind of consequentialism that the capability theory represents. Capability rights have been defined as rights that have a capability as their object (rights to capabilities). Such a

  10. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  11. Habitat associations of sympatric red-tailed hawks and northern goshawks on the Kaibab Plateau

    Frank A. La Sorte; R. William Mannan; Richard T. Reynolds; Teryl G. Grubb

    2004-01-01

    We investigated habitat association of sympatric red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) at 2 spatial scales centered on nest sites: (1) fine-scale patterns of forest structure and topography within 16-m radius circles (0.08 ha), and (2) midscale patterns of forested and nonforested areas,...

  12. An analysis of Bat Hawk Macheiramphus alcinus diet in the Melaky ...

    We present information on the prey taken by the Bat Hawk Macheiramphus alcinus in two different areas of lowland western central Madagascar. These are the first dietary data from Madagascar for this widespread Old World species. The recovered remains were almost exclusively of bats and birds, with a few examples of ...

  13. Behavioural ecology, distribution and conservation of the Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi Stresemann, 1924

    Sözer, Resit; Nijman, Vincent

    1995-01-01

    In the period December 1993 – January 1995 research on the behavioural ecology, distribution and conservation of the Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi was carried out by R. Sözer and V. Nijman, under supervision of BirdLife International / PHPA – Indonesia Programme. This research was part of the

  14. Distribution and geographical variation of the White-tailed Hawk (Buteo albicaudatus)

    Voous, K.H.

    1968-01-01

    The present knowledge on infraspecific variation, distribution, and migration of the White-tailed Hawk ( Buteo albicaudatus Vieillot) is critically reviewed. In practically every aspect knowledge is highly inadequate. Size variation (tables I—IV) is in accordance with Bergmann’s Phenomenon, but does

  15. Cassin\\'s hawk-eagle Spizaetus africanus in Ndundulu Forest: a first ...

    A single adult Cassin's hawk-eagle Spizaetus africanus was sighted on five occasions over three years in a highland forest in the Udzungwa Mountains, the first ever record of this species in Tanzania. This discovery has potentially significant biogeographical implications, strengthening ancient links between the forests of ...

  16. HOME RANGE AND HABITAT USE OF SUBURBAN RED-SHOULDERED HAWKS IN SOUTHWESTERN OHIO

    Suburban habitats may provide different resources and different challenges to raptors than do more traditional, rural habitats. Suburban red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) of the eastern subspecies have been little studied. We measured the home ranges and habitat use of 11 su...

  17. Hawking radiation from acoustic black holes, short distance and back reaction effects

    Balbinot, R.; Fabbri, A.; Parentani, R.

    2004-01-01

    Using the action principle we first review how linear density perturbations (sound waves) in an Eulerian fluid obey a relativistic equation: the d'Alembert equation. This analogy between propagation of sound and that of a massless scalar field in a Lorentzian metric also applies to non-homogeneous flows. In these cases, sound waves effectively propagate in a curved four-dimensional acoustic metric whose properties are determined by the flow. Using this analogy, we consider regular flows which become supersonic, and show that the acoustic metric behaves like that of a black hole. The analogy is so good that, when considering quantum mechanics, acoustic black holes should produce a thermal flux of Hawking phonons. We then focus on two interesting questions related to Hawking radiation which are not fully understood in the context of gravitational black holes due to the lack of a theory of quantum gravity. The first concerns the calculation of the modifications of Hawking radiation which are induced by dispersive effects at short distances, approaching the atomic scale when considering sound. We generalize existing treatments and calculate the modifications caused by the propagation near the black-hole horizon. The second question concerns back reaction effects. We return to the Eulerian action, compute second-order effects, and show that the back reaction of sound waves on the fluid's flow can be expressed in terms of their stress-energy tensor. Using this result in the context of Hawking radiation, we compute the secular effect on the background flow

  18. Dynamics of the echolocation beam during prey pursuit in aerial hawking bats

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Olsen, Mads Nedergaard; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    " than the vespertilionids, but ensonifying objects far ahead suggesting more clutter. Thus, beam broadening is not a fundamental property of the echolocation system. However, based on the results, we hypothesize that increased peripheral detection is crucial to all aerial hawking bats in the final...

  19. Cooper’s hawk nest site characteristics in the Pineywoods Region

    Richard R. Schaefer; D. Craig Rudolph; Jesse F. Fagan

    2011-01-01

    Early accounts describe the Cooper’s Hawk (Accipiter cooperi) as a species in decline in much of North America during the early twentieth century (Bent 1937), particularly when in close proximity to humans (Eaton 1914). This decreasing population trend continued to be recognized later in the century in both Texas (Oberholser 1974) and Louisiana (Lowery 1974). Shooting...

  20. Back reaction, the Hawking emission spectrum from the charged black hole

    Xu Pingchuan; Wang Zhihong; Han Yan

    2011-01-01

    The Hawking emission spectrum of the Schwarzschild-like black hole has been successfully described in the tunneling picture. In this paper, we develop the idea for the case of the charged black hole with back reaction. First, the most general, static spherically symmetric charged black hole, in the presence of back reaction, has been provided by solving the Einstein equations with a non-zero vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor (T μν (φ, g μν )). At the one-loop corrections, we also produce the modified expressions for the Hawking temperature and Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. It is found that the leading correction to the semiclassical entropy is logarithmic and next to the leading order is inverse of the horizon area, just as the expected well-known results. In particular, as our main focus in this paper, we show that the modified black hole still radiates with a perfect blackbody spectrum, only the temperature undergoing quantum corrections. Also, the Hawking fluxes of the electric current and energy-momentum tensor to include the effect of back reaction are obtained. The results are interestingly found sharing the same form as that from the point of anomaly.

  1. BEHAVIOR AND PREY OF NESTING RED-SHOULDERED HAWKS IN SOUTHWESTERN OHIO

    We used direct observations to quantify prey types, prey delivery rate, and adult and nestling behavior at nests of Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus) in suburban southwestern Ohio. Twenty-one nests were observed for a total of 256 hr in 1997-2001. Small mammals made up the ...

  2. Empty black holes, firewalls, and the origin of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy

    Saravani, Mehdi; Afshordi, Niayesh; Mann, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel solution for the endpoint of gravitational collapse, in which spacetime ends (and is orbifolded) at a microscopic distance from black hole event horizons. This model is motivated by the emergence of singular event horizons in the gravitational aether theory, a semiclassical solution to the cosmological constant problem(s) and thus suggests a catastrophic breakdown of general relativity close to black hole event horizons. A similar picture emerges in fuzzball models of black holes in string theory, as well as the recent firewall proposal to resolve the information paradox. We then demonstrate that positing a surface fluid in thermal equilibrium with Hawking radiation, with vanishing energy density (but nonvanishing pressure) at the new boundary of spacetime, which is required by Israel junction conditions, yields a thermodynamic entropy that is identical to the Bekenstein-Hawking area law, SBH, for charged rotating black holes. To our knowledge, this is the first derivation of black hole entropy that only employs local thermodynamics. Furthermore, a model for the microscopic degrees of freedom of the surface fluid (which constitute the microstates of the black hole) is suggested, which has a finite, but Lorentz-violating, quantum field theory. Finally, we comment on the effects of physical boundary on Hawking radiation and show that relaxing the assumption of equilibrium with Hawking radiation sets SBH as an upper limit for Black Hole entropy.

  3. Quantum production of particles (the Hawking effect) in nonstationary black holes

    Volovich, I.V.; Zagrebnov, V.A.; Frolov, V.P.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)

    1976-01-01

    Particle production in a gravitational field of a black hole with changing mass is considered. It is shown that in the case when parameters are changed adiabatically taking into account the nonstationarity is reduced effectively to the taking into account the dependence of the Hawking radiation temperature on the retarded time

  4. Organophosphate insecticide (famphur) topically applied to cattle kills magpies and hawks

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Kolbe, E.J.; Fitzner, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    A systematic field study of a black-billed magpie (P. pica) population revealed that magpies and red-tailed hawks (B. jamaicensis) were killed by famphur (= famophos, Warbex) used as a pour-on to control cattle warbles (Hypoderma sp.). Magpie mortality began on treatment day and continued for more than 3 mo. (38 found death); mortality peaked between Day 5 an Day 13. Estimates of magpie density (based on transects) decreased in both the control and treatment areas, but the decrease was greater in the treatment area. A red-tailed hawk found dead on Day 10 had eaten a famphur-contaminated magpie. Another red-tailed hawk was found alive but immobilized, and a 3rd died outside the study area. Brain cholinesterse (ChE) activity was 70-92% depressed in all dead birds examined; famphur residues were detected in all 17 magpies and the 2 hawks analyzed. The amount of famphur obtained by the dead magpies was estimated at 5.2-6.1 mg/kg (based on residue concentrations in the gizzard), which was above the acute oral LD50 for several bird species. The cow hair portion (12%) of the pooled gizzard contents from 13 other dead magpies produced extremely high famphur residues (4600 ppm). The residues persisted on cattle hair for more than 90 days post-treatment. Magpie populations in the far western states declined between 1968 and 1979, which corresponds with widespread use of famphur, although other factors may be involved.

  5. Quantum anomalies at horizon and Hawking radiations in Myers-Perry black holes

    Iso, Satoshi; Morita, Takeshi; Umetsu, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    A new method has been developed recently to derive Hawking radiations from black holes based on considerations of gravitational and gauge anomalies at the horizon. In this paper, we apply the method to Myers-Perry black holes with multiple angular momenta in various dimensions by using the dimensional reduction technique adopted in the case of four-dimensional rotating black holes

  6. Entanglement in a model for Hawking radiation: An application of quadratic algebras

    Bambah, Bindu A.; Mukku, C.; Shreecharan, T.; Siva Prasad, K.

    2013-01-01

    Quadratic polynomially deformed su(1,1) and su(2) algebras are utilized in model Hamiltonians to show how the gravitational system consisting of a black hole, infalling radiation and outgoing (Hawking) radiation can be solved exactly. The models allow us to study the long-time behaviour of the black hole and its outgoing modes. In particular, we calculate the bipartite entanglement entropies of subsystems consisting of (a) infalling plus outgoing modes and (b) black hole modes plus the infalling modes, using the Janus-faced nature of the model. The long-time behaviour also gives us glimpses of modifications in the character of Hawking radiation. Finally, we study the phenomenon of superradiance in our model in analogy with atomic Dicke superradiance. - Highlights: ► We examine a toy model for Hawking radiation with quantized black hole modes. ► We use quadratic polynomially deformed su(1,1) algebras to study its entanglement properties. ► We study the “Dicke Superradiance” in black hole radiation using quadratically deformed su(2) algebras. ► We study the modification of the thermal character of Hawking radiation due to quantized black hole modes.

  7. Quantum production of particles (the Hawking effect) in nonstationary black holes

    Volovich, I V; Zagrebnov, V A; Frolov, V P [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR); AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)

    1976-11-01

    Particle production in a gravitational field of a black hole with changing mass is considered. It is shown that in the case when parameters are changed adiabatically taking into account the nonstationarity is reduced effectively to the taking into account the dependence of the Hawking radiation temperature on the retarded time.

  8. "The Power of the Oral Tradition: Giving Life to Words:" Conversations with Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve

    Young, Teresa; Henderson, Darwin L.

    2013-01-01

    Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve, a former English teacher and school counselor, is an award-winning author, best known for her children's books about the Rosebud Sioux life and culture, which combines history and legend to create culturally rich and authentic Native American stories. In this article, the authors share their conversations with Virginia…

  9. Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve, Sioux Author. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students describes the life and career of Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve (Sioux), a Native American free-lance writer, and includes her photograph and a map of South Dakota reservations. A story by Mrs. Sneve tells about a half-Sioux boy who confronts his heritage when his grandfather makes a long journey between his…

  10. Street hawking among in-school adolescents in a south-western town in Nigeria: pattern, determinants and effects on school performance.

    Ijadunola, Macellina Y; Ojo, Temitope O; Babatunde, Adelekan; Olatunji, Gbajumo J; Owolabi, Gbolagade K; Adewale, Ibiyemi A; Ifedayo, Ibukun F; Friday, Ijuewe S

    2015-02-01

    Street hawking is the commonest form of child labor in Nigeria. Although street hawking is very pervasive, there is the increasing need to fully understand its pattern and effects on those involved in hawking particularly adolescents who combine schooling with hawking. In Nigeria, data on the effects of street hawking on in-school adolescents are generally scanty. Therefore, the present study was undertaken in Ife Central Local Government Area (LGA) of Osun State, Nigeria to assess the pattern, determinants of street hawking among in-school adolescents and its effect on school performance. A cross-sectional study of 435 adolescents (aged 10-19) attending public secondary schools was done. Data were collected using facilitated self-administered questionnaires alongside a review of class records. Appropriate statistical analysis including multiple regression was done. Results showed mean age of respondents to be 14.6±2.1 years with prevalence of street hawking at 37.2%. Early adolescents (10-13 years) were more likely to engage in street hawking compared to their counterparts in late adolescence (aged 17-19). Female adolescents and students of trading mothers were significantly more likely to engage in street hawking. Respondents engaged in street hawking were significantly more likely to have failed the last academic term examination. The findings from this study will be useful for stakeholders as they develop policies and programmes to address the challenge of street hawking among adolescent school goers.

  11. Global Mindset

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Global Mindset (GM) – the way to think about the global reality – is on the agenda of multinational companies concomitant with the increase in global complexity, uncertainty and diversity. In spite of a number of studies, the concept is still fluid and far from a managerial.......e. the capability to sense (quickly), reflect (constructively) and act purposefully (for mutual benefit). A case on an MNC is used at the end to show the organizational manifestations of a GM....

  12. The potential role of oral pH in the persistence of Trichomonas gallinae in Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii).

    Urban, Elizabeth H; Mannan, R William

    2014-01-01

    Trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan Trichomonas gallinae, affects a variety of species worldwide including avivorious raptors. Existing information suggests that the disease is most prevalent in young birds, and differential susceptibility to trichomoniasis among individuals in different age groups was documented in Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) nesting in Tucson, Arizona. In that population, 85% of nestling Cooper's Hawks had T. gallinae in their oral cavity, compared to only 1% of breeding-age hawks. Trichomonads generally are sensitive to environmental pH and we explored the possibility that differences in oral pH may contribute to the differential prevalence of infection between age groups. We measured the pH of the fluid in the oral cavity in 375 Cooper's Hawks from three age groups (nestlings, fledglings, and breeding age) in Tucson, Arizona, in 2010 and 2011 and clinically tested for T. gallinae in a subsample of hawks. Oral pH of nestlings (∼ 6.8) was 7.3 times less acidic than in fledgling or breeding Cooper's Hawks (∼ 6.1). The incidence of T. gallinae was higher in nestlings (16%) than in either fledglings or breeding hawks (0%). Our findings indicate that oral pH becomes more acidic in Cooper's Hawks soon after they leave the nest. Trichomonas gallinae thrives when pH is between 6.5 and 7.5 (optimum 7.2), but is less viable in more acidic conditions. Higher levels of acidity in the oral cavity of fledglings and breeding Cooper's Hawks may reduce their susceptibility to trichomoniasis, and play a role in the differential prevalence of infection among age groups.

  13. ATYPICAL CHLAMYDIACEAE IN WILD POPULATIONS OF HAWKS ( BUTEO SPP.) IN CALIFORNIA.

    Luján-Vega, Charlene; Hawkins, Michelle G; Johnson, Christine K; Briggs, Christopher; Vennum, Chris; Bloom, Peter H; Hull, Joshua M; Cray, Carolyn; Pesti, Denise; Johnson, Lisa; Ciembor, Paula; Ritchie, Branson R

    2018-03-01

    Chlamydiaceae bacteria infect many vertebrate hosts, and previous reports based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and serologic assays that are prone to cross-reaction among chlamydial organisms have been used to describe the prevalence of either DNA fragments or antibodies to Chlamydia spp. in wild raptorial populations. This study reports the PCR-based prevalence of Chlamydiaceae DNA that does not 100% match any avian or mammalian Chlamydiaceae in wild populations of hawks in California Buteo species. In this study, multimucosal swab samples ( n = 291) for quantitative PCR (qPCR) and plasma ( n = 78) for serology were collected from wild hawks. All available plasma samples were negative for antibodies using a C. psittaci-specific elementary body agglutination test (EBA; n = 78). For IgY antibodies all 51 available samples were negative using the indirect immunofluorescent assay. The overall prevalence of Chlamydiaceae DNA detection in wild Buteo species sampled was 1.37% (4/291) via qPCR-based analysis. Two fledgling Swainson's hawks ( Buteo swainsoni) and two juvenile red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis) were positive by qPCR-based assay for an atypical chlamydial sequence that did not 100% match any known C. psittaci genotype. Positive swab samples from these four birds were sequenced based on the ompA gene and compared by high-resolution melt analysis with all known avian and mammalian Chlamydiaceae. The amplicon sequence did not 100% match any known avian chlamydial sequence; however, it was most similar (98.6%) to C. psittaci M56, a genotype that is typically found in muskrats and hares. Culture and full genome sequence analysis of Chlamydia spp. isolated from diseased hawks will be necessary to classify this organism and to better understand its epizootiology and potential health impact on wild Buteo populations in California.

  14. Capabilities for Strategic Adaptation

    Distel, Andreas Philipp

    This dissertation explores capabilities that enable firms to strategically adapt to environmental changes and preserve competitiveness over time – often referred to as dynamic capabilities. While dynamic capabilities being a popular research domain, too little is known about what these capabiliti...

  15. Dynamic capabilities, Marketing Capability and Organizational Performance

    Adriana Roseli Wünsch Takahashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study is to investigate the influence of dynamic capabilities on organizational performance and the role of marketing capabilities as a mediator in this relationship in the context of private HEIs in Brazil. As a research method we carried out a survey with 316 IES and data analysis was operationalized with the technique of structural equation modeling. The results indicate that the dynamic capabilities have influence on organizational performance only when mediated by marketing ability. The marketing capability has an important role in the survival, growth and renewal on educational services offerings for HEIs in private sector, and consequently in organizational performance. It is also demonstrated that mediated relationship is more intense for HEI with up to 3,000 students and other organizational profile variables such as amount of courses, the constitution, the type of institution and type of education do not significantly alter the results.

  16. UH-60 Black Hawk Disturbance Rejection Study for Hover/Low Speed Handling Qualities Criteria and Turbulence Modeling

    Labows, Steven

    2000-01-01

    .... This paper discusses the airborne flight test of the Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter in turbulent conditions to determine disturbance rejection criteria and to develop a low speed turbulence...

  17. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae): multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification.

    Amaral, Fabio S Raposo do; Miller, Matthew J; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Wajntal, Anita

    2006-02-07

    The family Accipitridae (hawks, eagles and Old World vultures) represents a large radiation of predatory birds with an almost global distribution, although most species of this family occur in the Neotropics. Despite great morphological and ecological diversity, the evolutionary relationships in the family have been poorly explored at all taxonomic levels. Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes (12S, ATP8, ATP6, and ND6), we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Neotropical forest hawk genus Leucopternis and most of the allied genera of Neotropical buteonines. Our goals were to infer the evolutionary relationships among species of Leucopternis, estimate their relationships to other buteonine genera, evaluate the phylogenetic significance of the white and black plumage patterns common to most Leucopternis species, and assess general patterns of diversification of the group with respect to species' affiliations with Neotropical regions and habitats. Our molecular phylogeny for the genus Leucopternis and its allies disagrees sharply with traditional taxonomic arrangements for the group, and we present new hypotheses of relationships for a number of species. The mtDNA phylogenetic trees derived from analysis of the combined data posit a polyphyletic relationship among species of Leucopternis, Buteogallus and Buteo. Three highly supported clades containing Leucopternis species were recovered in our phylogenetic reconstructions. The first clade consisted of the sister pairs L. lacernulatus and Buteogallus meridionalis, and Buteogallus urubitinga and Harpyhaliaetus coronatus, in addition to L. schistaceus and L. plumbeus. The second clade included the sister pair Leucopternis albicollis and L. occidentalis as well as L. polionotus. The third lineage comprised the sister pair L. melanops and L. kuhli, in addition to L. semiplumbeus and Buteo buteo. According to our results, the white and black plumage patterns have evolved at least twice in the group. Furthermore

  18. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae: multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification

    Bermingham Eldredge

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Accipitridae (hawks, eagles and Old World vultures represents a large radiation of predatory birds with an almost global distribution, although most species of this family occur in the Neotropics. Despite great morphological and ecological diversity, the evolutionary relationships in the family have been poorly explored at all taxonomic levels. Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes (12S, ATP8, ATP6, and ND6, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Neotropical forest hawk genus Leucopternis and most of the allied genera of Neotropical buteonines. Our goals were to infer the evolutionary relationships among species of Leucopternis, estimate their relationships to other buteonine genera, evaluate the phylogenetic significance of the white and black plumage patterns common to most Leucopternis species, and assess general patterns of diversification of the group with respect to species' affiliations with Neotropical regions and habitats. Results Our molecular phylogeny for the genus Leucopternis and its allies disagrees sharply with traditional taxonomic arrangements for the group, and we present new hypotheses of relationships for a number of species. The mtDNA phylogenetic trees derived from analysis of the combined data posit a polyphyletic relationship among species of Leucopternis, Buteogallus and Buteo. Three highly supported clades containing Leucopternis species were recovered in our phylogenetic reconstructions. The first clade consisted of the sister pairs L. lacernulatus and Buteogallus meridionalis, and Buteogallus urubitinga and Harpyhaliaetus coronatus, in addition to L. schistaceus and L. plumbeus. The second clade included the sister pair Leucopternis albicollis and L. occidentalis as well as L. polionotus. The third lineage comprised the sister pair L. melanops and L. kuhli, in addition to L. semiplumbeus and Buteo buteo. According to our results, the white and black plumage patterns have evolved

  19. Entropy is conserved in Hawking radiation as tunneling: A revisit of the black hole information loss paradox

    Zhang Baocheng; Cai Qingyu; Zhan Mingsheng; You Li

    2011-01-01

    Research Highlights: → Information is found to be encoded and carried away by Hawking radiations. → Entropy is conserved in Hawking radiation. → We thus conclude no information is lost. → The dynamics of black hole may be unitary. - Abstract: We revisit in detail the paradox of black hole information loss due to Hawking radiation as tunneling. We compute the amount of information encoded in correlations among Hawking radiations for a variety of black holes, including the Schwarzchild black hole, the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole, the Kerr black hole, and the Kerr-Newman black hole. The special case of tunneling through a quantum horizon is also considered. Within a phenomenological treatment based on the accepted emission probability spectrum from a black hole, we find that information is leaked out hidden in the correlations of Hawking radiation. The recovery of this previously unaccounted for information helps to conserve the total entropy of a system composed of a black hole plus its radiations. We thus conclude, irrespective of the microscopic picture for black hole collapsing, the associated radiation process: Hawking radiation as tunneling, is consistent with unitarity as required by quantum mechanics.

  20. A life history approach to delineating how harsh environments and hawk temperament traits differentially shape children's problem-solving skills.

    Suor, Jennifer H; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Davies, Patrick T; Cicchetti, Dante

    2017-08-01

    Harsh environments are known to predict deficits in children's cognitive abilities. Life history theory approaches challenge this interpretation, proposing stressed children's cognition becomes specialized to solve problems in fitness-enhancing ways. The goal of this study was to examine associations between early environmental harshness and children's problem-solving outcomes across tasks varying in ecological relevance. In addition, we utilize an evolutionary model of temperament toward further specifying whether hawk temperament traits moderate these associations. Two hundred and one mother-child dyads participated in a prospective multimethod study when children were 2 and 4 years old. At age 2, environmental harshness was assessed via maternal report of earned income and observations of maternal disengagement during a parent-child interaction task. Children's hawk temperament traits were assessed from a series of unfamiliar episodes. At age 4, children's reward-oriented and visual problem-solving were measured. Path analyses revealed early environmental harshness and children's hawk temperament traits predicted worse visual problem-solving. Results showed a significant two-way interaction between children's hawk temperament traits and environmental harshness on reward-oriented problem-solving. Simple slope analyses revealed the effect of environmental harshness on reward-oriented problem-solving was specific to children with higher levels of hawk traits. Results suggest early experiences of environmental harshness and child hawk temperament traits shape children's trajectories of problem-solving in an environment-fitting manner. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Hawking, fiducial, and free-fall temperature of black hole on gravity's rainbow

    Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    On gravity's rainbow, the energy of test particles deforms the geometry of a black hole in such a way that the corresponding Hawking temperature is expected to be modified. It means that the fiducial and free-fall temperatures on the black hole background should also be modified according to deformation of the geometry. In this work, the probing energy of test particles is assumed as the average energy of the Hawking particle in order to study the particle back reaction of the geometry by using the advantage of gravity's rainbow. We shall obtain the modified fiducial and free-fall temperatures, respectively. The behaviors of these two temperatures on the horizon tell us that black hole complementarity is still well defined on gravity's rainbow. (orig.)

  2. Analogy of QCD hadronization and Hawking-Unruh radiation at NICA

    Nasser Tawfik, Abdel [Modern University for Technology and Information (MTI), Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), Cairo (Egypt); World Laboratory for Cosmology And Particle Physics (WLCAPP), Cairo (Egypt); Academy for Scientific Research and Technology (ASRT), Network for Nuclear Sciences (NNS), Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    The proposed analogy of particle production from high-energy collisions and Hawking-Unruh radiation from black holes is extended to finite density (collisions) and finite electric charge (black holes). Assuming that the electric charge is directly proportional to the density (or the chemical potential), it becomes clear that for at least two freezeout conditions; constant s/T{sup 3} and E/N, the proposed analogy works very well. Dependence of radiation (freezeout) temperature on finite electric charge leads to an excellent estimation for kaon-to-pion ratio, for instance, especially in the energy range covered by NICA. The precise and complete measurements for various light-flavored particle yields and ratios are essential in characterizing Hawking-Unruh radiation from charged black holes and the QCD hadronization at finite density, as well. (orig.)

  3. Hawk eyes I: diurnal raptors differ in visual fields and degree of eye movement.

    Colleen T O'Rourke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (∼33° and wide blind areas (∼82°, but intermediate degree of eye movement (∼5°, which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (∼36°, small blind areas (∼60°, and high degree of eye movement (∼8°, which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (∼1° may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that: (a there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats; (c variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence

  4. Feeding ecology of sharp-shinned hawks in deciduous and coniferous forests in Colorado

    Suzanne M. Joy; Richard T. Reynolds; Richard L. Knight; Richard W. Hoffman

    1994-01-01

    Feeding ecology of 11 Sharp-skinned Hawk (Accipiter striates) pairs nesting in aspen (Populus tremuloides), conifer (Abies, Picea spp.), and mixed aspen-conifer habitats in southwest Colorado was investigated during 1988-1989. Small birds (x-bar = 20.9 g, SE = 0.8 g) and mammals (x-bar = 41.1 g, SE = 3.3 g) comprised 91 and 9% of...

  5. Hawking tunneling and boomerang behaviour of massive particles with E < m

    Jannes, Gil; Philbin, Thomas G.; Rousseaux, Germain

    2012-07-01

    Massive particles are radiated from black holes through the Hawking mechanism together with the more familiar radiation of massless particles. For E >= m, the emission rate is identical to the massless case. But E boomerang. The tunneling formalism is used to calculate the probability for detecting such E < m particles, for a Schwarzschild black hole of astrophysical size or in an analogue gravity experiment, as a function of the distance from the horizon and the energy of the particle.

  6. Entropy vs. Action in the (2+1)-Dimensional Hartle-Hawking Wave Function

    Carlip, Steven

    1992-01-01

    In most attempts to compute the Hartle-Hawking ``wave function of the universe'' in Euclidean quantum gravity, two important approximations are made: the path integral is evaluated in a saddle point approximation, and only the leading (least action) extremum is taken into account. In (2+1)-dimensional gravity with a negative cosmological constant, the second assumption is shown to lead to incorrect results: although the leading extremum gives the most important single contribution to the path...

  7. Mineral resources of the Hawk Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Honey County, Oregon

    Turrin, B.D.; Conrad, J.E.; Plouff, D.; King, H.D.; Swischer, C.C.; Mayerle, R.T.; Rains, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Hawk Mountain Wildeness Study Area in south-central Oregon is underlain by Miocene age basalt, welded tuff, and interbedded sedimentary rock. The western part of this study area has a low mineral resource potential for gold. There is a low mineral resource potential for small deposits of uranium in the sedimentary rocks. This entire study area has a low potential for geothermal and oil and gas resources. There are no mineral claims or identified resources in this study area

  8. High frequency of extra-pair paternity in an urban population of Cooper's Hawks

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Stout, William C.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Raptors exhibit some of the highest rates of intra-pair copulations among birds, perhaps in an attempt by males to reduce the risk of being cuckolded. Indeed, the frequency of extra-pair fertilizations reported in studies of raptors to date is relatively low (0-11.2%). Socially monogamous Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) exhibit one of the highest copulation rates among birds, yet there are no published accounts of extra-pair copulations (or paternity). We studied a population of Cooper's Hawks in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, during three breeding seasons (2003, 2004, and 2007), examining the possible effects of age (1 yr old vs. ≥ 2 yr old), adult mass, and brood size on the frequency of extra-pair paternity (EPP). We found that 19.3% of nestlings (N = 27/140) were extra-pair young (EPY), and 34% of all broods (N = 15/44) had at least one EPY. The sires of the EPY in our study were identified for only two broods, suggesting that floater males may have engaged in extra-pair copulations with territorial females. We found that brood size was a good predictor of the occurrence of EPP (EPP) in nests, but adult mass and female age were not. To our knowledge, these possible correlates of the occurrence of EPP in raptors had not previously been investigated. Male Cooper's Hawks provide food for females during the pre-nesting period, and delivery of food is, in contrast to other raptor species, typically followed by copulation. Thus, one possible explanation of the relatively high rates of EPP in our study is that females might accept or even solicit extra-pair copulations from males other than their mates as a means of maximizing energy intake for egg production. Such behavior might be particularly likely in our study area, i.e., a food-rich urban setting with a high breeding density of Cooper's Hawks.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of a concentrated buprenorphine formulation in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Gleeson, Molly D; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Knych, Heather K; Kass, Philip H; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics and sedative effects of 2 doses of a concentrated buprenorphine formulation after SC administration to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). ANIMALS 6 adult red-tailed hawks. PROCEDURES Concentrated buprenorphine (0.3 mg/kg, SC) was administered to all birds. Blood samples were collected at 10 time points over 24 hours after drug administration to determine plasma buprenorphine concentrations. After a 4-week washout period, the same birds received the same formulation at a higher dose (1.8 mg/kg, SC), and blood samples were collected at 13 time points over 96 hours. Hawks were monitored for adverse effects and assigned agitation-sedation scores at each sample collection time. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS Mean time to maximum plasma buprenorphine concentration was 7.2 minutes and 26.1 minutes after administration of the 0.3-mg/kg and 1.8-mg/kg doses, respectively. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were > 1 ng/mL for mean durations of 24 and 48 hours after low- and high-dose administration, respectively. Mean elimination half-life was 6.23 hours for the low dose and 7.84 hours for the high dose. Mean agitation-sedation scores were higher (indicating some degree of sedation) than the baseline values for 24 hours at both doses. No clinically important adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Concentrated buprenorphine was rapidly absorbed, and plasma drug concentrations considered to have analgesic effects in other raptor species were maintained for extended periods. Most birds had mild to moderate sedation. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of these doses of concentrated buprenorphine in red-tailed hawks.

  10. Correction to Hawking radiation of the stationary axisymmetric NUT-Taub black hole

    Li Huiling; Lin Rong; Cai Min; Qi Dejiang; Jiang Qingquan

    2007-01-01

    Adopting a new method of quantum radiation as tunnelling, and taking energy conservation into account, the tunnelling radiation characteristics of the stationary axial symmetric NUT-Taub black hole are studied. The result shows that the tunnelling rate of particles at the event horizon of the black hole is relevant to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the real spectrum is not precisely thermal at all

  11. Hawk eyes I: diurnal raptors differ in visual fields and degree of eye movement.

    O'Rourke, Colleen T; Hall, Margaret I; Pitlik, Todd; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2010-09-22

    Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (∼33°) and wide blind areas (∼82°), but intermediate degree of eye movement (∼5°), which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (∼36°), small blind areas (∼60°), and high degree of eye movement (∼8°), which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (∼1°) may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. We conclude that: (a) there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b) these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats); (c) variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d) the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence behavioral strategies to visually search for and track prey while

  12. Hawk eyes II: diurnal raptors differ in head movement strategies when scanning from perches.

    O'Rourke, Colleen T; Pitlik, Todd; Hoover, Melissa; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2010-09-22

    Relatively little is known about the degree of inter-specific variability in visual scanning strategies in species with laterally placed eyes (e.g., birds). This is relevant because many species detect prey while perching; therefore, head movement behavior may be an indicator of prey detection rate, a central parameter in foraging models. We studied head movement strategies in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. We used behavioral recording of individuals under field and captive conditions to calculate the rate of two types of head movements and the interval between consecutive head movements. Cooper's Hawks had the highest rate of regular head movements, which can facilitate tracking prey items in the visually cluttered environment they inhabit (e.g., forested habitats). On the other hand, Red-tailed Hawks showed long intervals between consecutive head movements, which is consistent with prey searching in less visually obstructed environments (e.g., open habitats) and with detecting prey movement from a distance with their central foveae. Finally, American Kestrels have the highest rates of translational head movements (vertical or frontal displacements of the head keeping the bill in the same direction), which have been associated with depth perception through motion parallax. Higher translational head movement rates may be a strategy to compensate for the reduced degree of eye movement of this species. Cooper's Hawks, Red-tailed Hawks, and American Kestrels use both regular and translational head movements, but to different extents. We conclude that these diurnal raptors have species-specific strategies to gather visual information while perching. These strategies may optimize prey search and detection with different visual systems in habitat types with different degrees of visual obstruction.

  13. Generalized Laws of Black Hole Thermodynamics and Quantum Conservation Laws on Hawking Radiation Process

    Wu, S. Q.; Cai, X.

    2000-01-01

    Four classical laws of black hole thermodynamics are extended from exterior (event) horizon to interior (Cauchy) horizon. Especially, the first law of classical thermodynamics for Kerr-Newman black hole (KNBH) is generalized to those in quantum form. Then five quantum conservation laws on the KNBH evaporation effect are derived in virtue of thermodynamical equilibrium conditions. As a by-product, Bekenstein-Hawking's relation $ S=A/4 $ is exactly recovered.

  14. Preliminary clinical application of SilverHawk directional atherectomy device in arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremity

    Qian Jun; Jiang Hong; Xu Gang; Yang Xiaohong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficiency and security of SilverHawk directional atherectomy device in treating arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremity. Methods: Seven patients with lower extremity ischemia were treated with SilverHawk directional atherectomy. The lesions length varied from 1.8 to 14.5 cm. Clinical symptoms (Fontaine classification) included 4 cases of grade Ⅱ b, I case of grade Ⅲ, 2 cases of grade Ⅳ. The ABI varied from 0.28 to 0.65. Patency was evaluated with color duplex sonography or CTA besides clinical examination during follow-up. Results: Seven occlusive lesions were recanalizated successfully. The technical success (residual stenosis < 30%) rate was 100%. Clinical symptoms were obviously improved or disappeared. The ABI varied from 0.82 to 1.18 (P=0.002), and Fontaine classification included 6 cases of Ⅰ; 1 case of Ⅱ a. Patency rate was 100% and the ABI varied from 0.75 to 1.14 (P=0.938). Fontaine classifications keep consistent 1-6 months after operation. Conclusion: SilverHawk directional atherectomy was a safe and effective way for treatment of lower arteriosclerosis obliteran. (authors)

  15. The Hawk-Dove game in phenotypically homogeneous and heterogeneous populations of finite dimension

    Laruelle, Annick; da Silva Rocha, André Barreira; Escobedo, Ramón

    2018-02-01

    The Hawk-Dove game played between individuals in populations of finite dimension is analyzed by means of a stochastic model. We take into account both cases when all individuals in the population are either phenotypically homogeneous or heterogeneous. A strategy in the model is a gene representing the probability of playing the Hawk strategy. Individual interactions at the microscopic level are described by a genetic algorithm where evolution results from the interplay among selection, mutation, drift and cross-over of genes. We show that the behavioral patterns observed at the macroscopic level can be reproduced as the emergent result of individual interactions governed by the rules of the Hawk-Dove game at the microscopic level. We study how the results of the genetic algorithm compare with those obtained in evolutionary game theory, finding that, although genes continuously change both their presence and frequency in the population over time, the population average behavior always achieves stationarity and, when this happens, the final average strategy played in the population oscillates around the evolutionarily stable strategy in the homogeneous population case or the neutrally stable set in the heterogeneous population case.

  16. Protective effects of Mengshan green tea and hawk tea against UV-ray irradiation

    Chen Xiaoming; Ren Zhenglong; Zhang Huaiyu; Tang Zongxiang; Luo Peigao

    2005-01-01

    A group of cultured normal human skin-derived fibroblasts was used as the cell model to investigate protective and repair effects of aqueous extracts of Mengshan green tea and Hawk tea against 320-400 nm UV-ray irradiation, with the methods of MTT colorimetry and LDH release. It was found that the aqueous extracts had strong protective effect on fibroblasts against the UV-rays with dose dependence. There were no significant differences between the two kinds of tea aqueous extracts in a higher concentration of 5 mg/mL, whereas at lower concentrations of 2.5 and 1.25 mg/mL the, green tea aqueous extract was less effective than the hawk-tea aqueous extract in protecting fibroblasts from the UV-ray damage. Meanwhile, it was discovered that the green tea and hawk-tea aqueous extract could repair damages induced by the UV irradiation with dose dependence. But there were no statistically significant differences between the two kinds of aqueous extract. The effects may be related to antioxidant effect of tea polyphenol. (authors)

  17. A framework for offshore vendor capability development

    Yusuf Wibisono, Yogi; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Irianto, Dradjad; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    Offshore outsourcing is a common practice conducted by companies, especially in developed countries, by relocating one or more their business processes to other companies abroad, especially in developing countries. This practice grows rapidly owing to the ease of accessing qualified vendors with a lower cost. Vendors in developing countries compete more intensely to acquire offshore projects. Indonesia is still below India, China, Malaysia as main global offshore destinations. Vendor capability is among other factors that contribute to the inability of Indonesian vendor in competing with other companies in the global market. Therefore, it is essential to study how to increase the vendor's capability in Indonesia, in the context of global offshore outsourcing. Previous studies on the vendor's capability mainly focus on capabilities without considering the dynamic of capabilities due to the environmental changes. In order to be able to compete with competitors and maintain the competitive advantage, it is necessary for vendors to develop their capabilities continuously. The purpose of this study is to develop a framework that describes offshore vendor capability development along the client-vendor relationship stages. The framework consists of three main components, i.e. the stages of client-vendor relationship, the success of each stage, and the capabilities of vendor at each stage.

  18. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...... process. We find that clients influence the development of human capital capabilities and management capabilities in reciprocally produced services. While in sequential produced services clients influence the development of organizational capital capabilities and management capital capabilities....... of the services, such as sequential or reciprocal task activities, influence the development of different types of capabilities. We study five cases of offshore-outsourced knowledge-intensive business services that are distinguished according to their reciprocal or sequential task activities in their production...

  19. Petrology, Palynology, and Geochemistry of Gray Hawk Coal (Early Pennsylvanian, Langsettian in Eastern Kentucky, USA

    James C. Hower

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents recently collected data examining the organic petrology, palynology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Gray Hawk coal bed. From the Early Pennsylvanian, Langsettian substage, Gray Hawk coal has been mined near the western edge of the eastern Kentucky portion of the Central Appalachian coalfield. While the coal is thin, rarely more than 0.5-m thick, it has a low-ash yield and a low-S content, making it an important local resource. The Gray Hawk coal palynology is dominated by Lycospora spp., and contains a diverse spectrum of small lycopods, tree ferns, small ferns, calamites, and gymnosperms. The maceral assemblages show an abundance of collotelinite, telinite, vitrodetrinite, fusinite, and semifusinite. Fecal pellet-derived macrinite, albeit with more compaction than is typically seen in younger coals, was observed in the Gray Hawk coal. The minerals in the coal are dominated by clay minerals (e.g., kaolinite, mixed-layer illite/smectite, illite, and to a lesser extent, pyrite, quartz, and iron III hydroxyl-sulfate, along with traces of chlorite, and in some cases, jarosite, szomolnokite, anatase, and calcite. The clay minerals are of authigenic and detrital origins. The occurrence of anatase as cell-fillings also indicates an authigenic origin. With the exception of Ge and As, which are slightly enriched in the coals, the concentrations of other trace elements are either close to or much lower than the averages for world hard coals. Arsenic and Hg are also enriched in the top bench of the coal and probably occur in pyrite. The elemental associations (e.g., Al2O3/TiO2, Cr/Th-Sc/Th indicate a sediment-source region with intermediate and felsic compositions. Rare metals, including Ga, rare earth elements and Ge, are highly enriched in the coal ashes, and the Gray Hawk coals have a great potential for industrial use of these metals. The rare earth elements in the samples are weakly fractionated or are characterized by heavy

  20. Hormonal underpinnings of status conflict: Testosterone and cortisol are related to decisions and satisfaction in the hawk-dove game.

    Mehta, Pranjal H; Lawless DesJardins, Nicole M; van Vugt, Mark; Josephs, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition.Testosterone is theorized to influence status-seeking behaviors such as social dominance and competitive behavior, but supporting evidence is mixed. The present study tested the roles of testosterone and cortisol in the hawk-dove game, a dyadic economic decision-making paradigm in which earnings depend on one's own and the other player's choices. If one person selects the hawk strategy and the other person selects the dove strategy, the player who selected hawk attains a greater financial pay-off (status differentiation). The worst financial outcome occurs when both players choose the hawk strategy (status confrontation). Ninety-eight undergraduate students (42 men) provided saliva samples and played ten rounds of the hawk-dove game with another same-sex participant. In support of the hypothesis that testosterone is related to status concern, individuals higher in basal testosterone made more hawk decisions - decisions that harmed the other player. Acute decreases in cortisol were also associated with more hawk decisions. There was some empirical support for the dual-hormone hypothesis as well: basal testosterone was positively related to satisfaction in the game among low basal-cortisol individuals but not among high basal-cortisol individuals. There were no significant sex differences in these hormonal effects. The present findings align with theories of hormones and status-seeking behavior at the individual level, but they also open up new avenues for research on hormone profiles at the collective level. Our results suggest that the presence of two or more high-testosterone members increases the likelihood of status confrontations over a limited resource that can undermine collective outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Capability Handbook- offline metrology

    Islam, Aminul; Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido

    This offline metrological capability handbook has been made in relation to HiMicro Task 3.3. The purpose of this document is to assess the metrological capability of the HiMicro partners and to gather the information of all available metrological instruments in the one single document. It provides...

  2. Dynamic Capabilities and Performance

    Wilden, Ralf; Gudergan, Siegfried P.; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    are contingent on the competitive intensity faced by firms. Our findings demonstrate the performance effects of internal alignment between organizational structure and dynamic capabilities, as well as the external fit of dynamic capabilities with competitive intensity. We outline the advantages of PLS...

  3. Developing Alliance Capabilities

    Heimeriks, Koen H.; Duysters, Geert; Vanhaverbeke, Wim

    This paper assesses the differential performance effects of learning mechanisms on the development of alliance capabilities. Prior research has suggested that different capability levels could be identified in which specific intra-firm learning mechanisms are used to enhance a firm's alliance...

  4. Telematics Options and Capabilities

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    This presentation describes the data tracking and analytical capabilities of telematics devices. Federal fleet managers can use the systems to keep their drivers safe, maintain a fuel efficient fleet, ease their reporting burden, and save money. The presentation includes an example of how much these capabilities can save fleets.

  5. Global Positioning System : significant challenges in sustaining and upgrading widely used capabilities : report to the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives.

    2009-04-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), which provides positioning, navigation, and timing data to users worldwide, has become essential to U.S. national security and a key tool in an expanding array of public service and commercial applications at home...

  6. Technology Advancements for Active Remote Sensing of Carbon Dioxide From Space using the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator

    Obland, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Kooi, S. A.; Carrion, W.; Hicks, J.; Fan, T. F.; Nehrir, A. R.; Browell, E. V.; Meadows, B.; Davis, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    This work describes advances in critical lidar technologies and techniques developed as part of the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) system for measuring atmospheric column carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The ACES design demonstrates advancements in: (1) enhanced power-aperture product through the use and operation of multiple co-aligned laser transmitters and a multi-aperture telescope design; (2) high-efficiency, high-power Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs); (3) high-bandwidth, low-noise HgCdTe detector and transimpedence amplifier (TIA) subsystem capable of long-duration operation; and (4) advanced algorithms for cloud and aerosol discrimination. The ACES instrument, an Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar, was designed for high-altitude aircraft operations and can be directly applied to space instrumentation to meet the ASCENDS mission requirements. Specifically, the lidar simultaneously transmits three IM-CW laser beams from the high power EDFAs operating near 1571 nm. The outgoing laser beams are aligned to the field of view of three fiber-coupled 17.8-cm diameter telescopes, and the backscattered light collected by the same three telescopes is sent to the detector/TIA subsystem, which has a bandwidth of 4.9 MHz and operates service-free with a tactical Dewar and cryocooler. The electronic bandwidth is only slightly higher than 1 MHz, effectively limiting the noise level. Two key laser modulation approaches are being tested to significantly mitigate the effects of thin clouds on the retrieved CO2 column amounts. This work provides an over view of these technologies, the modulation approaches, and results from recent test flights during the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Earth Venture Suborbital flight campaign.

  7. FMEF/experimental capabilities

    Burgess, C.A.; Dronen, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), under construction at the Hanford site north of Richland, Washington, will be one of the most modern facilities offering irradiated fuels and materials examination capabilities and fuel fabrication development technologies. Scheduled for completion in 1984, the FMEF will provide examination capability for fuel assemblies, fuel pins and test pins irradiated in the FFTF. Various functions of the FMEF are described, with emphasis on experimental data-gathering capabilities in the facility's Nondestructive and Destructive examination cell complex

  8. KSC Technical Capabilities Website

    Nufer, Brian; Bursian, Henry; Brown, Laurette L.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the website pages that review the technical capabilities that the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has for partnership opportunities. The purpose of this information is to make prospective customers aware of the capabilities and provide an opportunity to form relationships with the experts at KSC. The technical capabilities fall into these areas: (1) Ground Operations and Processing Services, (2) Design and Analysis Solutions, (3) Command and Control Systems / Services, (4) Materials and Processes, (5) Research and Technology Development and (6) Laboratories, Shops and Test Facilities.

  9. A Global Survey of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D): A Guide to Interactive Global Map Layers, Table Database, References and Notes

    Tynan, Mark C.; Russell, Glenn P.; Perry, Frank V.; Kelley, Richard E.; Champenois, Sean T.

    2017-01-01

    These associated tables, references, notes, and report present a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information used to create four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies or disposal facilities 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding “deep underground” facilities, history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database provide each facility’s approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not comprehensive, it is representative of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  10. A Global Survey of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D): A Guide to Interactive Global Map Layers, Table Database, References and Notes

    Tynan, Mark C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Russell, Glenn P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Perry, Frank V. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Champenois, Sean T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-13

    These associated tables, references, notes, and report present a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information used to create four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies or disposal facilities 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding “deep underground” facilities, history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database provide each facility’s approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not comprehensive, it is representative of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  11. Resources, constraints and capabilities

    Dhondt, S.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Schröder, A.

    2018-01-01

    Human and financial resources as well as organisational capabilities are needed to overcome the manifold constraints social innovators are facing. To unlock the potential of social innovation for the whole society new (social) innovation friendly environments and new governance structures

  12. a Capability approach

    efforts towards gender equality in education as a means of achieving social justice. ... should mean that a lot of capability approach-oriented commentators are ... processes, their forms of exercising power, and their rules, unwritten cultures, ...

  13. Engineering Capabilities and Partnerships

    Poulos, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the engineering capabilities at Johnson Space Center, The presentation also reviews the partnerships that have resulted in successfully designed and developed projects that involved commercial and educational institutions.

  14. Brandishing Cyberattack Capabilities

    2013-01-01

    Advertising cyberwar capabilities may be helpful. It may back up a deterrence strategy. It might dissuade other states from conventional mischief or...to enable the attack.5 Many of the instruments of the attack remain with the target system, nestled in its log files, or even in the malware itself...debat- able. Even if demonstrated, what worked yesterday may not work today. But difficult does not mean impossible. Advertising cyberwar capabilities

  15. CASL Dakota Capabilities Summary

    Adams, Brian M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Simmons, Chris [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-10

    The Dakota software project serves the mission of Sandia National Laboratories and supports a worldwide user community by delivering state-of-the-art research and robust, usable software for optimization and uncertainty quantification. These capabilities enable advanced exploration and riskinformed prediction with a wide range of computational science and engineering models. Dakota is the verification and validation (V&V) / uncertainty quantification (UQ) software delivery vehicle for CASL, allowing analysts across focus areas to apply these capabilities to myriad nuclear engineering analyses.

  16. The B4 school check behaviour measures: findings from the Hawke's Bay evaluation.

    Hedley, Cath; Thompson, Shona; Morris Matthews, Kay; Pentecost, Mandy; Wivell, Judy; Frost, Ariana Stockdale; Morris, Helen

    2012-11-01

    The Before (B4) School Check is a free health and development check delivered by specifically trained nurses to four year old children throughout New Zealand, aimed to identify and address any health, behavioural, social or developmental concerns that could affect a child's ability to get the most benefit from school. Reported here are the results of an evaluation of the B4 School Checks in Hawke's Bay, focusing specifically on children assessed at the 84 School Check with behaviour issues as determined by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Health Hawke's Bay (HHB) records were reviewed to understand the number and demographics of the children assessed with behaviour issues at the B4 School Checks up to 31 August 2011, and the interventions to which they were referred. Telephone Interviews were conducted with 36 parents/caregivers of these children to address the questions, what difference did the B4 School Check make to children assessed with behaviour issues and what aspects of the B4 School Check delivery contributed to successful outcomes for these children? Results showed that child behaviour issues in Hawke's Bay were identified in more boys than girls and concentrated in more deprived families. Māori children were represented in numbers disproportional to the regional population. The majority of referrals for child behaviour directed parents/caregivers to non-governmental organisations for family support and parenting programmes. Thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data derived from the interviews with parents/caregivers and results indicated high levels of satisfaction with the B4 School Check for behaviour and the referred outcomes. Implications for nursing practice arise from these findings in that they identify factors which contribute to what does and does not work well for achieving successful outcomes from the B4 School Check for behaviour.

  17. Anomalies, effective action and Hawking temperatures of a Schwarzschild black hole in the isotropic coordinates

    Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin; Zhao Zhanyue

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the universality of Hawking radiation and that of the anomaly cancellation technique as well as the effective action method, we investigate the Hawking radiation of a Schwarzschild black hole in the isotropic coordinates via the cancellation of gravitational anomaly. After performing a dimensional reduction from the four-dimensional isotropic Schwarzschild metric, we show that this reduction procedure will, in general, result in two classes of two-dimensional effective metrics: the conformal equivalent and the inequivalent ones. For the physically equivalent class, the two-dimensional effective metric displays such a distinct feature that the determinant is not equal to the unity √(-g)≠1, but also vanishes at the horizon, the latter of which possibly invalidates the anomaly analysis there. Nevertheless, in this paper we adopt the effective action method to prove that the consistent energy-momentum tensor T r t is divergent on the horizon but √(-g)T t r remains finite there. Meanwhile, through an explicit calculation we show that the covariant energy-momentum tensor T-tilde t r equals zero at the horizon. Therefore the validity of the covariant regularity condition that demands that T-tilde t r = 0 at the horizon has been justified, indicating that the gravitational anomaly analysis can be safely extrapolated to the case where the metric determinant vanishes at the horizon. It is then demonstrated that for the physically equivalent reduced metric, both methods can give the correct Hawking temperature of the isotropic Schwarzschild black hole, while for the inequivalent one with the determinant √(-g) = 1 it can only give half of the correct temperature. We further exclude the latter undesired result by taking into account the general covariance of the energy-momentum tensor under the isotropic coordinate transformation

  18. Torsional and axial compressive properties of tibiotarsal bones of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Kerrigan, Shannon M; Kapatkin, Amy S; Garcia, Tanya C; Robinson, Duane A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Stover, Susan M

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the torsional and axial compressive properties of tibiotarsal bones of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). SAMPLE 16 cadaveric tibiotarsal bones from 8 red-tailed hawks. PROCEDURES 1 tibiotarsal bone from each bird was randomly assigned to be tested in torsion, and the contralateral bone was tested in axial compression. Intact bones were monotonically loaded in either torsion (n = 8) or axial compression (8) to failure. Mechanical variables were derived from load-deformation curves. Fracture configurations were described. Effects of sex, limb side, and bone dimensions on mechanical properties were assessed with a mixed-model ANOVA. Correlations between equivalent torsional and compressive properties were determined. RESULTS Limb side and bone dimensions were not associated with any mechanical property. During compression tests, mean ultimate cumulative energy and postyield energy for female bones were significantly greater than those for male bones. All 8 bones developed a spiral diaphyseal fracture and a metaphyseal fissure or fracture during torsional tests. During compression tests, all bones developed a crushed metaphysis and a fissure or comminuted fracture of the diaphysis. Positive correlations were apparent between most yield and ultimate torsional and compressive properties. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The torsional and axial compressive properties of tibiotarsal bones described in this study can be used as a reference for investigations into fixation methods for tibiotarsal fractures in red-tailed hawks. Although the comminuted and spiral diaphyseal fractures induced in this study were consistent with those observed in clinical practice, the metaphyseal disruption observed was not and warrants further research.

  19. The ESA River & Lake System: Current Capabilities and Future Potential

    Smith, Richard G.; Salloway, Mark; Berry, Philippa A. M.

    Measuring the earth's river and lake resources using satellite radar altimetry offers a unique global monitoring capability, which complements the detailed measurements made by the steadily decreasing number of in-situ gauges. To exploit this unique remote monitoring capability, a global pilot...

  20. Spherical domain wall formed by field dynamics of Hawking radiation and spontaneous charging-up of black hole

    Nagatani, Yukinori

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the Hawking radiation in the gauge Higgs-Yukawa theory. The ballistic model is proposed as an effective description of the system. We find that a spherical domain wall around the black hole is formed by field dynamics rather than thermal phase transition. The formation is a general property of the black hole whose Hawking temperature is equal to or greater than the energy scale of the theory. The formation of the electroweak wall and that of the GUT wall are shown. We also find a phenomenon of the spontaneous charging-up of the black hole by the wall. The Hawking radiation drives a mechanism of the charge transportation into the black hole when C- and CP-violation are assumed. The mechanism can strongly transport the hyper-charge into a black hole of the electroweak scale

  1. Hawking radiation from rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spaces via gauge and gravitational anomalies

    Jiang Qingquan; Wu Shuangqing

    2007-01-01

    Robinson-Wilczek's recent work, which treats Hawking radiation as a compensating flux to cancel gravitational anomaly at the horizon of a Schwarzschild-type black hole, is extended to study Hawking radiation of rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spaces, especially that in dragging coordinate system, via gauge and gravitational anomalies. The results show that in order to restore gauge invariance and general coordinate covariance at the quantum level in the effective field theory, the charge and energy flux by requiring to cancel gauge and gravitational anomalies at the horizon, must have a form equivalent to that of a (1+1)-dimensional blackbody radiation at Hawking temperature with an appropriate chemical potential

  2. INFLAMMATORY MARKERS ASSOCIATED WITH TRAUMA AND INFECTION IN RED-TAILED HAWKS (BUTEO JAMAICENSIS) IN THE USA.

    Lee, Kelly A; Goetting, Valerie S; Tell, Lisa A

    2015-10-01

    Changes in inflammatory marker concentrations or activity can be used to monitor health and disease condition of domestic animals but have not been applied with the same frequency to wildlife. We measured concentrations or activity of six inflammatory markers (ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, mannan-binding lectin-dependent complement [MBL/complement], unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and plasma iron) in apparently healthy and sick or injured Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). Haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin activities were consistently elevated in sick or injured hawks (2.1 and 2.5 times higher, respectively), and plasma iron concentrations decreased (0.46 times lower), relative to those of healthy birds. There were no differences between healthy and unhealthy hawks in TIBC and UIBC concentrations or MBL/complement activity. Therefore, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and plasma iron would be useful inclusions in a panel of inflammatory markers for monitoring health in raptors.

  3. Hawking effect and quantum nonthermal radiation of an arbitrarily accelerating charged black hole using a new tortoise coordinate transformation

    Pan Wei-Zhen; Yang Xue-Jun; Xie Zhi-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, this paper investigates the Hawking effect from an arbitrarily accelerating charged black hole by the improved Damour—Ruffini method. After the tortoise coordinate transformation, the Klein—Gordon equation can be written as the standard form at the event horizon. Then extending the outgoing wave from outside to inside of the horizon analytically, the surface gravity and Hawking temperature can be obtained automatically. It is found that the Hawking temperatures of different points on the surface are different. The quantum nonthermal radiation characteristics of a black hole near the event horizon is also discussed by studying the Hamilton—Jacobi equation in curved spacetime and the maximum overlap of the positive and negative energy levels near the event horizon is given. There is a dimensional problem in the standard tortoise coordinate and the present results may be more reasonable. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  4. Effect of the refractive index on the hawking temperature: an application of the Hamilton-Jacobi method

    Sakalli, I.; Mirekhtiary, S. F.

    2013-10-01

    Hawking radiation of a non-asymptotically flat 4-dimensional spherically symmetric and static dilatonic black hole (BH) via the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) method is studied. In addition to the naive coordinates, we use four more different coordinate systems that are well-behaved at the horizon. Except for the isotropic coordinates, direct computation by the HJ method leads to the standard Hawking temperature for all coordinate systems. The isotropic coordinates allow extracting the index of refraction from the Fermat metric. It is explicitly shown that the index of refraction determines the value of the tunneling rate and its natural consequence, the Hawking temperature. The isotropic coordinates in the conventional HJ method produce a wrong result for the temperature of the linear dilaton. Here, we explain how this discrepancy can be resolved by regularizing the integral possessing a pole at the horizon.

  5. Effect of the refractive index on the hawking temperature: an application of the Hamilton-Jacobi method

    Sakalli, I., E-mail: izzet.sakalli@emu.edu.tr; Mirekhtiary, S. F., E-mail: fatemeh.mirekhtiary@emu.edu.tr [Eastern Mediterranean University G. Magosa, Department of Physics (Turkey)

    2013-10-15

    Hawking radiation of a non-asymptotically flat 4-dimensional spherically symmetric and static dilatonic black hole (BH) via the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) method is studied. In addition to the naive coordinates, we use four more different coordinate systems that are well-behaved at the horizon. Except for the isotropic coordinates, direct computation by the HJ method leads to the standard Hawking temperature for all coordinate systems. The isotropic coordinates allow extracting the index of refraction from the Fermat metric. It is explicitly shown that the index of refraction determines the value of the tunneling rate and its natural consequence, the Hawking temperature. The isotropic coordinates in the conventional HJ method produce a wrong result for the temperature of the linear dilaton. Here, we explain how this discrepancy can be resolved by regularizing the integral possessing a pole at the horizon.

  6. A redefinition of Hawking temperature on the event horizon: Thermodynamical equilibrium

    Saha, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we have used the recently introduced redefined Hawking temperature on the event horizon and investigated whether the generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) and thermodynamic equilibrium holds for both the event and the apparent horizons. Here we have considered FRW universe and examined the GSLT and thermodynamic equilibrium with three examples. Finally, we have concluded that from the thermodynamic viewpoint, the universe bounded by the event horizon is more realistic than that by the apparent horizon at least for some examples.

  7. S-7OA-9 Black Hawk Helicopter: Internal Panel Cracking Investigation

    1997-01-01

    research into helicopter usage monitoring and is involved with a sub-committee of TTCP HTP 8 looking at issues related to helicopter usage monitoring. He is...Repair Manual . It was subsequently discovered that a majority of the ESSS struts in service had the same damage and this raised an airworthiness issue...Black Hawk Structural Repair Manual , Royal Australian Air Force Publication, DI(AF) AAP7210.015-3,12 May 1994. 15. Fraser, R.C., A One-Pass Method For

  8. Momentum correlations as signature of sonic Hawking radiation in Bose-Einstein condensates

    A. Fabbri, N. Pavloff

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the two-body momentum correlation signal in a quasi one dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of a sonic horizon. We identify the relevant correlation lines in momentum space and compute the intensity of the corresponding signal. We consider a set of different experimental procedures and identify the specific issues of each measuring process. We show that some inter-channel correlations, in particular the Hawking quantum-partner one, are particularly well adapted for witnessing quantum non-separability, being resilient to the effects of temperature and/or quantum quenches.

  9. Extremal Black Holes in Supergravity and the Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy

    R. D'Auria

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We review some results on the connection among supergravity central charges, BPS states and Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. In particular, N = 2 super-gravity in four dimensions is studied in detail. For higher N supergravities we just give an account of the general theory specializing the discussion to the N = 8 case when one half of supersymmetry is preserved. We stress the fact that for extremal supergravity black holes the entropy formula is topological, that is the entropy turns out to be a moduli independent quantity and can be written in terms of invariants of the duality group of the supergravity theory.

  10. Observation of Noise Correlated by the Hawking Effect in a Water Tank.

    Euvé, L-P; Michel, F; Parentani, R; Philbin, T G; Rousseaux, G

    2016-09-16

    We measured the power spectrum and two-point correlation function for the randomly fluctuating free surface on the downstream side of a stationary flow with a maximum Froude number F_{max}≈0.85 reached above a localized obstacle. On such a flow the scattering of incident long wavelength modes is analogous to that responsible for black hole radiation (the Hawking effect). Our measurements of the noise show a clear correlation between pairs of modes of opposite energies. We also measure the scattering coefficients by applying the same analysis of correlations to waves produced by a wave maker.

  11. A novel technique for prevention of self-mutilation in three Harris' hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus).

    Smith, Stephen P; Forbes, Neil A

    2009-03-01

    Feather destructive behavior is an ever-increasing problem in captive birds of prey and any associated self-mutilation can be challenging to manage. This clinical report describes a noninvasive, nonpainful, temporary beak modification technique used to prevent self-mutilation in 3 Harris' hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus), when other methods and husbandry modifications had failed. The technique was successful in all 3 birds, and no adverse effects were observed. Further investigations are required to further evaluate if this beak modification technique causes any psychologic or physical stress to the avian patient.

  12. Hawking radiation screening and Penrose process shielding in the Kerr black hole

    Mc Caughey, Eamon [Dublin Institute of Technology, School of Mathematical Sciences, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    The radial motion of massive particles in the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole is considered. Screening of the Hawking radiation and shielding of the Penrose process are examined (both inside and outside the ergosphere) and their effect on the evaporation of the black hole is studied. In particular, the locus and width of a classically forbidden region and their dependence on the particle's angular momentum and energy is analysed. Tunneling of particles between the boundaries of this region is considered and the transmission coefficient determined. (orig.)

  13. Integral method for the calculation of Hawking radiation in dispersive media. I. Symmetric asymptotics

    Robertson, Scott; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2014-11-01

    Hawking radiation has become experimentally testable thanks to the many analog systems which mimic the effects of the event horizon on wave propagation. These systems are typically dominated by dispersion and give rise to a numerically soluble and stable ordinary differential equation only if the rest-frame dispersion relation Ω2(k ) is a polynomial of relatively low degree. Here we present a new method for the calculation of wave scattering in a one-dimensional medium of arbitrary dispersion. It views the wave equation as an integral equation in Fourier space, which can be solved using standard and efficient numerical techniques.

  14. Representation of SO(4,1) group and Hawking effect in the de-Sitter space

    Bogush, A.A.; Otchik, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    Expression relating the solution of the equation for particles with spin 1/2 to matrix elements of group SO(4, 1), is obtained. When using the relation of the Dirac equation solutions in the de Sitter space with matrix elements of representations of group SO(4, 1) the presence of the Hawking effect in the space is established. The de Sitter space is considered as 4-dimensional hyperboloid, inserted into 5-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space. It is established, that the average number of emitted spinor particles obeys the Fermi-Dirac distribution

  15. The cosmological model with a wormhole and Hawking temperature near apparent horizon

    Kim, Sung-Won

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a cosmological model with an isotropic form of the Morris-Thorne type wormhole was derived in a similar way to the McVittie solution to the black hole in the expanding universe. By solving Einstein's field equation with plausible matter distribution, we found the exact solution of the wormhole embedded in Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe. We also found the apparent cosmological horizons from the redefined metric and analyzed the geometric natures, including causal and dynamic structures. The Hawking temperature for thermal radiation was obtained by the WKB approximation using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and Hamilton's equation, near the apparent cosmological horizon.

  16. Probing the quantum correlation and Bell non-locality for Dirac particles with Hawking effect in the background of Schwarzschild black hole

    Xu, Shuai; Song, Xue-ke; Shi, Jia-dong; Ye, Liu

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we analytically explore the effect of the Hawking radiation on the quantum correlation and Bell non-locality for Dirac particles in the background of Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that when the Hawking effect is almost nonexistent, corresponding to the case of an almost extreme black hole, the quantum properties of physically accessible state are the same for the initial situation. For finite Hawking temperature T, the accessible quantum correlation monotonously decreases along with increasing T owing to the thermal fields generated by the Hawking effect, and the accessible quantum non-locality will be disappeared when the Hawking temperature is more than a fixed value which increases with the parameter r of Werner state growing. Then we analyze the redistribution of quantum correlation, and find that for the case of the Hawking temperature being infinite, corresponding to the case of the black hole evaporating completely, the quantum correlation of physically accessible state is equal to the one of the inaccessible states. Moreover, due to the Pauli exclusion principle and the differences between Fermi–Dirac and Bose–Einstein statistics, for the Dirac fields the accessible classical correlation decreases with increase of the Hawking temperature, which is different for the scalar fields. For Bell non-locality, we also find that the quantum non-locality is always extinct for physically inaccessible states, and the strength of the non-locality decreases with enlarging intensity of Hawking effect when the non-locality is existent in physically accessible state.

  17. Space Logistics: Launch Capabilities

    Furnas, Randall B.

    1989-01-01

    The current maximum launch capability for the United States are shown. The predicted Earth-to-orbit requirements for the United States are presented. Contrasting the two indicates the strong National need for a major increase in Earth-to-orbit lift capability. Approximate weights for planned payloads are shown. NASA is studying the following options to meet the need for a new heavy-lift capability by mid to late 1990's: (1) Shuttle-C for near term (include growth versions); and (2) the Advanced Lauching System (ALS) for the long term. The current baseline two-engine Shuttle-C has a 15 x 82 ft payload bay and an expected lift capability of 82,000 lb to Low Earth Orbit. Several options are being considered which have expanded diameter payload bays. A three-engine Shuttle-C with an expected lift of 145,000 lb to LEO is being evaluated as well. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a potential joint development between the Air Force and NASA. This program is focused toward long-term launch requirements, specifically beyond the year 2000. The basic approach is to develop a family of vehicles with the same high reliability as the Shuttle system, yet offering a much greater lift capability at a greatly reduced cost (per pound of payload). The ALS unmanned family of vehicles will provide a low end lift capability equivalent to Titan IV, and a high end lift capability greater than the Soviet Energia if requirements for such a high-end vehicle are defined.In conclusion, the planning of the next generation space telescope should not be constrained to the current launch vehicles. New vehicle designs will be driven by the needs of anticipated heavy users.

  18. Technological Capability's Predictor Variables

    Fernanda Maciel Reichert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the factors that influence in configuration of the technological capability of companies in sectors with medium-low technological intensity. To achieve the goal proposed in this article a survey was carried out. Based on the framework developed by Lall (1992 which classifies firms in basic, intermediate and advanced level of technological capability; it was found that the predominant technological capability is intermediate, with 83.7% of respondent companies (plastics companies in Brazil. It is believed that the main contribution of this study is the finding that the dependent variable named “Technological Capability” can be explained at a rate of 65% by six variables: development of new processes; selection of the best equipment supplier; sales of internally developed new technology to third parties; design and manufacture of equipment; study of the work methods and perform inventory control; and improvement of product quality.

  19. Human push capability.

    Barnett, Ralph L; Liber, Theodore

    2006-02-22

    Use of unassisted human push capability arises from time to time in the areas of crowd and animal control, the security of locked doors, the integrity of railings, the removal of tree stumps and entrenched vehicles, the manoeuvering of furniture, and athletic pursuits such as US football or wrestling. Depending on the scenario, human push capability involves strength, weight, weight distribution, push angle, footwear/floor friction, and the friction between the upper body and the pushed object. Simple models are used to establish the relationships among these factors.

  20. The Capability Approach

    Robeyns, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    textabstract In its most general description, the capability approach is a flexible and multi-purpose normative framework, rather than a precise theory of well-being, freedom or justice. At its core are two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary moral importance, and second, that freedom to achieve well-being is to be understood in terms of people’s capabilities, that is, their real opportunities to do and be what they have reason to value. Thi...

  1. Sandia QIS Capabilities.

    Muller, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a broad set of capabilities in quantum information science (QIS), including elements of quantum computing, quantum communications, and quantum sensing. The Sandia QIS program is built atop unique DOE investments at the laboratories, including the MESA microelectronics fabrication facility, the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) facilities (joint with LANL), the Ion Beam Laboratory, and ASC High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities. Sandia has invested $75 M of LDRD funding over 12 years to develop unique, differentiating capabilities that leverage these DOE infrastructure investments.

  2. Ratio of critical quantities related to Hawking temperature–entanglement entropy criticality

    Jie-Xiong Mo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the Hawking temperature–entanglement entropy criticality of the d-dimensional charged AdS black hole with our attention concentrated on the ratio TcδSEcQc. Comparing the results of this paper with those of the ratio TcScQc, one can find both the similarities and differences. These two ratios are independent of the characteristic length scale l and dependent on the dimension d. These similarities further enhance the relation between the entanglement entropy and the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy. However, the ratio TcδSEcQc also relies on the size of the spherical entangling region. Moreover, these two ratios take different values even under the same choices of parameters. The differences between these two ratios can be attributed to the peculiar property of the entanglement entropy since the research in this paper is far from the regime where the behavior of the entanglement entropy is dominated by the thermal entropy.

  3. Emergent horizon, Hawking radiation and chaos in the collapsed polymer model of a black hole

    Brustein, Ram [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Medved, A.J.M. [Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), Western Cape (South Africa)

    2017-02-15

    We have proposed that the interior of a macroscopic Schwarzschild black hole (BH) consists of highly excited, long, closed, interacting strings and, as such, can be modeled as a collapsed polymer. It was previously shown that the scaling relations of the collapsed-polymer model agree with those of the BH. The current paper further substantiates this proposal with an investigation into some of its dynamical consequences. In particular, we show that the model predicts, without relying on gravitational effects, an emergent horizon. We further show that the horizon fluctuates quantum mechanically as it should and that the strength of the fluctuations is inversely proportional to the BH entropy. It is then demonstrated that the emission of Hawking radiation is realized microscopically by the quantum-induced escape of small pieces of string, with the rate of escape and the energy per emitted piece both parametrically matching the Hawking temperature. We also show, using standard methods from statistical mechanics and chaos theory, how our model accounts for some other known properties of BHs. These include the accepted results for the scrambling time and the viscosity-to-entropy ratio, which in our model apply not only at the horizon but throughout the BH interior. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. A self-consistency check for unitary propagation of Hawking quanta

    Baker, Daniel; Kodwani, Darsh; Pen, Ue-Li; Yang, I.-Sheng

    2017-11-01

    The black hole information paradox presumes that quantum field theory in curved space-time can provide unitary propagation from a near-horizon mode to an asymptotic Hawking quantum. Instead of invoking conjectural quantum-gravity effects to modify such an assumption, we propose a self-consistency check. We establish an analogy to Feynman’s analysis of a double-slit experiment. Feynman showed that unitary propagation of the interfering particles, namely ignoring the entanglement with the double-slit, becomes an arbitrarily reliable assumption when the screen upon which the interference pattern is projected is infinitely far away. We argue for an analogous self-consistency check for quantum field theory in curved space-time. We apply it to the propagation of Hawking quanta and test whether ignoring the entanglement with the geometry also becomes arbitrarily reliable in the limit of a large black hole. We present curious results to suggest a negative answer, and we discuss how this loss of naive unitarity in QFT might be related to a solution of the paradox based on the soft-hair-memory effect.

  5. Universal Property of Quantum Gravity implied by Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy and Boltzmann formula

    Saida, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    We search for a universal property of quantum gravity. By u niversal , we mean the independence from any existing model of quantum gravity (such as the super string theory, loop quantum gravity, causal dynamical triangulation, and so on). To do so, we try to put the basis of our discussion on theories established by some experiments. Thus, we focus our attention on thermodynamical and statistical-mechanical basis of the black hole thermodynamics: Let us assume that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is given by the Boltzmann formula applied to the underlying theory of quantum gravity. Under this assumption, the conditions justifying Boltzmann formula together with uniqueness of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy imply a reasonable universal property of quantum gravity. The universal property indicates a repulsive gravity at Planck length scale, otherwise stationary black holes can not be regarded as thermal equilibrium states of gravity. Further, in semi-classical level, we discuss a possible correction of Einstein equation which generates repulsive gravity at Planck length scale.

  6. Hawking radiation and the boomerang behavior of massive modes near a horizon

    Jannes, G.; Maïssa, P.; Philbin, T. G.; Rousseaux, G.

    2011-05-01

    We discuss the behavior of massive modes near a horizon based on a study of the dispersion relation and wave packet simulations of the Klein-Gordon equation. We point out an apparent paradox between two (in principle equivalent) pictures of black-hole evaporation through Hawking radiation. In the picture in which the evaporation is due to the emission of positive-energy modes, one immediately obtains a threshold for the emission of massive particles. In the picture in which the evaporation is due to the absorption of negative-energy modes, such a threshold apparently does not exist. We resolve this paradox by tracing the evolution of the positive-energy massive modes with an energy below the threshold. These are seen to be emitted and move away from the black-hole horizon, but they bounce back at a “red horizon” and are reabsorbed by the black hole, thus compensating exactly for the difference between the two pictures. For astrophysical black holes, the consequences are curious but do not affect the terrestrial constraints on observing Hawking radiation. For analogue-gravity systems with massive modes, however, the consequences are crucial and rather surprising.

  7. Emergent horizon, Hawking radiation and chaos in the collapsed polymer model of a black hole

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    We have proposed that the interior of a macroscopic Schwarzschild black hole (BH) consists of highly excited, long, closed, interacting strings and, as such, can be modeled as a collapsed polymer. It was previously shown that the scaling relations of the collapsed-polymer model agree with those of the BH. The current paper further substantiates this proposal with an investigation into some of its dynamical consequences. In particular, we show that the model predicts, without relying on gravitational effects, an emergent horizon. We further show that the horizon fluctuates quantum mechanically as it should and that the strength of the fluctuations is inversely proportional to the BH entropy. It is then demonstrated that the emission of Hawking radiation is realized microscopically by the quantum-induced escape of small pieces of string, with the rate of escape and the energy per emitted piece both parametrically matching the Hawking temperature. We also show, using standard methods from statistical mechanics and chaos theory, how our model accounts for some other known properties of BHs. These include the accepted results for the scrambling time and the viscosity-to-entropy ratio, which in our model apply not only at the horizon but throughout the BH interior. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Power distribution in the hovering flight of the hawk moth Manduca sexta

    Zhao Liang; Deng Xinyan

    2009-01-01

    We investigated inertial and aerodynamic power consumption during hovering flight of the hawk moth Manduca sexta. The aerodynamic power was estimated based on the aerodynamic forces and torques measured on model hawk-moth wings and hovering kinematics. The inertial power was estimated based on the measured wing mass distribution and hovering kinematics. The results suggest that wing inertial power (without consideration of muscle efficiency and elastic energy storage) consumes about half of the total power expenditure. Wing areal mass density was measured to decrease sharply from the leading edge toward the trailing edge and from the wing base to the wing tip. Such a structural property helps to minimize the wing moment of inertia given a fixed amount of mass. We measured the aerodynamic forces on the rigid and flexible wings, which were made to approximate the flexural stiffness (EI) distribution and deformation of moth wings. It has been found that wings with the characteristic spanwise and chordwise decreasing EI (and mass density) are beneficial for power efficiency while generating aerodynamic forces comparative to rigid wings. Furthermore, negative work to aid pitching in stroke reversals from aerodynamic forces was found, and it showed that the aerodynamic force contributes partially to passive pitching of the wing

  9. Pre-Hawking radiation may allow for reconstruction of the mass distribution of the collapsing object

    Dai, De-Chang, E-mail: diedachung@gmail.com [Institute of Natural Sciences, Shanghai Key Lab for Particle Physics and Cosmology, and Center for Astrophysics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Stojkovic, Dejan [HEPCOS, Department of Physics, SUNY, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-1500 (United States)

    2016-07-10

    Hawking radiation explicitly depends only on the black hole's total mass, charge and angular momentum. It is therefore generally believed that one cannot reconstruct the information about the initial mass distribution of an object that made the black hole. However, instead of looking at radiation from a static black hole, we can study the whole time-dependent process of the gravitational collapse, and pre-Hawking radiation which is excited because of the time-dependent metric. We compare radiation emitted by a single collapsing shell with that emitted by two concentric shells of the equivalent total mass. We calculate the gravitational trajectory and the momentum energy tensor. We show that the flux of energy emitted during the collapse by a single shell is significantly different from the flux emitted by two concentric shells of the equivalent total mass. When the static black hole is formed, the fluxes become indistinguishable. This implies that an observer studying the flux of particles from a collapsing object could in principle reconstruct information not only about the total mass of the collapsing object, but also about the mass distribution.

  10. Parasite infections in nestling red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) in northeast Wisconsin.

    King, Janet C; Dubay, Shelli A; Huspeni, Todd C; VanLanen, Andrew R; Gerhold, Richard W

    2010-06-01

    Red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) are threatened in Wisconsin and long-term data suggest that nest productivity is low in the state for unknown reasons. Our objective was to determine whether red-shouldered hawks in northeast Wisconsin were infected with parasites that could contribute to low nest productivity. We examined nestlings for the presence of Trichomonas gallinae, Protocalliphora avium, and blood parasites in June 2006 and 2007. We did not detect T. gallinae in throat swabs taken from 24 nestlings in 2007. Ear canals of nestlings were parasitized by P. avium larvae in 10 of 11 (91%) nests and in 22 of 24 (92%) nestlings. Larvae were found in higher intensity in 1 ear relative to the other. Leucocytozoon toddi was present in 90.5% (38/42) of the nestlings. At least 1 bird in each nest was infected. Intensity of L. toddi averaged 48.6 +/- 58.3 infected cells per 2,000 erythrocytes (2.4 +/- 2.9%). No other blood parasites were identified.

  11. Habitat Effects on the Breeding Performance of Three Forest-Dwelling Hawks.

    Björklund, Heidi; Valkama, Jari; Tomppo, Erkki; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss causes population declines, but the mechanisms are rarely known. In the European Boreal Zone, loss of old forest due to intensive forestry is suspected to cause declines in forest-dwelling raptors by reducing their breeding performance. We studied the boreal breeding habitat and habitat-associated breeding performance of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). We combined long-term Finnish bird-of-prey data with multi-source national forest inventory data at various distances (100-4000 m) around the hawk nests. We found that breeding success of the goshawk was best explained by the habitat within a 2000-m radius around the nests; breeding was more successful with increasing proportions of old spruce forest and water, and decreasing proportions of young thinning forest. None of the habitat variables affected significantly the breeding success of the common buzzard or the honey buzzard, or the brood size of any of the species. The amount of old spruce forest decreased both around goshawk and common buzzard nests and throughout southern Finland in 1992-2010. In contrast, the area of young forest increased in southern Finland but not around hawk nests. We emphasize the importance of studying habitats at several spatial and temporal scales to determine the relevant species-specific scale and to detect environmental changes. Further effort is needed to reconcile the socioeconomic and ecological functions of forests and habitat requirements of old forest specialists.

  12. Dynamics of flexural gravity waves: from sea ice to Hawking radiation and analogue gravity.

    Das, S; Sahoo, T; Meylan, M H

    2018-01-01

    The propagation of flexural gravity waves, routinely used to model wave interaction with sea ice, is studied, including the effect of compression and current. A number of significant and surprising properties are shown to exist. The occurrence of blocking above a critical value of compression is illustrated. This is analogous to propagation of surface gravity waves in the presence of opposing current and light wave propagation in the curved space-time near a black hole, therefore providing a novel system for studying analogue gravity. Between the blocking and buckling limit of the compressive force, the dispersion relation possesses three positive real roots, contrary to an earlier observation of having a single positive real root. Negative energy waves, in which the phase and group velocity point in opposite directions, are also shown to exist. In the presence of an opposing current and certain critical ranges of compressive force, the second blocking point shifts from the positive to the negative branch of the dispersion relation. Such a shift is known as the Hawking effect from the analogous behaviour in the theory of relativity which leads to Hawking radiation. The theory we develop is illustrated with simulations of linear waves in the time domain.

  13. Pre-Hawking radiation may allow for reconstruction of the mass distribution of the collapsing object

    De-Chang Dai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hawking radiation explicitly depends only on the black hole's total mass, charge and angular momentum. It is therefore generally believed that one cannot reconstruct the information about the initial mass distribution of an object that made the black hole. However, instead of looking at radiation from a static black hole, we can study the whole time-dependent process of the gravitational collapse, and pre-Hawking radiation which is excited because of the time-dependent metric. We compare radiation emitted by a single collapsing shell with that emitted by two concentric shells of the equivalent total mass. We calculate the gravitational trajectory and the momentum energy tensor. We show that the flux of energy emitted during the collapse by a single shell is significantly different from the flux emitted by two concentric shells of the equivalent total mass. When the static black hole is formed, the fluxes become indistinguishable. This implies that an observer studying the flux of particles from a collapsing object could in principle reconstruct information not only about the total mass of the collapsing object, but also about the mass distribution.

  14. The role of unpasteurized "hawked" milk in the transmission of brucellosis in Eldoret municipality, Kenya.

    Namanda, Augustine Taban; Kakai, Rose; Otsyula, Mary

    2009-05-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that continues to infect many people worldwide. Though its mortality rate is low, long convalescent periods associated with brucellosis translate into reduced socio-economic capacity of the people affected. Human brucellosis is mostly transmitted from animals. In Kenya, the prevalence of the disease has increased recently, along with the increased hawking of unpasteurized milk. The extent of the risk such raw milk poses to human health with respect to brucellosis is unknown. This study investigates the possibility of brucellosis being transmitted through unprocessed milk sold by hawkers in Eldoret municipality. In this cross-sectional study, 130 samples of unpasteurized pooled milk from hawkers and 14 pasteurized milk samples were collected from shops in selected estates using cluster and simple random sampling techniques. All samples were subjected to the Brucella Milk Ring Test (MRT) for screening. A milk consumption questionnaire was administered to households in the selected estates to establish their milk sources and consumption patterns. Data analysis involved comparing computed percentages of different variables. A high proportion of households (77.5%) consume unpasteurized milk from hawkers. However, no antibody to Brucella was detected in any of the milk samples collected. We find no evidence that hawked milk in Eldoret is responsible for transmitting brucellosis to consumers. More research in the potential transmission of brucellosis through milk consumption is recommended.

  15. Habitat Effects on the Breeding Performance of Three Forest-Dwelling Hawks.

    Heidi Björklund

    Full Text Available Habitat loss causes population declines, but the mechanisms are rarely known. In the European Boreal Zone, loss of old forest due to intensive forestry is suspected to cause declines in forest-dwelling raptors by reducing their breeding performance. We studied the boreal breeding habitat and habitat-associated breeding performance of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, common buzzard (Buteo buteo and European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus. We combined long-term Finnish bird-of-prey data with multi-source national forest inventory data at various distances (100-4000 m around the hawk nests. We found that breeding success of the goshawk was best explained by the habitat within a 2000-m radius around the nests; breeding was more successful with increasing proportions of old spruce forest and water, and decreasing proportions of young thinning forest. None of the habitat variables affected significantly the breeding success of the common buzzard or the honey buzzard, or the brood size of any of the species. The amount of old spruce forest decreased both around goshawk and common buzzard nests and throughout southern Finland in 1992-2010. In contrast, the area of young forest increased in southern Finland but not around hawk nests. We emphasize the importance of studying habitats at several spatial and temporal scales to determine the relevant species-specific scale and to detect environmental changes. Further effort is needed to reconcile the socioeconomic and ecological functions of forests and habitat requirements of old forest specialists.

  16. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-06-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors.

  17. ISOPHOT - Capabilities and performance

    Lemke, D.; Klaas, U.; Abolins, J.

    1996-01-01

    ISOPHOT covers the largest wavelength range on ISO from 2.5 to 240 mu m. Its scientific capabilities include multi filter and multi-aperture photometry, polarimetry, imaging and spectrophotometry. All modes can optionally include a focal plane chopper. The backbone of the photometric calibration...

  18. Capabilities for Intercultural Dialogue

    Crosbie, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The capabilities approach offers a valuable analytical lens for exploring the challenge and complexity of intercultural dialogue in contemporary settings. The central tenets of the approach, developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, involve a set of humanistic goals including the recognition that development is a process whereby people's…

  19. Capabilities and Special Needs

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    into international consideration in relation to the implementation of the UN convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. As for the theoretical basis, the research makes use of the sociological open-ended and relational concepts of Pierre Bourdieu and the normative yardstick of the Capability Approach...

  20. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  1. The Capability Approach

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2011-01-01

    textabstract In its most general description, the capability approach is a flexible and multi-purpose normative framework, rather than a precise theory of well-being, freedom or justice. At its core are two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary

  2. Sensor Alerting Capability

    Henriksson, Jakob; Bermudez, Luis; Satapathy, Goutam

    2013-04-01

    There is a large amount of sensor data generated today by various sensors, from in-situ buoys to mobile underwater gliders. Providing sensor data to the users through standardized services, language and data model is the promise of OGC's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative. As the amount of data grows it is becoming difficult for data providers, planners and managers to ensure reliability of data and services and to monitor critical data changes. Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) is developing a net-centric alerting capability to address these issues. The capability is built on Sensor Observation Services (SOSs), which is used to collect and monitor sensor data. The alerts can be configured at the service level and at the sensor data level. For example it can alert for irregular data delivery events or a geo-temporal statistic of sensor data crossing a preset threshold. The capability provides multiple delivery mechanisms and protocols, including traditional techniques such as email and RSS. With this capability decision makers can monitor their assets and data streams, correct failures or be alerted about a coming phenomena.

  3. Capitalizing on capabilities.

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2004-06-01

    By making the most of organizational capabilities--employees' collective skills and fields of expertise--you can dramatically improve your company's market value. Although there is no magic list of proficiencies that every organization needs in order to succeed, the authors identify 11 intangible assets that well-managed companies tend to have: talent, speed, shared mind-set and coherent brand identity, accountability, collaboration, learning, leadership, customer connectivity, strategic unity, innovation, and efficiency. Such companies typically excel in only three of these capabilities while maintaining industry parity in the other areas. Organizations that fall below the norm in any of the 11 are likely candidates for dysfunction and competitive disadvantage. So you can determine how your company fares in these categories (or others, if the generic list doesn't suit your needs), the authors explain how to conduct a "capabilities audit," describing in particular the experiences and findings of two companies that recently performed such audits. In addition to highlighting which intangible assets are most important given the organization's history and strategy, this exercise will gauge how well your company delivers on its capabilities and will guide you in developing an action plan for improvement. A capabilities audit can work for an entire organization, a business unit, or a region--indeed, for any part of a company that has a strategy to generate financial or customer-related results. It enables executives to assess overall company strengths and weaknesses, senior leaders to define strategy, midlevel managers to execute strategy, and frontline leaders to achieve tactical results. In short, it helps turn intangible assets into concrete strengths.

  4. DPPH Radical Scavenging and Postprandial Hyperglycemia Inhibition Activities and Flavonoid Composition Analysis of Hawk Tea by UPLC-DAD and UPLC-Q/TOF MSE.

    Xiao, Xuan; Xu, Lijia; Hu, Huagang; Yang, Yinjun; Zhang, Xinyao; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen

    2017-10-13

    Hawk tea ( Litsea coreana Lévl. var. Lanuginosa (Migo) Yen C. Yang & P.H. Huang), a very popular herbal tea material, has attracted more and more attention due to its high antioxidant properties and possible therapeutic effect on type II diabetes mellitus. The raw materials of Hawk tea are usually divided into three kinds: bud tea (BT), primary leaf tea (PLT) and mature leaf tea (MLT). In this study, the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the antimicrobial properties of these three kinds of Hawk tea from different regions were comparatively investigated, and a ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic coupled with a photodiode array detector (UPLC-DAD) method was employed for comparison of the three major flavonoid constituents, including hyperoside, isoquercitrin and astragalin, in different samples of Hawk tea. At the same time, the effect of methanol extract (ME) of PLT on the mouse postprandial blood glucose and the effect of ME and its different fractions (petroleum ether fraction (PE), ethyl acetate fraction (EA), n -butanol fraction ( n -BuOH), and water fraction (WF)) on the activity of α-glucosidase were studied. The results showed that Hawk BT and Hawk PLT possessed the higher radicals scavenging activity than Hawk MLT, while the antibacterial activity against P. vulgaris of PLT and MLT was higher than Hawk BT. The contents of the three major flavonoid constituents in samples of Hawk PLT are higher than Hawk BT and Hawk MLT. The mouse postprandial blood glucose levels of the middle dose (0.5 g/kg) group and the high dose (1 g/kg) group with oral administration of the ME of PLT were significantly lower than the control group. What's more, the inhibitory effect of ME of PLT and its EA and n -BuOH fractions on α-glucosidase was significantly higher than that of acarbose. Rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was used to identify the flavonoids in Hawk PLT, and a total of 20

  5. DPPH Radical Scavenging and Postprandial Hyperglycemia Inhibition Activities and Flavonoid Composition Analysis of Hawk Tea by UPLC-DAD and UPLC-Q/TOF MSE

    Xuan Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hawk tea (Litsea coreana Lévl. var. Lanuginosa (Migo Yen C. Yang & P.H. Huang, a very popular herbal tea material, has attracted more and more attention due to its high antioxidant properties and possible therapeutic effect on type II diabetes mellitus. The raw materials of Hawk tea are usually divided into three kinds: bud tea (BT, primary leaf tea (PLT and mature leaf tea (MLT. In this study, the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the antimicrobial properties of these three kinds of Hawk tea from different regions were comparatively investigated, and a ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic coupled with a photodiode array detector (UPLC-DAD method was employed for comparison of the three major flavonoid constituents, including hyperoside, isoquercitrin and astragalin, in different samples of Hawk tea. At the same time, the effect of methanol extract (ME of PLT on the mouse postprandial blood glucose and the effect of ME and its different fractions (petroleum ether fraction (PE, ethyl acetate fraction (EA, n-butanol fraction (n-BuOH, and water fraction (WF on the activity of α-glucosidase were studied. The results showed that Hawk BT and Hawk PLT possessed the higher radicals scavenging activity than Hawk MLT, while the antibacterial activity against P. vulgaris of PLT and MLT was higher than Hawk BT. The contents of the three major flavonoid constituents in samples of Hawk PLT are higher than Hawk BT and Hawk MLT. The mouse postprandial blood glucose levels of the middle dose (0.5 g/kg group and the high dose (1 g/kg group with oral administration of the ME of PLT were significantly lower than the control group. What’s more, the inhibitory effect of ME of PLT and its EA and n-BuOH fractions on α-glucosidase was significantly higher than that of acarbose. Rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS was used to identify the flavonoids in Hawk PLT, and a total of

  6. Global Mindset in Context

    Nielsen, Rikke Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the call for identification of organizational contingencies related to global mindset, exploration of different forms of global mindset and their relationship with global strategies (Osland, Bird, Mendenhall & Osland, 2006). To this end, this paper explores global mindset...... development in the context of a 3-year single case study of middle manager microfoundations of global mindset in a Danish multinational corporation working with deliberate global mindset capability development as a vehicle for strategy execution and facilitation of global performance. A force field analysis...

  7. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years

  8. Declaration of the Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi as Indonesia's National Rare Animal impedes conservation of the species

    Nijman, V.; Shepherd, C.R.; van Balen, S.

    2009-01-01

    The endangered Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi is threatened in part by the illegal pet trade. In 1993 the species was declared Indonesia's National Rare/Precious Animal, by former President Soeharto. Trade in the species and keeping it as a pet are illegal. We consolidated data about the

  9. Hormonal underpinnings of status conflict : Testosterone and cortisol are related to decisions and satisfaction in the hawk-dove game

    Mehta, Pranjal H.; Lawless DesJardins, Nicole M.; van Vugt, Mark; Josephs, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition.Testosterone is theorized to influence status-seeking behaviors such as social dominance and competitive behavior, but supporting evidence is mixed. The present study tested the roles of testosterone and cortisol in the hawk-dove

  10. The question of the existence of God in the book of Stephen Hawking: A brief history of time

    Driessen, A.; Driessen, A; Suarez, A.

    1997-01-01

    The continuing interest in the book of S. Hawking "A Brief History of Time" makes a philosophical evaluation of the content highly desirable. As will be shown, the genre of this work can be identified as a speciality in philosophy, namely the proof of the existence of God. In this study an attempt

  11. 77 FR 59389 - Hawks Nest Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    2012-09-27

    .... Name of Project: Hawks Nest Hydroelectric Project (P-2512-069) and Glen Ferris Hydroelectric Project (P... of Gauley Bridge, and Glen Ferris Hydroelectric Project is on the Kanawha River in the vicinity of the Town of Glen Ferris, both within Fayette County, West Virginia. The projects do not affect federal...

  12. Property of various correlation measures of open Dirac system with Hawking effect in Schwarzschild space–time

    He, Juan; Xu, Shuai; Yu, Yang; Ye, Liu

    2015-01-01

    We explore the performance of various correlation measures for open Dirac system with Hawking effect in Schwarzschild space–time. Our results indicate that the impact of Hawking effect on physical accessible entanglement is weaker than that of decoherence. For generalized amplitude damping (GAD) channel, the entanglement sudden death (ESD) is analyzed in detail, and the inequivalence of quantization for Dirac particles in the black hole and Kruskal space–time is verified via quantum discord measure. In addition, as an example for interpreting Bell non-locality, we study the GAD channel with Hawking effect. It can be noticed that there is a boundary line of Bell violation for physically accessible states. That is, quantum non-locality would disappear when Hawking temperature exceeds a certain value. This critical temperature increases as a decoherence parameter decreases. In the case of phase damping (PD) channel, the interaction between the particle and noise environment does not produce bipartite system–environment entanglement. Then we discuss entanglement distributions, and find that the reduced physically accessible entanglement can be redistributed to physical inaccessible region. At last, we extend our investigation to an N-qubit system, and obtain a universal expression of the physical accessible entanglement

  13. Group Capability Model

    Olejarski, Michael; Appleton, Amy; Deltorchio, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The Group Capability Model (GCM) is a software tool that allows an organization, from first line management to senior executive, to monitor and track the health (capability) of various groups in performing their contractual obligations. GCM calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI) by comparing actual head counts, certifications, and/or skills within a group. The model can also be used to simulate the effects of employee usage, training, and attrition on the GCI. A universal tool and common method was required due to the high risk of losing skills necessary to complete the Space Shuttle Program and meet the needs of the Constellation Program. During this transition from one space vehicle to another, the uncertainty among the critical skilled workforce is high and attrition has the potential to be unmanageable. GCM allows managers to establish requirements for their group in the form of head counts, certification requirements, or skills requirements. GCM then calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI), where a score of 1 indicates that the group is at the appropriate level; anything less than 1 indicates a potential for improvement. This shows the health of a group, both currently and over time. GCM accepts as input head count, certification needs, critical needs, competency needs, and competency critical needs. In addition, team members are categorized by years of experience, percentage of contribution, ex-members and their skills, availability, function, and in-work requirements. Outputs are several reports, including actual vs. required head count, actual vs. required certificates, CGI change over time (by month), and more. The program stores historical data for summary and historical reporting, which is done via an Excel spreadsheet that is color-coded to show health statistics at a glance. GCM has provided the Shuttle Ground Processing team with a quantifiable, repeatable approach to assessing and managing the skills in their organization. They now have a common

  14. Expeditionary Rubber Removal Capability

    2006-12-31

    the modified spray unit or system with equivalent capabilities. 24 25 9.8. A pressure sensor or caster wheels should be incorporated into the...DISCUSSION 18 8.0 CONCLUSIONS 23 9.0 RECOMMENDATIONS 24 APPENDIX A – DETAILED LIST OF EQUIPMENT AND MODIFICATIONS 26 APPENDIX B – LIST OF SOURCES FOR...tall Weight – 4820 lb (No Attachments) Top Speed – 18 mph High Flow Hydraulics (Optional) – 26 gpm Steering – All Wheel Steering Cargo Max Load

  15. Atmospheric release advisory capability

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    The ARAC system (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) is described. The system is a collection of people, computers, computer models, topographic data and meteorological input data that together permits a calculation of, in a quasi-predictive sense, where effluent from an accident will migrate through the atmosphere, where it will be deposited on the ground, and what instantaneous and integrated dose an exposed individual would receive

  16. Hawk Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Produces a high-current (750 kA) pulse with a microsecond rise time into a vacuum inductor. The energy stored in the inductor is transferred to a radiation...

  17. Las empresas transnacionales y el aprendizaje local: la creación de las capacidades locales de la industria mundial del automóvil Transnational corporations and local learning: creating local capabilities from the global automotive industry

    Oscar Contreras

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde los años 1980 México ha adquirido una mayor importancia en la industria del automóvil en Norte América. A medida que esta industria se ha ido concentrando en torno a un reducido número de grandes empresas ensambladoras y un grupo privilegiado de suministradores transnacionales globalizados, los beneficios para las localidades receptoras se ha convertido en una cuestión controvertida. En este contexto se presenta el caso en el que se analiza el papel de los suministradores locales dentro del complejo industrial liderado por Ford Motor en Hermosilla (México. El artículo explora los mecanismos de transferencia de conocimiento de Ford a sus suministradores globales en la economía local, y la aparición de pequeñas empresas locales que ofrecen servicios de intensivos en conocimiento.Ever since the 1980s Mexico has been taking on an increasingly important role in the manufacture of automobiles for North America. As this industry has become highly concentrated, driven by a small number of very large assembly firms and a privileged group of globalized transnational suppliers, the benefits for the host localities have turned into a controversial issue. With this controversy as the background, a case study was designed to analyze the role of local suppliers within the industrial complex led by the Ford Motor Company in Hermosillo, Mexico. This article explores the mechanisms of knowledge transfer from Ford and its global suppliers to the local economy, and the emergence of small local companies that provide knowledge-intensive services.

  18. Genetic and morphological divergence among Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in north-central and western North America

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Murphy, Robert K.; Stewart, Andrew C.; Stout, William C.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Bozek, Michael A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in the northern portion of the species' range exhibit variation in morphological traits that conforms to predictions based on differences in prey size, tree stand density, and migratory behavior. We examined genetic structure and gene flow and compared divergence at morphological traits (PST) and genetic markers (FST) to elucidate mechanisms (selection or genetic drift) that promote morphological diversification among Cooper's Hawk populations. Cooper's Hawks appear to conform to the genetic pattern of an east-west divide. Populations in British Columbia are genetically differentiated from north-central populations (Wisconsin, Minnesota, and North Dakota; pairwise microsatellite FST= 0.031-0.050; mitochondrial DNA ΦST = 0.177-0.204), which suggests that Cooper's Hawks were restricted to at least two Pleistocene glacial refugia. The strength of the Rocky Mountains—Great Plains area as a barrier to dispersal is further supported by restricted gene-flow rates between British Columbia and other sampled breeding populations. Divergence in morphological traits (PST) was also observed across study areas, but with British Columbia and North Dakota differentiated from Wisconsin and Minnesota, a pattern not predicted on the basis of FST and ΦST interpopulation estimates. Comparison of PSTand FSTestimates suggests that heterogeneous selection may be acting on Cooper's Hawks in the northern portion of their distribution, which is consistent with hypotheses that variation in prey mass and migratory behavior among populations may be influencing overall body size and wing chord. We were unable to distinguish between the effects of genetic drift and selection on tail length in the study populations.

  19. The evolution of alliance capabilities

    Heimeriks, K.H.; Duysters, G.M.; Vanhaverbeke, W.P.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the effectiveness and differential performance effects of learning mechanisms on the evolution of alliance capabilities. Relying on the concept of capability lifecycles, prior research has suggested that different capability levels could be identified in which different

  20. Evaluating Internal Technological Capabilities in Energy Companies

    Mingook Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As global competition increases, technological capability must be evaluated objectively as one of the most important factors for predominance in technological competition and to ensure sustainable business excellence. Most existing capability evaluation models utilize either quantitative methods, such as patent analysis, or qualitative methods, such as expert panels. Accordingly, they may be in danger of reflecting only fragmentary aspects of technological capabilities, and produce inconsistent results when different models are used. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a comprehensive framework for evaluating technological capabilities in energy companies by considering the complex properties of technological knowledge. For this purpose, we first explored various factors affecting technological capabilities and divided the factors into three categories: individual, organizational, and technology competitiveness. Second, we identified appropriate evaluation items for each category to measure the technological capability. Finally, by using a hybrid approach of qualitative and quantitative methods, we developed an evaluation method for each item and suggested a method to combine the results. The proposed framework was then verified with an energy generation and supply company to investigate its practicality. As one of the earliest attempts to evaluate multi-faceted technological capabilities, the suggested model can support technology and strategic planning.

  1. Building Server Capabilities

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2013-01-01

    Many western companies have moved part of their operations to China in order to take advantage of cheap resources and/or to gain access to a high potential market. Depending on motive, offshore facilities usually start either as “sales-only” of products exported by headquarters or “production......-only”, exporting parts and components back to headquarter for sales in the home country. In the course of time, the role of offshore subsidiaries in a company’s operations network tends to change and, with that, the capabilities, of the subsidiaries. Focusing on Danish subsidiaries in China, the objective...

  2. Building server capabilities

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    Many western companies have moved part of their operations to China in order to take advantage of cheap resources and/or to gain access to a high potential market. Depending on motive, offshore facilities usually start either as “sales-only” of products exported by headquarters or “production......-only”, exporting parts and components back to headquarter for sales in the home country. In the course of time, the role of offshore subsidiaries in a company’s operations network tends to change and, with that, the capabilities, of the subsidiaries. Focusing on Danish subsidiaries in China, the objective...

  3. SuperMAG: Present and Future Capabilities

    Hsieh, S. W.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Barnes, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    SuperMAG is a global collaboration that provides ground magnetic field perturbations from a long list of stations in the same coordinate system, identical time resolution and with a common baseline removal approach. This unique high quality dataset provides a continuous and nearly global monitoring of the ground magnetic field perturbation. Currently, only archived data are available on the website and hence it targets basic research without any operational capabilities. The existing SuperMAG software can be easily adapted to ingest real-time or near real-time data and provide a now-casting capability. The SuperDARN program has a long history of providing near real-time maps of the northern hemisphere electrostatic potential and as both SuperMAG and SuperDARN share common software it is relatively easy to adapt these maps for global magnetic perturbations. Magnetometer measurements would be assimilated by the SuperMAG server using a variety of techniques, either by downloading data at regular intervals from remote servers or by real-time streaming connections. The existing SuperMAG analysis software would then process these measurements to provide the final calibrated data set using the SuperMAG coordinate system. The existing plotting software would then be used to produce regularly updated global plots. The talk will focus on current SuperMAG capabilities illustrating the potential for now-casting and eventually forecasting.

  4. Minimal analytical model for undular tidal bore profile; quantum and Hawking effect analogies

    Berry, M. V.

    2018-05-01

    Waves travelling up-river, driven by high tides, often consist of a smooth front followed by a series of undulations. A simple approximate theory gives the rigidly travelling profile of such ‘undular hydraulic jumps’, up to scaling, as the integral of the Airy function; applying self-consistency fixes the scaling. The theory combines the standard hydraulic jump with ideas borrowed from quantum physics: Hamiltonian operators and zero-energy eigenfunctions. There is an analogy between undular bores and the Hawking effect in relativity: both concern waves associated with horizons. ‘Physics is not just Concerning the Nature of Things, but Concerning the Interconnectedness of all the Natures of Things’(Sir Charles Frank, retirement speech 1976).

  5. Yet another proof of Hawking and Ellis's Lemma 8.5.5

    Krasnikov, S

    2014-01-01

    The fact that the null generators of a future Cauchy horizon are past-complete was first proved by Hawking and Ellis (1973 The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). Then, Budzyński, Kondracki and Królak outlined a proof free from the error found in the original one (2000 New properties of Cauchy and event horizons arXiv:gr-qc/0011033). Now, Minguzzi has published his version of the proof (2014 J. Math. Phys. 55 082503), patching a previously unnoticed hole in the preceding two. I am not aware of any flaws in that last proof, but it is quite difficult. In this note, I present a simpler one. (note)

  6. A Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings formulation for hydroacoustic analysis of propeller sheet cavitation

    Testa, C.; Ianniello, S.; Salvatore, F.

    2018-01-01

    A novel hydroacoustic formulation for the prediction of tonal noise emitted by marine propellers in presence of unsteady sheet cavitation, is presented. The approach is based on the standard Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation and the use of transpiration (velocity and acceleration) terms, accounting for the time evolution of the vapour cavity attached on the blade surface. Drawbacks and potentialities of the method are tested on a marine propeller operating in a nonhomogeneous onset flow, by exploiting the hydrodynamic data from a potential-based panel method equipped with a sheet cavitation model and comparing the noise predictions with those carried out by an alternative numerical approach, documented in literature. It is shown that the proposed formulation yields a one-to-one correlation between emitted noise and sheet cavitation dynamics, carrying out accurate predictions in terms of noise magnitude and directivity.

  7. Modeling foreign exchange market activity around macroeconomic news: Hawkes-process approach

    Rambaldi, Marcello; Pennesi, Paris; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We present a Hawkes-model approach to the foreign exchange market in which the high-frequency price dynamics is affected by a self-exciting mechanism and an exogenous component, generated by the pre-announced arrival of macroeconomic news. By focusing on time windows around the news announcement, we find that the model is able to capture the increase of trading activity after the news, both when the news has a sizable effect on volatility and when this effect is negligible, either because the news in not important or because the announcement is in line with the forecast by analysts. We extend the model by considering noncausal effects, due to the fact that the existence of the news (but not its content) is known by the market before the announcement.

  8. $W_\\infty$ Algebras, Hawking Radiation and Information Retention by Stringy Black Holes

    Ellis, John; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    2016-01-01

    We have argued previously, based on the analysis of two-dimensional stringy black holes, that information in stringy versions of four-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes (whose singular regions are represented by appropriate Wess-Zumino-Witten models) is retained by quantum $W$-symmetries when the horizon area is not preserved due to Hawking radiation. It is key that the exactly-marginal conformal world-sheet operator representing a massless stringy particle interacting with the black hole requires a contribution from $W_\\infty$ generators in its vertex function. The latter correspond to delocalised, non-propagating, string excitations that guarantee the transfer of information between the string black hole and external particles. When infalling matter crosses the horizon, these topological states are excited via a process: (Stringy black hole) + infalling matter $\\rightarrow $ (Stringy black hole)$^\\star$, where the black hole is viewed as a stringy state with a specific configuration of $W_\\infty$ charges...

  9. The third order correction on Hawking radiation and entropy conservation during black hole evaporation process

    Yan, Hao-Peng; Liu, Wen-Biao, E-mail: wbliu@bnu.edu.cn

    2016-08-10

    Using Parikh–Wilczek tunneling framework, we calculate the tunneling rate from a Schwarzschild black hole under the third order WKB approximation, and then obtain the expressions for emission spectrum and black hole entropy to the third order correction. The entropy contains four terms including the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy, the logarithmic term, the inverse area term, and the square of inverse area term. In addition, we analyse the correlation between sequential emissions under this approximation. It is shown that the entropy is conserved during the process of black hole evaporation, which consists with the request of quantum mechanics and implies the information is conserved during this process. We also compare the above result with that of pure thermal spectrum case, and find that the non-thermal correction played an important role.

  10. Columbid herpesvirus-1 in two Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) with fatal inclusion body disease.

    Pinkerton, Marie E; Wellehan, James F X; Johnson, April J; Childress, April L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kinsel, Michael J

    2008-07-01

    We report two separate naturally occurring cases of fatal herpesviral disease in Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Gross lesions included splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, with diffuse pale mottling or scattered small white foci. Histologic lesions included splenic and hepatic necrosis associated with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristic of herpesvirus. In one case, necrosis and inclusions were also noted in bone marrow, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, ceca, and the enteric system. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated viral particles typical of herpesvirus within hepatocyte nuclei and budding from the nuclear membrane. Herpesviral DNA was amplified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of paraffin-embedded liver and spleen, and sequence data were consistent with columbid herpesvirus-1, an alphaherpesvirus of Rock Pigeons (Columba livia). PCR results provide evidence that this disease is transmitted to raptors via Rock Pigeons, most likely through ingestion of Rock Pigeons as prey.

  11. Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime: The role of temperature in the emission of Hawking radiation

    Pappas, Thomas; Kanti, Panagiota

    2017-12-01

    We consider a Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) black hole, and focus on the emission of massless scalar fields either minimally or non-minimally coupled to gravity. We use six different temperatures, two black-hole and four effective ones for the SdS spacetime, as the question of the proper temperature for such a background is still debated in the literature. We study their profiles under the variation of the cosmological constant, and derive the corresponding Hawking radiation spectra. We demonstrate that only few of these temperatures may support significant emission of radiation. We finally compute the total emissivities for each temperature, and show that the non-minimal coupling constant of the scalar field to gravity also affects the relative magnitudes of the energy emission rates.

  12. Hawking radiation and thermodynamics of a Vaidya-Bonner black hole

    Niu Zhenfeng; Liu Wenbiao

    2010-01-01

    Using Parikh's tunneling method, the Hawking radiation on the apparent horizon of a Vaidya-Bonner black hole is calculated. When the back-reaction of particles is neglected, the thermal spectrum can be precisely obtained. Then, the black hole thermodynamics can be calculated successfully on the apparent horizon. When a relativistic perturbation is applied to the apparent horizon, a similar calculation can also lead to a purely thermal spectrum. The first law of thermodynamics can also be derived successfully at the new supersurface near the apparent horizon. When the event horizon is thought of as a deviation from the apparent horizon, the expressions of the characteristic position and temperature are consistent with the previous viewpoint which asserts that the thermodynamics should be based on the event horizon. It is concluded that the thermodynamics should be constructed exactly on the apparent horizon while the event horizon thermodynamics is just one of the perturbations near the apparent horizon.

  13. Hawking-Unruh Hadronization and Strangeness Production in High Energy Collisions

    Castorina, P

    2014-01-01

    The thermal multihadron production observed in different high energy collisions poses many basic problems: why do even elementary, $e^+e^-$ and hadron-hadron, collisions show thermal behaviour? Why is there in such interactions a suppression of strange particle production? Why does the strangeness suppression almost disappear in relativistic heavy ion collisions? Why in these collisions is the thermalization time less than $\\simeq 0.5$ fm/c? We show that the recently proposed mechanism of thermal hadron production through Hawking-Unruh radiation can naturally answer the previous questions. Indeed, the interpretation of quark- antiquark pairs production, by the sequential string breaking, as tunneling through the event horizon of colour confinement leads to thermal behavior with a universal temperature, $T \\simeq 170$ Mev,related to the quark acceleration, a, by $T=a/2\\pi$. The resulting temperature depends on the quark mass and then on the content of the produced hadrons, causing a deviation from full equilib...

  14. Detection of intensity bursts using Hawkes processes: An application to high-frequency financial data

    Rambaldi, Marcello; Filimonov, Vladimir; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2018-03-01

    Given a stationary point process, an intensity burst is defined as a short time period during which the number of counts is larger than the typical count rate. It might signal a local nonstationarity or the presence of an external perturbation to the system. In this paper we propose a procedure for the detection of intensity bursts within the Hawkes process framework. By using a model selection scheme we show that our procedure can be used to detect intensity bursts when both their occurrence time and their total number is unknown. Moreover, the initial time of the burst can be determined with a precision given by the typical interevent time. We apply our methodology to the midprice change in foreign exchange (FX) markets showing that these bursts are frequent and that only a relatively small fraction is associated with news arrival. We show lead-lag relations in intensity burst occurrence across different FX rates and we discuss their relation with price jumps.

  15. Towards a record of Holocene tsunami and storms for northern Hawke's Bay, New Zealand

    Cochran, U.A.; Berryman, K.R.; Mildenhall, D.C.; Hayward, B.W.; Southall, K.; Hollis, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Eleven sand layers occur within Holocene low-energy estuarine and marginal marine sequences of blue-grey silty clay at two sites on the coastal plain between Wairoa and Mahia Peninsula, northern Hawke's Bay, New Zealand. The sedimentology and fossil assemblages of these layers are consistent with deposition by high-energy influxes to the sites. Three influxes are terrestrial in nature and are thought to represent alluvial flood events. All other sand layers are marine derived and are likely to be the result of storm surges or tsunami. Tsunami inundation is favoured for two sand layers that occur in association with evidence for sudden subsidence at c. 6300 and c. 4800 yr BP. The c. 6300 yr inundation also coincides with previously identified evidence for a tsunami at a site 10 km westwards along the coast. Further investigation is required to distinguish between tsunami and storm surge deposition for the remaining six layers. (author). 50 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Phantom of the Hartle-Hawking instanton: connecting inflation with dark energy

    Chen, Pisin; Qiu, Taotao; Yeom, Dong-han

    2016-01-01

    If the Hartle-Hawking wave function is the correct boundary condition of our universe, the history of our universe will be well approximated by an instanton. Although this instanton should be classicalized at infinity, as long as we are observing a process of each history, we may detect a non-classicalized part of field combinations. When we apply it to a dark energy model, this non-classicalized part of fields can be well embedded to a quintessence and a phantom model, i.e., a quintom model. Because of the property of complexified instantons, the phantomness will be naturally free from a big rip singularity. This phantomness does not cause perturbative instabilities, as it is an effect emergent from the entire wave function. Our work may thus provide a theoretical basis for the quintom models, whose equation of state can cross the cosmological constant boundary phenomenologically. (orig.)

  17. Phantom of the Hartle-Hawking instanton: connecting inflation with dark energy

    Chen, Pisin; Qiu, Taotao; Yeom, Dong-han

    2016-02-01

    If the Hartle-Hawking wave function is the correct boundary condition of our universe, the history of our universe will be well approximated by an instanton. Although this instanton should be classicalized at infinity, as long as we are observing a process of each history, we may detect a non-classicalized part of field combinations. When we apply it to a dark energy model, this non-classicalized part of fields can be well embedded to a quintessence and a phantom model, i.e., a quintom model. Because of the property of complexified instantons, the phantomness will be naturally free from a big rip singularity. This phantomness does not cause perturbative instabilities, as it is an effect emergent from the entire wave function. Our work may thus provide a theoretical basis for the quintom models, whose equation of state can cross the cosmological constant boundary phenomenologically.

  18. Phantom of the Hartle-Hawking instanton: connecting inflation with dark energy

    Chen, Pisin [National Taiwan University, Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, Taipei (China); Stanford University, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford, CA (United States); Qiu, Taotao [Central China Normal University, Institute of Astrophysics, Wuhan (China); Yeom, Dong-han [National Taiwan University, Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, Taipei (China)

    2016-02-15

    If the Hartle-Hawking wave function is the correct boundary condition of our universe, the history of our universe will be well approximated by an instanton. Although this instanton should be classicalized at infinity, as long as we are observing a process of each history, we may detect a non-classicalized part of field combinations. When we apply it to a dark energy model, this non-classicalized part of fields can be well embedded to a quintessence and a phantom model, i.e., a quintom model. Because of the property of complexified instantons, the phantomness will be naturally free from a big rip singularity. This phantomness does not cause perturbative instabilities, as it is an effect emergent from the entire wave function. Our work may thus provide a theoretical basis for the quintom models, whose equation of state can cross the cosmological constant boundary phenomenologically. (orig.)

  19. Laboratory microfusion capability study

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the issues involved in developing a Laboratory Microfusion Capability (LMC) which is the major objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program within the purview of the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The study was initiated to support a number of DOE management needs: to provide insight for the evolution of the ICF program; to afford guidance to the ICF laboratories in planning their research and development programs; to inform Congress and others of the details and implications of the LMC; to identify criteria for selection of a concept for the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and to develop a coordinated plan for the realization of an LMC. As originally proposed, the LMC study was divided into two phases. The first phase identifies the purpose and potential utility of the LMC, the regime of its performance parameters, driver independent design issues and requirements, its development goals and requirements, and associated technical, management, staffing, environmental, and other developmental and operational issues. The second phase addresses driver-dependent issues such as specific design, range of performance capabilities, and cost. The study includes four driver options; the neodymium-glass solid state laser, the krypton fluoride excimer gas laser, the light-ion accelerator, and the heavy-ion induction linear accelerator. The results of the Phase II study are described in the present report

  20. Quantum field theory in curved graphene spacetimes, Lobachevsky geometry, Weyl symmetry, Hawking effect, and all that

    Iorio, Alfredo; Lambiase, Gaetano

    2014-07-01

    The solutions of many issues, of the ongoing efforts to make deformed graphene a tabletop quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, are presented. A detailed explanation of the special features of curved spacetimes, originating from embedding portions of the Lobachevsky plane into R3, is given, and the special role of coordinates for the physical realizations in graphene is explicitly shown, in general, and for various examples. The Rindler spacetime is reobtained, with new important differences with respect to earlier results. The de Sitter spacetime naturally emerges, for the first time, paving the way to future applications in cosmology. The role of the Bañados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli (BTZ) black hole is also briefly addressed. The singular boundary of the pseudospheres, "Hilbert horizon," is seen to be closely related to the event horizon of the Rindler, de Sitter, and BTZ kind. This gives new, and stronger, arguments for the Hawking phenomenon to take place. An important geometric parameter, c, overlooked in earlier work, takes here its place for physical applications, and it is shown to be related to graphene's lattice spacing, ℓ. It is shown that all surfaces of constant negative curvature, K =-r-2, are unified, in the limit c/r→0, where they are locally applicable to the Beltrami pseudosphere. This, and c=ℓ, allow us (a) to have a phenomenological control on the reaching of the horizon; (b) to use spacetimes different from the Rindler spacetime for the Hawking phenomenon; and (c) to approach the generic surface of the family. An improved expression for the thermal LDOS is obtained. A nonthermal term for the total LDOS is found. It takes into account (i) the peculiarities of the graphene-based Rindler spacetime; (ii) the finiteness of a laboratory surface; and (iii) the optimal use of the Minkowski quantum vacuum, through the choice of this Minkowski-static boundary.

  1. Fluorophotometric determination of aqueous humor flow rates in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Jones, Michael P; Ward, Daniel A

    2012-04-01

    To determine aqueous humor flow rate (AHFR) in an avian species by use of anterior segment fluorophotometry. 9 healthy red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis; 4 males and 5 females) that ranged from 8 months to 8 years of age. A protocol was developed for fluorophotometric determination of AHFR. Topical administration of 10% fluorescein was used to load the corneas, and corneal and aqueous humor fluorescein concentrations were measured approximately 5, 6.5, and 8 hours later. Concentration-versus-time plots were generated, and slopes and cornea-to-aqueous humor concentration ratios from these plots were used to manually calculate flow rates. Mean ± SD AHFRs for the right eye, left eye, and both eyes were 3.17 ± 1.36 μL/min (range, 1.67 to 6.21 μL/min), 2.86 ± 0.88 μL/min (range, 2.04 to 4.30 μL/min), and 2.90 ± 0.90 μL/min (range, 1.67 to 4.42 μL/min), respectively. The AHFRs were similar for right and left eyes. These flow rates represented a mean aqueous humor transfer coefficient of 0.0082/min, which is similar to that of mammalian species. The AHFR in red-tailed hawks was similar to that of most mammalian species, and the fractional egress was almost identical to that of other species. This information will allow a greater understanding of aqueous humor flow in avian eyes, which is crucial when evaluating diseases that affect avian eyes as well as medications that alter aqueous humor flow.

  2. Vagrant western red-shouldered hawks: origins, natal dispersal patterns, and survival

    Bloom, Peter H.; Scott, J. Michael; Papp, Joseph M.; Thomas, Scott E.; Kidd, Jeff W.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a 40-year study of the western Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus elegans) involving the banding of 2742 nestlings in southern California from 1970 to 2009 (this study) plus 127 nestlings banded in other California studies (1956–2008) and the analyses of 119 records of subsequent recovery from the Bird Banding Laboratory (1957–2009). Of the Red-shouldered Hawks recovered, 109 (91.6%) moved 100 km (long-distance dispersers). Three (2.5%), all long-distance dispersers, were vagrants (recovered outside the species' range of residency), and were found 374 to 843 km northeast and south of their banding locations in the Mojave, Great Basin, and Vizcaino deserts. The distribution of directions of short-distance dispersal was bipolar, closely corresponding with the northwest—southeast orientation of the species' range in southern California, while that of long-distance dispersers was mainly to the north. One of 10 long-distance dispersers, a nonvagrant, survived well into the age of breeding (103.0 months), whereas eight of the other nine perished before 14.5 months. The implications of vagrancy for conservation of this resident subspecies are that a relatively small source area can contribute genetic material over a vastly larger receiving area but rarely does so because of high mortality rates. Nonetheless, the movements of vagrants we documented provide evidence for the species' potential to populate new landscapes in response to changing environmental conditions and to maintain genetic heterogeneity within existing populations.

  3. Precast concrete elements for accelerated bridge construction : laboratory testing, field testing, and evaluation of a precast concrete bridge, Black Hawk County.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of rapid construction technologies has been recognized by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Iowa : DOT Office of Bridges and Structures. Black Hawk County (BHC) has developed a precast modified beam-in-slab bridge (PMBI...

  4. MIL SPEC 28 Square Foot Fire Burnback and Extinguishment Testing of FireAde, FlameOut II and Hawk ALLFIRE

    Barrett, Kimberly D; Kalberer, Jennifer L

    2008-01-01

    ... for hydrocarbon fuel fires. This report documents the evaluation performed on the fire extinguishing agents FireAde 2000 AFFF LP, FlameOut II and Hawk ALLFORE in accordance with the parameters set forth in Military Specification ( MIL SPEC...

  5. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach

    2009-08-29

    Aug 29, 2009 ... ... Reports at the global, regional, national and local level. ... Book cover An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: ... inequality; the role of markets and economic growth in promoting development; ...

  6. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach

    29 août 2009 ... Book cover An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: ... Reports at the global, regional, national and local level. ... inequality; the role of markets and economic growth in promoting development; the ...

  7. Aircraft Capability Management

    Mumaw, Randy; Feary, Mike

    2018-01-01

    This presentation presents an overview of work performed at NASA Ames Research Center in 2017. The work concerns the analysis of current aircraft system management displays, and the initial development of an interface for providing information about aircraft system status. The new interface proposes a shift away from current aircraft system alerting interfaces that report the status of physical components, and towards displaying the implications of degradations on mission capability. The proposed interface describes these component failures in terms of operational consequences of aircraft system degradations. The research activity was an effort to examine the utility of different representations of complex systems and operating environments to support real-time decision making of off-nominal situations. A specific focus was to develop representations that provide better integrated information to allow pilots to more easily reason about the operational consequences of the off-nominal situations. The work is also seen as a pathway to autonomy, as information is integrated and understood in a form that automated responses could be developed for the off-nominal situations in the future.

  8. Production capability and supply

    Klemenic, J.

    1977-01-01

    The strong market for uranium of recent years is about to usher in a new era in domestic uranium production. The spot market price of uranium has remained relatively stable at a little over $40/lb for more than 18 months. Many of the recent contracts for delivery in the early 1980s are calling for prices in the range of $40 to $65 per lb in year-of-delivery dollars. Low-grade, high-cost projects, such as uranium recovery from mill tailings and the reopening of ''mined-out'' ore bodies, have already been initiated. New underground mines to produce at greater depths, and new surface mines to recover lower grade ores, are being developed or seriously planned. In keeping with this movement to recover uranium from low-grade ore and other high cost materials, the Grand Junction Office has examined, for the first time, the production capability of the domestic industry assuming a $30/lb (or less) ''forward cost'' resource base. As in the past, keep in mind that the market price needed to stimulate full production of a given resource base may be significantly higher than the estimated forward cost of producing that resource. Results of the $30/lb study are presented

  9. LHC Capabilities for Quarkonia

    Petrushanko, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of the charmonium and bottomonium resonances in nucleus-nucleus collisions provides crucial information on high-density QCD matter. First, the suppression of quarkonia production is generally agreed to be one of the most direct probes of quark-gluon plasma formation. The observation of anomalous J/$\\psi$ suppression at the CERN-SPS and at RHIC is well established but the clarification of some important remaining questions requires equivalent studies of the $\\Upsilon$ family, only possible at the LHC energies. Second, the production of heavy-quarks proceeds mainly via gluon-gluon fusion processes and, as such, is sensitive to saturation of the gluon density at low-x in the nucleus. Measured departures from the expected vacuum quarkonia cross-sections in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC will thus provide valuable information not only on the thermodynamical state of the produced partonic medium, but also on the initial-state modifications of the nuclear parton distribution functions. The capabilities ...

  10. Mobile systems capability plan

    1996-09-01

    This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered

  11. Strength capability while kneeling.

    Haslegrave, C M; Tracy, M F; Corlett, E N

    1997-12-01

    Work sometimes has to be carried out kneeling, particularly where jobs are performed in confined spaces as is common for miners, aircraft baggage handlers and maintenance workers. In order to assess the risks in performing forceful tasks under such conditions, data is needed on strength capabilities of kneeling subjects. A study was undertaken to measure isometric strength in single-handed exertions for male subjects and to investigate the effects on this of task layout factors (direction of force exertion, reach distance, height of the workpiece and orientation relative to the subject's sagittal plane). The data has been tabulated to show the degree to which strength may be reduced in different situations and analysis of the task factors showed their influence to be complex with direction of exertion and reach distance having the greatest effect. The results also suggest that exertions are weaker when subjects are kneeling on two knees than when kneeling on one knee, although this needs to be confirmed by direct experimental comparison.

  12. Anticoagulant rodenticides in red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamaicensis, and great horned owls, Bubo virginianus, from New Jersey, USA, 2008-2010.

    Stansley, William; Cummings, Margaret; Vudathala, Daljit; Murphy, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Liver samples from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were analyzed for anticoagulant rodenticides. Residues of one or more second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) were detected in 81 % of red-tailed hawks and 82 % of great horned owls. The most frequently detected SGAR was brodifacoum, which was detected in 76 % of red-tailed hawks and 73 % of great horned owls. Bromadiolone was detected in 20 % of red-tailed hawks and 27 % of great horned owls. Difenacoum was detected in one great horned owl. No other ARs were detected. There were no significant differences between species in the frequency of detection or concentration of brodifacoum or bromadiolone. There was a marginally significant difference (p = 0.0497) between total SGAR residues in red-tailed hawks (0.117 mg/kg) and great horned owls (0.070 mg/kg). There were no seasonal differences in the frequency of detection or concentration of brodifacoum in red-tailed hawks. The data suggest that SGARs pose a significant risk of poisoning to predatory birds in New Jersey.

  13. Climbing performance of Harris' hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus) with added load: Implications for muscle mechanics and for radiotracking

    Pennycuick, C.J.; Fuller, M.R.; McAllister, L.

    1989-01-01

    Two Harris' hawks were trained to fly along horizontal and climbing flight paths, while carrying loads of various masses, to provide data for estimating available muscle power during short flights. The body mass of both hawks was about 920 g, and they were able to carry loads up to 630 g in horizontal flight. The rate of climb decreased with increasing all-up mass, as also did the climbing power (product of weight and rate of climb). Various assumptions about the aerodynamic power in low-speed climbs led to estimates of the maximum power output of the flight muscles ranging from 41 to 46 W. This, in turn, would imply a stress during shortening of around 210 kPa. The effects of a radio package on a bird that is raising young should be considered in relation to the food load that the forager can normally carry, rather than in relation to its body mass.

  14. Accipiter hawks (Accipitridae) confirmed as definitive hosts of Sarcocystis turdusi, Sarcocystis cornixi and Sarcocystis sp. ex Phalacrocorax carbo.

    Mayr, Sylvia L; Maier, Kristina; Müller, Jana; Enderlein, Dirk; Gruber, Achim D; Lierz, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Sarcocystis is a large genus of protozoan parasites with complex heteroxenous life cycles. For many species, either the intermediate or the definitive host is still unknown. In this study, 116 Accipiter hawks (Eurasian sparrowhawks and northern goshawks) were investigated for the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in their intestinal tract or their faeces. To gain a wide distribution, samples were collected throughout Germany within 2 years. It was possible to detect Sarcocystis-like oocysts in 65 samples. Sequencing of the ITS region or species-specific PCR identified 33 samples as Sarcocystis turdusi/Sarcocystis sp. ex A. nisus (18), Sarcocystis calchasi (6), Sarcocystis columbae (3), Sarcocystis cornixi (3) and Sarcocystis sp. ex Phalacrocorax carbo (3). Besides the known infestation with S. columbae, S. sp. ex A. nisus and S. calchasi the Accipiter hawks were thereby confirmed as definitive host of S. turdusi, S. cornixi and S. sp. ex Phalacrocorax carbo for the first time.

  15. Finite upper bound for the Hawking decay time of an arbitrarily large black hole in anti-de Sitter spacetime

    Page, Don N.

    2018-01-01

    In an asymptotically flat spacetime of dimension d >3 and with the Newtonian gravitational constant G , a spherical black hole of initial horizon radius rh and mass M ˜rhd -3/G has a total decay time to Hawking emission of td˜rhd -1/G ˜G2 /(d -3 )M(d -1 )/(d -3 ) which grows without bound as the radius rh and mass M are taken to infinity. However, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime with a length scale ℓ and with absorbing boundary conditions at infinity, the total Hawking decay time does not diverge as the mass and radius go to infinity but instead remains bounded by a time of the order of ℓd-1/G .

  16. Breeding biology and conservation of hawk-eagles (Spizaetus spp. (Aves, Accipitridae in southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Felipe Zilio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neotropical hawk-eagles (Spizaetus spp. are large forest raptors, having low population densities and high sensitivity to human disturbance. The three species of Brazil’s Atlantic forest (S. ornatus, S. melanoleucus, S. tyrannus are threatened and little is known of many aspects of their biology, such habitat requirements, nesting behavior, and food habitats. Here I present data about the breeding biology, diet and behavior of the Ornate Hawk-Eagle (S. ornatus; OHE and the Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle (S. melanoleucus; BWHW, and estimations of distribution - extent of occurrence (EOO - and population sizes for the three hawk-eagles of the southern Atlantic Forest. I compiled data from nine years of field studies done in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina combined with data from the literature (n = 191 records. I calculated the total amount of forest available for each species by GIS analyses and estimated population sizes based on species density data from the literature. The EOO was 123,551 km² for BWHE, 92,512 km² for OHE, and 67,824 km² for Black Hawk-Eagle (S. tyrannus; BHE. All species experienced more than 30% shrinkage in their historical distribution (before the year 2000. Forest remnants comprise 32% of BHE’s EOO and around 20% for other hawk-eagle species. Population sizes estimated for the southern region were 869 pairs for BHE (1,684 individuals, 1,532 pairs for BWHE (2,849 individuals, and 2,020 pairs for OHE (1,192 individuals. Population size estimates based only on forest patches larger than 10 km² were 542 pairs for BHE (RS = 48 pairs; SC = 494 pairs, 818 pairs for BWHE (RS = 67 pairs; SC = 751 pairs, and 1,178 pairs for OHE (RS = 67 pairs; SC = 1,111 pairs. I recorded displays and copulation of BWHE in July; the nest was built in an inaccessible, emergent tree in the hillside of a valley. Two nests of OHE were found in emergent trees (20 m and 30 m height measured 138 x 115 x 45 cm and 132 x 100 x 100 cm; one

  17. Pharmacokinetics of a single intramuscular injection of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Sadar, Miranda J; Hawkins, Michelle G; Byrne, Barbara A; Cartoceti, Andrew N; Keel, Kevin; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Tell, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects at the injection site of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) following IM administration of 1 dose to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). 7 adult nonreleasable healthy red-tailed hawks. In a randomized crossover study, CCFA (10 or 20 mg/kg) was administered IM to each hawk and blood samples were obtained. After a 2-month washout period, administration was repeated with the opposite dose. Muscle biopsy specimens were collected from the injection site 10 days after each sample collection period. Pharmacokinetic data were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for various bacterial isolates were assessed. Mean peak plasma concentrations of ceftiofur-free acid equivalent were 6.8 and 15.1 μg/mL for the 10 and 20 mg/kg doses, respectively. Mean times to maximum plasma concentration were 6.4 and 6.7 hours, and mean terminal half-lives were 29 and 50 hours, respectively. Little to no muscle inflammation was identified. On the basis of a target MIC of 1 μg/mL and target plasma ceftiofur concentration of 4 μg/mL, dose administration frequencies for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms were estimated as every 36 and 45 hours for the 10 mg/kg dose and every 96 and 120 hours for the 20 mg/kg dose, respectively. Study results suggested that CCFA could be administered IM to red-tailed hawks at 10 or 20 mg/kg to treat infections with ceftiofur-susceptible bacteria. Administration resulted in little to no inflammation at the injection site. Additional studies are needed to evaluate effects of repeated CCFA administration.

  18. Comparison of three different inhalant anesthetic agents (isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane) in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Granone, Tiffany D; de Francisco, Olga N; Killos, Maria B; Quandt, Jane E; Mandsager, Ron E; Graham, Lynelle F

    2012-01-01

    To compare isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane for inhalant anesthesia in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) in terms of the speed and characteristics of induction; cardiovascular and respiratory parameters while anesthetized; and speed and quality of recovery. Prospective, cross over, randomized experimental study. 12 healthy adult red-tailed hawks. Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane in oxygen via face mask in a crossover, randomized design with a 1 week washout period between each treatment. Hawks were tracheally intubated, allowed to breathe spontaneously, and instrumented for cardiopulmonary monitoring. Data collected included heart rate, respiratory rate, end-tidal CO(2) , inspired and expired agent, SpO(2,) temperature, systolic blood pressure, time to intubation and time to recovery (tracking). Recovery was subjectively scored on a 4 point scale as well as a summary evaluation, by a single blinded observer. No significant difference in time to induction and time to extubation was noted with the administration of isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane. Time to the ability of the bird to follow a moving object with its eyes (tracking) was significantly faster with the administration of sevoflurane and desflurane. All recoveries were scored 1 or 2 and were assessed as good to excellent. No significant difference was noted in heart rate, blood pressure and temperature among the three inhalants. Administration of isoflurane resulted in lower respiratory rates. Overall, although isoflurane remains the most common inhaled anesthetic in avian practice, sevoflurane and desflurane both offer faster time to tracking, while similar changes in cardiopulmonary function were observed with each agent during anesthesia of healthy red-tailed hawks. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2011 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  19. Charge–mass ratio bound and optimization in the Parikh–Wilczek tunneling model of Hawking radiation

    Kim, Kyung Kiu; Wen, Wen-Yu

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we study the mutual information hidden in the Parikh–Wilczek tunneling model of Hawking radiation for Reissner–Nordström black holes. We argue that the condition of nonnegativity of mutual information suggests bound(s) for charge–mass ratio of emitted particles. We further view the radiation as an optimization process and discuss its effect on time evolution of a charged black hole.

  20. Confluent Heun functions and the physics of black holes: Resonant frequencies, Hawking radiation and scattering of scalar waves

    Vieira, H.S., E-mail: horacio.santana.vieira@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Centro de Ciências, Tecnologia e Saúde, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, CEP 58233-000, Araruna, PB (Brazil); Bezerra, V.B., E-mail: valdir@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    We apply the confluent Heun functions to study the resonant frequencies (quasispectrum), the Hawking radiation and the scattering process of scalar waves, in a class of spacetimes, namely, the ones generated by a Kerr–Newman–Kasuya spacetime (dyon black hole) and a Reissner–Nordström black hole surrounded by a magnetic field (Ernst spacetime). In both spacetimes, the solutions for the angular and radial parts of the corresponding Klein–Gordon equations are obtained exactly, for massive and massless fields, respectively. The special cases of Kerr and Schwarzschild black holes are analyzed and the solutions obtained, as well as in the case of a Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by a magnetic field. In all these special situations, the resonant frequencies, Hawking radiation and scattering are studied. - Highlights: • Charged massive scalar field in the dyon black hole and massless scalar field in the Ernst spacetime are analyzed. • The confluent Heun functions are applied to obtain the solution of the Klein–Gordon equation. • The resonant frequencies are obtained. • The Hawking radiation and the scattering process of scalar waves are examined.