WorldWideScience

Sample records for global field power

  1. Global Health as a Field of Power Relations: A Response to Recent Commentaries.

    Shiffman, Jeremy

    2015-05-22

    Actors working in global health often portray it as an enterprise grounded in principled concerns, advanced by individuals and organizations who draw on scientific evidence to pursue health equity. This portrait is incomplete. It is also a field of power relations-a social arena in which actors claim and draw on expertise and moral authority to gain influence and pursue career, organizational and national interests. A clear understanding of how power operates in this field is necessary to ensure that it is used productively to serve the aims of health equity and improved population health. Responding to commentaries on an editorial published in this journal, I offer 3 ideas toward this end: (1) be skeptical of the global health rationality project-the effort to rescue the field from the alleged indignities of politics through the application of scientific methods; (2) analyze global health as a field of power relations, a concept developed by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu; and (3) elevate the place of input legitimacy-inclusive deliberation, fair process and transparency-to address legitimacy and knowledge deficits in this field. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  2. Global Health as a Field of Power Relations: A Response to Recent Commentaries

    Shiffman, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Actors working in global health often portray it as an enterprise grounded in principled concerns, advanced by individuals and organizations who draw on scientific evidence to pursue health equity. This portrait is incomplete. It is also a field of power relations—a social arena in which actors claim and draw on expertise and moral authority to gain influence and pursue career, organizational and national interests. A clear understanding of how power operates in this field is necessary to ensure that it is used productively to serve the aims of health equity and improved population health. Responding to commentaries on an editorial published in this journal, I offer 3 ideas toward this end: (1) be skeptical of the global health rationality project—the effort to rescue the field from the alleged indignities of politics through the application of scientific methods; (2) analyze global health as a field of power relations, a concept developed by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu; and (3) elevate the place of input legitimacy—inclusive deliberation, fair process and transparency—to address legitimacy and knowledge deficits in this field. PMID:26188819

  3. Uniform decrease of alpha-global field power induced by intermittent photic stimulation of healthy subjects

    Rau R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen-channel EEGs were recorded from the scalp surface of 30 healthy subjects (16 males and 14 females, mean age: 34 years, SD: 11.7 years at rest and under trains of intermittent photic stimulation (IPS at rates of 5, 10 and 20 Hz. Digitalized data were submitted to spectral analysis with fast fourier transformation providing the basis for the computation of global field power (GFP. For quantification, GFP values in the frequency ranges of 5, 10 and 20 Hz at rest were divided by the corresponding data obtained under IPS. All subjects showed a photic driving effect at each rate of stimulation. GFP data were normally distributed, whereas ratios from photic driving effect data showed no uniform behavior due to high interindividual variability. Suppression of alpha-power after IPS with 10 Hz was observed in about 70% of the volunteers. In contrast, ratios of alpha-power were unequivocal in all subjects: IPS at 20 Hz always led to a suppression of alpha-power. Dividing alpha-GFP with 20-Hz IPS by alpha-GFP at rest (R = alpha-GFP IPS/alpha-GFPrest thus resulted in ratios lower than 1. We conclude that ratios from GFP data with 20-Hz IPS may provide a suitable paradigm for further investigations.

  4. Intermittent 20-HZ-photic stimulation leads to a uniform reduction of alpha-global field power in healthy volunteers.

    Rau, R; Raschka, C; Koch, H J

    2001-01-01

    19-channel-EEGs were recorded from scalp surface of 30 healthy subjects (16m, 14f, mean age: 34 ys, SD: 11.7 ys) at rest and under IPS (Intermittent Photic Stimulation) at rates of 5, 10 and 20 Hertz (Hz). Digitalized data underwent spectral analysis with fast fourier transfomation (FFT) yielding the basis for the computation of global field power (GFP). For quantification GFP values in the frequency ranges of 5, 10 and 20 Hz at rest were divided by the corresponding data gained under IPS. While ratios from PDE data showed no stable parameter due to high interindividual variability, ratios of alpha-power turned out to be uniform in all subjects: IPS at 20 Hz always led to a suppression of alpha-power. Dividing alpha-GFP at rest by alpha-GFP under 20-Hz IPS thus resulted in a ratio paradigma.

  5. Perspectives at the East European engineering companies in the field of power industry in the power-plant construction globalization conditions

    Ganchev, R.

    2001-01-01

    A large group of companies, institutes, boiler and power engineering work ect. from East European countries, currently in process of reorganization or already transformed into new-established private companies and corporations possess significant intellectual property in the field of thermal power technologies and equipment and broad experience in the design and the erection of thermal power plants. In many cases this know-how is not only competitive to that of the large companies of the West and of the Far East, but frequently it also proves to have a number of advantages. However, in the years of transition in these countries and simultaneous globalization, the owners of this potentials meet with difficulties and restrictions to realize it fully. Large investment projects - for new or replacement capacities or comprehensive rehabilitation or refurbishment of TPPs - are accessible only for the financially powerful EPC-contractors and key equipment suppliers, for which large bank credits are accessible. The near future perspective, for the scientists and experts that have accumulated this capital, is in the opportunity to employ the extensive experience and know-how of this firms in the forthcoming large-scale rehabilitation projects in these countries, and primarily, in the solution of specific problems, that have not been solved so far, provided that the projects are awarded not on the basis of the financial power of the contractors but on the basis of the efficiency of the proposed original solutions

  6. Geomagnetic field, global pattern

    Macmillan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The geomagnetic field is generated in the fluid outer core region of the Earth by electrical currents flowing in the slowly moving molten iron. In addition to sources in the Earth’s core, the geomagnetic field observable on the Earth’s surface has sources in the crust and in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. The signal from the core dominates, accounting for over 95% of the field at the Earth’s surface. The geomagnetic field varies on a range of scales, both temporal and spatial; the...

  7. Global power: Markets and strategies

    Poirer, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The author will first present an updated view of the global power market activity, including opportunities in power generation, transmission and distribution. This will include a review of the trends in closings and transaction flowed by type of activity and geographic area. Estimates will be based on Hagler Bailly's comprehensive database on global power transactions and project announcements. The firm has also worked with dozens of global power companies since 1990. Second, the author will review trends in terms of regulatory changes, project cost trends, developers' project experiences, and financing issues. This systematic review will be the foundation for projection of future market activity (e.g., number of closing by type of project through 2000). A forecast of future greenfield and privatization activity will be provided and the key markets will be highlighted. Third, the author will present an updated view of the competition in the global power market (including the various types of competitors and changes in their respective market posture). Finally, the author will discuss the various types of strategies and business models that are followed by key global power players

  8. Global outlook for nuclear power

    Southworth, F.H.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' The global nuclear power forecast, the North American outlook and the effect of nuclear power growth on greenhouse gas emissions in North America will be discussed. The construction of Generation III reactors will replace aging power plants and, further, add capacity that is environmentally sustainable. The outlook for Generation IV reactors also may significantly improve the environmental balance after 2030, both in electrical markets, waste reduction, and in non-traditional markets such as process heat. (author)

  9. Electric power globalization and reforming

    Soares Neto, Jose Lino

    1999-01-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to define the economic and political forces of the electric power sector regulation restructuring

  10. Global warming and nuclear power

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two

  11. Analyticity and the Global Information Field

    Evgeni A. Solov'ev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relation between analyticity in mathematics and the concept of a global information field in physics is reviewed. Mathematics is complete in the complex plane only. In the complex plane, a very powerful tool appears—analyticity. According to this property, if an analytic function is known on the countable set of points having an accumulation point, then it is known everywhere. This mysterious property has profound consequences in quantum physics. Analyticity allows one to obtain asymptotic (approximate results in terms of some singular points in the complex plane which accumulate all necessary data on a given process. As an example, slow atomic collisions are presented, where the cross-sections of inelastic transitions are determined by branch-points of the adiabatic energy surface at a complex internuclear distance. Common aspects of the non-local nature of analyticity and a recently introduced interpretation of classical electrodynamics and quantum physics as theories of a global information field are discussed.

  12. Nuclear power generation and global heating

    Taboada, Horacio

    1999-01-01

    The Professionals Association and Nuclear Activity of National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) are following with great interest the worldwide discussions on global heating and the role that nuclear power is going to play. The Association has an active presence, as part of the WONUC (recognized by the United Nations as a Non-Governmental Organization) in the COP4, which was held in Buenos Aires in November 1998. The environmental problems are closely related to human development, the way of power production, the techniques for industrial production and exploitation fields. CO 2 is the most important gas with hothouse effects, responsible of progressive climatic changes, as floods, desertification, increase of average global temperature, thermal expansion in seas and even polar casks melting and ice falls. The consequences that global heating will have on the life and economy of human society cannot be sufficiently emphasized, great economical impact, destruction of ecosystems, loss of great coast areas and complete disappearance of islands owing to water level rise. The increase of power retained in the atmosphere generates more violent hurricanes and storms. In this work, the topics presented in the former AATN Meeting is analyzed in detail and different technological options and perspectives to mitigate CO 2 emission, as well as economical-financial aspects, are explored. (author)

  13. Global warming and nuclear power

    Hodgson, P.E. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

  14. Global warming and nuclear power

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

  15. Fields of nuclear power application

    Laue, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper deals with nuclear power application in fields different from electricity generation, i.e. district heating, sea water desalination, coal gasification and nuclear splitting of water. (RW) [de

  16. Global warming and nuclear power

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The problems of pollution, global warming and renewable energy sources are not going to go away. Governments need to act with urgency if they are to produce a long-term energy policy. This paper looks at the current energy situation, and how this would project into the future without the instigation of radical changes. It concludes that nuclear is the best option available for averting a growing energy, pollution and global warming crisis. (author)

  17. The Global Approach to Quantum Field Theory

    Folacci, Antoine; Jensen, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    is rather difficult to read because of its great breadth. From the start he is faithful to his own view of field theory by developing a powerful formalism which permits him to discuss broad general features common to all field theories. He demands a considerable effort from the reader to penetrate his formalism, and a reading of Appendix A which presents the basics of super-analysis is a prerequisite. To keep the reader on course, DeWitt offers a series of exercises on applications of global formalism in Part 8, nearly 200 pages worth. The exercises are to be worked in parallel with reading the text, starting from the beginning. Before concluding, some criticisms. DeWitt has anticipated some criticism himself in the Preface, where he warns the reader that 'this book is in no sense a reference book on quantum field theory and its application to particle physics. The selection of topics is idiosyncratic. But the reviewers should add a few more remarks: (1) There are very few references. Of course, this is because the work is largely original. Even where the work of other researchers is presented, it has mostly been transformed by the DeWittian point of view. (2) There are very few diagrams, which sometimes hinders the exposition. In summary, in our opinion, this is one of the best books dealing with quantum field theory existing today. It will be of great interest for graduate and postgraduate students as well as workers in the domains of quantum field theory in flat and in curved spacetime and string theories. But we believe that the reader must have previously studied standard textbooks on quantum field theory and general relativity. Even with this preparation, it is by no means an easy book to read. However, the reward is to be able to share the deep and unique vision of the quantum theory of fields and its formalism by one of its greatest expositors. (book review)

  18. The challenge of market power under globalization

    David Arie Mayer-Foulkes

    2014-01-01

    The legacy of Adam Smith leads to a false confidence on the optimality of laissez faire policies for the global market economy. Instead, the polarized character of current globalization deeply affects both developed and underdeveloped economies. Current globalization is characterized by factor exchange between economies of persistently unequal development. This implies the existence of persistent extraordinary market power in transnational corporations, reflected in their disproportionate par...

  19. The Global Approach to Quantum Field Theory

    Folacci, Antoine; Jensen, Bruce [Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Corse (France); Department of Mathematics, University of Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2003-12-12

    be noted that DeWitt's book is rather difficult to read because of its great breadth. From the start he is faithful to his own view of field theory by developing a powerful formalism which permits him to discuss broad general features common to all field theories. He demands a considerable effort from the reader to penetrate his formalism, and a reading of Appendix A which presents the basics of super-analysis is a prerequisite. To keep the reader on course, DeWitt offers a series of exercises on applications of global formalism in Part 8, nearly 200 pages worth. The exercises are to be worked in parallel with reading the text, starting from the beginning. Before concluding, some criticisms. DeWitt has anticipated some criticism himself in the Preface, where he warns the reader that 'this book is in no sense a reference book on quantum field theory and its application to particle physics. The selection of topics is idiosyncratic. (book review)[abstract truncated

  20. Global Geopotential Energy & Stress Field

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    of the oceanic lithosphere. An entire modelling of the shallow Geopotential Energy is hereby approached, not taking into account possible deeper signals but all lithospheric signals for the subsequent stress calculation. Therefore a global lithospheric density model is necessary to calculate the corresponding...... response to Geopotential Energy and the Geoid. A linearized inverse method fits a lithospheric reference model to reproduce measured data sets, such as topography and surface heat flow, while assuming isostasy and solving the steady state heat equation. A FEM code solves the equations of equilibrium...

  1. Global Protest Against Nuclear Power

    Kirchhof, Astrid Mignon; Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Protest against nuclear power plants, uranium mining and nuclear testing played a pivotal role in the rise of a mass environmental movement around the globe in the 1970s and 1980s. Nevertheless, the history of anti-nuclear activism has largely been told from a strictly national perspective...... that anti-nuclear movements across the globe were transnationally connected. First, scientific expertise and protest practices were transferred between movements, and subsequently adapted to local requirements. Secondly, transnational cooperation and networks did indeed emerge, playing an important role...

  2. Knowledge, politics and power in global health

    Brown, Garrett Wallace

    2015-01-01

    This article agrees with recent arguments suggesting that normative and epistemic power is rife within global health policy and provides further examples of such. However, in doing so, it is argued that it is equally important to recognize that global health is, and always will be, deeply political and that some form of power is not only necessary for the system to advance, but also to try and control the ways in which power within that system operates. In this regard, a better focus on health politics can both expose illegitimate sources of power, but also provide better recommendations to facilitate deliberations that can, although imperfectly, help legitimate sources of influence and power. PMID:25674575

  3. Global wind power development: Economics and policies

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Cornelis van Kooten, G.; Narbel, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO 2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO 2 . To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

  4. Wind power: breakthrough to global dimensions

    Horrighs, W.

    1996-01-01

    The beginning of the 1980s saw the start of wind-turbine manufacture. Soon it had become a booming industrial sector, thanks mainly to the spirit of some young entrepreneurs and political support in many countries. But the wind-power market has assumed global dimensions and major structural changes have to be faced. (author)

  5. Can global warming save nuclear power?

    Pearce, D.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear powered electricity generation in the United Kingdom has an uncertain future. The relative costs of generating electricity by nuclear fission compared to other means and the need for a desirable mixture or ''portfolio'' of energy sources in the electricity industry are identified as the key to this uncertainty. The author argues that Government commitments to reducing Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions, and hence global warming, may strengthen arguments in favour of a firm commitment to nuclear power, as even modern fossil-fuelled power plants emit nearly 90 times as much CO as nuclear plants. (UK)

  6. Arithmetic geometry over global function fields

    Longhi, Ignazio; Trihan, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    This volume collects the texts of five courses given in the Arithmetic Geometry Research Programme 2009–2010 at the CRM Barcelona. All of them deal with characteristic p global fields; the common theme around which they are centered is the arithmetic of L-functions (and other special functions), investigated in various aspects. Three courses examine some of the most important recent ideas in the positive characteristic theory discovered by Goss (a field in tumultuous development, which is seeing a number of spectacular advances): they cover respectively crystals over function fields (with a number of applications to L-functions of t-motives), gamma and zeta functions in characteristic p, and the binomial theorem. The other two are focused on topics closer to the classical theory of abelian varieties over number fields: they give respectively a thorough introduction to the arithmetic of Jacobians over function fields (including the current status of the BSD conjecture and its geometric analogues, and the con...

  7. Nuclear power and the logic of globalization

    Weizsaecker, C.C. von

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses effects and results of globalization for nuclear power and other options of electricity generation. According to the present state of knowledge, it will not be possible to meet the growing worldwide energy requirement with fossil and renewable energy sources only - also because of the CO 2 problem. Consequently, nuclear power will remain an important alternative. On an international scale, this applies in particular to large countries, such as China and India, as large national economies particularly benefit from the economies of scale offered by nuclear power. This could well make Chinese nuclear technology a product for the world market. Thinking along these lines has not really gained ground in Germany, as nuclear power, being a technology requiring considerably capital outlay, is considered unsuitable for southern countries. It is an illusion to believe that Germany's opting out of the use of nuclear power could be a model to others. Instead, we are faced by the ethical question of how we can help to minimize the accident risks of nuclear facilities worldwide. We can do so only by maintaining the use of nuclear power and exporting our level of safety, for the risks will not become any smaller merely as a result of our opting out. (orig.) [de

  8. Global effects in quaternionic quantum field theory

    Brumby, S.P.; Joshi, G.C.

    1997-01-01

    A local quaternionic gauge structure is introduced onto space-time. It is a theory of vector bosons and dimensionless scalar fields, which recalls semi-classical treatments of gravity. After transforming to the 'i' gauge, it was found that the quaternionic symmetry takes the form of an exotic SU (2) gauge theory in the standard complex framework, with global phenomena appearing in the form of cosmic strings. Coupling this quaternionic sector to the Standard Model sector has only been achieved at the level of an effective theory, which is constrained by the quaternionic origin of the bosons to be of a nonrenormalisable form. 14 refs.,

  9. Problem free nuclear power and global change

    Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Nuckolls, J.; Ishikawa, M.; Hyde, R.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth's atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial number of major issues currently stand between nuclear power implemented with light- water reactors and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems, including long-term fuel supply, adverse public perceptions regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps more seriously - cost. We describe a GW-scale, high-temperature nuclear reactor heat source that can operate with no human intervention for a few decades and that may be widely acceptable, since its safety features are simple, inexpensive and easily understood. We provide first-level details of a reactor system designed to satisfy these requirements. Such a back-solving approach to realizing large-scale nuclear fission power systems potentially leads to an energy source capable of meeting all large-scale stationary demands for high- temperature heat. If widely employed to support such demands, it could, for example, directly reduce present-day world-wide CO 2 emissions by two-fold; by using it to produce non-carbonaceous fuels for small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction could be attained. Even the first such reduction would permit continued slow power-demand growth in the First World and rapid development of the Third World, both without any governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage

  10. Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames.

    Benatar, Solomon

    2016-08-06

    Striking disparities in access to healthcare and in health outcomes are major characteristics of health across the globe. This inequitable state of global health and how it could be improved has become a highly popularized field of academic study. In a series of articles in this journal the roles of power and politics in global health have been addressed in considerable detail. Three points are added here to this debate. The first is consideration of how the use of definitions and common terms, for example 'poverty eradication,' can mask full exposure of the extent of rectification required, with consequent failure to understand what poverty eradication should mean, how this could be achieved and that a new definition is called for. Secondly, a criticism is offered of how the term 'global health' is used in a restricted manner to describe activities that focus on an anthropocentric and biomedical conception of health across the world. It is proposed that the discourse on 'global health' should be extended beyond conventional boundaries towards an ecocentric conception of global/planetary health in an increasingly interdependent planet characterised by a multitude of interlinked crises. Finally, it is noted that the paucity of workable strategies towards achieving greater equity in sustainable global health is not so much due to lack of understanding of, or insight into, the invisible dimensions of power, but is rather the outcome of seeking solutions from within belief systems and cognitive biases that cannot offer solutions. Hence the need for a new framing perspective for global health that could reshape our thinking and actions. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  11. Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames

    Benatar, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Striking disparities in access to healthcare and in health outcomes are major characteristics of health across the globe. This inequitable state of global health and how it could be improved has become a highly popularized field of academic study. In a series of articles in this journal the roles of power and politics in global health have been addressed in considerable detail. Three points are added here to this debate. The first is consideration of how the use of definitions and common terms, for example ‘poverty eradication,’ can mask full exposure of the extent of rectification required, with consequent failure to understand what poverty eradication should mean, how this could be achieved and that a new definition is called for. Secondly, a criticism is offered of how the term ‘global health’ is used in a restricted manner to describe activities that focus on an anthropocentric and biomedical conception of health across the world. It is proposed that the discourse on ‘global health’ should be extended beyond conventional boundaries towards an ecocentric conception of global/planetary health in an increasingly interdependent planet characterised by a multitude of interlinked crises. Finally, it is noted that the paucity of workable strategies towards achieving greater equity in sustainable global health is not so much due to lack of understanding of, or insight into, the invisible dimensions of power, but is rather the outcome of seeking solutions from within belief systems and cognitive biases that cannot offer solutions. Hence the need for a new framing perspective for global health that could reshape our thinking and actions. PMID:27694651

  12. Crustal Magnetic Field Anomalies and Global Tectonics

    Storetvedt, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    A wide variety of evidence suggests that the ruling isochron (geomagnetic polarity versus age) hypothesis of marine magnetic lineations has no merit - undermining therefore one of the central tenets of plate tectonics. Instead, variable induction by the ambient geomagnetic field is likely to be the principal agent for mega-scale crustal magnetic features - in both oceanic and continental settings. This revitalizes the fault-controlled susceptibility-contrast model of marine magnetic lineations, originally proposed in the late 1960s. Thus, the marine magnetic 'striping' may be ascribed to tectonic shearing and related, but variable, disintegration of the original iron-oxide mineralogy, having developed primarily along one of the two pan-global sets of orthogonal fractures and faults. In this way, fault zones (having the more advanced mineral alteration) would be characterized by relatively low susceptibility, while more moderately affected crustal sections (located between principal fault zones) would be likely to have less altered oxide mineralogy and therefore higher magnetic susceptibility. On this basis, induction by the present geomagnetic field is likely to produce oscillating magnetic field anomalies with axis along the principal shear grain. The modus operandi of the alternative magneto-tectonic interpretation is inertia-driven wrenching of the global Alpine age palaeo-lithosphere - triggered by changes in Earth's rotation. Increasing sub-crustal loss to the upper mantle during the Upper Mesozoic had left the ensuing Alpine Earth in a tectonically unstable state. Thus, sub-crustal eclogitization and associated gravity-driven delamination to the upper mantle led to a certain degree of planetary acceleration which in turn gave rise to latitude-dependent, westward inertial wrenching of the global palaeo-lithosphere. During this process, 1) the thin and mechanically fragile oceanic crust were deformed into a new type of broad fold belts, and 2) the continents

  13. Global integrability of field theories. Proceedings

    Calmet, J.; Seiler, W.M.; Tucker, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    The GIFT 2006 workshop covers topics related to the Global Integration of Field Theories. These topics span several domains of science including Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science. It is indeed an interdisciplinary event and this feature is well illustrated by the diversity of papers presented at the workshop. Physics is our main target. A simple approach would be to state that we investigate systems of partial differential equations since it is widely believed that they provide a fair description of our world. The questions whether this world is Einsteinian or not, is described by String Theory or not are not however on our agenda. At this stage we have defined what we mean with field theories. To assess what global integrability means we surf on the two other domains of our interest. Mathematics delivers the main methodologies and tools to achieve our goal. It is a trivial remark to say that there exists several approaches to investigate the concept of integrability. Only selected ones are to be found in these proceedings. We do not try to define precisely what global integrability means. Instead, we only suggest two tracks. The first one is by analogy with the design of algorithms, in Computer Algebra or Computer Science, to solve systems of differential equations. The case of ODEs is rather well understood since a constructive methodology exists. Although many experts claim that numerous results do exist to solve systems of PDEs, no constructive decision method exists. This is our first track. The second track follows directly since the real world is described by systems of PDEs, which are mainly non-linear ones. To be able to decide in such a case of the existence of solutions would increase immediately the scope of new technologies applicable to indus trial problems. It is this latter remark that led to the European NEST project with the same name. The GIFT project aims at making progresses in the investigation of field theories through the use of very

  14. Global integrability of field theories. Proceedings

    Calmet, J.; Seiler, W.M.; Tucker, R.W. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The GIFT 2006 workshop covers topics related to the Global Integration of Field Theories. These topics span several domains of science including Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science. It is indeed an interdisciplinary event and this feature is well illustrated by the diversity of papers presented at the workshop. Physics is our main target. A simple approach would be to state that we investigate systems of partial differential equations since it is widely believed that they provide a fair description of our world. The questions whether this world is Einsteinian or not, is described by String Theory or not are not however on our agenda. At this stage we have defined what we mean with field theories. To assess what global integrability means we surf on the two other domains of our interest. Mathematics delivers the main methodologies and tools to achieve our goal. It is a trivial remark to say that there exists several approaches to investigate the concept of integrability. Only selected ones are to be found in these proceedings. We do not try to define precisely what global integrability means. Instead, we only suggest two tracks. The first one is by analogy with the design of algorithms, in Computer Algebra or Computer Science, to solve systems of differential equations. The case of ODEs is rather well understood since a constructive methodology exists. Although many experts claim that numerous results do exist to solve systems of PDEs, no constructive decision method exists. This is our first track. The second track follows directly since the real world is described by systems of PDEs, which are mainly non-linear ones. To be able to decide in such a case of the existence of solutions would increase immediately the scope of new technologies applicable to indus trial problems. It is this latter remark that led to the European NEST project with the same name. The GIFT project aims at making progresses in the investigation of field theories through the use of very

  15. Powerful Concepts in Global Health Comment on “Knowledge, Moral Claims and the Exercise of Power in Global Health”

    Eivind Engebretsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we emphasize the importance of questioning the global validity of significant concepts underpinning global health policy. This implies questioning the concept of global health as such and accepting that there is no global definition of the global. Further, we draw attention to ‘quality’ and ‘empowerment’ as examples of world-forming concepts. These concepts are exemplary for the gentle and quiet forms of power that underpin our reasoning within global health.

  16. Towards combined global monthly gravity field solutions

    Jaeggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Beutler, Gerhard; Weigelt, Matthias; van Dam, Tonie; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Flury, Jakob; Flechtner, Frank; Dahle, Christoph; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Bruinsma, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Currently, official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. This procedure seriously limits the accessibility of these valuable data. Combinations are well established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Regularly comparing and combining space-geodetic products has tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. Therefore, we propose in a first step to mutually compare the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions, e.g., by assessing the signal content over selected regions, by estimating the noise over the oceans, and by performing significance tests. We make the attempt to assign different solution characteristics to different processing strategies in order to identify subsets of solutions, which are based on similar processing strategies. Using these subsets we will in a second step explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the potential benefits for the GRACE and GRACE-FO user community, but also address minimum processing

  17. A note on powers in finite fields

    Aabrandt, Andreas; Lundsgaard Hansen, Vagn

    2016-08-01

    The study of solutions to polynomial equations over finite fields has a long history in mathematics and is an interesting area of contemporary research. In recent years, the subject has found important applications in the modelling of problems from applied mathematical fields such as signal analysis, system theory, coding theory and cryptology. In this connection, it is of interest to know criteria for the existence of squares and other powers in arbitrary finite fields. Making good use of polynomial division in polynomial rings over finite fields, we have examined a classical criterion of Euler for squares in odd prime fields, giving it a formulation that is apt for generalization to arbitrary finite fields and powers. Our proof uses algebra rather than classical number theory, which makes it convenient when presenting basic methods of applied algebra in the classroom.

  18. The Global Approach to Quantum Field Theory

    Fulling, S A [Texas A and M University (United States)

    2006-05-21

    temperature, black holes, and Euclideanization. Chapter 30, on black holes and Hawking radiation, will be very familiar to readers of DeWitt's influential review article. Chapter 28, on anomalies, makes a careful distinction (missing from many treatments) between 'critical' anomalies, which render equations of motion inconsistent in the (would-be) quantum theory, and harmless anomalies that merely invalidate predictions that would classically follow from certain symmetries. Examples of critical anomalies are the chiral anomaly of a spinor field coupled to a non-Abelian gauge field and the anomaly in the conservation law of the stress tensor of certain pathological theories. DeWitt's chapter calculates the trace and chiral anomalies in detail. The last two chapters of part VII treat the most important particular quantum field theories. Chapter 34 develops many of the textbook predictions of quantum eletrodynamics from DeWitt's starting point. Chapter 35 covers Yang-Mills fields and quantum gravity. The discussion of gravity is surprisingly brief, in view of DeWitt's lifelong preoccupation with that subject. He rejects renormalizable fourth-order modifications of four-dimensional gravity because he could not stomach unfriendly ghosts (states of negative norm or unboundedly negative energy) nor the technical difficulties of integrating such theories into the functional-integral formalism. Finally, there is part VIII, entitled 'Examples. Simple Exercises in the Use of the Global Formalism'. It consists of 25 short chapters numbered separately from those of the main text. The preface recommends reading these and the main text in parallel. Most valuable in my opinion is a string of successively more complicated fermionic models. Hidden in an appendix is a crucial motivational paragraph: Super Hilbert spaces are generalizations of ordinary Hilbert spaces, designed so as to enable one to consider quantum systems with supernumber

  19. The Global Approach to Quantum Field Theory

    Fulling, S A

    2006-01-01

    Euclideanization. Chapter 30, on black holes and Hawking radiation, will be very familiar to readers of DeWitt's influential review article. Chapter 28, on anomalies, makes a careful distinction (missing from many treatments) between 'critical' anomalies, which render equations of motion inconsistent in the (would-be) quantum theory, and harmless anomalies that merely invalidate predictions that would classically follow from certain symmetries. Examples of critical anomalies are the chiral anomaly of a spinor field coupled to a non-Abelian gauge field and the anomaly in the conservation law of the stress tensor of certain pathological theories. DeWitt's chapter calculates the trace and chiral anomalies in detail. The last two chapters of part VII treat the most important particular quantum field theories. Chapter 34 develops many of the textbook predictions of quantum eletrodynamics from DeWitt's starting point. Chapter 35 covers Yang-Mills fields and quantum gravity. The discussion of gravity is surprisingly brief, in view of DeWitt's lifelong preoccupation with that subject. He rejects renormalizable fourth-order modifications of four-dimensional gravity because he could not stomach unfriendly ghosts (states of negative norm or unboundedly negative energy) nor the technical difficulties of integrating such theories into the functional-integral formalism. Finally, there is part VIII, entitled 'Examples. Simple Exercises in the Use of the Global Formalism'. It consists of 25 short chapters numbered separately from those of the main text. The preface recommends reading these and the main text in parallel. Most valuable in my opinion is a string of successively more complicated fermionic models. Hidden in an appendix is a crucial motivational paragraph: Super Hilbert spaces are generalizations of ordinary Hilbert spaces, designed so as to enable one to consider quantum systems with supernumber-valued parameters (e.g., a-type external sources) which, themselves, are introduced in

  20. Field Data Logger Prototype for Power Converters

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Ghimire, Pramod; Thøgersen, Paul Bach

    2014-01-01

    and subsequent analysis of the data. This paper presents the development of a low cost prototype field data logger prototype using Raspberry PI and industrial sensors. The functionalities of the data logger prototype are described. An online rainflow count algorithm has been implemented as well.......Mission profile data is very important for the cost effective and reliable design of power converters. The converter design can be improved on the basis of actual field data. Actual mission profile data can be collected for the power converters using field data loggers over a long period of time...

  1. Global and site specific multimedia (field) studies

    Cutshall, N.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Experience with radioactive fallout, with organic contaminants and with heavy metals has amply demonstrated that cross-media transfers are common and that understanding the transport, cycling, and fate of these contaminants requires a multimedia approach. Nonetheless, pollutants with similar physical and chemical attributes may follow markedly different pathways. The frequency of exceptions to predictions based on simplistic models is also sufficient to show that direct investigation of environmental contamination is essential to confirm validity of models used for conceptualizing a problem or for control. Modeling based on multimedia premises and regulatory controls that encompass multimedia considerations are challenged by a dilemma, however. First, the development of multimedia models or regulatory frameworks represents simplification and generalization. This is true for several reasons: (1) inadequate understanding of physical and environmental factors which control specific cross-media transfer; (2) the absence of specific data on certain multimedia pollutant concentrations; (3) even the most powerful computers do not have sufficient speed and capacity to deal with the known complexities of natural systems. On the other hand, for contaminants such as mercury, it may be necessary to include great detail; the overall distribution in the environment may be less important than the rate of some minor process. With sufficient experience and good judgment of what can be ignored, the simplifications and generalizations can be made. For the present, and for the foreseeable future, however, they absolutely must be accompanied by thorough field validation and monitoring

  2. Global financial centers: shifting power balance

    Aalbers, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    London and New York are the most important global financial centers in the world. Tokyo used to be considered the third global financial center, but has lost its position in the last 20 years, partly as a result of a sustained recession and partly because both Japanese society and Japanese economy

  3. A Note on Powers in Finite Fields

    Aabrandt, Andreas; Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2016-01-01

    The study of solutions to polynomial equations over finite fields has a long history in mathematics and is an interesting area of contemporary research. In recent years the subject has found important applications in the modelling of problems from applied mathematical fields such as signal analys...... for squares in odd prime fields, giving it a formulation which is apt for generalization to arbitrary finite fields and powers. Our proof uses algebra rather than classical number theory, which makes it convenient when presenting basic methods of applied algebra in the classroom....

  4. Transforming Power Systems Through Global Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Ambitious and integrated policy and regulatory frameworks are crucial to achieve power system transformation. The 21st Century Power Partnership -- a multilateral initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial -- serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with energy efficiency and grid modernization.

  5. Transforming Power Systems through Global Collaboration

    None, None

    2016-04-01

    Ambitious and integrated policy and regulatory frameworks are crucial to achieve power system transformation. The 21st Century Power Partnership -- a multilateral initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial -- serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with energy efficiency and grid modernization.

  6. Global implications of standby power use

    Lebot, Benoit; Meier, Alan; Anglade, Alain

    2000-05-01

    Separate studies indicate that standby power is responsible for 20-60 W per home in developed countries. Standby power is responsible for about 2% of OECD countries total electricity consumption and the related power generation generates almost 1% of their carbon emissions. Replacement of existing appliances with those appliances having the lowest standby would reduce total standby power consumption by over 70%. The resulting reductions in carbon emissions would meet over 3% of OECD's total Kyoto commitments. Other strategies may cut more carbon emissions, but standby power is unique in that the reductions are best accomplished through international collaboration and whose costs and large benefits would be spread over all countries.

  7. Exposure to power frequency electromagnetic fields

    Skotte, J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose was to asses personal exposure to power frequency electromagnetic fields in Denmark. Exposure to electrical and magnetic 50 Hz fields were measured with personal dosimeters in periods of 24 hours covering both occupational and residential environments. The study included both highly exposed and 'normal' exposed jobs. Measurements were carried out with dosimeters, which sample electrical and magnetic fields every 5 sec. Participants also wore the dosimeter during transportation. The dynamic range of the dosimeters was 0.01-200 μT and 0.6-10000 V/m. The highest average exposure in homes near high power lines was 2.24 μT. In most homes without nearby high power lines the average exposure was below 0.05 μT. Average values of '24-hour-dose' (μT times hours) for the generator facility, transmission line and substation workers were approximately the same as for the people living near high power lines (5 μT x hours). Electric field measurements with personal dosimeters involve several factors of uncertainty, as the body, posture, position of dosimeter etc. influence the results. The highest exposed groups were transmission line workers (GM: 44 V/m) and substation workers (GM: 23 V/m) but there were large variations (GSD: 4.7-4.8). In the work time the exposure level was the same for office workers and workers in the industry groups (GM: 12-13 V/m). In homes near high power lines (GM: 23 V/m) there was a non-significant tendency to higher exposure compared to homes without nearby high power lines. (AB) (11 refs.)

  8. TPX Poloidal Field (PF) power systems simulation

    Lu, E.; Bronner, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the modeling and simulation of the PF power system for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), which is required to supply pulsed DC current to the Poloidal Field (PF) superconducting coil system. An analytical model was developed to simulate the dynamics of the PF power system for any PF current scenario and thereby provide the basis for selection of PF circuit topology, in support of the major design goal of optimizing the use of the existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) facilities at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab (PPPL)

  9. The global mission of nuclear power

    Neumann, J.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of nuclear power to satisfying the future energy needs of mankind and to alleviating the greenhouse effect problem is discussed. It is concluded that in addition to fossil fuels and the hydro-energy, nuclear power is the only macroeconomic source of energy for the majority of countries in this and the next centuries. In the first decade of the 21th century the production capacity of nuclear engineering shall roughly double, and high-temperature and fast-breeding reactors shall play an important role. It is expected that the research into nuclear fusion will progress. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 4 tabs., 8 refs

  10. Innovative global architecture for sustainable nuclear power

    Wheeler, John; Kagramanyan, Vladimir; Poplavskaya, Elena; Edwards, Geoffrey; Dixon, Brent; Usanov, Vladimir; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Beatty, Randall

    2011-01-01

    The INPRO collaborative project 'Global architecture of innovative nuclear energy systems based on thermal and fast reactors with the inclusion of a closed nuclear fuel cycle (GAINS)' was one of several scenario studies implemented in the IAEA in recent years. The objective of GAINS was to develop a standard framework for assessing future nuclear energy systems (NESs) taking into account sustainable development, and to validate the results through sample analyses. Belgium, Canada, China, the Czech Republic, France, India, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, Slovakia, Ukraine, USA, the European Commission and Argentina as an observer participated in the project. The results received are discussed in the paper, including: development of a heterogeneous multi-group model of a global NES, estimation of nuclear energy demand, identification of a representative set of reactors and fuel cycles, evaluation capability of available analytical and modelling tools, and quantitative analysis of the different options of the global architecture. It was shown that the approach used contributes to development of a coherent vision of driving forces for nuclear energy system development and deployment. (author)

  11. A Typology of Power in Global Value Chains

    Dallas, Mark; Ponte, Stefano; Sturgeon, Timothy

    ‘Power’ has been a foundational concept in examining global value chains and production networks for understanding patterns and dynamics in the global political economy. Yet, in most GVC scholarship, power is not explicitly defined and is applied as a unitary concept, rather than as having multiple...

  12. Private Institutions and Business Power in Global Governance

    Ougaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Review essay. This article reviews the books "Transnational Private Governance and its Limits" edited by Jean-Christophe Graz and Andreas Nölke, "Business Power in Global Governance" by Doris Fuchs, and Private Institutions and Global Governance. The New Politics of Environmental Sustainability...

  13. Nuclear Power: Global Trend and Outlook

    Holger Rogner, H.; Weisser, D.; )

    2006-01-01

    The increasing role of nuclear power in electricity production is described. Differences in countries and regions regarding their energy infrastructure, economic capacities, energy demand and supply patterns, energy market liberalization, environmental policy as well as socio-political aspects are taken into account

  14. Plasma Signatures of Radial Field Power Dropouts

    Lucek, E.A.; Horbury, T.S.; Balogh, A.; McComas, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    A class of small scale structures, with a near-radial magnetic field and a drop in magnetic field fluctuation power, have recently been identified in the polar solar wind. An earlier study of 24 events, each lasting for 6 hours or more, identified no clear plasma signature. In an extension of that work, radial intervals lasting for 4 hours or more (89 in total), have been used to search for a statistically significant plasma signature. It was found that, despite considerable variations between intervals, there was a small but significant drop, on average, in plasma temperature, density and β during these events

  15. Global field experiments for potato simulations

    Raymundo, Rubí; Asseng, Senthold; Prasad, Rishi

    2018-01-01

    A large field potato experimental dataset has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels, tempera......A large field potato experimental dataset has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels...

  16. Global prospects for nuclear power development in the long term

    Semenov, Boris A.

    1994-01-01

    supply, in the world and by region. In the long term, up to 2100, the broad range of uncertainties with regard to population, economic growth and technology evolution prevent from any sound forecast in the field of energy and in particular of nuclear power. The scenario presented in the paper has been prepared for the Inter Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in order to illustrate the potential role of nuclear power in alleviating greenhouse gas emissions. The global energy demand projections established by IPCC, which serve as a basis for the nuclear power scenario, assume high economic growth, drastic energy efficiency improvement and the implementation of voluntary policies for greenhouse gas reduction. Under these assumptions, it is estimated that the total primary energy consumption in the world will reach some 660 EJ per annum in 2100 as compared to 330 EJ per annum in 1985. Since the world population is expected to more than double during this time frame, it means that the average energy consumption per capita will a sustained deployment of nuclear power worldwide as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector. Although this scenario would require strong commitment to the development of nuclear energy, technical and industrial capabilities would enable its implementation. In view of the potential role of nuclear power in sustainable energy supply strategies, there is a need for continued research and development aiming towards the design and implementation of advanced reactors with enhanced safety, technical and economic performance. Natural nuclear fuel resources could support a broad deployment of nuclear energy production as a major part of the mix of options for sustainable supply in the long term. The challenge for the nuclear industry is to restore the confidence in nuclear energy and enhance its social acceptability through the design and implementation of sound technical solutions for nuclear power plants, fuel cycle

  17. Global movement in reviewing nuclear power generation

    Kimura, Yoshiyasu

    2007-01-01

    The price of crude oil, natural gas and coal has increased since 2004 with the rapid increase of primary energy demand in China, India and other developing countries. Moreover due to the political uncertainty in the Middle East, and the state control of energy resources in countries like Russia, the issue of energy security has become a critical issue. Nuclear power has been reconsidered in recent years in the US and European countries, because nuclear power is one of the cheapest sources of low carbon energy and also has relatively stable costs, and is thereby useful to energy security and to prevent climate change. Electricity demand is growing very rapidly in China and additional reactors are planned to give a fivefold increase in nuclear capacity to 40,000 MWe by 2020. India has a largely indigenous nuclear power program and expects to have 20,000 MWe nuclear capacity by 2020. Russia is moving steadily forward with plans for a much expanded role of nuclear energy, and the restructuring of nuclear industries has begun to strengthen competitiveness in international nuclear markets. (author)

  18. On the stochastic structure of globally supersymmetric field theories

    Flume, R.; Lechtenfeld, O.

    1983-09-01

    We reformulate the bosonic sector of globally supersymmetric field theories through a ''fermionisation'' of bosonic Feynman graphs. The recipe for the fermionisation gives an explicit realisation of the Nicolai map. The graphical rules for supersymmetric Yang-Mills fields in the reformulated version turn out to be simpler than those of ordinary Yang-Mills fields. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear power development: global challenges and strategies

    Mourogov, Victor M.; )

    1997-01-01

    This article highlights key factors that will determine today and tomorrow's optimal energy strategies. It addresses methods to utilize the high potential energy content of uranium. Plutonium used as fuel in a nuclear reactors is discussed as is the future potential of a thorium fuel cycle. Various strategies to increase the economic viability of nuclear power are brought out. Technological means to further minimize environmental impacts and to enhance safety are covered as they are a major factor in public acceptance. Also covered are advances anticipated by mid-century in nuclear reactor and fuel cycle technologies

  20. Global field experiments for potato simulations

    Raymundo, Rubi; Asseng, Senthold; Prasad, Rishi; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Condori, Bruno; Bowen, Walter; Wolf, Joost; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Dong, Qiaoxue; Zotarelli, Lincoln; Gastelo, Manuel; Alva, Ashok; Travasso, Maria; Arora, Vijay

    2018-01-01

    A large field potato experimental data set has been assembled for simulation modeling. The data are from temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions across the world and include 87 experiments with 204 treatments. Treatments include nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation, atmospheric CO2 levels,

  1. Globally linked vortex clusters in trapped wave fields

    Crasovan, Lucian-Cornel; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Torres, Juan P.; Torner, Lluis; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2002-01-01

    We put forward the existence of a rich variety of fully stationary vortex structures, termed H clusters, made of an increasing number of vortices nested in paraxial wave fields confined by trapping potentials. However, we show that the constituent vortices are globally linked, rather than products of independent vortices. Also, they always feature a monopolar global wave front and exist in nonlinear systems, such as the Bose-Einstein condensates. Clusters with multipolar global wave fronts are nonstationary or, at best, flipping

  2. Global properties of ohmically heated reversed-field pinches

    Gerwin, R.A.

    The simultaneous requirements of power balance and pressure balance have been considered. The treatment generalizes the Pease-Braginskii pinch current limit by including toroidal magnetic field, anomalous resistivity, nonradiative losses, and time-dependent fields. The rise of the temperature to a state of power balance proves to be amenable to a very simple and unified description. Finally, the practical parameter windows implied by the joint action of power balance and pressure balance are displayed

  3. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@terra.com.br [Clube de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  4. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Metri, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  5. Global implications of U.S. power deregulation

    Maschoff, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    With U.S. power deregulation remaining a topic that is dominating the entire North American energy marketplace, this paper provides an update of events occurring in U.S. electric power markets, offering some observations about changes due to increasing competition in electric power markets, and discusses some reasons why the events in U.S. electric power markets will soon transform global energy markets. How quickly is the move from local service territory to global markets proceeding? More than fifty U.S. utility companies with revenues of over $1 billion (U.S.) will soon be actively seeking and participating in global business opportunities. Using the same logic that led them to pursue utility initiatives nationally, U.S. utilities will use their core capabilities to compete in global energy services markets. In connection with these global initiatives, U.S. utilities will bring the same fuel-neutral, gas-electric perspective to international electric power and natural gas markets. (Author)

  6. The European Union’s normative power in global politics

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    comparison. Both political and scholarly assessments argue that ‘we are one of the most important, if not the most important, normative powers in the world’ (Barroso in Peterson, 2008: 69) and that ‘Europe has tremendous normative power’ (Moravcsik, 2010: 18). The normative power approach set out here makes...... it possible to explain, understand, and judge the EU in global politics by rethinking the nature of power and actorness in a globalising, multilateralising and multipolarising era. The EU uses normative power in global politics but the question is whether it is more prone than other actors to do so? In areas...... which are core to the ‘European project’, it seems clear that the EU is more disposed to use normative power....

  7. Global integrability of cosmological scalar fields

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Przybylska, Maria; Stachowiak, Tomasz; Szydłowski, Marek

    2008-11-01

    We investigate the Liouvillian integrability of Hamiltonian systems describing a universe filled with a scalar field (possibly complex). The tool used is the differential Galois group approach, as introduced by Morales-Ruiz and Ramis. The main result is that the generic systems with minimal coupling are non-integrable, although there still exist some values of parameters for which integrability remains undecided; the conformally coupled systems are only integrable in four known cases. We also draw a connection with the chaos present in such cosmological models, and the issues of the integrability restricted to the real domain.

  8. Global integrability of cosmological scalar fields

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J; Przybylska, Maria; Stachowiak, Tomasz; Szydlowski, Marek

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the Liouvillian integrability of Hamiltonian systems describing a universe filled with a scalar field (possibly complex). The tool used is the differential Galois group approach, as introduced by Morales-Ruiz and Ramis. The main result is that the generic systems with minimal coupling are non-integrable, although there still exist some values of parameters for which integrability remains undecided; the conformally coupled systems are only integrable in four known cases. We also draw a connection with the chaos present in such cosmological models, and the issues of the integrability restricted to the real domain

  9. Global wind power potential: Physical and technological limits

    Castro, Carlos de; Mediavilla, Margarita; Miguel, Luis Javier; Frechoso, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This paper is focused on a new methodology for the global assessment of wind power potential. Most of the previous works on the global assessment of the technological potential of wind power have used bottom-up methodologies (e.g. ). Economic, ecological and other assessments have been developed, based on these technological capacities. However, this paper tries to show that the reported regional and global technological potential are flawed because they do not conserve the energetic balance on Earth, violating the first principle of energy conservation (). We propose a top-down approach, such as that in , to evaluate the physical-geographical potential and, for the first time, to evaluate the global technological wind power potential, while acknowledging energy conservation. The results give roughly 1 TW for the top limit of the future electrical potential of wind energy. This value is much lower than previous estimates and even lower than economic and realizable potentials published for the mid-century (e.g. ). - Highlights: → Reported wind power potentials are flawed because they violate energy conservation. → For the first time, it is evaluated the technological wind power potential with a top-down approach. → Our results show 1 TWe for the limit of wind power energy, which is much lower than previous estimates.

  10. Power shift -- Cool solutions to global warming

    2000-11-01

    The argument advanced in this paper by the Suzuki Foundation is that Canada, a rich, industrialized nation that has often led the world in technological advances, including advances in the energy sector, is lagging behind Europe and Japan in utilizing new energy-efficient technologies and techniques, despite the fact that these new approaches could reduce energy costs, improve air quality and public health stimulate new industries and create jobs. The paper describes an analytical model created by Ralph Torrie, one of Canada's foremost sustainable energy experts, which shows that based on population and economic growth, Canada's emissions will continue to grow to 30 percent above today's levels by 2010, instead of being reduced to 94 per cent of 1990 levels as required by the Kyoto Protocol. The end-use model created by Torrie runs various scenarios regarding the level and mix of activity, technological efficiency and fuel shares showing their effect of GHG emissions levels. Beginning with 1995 as the base-year, and assuming population growth of 19 per cent and a growth in transportation of 38 per cent over the next 30 years, GHG emission reduction scenarios are produced for people and freight transportation, residential and commercial buildings, industrial energy use, power production and non-energy sources. The GHG savings described in the model show that a 50 per cent reduction by 2030 is conceivable even with technologies that are already available. To get there, however, will require wholehearted effort by both the public and private sectors. Regulation, public investment, innovative market mechanisms and behavioral changes will all have significant roles to play if GHG emission levels of this magnitude are to be achieved

  11. Green power and performance in global environmental governance

    Never, Babette

    2013-01-01

    From 10 to 11 June 2013, the Global Green Growth Summit will take place in Seoul. Policymakers, international organizations and experts from various fi elds will once again discuss how the transformation toward a green economy and more sustainable development paths can be managed. Global environmental governance is characterized by a high number of international activities, but actual environmental outcomes vary. The ability to develop green political and economic power that leads to bett er ...

  12. Nuclear power in the context of global warming

    Bodansky, D.

    1989-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which nuclear power could help ameliorate the greenhouse problem. Topics discussed include: (1) How serious is the environmental threat posed by the greenhouse effect? (2) How large a part do fossil fuels play in producing greenhouse gases? (3) Is it possible to prevent or abate the anticipated global warming? (4) Can nuclear power play a significant role? (5) What overall approached might best reduce greenhouse emissions? Global cooperativeness in addressing the problem will be essential. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  13. Global analysis of a renewable micro hydro power generation plant

    Rahman, Md. Shad; Nabil, Imtiaz Muhammed; Alam, M. Mahbubul

    2017-12-01

    Hydroelectric power or Hydropower means the power generated by the help of flowing water with force. It is one the best source of renewable energy in the world. Water evaporates from the earth's surface, forms clouds, precipitates back to earth, and flows toward the ocean. Hydropower is considered a renewable energy resource because it uses the earth's water cycle to generate electricity. As far as Global is concerned, only a small fraction of electricity is generated by hydro-power. The aim of our analysis is to demonstrate and observe the hydropower of the Globe in micro-scale by our experimental setup which is completely new in concept. This paper consists of all the Global and National Scenario of Hydropower. And how we can more emphasize the generation of Hydroelectric power worldwide.

  14. Global Status of Nuclear Power: Prospects and Challenges

    Tayobeka, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    Global energy requirements and the share of electricity in total energy consumption are increasing rapidly, and the contribution of nuclear power is projected to increase significantly. Out of the 29 countries currently using nuclear power for electricity generation, 22 intend to allow new plants to be built, and, of those, the majority are actively supporting the increased use of nuclear power, some by providing incentives. Most of these countries are expected to build reactors with a generating capacity of over 1000 MW(e). Only three countries continue to have a policy to phase out the use of nuclear energy in the future by not replacing existing operating nuclear power plants and with no consideration of the option of new nuclear plants.In addition, a growing number of countries are expressing interest in introducing nuclear power. Of the more than 60 countries that have expressed such an interest in recent years, over 20 are actively considering nuclear power programmes to meet their energy needs and the others have expressed interest in understanding the issues associated with the introduction of nuclear power.The drivers for rising expectations for nuclear power include: growing energy demand, concern over national energy supply security, the increasingly volatile price of fossil fuels and global environmental concerns. The drivers appear to be the same for countries expanding existing nuclear programmes and those seeking to introduce programmes. The projections made by different international organizations indicate a significant growth in the use of nuclear power. The IAEA projections indicate a world total for nuclear electrical generating capacity of between 445 and 543 GW(e) by 2020 and between 511 and 807 GW(e) by 2030. This paper takes a detailed look into the global status of nuclear power, highlighting challenges and prospects of the technology going into the next century.(author).

  15. China’s impact on the global wind power industry

    Lema, Rasmus; Berger, Axel; Schmitz, Hubert

    China’s economic rise has transformed the global economy in a number of manufacturing industries. This paper investigates whether China’s transformative influence extends to the new green economy. Drawing on the debate about how China is driving major economic changes in the world – the ‘Asian...... firms. While the combined impact of Chinese market and production power is already visible, other influences are beginning to be felt – arising from China’s coordination, innovation and financing power....

  16. China’s Impact on the Global Wind Power Industry

    Lema, Rasmus; Berger, Axel; Schmitz, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    China’s economic rise has transformed the global economy in a number of manufacturing industries. This paper investigates whether China’s transformative influence extends to the new green economy. Drawing on the debate about how China is driving major economic changes in the world – the “Asian....... While the combined impact of Chinese market and production power is already visible, other influences are beginning to be felt – arising from China’s coordination, innovation and financing power....

  17. Canada's global health role: supporting equity and global citizenship as a middle power.

    Nixon, Stephanie A; Lee, Kelley; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Blanchard, James; Haddad, Slim; Hoffman, Steven J; Tugwell, Peter

    2018-02-22

    Canada's history of nation building, combined with its status as a so-called middle power in international affairs, has been translated into an approach to global health that is focused on equity and global citizenship. Canada has often aspired to be a socially progressive force abroad, using alliance building and collective action to exert influence beyond that expected from a country with moderate financial and military resources. Conversely, when Canada has primarily used economic self-interest to define its global role, the country's perceived leadership in global health has diminished. Current Prime Minister Justin Trudeau's Liberal federal government has signalled a return to progressive values, driven by appreciation for diversity, equality, and Canada's responsibility to be a good global citizen. However, poor coordination of efforts, limited funding, and the unaddressed legacy of Canada's colonisation of Indigenous peoples weaken the potential for Canadians to make meaningful contributions to improvement of global health equity. Amid increased nationalism and uncertainty towards multilateral commitments by some major powers in the world, the Canadian federal government has a clear opportunity to convert its commitments to equity and global citizenship into stronger leadership on the global stage. Such leadership will require the translation of aspirational messages about health equity and inclusion into concrete action at home and internationally. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Global warming mitigation strategies and programs for power plant developers

    Holmes, N.R.

    1992-01-01

    Power plant developers are increasingly being surprised by regulatory agencies requiring them to mitigate the carbon dioxide(CO 2 ) emissions from their proposed power plants, as part of the plant's operating permit conditions. Since carbon dioxide is not a criteria pollutant with a National Ambient Air Quality Standard, power plant developers are often troubled by this additional regulatory requirement. This presentation will describe the contribution that CO 2 makes to global warming, the role of trees and forests as carbon sequesters or sinks, some non-forestry related and forestry related mitigation programs, including the advantages, disadvantages, and some cost estimates for the forestry related CO 2 mitigation programs. As public concern about global warming continues to escalate, it is almost certain that regulatory agencies will increase their focus on CO 2 mitigation

  19. Perspectives of the electric power industry amid the transforming global power generation markets

    Makarov, A. A.; Mitrova, T. A.; Veselov, F. V.; Galkina, A. A.; Kulagin, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    A scenario-based prognosis of the evolution of global power generation markets until 2040, which was developed using the Scaner model-and-information complex, was given. The perspective development of fuel markets, vital for the power generation industry, was considered, and an attempt to predict the demand, production, and prices of oil, gas, coal, and noncarbon resources across various regions of the world was made. The anticipated decline in the growth of the global demand for fossil fuels and their sufficiency with relatively low extraction expenses will maintain the fuel prices (the data hereinafter are given as per 2014 prices) lower than their peak values in 2012. The outrunning growth of demand for electric power is shown in comparison with other power resources by regions and large countries in the world. The conditions of interfuel competition in the electric power industry considering the changes in anticipated fuel prices and cost indicators for various power generation technologies were studied. For this purpose, the ratios of discounted costs of electric power production by new gas and coal TPPs and wind and solar power plants were estimated. It was proven that accounting the system effects (operation modes, necessary duplicating and reserving the power of electric power plants using renewable energy sources) notably reduces the competitiveness of the renewable power industry and is not always compensated by the expected lowering of its capital intensity and growth of fuel for TPPs. However, even with a moderate (in relation to other prognoses) growth of the role of power plants using renewable energy sources, they will triple electric power production. In this context, thermal power plants will preserve their leadership covering up to 60% of the global electric power production, approximately half using gas.

  20. Global status of nuclear power and the needed human resources

    Bernido, Corazon C.

    2009-01-01

    According to projections of the OECD/IEA, the world energy demand will expand by 45% from now until 2030, with coal accounting for more than a third of the overall rise. To reduce greenhouse gases and mitigate climate change, many countries are resorting to renewables and nuclear power. Some statistics about nuclear energy in the global energy mix and about nuclear power plants worldwide, as well as the energy situation in the country are presented. According to sources from the Department of Energy on the Philippine Energy Plan, nuclear power is a long-term energy option and will likely enter the energy mix by 2025. Preparation of the infrastructure for nuclear power has to start ten to fifteen years before the first plant comes online. The needed human resources, the education and training required are present. (Author)

  1. Globalization and Health: developing the journal to advance the field.

    Martin, Greg; MacLachlan, Malcolm; Labonté, Ronald; Larkan, Fiona; Vallières, Frédérique; Bergin, Niamh

    2016-03-09

    Founded in 2005, Globalization and Health was the first open access global health journal. The journal has since expanded the field, and its influence, with the number of downloaded papers rising 17-fold, to over 4 million. Its ground-breaking papers, leading authors -including a Nobel Prize winner- and an impact factor of 2.25 place it among the top global health journals in the world. To mark the ten years since the journal's founding, we, members of the current editorial board, undertook a review of the journal's progress over the last decade. Through the application of an inductive thematic analysis, we systematically identified themes of research published in the journal from 2005 to 2014. We identify key areas the journal has promoted and consider these in the context of an existing framework, identify current gaps in global health research and highlight areas we, as a journal, would like to see strengthened.

  2. Globally conformal invariant gauge field theory with rational correlation functions

    Nikolov, N M; Todorov, I T; CERN. Geneva; Todorov, Ivan T.

    2003-01-01

    Operator product expansions (OPE) for the product of a scalar field with its conjugate are presented as infinite sums of bilocal fields $V_{\\kappa} (x_1, x_2)$ of dimension $(\\kappa, \\kappa)$. For a {\\it globally conformal invariant} (GCI) theory we write down the OPE of $V_{\\kappa}$ into a series of {\\it twist} (dimension minus rank) $2\\kappa$ symmetric traceless tensor fields with coefficients computed from the (rational) 4-point function of the scalar field. We argue that the theory of a GCI hermitian scalar field ${\\cal L} (x)$ of dimension 4 in $D = 4$ Minkowski space such that the 3-point functions of a pair of ${\\cal L}$'s and a scalar field of dimension 2 or 4 vanish can be interpreted as the theory of local observables of a conformally invariant fixed point in a gauge theory with Lagrangian density ${\\cal L} (x)$.

  3. On nuclear power, population and sustainable global civilization

    Ishiguro, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    Humanity is facing a multitude of difficult problems that threaten not only human development but the very continuity of civilization. The fundamental cause is the size of the human population but at present the subject is not discussed in international fora. It is not clear if it is wishfully avoided or if it is not recognized as the fundamental problem. Without limiting fertility and population globally, there will be no future for civilization as we know it and there will be no need for nuclear power as a source of energy. Instead, nuclear power will be the principal agent of the end. The nuclear community is in a position to point out the problem and propose a solution. Principles of sustainability and a path to a sustainable global civilization are shown. (author)

  4. A contemporary decennial global sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    White, E.; Roy, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    In the last several hundred years agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use Change (LCLUC) with dramatic cropland expansion and a marked increase in agricultural productivity. The size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLUC. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, diffusion of disease pathogens and pests, and loss or degradation in buffers to nutrient, herbicide and pesticide flows. In this study, globally distributed locations with significant contemporary field size change were selected guided by a global map of agricultural yield and literature review and were selected to be representative of different driving forces of field size change (associated with technological innovation, socio-economic conditions, government policy, historic patterns of land cover land use, and environmental setting). Seasonal Landsat data acquired on a decadal basis (for 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010) were used to extract field boundaries and the temporal changes in field size quantified and their causes discussed.

  5. On global environment problems in electric power business

    Sugi, Masashi

    1992-01-01

    The former environmental problems were atmospheric pollution, water quality contamination, noise and vibration nuisance, waste disposal and so on mainly at interior or district level, but now, the influence that the problems such as the global warming due to carbon dioxide emission, the ozone layer breaking due to freon gas, acid rain going over boundaries and so on exert to environment spreads to wide areas, therefore, various research and investigation have been carried out as the environmental problems on global scale at national and international levels. It has become an important subject to make the preservation of global environment and durable economical development compatible by effectively utilizing limited resources and energy. The electric power companies have advanced positively the prevention of pollution and the preservation of environment, and attained the environment preservation of top level in the world. The consciousness of people on environmental problems has heightened, therefore the construction and operation of power plants harmonized to districts are important. The countermeasures to environmental problems taken by electric power companies are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Archeomagnetic Intensity Spikes: Global or Regional Geomagnetic Field Features?

    Monika Korte

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Variations of the geomagnetic field prior to direct observations are inferred from archeo- and paleomagnetic experiments. Seemingly unusual variations not seen in the present-day and historical field are of particular interest to constrain the full range of core dynamics. Recently, archeomagnetic intensity spikes, characterized by very high field values that appear to be associated with rapid secular variation rates, have been reported from several parts of the world. They were first noted in data from the Levant at around 900 BCE. A recent re-assessment of previous and new Levantine data, involving a rigorous quality assessment, interprets the observations as an extreme local geomagnetic high with at least two intensity spikes between the 11th and 8th centuries BCE. Subsequent reports of similar features from Asia, the Canary Islands and Texas raise the question of whether such features might be common occurrences, or whether they might even be part of a global magnetic field feature. Here we use spherical harmonic modeling to test two hypotheses: firstly, whether the Levantine and other potential spikes might be associated with higher dipole field intensity than shown by existing global field models around 1,000 BCE, and secondly, whether the observations from different parts of the world are compatible with a westward drifting intense flux patch. Our results suggest that the spikes originate from intense flux patches growing and decaying mostly in situ, combined with stronger and more variable dipole moment than shown by previous global field models. Axial dipole variations no more than 60% higher than observed in the present field, probably within the range of normal geodynamo behavior, seem sufficient to explain the observations.

  7. Perspectives on global nursing leadership: international experiences from the field.

    Buckner, E B; Anderson, D J; Garzon, N; Hafsteinsdóttir, T B; Lai, C K Y; Roshan, R

    2014-12-01

    Nursing leaders from six countries engaged in a year-long discussion on global leadership development. The purpose of these dialogues was to strengthen individual and collective capacity as nursing leaders in a global society. Field experiences in practice and education were shared. Perspectives on global leadership can strengthen nurses' contributions to practice, workplace and policy issues worldwide. Transformational leadership empowers nurses' increasing confidence. Mentoring is needed to stimulate leadership development but this is lacking in many settings where nurses practice, teach and influence policy. Organizations with global mission provide opportunity for nurses' professional growth in leadership through international dialogues. Dialogues among participants were held monthly by conference calls or videoconferences. Example stories from each participant illustrated nursing leadership in action. From these exemplars, concepts were chosen to create a framework. Emerging perspectives and leadership themes represented all contexts of practice, education, research and policy. The cultural context of each country was reflected in the examples. Themes emerged that crossed global regions and countries. Themes were creativity, change, collaboration, community, context and courage. Relationships initially formed in professional organizations can be extended to intentionally facilitate global nursing leadership development. Exemplars from the dialogues demonstrated nursing leadership in health policy development within each cultural context. Recommendations are given for infrastructure development in organizations to enhance future collaborations. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  8. Global developments of controls of powered roof supports

    Das, S.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Centre of Longwall Mine Mechanisation

    1996-04-01

    The efficiency of hydraulic powered roof support systems mainly depends upon the efficient control and operation of hydraulic valves and their associated accessories. From 1961 to 1994 tremendous efforts had been made for the development of higher and higher efficient, reliable but simpler control systems starting from the manual hydraulic to electro-hydraulic and finally computer based electronic control system. A global survey of development of various types and design of control systems of powered roof supports has been made and many of them are highlighted in the paper for making this work a small emblem regarding the efforts of development of the controls of powered roof support systems by the global engineers of the 20th century. Many of the control systems are no longer in use and have totally vanished from this earth and many more control systems including their literatures may vanish from this world in the coming decades. This work may give a guideline regarding the selection of right type of control systems for the powered supports in future. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  9. The renewable energy field is gaining power

    Fuller, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    For about 25 years, Basic Resources Corp. in New York has been growing on the strength of operations ranging from oil and gas exploration and printing to computer leasing and the manufacture of highway toll-collecting equipment. But since early 1982, when it received an Energy Department grant, a new subsidiary has been working on a project with scant resemblance to any other of the multimillion-dollar firm's operations: the preliminary research for an ocean thermal energy plant that would convert heat on the ocean's surface to power at a site in the Hawaiian islands. Renewable energy -- once largely the domain of dreamers and urban dropouts -- has moved into the corporate mainstream, and more and more companies in the United States and abroad are trying to stake a claim to a piece of its future. Basic Resources is not the only renewable energy source firm doing well. Several hundred exhibitors and other participants -- including a number of foreign visitors -- turned out for the 3-day event. Arco, which has been working on photovoltaics since the late 1970s, is considered the world's largest manufacturer of photovoltaics -- solar cells that convert the sun's energy directly into electricity. But, despite tax credits, worldwide sales and dramatic strides in reducing the cost of the technology, the operation still isn't profitable after the costs of research and other costreduction efforts are included. Nonetheless, Arco has no plans to abandon the field, and its attitude explains why so many firms are bucking the odds and pursuing renewable energy.

  10. Global radioxenon emission inventory based on nuclear power reactor reports.

    Kalinowski, Martin B; Tuma, Matthias P

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric radioactivity is monitored for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, with xenon isotopes 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe and 135Xe serving as important indicators of nuclear explosions. The treaty-relevant interpretation of atmospheric concentrations of radioxenon is enhanced by quantifying radioxenon emissions released from civilian facilities. This paper presents the first global radioxenon emission inventory for nuclear power plants, based on North American and European emission reports for the years 1995-2005. Estimations were made for all power plant sites for which emission data were unavailable. According to this inventory, a total of 1.3PBq of radioxenon isotopes are released by nuclear power plants as continuous or pulsed emissions in a generic year.

  11. Global warming---The role for nuclear power

    Jones, J.E. Jr.; Fulkerson, W.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power is currently making an important contribution to our energy requirements. It provides 17% of the world's electricity today --- almost 20% in the US. Reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide over the next 30 to 50 years sufficiently to address the issue of global warming can only be accomplished by a combination of much improved energy efficiency, substantial growth in use of nuclear power, and substantial growth in use of renewable energy. This paper discusses new initiatives in the major nuclear technologies (LWR, HTGR, LMR) which are emerging from a fundamental reexamination of nuclear power in response to the challenges and opportunities in the 21st century. To fulfill its role, nuclear power must gain worldwide acceptance as a viable energy option. The use of modern technology and ''passive'' safety features in next-generation nuclear power plants offers the potential to simplify their design and operation, enhance their safety, and reduce the cost of electricity. With such improvements, we believe nuclear power can regain public confidence and make a significant contribution to our energy future. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Phased Array Excitations For Efficient Near Field Wireless Power Transmission

    2016-09-01

    channeled to the battery or power plant. Figure 2. WPT System Block Diagram for Battery Charging. Source : [2]. Wireless power transfer has gained...EXCITATIONS FOR EFFICIENT NEAR-FIELD WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION by Sean X. Hong September 2016 Thesis Advisor: David Jenn Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PHASED ARRAY EXCITATIONS FOR EFFICIENT NEAR-FIELD WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION 5

  13. Global Sustainable Development: The Role of Nuclear Power

    Hatcher, Stanley R.

    1990-01-01

    The inevitable growth in the world's population and the need for a reasonable standard of living for all nations will drive the demand for energy to much higher levels than the world has yet experienced. A radical improvement in energy efficiency and conservation could limit the global annual demand to 100 GJ per person. consumption of North America. With the developing nations achieving a standard of living commensurate with this level, the global energy demand would increase by a factor of 2.5 to 1000 EJ per year. Concern over the impact of CO 2 emissions on global warming will likely lead to an international consensus on some reduction in the use of fossil fuels. To maintain environmental sustainability, all nations of the world would need to limit their fossil fuel consumption, particularly those in North America and Europe. Other energy sources will play an important role in all regions. However, the main burden is likely to fall upon nuclear energy as an essential element of the total energy supply. The danger eliminated while sustaining global development if the governments of the world commit to the use of nuclear power on a global scale. The industrial intrastucture can be put in place for such a major international program. A more difficult question is the availability of the necessary financing. On a global scale the financial requirement is within the range of current military expenditures. However, it is clear that not all the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America will be able to finance their own needs. A new international cooperative program will be necessary. The needed change in energy patterns is dramatic and will take time to implement. The change should be underway by the beginning of the next century. Otherwise the world faces the prospect of environmental disaster and social disruption as the nations struggle to improve their living standards through the increased use of fossil fuels. The role of nuclear power in providing the energy for

  14. Organizational Legitimacy in the Global Education Policy Field: Learning from UNESCO and the Global Monitoring Report

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Okitsu, Taeko; da Costa, Romina; Kitamura, Yuto

    2018-01-01

    In the field of global education policy, it is common for scholars to reflect on the progress made toward internationally agreed-upon agendas, such as Education for All (EFA). However, scant research has turned the gaze back on the major multilateral institutions that commit to taking the lead in meeting these agendas in order to ask, what…

  15. Principles of power frequency magnetic field management

    Fugate, D.; Feero, W.

    1995-01-01

    At the most general level, magnetic field management is the creation, elimination, or modification of sources in order to alter the spatial distribution of magnetic fields over some region of space. The two main options for magnetic field management are source modification (elimination or modification of original sources) and cancellation (creation of new sources). Source modification includes any changes in the layout or location of field sources, elimination of ground paths, or any options that increase the distance between sources and regions of interest. Cancellation involves the creation of new magnetic field sources, passive and/or active that produce magnetic fields that are opposite to the original fields in the region of interest. Shielding using materials of high conductivity and/or high permeability falls under the cancellation option. Strategies for magnetic field management, whether they are source modification or cancellation, typically vary on a case to case basis depending on the regions of interest, the types of sources and resulting complexity of the field structure, the field levels, and the attenuation requirements. This paper gives an overview of magnetic field management based on fundamental concepts. Low field design principles are described, followed by a structured discussion of cancellation and shielding. The two basic material shielding mechanisms, induced current shielding, and flux-shunting are discussed

  16. Global gravity field from recent satellites (DTU15) - Arctic improvements

    Andersen, O. B.; Knudsen, P.; Kenyon, S.

    2017-01-01

    Global marine gravity field modelling using satellite altimetry is currently undergoing huge improvement with the completion of the Jason-1 end-of-life geodetic mission, but particularly with the continuing Cryosat-2 mission. These new satellites provide three times as many geodetic mission...... altimetric sea surface height observations as ever before. The impact of these new geodetic mission data is a dramatic improvement of particularly the shorter wavelength of the gravity field (10-20 km) which is now being mapped at significantly higher accuracy. The quality of the altimetric gravity field...... is in many places surpassing the quality of gravity fields derived using non-commercial marine gravity observations. Cryosat-2 provides for the first time altimetry throughout the Arctic Ocean up to 88°N. Here, the huge improvement in marine gravity mapping is shown through comparison with high quality...

  17. Hydroelectric power and global environmental problems: benefits and environmental impacts

    Chabot, B.

    1992-01-01

    The risk of global warming is one of the most serious global environmental problems. It is due to the increase of greenhouse gases emissions, mainly because of the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector, particularly for electricity generation. At an international level, experts now agree that measures are to be taken to reduce this risk. In the energy sector, an improvement of energy efficiency and an increase of nuclear electricity generation are often presented as the best available solutions. Renewable energy sources are often presented as a solution with a negligible potential impact, and sometimes, hydro power is even forgotten, or its coasts and its potential impacts on local environment are presented as an obstacle to its positive contribution to the reduction of global warming risk. Without denying the positive impacts of other solutions, this paper explains the possibilities and the benefits of an increased use of hydroelectric power, when implemented with a minimum impact on local environment and with a synergistic effect with the rational use of generated energy, in order to have access to a sustainable development. 19 refs., 6 figs

  18. Mixed global anomalies and boundary conformal field theories

    Numasawa, Tokiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    We consider the relation of mixed global gauge gravitational anomalies and boundary conformal field theory in WZW models for simple Lie groups. The discrete symmetries of consideration are the centers of the simple Lie groups. These mixed anomalies prevent to gauge them i.e, take the orbifold by the center. The absence of anomalies impose conditions on the levels of WZW models. Next, we study the conformal boundary conditions for the original theories. We consider the existence of a conformal...

  19. Globalization of fluid power industry; Fluid power sangyokai no global ka

    Ogasawara, F. [Kayaba Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-15

    This paper takes a view of hydraulic and pneumatic industry. The United States accounts for 33% of hydraulic and pneumatic device shipment, while Japan accounts for 16% and Germany 14%. Japan has recorded the highest shipment record in 1991, but the shipment decreased largely in 1992 as a result of the collapse of the bubble economy. Thereafter, pneumatic devices recovered production in 1995, and continuing smooth growth since then. However, hydraulic devices have not reached the level of 1989. Pneumatic devices have achieved great progress as a result of making them lighter, thinner, shorter and smaller to meet users` strong demands, development of energy saving, space saving and life extending technologies and control technologies, function combination, and diversification. International competition is so intense that, in order to survive this mega-competition age, efforts must be made in areas of noise, oil leakage, positioning control and energy conservation as substantial technological issues. Measures against global environmental problems may include prevention of pollution and disaster caused from working oils and development of hydraulic devices. Transferring the excellent Japanese technologies and know-hows to developing countries constitutes international contribution. Progress in hydraulic and pneumatic technologies combined with electronics technologies is also desired. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Archaeomagnetic Dating in Europe Using a Global Geomagnetic Field Model

    Lodge, A.; Suttie, N.; Holme, R.; Shaw, J.; Hill, M. J.; Linford, P.

    2009-12-01

    Using up-to-date archaeomagnetic data from Europe and CALS7K.2 as an apriori model, we produce a global geomagnetic field model to be used for archaeomagnetic dating in Europe. More details on the modelling process will be presented elsewhere (in session GP12, abstract: Geophysical insights from archaeomagnetic dating). Here we apply the global geomagnetic field model to a series of test cases from both recently published data and unpublished data to demonstrate its application to archaeomagnetic dating. We compare the results produced using our model with those from the spherical cap harmonic model, SCHA.DIF.3K (Pavón-Carrasco et al., 2009), the global geomagnetic field model, ARCH3K.1 (Korte et al., 2009) and those produced using the palaeosecular variation curves generated using Bayesian statistics (Lanos, 2004). We include examples which emphasise the importance of using three component data (declination, inclination and intensity) to produce an improved archaeomagnetic date. In addition to the careful selection of an appropriate model for archaeomagnetic dating, the choice of errors on the model curves is vital for providing archaeologists with an age range of possible dates. We discuss how best to constrain the errors on the model curves and alternative ways to the mathematical method of Lanos (2004) for producing an archaeomagnetic date for archaeologists.

  1. Historical construction costs of global nuclear power reactors

    Lovering, Jessica R.; Yip, Arthur; Nordhaus, Ted

    2016-01-01

    The existing literature on the construction costs of nuclear power reactors has focused almost exclusively on trends in construction costs in only two countries, the United States and France, and during two decades, the 1970s and 1980s. These analyses, Koomey and Hultman (2007); Grubler (2010), and Escobar-Rangel and Lévêque (2015), study only 26% of reactors built globally between 1960 and 2010, providing an incomplete picture of the economic evolution of nuclear power construction. This study curates historical reactor-specific overnight construction cost (OCC) data that broaden the scope of study substantially, covering the full cost history for 349 reactors in the US, France, Canada, West Germany, Japan, India, and South Korea, encompassing 58% of all reactors built globally. We find that trends in costs have varied significantly in magnitude and in structure by era, country, and experience. In contrast to the rapid cost escalation that characterized nuclear construction in the United States, we find evidence of much milder cost escalation in many countries, including absolute cost declines in some countries and specific eras. Our new findings suggest that there is no inherent cost escalation trend associated with nuclear technology. - Highlights: •Comprehensive analysis of nuclear power construction cost experience. •Coverage for early and recent reactors in seven countries. •International comparisons and re-evaluation of learning. •Cost trends vary by country and era; some experience cost stability or decline.

  2. Hydroclimatic risks and uncertainty in the global power sector

    Gidden, Matthew; Byers, Edward; Greve, Peter; Kahil, Taher; Parkinson, Simon; Raptis, Catherine; Rogelj, Joeri; Satoh, Yusuke; van Vliet, Michelle; Wada, Yoshide; Krey, Volker; Langan, Simon; Riahi, Keywan

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 80% of the world's electricity supply depends on reliable water resources. Thermoelectric and hydropower plants have been impacted by low flows and floods in recent years, notably in the US, Brazil, France, and China, amongst other countries. The dependence on reliable flows imputes a large vulnerability to the electricity supply system due to hydrological variability and the impacts of climate change. Using an updated dataset of global electricity capacity with global climate and hydrological data from the ISI-MIP project, we present an overview analysis of power sector vulnerability to hydroclimatic risks, including low river flows and peak flows. We show how electricity generation in individual countries and transboundary river basins can be impacted, helping decision-makers identify key at-risk geographical regions. Furthermore, our use of a multi-model ensemble of climate and hydrological models allows us to quantify the uncertainty of projected impacts, such that basin-level risks and uncertainty can be compared.

  3. Seven Global Goals. 2013 annual report, Southwestern Power Administration

    none,

    2014-09-01

    For over 70 years, Southwestern has marketed and delivered reliable, renewable, and affordable hydropower, partnering with Federal power stakeholders and others in the industry to make sure the lights stay on. This kind of effective, efficient, and cost conscious operation is made possible only by hard work and dedication. Southwestern employees work individually and as a team to meet seven comprehensive agency goals that touch on all aspects of the agency’s operations. Dubbed the “Seven Global Goals” by Administrator Chris Turner, these objectives identify specific, measurable targets that support Southwestern’s mission and reinforce its responsibilities toward its customers and the Nation.

  4. A Note on Powers in Finite Fields

    Aabrandt, Andreas; Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2016-01-01

    The study of solutions to polynomial equations over finite fields has a long history in mathematics and is an interesting area of contemporary research. In recent years, the subject has found important applications in the modelling of problems from applied mathematical fields such as signal analysis, system theory, coding theory and cryptology. In…

  5. Sound power radiated by sources in diffuse fields

    Polack, Jean-Dominique

    2000-01-01

    Sound power radiated by sources at low frequency notoriously depends on source position. We sampled the sound field of a rectangular room at 18 microphone and 4 source positions. Average power spectra were extrapolated from the reverberant field, taking into account the frequency dependent...

  6. Globally and locally supersymmetric effective theories for light fields

    Brizi, Leonardo; Scrucca, Claudio A

    2009-01-01

    We reconsider the general question of how to characterize most efficiently the low-energy effective theory obtained by integrating out heavy modes in globally and locally supersymmetric theories. We consider theories with chiral and vector multiplets and identify the conditions under which an approximately supersymmetric low-energy effective theory can exist. These conditions translate into the requirements that all the derivatives, fermions and auxiliary fields should be small in units of the heavy mass scale. They apply not only to the matter sector, but also to the gravitational one if present, and imply in that case that the gravitino mass should be small. We then show how to determine the unique exactly supersymmetric theory that approximates this effective theory at the lowest order in the counting of derivatives, fermions and auxiliary fields, by working both at the superfield level and with component fields. As a result we give a simple prescription for integrating out heavy superfields in an algebrai...

  7. Radiation losses and global power balance of JT-60 plasmas

    Nishitani, T.; Itami, K.; Nagashima, K.; Tsuji, S.; Hosogane, N.; Yoshida, H.; Ando, T.; Kubo, H.; Takeuchi, H.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation losses and the global power balance for Ohmic and neutral beam heated plasmas have been investigated in different JT-60 configurations. Discharges with a TiC coated molybdenum wall and with a graphite wall, with limiter, outer and lower X-point configurations have been studied by bolometric measurements, thermocouples and an infrared TV camera. In neutral beam heated outer X-point discharges with a TiC coated molybdenum first wall, the radiation loss of the main plasma was very low (10% of the absorbed power). The radiation loss due to oxygen was dominant in this case. On the contrary, in discharges with TiC coated molybdenum limiters the radiation loss was very high (>60% of the absorbed power). In the discharges with a graphite wall the radiated power from the main plasma was 20-25% for both limiter and lower X-point configurations. In lower X-point discharges the main contributor to the radiation loss was oxygen, whereas in limiter discharges the loss due to carbon was equal to the loss due to oxygen. The radiation loss from the lower X-point divertor increased with increasing electron density of the main plasma. (author). 33 refs, 14 figs, 1 tab

  8. Global warming and oil: Can nuclear power make a difference?

    Bodansky, D.

    1991-01-01

    A responsible energy policy, for the United States and the world, must address two needs: to restrain the rate of fossil fuel consumption, and to reduce the consumption of oil. Unless the first is accomplished, the world may experience major climate changes, some perhaps disastrous, from the buildup of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Unless the second is met, we face recurring threats of economic disruption and war, due to the dangerous concentration of the world's oil resources in the Persian Gulf region. Nuclear power has long been cited as a possible answer to these needs. Mr. Bodansky takes a fresh look at the contribution nuclear power could make, in the light of our increased awareness of global warming dangers and the renewed reminders of the instabilities of oil markets. He notes, however, that the basic objections to nuclear power remain. They are well-known, stemming from concerns about reactor safety, waste disposal, nuclear proliferation, and cost. These are old but continuing controversies, involving a tangle of technical, political, social, and economic issues. If nuclear power is to be revived, these concerns clearly must be addressed. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  9. Governing Global Health : Knowledge and power in the global tobacco epidemic

    Kenny, Katherine Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines the coproduction of epistemic and regulatory authority in the field of global health using the case of international tobacco control. In 2005, the world's first public health treaty -- the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) -- was brought into force by the World Health Organization (WHO). Unanimously adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2003, the FCTC has since become one of the most widely and rapidly adopted treaties in the history of the United Nat...

  10. A Global Civilian Power? The Future Role of the European Union in International Politics

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Questions about the future of the European Union as an international actor continue to puzzle students of international relations and particularly students of EU foreign policy. What kind of predictions can we make about the future role of the EU in international politics? While the question is often framed in terms of military versus normative and/or global civilian power Europe, there are indications that ambitions in both directions may very well coincide. However, despite the EU’s development towards deepened defense integration since the 1990s, such developments are by far outweighed by developments pointing in the direction of the EU consolidating its role as a global civilian power. In this article, we analyze the union’s civilian policies and contrast the findings of our analysis with developments in the field of Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP. Based on our analysis of EU enlargement policy, external aid, global environmental policy and the union’s commitment to multilateralism, our conclusion is that the EU’s international role in the next decades will continue to be best described in terms of a global civilian power.

  11. Globally and locally supersymmetric effective theories for light fields

    Brizi, Leonardo; Gomez-Reino, Marta; Scrucca, Claudio A.

    2009-01-01

    We reconsider the general question of how to characterize most efficiently the low-energy effective theory obtained by integrating out heavy modes in globally and locally supersymmetric theories. We consider theories with chiral and vector multiplets and identify the conditions under which an approximately supersymmetric low-energy effective theory can exist. These conditions translate into the requirements that all the derivatives, fermions and auxiliary fields should be small in units of the heavy mass scale. They apply not only to the matter sector, but also to the gravitational one if present, and imply in that case that the gravitino mass should be small. We then show how to determine the unique exactly supersymmetric theory that approximates this effective theory at the lowest order in the counting of derivatives, fermions and auxiliary fields, by working both at the superfield level and with component fields. As a result we give a simple prescription for integrating out heavy superfields in an algebraic and manifestly supersymmetric way, which turns out to hold in the same form both for globally and locally supersymmetric theories, meaning that the process of integrating out heavy modes commutes with the process of switching on gravity. More precisely, for heavy chiral and vector multiplets one has to impose respectively stationarity of the superpotential and the Kaehler potential.

  12. Power Elites and Club-Model Governance in Global Finance

    Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Contribution to the Forum: Unpacking the Deep Structures of Global Governance: How Transnational Professionals Can Make Global Governance Intelligible.......Contribution to the Forum: Unpacking the Deep Structures of Global Governance: How Transnational Professionals Can Make Global Governance Intelligible....

  13. Electrical and magnetic fields of the power supply

    2017-01-01

    The availability of electrical energy in all areas of life is guaranteed by a widely ramified power grid. When electricity is transported, magnetic fields are created in addition to the electrical fields. In this brochure one will learn more about the causes and effects of electrical and magnetic fields as well as protection concepts and preventive measures. [de

  14. Power Watch - A global, open database of power plants that supports research on climate, water and air pollution impact of the global power sector.

    Friedrich, J.; Kressig, A.; Van Groenou, S.; McCormick, C.

    2017-12-01

    Challenge The lack of transparent, accessible, and centralized power sector data inhibits the ability to research the impact of the global power sector. information gaps for citizens, analysts, and decision makers worldwide create barriers to sustainable development efforts. The need for transparent, accessible, and centralized information is especially important to enhance the commitments outlined in the recently adopted Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals. Offer Power Watch will address this challenge by creating a comprehensive, open-source platform on the world's power systems. The platform hosts data on 85% of global installed electrical capacity and for each power plant will include data points on installed capacity, fuel type, annual generation, commissioning year, with more characteristics like emissions, particulate matter, annual water demand and more added over time. Most of the data is reported from national level sources, but annual generation and other operational characteristiscs are estimated via Machine Learning modeling and remotely sensed data when not officially reported. In addition, Power Watch plans to provide a suite of tools that address specific decision maker needs, such as water risk assessments and air pollution modeling. Impact Through open data, the platform and its tools will allow reserachers to do more analysis of power sector impacts and perform energy modeling. It will help catalyze accountability for policy makers, businesses, and investors and will inform and drive the transition to a clean energy future while reaching development targets.

  15. Global impact of carbon-14 from nuclear power reactors

    Moghissi, A.A.; Carter, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Carbon-14 is produced by nuclear power reactors, predominently as a result of the interaction of a neutron and nitrogen-14 both in the fuel and in the coolant. Several other reactions also contribute to the production of carbon-14. Present operational procedures, in general, for reactors and fuel reprocessing plants result in the release of carbon-14 into the environment. Combustion of fossil fuels and certain industrial operations contribute to the supply of CO 2 in the atmosphere and this contribution is essentially free of carbon-14. Future carbon-14 burdens by assuming a thorough mixing of all CO 2 in the atmosphere is predicted. Available data on electric power generation, fossil fuel combustion and certain other information are used to calculate the projected specific activity of carbon-14 by the year 2000 and the twenty-first century. According to these calculations, the global population dose from carbon-14 can be substantial. Also, carbon-14 in the vicinity of nuclear power reactors is considered. Because of the chemistry of carbon-14, it is shown that local problems may be more significant around BWR's as compared to PWR's. Based on environmental considerations of carbon-14, its increasing production and discharge into the atmosphere, and available control technology, it is recommended that nitrogen use and its presence be minimized in pertinent reactor components and operations

  16. Current Trends in the Nuclear Power Global Market

    Mariya Mikhailovna Osetskaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The review of the nuclear energy technologies market, namely the main processes of the initial and final stages of the nuclear fuel cycle (NTC was shown. The authors reveal key players in the markets of natural uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, fabrication of nuclear fuel, direct disposal, and reprocessing as well as determine their market shares. The article shows the fundamental factors influencing the development trends of the global nuclear power market such as: units’ commissioning in China, India, the Republic of Korea and other countries, the restart of the Japanese nuclear power plants, growth of uranium supplies long-term contracting planned for the period up to 2025, volatility of world prices of the NFC initial and final stages, political, economic and environmental reasons for the nuclear power generation choice. The article presents the results of analyses of Russian and world prices on the NFC initial and final stages main processes’ allowing to draw a conclusion about the current competitiveness of Russian nuclear energy technologies

  17. Modelling of the Global Geopotential Energy & Stress Field

    Schiffer, Christian; Nielsen, S.B.

    Lateral density and topography variations yield in and important contribution to the lithospheric stress field. The leading quantity is the Geopotential Energy, the integrated lithostatic pressure in a rock column. The horizontal gradient of this quantity is related to horizontal stresses through...... the Equations of equilibrium of stresses. The Geopotential Energy furthermore can be linearly related to the Geoid under assumption of local isostasy. Satellite Geoid measurements contain, however, also non-isostatic deeper mantle responses of long wavelength. Unfortunately, high-pass filtering of the Geoid...... flow in the presence of local isostasy and a steady state geotherm. Subsequently we use a FEM code to solve the Equations of equilibrium of stresses for a three dimensional elastic shell. The modelled results are shown and compared with the global stress field and other publications....

  18. Developmental changes of BOLD signal correlations with global human EEG power and synchronization during working memory.

    Lars Michels

    Full Text Available In humans, theta band (5-7 Hz power typically increases when performing cognitively demanding working memory (WM tasks, and simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings have revealed an inverse relationship between theta power and the BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent signal in the default mode network during WM. However, synchronization also plays a fundamental role in cognitive processing, and the level of theta and higher frequency band synchronization is modulated during WM. Yet, little is known about the link between BOLD, EEG power, and EEG synchronization during WM, and how these measures develop with human brain maturation or relate to behavioral changes. We examined EEG-BOLD signal correlations from 18 young adults and 15 school-aged children for age-dependent effects during a load-modulated Sternberg WM task. Frontal load (in-dependent EEG theta power was significantly enhanced in children compared to adults, while adults showed stronger fMRI load effects. Children demonstrated a stronger negative correlation between global theta power and the BOLD signal in the default mode network relative to adults. Therefore, we conclude that theta power mediates the suppression of a task-irrelevant network. We further conclude that children suppress this network even more than adults, probably from an increased level of task-preparedness to compensate for not fully mature cognitive functions, reflected in lower response accuracy and increased reaction time. In contrast to power, correlations between instantaneous theta global field synchronization and the BOLD signal were exclusively positive in both age groups but only significant in adults in the frontal-parietal and posterior cingulate cortices. Furthermore, theta synchronization was weaker in children and was--in contrast to EEG power--positively correlated with response accuracy in both age groups. In summary we conclude that theta EEG-BOLD signal correlations differ between spectral power and

  19. Statistics-Based Compression of Global Wind Fields

    Jeong, Jaehong

    2017-02-07

    Wind has the potential to make a significant contribution to future energy resources. Locating the sources of this renewable energy on a global scale is however extremely challenging, given the difficulty to store very large data sets generated by modern computer models. We propose a statistical model that aims at reproducing the data-generating mechanism of an ensemble of runs via a Stochastic Generator (SG) of global annual wind data. We introduce an evolutionary spectrum approach with spatially varying parameters based on large-scale geographical descriptors such as altitude to better account for different regimes across the Earth\\'s orography. We consider a multi-step conditional likelihood approach to estimate the parameters that explicitly accounts for nonstationary features while also balancing memory storage and distributed computation. We apply the proposed model to more than 18 million points of yearly global wind speed. The proposed SG requires orders of magnitude less storage for generating surrogate ensemble members from wind than does creating additional wind fields from the climate model, even if an effective lossy data compression algorithm is applied to the simulation output.

  20. Statistics-Based Compression of Global Wind Fields

    Jeong, Jaehong; Castruccio, Stefano; Crippa, Paola; Genton, Marc G.

    2017-01-01

    Wind has the potential to make a significant contribution to future energy resources. Locating the sources of this renewable energy on a global scale is however extremely challenging, given the difficulty to store very large data sets generated by modern computer models. We propose a statistical model that aims at reproducing the data-generating mechanism of an ensemble of runs via a Stochastic Generator (SG) of global annual wind data. We introduce an evolutionary spectrum approach with spatially varying parameters based on large-scale geographical descriptors such as altitude to better account for different regimes across the Earth's orography. We consider a multi-step conditional likelihood approach to estimate the parameters that explicitly accounts for nonstationary features while also balancing memory storage and distributed computation. We apply the proposed model to more than 18 million points of yearly global wind speed. The proposed SG requires orders of magnitude less storage for generating surrogate ensemble members from wind than does creating additional wind fields from the climate model, even if an effective lossy data compression algorithm is applied to the simulation output.

  1. The recent activities of nuclear power globalization. Our provision against global warming by global deployment of our own technologies as integrated nuclear power plant supply company'

    Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Shigemitsu

    2008-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) is striving to expand and spread nuclear power plants as an 'Integrated Nuclear Power Plant Supply Company' based on its engineering, manufacturing, and technological support capabilities. The company also has ample experience in the export of major components. MHI is accelerating its global deployment through the market introduction of large-sized strategic reactor US-APWR, the joint development of a mid-sized strategic reactor ATMEA1 with AREVA, and a small strategic reactor PBMR. The company also plans to internationally deploy technologies for the nuclear fuel cycle. We present here the leading-edge trends in the global deployment of these nuclear businesses, all of which help to solve the energy and environmental issues in the world. (author)

  2. Is nuclear power part of Australia's global warming solutions?

    Lowe, I.

    2007-01-01

    Forty years ago, I was preparing for my final exams. Having studied electrical engineering and science part-time for seven years at the University of New South Wales, I did well enough to spend the following year doing honours in physics. I then went to the United Kingdom for doctoral studies at the University of York, supported by the UK Atomic Energy Authority. At the time, like most young physicists, I saw nuclear power as the clean energy source of the future. Here, I want to tell you why my professional experience has led me to reject that view. There is no serious doubt that climate change is real, it is happening now and its effects are accelerating. It is already causing serious economic impacts: reduced agricultural production, increased costs of severe events like fires and storms, and the need to consider radical, energy-intensive and costly water supply measures such as desalination plants. The alarming consequences of climate change have driven distinguished scientists like James Lovelock to conclude that the situation is desperate enough to reconsider our attitude to nuclear power. I agree with Lovelock about the urgency of the situation, but not about the response. The science is very clear. We need to reduce global greenhouse pollution by about 60%, ideally by 2050. To achieve that global target, allowing for the legitimate material expectations of poorer countries, Australia's quota will need to be at least as strong as the UK's goal of 60% by 2050 and preferably stronger. Our eventual goal will probably be to reduce our greenhouse pollution by 80-90%. How can we reach this ambitious target?

  3. Power supply for coil of poloidal field in a tokamak

    Kirpichev, I.V.; Spevakova, F.M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention refers to power supply systems of poloidal field winding in tokamaks. The purpose of the invention is the extension of functional capabilities of the circuit by means of use of thyristor and diode keys mounted between convertor sections

  4. Rents, Power and Governance in Global Value Chains

    Dennis Davis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the  generation  of  rents  and  the  distribution  of  gains  in  the  global  operations  of  governed Global  Value  Chains  (GVCs  and  seeks  to  provide  an  architecture  for  analyzing  the  governance  of  GVCs.  It distinguishes between four sets of rent—gifts of nature; innovation rents; exogenously defined rents; and market power—and three spheres of governance—setting the rules -“legislative governance”; implementing the rules -“executive governance”; and monitoring rules and sanctioning malfeasance -“judicial governance.” The exercise of governance power in GVCs over the generation, protection and appropriation of rents is considered though the lens of four sets of key GVC stakeholders—the corporate sector, civil society organizations, the nation state and supranational institutions. This general analysis is given flesh through three case studies: food-safety standards in GVCs; taxation  policies  and  competition  policies.  In these  sectors,  the  corporate  sector  is  generally  much  more effective in governing rent generation and appropriation in the global operations of GVCs than are the three sets of  non-corporate  stakeholders.  From this  observation  we  offer  a  hypothesis  that  the  capacity  of  non-corporate stakeholders, including national states, to govern GVCs is contingent upon the extent to which this coincides with the interest of the corporate sector. However, as noted, this balance of power between private and non-corporate actors is a contested terrain and dynamic in nature.

  5. Business elites and the field of power in France

    Maclean, Mairi; Harvey, Charles; Kling, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Bourdieu’s construct of the field of power has received relatively little attention despite its novelty and theoretical potential. This paper explores the meaning and implications of the construct, and integrates it into a wider conception of the formation and functioning of elites at the highest level in society. Drawing on an extensive dataset profiling the careers of members of the French business elite, it compares and contrasts those who enter the field of power with those who fail to qu...

  6. Global map of solar power production efficiency, considering micro climate factors

    Hassanpour Adeh, E.; Higgins, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Natural resources degradation and greenhouse gas emissions are creating a global crisis. Renewable energy is the most reliable option to mitigate this environmental dilemma. Abundancy of solar energy makes it highly attractive source of electricity. The existing global spatial maps of available solar energy are created with various models which consider the irradiation, latitude, cloud cover, elevation, shading and aerosols, and neglect the influence of local meteorological conditions. In this research, the influences of microclimatological variables on solar energy productivity were investigated with an in-field study at the Rabbit Hills solar arrays near Oregon State University. The local studies were extended to a global level, where global maps of solar power were produced, taking the micro climate variables into account. These variables included: temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, solar radiation. The energy balance approach was used to synthesize the data and compute the efficiencies. The results confirmed that the solar power efficiency can be directly affected by the air temperature and wind speed.

  7. Global correlation imaging of magnetic total field gradients

    Guo, Lianghui; Meng, Xiaohong; Shi, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Firstly we introduce the correlation imaging approach for the x-, y- and z-gradients of a magnetic total field anomaly for deriving the distribution of equivalent magnetic sources of the subsurface. In this approach, the subsurface space is divided into a regular grid, and then a correlation coefficient function is computed at each grid node, based on the cross-correlation between the x-gradient (or y-gradient or z-gradient) of the observed magnetic total field anomaly and the x-gradient (or y-gradient or z-gradient) of the theoretical magnetic total field anomaly due to a magnetic dipole. The resultant correlation coefficient is used to describe the probability of a magnetic dipole occurring at the node. We then define a global correlation coefficient function for comprehensively delineating the probability of an occurrence of a magnetic dipole, which takes, at each node, the maximum positive value of the corresponding correlation coefficient function of the three gradients. We finally test the approach both on synthetic data and real data from a metallic deposit area in the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. (paper)

  8. The Role of Cultural Power and Its Influence on Global Developments

    Gholamreza Mortazavi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the culture power in international politics is very complicated and difficult matter because it has been less explicitly used in the analyses and theorizing of cultural elements, hence the role of culture like political, security and economic factors, is not apparent in the theory of international relations. Many researchers have found that it is not possible to achieve the depth of the relations between nations only by relying on the pure political and economic factors. They prescribe to focus on cultural issues and special attention to the field of culture in order to achieve a realistic cognition of international relations. What doubles the importance of the issue, is the design of some new theories and new intellectual schools, and its effect on global politics. Including, the theory of the clash of civilizations, the dialogue of civilizations, cultural fluidity and postmodernist attitude towards the category of identity and culture, that each of them in some way recommends a particular action framework, according to its noetic framework. Hence, the fundamental question is that: What is the role of culture (soft power in foreign policy and what impact does it have on global changes and developments trend? In response to this, the hypothesis is raised in such a way (trying to produce, procure and persuade values, attitudes, and trends and common attitudes lead to achieve cultural power and, as a result, facilitate the achievement of the national goals and interests of the countries, and promote the foreign policy of the countries and, on the other hand, the use of cultural power, creates a culture of resistance in the field of global politics.

  9. Nuclear power a viable alternative in global warming context

    Cretu, Ileana; Balan, Iosif Bogdan; Ionila, Maria; Petra, Nicoleta Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    Energy sources available in the world include: coal, oil, gas, biomass, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, solar, refuse-based, and hydrogen. In addition, fusion had been originally proposed as the long-term source. Every form of energy generation has both advantages and disadvantages. Burning fuel for energy requirements represent about 88% from the total emission of NO x and CO 2 , and about 90% from SO 2 respectively, and about 72% from suspension powder evacuated into the atmosphere. Global warming represents a real threat and is the most visible sign of the climatic changes which take place all over the world. To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), the 'Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations framework convention on climate change' has been adopted in 1997. According to this protocol European countries must reduce their overall emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 -- 2012. In this context, because the natural resources for power generation based on the fossil fuels are decreasing and their prices are rising, nuclear power has become a real alternative for classical energy sources. It is indicated by: - Fuel is inexpensive because uranium represents a very small part of nuclear power cost and uranium sediment is found on a large scale all over the world; - No greenhouse emission or acid rain effects occur during a normal operation. Nuclear power is also named 'clean energy'; - Wastes are more compact than those of any source of energy and are stored in underground and secured deposits; - Nuclear energy has a number of advantages which warrant its use as one of the many methods of fulfilling the energy-demand of the world. Even with conservation efforts, energy demand increased and will continue to increase. Using each and every one of these forms of energy

  10. Three remarks on Powers' theorem about irreducible fields fulfilling CAR

    Baumann, K.

    1986-01-01

    First it is shown that within a relativistic Fermi field theory, a bound parallelPsi/sub k/( f,t)parallel 2 already implies canonical anticommutation relations (CAR). Then under Powers' assumptions a linear, first-order differential equation for the fields psi/sub k/(x,t) is derived. This shows that in the set of generalized free fields fulfilling CAR only the free fields are irreducible at time zero. Finally Fermi fields in two space-time dimensions are considered. It is shown that only four-fermion interaction might be compatible with CAR and a bound on the coupling strength is derived

  11. Unidirectional wireless power transfer using near-field plates

    Imani, Mohammadreza F., E-mail: mohamad.imani@gmail.com [Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Grbic, Anthony [Radiation Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2015-05-14

    One of the obstacles preventing wireless power transfer from becoming ubiquitous is their leakage of power: high-amplitude electromagnetic fields that can interfere with other electronic devices, increase health concerns, or hinder power metering. In this paper, we present near-field plates (NFPs) as a novel method to tailor the electromagnetic fields generated by a wireless power transfer system while maintaining high efficiency. NFPs are modulated arrays or surfaces designed to form prescribed near-field patterns. The NFP proposed in this paper consists of an array of loaded loops that are designed to confine the electromagnetic fields of a resonant transmitting loop to the desired direction (receiving loop) while suppressing fields in other directions. The step-by-step design procedure for this device is outlined. Two NFPs are designed and examined in full-wave simulation. Their performance is shown to be in close agreement with the design predictions, thereby verifying the proposed design and operation. A NFP is also fabricated and experimentally shown to form a unidirectional wireless power transfer link with high efficiency.

  12. Unidirectional wireless power transfer using near-field plates

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    One of the obstacles preventing wireless power transfer from becoming ubiquitous is their leakage of power: high-amplitude electromagnetic fields that can interfere with other electronic devices, increase health concerns, or hinder power metering. In this paper, we present near-field plates (NFPs) as a novel method to tailor the electromagnetic fields generated by a wireless power transfer system while maintaining high efficiency. NFPs are modulated arrays or surfaces designed to form prescribed near-field patterns. The NFP proposed in this paper consists of an array of loaded loops that are designed to confine the electromagnetic fields of a resonant transmitting loop to the desired direction (receiving loop) while suppressing fields in other directions. The step-by-step design procedure for this device is outlined. Two NFPs are designed and examined in full-wave simulation. Their performance is shown to be in close agreement with the design predictions, thereby verifying the proposed design and operation. A NFP is also fabricated and experimentally shown to form a unidirectional wireless power transfer link with high efficiency

  13. Nuclear power prospects up to 2020 in global energy context

    Naudet, G.; Capron, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Today nuclear energy is a significant component of the electricity generation in the world; its role in the future has to be estimated as an answer to the issues concerning both energy supply and atmosphere pollution. Taking into account the lead-times observed in the energy field, the year 2020 appears a convenient time horizon to appreciate the contrast of significant differences in nuclear power expansion. The approach consists in considering one by one all the countries which have already implemented a nuclear program or could be able to launch a program before this date. However, to be clear, the results are presented according to either the five regions defined in appendix or the World Energy Council regions for comparison with the WEC results. (author). 8 tabs., 2 figs

  14. Classification of delocalization power of global unitary operations in terms of LOCC one-piece relocalization

    Akihito Soeda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We study how two pieces of localized quantum information can be delocalized across a composite Hilbert space when a global unitary operation is applied. We classify the delocalization power of global unitary operations on quantum information by investigating the possibility of relocalizing one piece of the quantum information without using any global quantum resource. We show that one-piece relocalization is possible if and only if the global unitary operation is local unitary equivalent of a controlled-unitary operation. The delocalization power turns out to reveal different aspect of the non-local properties of global unitary operations characterized by their entangling power.

  15. Global Health Warning: Definitions Wield Power Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    Marten, Robert

    2015-12-25

    Gorik Ooms recently made a strong case for considering the centrality of normative premises to analyzing and understanding the underappreciated importance of the nexus of politics, power and process in global health. This critical commentary raises serious questions for the practice and study of global health and global health governance. First and foremost, this commentary underlines the importance of the question of what is global health, and why as well as how does this definition matter? This refocuses discussion on the importance of definitions and how they wield power. It also re-affirms the necessity of a deeper analysis and understanding of power and how it affects and shapes the practice of global health. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  16. Globalization

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  17. Fast wave power flow along SOL field lines in NSTX

    Perkins, R. J.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; Leblanc, B. P.; Kramer, G. J.; Phillips, C. K.; Roquemore, L.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; McLean, A.; Maingi, R.; Ryan, P. M.; Jaeger, E. F.; Sabbagh, S.

    2012-10-01

    On NSTX, a major loss of high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power can occur along open field lines passing in front of the antenna over the width of the scrape-off layer (SOL). Up to 60% of the RF power can be lost and at least partially deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling [1,2]. The flow of HHFW power from the antenna region to the divertor is mostly aligned along the SOL magnetic field [3], which explains the pattern of heat deposition as measured with infrared (IR) cameras. By tracing field lines from the divertor back to the midplane, the IR data can be used to estimate the profile of HHFW power coupled to SOL field lines. We hypothesize that surface waves are being excited in the SOL, and these results should benchmark advanced simulations of the RF power deposition in the SOL (e.g., [4]). Minimizing this loss is critical optimal high-power long-pulse ICRF heating on ITER while guarding against excessive divertor erosion.[4pt] [1] J.C. Hosea et al., AIP Conf Proceedings 1187 (2009) 105. [0pt] [2] G. Taylor et al., Phys. Plasmas 17 (2010) 056114. [0pt] [3] R.J. Perkins et al., to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett. [0pt] [4] D.L. Green et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (2011) 145001.

  18. Power in global health agenda-setting: the role of private funding Comment on "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health".

    Levine, Ruth E

    2015-03-04

    The editorial by Jeremy Shiffman, "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health", highlights the influence on global health priority-setting of individuals and organizations that do not have a formal political mandate. This sheds light on the way key functions in global health depend on private funding, particularly from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION BY MAGNETIC FIELD AROUND POWER LINES

    Vesna Ranković

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the contemporary epidemiological researches, there are some indications that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields harm human health which has been proved through numerous scientific studies published in recent years. Today, most countries use the ICNIRP guidelines and Council Recommendation as the scientific basis for their recommended levels of exposure. Magnetic fields from high voltage transmission power lines have been discussed in this paper. The field profiles and their contribution to environmental pollution are studied. The obtained results are found to be useful for discussing the comparison of the field densities on the human body at the ground level under or near the lines.

  20. Spatial power spectrum of the geomagnetic field since 1945

    Senanayake, W.E.

    1987-04-01

    The Geomagnetic field for the period 1945-1990 has been analyzed in terms of Spatial Power Spectra of the Main Field and its Secular Variation. It is observed that for the above interval, the magnetic energy density at the core-mantle boundary is almost conserved. This supports the idea that an exchange of energy between different spherical harmonic constituents could occur. The distinctive behaviour of the first two terms (Dipole and Quadrupole), as seen from the spectra of the main field and secular variation, probably indicates somewhat different feature associated with the field origin. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  1. Limiting electric fields of HVDC overhead power lines.

    Leitgeb, N

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of renewable energy and the now long distances between energy generation and consumption, in Europe, electric power transfer by high-voltage (HV) direct current (DC) overhead power lines gains increasing importance. Thousands of kilometers of them are going to be built within the next years. However, existing guidelines and regulations do not yet contain recommendations to limit static electric fields, which are one of the most important criteria for HVDC overhead power lines in terms of tower design, span width and ground clearance. Based on theoretical and experimental data, in this article, static electric fields associated with adverse health effects are analysed and various criteria are derived for limiting static electric field strengths.

  2. The ITER poloidal field system: control and power supplies

    Mondino, P.L.; Benfatto, I.; Gribov, Y.; Matsukawa, M.; Odajima, K.; Portone, A.; Roshal, A.; Bareyt, B.; Bertolini, E.; Bottereau, J.M.; Huart, M.; Maschio, A.; Bulgakov, S.; Kuchinski, V.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reports the preliminary scenario of the ITER Poloidal Field (PF) system operation, the method used to evaluate the installed power, the basic structure of the circuits and finally the concepts of the preliminary design of control and power supply. The superconducting coils are energized from the HV Grid with conventional AC/DC converters. R and D is required for circuit breakers, make switches and resistors, the basic components of both the switching networks and the discharge circuits. (orig.)

  3. Knowledge and networks - key sources of power in global health: Comment on "Knowledge, moral claims and the exercise of power in global health".

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Walt, Gill

    2015-02-01

    Shiffman rightly raises questions about who exercises power in global health, suggesting power is a complex concept, and the way it is exercised is often opaque. Power that is not based on financial strength but on knowledge or experience, is difficult to estimate, and yet it may provide the legitimacy to make moral claims on what is, or ought to be, on global health agendas. Twenty years ago power was exercised in a much less complex health environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) was able to exert its authority as world health leader. The landscape today is very different. Financial resources for global health are being competed for by diverse organisations, and power is diffused and somewhat hidden in such a climate, where each organization has to establish and make its own moral claims loudly and publicly. We observe two ways which allow actors to capture moral authority in global health. One, through power based on scientific knowledge and two, through procedures in the policy process, most commonly associated with the notion of broad consultation and participation. We discuss these drawing on one particular framework provided by Bourdieu, who analyses the source of actor power by focusing on different sorts of capital. Different approaches or theories to understanding power will go some way to answering the challenge Shiffman throws to health policy analysts. We need to explore much more fully where power lies in global health, and how it is exercised in order to understand underlying health agendas and claims to legitimacy made by global health actors today.

  4. Recognition of people with an opinion that nuclear power generation causes global warming

    Fukue, Chiyokazu

    2004-01-01

    Almost a half of the people are thinking that nuclear power generation causes global warming. We conducted a survey in order to explore the recognition and background for the thinking of people. Consequently, the existence of the right knowledge ''nuclear power generation does not discharge carbon dioxide at the time of power generation'' influenced most the idea which nuclear power generation prevents global warming. On the other hand, the misunderstanding as ''the radioactive material produced from a nuclear power plant advances global warming'' has influenced the idea considered as a cause, and it is though that this misunderstanding depend on the negative image to nuclear power generation. Moreover, many people do not recognize the mechanism of global warming, and it is thought that they confuse global warming with the other global environment problems, such as acid rain or ozone layer destruction. Therefore, it is required to spread the knowledge that nuclear power generation does not discharge carbon dioxide, and to promote the understanding that a radioactive material is not related to global warming. Furthermore, it is required to distinguish global warming from the other global environment problems, and to explain them intelligibly. (author)

  5. Power, Discourse, and Learning Global Citizenship: A Case Study of International NGOs and a Grassroots Movement in the Narmada Valley, India

    Shukla, Natasha

    2009-01-01

    The field of transnational contestation conceptualized as global civil society (GCS) is gaining academic interest as a political "counter-force" against the exigencies of globalization. However, social actors within GCS occupy unequal positions of power in relation to each other. This article examines how the discourses of transnational action…

  6. Power and momentum relations in rotating magnetic field current drive

    Hugrass, W N [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park. School of Physical Sciences

    1984-01-01

    The use of rotating magnetic fields (RMF) to drive steady currents in plasmas involves a transfer of energy and angular momentum from the radio frequency source feeding the rotating field coils to the plasma. The power-torque relationships in RMF systems are discussed and the analogy between RMF current drive and the polyphase induction motor is explained. The general relationship between the energy and angular momentum transfer is utilized to calculate the efficiency of the RMF plasma current drive. It is found that relatively high efficiencies can be achieved in RMF current drive because of the low phase velocity and small slip between the rotating field and the electron fluid.

  7. Assessment of ELF magnetic fields produced by independent power lines

    Lucca, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of assessing the ELF (extremely low-frequency) magnetic fields produced, in a certain area characterised by the presence of more than one independent power line, is faced. The use of the incoherent summation of the single contributions, as an advantageous estimator of the total magnetic field, is proposed and justified by means of a heuristic procedure. This kind of approach can be seen as a useful and practical tool to be employed in environmental impact analysis and in assessing long-term human exposure to ELF magnetic fields. (authors)

  8. Measurement of incident sound power using near field acoustic holography

    Jacobsen, Finn; Tiana Roig, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    ; and it has always been regarded as impossible to measure the sound power that is incident on a wall directly. This paper examines a new method of determining this quantity from sound pressure measurements at positions on the wall using ‘statistically optimised near field acoustic holography’ (SONAH...

  9. Comparison of electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines

    Korpinen, L.; Kuisti, H.; Tarao, H.; Paeaekkoenen, R.; Elovaara, J.

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines. The authors compared two different methods under power lines: in Method A, the sensor was placed on a tripod; and Method B required the measurer to hold the meter horizontally so that the distance from him/her was at least 1.5 m. The study includes 20 measurements in three places under 400 kV power lines. The authors used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300. In statistical analyses, they did not find significant differences between Methods A and B. However, in the future, it is important to take into account that measurement methods can, in some cases, influence ELF electric field measurement results, and it is important to report the methods used so that it is possible to repeat the measurements. (authors)

  10. Think global, act local—a power generation case study

    Dugdale, Pam

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an exercise completed by sixth form college students to compare the power output from a local coal fired power station with the potential power output from renewable sources including wind farms, solar farms, and the proposed Mersey Tidal Barrage scheme.

  11. Think Global, Act Local--A Power Generation Case Study

    Dugdale, Pam

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an exercise completed by sixth form college students to compare the power output from a local coal fired power station with the potential power output from renewable sources including wind farms, solar farms, and the proposed Mersey Tidal Barrage scheme. (Contains 1 figure, 1 table, and 3 photos.)

  12. Fusion power in a future low carbon global electricity system

    Cabal, H.; Lechón, Y.; Bustreo, C.

    2017-01-01

    Fusion is one of the technologies that may contribute to a future, low carbon, global energy supply system. In this article we investigate the role that it may play under different scenarios. The global energy model ETM (originally EFDA TIMES Model) has been used to analyse the participation...

  13. Nuclear Power Learning and Deployment Rates; Disruption and Global Benefits Forgone

    Peter A. Lang

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of the disruption of a transition from fossil fuels to nuclear power, and finds the benefits forgone as a consequence are substantial. Learning rates are presented for nuclear power in seven countries, comprising 58% of all power reactors ever built globally. Learning rates and deployment rates changed in the late-1960s and 1970s from rapidly falling costs and accelerating deployment to rapidly rising costs and stalled deployment. Historical nuclear global capacit...

  14. Nuclear power from a long term global perspective

    Davis, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The global problem with energy, now and into the longer term, is the same as the global problem with food. There is no absolute shortage of either and nor is there likely to be. But the pattern of availability is such that large numbers of people have inadequate supplies of one or the other, or of both. Thus, in considering global energy futures the problems are more about energy distribution than about its absolute availability: it is important that in arguing its case for expansion the nuclear industry bears that fact in mind. (Author)

  15. Design of a Glenn Research Center Solar Field Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) designed, developed, and installed, a 37.5 kW DC photovoltaic (PV) Solar Field in the GRC West Area in the 1970s for the purpose of testing PV panels for various space and terrestrial applications. The PV panels are arranged to provide a nominal 120 VDC. The GRC Solar Field has been extremely successful in meeting its mission. The PV panels and the supporting electrical systems are all near their end of life. GRC has designed a 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system to replace the existing GRC West Area Solar Field. The 72 kW DC grid-tied PV power system will provide DC solar power for GRC PV testing applications, and provide AC facility power for all times that research power is not required. A grid-tied system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility for use by all. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. The report concludes that the GRC West Area grid-tied PV power system design is viable for a reliable

  16. The future role of nuclear power in the global energy balance

    Semenov, B.A.; Guthrie, D.; Tatsuta, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A sound judgement on the role of nuclear power in the global energy balance within the time span of the next 30 years should logically be based on the consideration of at least a number of factors such as global trends in energy and electricity demand, practically available or estimated sources of supply, major requirements that these energy sources should meet, nuclear power's own potential, a realistic assessment of nuclear power's present status, and problems related to nuclear power. The conclusion of such an analysis is that nuclear power will retain, and may even enhance, its position as an important element in the world's energy supply mix

  17. Total Magnetic Field Signatures over Submarine HVDC Power Cables

    Johnson, R. M.; Tchernychev, M.; Johnston, J. M.; Tryggestad, J.

    2013-12-01

    Mikhail Tchernychev, Geometrics, Inc. Ross Johnson, Geometrics, Inc. Jeff Johnston, Geometrics, Inc. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology is widely used to transmit electrical power over considerable distances using submarine cables. The most commonly known examples are the HVDC cable between Italy and Greece (160 km), Victoria-Tasmania (300 km), New Jersey - Long Island (82 km) and the Transbay cable (Pittsburg, California - San-Francisco). These cables are inspected periodically and their location and burial depth verified. This inspection applies to live and idle cables; in particular a survey company could be required to locate pieces of a dead cable for subsequent removal from the sea floor. Most HVDC cables produce a constant magnetic field; therefore one of the possible survey tools would be Marine Total Field Magnetometer. We present mathematical expressions of the expected magnetic fields and compare them with fields observed during actual surveys. We also compare these anomalies fields with magnetic fields produced by other long objects, such as submarine pipelines The data processing techniques are discussed. There include the use of Analytic Signal and direct modeling of Total Magnetic Field. The Analytic Signal analysis can be adapted using ground truth where available, but the total field allows better discrimination of the cable parameters, in particular to distinguish between live and idle cable. Use of a Transverse Gradiometer (TVG) allows for easy discrimination between cable and pipe line objects. Considerable magnetic gradient is present in the case of a pipeline whereas there is less gradient for the DC power cable. Thus the TVG is used to validate assumptions made during the data interpretation process. Data obtained during the TVG surveys suggest that the magnetic field of a live HVDC cable is described by an expression for two infinite long wires carrying current in opposite directions.

  18. Global Health Governance and Global Power: A Critical Commentary on the Lancet-University of Oslo Commission Report.

    Gill, Stephen; Benatar, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    The Lancet-University of Oslo Commission Report on Global Governance for Health provides an insightful analysis of the global health inequalities that result from transnational activities consequent on what the authors call contemporary "global social norms." Our critique is that the analysis and suggested reforms to prevailing institutions and practices are confined within the perspective of the dominant-although unsustainable and inequitable-market-oriented, neoliberal development model of global capitalism. Consequently, the report both elides critical discussion of many key forms of material and political power under conditions of neoliberal development and governance that shape the nature and priorities of the global governance for health, and fails to point to the extent of changes required to sustainably improve global health. We propose that an alternative concept of progress-one grounded in history, political economy, and ecologically responsible health ethics-is sorely needed to better address challenges of global health governance in the new millennium. This might be premised on global solidarity and the "development of sustainability." We argue that the prevailing market civilization model that lies at the heart of global capitalism is being, and will further need to be, contested to avoid contradictions and dislocations associated with the commodification and privatization of health. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Control of thermal therapies with moving power deposition field

    Arora, Dhiraj; Minor, Mark A; Skliar, Mikhail; Roemer, Robert B

    2006-01-01

    A thermal therapy feedback control approach to control thermal dose using a moving power deposition field is developed and evaluated using simulations. A normal tissue safety objective is incorporated in the controller design by imposing constraints on temperature elevations at selected normal tissue locations. The proposed control technique consists of two stages. The first stage uses a model-based sliding mode controller that dynamically generates an 'ideal' power deposition profile which is generally unrealizable with available heating modalities. Subsequently, in order to approximately realize this spatially distributed idealized power deposition, a constrained quadratic optimizer is implemented to compute intensities and dwell times for a set of pre-selected power deposition fields created by a scanned focused transducer. The dwell times for various power deposition profiles are dynamically generated online as opposed to the commonly employed a priori-decided heating strategies. Dynamic intensity and trajectory generation safeguards the treatment outcome against modelling uncertainties and unknown disturbances. The controller is designed to enforce simultaneous activation of multiple normal tissue temperature constraints by rapidly switching between various power deposition profiles. The hypothesis behind the controller design is that the simultaneous activation of multiple constraints substantially reduces treatment time without compromising normal tissue safety. The controller performance and robustness with respect to parameter uncertainties is evaluated using simulations. The results demonstrate that the proposed controller can successfully deliver the desired thermal dose to the target while maintaining the temperatures at the user-specified normal tissue locations at or below the maximum allowable values. Although demonstrated for the case of a scanned focused ultrasound transducer, the developed approach can be extended to other heating modalities with

  20. High-field, high-density tokamak power reactor

    Cohn, D.R.; Cook, D.L.; Hay, R.D.; Kaplan, D.; Kreischer, K.; Lidskii, L.M.; Stephany, W.; Williams, J.E.C.; Jassby, D.L.; Okabayashi, M.

    1977-11-01

    A conceptual design of a compact (R 0 = 6.0 m) high power density (average P/sub f/ = 7.7 MW/m 3 ) tokamak demonstration power reactor has been developed. High magnetic field (B/sub t/ = 7.4 T) and moderate elongation (b/a = 1.6) permit operation at the high density (n(0) approximately 5 x 10 14 cm -3 ) needed for ignition in a relatively small plasma, with a spatially-averaged toroidal beta of only 4%. A unique design for the Nb 3 Sn toroidal-field magnet system reduces the stress in the high-field trunk region, and allows modularization for simpler disassembly. The modest value of toroidal beta permits a simple, modularized plasma-shaping coil system, located inside the TF coil trunk. Heating of the dense central plasma is attained by the use of ripple-assisted injection of 120-keV D 0 beams. The ripple-coil system also affords dynamic control of the plasma temperature during the burn period. A FLIBE-lithium blanket is designed especially for high-power-density operation in a high-field environment, and gives an overall tritium breeding ratio of 1.05 in the slowly pumped lithium

  1. System design of toroidal field power supply of CDD tokamak

    Liu, Zheng Zhi

    1996-12-01

    This report deals with system design of Toroidal Field Power Supply of CDD tokamak (CDD-TFPS). The general design philosophy and design variations are introduced. After the outline of CDD-TFPS, the short-circuit calculation, the evaluation of converter parameters, the compatibility of converter and line are carried out. the specifications of major components, semi-conductor devices and accessories are given. High attention is paid to protection system. The design of sub-control and grounding system are described too. Some more general material for power supply design are attached in appendices for reference. (author). 30 tabs., 21 figs.

  2. System design of toroidal field power supply of CDD tokamak

    Liu, Zheng Zhi.

    1996-12-01

    This report deals with system design of Toroidal Field Power Supply of CDD tokamak (CDD-TFPS). The general design philosophy and design variations are introduced. After the outline of CDD-TFPS, the short-circuit calculation, the evaluation of converter parameters, the compatibility of converter and line are carried out. the specifications of major components, semi-conductor devices and accessories are given. High attention is paid to protection system. The design of sub-control and grounding system are described too. Some more general material for power supply design are attached in appendices for reference. (author). 30 tabs., 21 figs

  3. Why do they think nuclear power is origin of global warming effect?

    Fukae, Chiyokazu

    2005-01-01

    A questionnaire on nuclear power was conducted on 1500 adults in Kansai area, Japan, from October 9 to November 9, 2003. The recovery ratio was 71.0%. The results showed that 34% of them thought the nuclear power was protection of the global warming effect and 35% it was origin of the effect. It was analyzed by the logistic regression analysis method on whether the nuclear power was protection of global warming effect or not. About 43% of them recognized the nuclear power contributed to control carbon dioxide emission, and the mechanism of global warming effect. However, 35% of them did not recognize the mechanism and thought radioactive materials emission gave bad effects on the global environment. To make recognize the nuclear power is a good power source for protection of the global warming effect, the amount of reduction of carbon dioxide emission by nuclear power had to be shown. It is the shortest way for solution of the global warming problem to prove worthy of nuclear power's trust by safety and stable operation. (S.Y.)

  4. Normalized noise power spectrum of full field digital mammography system

    Norriza Mohd Isa; Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan

    2009-01-01

    A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through detrending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality. (Author)

  5. Normalized Noise Power Spectrum of Full Field Digital Mammography System

    Isa, Norriza Mohd; Wan Hassan, Wan Muhamad Saridan

    2010-01-01

    A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through detrending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality.

  6. Shape Biased Low Power Spin Dependent Tunneling Magnetic Field Sensors

    Tondra, Mark; Qian, Zhenghong; Wang, Dexin; Nordman, Cathy; Anderson, John

    2001-10-01

    Spin Dependent Tunneling (SDT) devices are leading candidates for inclusion in a number of Unattended Ground Sensor applications. Continued progress at NVE has pushed their performance to 1OOs of pT I rt. Hz 1 Hz. However, these sensors were designed to use an applied field from an on-chip coil to create an appropriate magnetic sensing configuration. The power required to generate this field (^100mW) is significantly greater than the power budget (^lmW) for a magnetic sensor in an Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) application. Consequently, a new approach to creating an ideal sensing environment is required. One approach being used at NVE is "shape biasing." This means that the physical layout of the SDT sensing elements is such that the magnetization of the sensing film is correct even when no biasing field is applied. Sensors have been fabricated using this technique and show reasonable promise for UGS applications. Some performance trade-offs exist. The power is easily tinder 1 MW, but the sensitivity is typically lower by a factor of 10. This talk will discuss some of the design details of these sensors as well as their expected ultimate performance.

  7. EXPLORING AN EMERGING FIELD: THE IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Hyuk KIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to advance the empirical understanding of global social entrepreneurship. Specifically, this paper aims to provide a new social entrepreneurship model, particularly on a global scale, introducing and examining two distinctive cases: Ashoka and Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC. The ‘hybrid value chain’ suggested by Ashoka demonstrates that how business organizations and citizen-sector organizations can help each other in developing partnerships for various markets and communities in the world, addressing a variety of social needs. Presenting the ‘holistic approach to development,’ BRAC has been transferring its sustainable model, based on insights from Bangladesh but adapted to the local contexts of the countries, to several countries by creating prospects for the most disadvantaged people to overcome extreme poverty. This paper contributes to the current literature by highlighting how entrepreneurial efforts can create opportunities and launch ventures to satisfy social needs, balancing economic and social imperatives, on a global scale.

  8. POWER-SHIFTS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY. TRANSITION TOWARDS A MULTIPOLAR WORLD ORDER

    Ion IGNAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the new realities and trends related to the new polarity of the global economy, and thus the reconfiguration of global power centers, a process characterized by two simultaneous trends: the rise of new powers and the relative decline of traditional powers. At the beginning of 21st century, global power is suffering two major changes: on the one hand it manifests a transition from West to East, from Atlantic to the Asia-Pacific, and on the other hand, a diffusion from state to non-state actors. Current global economic power has a multipolar distribution, shared between the United States, European Union, Japan and BRICs, with no balance of power between these poles, opposed by the strong ambition of rising countries, China especially, China that rivals the traditional powers represented by the developed countries. The evolution of the main macroeconomic indicators given by the most important global organizations, shows a gradual transition towards a multipolar world. Therefore, the United States is and will remain for a long period of time the global economic leader. However, as China, India and Brazil are growing rapidly, and Russia is looking for lost status, the world is becoming multipolar.

  9. The gravitational field of a charged global monopole

    Min-Qiang Lu [East China Univ. of Science and Tecnology, Shangai (China). School of Fundamental Education]|[East China Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Shangai (China)

    1998-10-01

    A charged global monopole formed as a consequence of the spontaneous breakdown of a global symmetry should have a mass that grows linearly with the distance off its core where the gravitational effect of this configuration is equivalent to that of the deficit solid angle in the metric and the relatively tiny mass at the origin. In this paper it is shown that this small effective mass depends on the charge in that there exists a negative mass when the charge number Q is less than a critical value Q{sub c}r and that there appears a positive one when Q>Q{sub c}r.

  10. Power output of field-based downhill mountain biking.

    Hurst, Howard Thomas; Atkins, Stephen

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the power output of field-based downhill mountain biking. Seventeen trained male downhill cyclists (age 27.1 +/- 5.1 years) competing nationally performed two timed runs of a measured downhill course. An SRM powermeter was used to simultaneously record power, cadence, and speed. Values were sampled at 1-s intervals. Heart rates were recorded at 5-s intervals using a Polar S710 heart rate monitor. Peak and mean power output were 834 +/- 129 W and 75 +/- 26 W respectively. Mean power accounted for only 9% of peak values. Paradoxically, mean heart rate was 168 +/- 9 beats x min(-1) (89% of age-predicted maximum heart rate). Mean cadence (27 +/- 5 rev x min(-1)) was significantly related to speed (r = 0.51; P biking. The poor relationships between power and run time and between cadence and run time suggest they are not essential pre-requisites to downhill mountain biking performance and indicate the importance of riding dynamics to overall performance.

  11. CCS Retrofit: Analysis of the Global Installed Power Plant Fleet

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Electricity generation from coal is still growing rapidly and energy scenarios from the IEA expect a possible increase from today’s 1 600 GW of coal-fired power plants to over 2 600 GW until 2035. This trend will increase the lock-in of carbon intensive electricity sources, while IEA assessments show that two-thirds of total abatement from all sectors should come from the power sector alone to support a least-cost abatement strategy. Since coal-fired power plants have a fairly long lifetime, and in order to meet climate constraints, there is a need either to apply CCS retrofit to some of today’s installed coal-fired power plants once the technology becomes available. Another option would be to retire some plants before the end of their lifetime. This working paper discusses criteria relevant to differentiating between the technical, cost-effective and realistic potential for CCS retrofit. The paper then discusses today’s coal-fired power plant fleet from a statistical perspective, by looking at age, size and the expected performance of today’s plant across several countries. The working paper also highlights the growing demand for applying CCS retrofitting to the coal-fired power plant fleet of the future. In doing so this paper aims at emphasising the need for policy makers, innovators and power plant operators to quickly complete the development of the CCS technology and to identify key countries where retrofit applications will have the biggest extent and impact.

  12. Recent developments in high-resolution global altimetric gravity field modeling

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per; Berry, P. A .M.

    2010-01-01

    older gravity fields show accuracy improvement of the order of 20-40% due to a combination of retracking, enhanced processing, and the use of the new EGM2008 geoid model. In coastal and polar regions, accuracy improved in many places by 40-50% (or more) compared with older global marine gravity fields.......In recent years, dedicated effort has been made to improve high-resolution global marine gravity fields. One new global field is the Danish National Space Center (DNSC) 1-minute grid called DNSC08GRA, released in 2008. DNSC08GRA was derived from double-retracked satellite altimetry, mainly from...... the ERS-1 geodetic mission data, augmented with new retracked GEOSAT data which have significantly enhanced the range and hence the gravity field accuracy. DNSC08GRA is the first high-resolution global gravity field to cover the entire Arctic Ocean all the way to the North Pole. Comparisons with other...

  13. Cost analysis of small hydroelectric power plants components and preliminary estimation of global cost

    Basta, C.; Olive, W.J.; Antunes, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of cost for each components of Small Hydroelectric Power Plant, taking into account the real costs of these projects is shown. It also presents a global equation which allows a preliminary estimation of cost for each construction. (author)

  14. Field Simulation of Global Change: Transplanting Northern Bog Mesocosms Southward

    Breeuwer, A.J.G.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    A large proportion of northern peatlands consists of Sphagnum-dominated ombrotrophic bogs. In these bogs, peat mosses (Sphagnum) and vascular plants occur in an apparent stable equilibrium, thereby sustaining the carbon sink function of the bog ecosystem. How global warming and increased nitrogen

  15. Global operator expansions in conformally invariant relativistic quantum field theory

    Schoer, B.; Swieca, J.A.; Voelkel, A.H.

    1974-01-01

    A global conformal operator expansions in the Minkowski region in several models and their formulation in the general theory is presented. Whereas the vacuum expansions are termwise manisfestly conformal invariant, the expansions away from the vacuum do not share this property

  16. Rents, Power and Governance in Global Value Chains

    Dennis Davis; Raphael Kaplinsky; Mike Morris

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the  generation  of  rents  and  the  distribution  of  gains  in  the  global  operations  of  governed Global  Value  Chains  (GVCs)  and  seeks  to  provide  an  architecture  for  analyzing  the  governance  of  GVCs.  It distinguishes between four sets of rent—gifts of nature; innovation rents; exogenously defined rents; and market power—and three spheres of governance—setting the rules -“legislative governance”; implementing the rules -“executive governance”; and mo...

  17. Power and Networks in Worldwide Knowledge Coordination: The Case of Global Science

    King, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The article considers the global governance of knowledge systems, exploring concepts of power, networks, standards (defined as normative practices), and structuration. The focus is on science as a form of predominantly private global governance, particularly the self-regulatory and collaborative processes stretching across time and space. These…

  18. Awareness structure of the people with opinion that nuclear power is effective for preventing global warming

    Fukae, Chiyokazu

    2006-01-01

    Most of people think that nuclear power generation is not effective for preventing global warming. In this research, the reason why people think so was investigated with using questionnaire survey. As a result, the misunderstanding, the thermal effluent and radioactive substance etc. produced from a nuclear plant promotes global warming, has influenced on this issue. People have negative image against nuclear power in the background of this idea. This negative image is a factor to decrease the evaluation that nuclear power is useful for preventing global warming regardless of the presence of the misunderstanding. By the fear that the accident of the nuclear plant brings the environmental destruction, people evaluate that nuclear power doesn't have the capabilities for environmental preservation. Especially young people have such awareness. It is necessary to learn energy and environmental issues including the merits and demerits of nuclear power objectively in the academic training. (author)

  19. IRIS: A global approach to nuclear power renaissance

    Carelli, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Improved international reactor IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is discussed. IRIS is defined as a modular reactor with integral arrangement and water coolant. Industrial companies, research, scientific groups and electric power producers of different countries (USA, Great Britain, Italy, Spain, Brazil, Russia, Mexico, Japan, Croatia) take part in the realization of IRIS. Basic parameters of the reactor, construction characteristics, arrangement are presented [ru

  20. Magnetic field generation device for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation

    Kuriyama, Yoshihiko.

    1993-01-01

    An existent magnetic field generation device for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation comprises at least a pair of permanent magnets disposed to an inner circumferential surface of a yoke having such a cross sectional area that two pairs of parallel sides are present, in which different magnetic poles are opposed while interposing a flow channel for a conductive fluid therebetween. Then, first permanent magnets which generate main magnetic fields are disposed each at a gap sandwiching a plane surface including a center axis of a flow channel for the conductive fluid. Second permanent magnets which generate auxiliary magnetic fields are disposed to an inner circumferential surface of a yoke intersecting the yoke to which the first permanent magnets are disposed. The magnetic poles on the side of the flow channel for the second permanent magnets have identical polarity with that of the magnetic poles of the adjacent first permanent magnets. As a result, a magnetic flux density in the flow channel for the conductive fluid can be kept homogeneous and at a high level from a position of the axial line of the flow channel to the outer circumference, thereby enabling to remarkably improve a power generation efficiency. (N.H.)

  1. Field vibration test of principal equipment of nuclear power plants

    Shiraki, Kazuhiro; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Kajimura, Motohiko; Ikegami, Yasuhiko; Hanzawa, Katsumi; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Kokubo, Eiji; Igarashi, Shigeru

    1984-09-01

    Japan is one of the most earthquake-stricken countries in the world, and demands for aseismic design have become severer recently. In a nuclear power plant in particular, consisting of a reactor vessel and other facilities dealing with a radioactive substance in some form or other, it is essential from the standpoint of safety to eliminate any possibility of radioactive hazards for the local public, and the employees at the plant as well, if these facilities are struck by an earthquake. This paper is related to the reactor vessel, reactor primary cooling equipment and piping system and important general piping as examples of important facilities of a nuclear power plant, and discusses vibration tests of an actual plant in the field from the standpoint of enhancing the aseismic safety of the Mitsubishi PWR nuclear power plant. Especially concerning vibration test technology, the effects in the evaluation of aseismic safety and its limits are studied to prove how it contributes to the enhancement of the reliability of aseismic design of nuclear power plants.

  2. A field experiment on power line stabilization by SMES system

    Irie, F.; Takeo, M.; Sato, S.; Katahira, O.; Fukui, F.; Takamatsu, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper field experiments on stabilization of a hydro power plant by a SMES system are reported, where a generator having a rating of 60 kW at 3.3kV is connected to a 6.6kV power distribution line. The SMES system is composed of two 30kVA GTO convertors and a superconducting magnet system with an energy of 30kJ at 100A. Experiments of stabilization for the generator fluctuation caused by a sudden insertion of inductors in the line are successfully performed for some control modes. The value of the SMES system to compensate for a short period voltage dip is also confirmed

  3. Investigation of Improved Methods in Power Transfer Efficiency for Radiating Near-Field Wireless Power Transfer

    Hesheng Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A metamaterial-inspired efficient electrically small antenna is proposed, firstly. And then several improving power transfer efficiency (PTE methods for wireless power transfer (WPT systems composed of the proposed antenna in the radiating near-field region are investigated. Method one is using a proposed antenna as a power retriever. This WPT system consisted of three proposed antennas: a transmitter, a receiver, and a retriever. The system is fed by only one power source. At a fixed distance from receiver to transmitter, the distance between the transmitter and the retriever is turned to maximize power transfer from the transmitter to the receiver. Method two is using two proposed antennas as transmitters and one antenna as receiver. The receiver is placed between the two transmitters. In this system, two power sources are used to feed the two transmitters, respectively. By adjusting the phase difference between the two feeding sources, the maximum PTE can be obtained at the optimal phase difference. Using the same configuration as method two, method three, where the maximum PTE can be increased by regulating the voltage (or power ratio of the two feeding sources, is proposed. In addition, we combine the proposed methods to construct another two schemes, which improve the PTE at different extent than classical WPT system.

  4. ELF magnetic fields in electric and gasoline-powered vehicles.

    Tell, R A; Sias, G; Smith, J; Sahl, J; Kavet, R

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a pilot study to assess magnetic field levels in electric compared to gasoline-powered vehicles, and established a methodology that would provide valid data for further assessments. The sample consisted of 14 vehicles, all manufactured between January 2000 and April 2009; 6 were gasoline-powered vehicles and 8 were electric vehicles of various types. Of the eight models available, three were represented by a gasoline-powered vehicle and at least one electric vehicle, enabling intra-model comparisons. Vehicles were driven over a 16.3 km test route. Each vehicle was equipped with six EMDEX Lite broadband meters with a 40-1,000 Hz bandwidth programmed to sample every 4 s. Standard statistical testing was based on the fact that the autocorrelation statistic damped quickly with time. For seven electric cars, the geometric mean (GM) of all measurements (N = 18,318) was 0.095 µT with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.66, compared to 0.051 µT (N = 9,301; GSD = 2.11) for four gasoline-powered cars (P electric vehicles covered the same range as personal exposure levels recorded in that study. All fields measured in all vehicles were much less than the exposure limits published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Future studies should include larger sample sizes representative of a greater cross-section of electric-type vehicles. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Emerging middle powers and global security challenges: the case of Brazil and Turkey - implications for Portugal

    Balla, Evanthia

    2012-01-01

    Today's global order fundamentally differs from the one of classic multipolarity, Cold War bipolarity or post Cold War unipolarity. There are many emerging powers and many no nation-states entities with powers. Yet, the world seems to slowly adjusting to these new realities.

  6. Knowledge and networks – key sources of power in global health

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Walt, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Shiffman rightly raises questions about who exercises power in global health, suggesting power is a complex concept, and the way it is exercised is often opaque. Power that is not based on financial strength but on knowledge or experience, is difficult to estimate, and yet it may provide the legitimacy to make moral claims on what is, or ought to be, on global health agendas. Twenty years ago power was exercised in a much less complex health environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) was able to exert its authority as world health leader. The landscape today is very different. Financial resources for global health are being competed for by diverse organisations, and power is diffused and somewhat hidden in such a climate, where each organization has to establish and make its own moral claims loudly and publicly. We observe two ways which allow actors to capture moral authority in global health. One, through power based on scientific knowledge and two, through procedures in the policy process, most commonly associated with the notion of broad consultation and participation. We discuss these drawing on one particular framework provided by Bourdieu, who analyses the source of actor power by focusing on different sorts of capital. Different approaches or theories to understanding power will go some way to answering the challenge Shiffman throws to health policy analysts. We need to explore much more fully where power lies in global health, and how it is exercised in order to understand underlying health agendas and claims to legitimacy made by global health actors today. PMID:25674577

  7. Power-law modulation of the scalar power spectrum from a heavy field with a monomial potential

    Huang, Qing-Guo; Pi, Shi

    2018-04-01

    The effects of heavy fields modulate the scalar power spectrum during inflation. We analytically calculate the modulations of the scalar power spectrum from a heavy field with a separable monomial potential, i.e. V(phi)~ phin. In general the modulation is characterized by a power-law oscillation which is reduced to the logarithmic oscillation in the case of n=2.

  8. Brandt matrices and theta series over global function fields

    Chuang, Chih-Yun; Wei, Fu-Tsun; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to give a complete account of the Eichler-Brandt theory over function fields and the basis problem for Drinfeld type automorphic forms. Given arbitrary function field k together with a fixed place \\infty, the authors construct a family of theta series from the norm forms of "definite" quaternion algebras, and establish an explicit Hecke-module homomorphism from the Picard group of an associated definite Shimura curve to a space of Drinfeld type automorphic forms. The "compatibility" of these homomorphisms with different square-free levels is also examined. These Heck

  9. The status and prospects of the debate upon the global warming and nuclear power

    Yim, C. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Possible climate change caused by global warming becomes one of the most serious challenges that mankind shall tackle in 21 st century. Nuclear power, which doesn't emit any greenhouse gas during the generation of electricity, is a promising solution to mitigate the global warming. However, there are still debates about the role of nuclear power related to the subjects such as safety, radioactive waste management and nuclear proliferation risk in the international climate change talks. This paper introduces on-going negotiation focused on the nuclear power and then, gives some prospects on the future negotiations. Finally the brief analysis of their impacts on domestic nuclear industry is carried out

  10. A Power-Frequency Electric Field Sensor for Portable Measurement.

    Xiao, Dongping; Ma, Qichao; Xie, Yutong; Zheng, Qi; Zhang, Zhanlong

    2018-03-31

    In this paper, a new type of electric field sensor is proposed for the health and safety protection of inspection staff in high-voltage environments. Compared with the traditional power frequency electric field measurement instruments, the portable instrument has some special performance requirements and, thus, a new kind of double spherical shell sensor is presented. First, the mathematical relationships between the induced voltage of the sensor, the output voltage of the measurement circuit, and the original electric field in free space are deduced theoretically. These equations show the principle of the proposed sensor to measure the electric field and the effect factors of the measurement. Next, the characteristics of the sensor are analyzed through simulation. The simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. The influencing rules of the size and material of the sensor on the measurement results are summarized. Then, the proposed sensor and the matching measurement system are used in a physical experiment. After calibration, the error of the measurement system is discussed. Lastly, the directional characteristic of the proposed sensor is experimentally tested.

  11. An electromagnetic field measurement protocol for monitoring power lines

    Lubritto, C.; Iavazzo, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; Palmieri, A.; Sabbarese, C.; Terrasi, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the actions aiming to prevent risks related to the exposure to Low Frequencies Non Ionising electromagnetic Radiations (ELF-NIR), always arises the need to perform measurements in order to assess the field level existing in the considered sites. As a matter of fact very often it turns out difficult to predict, on the base of calculations, with sufficient approximation the field levels, due to extended variability of environmental conditions (e.g. coexistence of several sources, ground and building conformation, etc..). The measurement procedures must follow a methodology that could allow to minimise the interferences with the measurement set-up and the systematic and accidental errors. Risks for the operator and damages to the instrument should also be taken into account. One of the goal set for this research program was then the definition of the measurement protocol for electromagnetic field generated by low frequency non ionising radiation sources. In particular sources like power lines will be considered in order to validate the protocol by means of in-field measurements

  12. Assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater thermal pollution from global power generation in LCA.

    Raptis, Catherine E; Boucher, Justin M; Pfister, Stephan

    2017-02-15

    Freshwater heat emissions from power plants with once-through cooling systems constitute one of many environmental pressures related to the thermoelectric power industry. The objective of this work was to obtain high resolution, operational characterization factors (CF) for the impact of heat emissions on ecosystem quality, and carry out a comprehensive, spatially, temporally and technologically differentiated damage-based environmental assessment of global freshwater thermal pollution. The aggregation of CFs on a watershed level results in 12.5% lower annual impacts globally and even smaller differences for the most crucial watersheds and months, so watershed level CFs are recommended when the exact emission site within the basin is unknown. Long-range impacts account for almost 90% of the total global impacts. The Great Lakes, several Mississippi subbasins, the Danube, and the Yangtze are among the most thermally impacted watersheds globally, receiving heat emissions from predominantly coal-fuelled and nuclear power plants. Globally, over 80% of the global annual impacts come from power plants constructed during or before the 1980s. While the impact-weighted mean age of the power plants in the Mississippi ranges from 38 to 51years, in Chinese watersheds including the Yangtze, the equivalent range is only 15 to 22years, reflecting a stark contrast in thermal pollution mitigation approaches. With relatively high shares of total capacity from power plants with once-through freshwater cooling, and tracing a large part of the Danube, 1kWh of net electricity mix is the most impactful in Hungary, Bulgaria and Serbia. Monthly CFs are provided on a grid cell level and on a watershed level for use in Life Cycle Assessment. The impacts per generating unit are also provided, as part of our effort to make available a global dataset of thermoelectric power plant emissions and impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Global power knowledge science and technology in international affairs

    Barth, Kai-Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Osiris annualy examines a particular topic in the history of science, bringing together experts in the field to consider multiple aspects of the time period, episode, or theme. Volume 21, Historical Perspectives on Science, Technology, and International Affairs, explores the ways in which scientists and issues in science and technology have played significant roles in foreign policy and international relations, especially since the Second World War.

  14. Introduction of nuclear power plant for mitigating the impact of global warming

    Ida Nuryatin Finahari

    2008-01-01

    Energy utilization for power plants in Indonesia is still highly depending on the burning of fossil fuel like coal, oil, and gas. From the combustion of fossil fuel, greenhouse gases such as CO 2 and N 2 O are produced. An increase of CO 2 gas emission to the atmosphere can block the heat loss from the earth surface and will increase the greenhouse effect that results in the temperature increase of the earth surface (global warming). Global warming can cause a very extreme climate change on earth. One of the solutions to reduce CO 2 gas emission produced by fossil fuel power plants is to utilize the plants with flue gas treatment facility. At such facility, CO 2 gas is reacted with certain mineral based substances thus can be used as base material in food-, pharmaceutical-, construction-, and cosmetic industry. Another alternative to reduce CO 2 gas emission is by replacing fossil fuel power plants with nuclear power plants. Considering the environmental and economic aspects, the nuclear power plant does not emit CO 2 gas, so that the use of nuclear power plant can mitigate the impact of global warming. Based on the operational experience of nuclear power plants in advanced countries, the cost of generating electricity from nuclear power plants is more competitive than that of fossil fuel power plant. (author)

  15. MODIS/Terra Vegetation Continuous Fields Yearly L3 Global 500m SIN Grid V051

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Terra MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) product is a sub-pixel-level representation of surface vegetation cover estimates globally. Designed to...

  16. The role of nuclear power in the global electric power system

    Sidorenko, V.A.; Chernilin, Yu.F.

    1992-01-01

    Basic conclusions and recommendations developed in the process of preparing and conducting the symposium discussed are presented. All methods of electric power production, their prospects and effects on man and environment were discussed during the symposium. This paper is devoted mainly to nuclear power engineering only, its prospects and possible role in general electric power generation

  17. Effect of focused ultrasound stimulation at different ultrasonic power levels on the local field potential power spectrum

    Yuan Yi; Lu Cheng-Biao; Li Xiao-Li

    2015-01-01

    Local field potential (LFP) signals of the rat hippocampus were recorded under noninvasive focused ultrasound stimulation (FUS) with different ultrasonic powers. The LFP mean absolute power was calculated with the Welch algorithm at the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The experimental results demonstrate that the LFP mean absolute power at different frequency bands increases as the ultrasound power increases. (paper)

  18. Global analysis of the temperature and flow fields in samples heated in multizone resistance furnaces

    Pérez-Grande, I.; Rivas, D.; de Pablo, V.

    The temperature field in samples heated in multizone resistance furnaces will be analyzed, using a global model where the temperature fields in the sample, the furnace and the insulation are coupled; the input thermal data is the electric power supplied to the heaters. The radiation heat exchange between the sample and the furnace is formulated analytically, taking into account specular reflections at the sample; for the solid sample the reflectance is both diffuse and specular, and for the melt it is mostly specular. This behavior is modeled through the exchange view factors, which depend on whether the sample is solid or liquid, and, therefore, they are not known a priori. The effect of this specular behavior in the temperature field will be analyzed, by comparing with the case of diffuse samples. A parameter of great importance is the thermal conductivity of the insulation material; it will be shown that the temperature field depends strongly on it. A careful characterization of the insulation is therefore necessary, here it will be done with the aid of experimental results, which will also serve to validate the model. The heating process in the floating-zone technique in microgravity conditions will be simulated; parameters like the Marangoni number or the temperature gradient at the melt-crystal interface will be estimated. Application to the case of compound samples (graphite-silicon-graphite) will be made; the temperature distribution in the silicon part will be studied, especially the temperature difference between the two graphite rods that hold the silicon, since it drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt. This flow will be studied, after coupling the previous model with the convective effects. The possibility of suppresing this flow by the controlled vibration of the graphite rods will be also analyzed. Numerical results show that the thermocapillary flow can indeed be counterbalanced quite effectively.

  19. Advancing Global Health - The Need for (Better) Social Science Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    Hanefeld, Johanna

    2016-02-06

    In his perspective "Navigating between stealth advocacy and unconscious dogmatism: the challenge of researching the norms, politics and power of global health," Ooms argues that actions taken in the field of global health are dependent not only on available resources, but on the normative premise that guides how these resources are spent. This comment sets out how the application of a predominately biomedical positivist research tradition in global health, has potentially limited understanding of the value judgements underlying decisions in the field. To redress this critical social science, including health policy analysis has much to offer, to the field of global health including on questions of governance. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  20. Combined equations for estimating global solar radiation: Projection of radiation field over Japan under global warming conditions by statistical downscaling

    Iizumi, T.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.

    2008-01-01

    For this study, we developed a new statistical model to estimate the daily accumulated global solar radiation on the earth's surface and used the model to generate a high-resolution climate change scenario of the radiation field in Japan. The statistical model mainly relies on precipitable water vapor calculated from air temperature and relative humidity on the surface to estimate seasonal changes in global solar radiation. On the other hand, to estimate daily radiation fluctuations, the model uses either a diurnal temperature range or relative humidity. The diurnal temperature range, calculated from the daily maximum and minimum temperatures, and relative humidity is a general output of most climate models, and pertinent observation data are comparatively easy to access. The statistical model performed well when estimating the monthly mean value, daily fluctuation statistics, and regional differences in the radiation field in Japan. To project the change in the radiation field for the years 2081 to 2100, we applied the statistical model to the climate change scenario of a high-resolution Regional Climate Model with a 20-km mesh size (RCM20) developed at the Meteorological Research Institute based on the Special Report for Emission Scenario (SRES)-A2. The projected change shows the following tendency: global solar radiation will increase in the warm season and decrease in the cool season in many areas of Japan, indicating that global warming may cause changes in the radiation field in Japan. The generated climate change scenario for the radiation field is linked to long-term and short-term changes in air temperature and relative humidity obtained from the RCM20 and, consequently, is expected to complement the RCM20 datasets for an impact assessment study in the agricultural sector

  1. Fission nuclear power prospects and its role in meeting global energy needs

    Golan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power currently makes an important contribution to world's energy requirements providing 17% of its electricity. But as global warming becomes of greater concern, many ask whether nuclear power can and should contribute more. The author, who is involved in the nuclear power enterprise for 35 years, tries to answer this question affirmative. He holds the view that: a) nuclear fission power is essential to meeting world's energy needs without unduly impairing the global environment; b) by possessing the required attributes discussed in this paper, nuclear fission power can be made societally acceptable; c) the industrialized world should accelerate LMFR deployment while fostering more convenient energy alternatives for the developing world; and d) the HTGR is unique in its ability to augment non-electricity energy needs and could become the technology choice of developing countries for nuclear electricity production. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  2. An Integral, Multidisciplinary and Global Geophysical Field Experience for Undergraduates

    Vázquez, O.; Carrillo, D. J.; Pérez-Campos, X.

    2007-05-01

    The udergraduate program of Geophysical Engineering at the School of Engineering, of the Univesidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), went through an update process that concluded in 2006. As part of the program, the student takes three geophysical prospecting courses (gravity and magnetics, electric, electromagnetics, and seismic methods). The older program required a three-week field experience for each course in order to gradute. The new program considers only one extended field experience. This work stresses the importance of international academic exchange, where undergraduate students could participate, such as the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE), and interaction with research programs, such as the MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment (MASE). Also, we propose a scheeme for this activity based on those examples; both of them have in common real geophysical problems, from which students could benefit. Our proposal covers academic and logistic aspects to be taken into account, enhancing the relevance of interaction between other academic institutions, industry, and UNAM, in order to obtain a broader view of geophysics.

  3. The global climate change and its effect on power generation in Bangladesh

    Khan, Iftekhar; Alam, Firoz; Alam, Quamrul

    2013-01-01

    Frequent and intense natural calamities, sea level rises and salinity have been causing adverse impacts on economic, environmental and social aspects of hundreds of millions people across the world. Although a series of studies was undertaken on social and environment impacts, very little information is available on power generation affected by climate change. The power generation in developing countries, especially Bangladesh, whose existence is severely threatened by the rise of sea levels, salinity, the ambient temperature, drought and flood, is not well studied and reported. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to identify the risks imposed by global climate change on existing and projected power generation in Bangladesh. The climate effect parameters and their impacts on power generation capacity are studied and analysed. The findings indicate that all existing and future power plants and their generation across the country will be affected by global climate change. - Highlights: • Analysed the future climate change impact on power generation in Bangladesh. • Projected future power generation in Bangladesh up to 2100. • Power plant in coastal areas will experience threat of inundation and salinity. • Northwest region power generation in Bangladesh will face more drought threat. • Power generation in middle region of Bangladesh will be in high risk of flood

  4. Precipitation and total power consumption in the ionosphere: Global MHD simulation results compared with Polar and SNOE observations

    M. Palmroth

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We compare the ionospheric electron precipitation morphology and power from a global MHD simulation (GUMICS-4 with direct measurements of auroral energy flux during a pair of substorms on 28-29 March 1998. The electron precipitation power is computed directly from global images of auroral light observed by the Polar satellite ultraviolet imager (UVI. Independent of the Polar UVI measurements, the electron precipitation energy is determined from SNOE satellite observations on the thermospheric nitric oxide (NO density. We find that the GUMICS-4 simulation reproduces the spatial variation of the global aurora rather reliably in the sense that the onset of the substorm is shown in GUMICS-4 simulation as enhanced precipitation in the right location at the right time. The total integrated precipitation power in the GUMICS-4 simulation is in quantitative agreement with the observations during quiet times, i.e., before the two substorm intensifications. We find that during active times the GUMICS-4 integrated precipitation is a factor of 5 lower than the observations indicate. However, we also find factor of 2-3 differences in the precipitation power among the three different UVI processing methods tested here. The findings of this paper are used to complete an earlier objective, in which the total ionospheric power deposition in the simulation is forecasted from a mathematical expression, which is a function of solar wind density, velocity and magnetic field. We find that during this event, the correlation coefficient between the outcome of the forecasting expression and the simulation results is 0.83. During the event, the simulation result on the total ionospheric power deposition agrees with observations (correlation coefficient 0.8 and the AE index (0.85.

  5. Exploration of Global Health Careers Across the Medical Fields.

    Barthélemy, Ernest; Mallol, Vanessa; Hannaford, Alisse; Pean, Christian; Kutua, Rehema; de Haydu, Christopher; Anandaraja, Natasha; Asgary, Ramin; Elahi, Ebrahim; Hexom, Braden; Landrigan, Philip; Shirazian, Taraneh; Katz, Craig

    Despite expansion of interest among American medical students in global health (GH), academic medical centers face multiple obstacles to the development of structured GH curricula and career guidance. To meet these demands we sought to provide a systematic analysis of the accounts of GH experts. We developed a collaborative, interview-based, qualitative analysis of GH experiences across six career-related themes that are relevant to medical students interested in GH: justification, medical education, economics, research prospects, law and ethics, and work-life balance. Seven GH faculty members were interviewed for 30-90 minutes using sample questions as guidelines. We applied a grounded theory approach to analyze the interview transcripts to discover an emerging theory pertinent to GH trainees. Regarding justification, 4 respondents defined GH as work with the underserved irrespective of geographic location; 5 respondents found sustainability imperative; and all respondents believe GH creates better physicians. Respondents identified many physician competencies developed through GH medical education, with 5 respondents agreeing that work with underserved populations has transformative potential. Concerning economics, 3 respondents acknowledged GH's popularity among trainees, resulting in increased training opportunities, and 2 respondents emphasized an associated deficiency in program quality. All respondents described career models across specialties. Four respondents noted funding challenges when discussing research prospects. Within the theme of laws and ethics, 4 respondents perceived inadequate accountability, and 6 respondents identified ways to create accountability. Finally, 6 respondents recognized family demands can compromise one's GH career and thus work-life balance. Despite diverse perspectives on the meaning and sustainability of GH work, this analysis provides a nascent framework that may inform curricular development for GH trainees. Suggestions

  6. The necessity of nuclear power: a global human and environmental imperative

    Ritch, J.

    2008-01-01

    Humankind cannot conceivably achieve a global clean-energy revolution without a huge expansion of nuclear power to generate electricity; to produce battery power and possibly hydrogen for tomorrow's vehicles; to desalinate seawater in response to the worlds rapidly emerging fresh-water crisis. Factors for accelerating the nuclear renaissance are: comprehensive post-Kyoto agreement all major nations, with appropriate obligations, strong political and economic incentives and goal to achieve 60% cut in global emissions by 2050; harness UN system to one clean-energy vision nuclear power at centre of global strategy; national incentive policies not for subsidy but for acceleration; education policies public's better understanding of nuclear energy new generation of nuclear professionals

  7. Analysis of General Power Counting Rules in Effective Field Theory

    Gavela, B M; Manohar, A V; Merlo, L

    2016-01-01

    We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. The size of cross sections is controlled by the $\\Lambda$ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory ($\\chi$PT). The relation between $\\Lambda$ and $f$ is generalized to $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis $4\\pi$ counting is related to $\\hbar$ counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to $\\chi$PT, to Standard Model EFT and to the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT, which combines the $\\Lambda$ and chiral counting rules within a single theory.

  8. GLOBALIZATION AND THE DECLINE OF THE UNITED STATES ECONOMIC INSTRUMENT OF POWER

    2017-06-01

    of global trade relations. Whereas forty years ago, 90 percent of international trade consisted of mercantilist goods; today , 90 percent of... GLOBALIZATION AND THE DECLINE OF THE UNITED STATES ECONOMIC INSTRUMENT OF POWER BY MAJOR JOSH WATKINS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE...bachelor of business administration degree from Old Dominion University in 2001. He was commissioned through Officer Training School in 2002 and his

  9. Global freshwater thermal emissions from steam-electric power plants with once-through cooling systems

    Raptis, Catherine E.; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of heat are rejected into freshwater bodies from power plants employing once-through cooling systems, often leading to temperature increases that disturb aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this work was to produce a high resolution global picture of power-related freshwater thermal emissions and to analyse the technological, geographical and chronological patterns behind them. The Rankine cycle was systematically solved for ∼2400 generating units with once-through cooling systems, distinguishing between simple and cogenerative cycles, giving the rejected heat as a direct output. With large unit sizes, low efficiencies, and high capacity factors, nuclear power plants reject 3.7 GW heat into freshwater on average, contrasting with 480 MW rejected from coal and gas power plants. Together, nuclear and coal-fuelled power plants from the 1970s and 1980s account for almost 50% of the rejected heat worldwide, offering motivation for their phasing out in the future. Globally, 56% of the emissions are rejected into rivers, pointing to potential areas of high thermal pollution, with the rest entering lakes and reservoirs. The outcome of this work can be used to further investigate the identified thermal emission hotspots, and to calculate regionalized water temperature increase and related impacts in environmental, energy-water nexus studies and beyond. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic cycles of ∼2400 power units with once-through cooling were solved. • Global freshwater heat emissions depend on technology, geography & chronology. • Half the global emissions come from nuclear and coal plants from the 70s & 80s. • Hotspots of freshwater thermal emissions were identified globally. • Global georeferenced emissions are available for use in water temperature models.

  10. Tracking the global maximum power point of PV arrays under partial shading conditions

    Fennich, Meryem

    This thesis presents the theoretical and simulation studies of the global maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic systems under partial shading. The main goal is to track the maximum power point of the photovoltaic module so that the maximum possible power can be extracted from the photovoltaic panels. When several panels are connected in series with some of them shaded partially either due to clouds or shadows from neighboring buildings, several local maxima appear in the power vs. voltage curve. A power increment based MPPT algorithm is effective in identifying the global maximum from the several local maxima. Several existing MPPT algorithms are explored and the state-of-the-art power increment method is simulated and tested for various partial shading conditions. The current-voltage and power-voltage characteristics of the PV model are studied under different partial shading conditions, along with five different cases demonstrating how the MPPT algorithm performs when shading switches from one state to another. Each case is supplemented with simulation results. The method of tracking the Global MPP is based on controlling the DC-DC converter connected to the output of the PV array. A complete system simulation including the PV array, the direct current to direct current (DC-DC) converter and the MPPT is presented and tested using MATLAB software. The simulation results show that the MPPT algorithm works very well with the buck converter, while the boost converter needs further changes and implementation.

  11. Limit sets and global dynamic for 2-D divergence-free vector fields

    Marzougui, H.

    2004-08-01

    T. Ma and S. Wang studied the global structure of regular divergence-free vector fields on compact surfaces with or without boundary. This paper extends their study to the general case of divergence-free vector fields (regular or not) on closed surfaces and gives as a consequence a simple proof of their results. (author)

  12. Global changes in intensity of the Earth's magnetic field during the past 800kyr

    Guyodo, Yohan; Valet, Jean-Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in palaeomagnetic and dating techniques have led to increasingly precise records of the relative intensity of the Earth’s past magnetic field at numerous field sites. The compilation and analysis of these records can provide important constraints on changes in global magnetic

  13. Trapped-Ion Quantum Logic with Global Radiation Fields.

    Weidt, S; Randall, J; Webster, S C; Lake, K; Webb, A E; Cohen, I; Navickas, T; Lekitsch, B; Retzker, A; Hensinger, W K

    2016-11-25

    Trapped ions are a promising tool for building a large-scale quantum computer. However, the number of required radiation fields for the realization of quantum gates in any proposed ion-based architecture scales with the number of ions within the quantum computer, posing a major obstacle when imagining a device with millions of ions. Here, we present a fundamentally different approach for trapped-ion quantum computing where this detrimental scaling vanishes. The method is based on individually controlled voltages applied to each logic gate location to facilitate the actual gate operation analogous to a traditional transistor architecture within a classical computer processor. To demonstrate the key principle of this approach we implement a versatile quantum gate method based on long-wavelength radiation and use this method to generate a maximally entangled state of two quantum engineered clock qubits with fidelity 0.985(12). This quantum gate also constitutes a simple-to-implement tool for quantum metrology, sensing, and simulation.

  14. Legal Pluralism, Private Power, and the Impact of the Financial Crisis on the Global Political Economy

    Edward S. Cohen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Private corporate actors have played a central role in the construction of the legal rules of globalized capitalism over the past four decades. In no sector has this been more true than in global finance, where private agents have reshaped the norms and practices of credit creation and allocation. The global financial crisis, however, has led many states to challenge aspects of this power and raised broader questions about the legitimacy and future of private power in the global legal order(s. In this paper, I argue that –while state actors have clawed back significant power in global finance– the specific powers of credit creation and allocation combined with the structural pull of transnational legal pluralism will enable major private financial institutions to retain substantial power in the face of these challenges and questions. In the process, I present some broad suggestion about how we can think about private power in the making of global commercial law. Durante las últimas cuatro décadas, actores corporativos privados han desempeñado un papel decisivo en la construcción de las normas legales del capitalismo globalizado. En ningún sector ha sido esto más cierto que en las finanzas globales, donde los agentes privados han reformado las normas y prácticas de la creación de crédito y asignación. La crisis financiera global, sin embargo, ha llevado a muchos estados a cuestionar aspectos de este poder y planteado cuestiones más amplias acerca de la legitimidad y el futuro del poder privado en el/los ordenamiento/s jurídico/s global/es. En este trabajo se sostiene que –mientras que los actores estatales han recuperado un poder significativo en las finanzas globales– los poderes específicos de la creación de crédito y asignación combinados con la fuerza estructural del pluralismo jurídico transnacional permitirán a las principales instituciones financieras privadas retener poder sustancial ante estos retos y preguntas

  15. Mapping the impacts of thermoelectric power generation: a global, spatially explicit database

    Raptis, Catherine; Pfister, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric power generation is associated with environmental pressures resulting from emissions to air and water, as well as water consumption. The need to achieve global coverage in related studies has become pressing in view of climate change. At the same time, the ability to quantify impacts from power production on a high resolution remains pertinent, given their highly regionalized nature, particularly when it comes to water-related impacts. Efforts towards global coverage have increased in recent years, but most work on the impacts of global electricity production presents a coarse geographical differentiation. Over the past few years we have begun a concerted effort to create and make available a global georeferenced inventory of thermoelectric power plant operational characteristics and emissions, by modelling the relevant processes on the highest possible level: that of a generating unit. Our work extends and enhances a commercially available global power plant database, and so far includes: - Georeferencing the generating units and populating the gaps in their steam properties. - Identifying the cooling system for 92% of the global installed thermoelectric power capacity. - Using the completed steam property data, along with local environmental temperature data, to systematically solve the Rankine cycle for each generating unit, involving: i) distinguishing between simple, reheat, and cogenerative cycles, and accounting for particularities in nuclear power cycles; ii) accounting for the effect of different cooling systems (once-through, recirculating (wet tower), dry cooling) on the thermodynamic cycle. One of the direct outcomes of solving the Rankine cycle is the cycle efficiency, an indispensable parameter in any study related to power production, including the quantification of air emissions and water consumption. Another direct output, for those units employing once-through cooling, is the rate of heat rejection to water, which can lead to

  16. Cosmological models in globally geodesic coordinates. II. Near-field approximation

    Liu Hongya

    1987-01-01

    A near-field approximation dealing with the cosmological field near a typical freely falling observer is developed within the framework established in the preceding paper [J. Math. Phys. 28, xxxx(1987)]. It is found that for the matter-dominated era the standard cosmological model of general relativity contains the Newtonian cosmological model, proposed by Zel'dovich, as its near-field approximation in the observer's globally geodesic coordinate system

  17. First Use of Synoptic Vector Magnetograms for Global Nonlinear, Force-Free Coronal Magnetic Field Models

    Tadesse, T.; Wiegelmann, T.; Gosain, S.; MacNeice, P.; Pevtsov, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere is generally thought to provide the energy for much of the activity seen in the solar corona, such as flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), etc. To overcome the unavailability of coronal magnetic field measurements, photospheric magnetic field vector data can be used to reconstruct the coronal field. Currently, there are several modelling techniques being used to calculate three-dimensional field lines into the solar atmosphere. Aims. For the first time, synoptic maps of a photospheric-vector magnetic field synthesized from the vector spectromagnetograph (VSM) on Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) are used to model the coronal magnetic field and estimate free magnetic energy in the global scale. The free energy (i.e., the energy in excess of the potential field energy) is one of the main indicators used in space weather forecasts to predict the eruptivity of active regions. Methods. We solve the nonlinear force-free field equations using an optimization principle in spherical geometry. The resulting threedimensional magnetic fields are used to estimate the magnetic free energy content E(sub free) = E(sub nlfff) - E(sub pot), which is the difference of the magnetic energies between the nonpotential field and the potential field in the global solar corona. For comparison, we overlay the extrapolated magnetic field lines with the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations by the atmospheric imaging assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Results. For a single Carrington rotation 2121, we find that the global nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) magnetic energy density is 10.3% higher than the potential one. Most of this free energy is located in active regions.

  18. Global analysis of cloud field coverage and radiative properties, using morphological methods and MODIS observations

    R. Z. Bar-Or

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently recognized continuous transition zone between detectable clouds and cloud-free atmosphere ("the twilight zone" is affected by undetectable clouds and humidified aerosol. In this study, we suggest to distinguish cloud fields (including the detectable clouds and the surrounding twilight zone from cloud-free areas, which are not affected by clouds. For this classification, a robust and simple-to-implement cloud field masking algorithm which uses only the spatial distribution of clouds, is presented in detail. A global analysis, estimating Earth's cloud field coverage (50° S–50° N for 28 July 2008, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data, finds that while the declared cloud fraction is 51%, the global cloud field coverage reaches 88%. The results reveal the low likelihood for finding a cloud-free pixel and suggest that this likelihood may decrease as the pixel size becomes larger. A global latitudinal analysis of cloud fields finds that unlike oceans, which are more uniformly covered by cloud fields, land areas located under the subsidence zones of the Hadley cell (the desert belts, contain proper areas for investigating cloud-free atmosphere as there is 40–80% probability to detect clear sky over them. Usually these golden-pixels, with higher likelihood to be free of clouds, are over deserts. Independent global statistical analysis, using MODIS aerosol and cloud products, reveals a sharp exponential decay of the global mean aerosol optical depth (AOD as a function of the distance from the nearest detectable cloud, both above ocean and land. Similar statistical analysis finds an exponential growth of mean aerosol fine-mode fraction (FMF over oceans when the distance from the nearest cloud increases. A 30 km scale break clearly appears in several analyses here, suggesting this is a typical natural scale of cloud fields. This work shows different microphysical and optical properties of cloud fields

  19. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    Faulkner Alex

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Innovation' has become a policy focus in its own right in many states as they compete to position themselves in the emerging knowledge economies. Innovation in biomedicine is a global enterprise in which 'Rising Power' states figure prominently, and which undoubtedly will re-shape health systems and health economies globally. Scientific and technological innovation processes and policies raise difficult issues in the domains of science/technology, civil society, and the economic and healthcare marketplace. The production of knowledge in these fields is complex, uncertain, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional, and subject to a continuing political struggle for advantage. As part of this struggle, a wide variety of issues - regulation, intellectual property, ethics, scientific boundaries, healthcare market formation - are raised and policy agendas negotiated. Methods A range of social science disciplines and approaches have conceptualised such innovation processes. Against a background of concepts such as the competition state and the developmental state, and national innovation systems, we give an overview of a range of approaches that have potential for advancing understanding of governance of global life science and biomedical innovation, with special reference to the 'Rising Powers', in order to examine convergences and divergences between them. Conceptual approaches that we focus on include those drawn from political science/political economy, sociology of technology; Innovation Studies and Science & Technology Studies. The paper is part of a project supported by the UK ESRC's Rising Powers programme. Results We show convergences and complementarities between the approaches discussed, and argue that the role of the national state itself has become relatively neglected in much of the relevant theorising. Conclusions We conclude that an approach is required that enables innovation and governance to be seen as 'co

  20. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    2011-01-01

    Background 'Innovation' has become a policy focus in its own right in many states as they compete to position themselves in the emerging knowledge economies. Innovation in biomedicine is a global enterprise in which 'Rising Power' states figure prominently, and which undoubtedly will re-shape health systems and health economies globally. Scientific and technological innovation processes and policies raise difficult issues in the domains of science/technology, civil society, and the economic and healthcare marketplace. The production of knowledge in these fields is complex, uncertain, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional, and subject to a continuing political struggle for advantage. As part of this struggle, a wide variety of issues - regulation, intellectual property, ethics, scientific boundaries, healthcare market formation - are raised and policy agendas negotiated. Methods A range of social science disciplines and approaches have conceptualised such innovation processes. Against a background of concepts such as the competition state and the developmental state, and national innovation systems, we give an overview of a range of approaches that have potential for advancing understanding of governance of global life science and biomedical innovation, with special reference to the 'Rising Powers', in order to examine convergences and divergences between them. Conceptual approaches that we focus on include those drawn from political science/political economy, sociology of technology; Innovation Studies and Science & Technology Studies. The paper is part of a project supported by the UK ESRC's Rising Powers programme. Results We show convergences and complementarities between the approaches discussed, and argue that the role of the national state itself has become relatively neglected in much of the relevant theorising. Conclusions We conclude that an approach is required that enables innovation and governance to be seen as 'co-producing' each other in a multi

  1. Student Power in a Global Perspective and Contemporary Trends in Student Organising

    Klemencic, Manja

    2014-01-01

    Students, if organised into representative student governments or movements, can be a highly influential agency shaping higher education policy. This article introduces the Special Issue on student power in a global perspective, which addresses the question of how students are organised in different world regions and what role they play in higher…

  2. Magnetic field considerations in fusion power plant environs

    Liemohn, H.B.; Lessor, D.L.; Duane, B.H.

    1976-09-01

    A summary of magnetic field production mechanisms and effects is given. Discussions are included on the following areas: (1) stray magnetic and electric fields from tokamaks, (2) methods for reducing magnetic fields, (3) economics of magnetic field reductions, (4) forces on magnetizable objects near magnetic confinement fusion reactors, (5) electric field transients in tokamaks, (6) attenuation and decay of electromagnetic fields, and (7) magnetic field transients from tokamak malfunctions

  3. The emergency of concept global health: perspectives for the field of public health

    João Roberto Cavalcante Sampaio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, we have witnessed the emergence of new terms in the academic and political debate of public health, such as ‘’global health’’, ‘’global public goods’’, ‘’global health governance’’, ‘’global public health’’, ‘’health diplomacy’’, 'international cooperation’’. In this study, we aimed to analyze the historical development of the concept of ‘global health’, as well as the prospects of this new concept in the research and public health practice. A comprehensive literature review was performed in Pubmed, Scielo, Scopus, and BVS. We also analyzed documents obtained from the websites of international health organizations. 514 publications were retrieved and 36 were selected for this study. In general, the concept of "global health" refers to health as a transnational phenomenon linked to globalization, which has as main challenge to think public health beyond international relations between countries. International health organizations are particularly important in the development of the concept of "global health" and its new application prospects in the field of public health are health diplomacy, international cooperation and global health governance.

  4. Bahrain and the global balance of power after the Arab spring

    Andersen, Lars Erslev

    2012-01-01

    The global balance of power is changing, and the role of the US as the only superpower is being challenged by emerging new powers and a still more powerful China. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the Persian Gulf. Two wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and continually rising debt have meant that the position of the US has declined. At the same time, Asian states are increasing their economic expansion in the Persian Gulf. Increasing political influence, including a bigger role in hard security...

  5. The future of nuclear power worldwide and the role of the global nuclear energy partnership

    Spurgeon, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation is entitled, 'The Future of Nuclear Power Worldwide and the Role of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership', and the core message in one sentence is: When we look at the challenges of meeting our growing energy demands, providing for energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, we must conclude that nuclear power has to play a significant and growing role in meeting these challenges. Similarly, the mission of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership is to foster the safe and secure worldwide expansion of nuclear energy. GNEP comes at a crucial time in the burgeoning expansion of nuclear power. It is the only comprehensive proposal to close the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States, and engage the international community to minimize proliferation risks as well as provide and benefit from cooperation in policy formation, technical support, and technology and infrastructure development. Nuclear power's poised renaissance is encouraging, but it will require public support, expanded R and D activities and facilities, and increases in human capital needed for wide-scale construction and operation of new nuclear plants. Despite recent political currents, Germany can, too, become a part of this renaissance and become a full partner in the global partnership that shares a common vision for nuclear power's expansion. (orig.)

  6. Activities in the field of small nuclear power reactors

    Baranaev, Yu.D.; Dolgov, V.V.; Sergeev, Yu.A. [Physics and Power Eng. Inst., Obninsk (Russian Federation). State Res. Centre

    1997-10-01

    Considerable efforts have been undertaken for development, design, construction and operation of small nuclear power plants (SNPP) in Russia. Systematic work in this area was started in the mid-1950s. The driving force for this activity was the awareness that the use of nuclear fuel would practically solve the problem of fuel transportation. As far as the remote northern regions are concerned, this provides the key advantage of nuclear over conventional energy sources. The activity in the field of SNPP has included pre-design analytical feasibility studies and experimental research including large-scale experiments on critical assemblies, thermal and hydraulic test facilities, research and development work, construction and operation of pilot and demonstration SNPPs, and finally, construction and more than 20 years of operation of the commercial SNPP, namely Bilibino nuclear co-generation plant (NCGP) located in Chukotka autonomous district, which is one of the most remote regions in the far north-east of Russia. In recent years, studies have been carried out on the development of several new SNPP designs using advanced reactors of the new generation. Among these are the second stage of Bilibino NCGP, floating NCGP VOLNOLOM-3, designated for siting in the Arctic sea coast area, and a nuclear district heating plant for the town of Apatity, in the Murmansk region. In this paper, the background and current status of the SNPPs are given, and the problems as well as prospects of small nuclear reactors development and implementation are considered. (orig.) 20 refs.

  7. Prudent avoidance guidelines for power frequency magnetic fields

    Nuttall, K.

    1999-01-01

    In March 1991, following a wide ranging inquiry into community needs and high voltage transmission line development, Sir Harry Gibbs, an ex-Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia concluded that adverse health effects from power frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) had not been established. He went on to find that there was some evidence that they might pose a risk to health. On this basis, he recommended a policy of prudent avoidance in the construction of new transmission lines. Since that time, a succession of inquiries in Australia and overseas have made similar findings and recommended prudent avoidance. This paper provides practical guidance to electricity transmission and distribution utilities and other interested stakeholders in the application of prudent avoidance to the design and siting of new electrical facilities. The paper provides background information and a range of general measures which might prudently be applied. It is not the authors' intention to provide precise instructions for the application of prudent avoidance but, rather, to provide a series of guiding principles which may be applied to particular situations, having regard to the specific design practices and other policies of individual electricity utilities. Copyright (1999) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  8. The EU as a global ecological power: The logics of market integration

    Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we try to show how the EU became a global ecological power, i.e. a power that influences environmental policies throughout the world. While the existing literature stresses the significance of normative power, regulatory politics and multi-level governance in this process, we highlight the importance of what we call the logics of market integration. By that we mean the decisive role of Single market integration in fostering convergence of environmental policies at the European level as well as in extending European influence at the global level. We illustrate our approach with the case of climate policy, detailing the EU's influence on economic instruments developed worldwide to mitigate climate change. (authors)

  9. Design Improvements on Graded Insulation of Power Transformers Using Transient Electric Field Analysis and Visualization Technique

    Yamashita, Hideo; Nakamae, Eihachiro; Namera, Akihiro; Cingoski, Vlatko; Kitamura, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with design improvements on graded insulation of power transformers using transient electric field analysis and a visualization technique. The calculation method for transient electric field analysis inside a power transformer impressed with impulse voltage is presented: Initially, the concentrated electric network for the power transformer is concentrated by dividing transformer windings into several blocks and by computing the electric circuit parameters.

  10. Limit theorems for power variations of ambit fields driven by white noise

    Pakkanen, Mikko

    We study the asymptotic behavior of lattice power variations of two-parameter ambit fields that are driven by white noise. Our first result is a law of large numbers for such power variations. Under a constraint on the memory of the ambit field, normalized power variations are shown to converge...

  11. Limit theorems for power variations of ambit field driven by white noise

    Pakkanen, Mikko S.

    2014-01-01

    We study the asymptotics of lattice power variations of two-parameter ambit fields driven by white noise. Our first result is a law of large numbers for power variations. Under a constraint on the memory of the ambit field, normalized power variations converge to certain integral functionals...

  12. Using global magnetospheric models for simulation and interpretation of Swarm external field measurements

    Moretto, T.; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    simulated external contributions relevant for internal field modeling. These have proven very valuable for the design and planning of the up-coming multi-satellite Swarm mission. In addition, a real event simulation was carried out for a moderately active time interval when observations from the Orsted...... it consistently underestimates the dayside region 2 currents and overestimates the horizontal ionospheric closure currents in the dayside polar cap. Furthermore, with this example we illustrate the great benefit of utilizing the global model for the interpretation of Swarm external field observations and......, likewise, the potential of using Swarm measurements to test and improve the global model....

  13. The Undergraduate Field-Research Experience in Global Health: Study Abroad, Service Learning, Professional Training or "None of the Above"?

    Stewart, Kearsley A.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in short-term international placements in global health training for U.S.-based medical students is growing; the trend is mirrored for global health undergraduate students. Best practices in field-based global health training can increase success for medical students, but we lack a critical framework for the undergraduate global health…

  14. Optimizing Global Coronal Magnetic Field Models Using Image-Based Constraints

    Jones-Mecholsky, Shaela I.; Davila, Joseph M.; Uritskiy, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    The coronal magnetic field directly or indirectly affects a majority of the phenomena studied in the heliosphere. It provides energy for coronal heating, controls the release of coronal mass ejections, and drives heliospheric and magnetospheric activity, yet the coronal magnetic field itself has proven difficult to measure. This difficulty has prompted a decades-long effort to develop accurate, timely, models of the field, an effort that continues today. We have developed a method for improving global coronal magnetic field models by incorporating the type of morphological constraints that could be derived from coronal images. Here we report promising initial tests of this approach on two theoretical problems, and discuss opportunities for application.

  15. Field theories on supermanifolds: general formalism, local supersymmetry, and the limit of global supersymmetry

    Bruzzo, V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports briefly on recent investigations concerning the formulation of field theories on supermanifolds. The usual formulations are unsatisfactory from a mathematical viewpoint, hence, this report. A variational theory for fields on a supermanifold is described where the action is a map between Banach spaces. The relationship between the field theory on the supermanifold and a suitably constructed field theory on space-time is also discussed. On-shell local supersymmetry are examined and the limit of global (rigid) supersymmetry is considered. A specific example is given which shows that the limit reproduces the known results

  16. A contemporary decennial global Landsat sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    White, Emma; Roy, David

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change, with dramatic cropland expansion in the last century and significant increases in productivity over the past few decades. Satellite data have been used for agricultural applications including cropland distribution mapping, crop condition monitoring, crop production assessment and yield prediction. Satellite based agricultural applications are less reliable when the sensor spatial resolution is small relative to the field size. However, to date, studies of agricultural field size distributions and their change have been limited, even though this information is needed to inform the design of agricultural satellite monitoring systems. Moreover, the size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLU change. In many parts of the world field sizes may have increased. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, and impacts on the diffusion of herbicides, pesticides, disease pathogens, and pests. The Landsat series of satellites provide the longest record of global land observations, with 30m observations available since 1982. Landsat data are used to examine contemporary field size changes in a period (1980 to 2010) when significant global agricultural changes have occurred. A multi-scale sampling approach is used to locate global hotspots of field size change by examination of a recent global agricultural yield map and literature review. Nine hotspots are selected where significant field size change is apparent and where change has been driven by technological advancements (Argentina and U.S.), abrupt societal changes (Albania and Zimbabwe), government land use and agricultural policy changes (China, Malaysia, Brazil), and/or constrained by

  17. Passive Shielding Effect on Space Profile of Magnetic Field Emissions for Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields emitted by wireless power transfer systems are of high importance with respect to human safety and health. Aluminum and ferrite are used in the system to reduce the fields and are termed as passive shielding. In this paper, the influence of these materials on the space profile has...... fields for wireless power transfer for vehicle applications....

  18. Global Public Goods and The Role of Emerging Power: Considering the Concept of Impure Public Goods

    Liu Rieshøj Yi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing analysis of global public goods over-emphasizes the significance of public. Great power as a main provider has played an active role in these strategic initiatives, which may be ignored. In fact, main power has thought about the possible free-riders when providing public goods and making its foreign strategic plan. China’s announcement to “welcome the neighbouring countries to be a free-rider and benefit from China’s rise” is a good example. It is necessary to think about the theory of public goods and take another look at the free-riding phenomenon. The concept of impure public goods may be useful and effective when we understand the reason why global public goods are being provided and are relatively efficient. As an emerging power, China should have a clear strategy on global public goods with a possible “marketing” viewpoint, including more initiatives and specific measures, so that the global public goods provision may be more diverse and well-planned.

  19. Bringing the field into the classroom: an innovative methodology in global health teaching

    Dr. M H Bryant, MBBS; J Wolff, MD

    2015-01-01

    Background: The practice of global health is difficult to teach from a US-based classroom. Students benefit from experiencing how theory becomes practice in the chaotic environments of under-resourced health programmes in developing countries. We could not take our students to the field during weekly course work, so we designed a course to bring the field to the students. We created innovative partnerships with locally based organisations that implement programmes in developing countries. Eac...

  20. Mapping the global football field: a sociological model of transnational forces within the world game.

    Giulianotti, Richard; Robertson, Roland

    2012-06-01

    This paper provides a sociological model of the key transnational political and economic forces that are shaping the 'global football field'. The model draws upon, and significantly extends, the theory of the 'global field' developed previously by Robertson. The model features four quadrants, each of which contains a dominant operating principle, an 'elemental reference point', and an 'elemental theme'. The quadrants contain, first, neo-liberalism, associated with the individual and elite football clubs; second, neo-mercantilism, associated with nation-states and national football systems; third, international relations, associated with international governing bodies; and fourth, global civil society, associated with diverse institutions that pursue human development and/or social justice. We examine some of the interactions and tensions between the major institutional and ideological forces across the four quadrants. We conclude by examining how the weakest quadrant, featuring global civil society, may gain greater prominence within football. In broad terms, we argue that our four-fold model may be utilized to map and to examine other substantive research fields with reference to globalization. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  1. The deflection angle of a gravitational source with a global monopole in the strong field limit

    Cheng Hongbo; Man Jingyun

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational lensing effect in the strong field background around the Schwarzschild black hole with extremely small mass and solid deficit angle subject to the global monopole by means of the strong field limit issue. We obtain the angular position and magnification of the relativistic images and show that they relate to the global monopole parameter η. We discuss that with the increase of the parameter η, the minimum impact parameter u m and angular separation s increase and the relative magnification r decreases. We also find that s grows extremely as the increasing parameter η becomes large enough. The deflection angle will become larger when the parameter η grows. The effect from the solid deficit angle is the dependence of angular position, angular separation, relative magnification and deflection angle on the parameter η, which may offer a way to characterize some possible distinct signatures of the Schwarzschild black hole with a solid deficit angle associated with the global monopole.

  2. Modeling the UT effect in global distribution of ionospheric electric fields

    Lukianova, R.; Christiansen, Freddy

    2008-01-01

    A new approach for modeling the global distribution of ionospheric electric potentials utilizing high-precision maps of field-aligned currents (FACs) derived from measurements by the Orsted and Magsat satellites as input to a comprehensive numerical scheme is presented. We simulate the universal ...

  3. Globalization of authorship in the marketing discipline: Does it help or hinder the field?

    S. Stremersch (Stefan); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractMarketing scholars have reflected upon the marketing discipline's internal evolution before. However, no prior study has assessed the globalization of authorship in our discipline, let alone assessed its consequences for the field. This paper addresses the following two questions: (1) Is

  4. Globalization of authorship in the marketing discipline : Does it help or hinder the field?

    Stremersch, S; Verhoef, PC

    2005-01-01

    Marketing scholars have reflected upon the marketing discipline's internal evolution before. However, no prior study has assessed the globalization of authorship in our discipline, let alone assessed its consequences for the field. This paper addresses the following two questions: (1) Is there

  5. The Bolivarian University of Venezuela: A Radical Alternative in the Global Field of Higher Education?

    Ivancheva, Mariya

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses paradoxes in the emergent global field of higher education as reflected in an alternative model of the university--the Bolivarian University of Venezuela (UBV) and the related higher education policy, Mision Sucre. With its credo in the applied social sciences, its commitment to popular pedagogy and its dependence on…

  6. How states exerted power to create the Millennium Development Goals and how this shaped the global health agenda: Lessons for the sustainable development goals and the future of global health.

    Marten, Robert

    2018-04-26

    Since 2000, the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provided the framework for global development efforts transforming the field now known as global health. The MDGs both reflected and contributed to shaping a normative global health agenda. In the field of global health, the role of the state is largely considered to have diminished; however, this paper reasserts states as actors in the conceptualisation and institutionalisation of the MDGs, and illustrates how states exerted power and engaged in the MDG process. States not only sanctioned the MDGs through their heads of states endorsing the Millennium Declaration, but also acted more subtly behind the scenes supporting, enabling, and/or leveraging other actors, institutions and processes to conceptualise and legitimize the MDGs. Appreciating the MDGs' role in the conceptualisation of global health is particularly relevant as the world transitions to the MDGs' successor, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs' influence, impact and importance remains to be seen; however, to understand the future of global health and how actors, particularly states, can engage to shape the field, a deeper sense of the MDGs' legacy and how actors engaged in the past is helpful.

  7. A Power Efficient Exaflop Computer Design for Global Cloud System Resolving Climate Models.

    Wehner, M. F.; Oliker, L.; Shalf, J.

    2008-12-01

    Exascale computers would allow routine ensemble modeling of the global climate system at the cloud system resolving scale. Power and cost requirements of traditional architecture systems are likely to delay such capability for many years. We present an alternative route to the exascale using embedded processor technology to design a system optimized for ultra high resolution climate modeling. These power efficient processors, used in consumer electronic devices such as mobile phones, portable music players, cameras, etc., can be tailored to the specific needs of scientific computing. We project that a system capable of integrating a kilometer scale climate model a thousand times faster than real time could be designed and built in a five year time scale for US$75M with a power consumption of 3MW. This is cheaper, more power efficient and sooner than any other existing technology.

  8. The Emergence of `Power with': The Case of a Born Global Organization

    Yan, Lin; Panteli, Niki

    Thanks to the advancement of Information and Communications Technologies, the past decade has seen the rise of Born Global organizations (Rennie, 1993; Oviatt and McDougall, 1994; Karra and Philips, 2004; Zahra, 2005). Broadly defined as ‘business organizations that, right from inception, seek to derive significant competitive advantages from the use of resources and the sales of outputs in multiple countries’ (Oviatt and McDougall, 1994: 49), Born Global organizations are small, young, and internationally dispersed. While sharing the characteristics of ‘smallness’ and ‘newness’ of Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), Born Global organizations also bear ‘foreignness’, similar to that of Multinational Corporations (Zahra, 2005). Born Globals therefore need to strike a balance between ‘global reach’ and ‘local touch’ as in Multinational Corporations (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1989); yet they have to do so with scare resources and organizational uncertainty similar to SMEs, and with ‘lean’ and ‘mean’ communications afforded by ICT (e.g. Sproull and Kiesler, 1986). This study is an initial attempt to untangle the combined challenges in Born Globals’ innovative way of management. Through a longitudinal case study, we aim to explore the issue of power in a Born Global’s endeavour to manage its global knowledge via technology mediation.

  9. Dynamics of global supply chain and electric power networks: Models, pricing analysis, and computations

    Matsypura, Dmytro

    In this dissertation, I develop a new theoretical framework for the modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of solutions to electric power supply chains with power generators, suppliers, transmission service providers, and the inclusion of consumer demands. In particular, I advocate the application of finite-dimensional variational inequality theory, projected dynamical systems theory, game theory, network theory, and other tools that have been recently proposed for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks (cf. Nagurney (2006)) to electric power markets. This dissertation contributes to the extant literature on the modeling, analysis, and solution of supply chain networks, including global supply chains, in general, and electric power supply chains, in particular, in the following ways. It develops a theoretical framework for modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of electric power flows/transactions in electric power systems using the rationale for supply chain analysis. The models developed include both static and dynamic ones. The dissertation also adds a new dimension to the methodology of the theory of projected dynamical systems by proving that, irrespective of the speeds of adjustment, the equilibrium of the system remains the same. Finally, I include alternative fuel suppliers, along with their behavior into the supply chain modeling and analysis framework. This dissertation has strong practical implications. In an era in which technology and globalization, coupled with increasing risk and uncertainty, complicate electricity demand and supply within and between nations, the successful management of electric power systems and pricing become increasingly pressing topics with relevance not only for economic prosperity but also national security. This dissertation addresses such related topics by providing models, pricing tools, and algorithms for decentralized electric power supply chains. This dissertation is based heavily on the following

  10. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2010 Annual Review

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    The global power deal market is finally seeing an upward trend in momentum from the lows reached in 2009, with the total deal value in the non-renewable electricity and gas sectors up 19% year on year from USD 97.6bn to USD 116bn in 2010 - a year which also saw an end to the deal stalemate in the US with a renewed deal flow that looks set to continue this year. Compared to the heady mountain of power deals transacted between 2005-2008, deal values remain low but conditions are in place for a return at least to the foothills of these peaks, according to PwC's annual Power Deals review. Globalisation of the power sector is moving forward on a number of fronts with, for example, companies looking at gaining a larger presence in growth markets, acquisitions of global network asset portfolios with strong international interest in infrastructure assets and signs of greater Chinese involvement, not just from grid companies but also independent power producers.

  11. The reversed-field pinch as a poloidal-field-dominated, compact, high-power-density fusion system

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of reversed-field pinch devices as future thermonuclear reactors. Safety, cost, ion temperatures, Lawson numbers, and power densities are reviewed for these types of devices. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Japan and the changing global balance of power: The view from the summit

    Dobson, H.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores Japan's relative decline and its responses to the changing global balance of power through a case study of one symptom of this shift: the rise of the G20 as the 'premier forum for international economic co-operation' at the expense of the G8. The G8 has traditionally held a significant position in Japan's international relations that appears to be undermined by the rise of the G20. Japan's responses to these developments reveal it to be a status quo power that is still c...

  13. Investigations of radial electric field and global circulation layer in limiter tokamaks

    Zagorski, R.; Gerhauser, H.; Lehnen, M.; Loarer, T.

    2002-01-01

    An updated version of the 2D multifluid code TECXY is used to study the radial electric field structure and the appearance of a global circulation layer (GCL) inside the separatrix of the limiter tokamaks TEXTOR-94 and Tore-Supra-CIEL. The dependence of the driving forces on device geometry, limiter position, magnetic field orientation, impurity content and other parameters is investigated. The centrifugal force in the vicinity of the limiter head always determines the direction of the poloidal velocity in the GCL. There is good agreement with experimentally measured profiles of the poloidal velocity at the TEXTOR low field side. (orig.)

  14. Outlook for Global Nuclear Power: Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period up to 2050

    Gritsevskyi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear power's global expansion is projected to continue in the coming decades - albeit at a slowing pace - amid challenges including low fossil fuel prices, a sluggish world economy and the legacy of Japan's Fukushima Daiichi accident. Each year, the IAEA publishes projections of the world's nuclear power generating capacity in Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period up to 2050, now in its 35th edition.The latest projections point to slower growth in nuclear power, in keeping with the trend since the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident. The world's nuclear power generating capacity is projected to expand by 2.4 percent by 2030, according to the low projections, compared with 7.7 percent estimated in 2014. In the high case, generating capacity is estimated to grow by 68 percent by 2030, versus 88 percent forecast last year. Uncertainty related to energy policy, license renewals, shutdowns and future constructions accounts for the wide range.The estimates also factor in the likely future retirement of many of the world's 438 nuclear reactors currently in operation, more than half of which are over 30 years old. Despite the need to replace scores of retiring reactors, nuclear power is still set to maintain - and possibly increase - its role in the world's low-carbon energy mix. It's important to understand that these projections, while carefully derived, are not predictions.The estimates should be viewed as very general growth trends, whose validity must be constantly subjected to critical review.(author).

  15. Global Knowledge Futures: Articulating the Emergence of a New Meta-level Field

    Jennifer M. Gidley

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I articulate a new meta-level field of studies that I call global knowledge futures—a field through which other emerging transdisciplinary fields can be integrated to cohere knowledge at a higher level. I contrast this with the current dominant knowledge paradigm of the global knowledge economy with its fragmentation, commodification and instrumentalism based on neoliberal knowledge capitalism. I take a big-picture, macrohistorical lens to the new thinking and new knowledge patterns that are emerging within the evolution of consciousness discourse. I explore three discourses: postformal studies, integral studies and planetary studies—using a fourth discourse, futures studies, to provide a macro-temporal framing. By extending the meta-fields of postformal, integral and planetary studies into a prospective future dimension, I locate areas of development where these leading-edge discourses can be brought into closer dialogue with each other. In this meeting point of four boundary-spanning discourses I identify the new meta-level field of global knowledge futures, grounded in human thinking capacities, such as creativity, imagination, dialogue and collaboration.

  16. A GOCE-only global gravity field model by the space-wise approach

    Migliaccio, Frederica; Reguzzoni, Mirko; Gatti, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The global gravity field model computed by the spacewise approach is one of three official solutions delivered by ESA from the analysis of the GOCE data. The model consists of a set of spherical harmonic coefficients and the corresponding error covariance matrix. The main idea behind this approach...... the orbit to reduce the noise variance and correlation before gridding the data. In the first release of the space-wise approach, based on a period of about two months, some prior information coming from existing gravity field models entered into the solution especially at low degrees and low orders...... degrees; the second is an internally computed GOCE-only prior model to be used in place of the official quick-look model, thus removing the dependency on EIGEN5C especially in the polar gaps. Once the procedure to obtain a GOCE-only solution has been outlined, a new global gravity field model has been...

  17. The cost and benefit of energy technology in the global context - the case of fusion power

    Clarke, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to evaluate the economical and environmental consequences of fusion power for the next century. For this evaluation, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory global energy/economy model is used. In applying the model to analyse costs and benefits of fusion energy, the author compares the projections of the model for a world with and without fusion. (TEC). 5 tabs., 7 figs., 18 refs

  18. The Shifting Global Power Balance Equations and the Emerging Real ‘New World Order’

    Ovie-D’Leone, Alex Igho

    2010-01-01

    Expansion in globalization arising from increased interconnectivity and interdependence across the worldis causing a shift both in the focus of what now could determine the principal international powervariables and the criteria for power balancing calculus. One direct challenge to the status quo is theemergence on one hand of new state actors which are becoming more assertive, as well as some other newkey non-state actors now matching states seemingly one-on-one on the world stage in many sp...

  19. Electric power globalization and reforming; Globalizacao e reforma do setor eletrico

    Soares Neto, Jose Lino [PETROBRAS Distribuidora, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to define the economic and political forces of the electric power sector regulation restructuring.

  20. The European Union in International Politics: Acting as a Global Civilian Power (GCP

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Cold War the European Community lacking common military instruments was perceived as the example of a civilian power. However, in the early 1990s, under the framework of CFSP, the first concrete defence initiatives have been launched. By the end of the 1990s and after the agreement on the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP the first Rapid Reaction Forces were on the European military agenda. Such defence and military capabilities challenged the idea of the EU as a civil or civilian power. Thus, a main concern in the paper has been to assess the character and identity of the EU`s activities in the context of international relations. For this purpose, this study has explored the EU policy instruments such as the enlargement policy, external aid, environmental policy at the global level, multilateralism, and the EU armed forces. The study concludes that the enlargement policy accounts for an important EU strategy to shape the international environment through civilian means. Furthermore, the international aid policy of the EU states has primarily been based on the sense of duty to other countries as constructivists point out. The EU has also been vocal and has used environmental foreign policy as an instrument to demonstrate its global leadership role which is a clear indication of its commitment to global welfare. Thanks to its presence in the major multilateral interventions of the last decade, the EU has qualified itself as great supporter of multilateralism. Lastly, the EU military capabilities are not achieved by creating permanent European armed forces but are still based on the voluntary contributions of its member states. Therefore, the EU still can be portrayed as a global civilian power (GCP or civilian power Europe (CPE.

  1. Benchmarking global supply chains: the power of the ‘ethical audit’ regime

    LeBaron, G.; Lister, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article critically investigates the growing power and effectiveness of the ‘ethical’ compliance audit regime. Over the last decade, audits have evolved from a tool for companies to track internal organisational performance into a transnational governing mechanism to measure and strengthen corporate accountability globally and shape corporate responsibility norms. Drawing on original interviews, we assess the effectiveness of supply chain benchmarks and audits in promoting environmental a...

  2. Measurement of magnetic fields in the direct proximity of power line conductors

    Mamishev, A.V.; Russell, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    Modeling and managing of power frequency magnetic fields requires verification of theory with actual measurements. Measurements only at ground level are not always sufficient for comprehensive studies. The technique and the results of three-dimensional mapping of the power frequency magnetic fields high above ground level are presented in this paper. Comparative calculations illustrate relevance and approximations of the existing theoretical approach to field modeling. The influence of harmonics on the elliptical rotation of the magnetic field vector is illustrated. The possibility of use of the magnetic fields for the power line proximity detection is discussed

  3. Roles of nuclear power system in the presence of uncertainties from global warming

    Kiriyama, Eriko; Iwata, Shuichi

    2005-01-01

    Environmental 'bads' like carbon dioxide are not simply incorporated in the market system. The costs involved, however, do not really reflect the inherent value of the environment, or what it is worth to them. This study focuses on the uncertainty of CO 2 emission credits. Assigning economic values to environmental goods and services is complex, but it is an area that is receiving considerable attention from environmental economists. The purpose of this study is to analyze the value of an investment in power generation assets that do not emit CO 2 . To deal with the CO 2 emission credit, we built new models based on the real option model by Pindyck (2000). In the modern, market-based financial systems that dominate the global economy, the value of a resource is represented by the price that an individual or a group is willing to pay for it. Managing CO 2 emission limitations will be a critical aspect of power generation systems. And it will be increasingly so as the emphasis on global environmental issues continues to rise. In order to secure the effectiveness of measures against global warming, we should reconsider the role of nuclear power systems. (author)

  4. A GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY RESOURCES: NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resources (POWER) Project

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Chandler, W.; Hoell, J. M.; Westberg, D.; Whitlock, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's POWER project, or the Prediction of the Worldwide Energy Resources project, synthesizes and analyzes data on a global scale. The products of the project find valuable applications in the solar and wind energy sectors of the renewable energy industries. The primary source data for the POWER project are NASA's World Climate Research Project (WCRP)/Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project (Release 3.0) and the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) assimilation model (V 4.0.3). Users of the POWER products access the data through NASA's Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE, Version 6.0) website (http://power.larc.nasa.gov). Over 200 parameters are available to the users. The spatial resolution is 1 degree by 1 degree now and will be finer later. The data covers from July 1983 to December 2007, a time-span of 24.5 years, and are provided as 3-hourly, daily and monthly means. As of now, there have been over 18 million web hits and over 4 million data file downloads. The POWER products have been systematically validated against ground-based measurements, and in particular, data from the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) archive, and also against the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). Parameters such as minimum, maximum, daily mean temperature and dew points, relative humidity and surface pressure are validated against the National Climate Data Center (NCDC) data. SSE feeds data directly into Decision Support Systems including RETScreen International clean energy project analysis software that is written in 36 languages and has greater than 260,000 users worldwide.

  5. Global nuclear survey: Public support for new power plants remains tentative

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A new 18-country opinion survey sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) found that 'while majorities of citizens generally support the continued use of existing nuclear reactors, most people do not favour the building of new nuclear plants'. Indeed, the findings of the survey, conducted by Globescan Inc. show that 'six in ten citizens (62%) overall believe that existing nuclear reactors should continue to be used, yet six in ten (59%) do not favour new nuclear plants being built'. At a time when the nuclear power option is being vigorously pursued in the fast developing countries of Asia and being reconsidered in some European nations and the USA, the findings raise questions as to whether the nuclear industry and politicians have sufficiently raised public confidence in the safety and efficiency of the nuclear power option. Regionally, support for nuclear power is highest in South Korea, the United States and India, where clear pluralities support the building of new nuclear plants. In Morocco, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Cameroon, pluralities prefer that all existing plants be shut down. The IAEA-sponsored survey was conducted between May and August this year in 18 countries representing all regions. Approximately 18,000 people were polled by telephone and in-person interviews. The opinion poll fielded six distinct questions, ranging from awareness of the IAEA and the effectiveness of IAEA inspections to support for peaceful nuclear applications and views about the security of nuclear materials and facilities and the threat of nuclear terrorism. Among the many revealing findings from the survey: 1) Pluralities of citizens in all but three of the 18 countries surveyed believe that IAEA inspections are not effective in monitoring countries' nuclear programmes. An average of 46 percent of people across the 18 countries surveyed say that IAEA inspections are not effective, while three in ten people (29%) say that they are; 2) Majorities in

  6. An Equivalent Source Method for Modelling the Global Lithospheric Magnetic Field

    Kother, Livia Kathleen; Hammer, Magnus Danel; Finlay, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We present a new technique for modelling the global lithospheric magnetic field at Earth's surface based on the estimation of equivalent potential field sources. As a demonstration we show an application to magnetic field measurements made by the CHAMP satellite during the period 2009-2010 when...... are also employed to minimize the influence of the ionospheric field. The model for the remaining lithospheric magnetic field consists of magnetic point sources (monopoles) arranged in an icosahedron grid. The corresponding source values are estimated using an iteratively reweighted least squares algorithm...... in the CHAOS-4 and MF7 models using more conventional spherical harmonic based approaches. Advantages of the equivalent source method include its local nature, allowing e.g. for regional grid refinement, and the ease of transforming to spherical harmonics when needed. Future applications will make use of Swarm...

  7. Tearing relaxation and the globalization of transport in field-reversed configurations

    Steinhauer, Loren; Barnes, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    Tearing instability of field-reversed configurations (FRC) is investigated using the method of neighboring equilibria. It is shown that the conducting wall position in experiment lies very close to the location needed for tearing stability. This strongly suggests that vigorous but benign tearing modes, acting globally, are the engine of continual self-organization in FRCs, i.e., tearing relaxation. It also explains the ''profile consistency'' and anomalous loss rate of magnetic flux. In effect, tearing globalizes the effect of edge-driven transport.

  8. A NEW CODE FOR NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE FIELD EXTRAPOLATION OF THE GLOBAL CORONA

    Jiang Chaowei; Feng Xueshang; Xiang Changqing

    2012-01-01

    Reliable measurements of the solar magnetic field are still restricted to the photosphere, and our present knowledge of the three-dimensional coronal magnetic field is largely based on extrapolations from photospheric magnetograms using physical models, e.g., the nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) model that is usually adopted. Most of the currently available NLFFF codes have been developed with computational volume such as a Cartesian box or a spherical wedge, while a global full-sphere extrapolation is still under development. A high-performance global extrapolation code is in particular urgently needed considering that the Solar Dynamics Observatory can provide a full-disk magnetogram with resolution up to 4096 × 4096. In this work, we present a new parallelized code for global NLFFF extrapolation with the photosphere magnetogram as input. The method is based on the magnetohydrodynamics relaxation approach, the CESE-MHD numerical scheme, and a Yin-Yang spherical grid that is used to overcome the polar problems of the standard spherical grid. The code is validated by two full-sphere force-free solutions from Low and Lou's semi-analytic force-free field model. The code shows high accuracy and fast convergence, and can be ready for future practical application if combined with an adaptive mesh refinement technique.

  9. MODELING THE SUN’S SMALL-SCALE GLOBAL PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    Meyer, K. A. [Division of Computing and Mathematics, Abertay University, Kydd Building, Dundee, Bell Street, DD1 1HG, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mackay, D. H., E-mail: k.meyer@abertay.ac.uk [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-20

    We present a new model for the Sun’s global photospheric magnetic field during a deep minimum of activity, in which no active regions emerge. The emergence and subsequent evolution of small-scale magnetic features across the full solar surface is simulated, subject to the influence of a global supergranular flow pattern. Visually, the resulting simulated magnetograms reproduce the typical structure and scale observed in quiet Sun magnetograms. Quantitatively, the simulation quickly reaches a steady state, resulting in a mean field and flux distribution that are in good agreement with those determined from observations. A potential coronal magnetic field is extrapolated from the simulated full Sun magnetograms to consider the implications of such a quiet photospheric magnetic field on the corona and inner heliosphere. The bulk of the coronal magnetic field closes very low down, in short connections between small-scale features in the simulated magnetic network. Just 0.1% of the photospheric magnetic flux is found to be open at 2.5 R {sub ⊙}, around 10–100 times less than that determined for typical Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager synoptic map observations. If such conditions were to exist on the Sun, this would lead to a significantly weaker interplanetary magnetic field than is currently observed, and hence a much higher cosmic ray flux at Earth.

  10. Reduced order models inertial manifold and global bifurcations: searching instability boundaries in nuclear power systems

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of an analytic or numerical model of a BWR power plant, this could imply first to find an suitable approximation to the solution manifold of the differential equations describing the stability behaviour of this nonlinear system, and then a classification of the different solution types concerning their relation with the operational safety of the power plant, by distributing the different solution types in relation with the exclusion region of the power-flow map. Then the goal is to obtain the best attainable qualitative and quantitative global picture of plant dynamics. To do this, the construction and the analysis of the so called reduced order models (Rom) seems a necessary step. A reduced order model results after the full system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations of the plant is reduced to a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations

  11. System of operative computer control of power distribution fields in the Beloyarsk nuclear power plant

    Kulikov, N.Ya.; Snitko, Eh.I.; Rasputnis, A.M.; Solodov, V.P.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the system of intrareactor control over the reactors of the Byeloyarskaya Atomic Station. In the second block of the station, use is made of direct charge emission detectors installed in the central apertures of the superheater channels and operating reliably at temperatures up to 750 deg C. The detectors of the first and the second block are connected to the computer which sends the results of processing the signals to the printer, while the signals for deviations go to the mnemonic tablaux of the reactors. The good working order of the detectors is checked by comparison with zero as well as with the mean detector current for the reactor concerned. The application of the intrareactor control system has allowed the stable thermal power to be increased from 480-500 to 530 Mw and makes it possible to control and maintain the neutron field formed with a relative error of 3-4%. The structural scheme of the system of intrareactor control is given

  12. Spherical Harmonics Analysis of the ECMWF Global Wind Fields at the 10-Meter Height Level During 1985: A Collection of Figures Illustrating Results

    Sanchez, Braulio V.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Half-daily global wind speeds in the east-west (u) and north-south (v) directions at the 10-meter height level were obtained from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data set of global analyses. The data set covered the period 1985 January to 1995 January. A spherical harmonic expansion to degree and order 50 was used to perform harmonic analysis of the east-west (u) and north-south (v) velocity field components. The resulting wind field is displayed, as well as the residual of the fit, at a particular time. The contribution of particular coefficients is shown. The time variability of the coefficients up to degree and order 3 is presented. Corresponding power spectrum plots are given. Time series analyses were applied also to the power associated with degrees 0-10; the results are included.

  13. Locomotor, Heart-Rate, and Metabolic Power Characteristics of Youth Women's Field Hockey: Female Athletes in Motion (FAiM) Study

    Vescovi, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the locomotor, heart-rate, and metabolic power characteristics of high-level youth female field hockey matches. Method: Players from the U21 and U17 Canadian women's national teams were monitored during a 4-match test series using Global Positioning System technology. Position (forward,…

  14. Stability Results, Almost Global Generalized Beltrami Fields and Applications to Vortex Structures in the Euler Equations

    Enciso, Alberto; Poyato, David; Soler, Juan

    2018-05-01

    Strong Beltrami fields, that is, vector fields in three dimensions whose curl is the product of the field itself by a constant factor, have long played a key role in fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics. In particular, they are the kind of stationary solutions of the Euler equations where one has been able to show the existence of vortex structures (vortex tubes and vortex lines) of arbitrarily complicated topology. On the contrary, there are very few results about the existence of generalized Beltrami fields, that is, divergence-free fields whose curl is the field times a non-constant function. In fact, generalized Beltrami fields (which are also stationary solutions to the Euler equations) have been recently shown to be rare, in the sense that for "most" proportionality factors there are no nontrivial Beltrami fields of high enough regularity (e.g., of class {C^{6,α}}), not even locally. Our objective in this work is to show that, nevertheless, there are "many" Beltrami fields with non-constant factor, even realizing arbitrarily complicated vortex structures. This fact is relevant in the study of turbulent configurations. The core results are an "almost global" stability theorem for strong Beltrami fields, which ensures that a global strong Beltrami field with suitable decay at infinity can be perturbed to get "many" Beltrami fields with non-constant factor of arbitrarily high regularity and defined in the exterior of an arbitrarily small ball, and a "local" stability theorem for generalized Beltrami fields, which is an analogous perturbative result which is valid for any kind of Beltrami field (not just with a constant factor) but only applies to small enough domains. The proof relies on an iterative scheme of Grad-Rubin type. For this purpose, we study the Neumann problem for the inhomogeneous Beltrami equation in exterior domains via a boundary integral equation method and we obtain Hölder estimates, a sharp decay at infinity and some compactness

  15. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  16. Globalization

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  17. Null Geodesics and Strong Field Gravitational Lensing of Black Hole with Global Monopole

    Iftikhar, Sehrish; Sharif, M.

    2015-01-01

    We study two interesting features of a black hole with an ordinary as well as phantom global monopole. Firstly, we investigate null geodesics which imply unstable orbital motion of particles for both cases. Secondly, we evaluate deflection angle in strong field regime. We then find Einstein rings, magnifications, and observables of the relativistic images for supermassive black hole at the center of galaxy NGC4486B. We also examine time delays for different galaxies and present our results numerically. It is found that the deflection angle for ordinary/phantom global monopole is greater/smaller than that of Schwarzschild black hole. In strong field limit, the remaining properties of these black holes are quite different from the Schwarzschild black hole

  18. Global surface wind and flux fields from model assimilation of Seasat data

    Atlas, R.; Busalacchi, A. J.; Kalnay, E.; Bloom, S.; Ghil, M.

    1986-01-01

    Procedures for dealiasing Seasat data and developing global surface wind and latent and sensible heat flux fields are discussed. Seasat data from September 20, 1978 was dealiased using the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) analysis/forecast system. The wind data obtained with the objective GLA forecast model are compared to the data subjectively dealiased by Peteherych et al. (1984) and Hoffman (1982, 1984). The GLA procedure is also verified using simulated Seasat data. The areas of high and low heat fluxes and cyclonic and anticyclonic wind stresses detected in the generated fields are analyzed and compared to climatological fields. It is observed that there is good correlation between the time-averaged analyses of wind stress obtained subjectively and objectively, and the monthly mean wind stress and latent fluxes agree with climatological fields and atmospheric and oceanic features.

  19. Environmental pollution by magnetic field associated with power transmission lines

    Hamza, Abdel-Salam H. A.; Ghania, Samy M. [Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University (Banha Branch), 9-EI-Hakim Be-Amr EI-Ahh Str, EI- Khalafawy, Shoubra, Cairo (Egypt); Mohmoudh, Shaher A. [Ministry of Electricity and Energy (Egypt)

    2002-11-01

    Environmental pollution has a major effect on human health and other life types. A source of environmental pollution is the magnetic field produced near high and extra high voltage (EHV) transmission lines. Magnetic fields from AC EHV lines have been discussed in this paper. The field profiles and their contribution to environmental pollution are studied, these being under transmission lines with different line system configurations, using the three dimensional approaches. These line system configurations are more commonly used in Egypt and other countries. The obtained results are found to be useful for discussing the comparison of the field densities on the human body and other life types at the ground level under or near the lines. (Author)

  20. Gupta-Bleuler Quantization of the Maxwell Field in Globally Hyperbolic Space-Times

    Finster, Felix; Strohmaier, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    We give a complete framework for the Gupta-Bleuler quantization of the free electromagnetic field on globally hyperbolic space-times. We describe one-particle structures that give rise to states satisfying the microlocal spectrum condition. The field algebras in the so-called Gupta-Bleuler representations satisfy the time-slice axiom, and the corresponding vacuum states satisfy the microlocal spectrum condition. We also give an explicit construction of ground states on ultrastatic space-times. Unlike previous constructions, our method does not require a spectral gap or the absence of zero modes. The only requirement, the absence of zero-resonance states, is shown to be stable under compact perturbations of topology and metric. Usual deformation arguments based on the time-slice axiom then lead to a construction of Gupta-Bleuler representations on a large class of globally hyperbolic space-times. As usual, the field algebra is represented on an indefinite inner product space, in which the physical states form a positive semi-definite subspace. Gauge transformations are incorporated in such a way that the field can be coupled perturbatively to a Dirac field. Our approach does not require any topological restrictions on the underlying space-time.

  1. Projectile-power-compressed magnetic-field pulse generator

    Barlett, R.H.; Takemori, H.T.; Chase, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Design considerations and experimental results are presented of a compressed magnetic field pulsed energy source. A 100-mm-diameter, gun-fired projectile of approx. 2MJ kinetic energy was the input energy source. An initial magnetic field was trapped and compressed by the projectile. With a shorted load, a magajoule in a nanohenry was the design goal, i.e., 50 percent energy transformation from kinetic to magnetic. Five percent conversion was the highest recorded before gauge failure

  2. Global Health Warning: Definitions Wield Power; Comment on “Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health”

    Robert Marten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gorik Ooms recently made a strong case for considering the centrality of normative premises to analyzing and understanding the underappreciated importance of the nexus of politics, power and process in global health. This critical commentary raises serious questions for the practice and study of global health and global health governance. First and foremost, this commentary underlines the importance of the question of what is global health, and why as well as how does this definition matter? This refocuses discussion on the importance of definitions and how they wield power. It also re-affirms the necessity of a deeper analysis and understanding of power and how it affects and shapes the practice of global health.

  3. A local-to-global singularity theorem for quantum field theory on curved space-time

    Radzikowski, M.J.; York Univ.

    1996-01-01

    We prove that if a reference two-point distribution of positive type on a time orientable curved space-time (CST) satisfies a certain condition on its wave front set (the ''class P M,g condition'') and if any other two-point distribution (i) is of positive type, (ii) has the same antisymmetric part as the reference modulo smooth function and (iii) has the same local singularity structure, then it has the same global singularity structure. In the proof we use a smoothing, positivity-preserving pseudo-differential operator the support of whose symbol is restricted to a certain conic region which depends on the wave front set of the reference state. This local-to-global theorem, together with results published elsewhere, leads to a verification of a conjecture by Kay that for quasi-free states of the Klein-Gordon quantum field on a globally hyperbolic CST, the local Hadamard condition implies the global Hadamard condition. A counterexample to the local-to-global theorem on a strip in Minkowski space is given when the class P M,g condition is not assumed. (orig.)

  4. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ELECTRIC AND GASOLINE-POWERED VEHICLES.

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Measurements were conducted to investigate electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from 120 Hz to 10 kHz and 1.2 to 100 kHz in 9 electric or hybrid vehicles and 4 gasoline vehicles, all while being driven. The range of fields in the electric vehicles enclosed the range observed in the gasoline vehicles. Mean magnetic fields ranged from nominally 0.6 to 3.5 µT for electric/hybrids depending on the measurement band compared with nominally 0.4 to 0.6 µT for gasoline vehicles. Mean values of electric fields ranged from nominally 2 to 3 V m -1 for electric/hybrid vehicles depending on the band, compared with 0.9 to 3 V m -1 for gasoline vehicles. In all cases, the fields were well within published exposure limits for the general population. The measurements were performed with Narda model EHP-50C/EHP-50D EMF analysers that revealed the presence of spurious signals in the EHP-50C unit, which were resolved with the EHP-50D model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Field report-Iidate village and Minamisoma city in Fukushima prefecture and Onagawa Nuclear Power Plants of Tohoku Electric Power

    Nakamura, Etsuji

    2011-01-01

    Although the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. was foreseen to be an end with bringing the reactor a stable cooling condition and mitigating the release of radioactive materials, there would be various uncertainties and risks. The public was turned to 'nuclear power phase-out ' or 'nuclear power reduced' and Fukushima prefecture launched a restoration vision not dependent on nuclear power. In July editors joined the visit on Iidate village and Minamisoma city in Fukushima prefecture and Onagawa Nuclear Power Plants of Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., which was organized by Energy and Environmental Email Forum. This feature consisted of six articles based on interviews with respective mayor and discussion meeting of participants. Nuclear world would be responsible for the cooperation and support of Fukushima moving toward restoration with the same stance. Development of renewable energy utilizing damaged fields might be promoted. Respective district was tried to restore based on the trademark of 'Iidate-village in the world' or introduction of central facilities of decommission technology or medical care against radiation hazards. Onagawa Nuclear Power Plants of Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., which was 14.8 m above sea level, was not damaged so much by the tsunami of 13 m high and after the disaster many residents in a neighboring area came to the nuclear power plant office for the refuge. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Earth Systems Field Work: Service Learning at Local and Global Scales

    Moore, A.; Derry, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth & Environmental Systems (EES) Field Program engages students in hands-on exploration along the boundaries of the living earth, solid earth, ocean, and atmosphere. Based on Hawaíi Island, the semester-length program integrates scientific study with environmental stewardship and service learning. Each year EES students contribute 3000 hours of service to their host community. Throughout the semester students engage in different service activities. Most courses includes a service component - for example - study of the role of invasive species in native ecosystems includes an invasive species removal project. Each student completes a 4-week service internship with a local school, NGO, state or federal agency. Finally, the student group works to offset the carbon footprint of the program in collaboration with local conservation projects. This effort sequesters CO2 emissions while at the same time contributing to reforestation of degraded native ecosystems. Students learn that expertise is not confined to "the academy," and that wisdom and inspiration can be found in unexpected venues. Much of the service learning in the EES Program occurs in collaboration with local partners. Service internships require students to identify a partner and to design a tractable project. Students work daily with their sponsor and make a formal presentation of their project at the end of the internship period. This includes speaking to a non-technical community gathering as well as to a scientific audience. For many students the opportunity to work on a real problem, of interest in the real world, is a highlight of the semester. Beyond working in support of local community groups, the EES Prograḿs C-neutral project engages students with work in service to the global commons. Here the outcome is not measurable within the time frame of a semester, yet the intangible result makes the experience even more powerful. Students take responsibility for an important issue that is not

  7. Fractal Markets Hypothesis and the Global Financial Crisis: Wavelet Power Evidence

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2013-10-01

    We analyze whether the prediction of the fractal markets hypothesis about a dominance of specific investment horizons during turbulent times holds. To do so, we utilize the continuous wavelet transform analysis and obtained wavelet power spectra which give the crucial information about the variance distribution across scales and its evolution in time. We show that the most turbulent times of the Global Financial Crisis can be very well characterized by the dominance of short investment horizons which is in hand with the assertions of the fractal markets hypothesis.

  8. Upgrading to lead firm position via international acquisition: learning from the global biomass power plant industry

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Fold, Niels; Hansen, Teis

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the case of a Chinese firm that has upgraded to lead firm position in the global biomass power plant industry mainly through acquisitions of technological frontier firms in Denmark. Sustaining the lead firm position was, however, challenged by difficulties in developing...... innovative capability. Drawing on the literature on (i) firm-level technological capability and (ii) knowledge transfer in international acquisitions, we explain the reasons for insufficient innovative capability building. Based on these empirical findings, we suggest maintaining the existing upgrading...

  9. Construction and evaluation of photovoltaic power generation and power storage system using SiC field-effect transistor inverter

    Oku, Takeo, E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Ohishi, Yuya [Department of Materials Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan); Hiramatsu, Koichi; Yasuda, Masashi [Collaborative Research Center, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan); Shimono, Akio; Takeda, Yoshikazu [Kyoshin Electric Co. Ltd., 18, Goshonouchi-Nishimachi, Shichijo, Shimogyou-ku, Kyoto 600-8865 (Japan); Murozono, Mikio [Clean Venture 21 Co., 38 Ishihara Douno-Ushirocho, Kissyouin, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8355 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    A power storage system using spherical silicon (Si) solar cells, maximum power point tracking charge controller, lithium-ion battery and a direct current-alternating current (DC-AC) inverter was constructed. Performance evaluation of the DC-AC inverter was carried out, and the DC-AC conversion efficiencies of the SiC field-effect transistor (FET) inverter was improved compared with those of the ordinary Si-FET based inverter.

  10. Construction and evaluation of photovoltaic power generation and power storage system using SiC field-effect transistor inverter

    Oku, Takeo; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Ohishi, Yuya; Hiramatsu, Koichi; Yasuda, Masashi; Shimono, Akio; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Murozono, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    A power storage system using spherical silicon (Si) solar cells, maximum power point tracking charge controller, lithium-ion battery and a direct current-alternating current (DC-AC) inverter was constructed. Performance evaluation of the DC-AC inverter was carried out, and the DC-AC conversion efficiencies of the SiC field-effect transistor (FET) inverter was improved compared with those of the ordinary Si-FET based inverter

  11. IAEA’s Perspectives on Global Nuclear Power – Opportunities and Challenges

    Park, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Status of global nuclear power: 437 reactors in operation (374.5 GWe); 2 reactors in long-term shutdown; 149 reactors in permanent shutdown; 70 reactors under construction. [As of Sep. 2014] Latest connections to the grid: - Ningde-2, 1000 MW(e), PWR, China; - Atucha-2, 692 MW(e), PHWR, Argentina; - Fuqing-1, 1000 MW(e), PWR, China). [Website: http://www.iaea.org/pris/]. IAEA projections of nuclear power: • Sep. 2014: 374.5 GWe; • 2030 - low 400.6 GWe: 7.0% increase; - high 699.2 GWe: 86.7% increase; • 2050 - low 412.9 GWe: 10.3% increase; - high 1091.7 GWe: 191.5% increase

  12. Global assessment of onshore wind power resources considering the distance to urban areas

    Silva Herran, Diego; Dai, Hancheng; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed global onshore wind power resources considering the distance to urban areas in terms of transmission losses and costs, and visibility (landscape impact) restrictions. Including this factor decreased the economic potential considerably depending on the level of supply cost considered (at least 37% and 16% for an economic potential below 10 and 14 US cents/kWh, respectively). Its importance compared to other factors was secondary below 15 US cents/kWh. At higher costs it was secondary only to land use, and was more important than economic and technical factors. The impact of this factor was mixed across all regions of the world, given the heterogeneity of wind resources in remote and proximal areas. Regions where available resources decreased the most included the European Union, Japan, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. The supply cost chosen to evaluate the economic potential and uncertainties influencing the estimation of distance to the closest urban area are critical for the assessment. Neglecting the restrictions associated with integration into energy systems and social acceptability resulted in an overestimation of global onshore wind resources. These outcomes are fundamental for global climate policies because they help to clarify the limits of wind energy resource availability. - Highlights: • Global onshore wind resources were assessed including the distance to urban areas. • We evaluate the impact of transmission losses and cost, and visibility restrictions. • The distance to urban areas' impact was considerable, depending on the supply cost. • This factor's importance was secondary to economic, land use, and technical factors. • Neglecting this factor resulted in an overestimation of global wind resources.

  13. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2008 Annual Review

    2009-01-01

    2008 was the year in which power deal values came down from their record-breaking highs of the two preceding years as the financial crisis and a number of market uncertainties had a negative impact on deal activity. Nonetheless, total deal numbers leapt by 24% as companies concentrated on smaller deals and took advantage of new opportunities that arose in the changed market conditions. Europe was least affected by the downturn in deal values and accounted for over half of all bidder and target power deal value. In contrast, power deals in Australia, which had previously been a main motor of growing M and A activity in the Asia Pacific region, virtually stalled as uncertainty over new carbon emission policies combined with the financial crisis to deter deal flow. In North America, like Europe, big deals were fewer but underlying deal activity was comparable with previous years. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector, drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key electricity and gas utilities markets. Looking to the future, the easing of the financial crisis will be key to deal flow but the near-term outlook looks less robust than the recent past, especially as debt markets will be further constrained by calls from the public financing required to support government bail-out programmes. Set against this, the underlying imperatives of consolidation, supply security and capitalisation remain in place and will create increasing pent-up deal demand. A lower energy price environment will change the metrics for more expensive cleaner power assets, placing an even higher importance on the outcome of global climate talks and the run-up to the December 2009 UN Climate Summit in Copenhagen

  14. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2008 Annual Review

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    2008 was the year in which power deal values came down from their record-breaking highs of the two preceding years as the financial crisis and a number of market uncertainties had a negative impact on deal activity. Nonetheless, total deal numbers leapt by 24% as companies concentrated on smaller deals and took advantage of new opportunities that arose in the changed market conditions. Europe was least affected by the downturn in deal values and accounted for over half of all bidder and target power deal value. In contrast, power deals in Australia, which had previously been a main motor of growing M and A activity in the Asia Pacific region, virtually stalled as uncertainty over new carbon emission policies combined with the financial crisis to deter deal flow. In North America, like Europe, big deals were fewer but underlying deal activity was comparable with previous years. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector, drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key electricity and gas utilities markets. Looking to the future, the easing of the financial crisis will be key to deal flow but the near-term outlook looks less robust than the recent past, especially as debt markets will be further constrained by calls from the public financing required to support government bail-out programmes. Set against this, the underlying imperatives of consolidation, supply security and capitalisation remain in place and will create increasing pent-up deal demand. A lower energy price environment will change the metrics for more expensive cleaner power assets, placing an even higher importance on the outcome of global climate talks and the run-up to the December 2009 UN Climate Summit in Copenhagen.

  15. The Pathology of Audience Phantasm in Iran in the Fields of Media, Globalization and Post Global Village Age

    Mahdi Mohsenianrad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the evolution of role phantasm of “men in front of media”. They have been called in a historical order as audience, receiver, user and recently communicatee. The author argues that the changing perception of “man in front of media” from a passive Being to an active being is the result of some developments the most important of which is globalization. The most prominent characteristics of communitee is its independence in “selection based on communicative needs”. Along with the developments in the future decades in the field of ICT, the ability of communicatee for selection will be reinforced and it will become a selector communicatee. This article argues that because of the delay in developing countries in entering the age of Gutenberg galaxy and Marconi galaxy, message senders in these countries have an audience –oriented view. As a result, they have not yet become communicatee. This article concludes that audience phantasm in some developing countries may be harmful for meeting the need of communicatees by local media and make the productions of foreign media more attractive for local communicatees leading to undesirable change in their cultural traits.

  16. Outline of the safety research results, in the power reactor field, fiscal year 1996

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has promoted the safety research in fiscal year of 1996 according to the Fundamental Research on Safety Research (fiscal year 1996 to 2000) prepared on March, 1996. Here is described on the research results in fiscal year 1996, the first year of the 5 years programme, and whole outline of the fundamental research on safety research, on the power reactor field (whole problems on the new nuclear converter and the fast breeder reactor field and problems relating to the power reactor in the safety for earthquake and probability theoretical safety evaluation field). (G.K.)

  17. Cancer Care and Control as a Human Right: Recognizing Global Oncology as an Academic Field.

    Eniu, Alexandru E; Martei, Yehoda M; Trimble, Edward L; Shulman, Lawrence N

    2017-01-01

    The global burden of cancer incidence and mortality is on the rise. There are major differences in cancer fatality rates due to profound disparities in the burden and resource allocation for cancer care and control in developed compared with developing countries. The right to cancer care and control should be a human right accessible to all patients with cancer, regardless of geographic or economic region, to avoid unnecessary deaths and suffering from cancer. National cancer planning should include an integrated approach that incorporates a continuum of education, prevention, cancer diagnostics, treatment, survivorship, and palliative care. Global oncology as an academic field should offer the knowledge and skills needed to efficiently assess situations and work on solutions, in close partnership. We need medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, pediatric oncologists, gynecologic oncologists, radiologists, and pathologists trained to think about well-tailored resource-stratified solutions to cancer care in the developing world. Moreover, the multidisciplinary fundamental team approach needed to treat most neoplastic diseases requires coordinated investment in several areas. Current innovative approaches have relied on partnerships between academic institutions in developed countries and local governments and ministries of health in developing countries to provide the expertise needed to implement effective cancer control programs. Global oncology is a viable and necessary field that needs to be emphasized because of its critical role in proposing not only solutions in developing countries, but also solutions that can be applied to similar challenges of access to cancer care and control faced by underserved populations in developed countries.

  18. Calculation of the Magnetic Fields of the Electric Power Line

    Patsiuk V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of calculation of per unit length parameters of multi-conductor electrical overhead transmission lines has been treated in the paper. The calculation of distribution of electric and magnetic fields has been performed by means of the finite volume method for entire span of the line. The theoretical justification of the method for calculation the parameters of electromagnetic field taking into account the change of the vector of magnetic potential along the line has been given. The problems of electrostatic and magnetostatic for a single electric conductor and unlimited long conductor with current have been solved. For the inner and total inductivities of a single conductor under the current have been obtained relationships and drawn dependences. Dependence between the speeds of light and of electromagnetic wave’s propagation has been presented. Based on the characteristics of distribution of electric and magnetic fields of multi-conductor lines has been provided the method of calculation of the matrix of own and mutual capacitances and inductivities the calculated values of per unit length parameters of compact 110 kV electric line which is in concordance with one of basic physical constant – the speed of light.

  19. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Spacecraft Power System Design and Orbital Performance

    Dakermanji, George; Burns, Michael; Lee, Leonine; Lyons, John; Kim, David; Spitzer, Thomas; Kercheval, Bradford

    2016-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft was jointly developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). It is a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft launched on February 27, 2014. The spacecraft is in a circular 400 Km altitude, 65 degrees inclination nadir pointing orbit with a three year basic mission life. The solar array consists of two sun tracking wings with cable wraps. The panels are populated with triple junction cells of nominal 29.5% efficiency. One axis is canted by 52 degrees to provide power to the spacecraft at high beta angles. The power system is a Direct Energy Transfer (DET) system designed to support 1950 Watts orbit average power. The batteries use SONY 18650HC cells and consist of three 8s x 84p batteries operated in parallel as a single battery. The paper describes the power system design details, its performance to date and the lithium ion battery model that was developed for use in the energy balance analysis and is being used to predict the on-orbit health of the battery.

  20. CALCULATION METHOD OF ELECTRIC POWER LINES MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH BASED ON CYLINDRICAL SPATIAL HARMONICS

    A.V. Erisov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Simplification of accounting ratio to determine the magnetic field strength of electric power lines, and assessment of their environmental safety. Methodology. Description of the transmission lines of the magnetic field by using techniques of spatial harmonic analysis in the cylindrical coordinate system is carried out. Results. For engineering calculations of electric power lines magnetic field with sufficient accuracy describes their first spatial harmonic magnetic field. Originality. Substantial simplification of the definition of the impact of the construction of transmission line poles on the value of its magnetic field and the bands of land alienation sizes. Practical value. The environmentally friendly projection electric power lines on the level of the magnetic field.

  1. Global Lunar Gravity Field Determination Using Historical and Recent Tracking Data in Preparation for SELENE

    Goossens, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Namiki, N.; Hanada, H.; Iwata, T.; Tsuruta, S.; Kawano, N.; Sasaki, S.

    2006-12-01

    In the near future, a number of satellite missions are planned to be launched to the Moon. These missions include initiatives by China, India, the USA, as well as the Japanese SELENE mission. These missions will gather a wealth of lunar data which will improve the knowledge of the Moon. One of the main topics to be addressed will be the lunar gravity field. Especially SELENE will contribute to improving the knowledge of the gravity field, by applying 4-way Doppler tracking between the main satellite and a relay satellite, and by applying a separate differential VLBI experiment. These will improve the determination of the global gravity field, especially over the far side and at the lower degrees (mostly for degrees lower than 30), as is shown by extensive simulations of the SELENE mission. This work focuses on the determination of the global lunar gravity field from all available tracking data to this date. In preparation for the SELENE mission, analysis using Lunar Prospector tracking data, as well as Clementine data and historical data from the Apollo and Lunar Orbiter projects is being conducted at NAOJ. Some SMART-1 tracking data are also included. The goal is to combine the good-quality data from the existing lunar missions up to this date with the tracking data from SELENE in order to derive a new lunar gravity field model. The focus therefore currently lies on processing the available data and extracting lunar gravity field information from them. It is shown that the historical tracking data contribute especially to the lower degrees of the global lunar gravity field model. Due to the large gap in tracking data coverage over the far side for the historical data, the higher degrees are almost fully determined by the a priori information in the form of a Kaula rule. The combination with SELENE data is thus expected to improve the estimate for the lower degrees even further, including coverage of the far side. Since historical tracking data are from orbits with

  2. The Ghost Is the Machine: How Can We Visibilize the Unseen Norms and Power of Global Health? Comment on "Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health".

    Forman, Lisa

    2015-12-03

    In his recent commentary, Gorik Ooms argues that "denying that researchers, like all humans, have personal opinions ... drives researchers' personal opinion underground, turning global health science into unconscious dogmatism or stealth advocacy, avoiding the crucial debate about the politics and underlying normative premises of global health." These 'unconscious' dimensions of global health are as Ooms and others suggest, rooted in its unacknowledged normative, political and power aspects. But why would these aspects be either unconscious or unacknowledged? In this commentary, I argue that the 'unconscious' and 'unacknowledged' nature of the norms, politics and power that drive global health is a direct byproduct of the processes through which power operates, and a primary mechanism by which power sustains and reinforces itself. To identify what is unconscious and unacknowledged requires more than broadening the disciplinary base of global health research to those social sciences with deep traditions of thought in the domains of power, politics and norms, albeit that doing so is a fundamental first step. I argue that it also requires individual and institutional commitments to adopt reflexive, humble and above all else, equitable practices within global health research. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  3. Entanglement growth after a global quench in free scalar field theory

    Cotler, Jordan S. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Hertzberg, Mark P. [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Mezei, Márk [Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Mueller, Mark T. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-11-28

    We compute the entanglement and Rényi entropy growth after a global quench in various dimensions in free scalar field theory. We study two types of quenches: a boundary state quench and a global mass quench. Both of these quenches are investigated for a strip geometry in 1, 2, and 3 spatial dimensions, and for a spherical geometry in 2 and 3 spatial dimensions. We compare the numerical results for massless free scalars in these geometries with the predictions of the analytical quasiparticle model based on EPR pairs, and find excellent agreement in the limit of large region sizes. At subleading order in the region size, we observe an anomalous logarithmic growth of entanglement coming from the zero mode of the scalar.

  4. Power Watch: Increasing Transparency and Accessibility of Data in the Global Power Sector to Accelerate the Transition to a Lower Carbon Economy

    Hennig, R. J.; Friedrich, J.; Malaguzzi Valeri, L.; McCormick, C.; Lebling, K.; Kressig, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Power Watch project will offer open data on the global electricity sector starting with power plants and their impacts on climate and water systems; it will also offer visualizations and decision making tools. Power Watch will create the first comprehensive, open database of power plants globally by compiling data from national governments, public and private utilities, transmission grid operators, and other data providers to create a core dataset that has information on over 80% of global installed capacity for electrical generation. Power plant data will at a minimum include latitude and longitude, capacity, fuel type, emissions, water usage, ownership, and annual generation. By providing data that is both comprehensive, as well as making it publically available, this project will support decision making and analysis by actors across the economy and in the research community. The Power Watch research effort focuses on creating a global standard for power plant information, gathering and standardizing data from multiple sources, matching information from multiple sources on a plant level, testing cross-validation approaches (regional statistics, crowdsourcing, satellite data, and others) and developing estimation methodologies for generation, emissions, and water usage. When not available from official reports, emissions, annual generation, and water usage will be estimated. Water use estimates of power plants will be based on capacity, fuel type and satellite imagery to identify cooling types. This analysis is being piloted in several states in India and will then be scaled up to a global level. Other planned applications of of the Power Watch data include improving understanding of energy access, air pollution, emissions estimation, stranded asset analysis, life cycle analysis, tracking of proposed plants and curtailment analysis.

  5. Research on countermeasures to global environment change in the field of urban planning

    Kawanaka, Takashi [Building Research Inst., Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    There are a lot of research themes in the field of urban planning and related fields as mitigation of global environment change. Main theme is reduction method of CO{sub 2} gas emission as a countermeasure against global warming. Some groups research on estimation of CO{sub 2} emission caused by construction activities both in building engineering and civil engineering and also on evaluation of countermeasures. They investigate reduction of CO{sub 2} emission by fossil fuel combustion and by building materials (cement, steel and so on) production process. But we cannot use data fitted to a spatial scale of urban planning. Many researches are focused on nation wide analysis. We, BRI, make a study of {open_quotes}Research on CO{sub 2} Emission in Urban Development and the Control Technologies{close_quotes} as will be seen later at 2. (2). There are two ways of research to reduce CO{sub 2} emission caused by daily activities to urban planning field. One is research on positive utilizing of natural environment in urban areas without depending to energy consuming artificial facilities. There is a research on mitigation of heat island phenomenon for instance. The other ways are research on improvement of energy consumption effect and on reusing of wasted energy In energy consuming type urban space for instance. There s a research on promoting District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and cogeneration.

  6. Electric power and the global economy: Advances in database construction and sector representation

    Peters, Jeffrey C.

    The electricity sector plays a crucial role in the global economy. The sector is a major consumer of fossil fuel resources, producer of greenhouse gas emissions, and an important indicator and correlate of economic development. As such, the sector is a primary target for policy-makers seeking to address these issues. The sector is also experiencing rapid technological change in generation (e.g. renewables), primary inputs (e.g. horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing), and end-use efficiency. This dissertation seeks to further our understanding of the role of the electricity sector as part of the dynamic global energy-economy, which requires significant research advances in both database construction and modeling techniques. Chapter 2 identifies useful engineering-level data and presents a novel matrix balancing method for integrating these data in global economic databases. Chapter 3 demonstrates the relationship between matrix balancing method and modeling results, and Chapter 4 presents the full construction methodology for GTAP-Power, the foremost, publicly-available global computable general equilibrium database. Chapter 5 presents an electricity-detailed computational equilibrium model that explicitly and endogenously captures capacity utilization, capacity expansion, and their interdependency - important aspects of technological substitution in the electricity sector. The individual, but interrelated, research contributions to database construction and electricity modeling in computational equilibrium are placed in the context of analyzing the US EPA Clean Power Plan (CPP) CO 2 target of 32 percent reduction of CO2 emissions in the US electricity sector from a 2005 baseline by 2030. Assuming current fuel prices, the model predicts an almost 28 percent CO2 reduction without further policy intervention. Next, a carbon tax and investment subsidies for renewable technologies to meet the CPP full targets are imposed and compared (Chapter 6). The carbon tax

  7. Comprehensive simulation study on local and global development of auroral arcs and field-aligned potentials

    Watanabe, Tomohiko; Oya, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1992-10-01

    Extensive three-dimensional computer simulations of the magnetosphere-ionosphere (M-I) coupling are performed to study self-excitation of auroral arcs with special emphasis on 1) nonlinear evolution of the feedback instability in the M-I coupling system, 2) controlling mechanisms of the auroral arc structure, 3) formation of a field-aligned electric potential structure in association with the development of the feedback instability, and 4) effects of the parallel potential generation on auroral arc development. It is reconfirmed that the feedback instability produces a longitudinally elongated, latitudinally striated structure where the upward field-aligned current and the ionospheric density are locally enhanced. The following important new features are revealed. 1) The global distribution of the striation structure is primarily governed by the magnetospheric convection pattern and the ionospheric density distribution. 2) There appears a significant dawn-dusk asymmetry in the auroral arc formation, even though the apparent geometrical relationship is symmetric. 3) The recombination effect plays a significant role in the global, as well as local, development of the auroral arc structure. The nonlinearity of recombination, in conjunction with the closure of an arc-associated local field-aligned current system, acts to destroy an old arc and creates a new arc in a different but adjacent position. 4) A V-shaped field aligned potential structure is created in association with an auroral arc. Rapid increase in the electron density and the local upward field-aligned current of an arc arises as a result of enhanced ionization by precipitating electrons accelerated by the parallel potential. 5) A drastic oscillatory behavior of appearance and disappearance of auroral arcs is obtained when the ionization effect is strong. The period is primarily given by the Alfven bounce time. (J.P.N.)

  8. Field Programmable Gate Array Control of Power Systems in Graduate Student Laboratories

    O'Connor, Joseph E

    2008-01-01

    ...) continuously develops new design and education resources for students. One area of focus for students in the Power Electronics curriculum track is the development of a design center that explores Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA...

  9. Overview of the Italian activities in the field of life management of nuclear power plants

    Pini, A.

    1994-01-01

    Overview of the Italian activities in the field of life management of nuclear power plants is presented, including the following issues: nuclear energy scenario in Italy, study of reactor pressure vessel, piping and containment integrity, seismic risk analysis

  10. A New Technique for Tracking the Global Maximum Power Point of PV Arrays Operating Under Partial-Shading Conditions

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The power-voltage characteristic of photovoltaic (PV) arrays operating under partial-shading conditions exhibits multiple local maximum power points (MPPs). In this paper, a new method to track the global MPP is presented, which is based on controlling a dc/dc converter connected at the PV array...

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SEPTEMBER 2017 MARS GLOBAL AURORA EVENT AND CRUSTAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Nasr, Camella-Rosa; Schneider, Nick; Connour, Kyle; Jain, Sonal; Deighan, Justin; Jakosky, Bruce; MAVEN/IUVS Team

    2018-01-01

    In September 2017, the Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS) on the MAVEN spacecraft observed global aurora on Mars caused by a surprisingly strong solar energetic particle event. Widespread “diffuse aurora” have previously been detected on Mars through more limited observations (Schneider et al., Science 350, (2015); DOI: 10.1126/science.aad0313), but recent observations established complete coverage of the observable portion of Mars’ nightside. The aurora was global due to Mars’s lack of a global magnetic field, which allowed energetic electrons from the Sun to directly precipitate into the atmosphere. On September 11th, IUVS detected aurora more than 25 times brighter than any prior IUVS observation, with high SNR detections of aurora at the limb and against the disk of the planet. Fainter auroral emission was seen around the nightside limb over 13 orbits spanning nearly 3 days.On September 14th, during the declining phase of the event, faint linear features and patches were detected by the spacecraft, which were higher than the noise floor, with a similar spatial distribution to “discrete aurora” patches observed on Mars by the SPICAM instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft (Bertaux et al., Nature 435, doi :10.1038/nature03603). Discrete aurora occur near areas of the crust affected by the magnetism left over from Mars’ once-strong dipole field. Emission is limited to regions of the crustal magnetic field where the field lines are likely to be open to solar wind interactions. Those regions are concentrated in Mars’ southern hemisphere centered on 180 degrees east longitude.We studied the localized emissions on 14 September to determine whether there might be a connection between the observed diffuse aurora event and discrete auroral processes. First, we investigated the localized emissions to confirm that the observed signal was consistent with expected auroral spectra. Second, their locations were projected on a map of the crustal magnetic

  12. Modeling of the Earth's gravity field using the New Global Earth Model (NEWGEM)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Braswell, W. Danny

    1989-01-01

    Traditionally, the global gravity field was described by representations based on the spherical harmonics (SH) expansion of the geopotential. The SH expansion coefficients were determined by fitting the Earth's gravity data as measured by many different methods including the use of artificial satellites. As gravity data have accumulated with increasingly better accuracies, more of the higher order SH expansion coefficients were determined. The SH representation is useful for describing the gravity field exterior to the Earth but is theoretically invalid on the Earth's surface and in the Earth's interior. A new global Earth model (NEWGEM) (KIM, 1987 and 1988a) was recently proposed to provide a unified description of the Earth's gravity field inside, on, and outside the Earth's surface using the Earth's mass density profile as deduced from seismic studies, elevation and bathymetric information, and local and global gravity data. Using NEWGEM, it is possible to determine the constraints on the mass distribution of the Earth imposed by gravity, topography, and seismic data. NEWGEM is useful in investigating a variety of geophysical phenomena. It is currently being utilized to develop a geophysical interpretation of Kaula's rule. The zeroth order NEWGEM is being used to numerically integrate spherical harmonic expansion coefficients and simultaneously determine the contribution of each layer in the model to a given coefficient. The numerically determined SH expansion coefficients are also being used to test the validity of SH expansions at the surface of the Earth by comparing the resulting SH expansion gravity model with exact calculations of the gravity at the Earth's surface.

  13. Estimating a planetary magnetic field with time-dependent global MHD simulations using an adjoint approach

    C. Nabert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of the solar wind with a planetary magnetic field causes electrical currents that modify the magnetic field distribution around the planet. We present an approach to estimating the planetary magnetic field from in situ spacecraft data using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulation approach. The method is developed with respect to the upcoming BepiColombo mission to planet Mercury aimed at determining the planet's magnetic field and its interior electrical conductivity distribution. In contrast to the widely used empirical models, global MHD simulations allow the calculation of the strongly time-dependent interaction process of the solar wind with the planet. As a first approach, we use a simple MHD simulation code that includes time-dependent solar wind and magnetic field parameters. The planetary parameters are estimated by minimizing the misfit of spacecraft data and simulation results with a gradient-based optimization. As the calculation of gradients with respect to many parameters is usually very time-consuming, we investigate the application of an adjoint MHD model. This adjoint MHD model is generated by an automatic differentiation tool to compute the gradients efficiently. The computational cost for determining the gradient with an adjoint approach is nearly independent of the number of parameters. Our method is validated by application to THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms magnetosheath data to estimate Earth's dipole moment.

  14. On the Inversion for Mass (Re)Distribution from Global (Time-Variable) Gravity Field

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    The well-known non-uniqueness of the gravitational inverse problem states the following: The external gravity field, even if completely and exactly known, cannot Uniquely determine the density distribution of the body that produces the gravity field. This is an intrinsic property of a field that obeys the Laplace equation, as already treated in mathematical as well as geophysical literature. In this paper we provide conceptual insight by examining the problem in terms of spherical harmonic expansion of the global gravity field. By comparing the multipoles and the moments of the density function, we show that in 3-S the degree of knowledge deficiency in trying to inversely recover the density distribution from external gravity field is (n+l)(n+2)/2 - (2n+l) = n(n-1)/2 for each harmonic degree n. On the other hand, on a 2-D spherical shell we show via a simple relationship that the inverse solution of the surface density distribution is unique. The latter applies quite readily in the inversion of time-variable gravity signals (such as those observed by the GRACE space mission) where the sources over a wide range of the scales largely come from the Earth's Surface.

  15. Dilatonic BTZ black holes with power-law field

    Hendi, S.H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.; Sheykhi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by low energy effective action of string theory and numerous applications of BTZ black holes, we will consider minimal coupling between dilaton and nonlinear electromagnetic fields in three dimensions. The main goal is studying thermodynamical structure of black holes in this set up. Temperature and heat capacity of these black holes are investigated and a picture regarding their phase transitions is given. In addition, the role and importance of studying the mass of black holes is highlighted. We will see how different parameters modify thermodynamical quantities, hence thermodynamical structure of these black holes. In addition, geometrical thermodynamics is used to investigate thermodynamical properties of these black holes. In this regard, the successful method is presented and the nature of interaction around bound and phase transition points is studied.

  16. Dilatonic BTZ black holes with power-law field

    Hendi, S.H., E-mail: hendi@shirazu.ac.ir [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha P.O. Box 55134-441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eslam Panah, B., E-mail: behzad.eslampanah@gmail.com [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha P.O. Box 55134-441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S., E-mail: sh.panahiyan@gmail.com [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheykhi, A., E-mail: asheykhi@shirazu.ac.ir [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha P.O. Box 55134-441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-10

    Motivated by low energy effective action of string theory and numerous applications of BTZ black holes, we will consider minimal coupling between dilaton and nonlinear electromagnetic fields in three dimensions. The main goal is studying thermodynamical structure of black holes in this set up. Temperature and heat capacity of these black holes are investigated and a picture regarding their phase transitions is given. In addition, the role and importance of studying the mass of black holes is highlighted. We will see how different parameters modify thermodynamical quantities, hence thermodynamical structure of these black holes. In addition, geometrical thermodynamics is used to investigate thermodynamical properties of these black holes. In this regard, the successful method is presented and the nature of interaction around bound and phase transition points is studied.

  17. Dilatonic BTZ black holes with power-law field

    Hendi, S. H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.; Sheykhi, A.

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by low energy effective action of string theory and numerous applications of BTZ black holes, we will consider minimal coupling between dilaton and nonlinear electromagnetic fields in three dimensions. The main goal is studying thermodynamical structure of black holes in this set up. Temperature and heat capacity of these black holes are investigated and a picture regarding their phase transitions is given. In addition, the role and importance of studying the mass of black holes is highlighted. We will see how different parameters modify thermodynamical quantities, hence thermodynamical structure of these black holes. In addition, geometrical thermodynamics is used to investigate thermodynamical properties of these black holes. In this regard, the successful method is presented and the nature of interaction around bound and phase transition points is studied.

  18. On the global distribution of hydrothermal vent fields: One decade later

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Baker, E. T.; German, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    Since the last global compilation one decade ago, the known number of active submarine hydrothermal vent fields has almost doubled. At the end of 2009, a total of 518 active vent fields was catalogued, with about half (245) visually confirmed and others (273) inferred active at the seafloor. About half (52%) of these vent fields are at mid-ocean ridges (MORs), 25% at volcanic arcs, 21% at back-arc spreading centers (BASCs), and 2% at intra-plate volcanoes and other settings. One third are in high seas, and the nations with the most known active vent fields within EEZs are Tonga, USA, Japan, and New Zealand. The increase in known vent fields reflects a number of factors, including increased national and commercial interests in seafloor hydrothermal deposits as mineral resources. Here, we have comprehensively documented the percentage of strike length at MORs and BASCs that has been systematically explored for hydrothermal activity. As of the end of 2009, almost 30% of the ~60,000 km of MORs had been surveyed at least with spaced vertical profiles to detect hydrothermal plumes. A majority of the vents discovered at MORs in the past decade occurred at segments with vs. weighted-average full spreading rate (u_s), we predicted 676 vent fields remaining to be discovered at MORs. Even accounting for the lower F_s at slower spreading rates, almost half of the vents that are predicted remaining to be discovered at MORs are at ultra-slow to slow spreading rates (explored tend to be at high latitudes, such as the ultra-slow to slow spreading Arctic MORs (e.g., Kolbeinsey and Mohns Ridges), the ultra-slow American-Antarctic Ridge, and the intermediate spreading Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. Although a greater percentage of the ~11,000 km of BASCs has been surveyed for hydrothermal activity, the discoveries at BASCs in the past decade were mainly at segments with intermediate to fast spreading rates. Using the same equation for F_s vs. u_s, we predicted 71 vent fields remaining to

  19. Law, Contestation, and Power in the Global Political Economy: An Introduction.

    Edward S. Cohen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers included in this collection are part of concerted project to develop a political economy of law in the contemporary global system. Over the past two decades, scholars have noted the expanding role of law, legal institutions, and legal agents that have been part of the process of “globalization,” and have employed a number of frameworks to make sense of this process of legalization. A central theme of our project is that none of these frameworks has provided an adequate political economic analysis of the creation, diffusion, and use of law, and we present an alternative approach to advance the understanding of the turn to law across the many dimensions and sectors of the global system. The papers advance the analysis behind this approach and explore the various ways in which law matters in a variety of areas, including global finance, corporate governance, copyright, diplomacy, and the provision of security. Their goal is to advance our understanding of how law intersects with the mobilization of power in the construction of the contemporary political economy. Los trabajos incluidos en esta colección son parte de un proyecto conjunto para desarrollar una economía política de la ley en el sistema mundial contemporáneo. En las últimas dos décadas, los expertos han señalado el creciente papel de la ley, las instituciones legales, y los agentes judiciales que han sido parte del proceso de "globalización", y han empleado una serie de marcos para dar sentido a este proceso de legalización. Un tema central de nuestro proyecto es que ninguno de estos marcos ha proporcionado un adecuado análisis económico político de la creación, difusión y uso de la ley, y se presenta un enfoque alternativo para avanzar en la comprensión de la vuelta a la ley a través de las muchas dimensiones y sectores del sistema global. Los trabajos avanzan el análisis de este enfoque y exploran las diversas formas en que la ley importa en una variedad

  20. The Relationship between Field Tests of Anaerobic Power and 10-km Run Performance.

    Sinnett, Aaron M.; Berg, Kris; Latin, Richard W.; Noble, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between several field tests of anaerobic power (e.g., +various sprints, vertical jumps, and a plyometric leap) and distance running performance in trained adult male and female runners. Results indicate that anaerobic power is significantly related to distance running performance and may explain a meaningful…

  1. Dosimetry of the Embalse nuclear power plant neutron/gamma mixed fields

    Salas, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the method used at the Embalse nuclear power plant for carrying out personal dosimetry of the agents affected to the tasks on the Embalse nuclear power plant neutron-gamma mixed fields. (Author) [es

  2. Mentoring Support and Power: A Three Year Predictive Field Study on Protege Networking and Career Success

    Blickle, Gerhard; Witzki, Alexander H.; Schneider, Paula B.

    2009-01-01

    Career success of early employees was analyzed from a power perspective and a developmental network perspective. In a predictive field study with 112 employees mentoring support and mentors' power were assessed in the first wave, employees' networking was assessed after two years, and career success (i.e. income and hierarchical position) and…

  3. Power spectral density and scaling exponent of high frequency global solar radiation sequences

    Calif, Rudy; Schmitt, François G.; Huang, Yongxiang

    2013-04-01

    The part of the solar power production from photovlotaïcs systems is constantly increasing in the electric grids. Solar energy converter devices such as photovoltaic cells are very sensitive to instantaneous solar radiation fluctuations. Thus rapid variation of solar radiation due to changes in the local meteorological condition can induce large amplitude fluctuations of the produced electrical power and reduce the overall efficiency of the system. When large amount of photovoltaic electricity is send into a weak or small electricity network such as island network, the electric grid security can be in jeopardy due to these power fluctuations. The integration of this energy in the electrical network remains a major challenge, due to the high variability of solar radiation in time and space. To palliate these difficulties, it is essential to identify the characteristic of these fluctuations in order to anticipate the eventuality of power shortage or power surge. The objective of this study is to present an approach based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) to highlight the scaling properties of global solar irradiance data G(t). The scale of invariance is detected on this dataset using the Empirical Mode Decomposition in association with arbitrary-order Hilbert spectral analysis, a generalization of (HHT) or Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA). The first step is the EMD, consists in decomposing the normalized global solar radiation data G'(t) into several Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) Ci(t) without giving an a priori basis. Consequently, the normalized original solar radiation sequence G'(t) can be written as a sum of Ci(t) with a residual rn. From all IMF modes, a joint PDF P(f,A) of locally and instantaneous frequency f and amplitude A, is estimated. To characterize the scaling behavior in amplitude-frequency space, an arbitrary-order Hilbert marginal spectrum is defined to: Iq(f) = 0 P (f,A)A dA (1) with q × 0 In case of scale

  4. Global field synchronization in gamma range of the sleep EEG tracks sleep depth: Artifact introduced by a rectangular analysis window.

    Rusterholz, Thomas; Achermann, Peter; Dürr, Roland; Koenig, Thomas; Tarokh, Leila

    2017-06-01

    Investigating functional connectivity between brain networks has become an area of interest in neuroscience. Several methods for investigating connectivity have recently been developed, however, these techniques need to be applied with care. We demonstrate that global field synchronization (GFS), a global measure of phase alignment in the EEG as a function of frequency, must be applied considering signal processing principles in order to yield valid results. Multichannel EEG (27 derivations) was analyzed for GFS based on the complex spectrum derived by the fast Fourier transform (FFT). We examined the effect of window functions on GFS, in particular of non-rectangular windows. Applying a rectangular window when calculating the FFT revealed high GFS values for high frequencies (>15Hz) that were highly correlated (r=0.9) with spectral power in the lower frequency range (0.75-4.5Hz) and tracked the depth of sleep. This turned out to be spurious synchronization. With a non-rectangular window (Tukey or Hanning window) these high frequency synchronization vanished. Both, GFS and power density spectra significantly differed for rectangular and non-rectangular windows. Previous papers using GFS typically did not specify the applied window and may have used a rectangular window function. However, the demonstrated impact of the window function raises the question of the validity of some previous findings at higher frequencies. We demonstrated that it is crucial to apply an appropriate window function for determining synchronization measures based on a spectral approach to avoid spurious synchronization in the beta/gamma range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A fault diagnosis system for PV power station based on global partitioned gradually approximation method

    Wang, S.; Zhang, X. N.; Gao, D. D.; Liu, H. X.; Ye, J.; Li, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    As the solar photovoltaic (PV) power is applied extensively, more attentions are paid to the maintenance and fault diagnosis of PV power plants. Based on analysis of the structure of PV power station, the global partitioned gradually approximation method is proposed as a fault diagnosis algorithm to determine and locate the fault of PV panels. The PV array is divided into 16x16 blocks and numbered. On the basis of modularly processing of the PV array, the current values of each block are analyzed. The mean current value of each block is used for calculating the fault weigh factor. The fault threshold is defined to determine the fault, and the shade is considered to reduce the probability of misjudgments. A fault diagnosis system is designed and implemented with LabVIEW. And it has some functions including the data realtime display, online check, statistics, real-time prediction and fault diagnosis. Through the data from PV plants, the algorithm is verified. The results show that the fault diagnosis results are accurate, and the system works well. The validity and the possibility of the system are verified by the results as well. The developed system will be benefit for the maintenance and management of large scale PV array.

  6. Accounts from the field: a public relations perspective on global AIDS/HIV.

    Bardhan, Nilanjana R

    2002-01-01

    This study is a theoretical as well as empirical exploration of the power and cultural differentials that mark and construct various intersecting discourses, specifically media discourse, on global AIDS/HIV. It applies the language and concepts of public relations to understand how the press coverage of the pandemic is associated with the variables that impact the newsmaking process as well as the public and policy implications of macro news frames generated over time. Theoretical work in the areas of agenda setting and news framing also instruct the conceptual framework of this analysis. Narrative analysis is used as a methodology to qualitatively analyze three pools of accounts-from people either living with AIDS/HIV, involved in AIDS/HIV work, or discursively engaged in the media construction of the pandemic; from transnational wire service journalists who cover the issue at global and regional levels; and policy shapers and communicators who are active at the global level. These three communities of respondents represent important stakeholders in the AIDS/HIV issue. The findings are analyzed from a public relations standpoint. Perhaps the most important finding of this study is that the public relations approaches used to address AIDS/HIV related issues need to be grounded in context-specific research and communicative practices that bring out the lived realities of AIDS/HIV at grassroots levels. The findings also posit that those situated at critical junctions between various stakeholders need to cultivate a finely balanced understanding of the etic and emic intersections and subjectivities of global/local AIDS/HIV.

  7. Global Mapping of Near-Earth Magnetic Fields Measured by KITSAT-1 and KITSAT-2

    Yoo-Surn Pyo

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic field measurements from the KitSat-1 and KitSat-2 were tested by comparing with the IGRF model. The magnetic data have been collected by a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer on each satellite at an altitude of 1,325km and 820km, respectively. To avoid highly variable magnetic disturbances at the polar region, the field map has been drawn within the limits of 50 degrees in latitude. Each data is averaged over the square of 5x5 degrees in both latitude and longitude. In these results, the relatively quiet periods were selected and the sampling rate was 30 seconds. It is shown that the results from these measurements are consistent with the IGRF map over the global surface map.

  8. Integral relations in complex space and the global analytic and monodromic structure of Green's functions in quantum field theory

    Bros, J.

    1980-01-01

    In this lecture, we present some of the ideas of a global consistent approach to the analytic and monodromic structure of Green's functions and scattering amplitudes of elementary particles on the basis of general quantum field theory. (orig.)

  9. On Corestriction Principle in non-abelian Galois cohomology over local and global fields. II: Characteristic p > 0

    Nguyen Quoc Thang

    2004-08-01

    We show the validity of te Corestriction Principle for non-abelian cohomology of connected reductive groups over local ad global fields of characteristic p > 0 , by extending some results by Kneser and Douai. (author)

  10. A Global Database of Field-observed Leaf Area Index in Woody Plant Species, 1932-2011

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides global leaf area index (LAI) values for woody species. The data are a compilation of field-observed data from 1,216 locations obtained from...

  11. A Global Database of Field-observed Leaf Area Index in Woody Plant Species, 1932-2011

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides global leaf area index (LAI) values for woody species. The data are a compilation of field-observed data from 1,216 locations...

  12. Single Event Effects (SEE) for Power Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Single-event gate rupture (SEGR) continues to be a key failure mode in power MOSFETs. (1) SEGR is complex, making rate prediction difficult SEGR mechanism has two main components: (1) Oxide damage-- Reduces field required for rupture (2) Epilayer response -- Creates transient high field across the oxide.

  13. Multi-fields' coordination information integrated platform for nuclear power plant operation preparation

    Yuan Chang; Li Yong; Ye Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    To realize the coordination in multi-fields' work and information sharing, by applying the method of Enterprise Architecture (EA), the business architecture, functional flow and application architecture of Nuclear Power Plant's operation preparation information integrated platform are designed, which can realize the information sharing and coordination of multi fields. (authors)

  14. Perturbative S-matrix for massive scalar fields in global de Sitter space

    Marolf, Donald; Srednicki, Mark; Morrison, Ian A

    2013-01-01

    We construct a perturbative S-matrix for interacting massive scalar fields in global de Sitter space. Our S-matrix is formulated in terms of asymptotic particle states in the far past and future, taking appropriate care for light fields whose wavefunctions decay only very slowly near the de Sitter conformal boundaries. An alternative formulation expresses this S-matrix in terms of residues of poles in analytically-continued Euclidean correlators (computed in perturbation theory), making it clear that the standard Minkowski-space result is obtained in the flat-space limit. Our S-matrix transforms properly under CPT, is invariant under the de Sitter isometries and perturbative field redefinitions, and is unitary. This unitarity implies a de Sitter version of the optical theorem. We explicitly verify these properties to second order in the coupling for a general cubic interaction, including both tree- and loop-level contributions. Contrary to other statements in the literature, we find that a particle of any positive mass may decay at tree level to any number of particles, each of arbitrary positive masses. In particular, even very light fields (in the complementary series of de Sitter representations) are not protected from tree-level decays. (paper)

  15. Globally Stable Microresonator Turing Pattern Formation for Coherent High-Power THz Radiation On-Chip

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Jinghui; Yang, Shang-Hua; Yu, Mingbin; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Zelevinsky, T.; Jarrahi, Mona; Wong, Chee Wei

    2017-10-01

    In nonlinear microresonators driven by continuous-wave (cw) lasers, Turing patterns have been studied in the formalism of the Lugiato-Lefever equation with emphasis on their high coherence and exceptional robustness against perturbations. Destabilization of Turing patterns and the transition to spatiotemporal chaos, however, limit the available energy carried in the Turing rolls and prevent further harvest of their high coherence and robustness to noise. Here, we report a novel scheme to circumvent such destabilization, by incorporating the effect of local mode hybridizations, and we attain globally stable Turing pattern formation in chip-scale nonlinear oscillators with significantly enlarged parameter space, achieving a record-high power-conversion efficiency of 45% and an elevated peak-to-valley contrast of 100. The stationary Turing pattern is discretely tunable across 430 GHz on a THz carrier, with a fractional frequency sideband nonuniformity measured at 7.3 ×10-14 . We demonstrate the simultaneous microwave and optical coherence of the Turing rolls at different evolution stages through ultrafast optical correlation techniques. The free-running Turing-roll coherence, 9 kHz in 200 ms and 160 kHz in 20 minutes, is transferred onto a plasmonic photomixer for one of the highest-power THz coherent generations at room temperature, with 1.1% optical-to-THz power conversion. Its long-term stability can be further improved by more than 2 orders of magnitude, reaching an Allan deviation of 6 ×10-10 at 100 s, with a simple computer-aided slow feedback control. The demonstrated on-chip coherent high-power Turing-THz system is promising to find applications in astrophysics, medical imaging, and wireless communications.

  16. Global development of advanced nuclear power plants, and related IAEA activities

    2006-09-01

    Renewed interest in the potential of nuclear energy to contribute to a sustainable worldwide energy mix is underlining the IAEA's statutory role in fostering the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, in particular the need for effective exchanges of information and collaborative research and technology development among Member States on advanced nuclear power technologies deployable in the near term as well as in the longer term. For applications in the medium to longer term, with rising expectations for the role of nuclear energy in the future, technological innovation has become a strong focus of nuclear power technology developments by many Member States. To meet Member States' needs, the IAEA conducts activities to foster information exchange and collaborative research and development in the area of advanced nuclear reactor technologies. These activities include coordination of collaborative research, organization of international information exchange, and analyses of globally available technical data and results, with a focus on reducing nuclear power plant capital costs and construction periods while further improving performance, safety and proliferation resistance. In other activities, evolutionary and innovative advances are catalyzed for all reactor lines such as advanced water cooled reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, liquid metal cooled reactors and accelerator driven systems, including small and medium sized reactors. In addition, there are activities related to other applications of nuclear energy such as seawater desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications. This brochure summarizes the worldwide status and the activities related to advanced nuclear power technology development and related IAEA activities. It includes a list of the collaborative research and development projects conducted by the IAEA, as well as of the status reports and other publications produced

  17. Near field wireless power transfer using curved relay resonators for extended transfer distance

    Zhu, D; Beeby, S P; Clare, L; Stark, B H

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a near field wireless power transfer system that uses curved relay resonator to extend transfer distance. Near field wireless power transfer operates based on the near-field electromagnetic coupling of coils. Such a system can transfer energy over a relatively short distance which is of the same order of dimensions of the coupled coils. The energy transfer distance can be increased using flat relay resonators. Recent developments in printing electronics and e-textiles have seen increasing demand of embedding electronics into fabrics. Near field wireless power transfer is one of the most promising methods to power electronics on fabrics. The concept can be applied to body-worn textiles by, for example, integrating a transmitter coil into upholstery, and a flexible receiver coil into garments. Flexible textile coils take on the shape of the supporting materials such as garments, and therefore curved resonator and receiver coils are investigated in this work. Experimental results showed that using curved relay resonator can effectively extend the wireless power transfer distance. However, as the curvature of the coil increases, the performance of the wireless power transfer, especially the maximum received power, deteriorates. (paper)

  18. Possible mechanisms by which electric fields from power lines might affect airborne particles harmful to health

    Swanson, J.; Jeffers, D.

    1999-01-01

    Power lines produce alternating electric fields and modify static electric fields in their vicinity. These electric fields, if large enough, can alter the concentration or transport of airborne particles (including particles harmful to health), for example by causing deposition of charged particles, polarisation of neutral particles, or by production of ions. It has been suggested that this could lead to adverse health effects being associated with power lines. Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence relevant to eight separate postulated mechanisms involving power lines and airborne particles are examined. On theoretical grounds, none should lead to any adverse health effect, primarily because the effects produced are very small and are swamped by air currents or by gravity, and because people spend limited time in the relevant conditions. The experimental evidence also weighs against any adverse health effects. Further, even if significant health effects were produced, they would be different from those suggested by existing epidemiology concerning power lines. (author)

  19. Reliability improvement in GaN HEMT power device using a field plate approach

    Wu, Wen-Hao; Lin, Yueh-Chin; Chin, Ping-Chieh; Hsu, Chia-Chieh; Lee, Jin-Hwa; Liu, Shih-Chien; Maa, Jer-shen; Iwai, Hiroshi; Chang, Edward Yi; Hsu, Heng-Tung

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of implementing a field plate on a GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) to improve power device reliability. The results indicate that the field plate structure reduces the peak electrical field and interface traps in the device, resulting in higher breakdown voltage, lower leakage current, smaller current collapse, and better threshold voltage control. Furthermore, after high voltage stress, steady dynamic on-resistance and gate capacitance degradation improvement were observed for the device with the field plate. This demonstrates that GaN device reliability can be improved by using the field plate approach.

  20. Global Ordo-Liberalism, Private Power and the Transfiguration of Diplomatic Law

    Noe Cornago

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diplomatic law is commonly depicted as a field of law particularly differentiated and stable, and apparently at least not particularly vulnerable to the tensions associated to the restructuring of the global political economy which are so easily observable in other fields of international law. For centuries its formative process was customary. Later, early diplomatic practices, institutions, and norms were tailored to measure the functional and normative needs of a world of nation States. However, it was not until the signing in 1961 of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations that its basic rules were formally codified. But, as the preamble in this Convention affirms, the rules of customary law continue to govern all questions not expressly regulated by its contents. Custom however is not always the residue of the past that some practitioners and scholars use to imagine. Moreover, its formative processes are also embedded in wider historical transformations of global capitalism. Through the examination of current transformations affecting diplomatic settlement of disputes, diplomatic protection, diplomatic immunity and diplomatic reciprocity, this article contends that diplomatic law is becoming another field of struggle, both particularly unexpected and revealing, in the current transition from embedded liberalism towards a new era of global ordo-liberalism. El derecho diplomático se representa comúnmente como una rama del derecho especialmente diferenciada y estable, y aparentemente al menos no particularmente vulnerable a las tensiones asociadas a la reestructuración de la economía política global, que son tan fácilmente observables en otros ámbitos del derecho internacional. Su proceso formativo era habitual durante siglos. Más tarde , las tempranas prácticas diplomáticas, instituciones y normas se adaptaban para medir las necesidades funcionales y normativas de un mundo de estados naciones. Sin embargo, no fue hasta la firma

  1. A High Performance PSO-Based Global MPP Tracker for a PV Power Generation System

    Kuei-Hsiang Chao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present an improved version of a typical particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, such that the global maximum power point (MPP on a P-V characteristic curve with multiple peaks can be located in an efficient and precise manner for a photovoltaic module array. A series of instrumental measurements are conducted on variously configured arrays built with SANYO HIP2717 PV modules, either unshaded, partially shaded, or malfunctioning, as the building blocks. There appear two, triple and quadruple peaks on the corresponding P-V characteristic curves. Subsequently, the tracking performance comparisons, made by some practical experiments, indicate the superiority of this improved MPP tracking algorithm over the typical one.

  2. Nuclear power planning in the context of global climate change - the Malaysian perspective

    Alawiah Musa; Fairuz Suzana Mohd Chachuli; Nik Arlina Nik Ali

    2007-01-01

    The global warming effect due to ?greenhouse gases? is a hot topic discussed by world climate scientists today. This effect causes sea levels to rise, countries experiencing extreme weather conditions, violent storms and long dry spells. In centuries to come, these catastrophic effects can cause the spread of diseases and destroy food production and human habitat. Over one-third of the greenhouse gases come from the burning of fossil fuel to generate electricity. Nuclear power plants do not generate these gases. This paper presents the results obtained from a case study using MESSAGE, an analytical tool developed by the IAEA, which was used to evaluate Malaysia future energy requirements and strategies in addressing climate change issues. (Author)

  3. Study and realization of a power circuit of a superconducting dipole generator of a magnetic field

    Rouanet, E.

    1993-01-01

    The project of experimental reactor building on controlled fusion (I.T.E.R) needed the development of a superconducting cable made of niobium-tin. Tested with a current of fifty kilo amperes under a twelve tesla constant field, this cable has to be tested under a variable field. The installation of the power circuit of the dipole field generator, consisted to the study and realization of the four following points: an important power cable; a tension protection organ of the dipole, under a seventeen milli Henrys inductance and four kilo amperes; a current regulating system given by the generator; a complete pilot system of the test station

  4. Current status of research on power-frequency electric and magnetic fields of research

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Recent scientific literature has suggested a number of possible human health effects which might be associated with exposure to power frequency electric and magnetic fields. Several authoritative reviews of this subject have been published. currently, the major uncertainty and the major research effort is directed to the issue of these fields and cancer. Therefore, this review will be limited to examining the evidence relating prolonged power-frequency electric and magnetic field exposure to cancer in human populations. This paper reports that the CIGRE expert Group has assessed the research literature in the following areas: epidemiological evidence, animal studies, cellular effects, knowledge of mechanisms

  5. Energy and ethics. Ethical aspects of a future global power generation; Energie und Ethik. Ethische Aspekte zukuenftiger globaler Stromerzeugung

    Gethmann, C.F. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Philosophie; Europaeische Akademie Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The article deals with ethical questions regarding a future global energy supply by considering the normative aspects of economic efficiency, long-term liabilities, environmental sustainability, social acceptability and distributive equity. Regarding the ethical issues dealt with in the debate on the global energy supply, in particular two postulates arise: Both an improvement in knowledge and an improvement in the categories and procedures of ethical reflection are required. (orig.)

  6. Turkey's role as a regional and global player and its power capacity: Turkey's engagement with other emerging states

    Aylin Gürzel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey's role as a regional power has increased since Justice and Development Party (AKP came to power. AKP leadership not only aspired to become a regional power but also a global player. Turkey has, therefore, assumed different roles: the "natural leader" of the region; a historical "big brother;" and the "protector" of the Muslim minorities. Turkey has also assumed a "mediator" and a "facilitator" role by trying to negotiate a deal with an emerging power such as Brazil in order to attempt to resolve the controversial Iranian nuclear issue. By making use of recent developments, Turkey tried to solidify its long desired role as a "rising power" by increasing its influence in its neighborhood and engaging with other emerging powers. The concept "regional power" is a context-based notion. In other words, the location and geography are contesting and disputed approaches. Notwithstanding the fact that concepts such as "region" and "power" are social constructed reality, this paper analyzes the notion of 'regional power' as a subcategory of 'power'. In this context, this paper will make use of Stefan Schim's criteria while analyzing Turkey's power capacity in the region. Schim posits that the "regional power" needs to have a "role definition," and it should possess material power (hard power. It should also have economic as well as diplomatic and organizational capacity. Its power whether it is 'soft power' (attraction of ones idea's and or the ability to set the political agenda in a way that shapes the preferences of other actors or 'hard power' (material power that can be measured-economic and military power needs to be acknowledged by other actors in the region. It should also be accepted by great powers and emerging powers that are determinant in the international system. dditionally, the regional power (and/ or global power needs to have leverage, thus its power projection needs to yield results. Kalevi Holsti's role theory will be used as

  7. Relations between focusing power of space-charge lenses and external electromagnetic fields

    Yu Qingchang; Qiu Hong; Huang Jiachang

    1991-01-01

    Under different external electromagnetic fields, the electron densities of the electron cloud in a self-sustaning spece-charge lens are measured with the radio-frequency method and the energy distributions of the ions produced in ionization are measured with the stopping field method. From them the relations between the focusing power of space-charge lenses and the external electromagnetic fields are determined. The available region of the Lebedev-Morozov formula is discussed

  8. Globalization

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  9. Globalization

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  10. Nuclear power and the logic of globalization; Politisierung der Wirtschaft, Rueckfall in den alten Nationalstaat

    Weizsaecker, C.C. von [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.

    2000-02-01

    The article discusses effects and results of globalization for nuclear power and other options of electricity generation. According to the present state of knowledge, it will not be possible to meet the growing worldwide energy requirement with fossil and renewable energy sources only - also because of the CO{sub 2} problem. Consequently, nuclear power will remain an important alternative. On an international scale, this applies in particular to large countries, such as China and India, as large national economies particularly benefit from the economies of scale offered by nuclear power. This could well make Chinese nuclear technology a product for the world market. Thinking along these lines has not really gained ground in Germany, as nuclear power, being a technology requiring considerably capital outlay, is considered unsuitable for southern countries. It is an illusion to believe that Germany's opting out of the use of nuclear power could be a model to others. Instead, we are faced by the ethical question of how we can help to minimize the accident risks of nuclear facilities worldwide. We can do so only by maintaining the use of nuclear power and exporting our level of safety, for the risks will not become any smaller merely as a result of our opting out. (orig.) [German] Der Artikel diskutiert Effekte und Resultate der Globalisierung in Bezug auf die Kernenergie und andere Stromerzeugungs-Alternativen. Nach heutigem Kenntnisstand wird es nicht moeglich sein, den weltweit wachsenden Energiebedarf ausschliesslich mit fossilen und regenerativen Energietraegern zu decken - auch wegen der CO{sub 2}-Problematik. Die Kernenergie wird daher eine wichtige Alternative bleiben. Im internationalen Kontext sind vor allem grosse Laender wie China und Indien relevant, da in grossen Volkswirtschaften die Groessenvorteile der Kernenergie (economies of scale) besonders stark durchschlagen. Chinesische Kerntechnik koennte dann ein Weltmarktprodukt werden. Dieser

  11. Field and power dependence of auto-oscillations in yttrium-iron-garnet films

    McMichael, R.D.; Wigen, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The nonlinear response of the magnetic spin system in yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) thin films to high-power ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at perpendicular resonance was studied and the results are presented. A diagram of the regions of auto-oscillation of the system as a function of field and power is presented which shows the modes that appear in low-power FMR becoming unstable to auto-oscillations with increased power. The auto-oscillations exhibit periodic, quasiperiodic, period doubling, and chaotic behavior with typical frequencies in the MHz range. The domains of oscillatory behavior due to individual resonance modes are seen to merge and shift to lower fields as power is increased. Possible mechanisms for the behavior are proposed

  12. Paleomagnetic reconstruction of the global geomagnetic field evolution during the Matuyama/Brunhes transition: Iterative Bayesian inversion and independent verification

    Leonhardt, Roman; Fabian, Karl

    2007-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field changed its polarity from the last reversed into today's normal state approximately 780 000 years ago. While before and after this so called Matuyama/Brunhes reversal, the Earth magnetic field was essentially an axial dipole, the details of its transitional structure are still largely unknown. Here, a Bayesian inversion method is developed to reconstruct the spherical harmonic expansion of this transitional field from paleomagnetic data. This is achieved by minimizing the total variational power at the core-mantle boundary during the transition under paleomagnetic constraints. The validity of the inversion technique is proved in two ways. First by inverting synthetic data sets from a modeled reversal. Here it is possible to reliably reconstruct the Gauss coefficients even from noisy records. Second by iteratively combining four geographically distributed high quality paleomagnetic records of the Matuyama/Brunhes reversal into a single geometric reversal scenario without assuming an a priori common age model. The obtained spatio-temporal reversal scenario successfully predicts most independent Matuyama/Brunhes transitional records. Therefore, the obtained global reconstruction based on paleomagnetic data invites to compare the inferred transitional field structure with results from numerical geodynamo models regarding the morphology of the transitional field. It is found that radial magnetic flux patches form at the equator and move polewards during the transition. Our model indicates an increase of non-dipolar energy prior to the last reversal and a non-dipolar dominance during the transition. Thus, the character and information of surface geomagnetic field records is strongly site dependent. The reconstruction also offers new answers to the question of existence of preferred longitudinal bands during the transition and to the problem of reversal duration. Different types of directional variations of the surface geomagnetic field

  13. ELF field in the proximity of complex power line configuration measurement procedures

    Benes, M.; Comelli, M.; Villalta, R.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of how to measure magnetic induction fields generated by various power line configurations, when there are several power lines that run across the same exposure area, has become a matter of interest and study within the Regional Environment Protection Agency of Friuli Venezia Giulia. In classifying the various power line typologies the definition of double circuit line was given: in this instance the magnetic field is determined by knowing the electrical and geometric parameters of the line. In the case of independent lines instead, the field is undetermined. It is therefore pointed out how, in the latter case, extracting projected information from a set of measurements of the magnetic field alone is impossible. Making measurements throughout the territory of service has in several cases offered the opportunity to define standard operational procedures. (authors)

  14. Effects of a power and photon energy of incident light on near-field etching properties

    Yatsui, T.; Saito, H.; Nishioka, K.; Leuschel, B.; Soppera, O.; Nobusada, K.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a near-field etching technique for realizing an ultra-flat surfaces of various materials and structures. To elucidate the near-field etching properties, we have investigated the effects of power and the photon energy of the incident light. First, we established theoretically that an optical near-field with photon energy lower than the absorption edge of the molecules can induce molecular vibrations. We used nanodiamonds to study the power dependence of the near-field etching properties. From the topological changes of the nanodiamonds, we confirmed the linear-dependence of the etching volume with the incident power. Furthermore, we studied the photon energy dependence using TiO2 nanostriped structures, which revealed that a lower photon energy results in a lower etching rate.

  15. Suppressing RF breakdown of powerful backward wave oscillator by field redistribution

    W. Song

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An over mode method for suppressing the RF breakdown on metal surface of resonant reflector cavity in powerful backward wave oscillator is investigated. It is found that the electric field is redistributed and electron emission is restrained with an over longitudinal mode cavity. Compared with the general device, a frequency band of about 5 times wider and a power capacity of at least 1.7 times greater are obtained. The results were verified in an X-band high power microwave generation experiment with the output power near 4 gigawatt.

  16. Design of constant current charging power supply for J-TEXT ohmic field capacitor banks

    Lv Shudong; Zhang Ming; Rao Bo; Yu Kexun; Yang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The charging characteristic of the capacitor charging power supply was analyzed with practical series resonant topology. The method that setting two current taps and regulating PWM switching frequency was putted forward with close loop controlling algorithm to charge the multi-group capacitor banks with constant current. A capacitor charging power supply with the max output current 6.5 A and the max output voltage 2000 V is designed. Experimental results show that, this power supply can charge the four capacitor banks to any four different voltages in 1 minute with charging accuracy less than 1%, and meet the requirements of J-TEXT ohmic field power system. (authors)

  17. The 'International' and the 'Global' as Complementary Power Strategies within Corporate Roman Catholicism

    Kenneth Houston

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The putative resurgence of religious belief and its reinvigorated socio-political importance – or at least prominence – has prompted critical reflection on religion, broadly defined, as a new force in politics. This paper examines the ‘global’ and ‘international’ role of Roman Catholicism. Roman Catholicism has manifested itself as an actor on the international stage and as a trans-national and global ‘community’. Frequently the conceptual dividing line between these is ambiguous. Vatican City and the Holy See have both been accorded international status, the former since the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty by Italy’s fascist leader, Benito Mussolini, in 1929, the latter since the mid nineteenth century following the absorption of the Papal States into the newly unified Italian Republic. The Holy See also enjoys a special status position within the United Nations system as a non-member observer state. Following revelations of clerical child abuse the Holy See was put on the defensive in several national contexts in a public controversy that resonated much more widely. This trans-nationally organised religion has mobilised both nationally and internationally to defend its institutional interests. Through an examination of empirical instances the study sidesteps the question of whether religions are ‘global’ or ‘international’ phenomena, and draws attention to the distinct power modalities operative at the level of both international politics and in transnational or global organisation.

  18. Nuclear power and global warming: a first cost-benefit calculation

    Hope, C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper investigates the costs and benefits of a modest nuclear power programme in the European Union to combat the threat of global warming. The nuclear programme is found to bring a double benefit. The first and more obvious benefit is that the economic impacts of global warming are reduced. The second benefit is counter-intuitive; most people would expect it to be a cost. It comes from the stimulus to the economy from the construction of the nuclear plant, which, with the recycling of carbon tax revenues, offsets its construction and operating costs, and may even cause consumers' expenditure to rise. Calculations in this paper show that over the period to 2100 the mean net present value of the first benefit is 6 billion European Currency Units (ECU; 1 ECU is about Dollars 1), while the second benefit has a mean net present value of 159 billion ECU. However both benefits, particularly the second, are still very uncertain, to the extent that even their sign is not yet definitely established. (author)

  19. "Power quality system," a new system of quality management for globalization: towards innovation and competitive advantages.

    Abdul-Rahman, H; Berawi, M A

    Knowledge Management (KM) addresses the critical issues of organizational adoption, survival and competence in the face of an increasingly changing environment. KM embodies organizational processes that seek a synergistic combination of the data and information processing capabilities of information and communication technologies (ICT), and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings to improve ICT In that role, knowledge management will improve quality management and avoid or minimize losses and weakness that usually come from poor performance as well as increase the competitive level of the company and its ability to survive in the global marketplace. To achieve quality, all parties including the clients, company consultants, contractors, entrepreneurs, suppliers, and the governing bodies (i.e., all involved stake-holders) need to collaborate and commit to achieving quality. The design based organizations in major business and construction companies have to be quality driven to support healthy growth in today's competitive market. In the march towards vision 2020 and globalization (i.e., the one world community) of many companies, their design based organizations need to have superior quality management and knowledge management to anticipate changes. The implementation of a quality system such as the ISO 9000 Standards, Total Quality Management, or Quality Function Deployment (QFD) focuses the company's resources towards achieving faster and better results in the global market with less cost. To anticipate the needs of the marketplace and clients as the world and technology change, a new system, which we call Power Quality System (PQS), has been designed. PQS is a combination of information and communication technologies (ICT) and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings to meet the challenges of the new world business and to develop high quality products.

  20. Population Pressure, Global Living Standards, and the Promise of Space Solar Power

    Strickland, John K., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    uses of electricity and fuels currently covered by fossil fuels. This is a global replacement load of about 9000 gigawatts. Green theorists are divided on this issue. Some claim that ground based solar, wind, and other renewable sources will supply all the energy we need, ignoring economic costs that severely limit their use. Others would (unrealistically) require the developed countries to reduce their energy consumption per capita to a level closer to that of the developing world, thereby admitting the limitations of the "appropriate" systems they espouse. Both sides in the past have rejected as "non-appropriate" and/or "dangerous" all the chemically clean energy sources of high capacity that have been previously proposed, such as safer nuclear fission, fusion power, and space solar power. If ground based "appropriate" energy sources are not sufficient, the economic and social effects of sudden forced curtailments of fossil energy use could be drastic. This paper supports the thesis that Space Solar Power does have the potential to provide such a clean, abundant, and economical energy source. It will cover both the limitations and promise of ground based energy sources, including the difficulties of using intermittent energy sources. It will discuss whether specified levels of energy cost increases would be damaging to the world economy and whether economical ground based sources alone would have sufficient capacity. It will show how the one major problem of launch costs, (currently preventing economical implementation of Space Solar Power), has a number of quite reasonable solutions. Finally, it will consider whether Space Solar Power, along with the other major space goals of Science &Exploration, Mars Colonization, Non- terrestrial Materials Recovery and Space Tourism, could be another space "killer app" which, by creating a high demand for launch services, could force large reductions in launch costs.

  1. DOUBLE DYNAMO SIGNATURES IN A GLOBAL MHD SIMULATION AND MEAN-FIELD DYNAMOS

    Beaudoin, Patrice; Simard, Corinne; Cossette, Jean-François; Charbonneau, Paul [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    The 11 year solar activity cycle is the most prominent periodic manifestation of the magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) large-scale dynamo operating in the solar interior, yet longer and shorter (quasi-) periodicities are also present. The so-called “quasi-biennial” signal appearing in many proxies of solar activity has been gaining increasing attention since its detection in p -mode frequency shifts, which suggests a subphotospheric origin. A number of candidate mechanisms have been proposed, including beating between co-existing global dynamo modes, dual dynamos operating in spatially separated regions of the solar interior, and Rossby waves driving short-period oscillations in the large-scale solar magnetic field produced by the 11 year activity cycle. In this article, we analyze a global MHD simulation of solar convection producing regular large-scale magnetic cycles, and detect and characterize shorter periodicities developing therein. By constructing kinematic mean-field α {sup 2}Ω dynamo models incorporating the turbulent electromotive force (emf) extracted from that same simulation, we find that dual-dynamo behavior materializes in fairly wide regions of the model’s parameters space. This suggests that the origin of the similar behavior detected in the MHD simulation lies with the joint complexity of the turbulent emf and differential rotation profile, rather that with dynamical interactions such as those mediated by Rossby waves. Analysis of the simulation also reveals that the dual dynamo operating therein leaves a double-period signature in the temperature field, consistent with a dual-period helioseismic signature. Order-of-magnitude estimates for the magnitude of the expected frequency shifts are commensurate with helioseismic measurements. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that the solar quasi-biennial oscillations are associated with a secondary dynamo process operating in the outer reaches of the solar convection zone.

  2. Optimal Magnetic Field Shielding Method by Metallic Sheets in Wireless Power Transfer System

    Feng Wen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To meet the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs such as the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP guidelines, thin metallic sheets are often used to shield magnetic field leakage in high power applications of wireless power transfer (WPT systems based on magnetic field coupling. However, the metals in the vicinity of the WPT coils cause the decrease of self and mutual inductances and increase of effective series resistance; as such, the electric performance including transmission power and the efficiency of the system is affected. With the research objective of further investigating excellent shielding effectiveness associated with system performance, the utilization of the optimal magnetic field shielding method by metallic sheets in magnetic field coupling WPT is carried out in this paper. The circuit and 3D Finite Element Analysis (FEA models are combined to predict the magnetic field distribution and electrical performance. Simulation and experiment results show that the method is very effective by obtaining the largest possible coupling coefficient of the WPT coils within the allowable range and then reducing the value nearest to and no smaller than the critical coupling coefficient via geometric unbroken metallic sheets. The optimal magnetic field shielding method which considers the system efficiency, transmission power, transmission distance, and system size is also achieved using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP. The results can benefit WPT by helping to achieve efficient energy transfer and safe use in metal shielded equipment.

  3. A power law global error model for the identification of differentially expressed genes in microarray data

    Granucci Francesca

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-density oligonucleotide microarray technology enables the discovery of genes that are transcriptionally modulated in different biological samples due to physiology, disease or intervention. Methods for the identification of these so-called "differentially expressed genes" (DEG would largely benefit from a deeper knowledge of the intrinsic measurement variability. Though it is clear that variance of repeated measures is highly dependent on the average expression level of a given gene, there is still a lack of consensus on how signal reproducibility is linked to signal intensity. The aim of this study was to empirically model the variance versus mean dependence in microarray data to improve the performance of existing methods for identifying DEG. Results In the present work we used data generated by our lab as well as publicly available data sets to show that dispersion of repeated measures depends on location of the measures themselves following a power law. This enables us to construct a power law global error model (PLGEM that is applicable to various Affymetrix GeneChip data sets. A new DEG identification method is therefore proposed, consisting of a statistic designed to make explicit use of model-derived measurement spread estimates and a resampling-based hypothesis testing algorithm. Conclusions The new method provides a control of the false positive rate, a good sensitivity vs. specificity trade-off and consistent results with varying number of replicates and even using single samples.

  4. Redefining the Indirect Approach, Defining Special Operations Forces (SOF Power, and the Global Networking of SOF

    Scott Morrison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current Defense Strategy assigns Special Operations Forces (SOF to play a central role in countering terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, and irregular warfare. However, there has been little published that defines the role of Special Operations alongside air, land, and sea domains. The U.S. Special Operations Community struggles to define its own theoretical concepts such as direct approach and indirect approach. The U.S. SOF circles typically define direct approach with direct action and the indirect approach with foreign internal defense or security force assistance. Military theorist Liddell Hart viewed the indirect approach as a method to orient upon, target, and upset an adversary’s equilibrium in order to plan for and direct decisive blows. Today, the SOF indirect approach is arguable more applicable due to the prevalence of non-state threats and internal conflicts. Following Hart’s definition, precision raids are among the integral components of a broader application of the indirect approach. The approach also networks U.S. government power as a force when used in concert with allies and local partners. Global networking along with balanced precision raids will exponentially increase the utility of SOF power and position it to appropriately complement all domains to tackle 21st century challenges.

  5. Local and global particle and power balance in large area capacitive discharges

    Cho, Suwon; Lieberman, M A

    2003-01-01

    Large area radio frequency (rf) capacitive discharges have attracted recent interest for materials etching and deposition on large area substrates. A distinguishing feature is that the radial distribution of the absorbed rf power in these discharges depends on the rf voltage across the plates, independent of the radial variation of the plasma density n(r). A reduced set of steady-state fluid equations has been used to investigate the radial variation of n and electron temperature T e . The derived equations are shown to be invariant with respect to pL and pR, where p is the pressure, L is the plate separation and R is the discharge radius, and can be further reduced to the equations of the usual global balance model when R ε , the energy relaxation length. In this limit, the ionization frequency and T e are essentially independent of radius and n can be approximately described by the usual radial profile of a zeroth-order Bessel function. When R≥λ ε , n and T e are predominantly determined by local particle and power balance, and the n and T e radial profiles are flat over most of the volume except near the radial boundary, where n falls and T e rises to account for the increased losses at the boundary. The scale length of the edge density variation in the local balance regime is shown to be proportional to the energy relaxation length

  6. Action-at-a-distance metamaterials: Distributed local actuation through far-field global forces

    Hedayati, R.; Mirzaali, M. J.; Vergani, L.; Zadpoor, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical metamaterials are a sub-category of designer materials where the geometry of the material at the small-scale is rationally designed to give rise to unusual properties and functionalities. Here, we propose the concept of "action-at-a-distance" metamaterials where a specific pattern of local deformation is programmed into the fabric of (cellular) materials. The desired pattern of local actuation could then be achieved simply through the application of one single global and far-field force. We proposed graded designs of auxetic and conventional unit cells with changing Poisson's ratios as a way of making "action-at-a-distance" metamaterials. We explored five types of graded designs including linear, two types of radial gradients, checkered, and striped. Specimens were fabricated with indirect additive manufacturing and tested under compression, tension, and shear. Full-field strain maps measured with digital image correlation confirmed different patterns of local actuation under similar far-field strains. These materials have potential applications in soft (wearable) robotics and exosuits.

  7. Action-at-a-distance metamaterials: Distributed local actuation through far-field global forces

    R. Hedayati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical metamaterials are a sub-category of designer materials where the geometry of the material at the small-scale is rationally designed to give rise to unusual properties and functionalities. Here, we propose the concept of “action-at-a-distance” metamaterials where a specific pattern of local deformation is programmed into the fabric of (cellular materials. The desired pattern of local actuation could then be achieved simply through the application of one single global and far-field force. We proposed graded designs of auxetic and conventional unit cells with changing Poisson’s ratios as a way of making “action-at-a-distance” metamaterials. We explored five types of graded designs including linear, two types of radial gradients, checkered, and striped. Specimens were fabricated with indirect additive manufacturing and tested under compression, tension, and shear. Full-field strain maps measured with digital image correlation confirmed different patterns of local actuation under similar far-field strains. These materials have potential applications in soft (wearable robotics and exosuits.

  8. The Chandra Deep Field South as a test case for Global Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics

    Portaluri, E.; Viotto, V.; Ragazzoni, R.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bergomi, M.; Greggio, D.; Biondi, F.; Dima, M.; Magrin, D.; Farinato, J.

    2017-04-01

    The era of the next generation of giant telescopes requires not only the advent of new technologies but also the development of novel methods, in order to exploit fully the extraordinary potential they are built for. Global Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics (GMCAO) pursues this approach, with the goal of achieving good performance over a field of view of a few arcmin and an increase in sky coverage. In this article, we show the gain offered by this technique to an astrophysical application, such as the photometric survey strategy applied to the Chandra Deep Field South as a case study. We simulated a close-to-real observation of a 500 × 500 arcsec2 extragalactic deep field with a 40-m class telescope that implements GMCAO. We analysed mock K-band images of 6000 high-redshift (up to z = 2.75) galaxies therein as if they were real to recover the initial input parameters. We attained 94.5 per cent completeness for source detection with SEXTRACTOR. We also measured the morphological parameters of all the sources with the two-dimensional fitting tools GALFIT. The agreement we found between recovered and intrinsic parameters demonstrates GMCAO as a reliable approach to assist extremely large telescope (ELT) observations of extragalactic interest.

  9. Design study of the vertical field power supply for JT-60

    Yabuno, Kohei; Tani, Keiji; Shimada, Ryuichi; Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Hidetoshi

    1977-09-01

    The results of a basic design study of the vertical field power supply for JT-60 (JAERI large tokamak) are described. The objective of the study is to evaluate several types of power supply circuits for fast excitation and control of the vertical field. A design requirement is to produce a rapidly increasing vertical field within accuracy of +-5% around the proper field strength required to center the plasma in the vacuum vessel. The plasma current is assumed to increase at the rate of about 100 MA/sec. To meet the requirement, a maximum voltage of 15 kV is necessary in the current build-up time, while generally relatively low voltage is necessary after the current flattop is reached. A hybrid power supply which consists of a dc power source (a thyristor converter) and an inductive energy storage system is proposed. The maximum voltage of the dc power source is determined as 4 kV from the voltage required in the current flattop time. This is sufficient also in the current build-up time if the dc power source is used together with the inductive energy storage system. (auth.)

  10. Global Value Chain and Manufacturing Analysis on Geothermal Power Plant Turbines: Preprint

    Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-03

    The global geothermal electricity market has significantly grown over the last decade and is expected to reach a total installed capacity of 18.4 GWe in 2021 (GEA, 2016). Currently, geothermal project developers customize the size of the power plant to fit the resource being developed. In particular, the turbine is designed and sized to optimize efficiency and resource utilization for electricity production; most often, other power plant components are then chosen to complement the turbine design. These custom turbine designs demand one-off manufacturing processes, which result in higher manufacturing setup costs, longer lead-times, and higher capital costs overall in comparison to larger-volume line manufacturing processes. In contrast, turbines produced in standard increments, manufactured in larger volumes, could result in lower costs per turbine. This study focuses on analysis of the global supply chain and manufacturing costs for Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) turboexpanders and steam turbines used in geothermal power plants. In this study, we developed a manufacturing cost model to identify requirements for equipment, facilities, raw materials, and labor. We analyzed three different cases 1) 1 MWe geothermal ORC turboexpander 2) 5 MWe ORC turboexpander and 3) 20 MWe geothermal steam turbine, and calculated the cost of manufacturing the major components, such as the impellers/blades, shaft/rotor, nozzles, inlet guide lanes, disks, and casings. Then we used discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis to calculate the minimum sustainable price (MSP). MSP is the minimum price that a company must sell its product for in order to pay back the capital and operating expenses during the plant lifetime (CEMAC, 2017). The results showed that MSP could highly vary between 893 dollar/kW and 30 dollar/kW based on turbine size, standardization and volume of manufacturing. The analysis also showed that the economy of scale applies both to the size of the turbine and the number

  11. Global Value Chain and Manufacturing Analysis on Geothermal Power Plant Turbines

    Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    The global geothermal electricity market has significantly grown over the last decade and is expected to reach a total installed capacity of 18.4 GWe in 2021 (GEA, 2016). Currently, geothermal project developers customize the size of the power plant to fit the resource being developed. In particular, the turbine is designed and sized to optimize efficiency and resource utilization for electricity production; most often, other power plant components are then chosen to complement the turbine design. These custom turbine designs demand one-off manufacturing processes, which result in higher manufacturing setup costs, longer lead-times, and higher capital costs overall in comparison to larger-volume line manufacturing processes. In contrast, turbines produced in standard increments, manufactured in larger volumes, could result in lower costs per turbine. This study focuses on analysis of the global supply chain and manufacturing costs for Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) turboexpanders and steam turbines used in geothermal power plants. In this study, we developed a manufacturing cost model to identify requirements for equipment, facilities, raw materials, and labor. We analyzed three different cases 1) 1 MWe geothermal ORC turboexpander 2) 5 MWe ORC turboexpander and 3) 20 MWe geothermal steam turbine, and calculated the cost of manufacturing the major components, such as the impellers/blades, shaft/rotor, nozzles, inlet guide lanes, disks, and casings. Then we used discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis to calculate the minimum sustainable price (MSP). MSP is the minimum price that a company must sell its product for in order to pay back the capital and operating expenses during the plant lifetime (CEMAC, 2017). The results showed that MSP could highly vary between 893 dollar/kW and 30 dollar/kW based on turbine size, standardization and volume of manufacturing. The analysis also showed that the economy of scale applies both to the size of the turbine and the number

  12. Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health

    Ooms, Gorik

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Global health research is essentially a normative undertaking: we use it to propose policies that ought to be implemented. To arrive at a normative conclusion in a logical way requires at least one normative premise, one that cannot be derived from empirical evidence alone. But there is no widely accepted normative premise for global health, and the actors with the power to set policies may use a different normative premise than the scholars that propose policies - which may explain...

  13. New evidence for "far-field" Holocene sea level oscillations and links to global climate records

    Leonard, N. D.; Welsh, K. J.; Clark, T. R.; Feng, Y.-x.; Pandolfi, J. M.; Zhao, J.-x.

    2018-04-01

    Rising sea level in the coming century is of significant concern, yet predicting relative sea level change in response to eustatic sea level variability is complex. Potential analogues are provided by the recent geological past but, until recently, many sea level reconstructions have been limited to millennial scale interpretations due to age uncertainties and paucity in proxy derived records. Here we present a sea level history for the tectonically stable "far-field" Great Barrier Reef, Australia, derived from 94 high precision uranium-thorium dates of sub-fossil coral microatolls. Our results provide evidence for at least two periods of relative sea level instability during the Holocene. These sea level oscillations are broadly synchronous with Indo-Pacific negative sea surface temperature anomalies, rapid global cooling events and glacial advances. We propose that the pace and magnitude of these oscillations are suggestive of eustatic/thermosteric processes operating in conjunction with regional climatic controls.

  14. Complexity transitions in global algorithms for sparse linear systems over finite fields

    Braunstein, A.; Leone, M.; Ricci-Tersenghi, F.; Zecchina, R.

    2002-09-01

    We study the computational complexity of a very basic problem, namely that of finding solutions to a very large set of random linear equations in a finite Galois field modulo q. Using tools from statistical mechanics we are able to identify phase transitions in the structure of the solution space and to connect them to the changes in the performance of a global algorithm, namely Gaussian elimination. Crossing phase boundaries produces a dramatic increase in memory and CPU requirements necessary for the algorithms. In turn, this causes the saturation of the upper bounds for the running time. We illustrate the results on the specific problem of integer factorization, which is of central interest for deciphering messages encrypted with the RSA cryptosystem.

  15. Complexity transitions in global algorithms for sparse linear systems over finite fields

    Braunstein, A.; Leone, M.; Ricci-Tersenghi, F. . Federico.Ricci@roma1.infn.it; Zecchina, R.

    2002-01-01

    We study the computational complexity of a very basic problem, namely that of finding solutions to a very large set of random linear equations in a finite Galois field modulo q. Using tools from statistical mechanics we are able to identify phase transitions in the structure of the solution space and to connect them to the changes in the performance of a global algorithm, namely Gaussian elimination. Crossing phase boundaries produces a dramatic increase in memory and CPU requirements necessary for the algorithms. In turn, this causes the saturation of the upper bounds for the running time. We illustrate the results on the specific problem of integer factorization, which is of central interest for deciphering messages encrypted with the RSA cryptosystem. (author)

  16. An exploration into the home field, global advantage and liability of unfamiliarness hypotheses in multinational banking

    Fadzlan Sufian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to expand the efficiency paradigm of the eclectic theory in multinational banking within the context of a developing country banking sector. We employ the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method to examine the efficiency of multinational banks operating in the Malaysian banking sector from 1995 to 2007. We then employ the panel regression analysis to examine the impact of origins on bank efficiency. We find foreign banks from North America to be the most efficient banking group, providing support to the ‘limited form’ of the global advantage hypothesis. On the other hand, we do not find evidence on both the liability of unfamiliarness and home field advantage hypotheses.

  17. Comparison between the boundary layer and global resistivity methods for tearing modes in reversed field configurations

    Santiago, M.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the problem of growth rate calculations for tearing modes in field reversed Θ-pinches is presented. Its shown that in the several experimental data, the methods used for analysing the plasma with a global finite resistivity has a better quantitative agreement than the boundary layer analysis. A comparative study taking into account the m = 1 resistive kindmode and the m = 2 mode, which is more dangerous for the survey of rotational instabilities of the plasma column is done. It can see that the imaginary component of the eigenfrequency, which determinates the growth rate, has a good agreement with the experimental data and the real component is different from the rotational frequency as it has been measured in some experiments. (author) [pt

  18. Spatial and Global Sensory Suppression Mapping Encompassing the Central 10° Field in Anisometropic Amblyopia.

    Li, Jingjing; Li, Jinrong; Chen, Zidong; Liu, Jing; Yuan, Junpeng; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Deng, Daming; Yu, Minbin

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the efficacy of a novel dichoptic mapping paradigm in evaluating visual function of anisometropic amblyopes. Using standard clinical measures of visual function (visual acuity, stereo acuity, Bagolini lenses, and neutral density filters) and a novel quantitative mapping technique, 26 patients with anisometropic amblyopia (mean age = 19.15 ± 4.42 years) were assessed. Two additional psychophysical interocular suppression measurements were tested with dichoptic global motion coherence and binocular phase combination tasks. Luminance reduction was achieved by placing neutral density filters in front of the normal eye. Our study revealed that suppression changes across the central 10° visual field by mean luminance modulation in amblyopes as well as normal controls. Using simulation and an elimination of interocular suppression, we identified a novel method to effectively reflect the distribution of suppression in anisometropic amblyopia. Additionally, the new quantitative mapping technique was in good agreement with conventional clinical measures, such as interocular acuity difference (P suppression with dichoptic mapping paradigm and the results of the other two psychophysical methods (suppression mapping versus binocular phase combination, P suppression mapping versus global motion coherence, P = 0.005). The dichoptic suppression mapping technique is an effective method to represent impaired visual function in patients with anisometropic amblyopia. It offers a potential in "micro-"antisuppression mapping tests and therapies for amblyopia.

  19. Potential and flux field landscape theory. I. Global stability and dynamics of spatially dependent non-equilibrium systems.

    Wu, Wei; Wang, Jin

    2013-09-28

    We established a potential and flux field landscape theory to quantify the global stability and dynamics of general spatially dependent non-equilibrium deterministic and stochastic systems. We extended our potential and flux landscape theory for spatially independent non-equilibrium stochastic systems described by Fokker-Planck equations to spatially dependent stochastic systems governed by general functional Fokker-Planck equations as well as functional Kramers-Moyal equations derived from master equations. Our general theory is applied to reaction-diffusion systems. For equilibrium spatially dependent systems with detailed balance, the potential field landscape alone, defined in terms of the steady state probability distribution functional, determines the global stability and dynamics of the system. The global stability of the system is closely related to the topography of the potential field landscape in terms of the basins of attraction and barrier heights in the field configuration state space. The effective driving force of the system is generated by the functional gradient of the potential field alone. For non-equilibrium spatially dependent systems, the curl probability flux field is indispensable in breaking detailed balance and creating non-equilibrium condition for the system. A complete characterization of the non-equilibrium dynamics of the spatially dependent system requires both the potential field and the curl probability flux field. While the non-equilibrium potential field landscape attracts the system down along the functional gradient similar to an electron moving in an electric field, the non-equilibrium flux field drives the system in a curly way similar to an electron moving in a magnetic field. In the small fluctuation limit, the intrinsic potential field as the small fluctuation limit of the potential field for spatially dependent non-equilibrium systems, which is closely related to the steady state probability distribution functional, is

  20. Antenna diagnostics for power flow in extreme near-field of a standard gain horn

    Popa, Paula Irina; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2016-01-01

    The plane wave spectrum of an aperture antenna can be calculated from a complex measurement of the radiated near- or far-field and it facilitates antenna diagnostics for the extreme near-field of the antenna. While antenna diagnostics often concerns the magnitude of the co-polar field, the plane...... wave spectrum actually allows for determination of both magnitude and phase of all three components of the electric as well as the magnetic field - and thus also the Poynting vector. In this work we focus on the Poynting vector and thus the power flow in the extreme near-field; as an example we employ...... that these oscillations are not merely a “Gibbs-like” phenomenon due to the availability of only the visible region of the plane wave spectrum and they are not caused by multiple reflections between the horn and the near-field probe - but resulted from the interference between the direct field and the edge...

  1. Effects of screenhouse cultivation and organic materials incorporation on global warming potential in rice fields.

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Xiong, Ruiheng; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-03-01

    Global rice production will be increasingly challenged by providing healthy food for a growing population at minimal environmental cost. In this study, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a novel rice cultivation mode (screenhouse cultivation, SHC) and organic material (OM) incorporation (wheat straw and wheat straw-based biogas residue) on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions and rice yields. In addition, the environmental factors and soil properties were also determined. Relative to the traditional open-field cultivation (OFC), SHC decreased the CH 4 and N 2 O emissions by 6.58-18.73 and 2.51-21.35%, respectively, and the global warming potential (GWP) was reduced by 6.49-18.65%. This trend was mainly because of lower soil temperature and higher soil redox potential in SHC. Although the rice grain yield for SHC were reduced by 2.51-4.98% compared to the OFC, the CH 4 emissions and GWP per unit of grain yield (yield-scaled CH 4 emissions and GWP) under SHC were declined. Compared to use of inorganic fertilizer only (IN), combining inorganic fertilizer with wheat straw (WS) or wheat straw-based biogas residue (BR) improved rice grain yield by 2.12-4.10 and 4.68-5.89%, respectively. However, OM incorporation enhanced CH 4 emissions and GWP, leading to higher yield-scaled CH 4 emissions and GWP in WS treatment. Due to rice yield that is relatively high, there was no obvious effect of BR treatment on them. These findings suggest that apparent environmental benefit can be realized by applying SHC and fermenting straw aerobically before its incorporation.

  2. The international implications of the Chinese model of development in the Global South: Asian Consensus as a network power

    Javier Vadell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes People's Republic of China (PRC economic and political ascendance in the 21st century focusing on the evolution of the sui generis economic development model and its significances of the evolution of relationship between China and the developing countries in the peripheral "Global South." The objective of this article is to analyze the relationship between China and the Global South (Africa and South America in the 21st century, characterized as a new Center-periphery global network power based on trade and investment that we call as "Asian Consensus."

  3. Overview of the TITAN-II reversed-field pinch aqueous fusion power core design

    Wong, C.P.C.; Creedon, R.L.; Grotz, S.; Cheng, E.T.; Sharafat, S.; Cooke, P.I.H.

    1988-03-01

    TITAN-II is a compact, high power density Reversed-Field Pinch fusion power reactor design based on the aqueous lithium solution fusion power core concept. The selected breeding and structural materials are LiNO/sub 3/ and 9-C low activation ferritic steel, respectively. TITAN-II is a viable alternative to the TITAN-I lithium self-cooled design for the Reversed-Field Pinch reactor to operate at a neutron wall loading of 18 MWm/sup 2/. Submerging the complete fusion power core and the primary loop in a large pool of cool water will minimize the probability of radioactivity release. Since the protection of the large pool integrity is the only requirement for the protection of the public, TITAN-II is a passive safety assurance design. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Overview of the TITAN-II reversed-field pinch aqueous fusion power core design

    Wong, C.P.C.; Creedon, R.L.; Cheng, E.T. (General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA)); Grotz, S.P.; Sharafat, S.; Cooke, P.I.H. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering; California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Inst. for Plasma and Fusion Research); TITAN Research Group

    1989-04-01

    TITAN-II is a compact, high-power-density Reversed-Field Pinch fusion power reactor design based on the aqueous lithium solution fusion power core concept. The selected breeding and structural materials are LiNO/sub 3/ and 9-C low activation ferritic steel, respectively. TITAN-II is a viable alternative to the TITAN-I lithium self-cooled design for the Reversed-Field Pinch reactor to operate at a neutron wall loading of 18 MW/m/sup 2/. Submerging the complete fusion power core and the primary loop in a large pool of cool water will minimize the probability of radioactivity release. Since the protection of the large pool integrity is the only requirement for the protection of the public, TITAN-II is a level 2 of passive safety assurance design. (orig.).

  5. Trend of field data on pipe wall thinning for BWR power plants

    Hakii, Junichi; Hiranuma, Naoki; Hidaka, Akitaka

    2009-01-01

    Strongly motivated by every stakeholder not to repeat Mihama Nuclear Power Station pipe rupture accident in August 2004, JSME Main Committee on Codes and Standards on Power Generation Facilities immediately launched a special task force to develop Rules on Pipe Wall Thinning Management for BWR, PWR and fossil Power Plants respectively. The authors describes the process of the development of Rules for BWR Power Plans from the view point of collections and analysis of fields data of pipe wall thinning. Through its activities, the authors confirmed the existing findings, like the effect of Oxygen injection, turbulence and dependence on coolant temperature, derived from series of laboratory-scaled experiments in FAC and coolant velocities effects in LDI. Further based upon the said proven findings with field data, they explain the adequacy of major concept of the rule such as separate treatment of FAC (Flow Accelerated Corrosion) and LDI (Liquid Droplet Impingement). (author)

  6. Adiabatic regularization of the power spectrum in nonminimally coupled general single-field inflation

    Alinea, Allan L.; Kubota, Takahiro

    2018-03-01

    We perform adiabatic regularization of power spectrum in nonminimally coupled general single-field inflation with varying speed of sound. The subtraction is performed within the framework of earlier study by Urakawa and Starobinsky dealing with the canonical inflation. Inspired by Fakir and Unruh's model on nonminimally coupled chaotic inflation, we find upon imposing near scale-invariant condition, that the subtraction term exponentially decays with the number of e -folds. As in the result for the canonical inflation, the regularized power spectrum tends to the "bare" power spectrum as the Universe expands during (and even after) inflation. This work justifies the use of the "bare" power spectrum in standard calculation in the most general context of slow-roll single-field inflation involving nonminimal coupling and varying speed of sound.

  7. Magnetic Field Emissions for Ferrite and Non-Ferrite Geometries for Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Minimizing magnetic field emissions to surroundings is one of the most challenging design criteria for wireless power transfer to vehicles. In this paper, concept of division of the emissions into three zones (primary, secondary, and combined zone) in the vertical direction is introduced. For geo......Minimizing magnetic field emissions to surroundings is one of the most challenging design criteria for wireless power transfer to vehicles. In this paper, concept of division of the emissions into three zones (primary, secondary, and combined zone) in the vertical direction is introduced...... for vertical separation between the coils in range of 100-180 mm. It is observed that lower vertical separation results in higher overlapping of the zones and the coils behave as they are effectively placed close to center of air gap. The analysis in this work provides a better understanding of the space...... profile of magnetic field emissions (with and without ferrite) for wireless power transfer to vehicles....

  8. Crustal geomagnetic field - Two-dimensional intermediate-wavelength spatial power spectra

    Mcleod, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional Fourier spatial power spectra of equivalent magnetization values are presented for a region that includes a large portion of the western United States. The magnetization values were determined by inversion of POGO satellite data, assuming a magnetic crust 40 km thick, and were located on an 11 x 10 array with 300 km grid spacing. The spectra appear to be in good agreement with values of the crustal geomagnetic field spatial power spectra given by McLeod and Coleman (1980) and with the crustal field model given by Serson and Hannaford (1957). The spectra show evidence of noise at low frequencies in the direction along the satellite orbital track (N-S). indicating that for this particular data set additional filtering would probably be desirable. These findings illustrate the value of two-dimensional spatial power spectra both for describing the geomagnetic field statistically and as a guide for diagnosing possible noise sources.

  9. Experimental determination of radiated internal wave power without pressure field data

    Lee, Frank M.; Paoletti, M. S.; Swinney, Harry L.; Morrison, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to determine, using only velocity field data, the time-averaged energy flux $\\left$ and total radiated power $P$ for two-dimensional internal gravity waves. Both $\\left$ and $P$ are determined from expressions involving only a scalar function, the stream function $\\psi$. We test the method using data from a direct numerical simulation for tidal flow of a stratified fluid past a knife edge. The results for the radiated internal wave power given by the stream function method...

  10. Final report for the field-reversed configuration power plant critical-issue scoping study

    Santarius, John F.; Mogahed, Elsayed A.; Emmert, Gilbert A.; Khater, Hesham Y.; Nguyen, Canh N.; Ryzhkov, Sergei V.; Stubna, Michael D.; Steinhauer, Loren C.; Miley, George H.

    2001-03-01

    This report describes research in which a team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed a scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis of deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core.

  11. Denmarks future as leading centre of competence within the field of wind power

    2008-07-01

    Megavind has developed the present report with the intention of assessing the challenges involved, if Denmark is to maintain its position as an internationally leading centre of competence within the field of wind power. Furthermore, with the report, the partnership Megavind also wishes to point out specific initiatives within testing, demonstration, innovation and research as well as presenting recommendations for a strengthened effort within education that can take part in developing Denmark as an internationally leading centre of competence within the field of wind power. (au)

  12. Some observations on stray magnetic fields and power outputs from short-wave diathermy equipment

    Lau, R.W.M.; Dunscombe, P.B.

    1984-04-01

    Recent years have seen increasing interest in the possible hazards arising from the use of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Relatively large and potentially hazardous fields are to be found in the vicinity of short-wave and microwave equipment used in physiotherapy departments to produce therapeutic temperature rises. This note reports the results of measurements of the stray magnetic field and power output of a conventional short-wave diathermy unit when applied to tissue-equivalent phantoms. The dependence of these quantities on the variables, i.e. power setting of the unit, capacitor plate size, phantom size and phantom-capacitor plate separation, are discussed.

  13. Global pictures of the ozone field from high altitudes from DE-I

    Keating, G. M.; Frank, L.; Craven, J.; Shapiro, M.; Young, D.; Bhartia, P.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed synoptic views of the column ozone field can be obtained by the Spin-Scan Ozone Imager (SOI) (Keating et al., 1981) aboard the Dynamics Explorer I satellite. The eccentric polar orbit with an apogee altitude of 23,000 km allows high resolution global-scale images to be obtained within 12 minutes, and allows regions to be viewed for long periods of time. At perigee, a pixel size of nadir measurements of 3 km is possible, and measurements are determined using the backscattered ultraviolet technique. A wavelength measurement of 317.5 nm is used as there are limitations in filter locations and it allows comparison with Nimbus 7 SBUV/TOMS data. Consideration of the reflectivities of this data aids in checking the SOI data reduction algorithm. SOI data show short-term (less than one day) variations in the observed ozone field, and a negative correlation (greater than 0.9) between ozone and tropopause heights. It is expected, due to this correlation, that SOI data will aid in understanding the time evolution of dynamics near the tropopause.

  14. Linear least-squares method for global luminescent oil film skin friction field analysis

    Lee, Taekjin; Nonomura, Taku; Asai, Keisuke; Liu, Tianshu

    2018-06-01

    A data analysis method based on the linear least-squares (LLS) method was developed for the extraction of high-resolution skin friction fields from global luminescent oil film (GLOF) visualization images of a surface in an aerodynamic flow. In this method, the oil film thickness distribution and its spatiotemporal development are measured by detecting the luminescence intensity of the thin oil film. From the resulting set of GLOF images, the thin oil film equation is solved to obtain an ensemble-averaged (steady) skin friction field as an inverse problem. In this paper, the formulation of a discrete linear system of equations for the LLS method is described, and an error analysis is given to identify the main error sources and the relevant parameters. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the LLS method and the effects of the image patterns, image noise, and sample numbers on the results in comparison with the previous snapshot-solution-averaging (SSA) method. An experimental case is shown to enable the comparison of the results obtained using conventional oil flow visualization and those obtained using both the LLS and SSA methods. The overall results show that the LLS method is more reliable than the SSA method and the LLS method can yield a more detailed skin friction topology in an objective way.

  15. From technology transfer to local manufacturing: China's emergence in the global wind power industry

    Lewis, Joanna Ingram

    This dissertation examines the development of China's large wind turbine industry, including the players, the status of the technology, and the strategies used to develop turbines for the Chinese market. The primary goals of this research project are to identify the models of international technology transfer that have been used among firms in China's wind power industry; examine to what extent these technology transfers have contributed to China's ability to locally manufacture large wind turbine technology; and evaluate China's ability to become a major player in the global wind industry. China is a particularly important place to study the opportunities for and dynamics of clean energy development due to its role in global energy consumption. China is the largest coal consuming and producing nation in the world, and consequently the second largest national emitter of carbon dioxide after only the United States. Energy consumption and carbon emissions are growing rapidly, and China is expected to surpass the US and become the largest energy consuming nation and carbon dioxide emitter in coming decades. The central finding of this dissertation is that even though each firm involved in the large wind turbine manufacturing industry in China has followed a very different pathway of technology procurement for the Chinese market, all of the firms are increasing the utilization of locally-manufactured components, and many are doing so without transferring turbine technology or the associated intellectual property. Only one fully Chinese-owned firm, Goldwind, has succeeded in developing a commercially available large wind turbine for the Chinese market. No Chinese firms or foreign firms are manufacturing turbines in China for export overseas, though many have stated plans to do so. There already exists a possible niche market for the smaller turbines that are currently being made in China, particularly in less developed countries that are looking for less expensive

  16. Beam alignment based on two-dimensional power spectral density of a near-field image.

    Wang, Shenzhen; Yuan, Qiang; Zeng, Fa; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Junpu; Li, Kehong; Zhang, Xiaolu; Xue, Qiao; Yang, Ying; Dai, Wanjun; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Yuanchen; Zheng, Kuixing; Su, Jingqin; Hu, Dongxia; Zhu, Qihua

    2017-10-30

    Beam alignment is crucial to high-power laser facilities and is used to adjust the laser beams quickly and accurately to meet stringent requirements of pointing and centering. In this paper, a novel alignment method is presented, which employs data processing of the two-dimensional power spectral density (2D-PSD) for a near-field image and resolves the beam pointing error relative to the spatial filter pinhole directly. Combining this with a near-field fiducial mark, the operation of beam alignment is achieved. It is experimentally demonstrated that this scheme realizes a far-field alignment precision of approximately 3% of the pinhole size. This scheme adopts only one near-field camera to construct the alignment system, which provides a simple, efficient, and low-cost way to align lasers.

  17. Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers

    Heather D. Medema; Ronald K. Farris

    2012-09-01

    This report is a guidance document prepared for the benefit of commercial nuclear power plants’ (NPPs) supporting organizations and personnel who are considering or undertaking deployment of mobile technology for the purpose of improving human performance and plant status control (PSC) for field workers in an NPP setting. This document especially is directed at NPP business managers, Electric Power Research Institute, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, and other non-Information Technology personnel. This information is not intended to replace basic project management practices or reiterate these processes, but is to support decision-making, planning, and preparation of a business case.

  18. Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Parallel Wireless Power Transfer Systems.

    Wen, Feng; Huang, Xueliang

    2017-02-08

    The scenario of multiple wireless power transfer (WPT) systems working closely, synchronously or asynchronously with phase difference often occurs in power supply for household appliances and electric vehicles in parking lots. Magnetic field leakage from the WPT systems is also varied due to unpredictable asynchronous working conditions. In this study, the magnetic field leakage from parallel WPT systems working with phase difference is predicted, and the induced electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) in a human body standing in the vicinity are also evaluated. Computational results are compared with the restrictions prescribed in the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs). The results show that the middle region between the two WPT coils is safer for the two WPT systems working in-phase, and the peripheral regions are safer around the WPT systems working anti-phase. Thin metallic plates larger than the WPT coils can shield the magnetic field leakage well, while smaller ones may worsen the situation. The orientation of the human body will influence the maximum magnitude of induced electric field and its distribution within the human body. The induced electric field centralizes in the trunk, groin, and genitals with only one exception: when the human body is standing right at the middle of the two WPT coils working in-phase, the induced electric field focuses on lower limbs. The SAR value in the lungs always seems to be greater than in other organs, while the value in the liver is minimal. Human exposure to EMFs meets the guidelines of the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), specifically reference levels with respect to magnetic field and basic restrictions on induced electric fields and SAR, as the charging power is lower than 3.1 kW and 55.5 kW, respectively. These results are positive with respect to the safe applications of parallel WPT systems working

  19. Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Parallel Wireless Power Transfer Systems

    Wen, Feng; Huang, Xueliang

    2017-01-01

    The scenario of multiple wireless power transfer (WPT) systems working closely, synchronously or asynchronously with phase difference often occurs in power supply for household appliances and electric vehicles in parking lots. Magnetic field leakage from the WPT systems is also varied due to unpredictable asynchronous working conditions. In this study, the magnetic field leakage from parallel WPT systems working with phase difference is predicted, and the induced electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) in a human body standing in the vicinity are also evaluated. Computational results are compared with the restrictions prescribed in the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs). The results show that the middle region between the two WPT coils is safer for the two WPT systems working in-phase, and the peripheral regions are safer around the WPT systems working anti-phase. Thin metallic plates larger than the WPT coils can shield the magnetic field leakage well, while smaller ones may worsen the situation. The orientation of the human body will influence the maximum magnitude of induced electric field and its distribution within the human body. The induced electric field centralizes in the trunk, groin, and genitals with only one exception: when the human body is standing right at the middle of the two WPT coils working in-phase, the induced electric field focuses on lower limbs. The SAR value in the lungs always seems to be greater than in other organs, while the value in the liver is minimal. Human exposure to EMFs meets the guidelines of the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), specifically reference levels with respect to magnetic field and basic restrictions on induced electric fields and SAR, as the charging power is lower than 3.1 kW and 55.5 kW, respectively. These results are positive with respect to the safe applications of parallel WPT systems working

  20. Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Parallel Wireless Power Transfer Systems

    Feng Wen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The scenario of multiple wireless power transfer (WPT systems working closely, synchronously or asynchronously with phase difference often occurs in power supply for household appliances and electric vehicles in parking lots. Magnetic field leakage from the WPT systems is also varied due to unpredictable asynchronous working conditions. In this study, the magnetic field leakage from parallel WPT systems working with phase difference is predicted, and the induced electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR in a human body standing in the vicinity are also evaluated. Computational results are compared with the restrictions prescribed in the regulations established to limit human exposure to time-varying electromagnetic fields (EMFs. The results show that the middle region between the two WPT coils is safer for the two WPT systems working in-phase, and the peripheral regions are safer around the WPT systems working anti-phase. Thin metallic plates larger than the WPT coils can shield the magnetic field leakage well, while smaller ones may worsen the situation. The orientation of the human body will influence the maximum magnitude of induced electric field and its distribution within the human body. The induced electric field centralizes in the trunk, groin, and genitals with only one exception: when the human body is standing right at the middle of the two WPT coils working in-phase, the induced electric field focuses on lower limbs. The SAR value in the lungs always seems to be greater than in other organs, while the value in the liver is minimal. Human exposure to EMFs meets the guidelines of the International Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP, specifically reference levels with respect to magnetic field and basic restrictions on induced electric fields and SAR, as the charging power is lower than 3.1 kW and 55.5 kW, respectively. These results are positive with respect to the safe applications of parallel WPT systems

  1. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2006 Annual Review

    2007-01-01

    2006 was another recordbreaking year in the electricity and gas utilities sector. Total deal values shot through the record level set in 2005 to reach a dizzying USD 298.8bn. This is nearly seven times the USD 43bn level of transactions recorded in the sector only three years earlier in 2003. The rise is all the more astonishing as it comes in a year when deal activity from corporate US utility players plummeted. The sharp downturn in North America came as companies took stock of aggressive regulatory stances from some state regulators during a US midterm election year that coincided with the ending of rate freezes and reaction to the repeal of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act. North American electricity deal values by bidder fell 64% to USD 20.7bn, not far above the USD 16.7bn level of 2003. The picture in Europe and the Asia Pacific region was very different. Both regions recorded record levels of power deal activities as utility companies continued to strive for super regional'' scale. Deal activity in Europe was given extra momentum by the countdown to the July 2007 implementation of full retail market liberalisation. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key power and gas markets. Looking to the future, the regulatory environment will play a key role in determining the course of deal activity. Companies entering into big deals need to be ready more than ever for the long haul. However, the underpinning momentum in the sector remains strong and this is likely to create continued buoyancy in the period ahead

  2. Power Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity within the global electricity and gas market. 2006 Annual Review

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    2006 was another recordbreaking year in the electricity and gas utilities sector. Total deal values shot through the record level set in 2005 to reach a dizzying USD 298.8bn. This is nearly seven times the USD 43bn level of transactions recorded in the sector only three years earlier in 2003. The rise is all the more astonishing as it comes in a year when deal activity from corporate US utility players plummeted. The sharp downturn in North America came as companies took stock of aggressive regulatory stances from some state regulators during a US midterm election year that coincided with the ending of rate freezes and reaction to the repeal of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act. North American electricity deal values by bidder fell 64% to USD 20.7bn, not far above the USD 16.7bn level of 2003. The picture in Europe and the Asia Pacific region was very different. Both regions recorded record levels of power deal activities as utility companies continued to strive for super regional'' scale. Deal activity in Europe was given extra momentum by the countdown to the July 2007 implementation of full retail market liberalisation. This report examines the rationale behind the overall trends and the key individual deals. We also highlight, in a series of deal dialogues throughout the report, some of the critical issues for companies engaging in deal activity within the sector drawing on our global experience as an adviser to players in major deals throughout the sector in all key power and gas markets. Looking to the future, the regulatory environment will play a key role in determining the course of deal activity. Companies entering into big deals need to be ready more than ever for the long haul. However, the underpinning momentum in the sector remains strong and this is likely to create continued buoyancy in the period ahead.

  3. Wave propagation downstream of a high power helicon in a dipolelike magnetic field

    Prager, James; Winglee, Robert; Roberson, B. Race; Ziemba, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The wave propagating downstream of a high power helicon source in a diverging magnetic field was investigated experimentally. The magnetic field of the wave has been measured both axially and radially. The three-dimensional structure of the propagating wave is observed and its wavelength and phase velocity are determined. The measurements are compared to predictions from helicon theory and that of a freely propagating whistler wave. The implications of this work on the helicon as a thruster are also discussed.

  4. Testing nonlinear electrodynamics in waveguides: the effect of magnetostatic fields on the transmitted power

    Ferraro, Rafael, E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-05-14

    In Born-Infeld theory and other nonlinear electrodynamics, the presence of a magnetostatic field modifies the dispersion relation and the energy velocity of waves propagating in a hollow waveguide. As a consequence, the transmitted power along a waveguide suffers slight changes when a magnetostatic field is switched on and off. This tiny effect could be better tested by operating the waveguide at a frequency close to the cutoff frequency.

  5. Testing nonlinear electrodynamics in waveguides: the effect of magnetostatic fields on the transmitted power

    Ferraro, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    In Born-Infeld theory and other nonlinear electrodynamics, the presence of a magnetostatic field modifies the dispersion relation and the energy velocity of waves propagating in a hollow waveguide. As a consequence, the transmitted power along a waveguide suffers slight changes when a magnetostatic field is switched on and off. This tiny effect could be better tested by operating the waveguide at a frequency close to the cutoff frequency.

  6. Experimental research of the effects of different shields on power frequency electric field mitigation

    Nahman Jovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experimental research on the effects of different shields on power frequency electric field mitigation. This research was performed in order to determine those materials that may be used for electric field mitigation in cases where the reference level is exceeded. Using measured results, the value of the shielding factor has been calculated for all tested shields and the most efficient shields were determined.

  7. Macroscopic electromagnetic properties of the Irvine Field-Reversed Configuration: Equilibrium, power balance and fluctuations

    Trask, Erik Harold

    The plasma parameters and characteristics of the Irvine Field-Reversed Configuration (IFRC) are summarized in this thesis. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of the different diagnostics used to make measurements in the experiment, as well as the measurements themselves. Whenever possible, actual measurements are used in lieu of theoretical or analytical fits to data. Analysis of magnetic probes (B-dots) comprises the bulk of what is known about the IFRC. From these B-dot probes, the magnetic field structure in a two dimensional plane at constant toroidal position has been determined, and has been found to be consistent with a field-reversed configuration. Peak reversed fields of approximately 250 Gauss have been observed. Further analyses have been developed to extract information from the magnetic field structure, including components of the electric field, the current density, and plasma pressure in the same two dimensional plane. Electric field magnitudes reach 600 V/m, concurrent with current densities greater than 105 Amps/m2 and thermal pressures over 200 Pa. Spectroscopic analysis of hydrogen lines has been done to make estimates of the electron temperature, while spectroscopic measurements of the Doppler broadening of the Halpha line31 have allowed an estimate of the ion temperature. Particle losses out one axial end plane measured by an array of Faraday cups quantify the how well the configuration traps particles. Spectral information derived from B-dot probes indicates that there is substantial power present at frequencies lying between the hydrogen cyclotron and mean gyrofrequency. These various measurements are used to find the following parameters that characterize the Irvine FRC: (1) Electromagnetic and thermal stored energies as functions of time. (2) Power balance, including input power from the field coils, resistive heating, power lost by particle transport and radiation, and particle and energy confinement times. (3) Strong

  8. Passive shielding effect on space profile of magnetic field emissions for wireless power transfer to vehicles

    Batra, T., E-mail: tba@et.aau.dk; Schaltz, E. [Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9220 (Denmark)

    2015-05-07

    Magnetic fields emitted by wireless power transfer systems are of high importance with respect to human safety and health. Aluminum and ferrite are used in the system to reduce the fields and are termed as passive shielding. In this paper, the influence of these materials on the space profile has been investigated with the help of simulations on Comsol for the four possible geometries—no shielding, ferrite, aluminum, and full shielding. As the reflected impedance varies for the four geometries, the primary current is varied accordingly to maintain constant power transfer to the secondary side. Surrounding magnetic field plots in the vertical direction show that maxima's of the two coils for the no shielding geometry are centered at the respective coils and for the remaining three are displaced closer to each other. This closeness would lead to more effective addition of the two coil fields and an increase in the resultant field from space point of view. This closeness varies with distance in the horizontal direction and vertical gap between the coils and is explained in the paper. This paper provides a better understanding of effect of the passive shielding materials on the space nature of magnetic fields for wireless power transfer for vehicle applications.

  9. Passive shielding effect on space profile of magnetic field emissions for wireless power transfer to vehicles

    Batra, T.; Schaltz, E.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields emitted by wireless power transfer systems are of high importance with respect to human safety and health. Aluminum and ferrite are used in the system to reduce the fields and are termed as passive shielding. In this paper, the influence of these materials on the space profile has been investigated with the help of simulations on Comsol for the four possible geometries—no shielding, ferrite, aluminum, and full shielding. As the reflected impedance varies for the four geometries, the primary current is varied accordingly to maintain constant power transfer to the secondary side. Surrounding magnetic field plots in the vertical direction show that maxima's of the two coils for the no shielding geometry are centered at the respective coils and for the remaining three are displaced closer to each other. This closeness would lead to more effective addition of the two coil fields and an increase in the resultant field from space point of view. This closeness varies with distance in the horizontal direction and vertical gap between the coils and is explained in the paper. This paper provides a better understanding of effect of the passive shielding materials on the space nature of magnetic fields for wireless power transfer for vehicle applications

  10. Measuring Plasma Formation Field Strength and Current Loss in Pulsed Power Diodes

    Johnston, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Patel, Sonal G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Falcon, Ross Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Cartwright, Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Kiefer, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Cuneo, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Maron, Yitzhak [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2017-11-01

    This LDRD investigated plasma formation, field strength, and current loss in pulsed power diodes. In particular the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) e-beam diode was studied on the RITS-6 accelerator. Magnetic fields of a few Tesla and electric fields of several MV/cm were measured using visible spectroscopy techniques. The magnetic field measurements were then used to determine the current distribution in the diode. This distribution showed that significant beam current extends radially beyond the few millimeter x-ray focal spot diameter. Additionally, shielding of the magnetic field due to dense electrode surface plasmas was observed, quantified, and found to be consistent with the calculated Spitzer resistivity. In addition to the work on RITS, measurements were also made on the Z-machine looking to quantify plasmas within the power flow regions. Measurements were taken in the post-hole convolute and final feed gap regions on Z. Dopants were applied to power flow surfaces and measured spectroscopically. These measurements gave species and density/temperature estimates. Preliminary B-field measurements in the load region were attempted as well. Finally, simulation work using the EMPHASIS, electromagnetic particle in cell code, was conducted using the Z MITL conditions. The purpose of these simulations was to investigate several surface plasma generations models under Z conditions for comparison with experimental data.

  11. Advancing integrative “one-health” approaches to global health through multidisciplinary, faculty-led global health field courses

    Prof. C Olsen, DVM

    2015-03-01

    Funding: The GHI is supported through a combination of university, grants, and philanthropic funding; these field courses do not have specific, separate funding. Students self-fund participation in the courses.

  12. Global Discourses and Power/Knowledge: Theoretical Reflections on Futures of Higher Education during the Rise of Asia

    Geerlings, L. R. C.; Lundberg, A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper re-reads a selection of critical interdisciplinary theories in an attempt to open a space in higher education for cross-cultural dialogue during the rise of Asia. Theories of globalization, deterritorialization, power/knowledge and postcolonialism indicate that students and academics have the ability to re-imagine and influence…

  13. Global (and Local) Analyticity for Second Order Operators Constructed from Rigid Vector Fields on Products of Tori

    Tartakoff, David S.

    1994-01-01

    We prove global analytic hypoellipticity on a product of tori for partial differential operators which are constructed as rigid (variable coefficient) quadratic polynomials in real vector fields satisfying the H\\"ormander condition and where $P$ satisfies a `maximal' estimate. We also prove an analyticity result that is local in some variables and global in others for operators whose prototype is $$ P= \\left({\\partial \\over {\\partial x_1}}\\right)^2 + \\left({\\partial \\over {\\partial x_2}}\\righ...

  14. Global observations of electromagnetic and particle energy flux for an event during northern winter with southward interplanetary magnetic field

    H. Korth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of the polar ionosphere–thermosphere (I-T system to electromagnetic (EM energy input is fundamentally different to that from particle precipitation. To understand the I-T response to polar energy input one must know the intensities and spatial distributions of both EM and precipitation energy deposition. Moreover, since individual events typically display behavior different from statistical models, it is important to observe the global system state for specific events. We present an analysis of an event in Northern Hemisphere winter for sustained southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, 10 January 2002, 10:00–12:00 UT, for which excellent observations are available from the constellation of Iridium satellites, the SuperDARN radar network, and the Far-Ultraviolet (FUV instrument on the IMAGE satellite. Using data from these assets we determine the EM and particle precipitation energy fluxes to the Northern Hemisphere poleward of 60° MLAT and examine their spatial distributions and intensities. The accuracy of the global estimates are assessed quantitatively using comparisons with in-situ observations by DMSP along two orbit planes. While the location of EM power input evaluated from Iridium and SuperDARN data is in good agreement with DMSP, the magnitude estimated from DMSP observations is approximately four times larger. Corrected for this underestimate, the total EM power input to the Northern Hemisphere is 188 GW. Comparison of IMAGE FUV-derived distributions of the particle energy flux with DMSP plasma data indicates that the IMAGE FUV results similarly locate the precipitation accurately while underestimating the precipitation input somewhat. The total particle input is estimated to be 20 GW, nearly a factor of ten lower than the EM input. We therefore expect the thermosphere response to be determined primarily by the EM input even under winter conditions, and accurate assessment of the EM energy input is therefore key

  15. Nuclear power: renaissance or relapse? Global climate change and long-term Three Mile Island activists' narratives.

    Culley, Marci R; Angelique, Holly

    2010-06-01

    Community narratives are increasingly important as people move towards an ecologically sustainable society. Global climate change is a multi-faceted problem with multiple stakeholders. The voices of affected communities must be heard as we make decisions of global significance. We document the narratives of long-term anti-nuclear activists near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant who speak out in the dawn of a nuclear renaissance/relapse. While nuclear power is marketed as a "green" solution to global warming, their narratives reveal three areas for consideration; (1) significant problems with nuclear technology, (2) lessons "not" learned from the TMI disaster, and (3) hopes for a sustainable future. Nuclear waste, untrustworthy officials and economic issues were among the problems cited. Deceptive shaping of public opinion, nuclear illiteracy, and an aging anti-nuclear movement were reasons cited for the lessons not learned. However, many remain optimistic and envision increased participation to create an ecologically-balanced world.

  16. Global sensitivity analysis in the identification of cohesive models using full-field kinematic data

    Alfano, Marco; Lubineau, Gilles; Paulino, Glá ucio Hermogenes

    2015-01-01

    Failure of adhesive bonded structures often occurs concurrent with the formation of a non-negligible fracture process zone in front of a macroscopic crack. For this reason, the analysis of damage and fracture is effectively carried out using the cohesive zone model (CZM). The crucial aspect of the CZM approach is the precise determination of the traction-separation relation. Yet it is usually determined empirically, by using calibration procedures combining experimental data, such as load-displacement or crack length data, with finite element simulation of fracture. Thanks to the recent progress in image processing, and the availability of low-cost CCD cameras, it is nowadays relatively easy to access surface displacements across the fracture process zone using for instance Digital Image Correlation (DIC). The rich information provided by correlation techniques prompted the development of versatile inverse parameter identification procedures combining finite element (FE) simulations and full field kinematic data. The focus of the present paper is to assess the effectiveness of these methods in the identification of cohesive zone models. In particular, the analysis is developed in the framework of the variance based global sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity of kinematic data to the sought cohesive properties is explored through the computation of the so-called Sobol sensitivity indexes. The results show that the global sensitivity analysis can help to ascertain the most influential cohesive parameters which need to be incorporated in the identification process. In addition, it is shown that suitable displacement sampling in time and space can lead to optimized measurements for identification purposes.

  17. Global sensitivity analysis in the identification of cohesive models using full-field kinematic data

    Alfano, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Failure of adhesive bonded structures often occurs concurrent with the formation of a non-negligible fracture process zone in front of a macroscopic crack. For this reason, the analysis of damage and fracture is effectively carried out using the cohesive zone model (CZM). The crucial aspect of the CZM approach is the precise determination of the traction-separation relation. Yet it is usually determined empirically, by using calibration procedures combining experimental data, such as load-displacement or crack length data, with finite element simulation of fracture. Thanks to the recent progress in image processing, and the availability of low-cost CCD cameras, it is nowadays relatively easy to access surface displacements across the fracture process zone using for instance Digital Image Correlation (DIC). The rich information provided by correlation techniques prompted the development of versatile inverse parameter identification procedures combining finite element (FE) simulations and full field kinematic data. The focus of the present paper is to assess the effectiveness of these methods in the identification of cohesive zone models. In particular, the analysis is developed in the framework of the variance based global sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity of kinematic data to the sought cohesive properties is explored through the computation of the so-called Sobol sensitivity indexes. The results show that the global sensitivity analysis can help to ascertain the most influential cohesive parameters which need to be incorporated in the identification process. In addition, it is shown that suitable displacement sampling in time and space can lead to optimized measurements for identification purposes.

  18. Field emission device driven by self-powered contact-electrification: Simulation and experimental analysis

    Chen, Xiangyu; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Zhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    A self-powered field emission device (FED) driven by a single-electrode tribo-electric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. The mechanical motion works as both a power supply to drive the FED and a control unit to regulate the amount of emitted electrons. By using the Fowler-Nordheim equation and Kirchhoff laws, a theoretical model of this self-powered FED is proposed, and accordingly the real-time output characteristics of the device are systematically investigated. It is found that the motion distance of the TENG controls switch-on of the FED and determines the charge amount for emission, while the motion velocity regulates the amplitude of emission current. The minimum contact area for the TENG to generate field emission is about 9 cm2, which can be improved by optimizing FED structure and the tribo-materials of TENG. The demonstrated concept of this self-powered FED as well as the proposed physical analysis can serve as guidance for further applications of FED in such fields of self-powered electronics and soft electronics.

  19. Field emission device driven by self-powered contact-electrification: Simulation and experimental analysis

    Chen, Xiangyu, E-mail: chenxiangyu@binn.cas.cn, E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Jiang, Tao [Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun, Zhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei, E-mail: chenxiangyu@binn.cas.cn, E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2015-09-14

    A self-powered field emission device (FED) driven by a single-electrode tribo-electric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. The mechanical motion works as both a power supply to drive the FED and a control unit to regulate the amount of emitted electrons. By using the Fowler-Nordheim equation and Kirchhoff laws, a theoretical model of this self-powered FED is proposed, and accordingly the real-time output characteristics of the device are systematically investigated. It is found that the motion distance of the TENG controls switch-on of the FED and determines the charge amount for emission, while the motion velocity regulates the amplitude of emission current. The minimum contact area for the TENG to generate field emission is about 9 cm{sup 2}, which can be improved by optimizing FED structure and the tribo-materials of TENG. The demonstrated concept of this self-powered FED as well as the proposed physical analysis can serve as guidance for further applications of FED in such fields of self-powered electronics and soft electronics.

  20. Design of a high power cross field amplifier at X band with an internally coupled waveguide

    Eppley, K.; Ko, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that cross field amplifiers (CFA) have been used in many applications where high power, high frequency microwaves are needed. Although these tubes have been manufactured for decades, theoretical analysis of their properties is not as highly developed as for other microwave devices such as klystrons. The authors have developed a simulation model for CFAs using the PIC code CONDOR. The authors simulations indicate that there are limits to the maximum RF field strength that a CFA can sustain. When the fields become too high, efficiency becomes very poor, and the currents drawn may become so large that secondary emission cannot be maintained. It is therefore desirable to reduce the circuit impedance of a very high power tube. One method for doing this, proposed by Feinstein, involves periodically coupling a standard CFA circuit to an internal waveguide. Most of the power flows in the waveguide, so the overall impedance is much reduced. By adjusting the guide dimensions one can vary the impedance. Thus one can retain high impedance at the low power end but low impedance at the high power end. In principle one can maintain constant RF voltage throughout the tube

  1. Field emission device driven by self-powered contact-electrification: Simulation and experimental analysis

    Chen, Xiangyu; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Zhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A self-powered field emission device (FED) driven by a single-electrode tribo-electric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. The mechanical motion works as both a power supply to drive the FED and a control unit to regulate the amount of emitted electrons. By using the Fowler-Nordheim equation and Kirchhoff laws, a theoretical model of this self-powered FED is proposed, and accordingly the real-time output characteristics of the device are systematically investigated. It is found that the motion distance of the TENG controls switch-on of the FED and determines the charge amount for emission, while the motion velocity regulates the amplitude of emission current. The minimum contact area for the TENG to generate field emission is about 9 cm 2 , which can be improved by optimizing FED structure and the tribo-materials of TENG. The demonstrated concept of this self-powered FED as well as the proposed physical analysis can serve as guidance for further applications of FED in such fields of self-powered electronics and soft electronics

  2. Measurement and analysis of the electric field radiation in pulsed power system of linear induction accelerator

    Cheng Qifeng; Ni Jianping; Meng Cui; Cheng Cheng; Liu Yinong; Li Jin

    2009-01-01

    The close of high voltage switch in pulsed power system of linear induction accelerator often radiates strong transient electric field, which may influence ambient sensitive electric equipment, signals and performance of other instruments, etc. By performing gridded measurement around the Marx generator, the general distribution law and basic characters of electric field radiation are summarized. The current signal of the discharge circuit is also measured, which demonstrates that the current and the radiated electric field both have a resonance frequency about 150 kHz, and contain much higher frequency components. (authors)

  3. A new collective-field acceleration mechanism using a powerful laser

    Willis, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    Performance estimates for a linear accelerator for positive ions are presented. Focusing and acceleration is performed by means of a local, strong modulation of a relativistic electron beam using the electromagnetic field of a laser. For high-power laser beams of 1010 watts per square wavelength, the accelerating field strength can be several GV/m, assuming free electrons. Various interaction mechanisms of the laser beam with the electron beam are briefly discussed, notably inverse bremsstrahlung and interaction with the self-magnetic field of the electron beam. Finally, coherent effects and the injection of ions are dealt with. (author)

  4. Numerical forecast test on local wind fields at Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Chen Xiaoqiu

    2005-01-01

    Non-hydrostatic, full compressible atmospheric dynamics model is applied to perform numerical forecast test on local wind fields at Qinshan nuclear power plant, and prognostic data are compared with observed data for wind fields. The results show that the prognostic of wind speeds is better than that of wind directions as compared with observed results. As the whole, the results of prognostic wind field are consistent with meteorological observation data, 54% of wind speeds are within a factor of 1.5, about 61% of the deviation of wind direction within the 1.5 azimuth (≤33.75 degrees) in the first six hours. (authors)

  5. Electrical and magnetic fields of the power supply; Elektrische und magnetische Felder der Stromversorgung

    NONE

    2017-01-15

    The availability of electrical energy in all areas of life is guaranteed by a widely ramified power grid. When electricity is transported, magnetic fields are created in addition to the electrical fields. In this brochure one will learn more about the causes and effects of electrical and magnetic fields as well as protection concepts and preventive measures. [German] Die Verfuegbarkeit von elektrischer Energie in allen Lebensbereichen wird von einem weit verzweigten Stromnetz gewaehrleistet. Wird Elektrizitaet transportiert, entstehen zusaetzlich zu den elektrischen auch magnetische Felder. In dieser Broschuere erfaehrt man mehr zu Ursachen und Wirkungen elektrischer und magnetischer Felder sowie Schutzkonzepten und Vorsorgemassnahmen.

  6. A proposal to pulse the Bevatron/Bevalac main guide field magnet with SCR power supplies

    Frias, B.; Alonso, J.; Dwinell, R.; Lothrop, F.

    1989-01-01

    The Bevatron/Bevalac Main Guide Field Power Supply was originally designed to provide a 15,250 Volt DC. at sign 8400 Ampere peak magnet pulse. Protons were accelerated to 6.2 Gev. The 128 Megawatt (MW) pulse required two large motor-generator (MG) sets with 67 ton flywheels to store 680 Megajoules of energy. Ignitron rectifiers are used to rectify the generator outputs. Acceleration of heavy ions results in an operating schedule with a broad range of peak fields. The maximum field of 12.5 kilogauss requires a peak pulse of 80 MW. Acceleration of ions to 1.0 kilogauss requires an 8 MW peak pulse. One MG set can provide pulses below 45 MW. Peak pulses of less than 15 MW are now a large block of the operating schedule. A proposal has been made to replace the existing MG system with eight SCR power supplies for low field operation. The SCR supplies will be powered directly from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's 12.3 KV. power distribution system. This paper describes the many advantages of the plan. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Interlaboratory comparison of measuring results of magnetic field near 400 kV overhead power line

    Grbić Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of measured results of magnetic field near 400 kV overhead power lines obtained by three laboratories. This interlaboratory comparison was performed to ensure confidence in the quality of the test results. The measured results were analyzed with standard methods, using En number, based on which the evaluation of the laboratories was performed.

  8. A theoretical and experimental analysis of modulated laser fields and power spectra

    Olesen, Henning; Jacobsen, G.

    1982-01-01

    A general theoretical description of modulated laser fields and power spectra for a current modulated single-mode laser is derived, taking into account both the intensity and frequency modulation (IM and FM) of the emitted light. The theory relies on an explicit knowledge of the modulus as well...

  9. Quality assurance in the field of nuclear power, international and Romanian practice

    Rogociu, Ioan

    1997-01-01

    Electricity should be generated in nuclear power plants under nuclear safety regulations with a high reliability level. In order to achieve this requirement it is necessary to work under quality assurance (QA) mode. The term of 'quality assurance' was used for the first time in USA in 1967. Since then, the situation has continuously developed. The most comprehensive standards in the fields are the USA ones. The IAEA agency in Vienna developed the first standards in 1978. The developed countries have their own legislation in the field. The IAEA standards, are based on the USA, German, Japanese, British, Canadian and French legislation. Romania drafted the Law No. 6/1982, repealed by the Law No. 11 in 1996. There is no satisfactory Romanian standard at present to regulate the activities of quality assurance in the nuclear power field. The works at Unit 1 of Cernavoda nuclear power plant were performed under the Canadian QA standards. The Canadian nuclear power company Ontario Hydro has been lately confronted with difficulties that may lead to decommission of 7 out of 19 units now in operation. To avoid the Canadian system deficiencies Romania needs standards based on the experience gained in this field by all developed countries, such as: USA, Japan, Germany, France, etc and IAEA regulations. The present paper is a pleading in favour of the Romanian legislation drafting at the level of the international demands. (author)

  10. Magnetic Field Exposure Estimates Based on Power Lines Near Homes (invited paper)

    Ahlbom, A.; Feychting, M.

    1999-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have based their estimates of magnetic field exposure on the proximity to power lines. This has been done in three principally different ways, which differ in the amount of information that is used. These are: (1) distance; (2) distance and configuration (wire code); and (3) distance, configuration, and load (calculated field). It is presumed that the more information that is used, the more accurate is the exposure estimate. All these three approaches suffer from the limitation that they only account for exposure that is generated by power lines. The influence on the in-home magnetic field from sources other than the power line are not considered, nor is exposure experienced at places other than the home. This raises the following question. What is the implication for the result of the epidemiological study of the exposure misclassification that is introduced by basing magnetic field exposure estimation on power lines near homes? Although the necessary information is only partly at hand the answers to this question will be discussed. The basis will be some general epidemiological principles combined with data from a Swedish study on residential exposure and cancer risk. (author)

  11. Development of Field Data Logger for Recording Mission Profile of Power Converters

    Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Ghimire, Pramod; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Mission profile data provides useful data for a cost effective and reliable design of future power converters. The development of a field data logger using a Raspberry Pi (RBPI) and temperature and humidity sensors is presented. The collected data is analyzed and classified for the purpose of data...

  12. Physics for future Presidents - nuclear power, terrorism, global warming; La physique expliquee a notre futur president - Nucleaire, terrorisme, rechauffement climatique

    Muller, Richard A.

    2011-04-26

    This book explains the science behind the concerns that our nation faces in the immediate future. It outlines the tools of terrorists, the dangers of nuclear power, and the reality of global warming. As citizens who will elect future presidents of the most powerful and influential countries in the world, we need to know-truly understand if Iran's nascent nuclear capability is a genuine threat to the West, if biochemical weapons are likely to be developed by terrorists, if there are viable alternatives to fossil fuels that should be nurtured and supported by the government, if nuclear power should be encouraged, and if global warming is actually happening. This book is written in everyday, nontechnical language on the science behind the concerns that our nations faces in the immediate future. This book is translated from 'Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines', published by W. W. Norton and Company in August 2008. Contents: 1 - Terrorism: Nine-eleven, Terrorist nukes, The next terrorist attack, Biological terrorism; 2 - Energy: Key energy surprises, Solar Power, The end of oil; 3 - Nukes: Radioactivity and death, Radioactive decay, Nuclear weapons, Nuclear madness, Nuclear power, Nuclear waste, Controlled fusion; 4 - Space: Space and satellites, Gravity applications, Humans in space, Spying with invisible light; 5 - Global Warming: A brief history of climate, The greenhouse effect, A very likely cause, Evidence, Non-solutions, The fruit on the ground, New technologies

  13. Measurements of Plasma Power Losses in the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration Experiment

    Korepanov, Sergey; Smirnov, Artem; Garate, Eusebio; Donin, Alexandr; Kondakov, Alexey; Singatulin, Shavkat

    2013-10-01

    A high-confinement operating regime with plasma lifetimes significantly exceeding past empirical scaling laws was recently obtained by combining plasma gun edge biasing and tangential Neutral Beam Injection in the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment. To analyze the power balance in C-2, two new diagnostic instruments - the pyroelectric (PE) and infrared (IR) bolometers - were developed. The PE bolometer, designed to operate in the incident power density range from 0.1-100 W/cm2, is used to measure the radial power loss, which is dominated by charge-exchange neutrals and radiation. The IR bolometer, which measures power irradiated onto a thin metal foil inserted in the plasma, is designed for the power density range from 0.5-5 kW/cm2. The IR bolometer is used to measure the axial power loss from the plasma near the end divertors. The maximum measurable pulse duration of ~ 10 ms is limited by the heat capacitance of the IR detector. Both detectors have time resolution of about 10-100 μs and were calibrated in absolute units using a high power neutral beam. We present the results of first direct measurements of axial and radial plasma power losses in C-2.

  14. A power system design and analysis of carbon nano-tubes field emission displays

    Wang, Jong C.; Yao, W. C.

    2006-01-01

    In new generation Flat Panel Displays(FPD), a lot of design methods are being deployed, including OLED, PDP, TFT-LCD, Back Projection and Field Emission Display(FED) etc. These new generation FPDs have their respective pluses and minuses. Each has its selling points and market attractions. But among them, FED principles are most close to that of CRT displays. Not only FEDs are advantageous in their good degree of saturation of color, but also they have excellent contrast, luminance and electricity consumption etc. It has been considered as the main products of future generation FPDs. Japan and countries all over the world are successively proposing and launching related FED products in the fields. This will not only drive the FEDs into a wave of new trends, but also it will be able to replace most of the current FPD products within a short time. In this paper, based on these solid trends, we are determined to put into our resources and efforts to perform research on these important FEDs technologies and products, particularly in Carbon Nano-Tubes FEDs(CNT-FED). Our research group has already performed research on CNT-FED subjects for almost three years. During the course of our research, we have run into a lot of issues and problems. We have made every effort to overcome some of them. This paper performs comparative analysis of three power option for small size (4-inch) CNT-FEDs to drive the FED effects such as the direct current power, pulsed power and sinusoidal power respectively. This paper performs comparative analysis of three power options for small sized CNT-FEDs. It was concluded that the pulsed power option will produce the best results overall among the three power options. It is felt that these data presented can then be referenced and used to design a power system circuit to get an optimum design for better luminance and least power consumption for small sized commercial CNT-FED products.

  15. Flexible mechanisms in the corporate greenhouse: implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the globalization of the electric power industry

    Schreuder, Y.; Sherry, C. [University of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Policy

    2001-07-01

    The contradictions and unresolved tensions between economic globalization and climate change negotiations have added urgency to the climate change debate. The paper argues that the declining role of the nation state in the global economy and the increasing reach of transnational corporations throughout the world present a serious challenge to the environmental integrity and success of international environmental treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol. In particular efficacy and equity of the flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol are questioned as illustrated by the patterns of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) of the US electric power industry in the developing world. US FDI in the electric power sectors of developing countries supports continued carbon-intensive development patterns which will make the long-term goals of the Kyoto Protocol more difficult to achieve. Consequently, FDI raises questions about justifiability of giving credit to Annex I countries through CDM projects undertaken by transnational electric power corporations. 13 refs.

  16. Magnetic field concentration using ferromagnetic material to propel a wireless power transfer based micro-robot

    Dongwook Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel coil structure, using a ferromagnetic material which concentrates the magnetic field, as the propulsion system of a wireless power transfer (WPT based micro-robot. This structure uses an incident magnetic field to induce current during wireless power transfer, to generate a Lorentz force. To prevent net cancelation of the Lorentz force in the load coil, ferrite films were applied to one side of the coil segment. The demonstrated simplicity and effectiveness of the proposed micro-robot showed its suitability for applications. Simulation and experimental results confirmed a velocity of 1.02 mm/s with 6 mW power transfer capacity for the 3 mm sized micro-robot.

  17. Groundwater Waves in a Coastal Fractured Aquifer of the Third Phase Qinshan Nuclear Power Engineering Field

    ZHOU Nian-qing; TANG Yi-qun; TANG He-ping

    2005-01-01

    Tidal fluctuations of Hangzhou Bay produce progressive pressure waves in adjacent field fractured aquifers, as the pressure waves propagate, groundwater levels and hydraulic gradients continuously fluctuate. The effect of tidal fluctuations on groundwater flow can be determined using the mean hydraulic gradient that can be calculated by comparing mean ground and surface water elevations. Tidal fluctuation is shown to affect the piezometer readings taken in a nearshore fractured aquifer around the nuclear power engineering field. Continuous monitoring of a network of seven piezometers provided relations between the tidal cycle and the piezometer readings. The relations can be expressed in times of a time and amplitude scaling factor. The time lag and the tidal effi ciency factor and wavelength are calculated using these parameters. It provides significant scientific basis to prevent tide and groundwater for the nuclear power engineering construction and safety run of nuclear power station in the future.

  18. Magnetic field concentration using ferromagnetic material to propel a wireless power transfer based micro-robot

    Kim, Dongwook; Park, Bumjin; Park, Jaehyoung; Park, Hyun Ho; Ahn, Seungyoung

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel coil structure, using a ferromagnetic material which concentrates the magnetic field, as the propulsion system of a wireless power transfer (WPT) based micro-robot. This structure uses an incident magnetic field to induce current during wireless power transfer, to generate a Lorentz force. To prevent net cancelation of the Lorentz force in the load coil, ferrite films were applied to one side of the coil segment. The demonstrated simplicity and effectiveness of the proposed micro-robot showed its suitability for applications. Simulation and experimental results confirmed a velocity of 1.02 mm/s with 6 mW power transfer capacity for the 3 mm sized micro-robot.

  19. Social Software: A Powerful Paradigm for Building Technology for Global Learning

    Wooding, Amy; Wooding, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    It is not difficult to imagine a world where internet-connected mobile devices are accessible to everyone. Can these technologies be used to help solve the challenges of global education? This was the challenge posed by the Global Learning XPRIZE--a $15 million grand challenge competition aimed at addressing this global teaching shortfall. In…

  20. Economic opportunities resulting from a global deployment of concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies-The example of German technology providers

    Vallentin, Daniel; Viebahn, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Several energy scenario studies consider concentrated solar power (CSP) plants as an important technology option to reduce the world's CO 2 emissions to a level required for not letting the global average temperature exceed a threshold of 2-2.4 o C. A global ramp up of CSP technologies offers great economic opportunities for technology providers as CSP technologies include highly specialised components. This paper analyses possible value creation effects resulting from a global deployment of CSP until 2050 as projected in scenarios of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and Greenpeace International. The analysis focuses on the economic opportunities of German technology providers since companies such as Schott Solar, Flabeg or Solar Millennium are among the leading suppliers of CSP technologies on the global market.

  1. Design of a high power cross field amplifier at X band with an internally coupled waveguide

    Eppley, K.; Ko, Kwok.

    1991-01-01

    Cross field amplifiers (CFA) have been used in many applications where high power, high frequency microwaves are needed. Although these tubes have been manufactured for decades, theoretical analysis of their properties is not as highly developed as for other microwave devices such as klystrons. We have developed a simulation model for CFAs using the PIC code CONDOR. Our simulations indicate that there are limits to the maximum RF field strength that a CEA can sustain. When the fields become too high, efficiency becomes very poor, and the currents drawn may become so large that secondary emission cannot be maintained. It is therefore desirable to reduce the circuit impedance of a very high power tube. One method for doing this, proposed by Feinstein, involves periodically coupling a standard CFA circuit to an internal waveguide. Most of the power flows in the waveguide, so the overall impedance is much reduced. By adjusting the guide dimensions one can vary the impedance. Thus one can retain high impedance at the low power end but low impedance at the high power end. In principle one can maintain constant RF voltage throughout the tube. CONDOR simulations have identified a good operating point at X band, with power generation of over 5 MW per cm and total efficiency of over 60 percent. ARGUS simulations have modelled the cold test properties of the coupled structure. The nominal design specifications are 300 MW output, 17 db gain, frequency 11.4 GHz, dc voltage 142 kV, magnetic field 5 kG, anode cathode gap 3.6 mm, total interaction length about 60 cm. We will discuss the results of code simulations and report on the status of the experimental effort

  2. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations in the Inner Heliosphere: A Wind and MESSENGER Study

    Szabo, Adam; Koval, A.

    2011-01-01

    The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the similar observations made by the MESSENGER spacecraft in the inner heliosphere affords an opportunity to compare magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of radial distance from the Sun under different solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the approx.2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The powe'r spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions. Wind and MESSENGER magnetic fluctuations are compared for times when the two spacecraft are close to radial and Parker field alignment. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed.

  3. TIME-DEPENDENT SUPPRESSION OF OSCILLATORY POWER IN EVOLVING SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Prasad, S. Krishna; Jess, D.B.; Keys, P.H. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Jain, R., E-mail: krishna.prasad@qub.ac.uk [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-20

    Oscillation amplitudes are generally smaller within magnetically active regions like sunspots and plage when compared to their surroundings. Such magnetic features, when viewed in spatially resolved power maps, appear as regions of suppressed power due to reductions in the oscillation amplitudes. Employing high spatial- and temporal-resolution observations from the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) in New Mexico, we study the power suppression in a region of evolving magnetic fields adjacent to a pore. By utilizing wavelet analysis, we study for the first time how the oscillatory properties in this region change as the magnetic field evolves with time. Image sequences taken in the blue continuum, G-band, Ca ii K, and H α filters were used in this study. It is observed that the suppression found in the chromosphere occupies a relatively larger area, confirming previous findings. Also, the suppression is extended to structures directly connected to the magnetic region, and is found to get enhanced as the magnetic field strength increased with time. The dependence of the suppression on the magnetic field strength is greater at longer periods and higher formation heights. Furthermore, the dominant periodicity in the chromosphere was found to be anti-correlated with increases in the magnetic field strength.

  4. RADIOGRAPHY IN THE FIELD: ASSESSING A LIGHTWEIGHT, HANDHELD, BATTERY-POWERED DENTISTRY UNIT FOR FIELD DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATIONS.

    Seilern-Moy, Katharina; Vielgrader, Hanna; Gerritsmann, Hanno; Walzer, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Radiography units are not used commonly in wildlife medicine field settings, primarily because of their weight and requirement for a power supply. In this study, a portable, battery-powered, and lightweight radiography unit, originally developed for dentistry, was assessed for its potential field applications. Radiographs of various animal species (ranging in weight from 14 g to 1,000 kg) were imaged using varying source image distance (SID) and exposure time. The quality of these images was evaluated for their resolution, image noise, and motion blur. When required, image resolutions were further enhanced using computed radiography postprocessing. Other parameters evaluated were the freehand use of the device, its battery durability, the maximum obtainable image size, and multiple use of a single computed radiography cassette. Using an SID of 60 cm, radiographs delivered adequate image quality. The quality, however, was found deteriorated in images of larger animals (>50 kg) or thicker tissues (>15 cm). The use of a tripod proved unnecessary in most cases, and its exclusion greatly facilitated equipment handling. Under field conditions, the battery was depleted after a total running time of 1.6 hr or 36 radiographs. The maximum size of a radiographic image reached a diameter of 40 cm, and radiation shielding allowed the multiple use of a single computed radiography cassette. Taken together, the radiography unit evaluated in this study presented a balanced compromise between portability and radiograph quality for field use. However, the unit image resolution cannot replace those of the fixed standard radiography units commonly used in veterinary medicine.

  5. Power law field dependence of the 2D magnetoresistance in (TMTSF)2PF6

    Kriza, G.; Szeghy, G.; Kezsmarki, I.; Mihaly, G.

    1999-01-01

    The magnetoresistance of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 is studied for currents flowing parallel to the best conducting a and second best conducting b directions in magnetic fields perpendicular to the a-b plane under a hydrostatic pressure of 0.8 GPa. As a function of the magnetic field, the magnetoresistance follows a power law ΔR/R = (B/B 0 ) 3/2 both in the a and b directions. The a-b plane conductivity anisotropy is field independent. The scaling field B 0 , characterizing the strength of the magnetoresistance, follows an exponential temperature dependence B 0 ∝exp(T/T 0 ) with a field-independent characteristic temperature T 0 = 10 K. (orig.)

  6. A high-gain high-power L-band antenna for field test applications

    Abe, David K.; Tran, George T.; Knop, C. M.

    1995-09-01

    A high-gain, prime-focus parabolic dish antenna system was designed and constructed for experimental use in the field. The antenna was designed to radiate in L-band at peak power levels exceeding 1 X 106 watts. A 3.6 m diameter, commercial off-the-shelf parabolic dish antenna was modified with a custom-designed waveguide horn feed. The system was mounted on an antenna pedestal to allow for fine (approximately 0.001 degrees) elevation and azimuth control; the antenna and pedestal were mounted on a 4.3 m long trailer for mobility in the field. The antenna has a measured gain of 32 dBi and a 3-dB beamwidth of approximately 4.5 degrees. The system was successfully operated in the field in L-band at peak power levels exceeding 5 MW. The design, calibration, and testing of the antenna system will be presented.

  7. Nuclear position in power generation sector - under the pressure of anti-global warming and power market reform

    Hayashi, Taizo

    2005-01-01

    The future structure surrounding fuel choice in power generation sector should be understood how to evaluate actual and potential merit and demerit both in economic and environmental aspects on nuclear power generation. That is i.e. nuclear can be understood as superior power source without GHGs and on the other hand, as unfavorable power source which might cause some critical dangers due to its hazardous radioactive nuclear waste. On this specific characteristic, this theme on fuel choice surrounding nuclear in power generation sector could be understood as a highly cultural problem as much as economic and political one. For instance, we can observe quite opposite direction with each other on nuclear power development in European countries like France and Finland on one hand and Germany and Sweden on the other hand. Looking at Asian countries, we also observe the very reality of high economic growth with rapid growth of electricity demand like China. What on earth, is it really possible without nuclear power source for such gigantic countries. I will develop my personal idea on nuclear power source based on Japanese experience towards successfully managing nuclear power technologies in the world, consisting of developing countries with growing economies and of advanced ones with rather matured nuclear technology under the pressure of environmentally restricted world order. My basic view point to discuss nuclear power problem has, conclusionally speaking, several aspects; The first one is in the relation with deregulation or liberalization of electricity market, which has been undergoing among such developed countries as OECD member countries i.e. USA, EU, Japan and other countries. Deregulation or liberalization of electricity market seems to be the inevitable process towards more matured market economy among developed countries group, and that process inevitably forces management of power companies towards more near sighted attitude if those companies are

  8. Multistage and multiobjective formulations of globally optimal upgradable expansions for electric power distribution systems

    Vaziri Yazdi Pin, Mohammad

    Electric power distribution systems are the last high voltage link in the chain of production, transport, and delivery of the electric energy, the fundamental goals of which are to supply the users' demand safely, reliably, and economically. The number circuit miles traversed by distribution feeders in the form of visible overhead or imbedded underground lines, far exceed those of all other bulk transport circuitry in the transmission system. Development and expansion of the distribution systems, similar to other systems, is directly proportional to the growth in demand and requires careful planning. While growth of electric demand has recently slowed through efforts in the area of energy management, the need for a continued expansion seems inevitable for the near future. Distribution system and expansions are also independent of current issues facing both the suppliers and the consumers of electrical energy. For example, deregulation, as an attempt to promote competition by giving more choices to the consumers, while it will impact the suppliers' planning strategies, it cannot limit the demand growth or the system expansion in the global sense. Curiously, despite presence of technological advancements and a 40-year history of contributions in the area, many of the major utilities still relay on experience and resort to rudimentary techniques when planning expansions. A comprehensive literature review of the contributions and careful analyses of the proposed algorithms for distribution expansion, confirmed that the problem is a complex, multistage and multiobjective problem for which a practical solution remains to be developed. In this research, based on the 15-year experience of a utility engineer, the practical expansion problem has been clearly defined and the existing deficiencies in the previous work identified and analyzed. The expansion problem has been formulated as a multistage planning problem in line with a natural course of development and industry

  9. Global electric-field determination in the Earth's outer magnetosphere using charged particles. Progress Report No. 1, 1991

    Eastman, T.; Sheldon, R.; Hamilton, D.; Mcilwain, C.

    1992-03-01

    Although many properties of the Earth's magnetosphere have been measured and quantified in the past 30 years since it was discovered, one fundamental (for a zeroeth order magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium) measurement was made infrequently and with poor spatial coverage: the global electric field. This oversight is in part due to the difficulty of measuring a plasma electric field, and in part due to the difficulty of measuring a plasma electric field, and in part due to the neglect of theorists. However, there is renewed interest in the convection electric field, since it has been realized that it is vital for understanding many aspects of the magnetosphere: the global MHD equilibrium, reconnection rates, Region 2 Birkeland currents, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, ring current and radiation belt transport, substorm injections, acceleration mechanisms, etc. Unfortunately the standard experimental methods have not been able to synthesize a global field (excepting the pioneering work of McIlwain's geostationary models), and we are left with an overly simplistic theoretical field, the Volland-Stern electric field mode. Again, single point measurements of the plasma pause were used to infer the appropriate amplitudes of the model, parameterized by Kp (Maynard and Chen, JGR 1975). Although this result was never intended to be the definitive electric field model, it has gone nearly unchanged for 15 years. However, the data sets being taken today require a great deal more accuracy than can be provided by the Volland-Stern model. Nor has the variability of the electric field shielding been properly addressed, although effects of penetrating magnetospheric electric fields has been seen in mid- and low-latitude ionospheric data sets. The growing interests in substorm dynamics also requires a much better assessment of the electric fields responsible for particle injections

  10. Field-Reversed Configuration Power Plant Critical-Issue Scoping Study

    Santarius, J. F.; Mogahed, E. A.; Emmert, G. A.; Khater, H. Y.; Nguyen, C. N.; Ryzhkov, S. V.; Stubna, M. D.

    2000-03-31

    A team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed an engineering scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis for deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core. For the engineering conceptual design of the fusion core, the project team focused on intermediate-term technology. For example, one decision was to use steele structure. The FRC systems analysis led to a fusion power plant with attractive features including modest size, cylindrical symmetry, good thermal efficiency (52%), relatively easy maintenance, and a high ratio of electric power to fusion core mass, indicating that it would have favorable economics.

  11. Field-Reversed Configuration Power Plant Critical-Issue Scoping Study

    Santarius, J. F.; Mogahed, E. A.; Emmert, G. A.; Khater, H. Y.; Nguyen, C. N.; Ryzhkov, S. V.; Stubna, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    A team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed an engineering scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis for deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core. For the engineering conceptual design of the fusion core, the project team focused on intermediate-term technology. For example, one decision was to use steele structure. The FRC systems analysis led to a fusion power plant with attractive features including modest size, cylindrical symmetry, good thermal efficiency (52%), relatively easy maintenance, and a high ratio of electric power to fusion core mass, indicating that it would have favorable economics

  12. Simulations research of the global predictive control with self-adaptive in the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant

    Su Jie; Xia Guoqing; Zhang Wei

    2007-01-01

    For further improving the dynamic control capabilities of the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant, this paper puts forward to apply the algorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive in the rotate speed control of the gas turbine, including control structure and the design of controller in the base of expounding the math model of the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant. the simulation results show that the respond of the change of the gas turbine speed under the control algorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive is ten second faster than that under the PID control algorithm, and the output value of the gas turbine speed under the PID control algorithm is 1%-2% higher than that under the control slgorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive. It shows that the algorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive can better control the output of the speed of the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant and get the better control effect. (authors)

  13. Reduction of field emission in superconducting cavities with high power pulsed RF

    Graber, J.; Crawford, C.; Kirchgessner, J.; Padamsee, H.; Rubin, D.; Schmueser, P.

    1994-01-01

    A systematic study is presented of the effects of pulsed high power RF processing (HPP) as a method of reducing field emission (FE) in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities to reach higher accelerating gradients for future particle accelerators. The processing apparatus was built to provide up to 150 kW peak RF power to 3 GHz cavities, for pulse lengths from 200 μs to 1 ms. Single-cell and nine-cell cavities were tested extensively. The thermal conductivity of the niobium for these cavities was made as high as possible to ensure stability against thermal breakdown of superconductivity. HPP proves to be a highly successful method of reducing FE loading in nine-cell SRF cavities. Attainable continuous wave (CW) fields increase by as much as 80% from their pre-HPP limits. The CW accelerating field achieved with nine-cell cavities improved from 8-15 MV/m with HPP to 14-20 MV/m. The benefits are stable with subsequent exposure to dust-free air. More importantly, HPP also proves effective against new field emission subsequently introduced by cold and warm vacuum ''accidents'' which admitted ''dirty'' air into the cavities. Clear correlations are obtained linking FE reduction with the maximum surface electric field attained during processing. In single cells the maximums reached were E peak =72 MV/m and H peak =1660 Oe. Thermal breakdown, initiated by accompanying high surface magnetic fields is the dominant limitation on the attainable fields for pulsed processing, as well as for final CW and long pulse operation. To prove that the surface magnetic field rather than the surface electric fields is the limitation to HPP effectiveness, a special two-cell cavity with a reduced magnetic to electric field ratio is successfully tested. During HPP, pulsed fields reach E peak =113 MV/m (H peak =1600 Oe) and subsequent CW low power measurement reached E peak =100 MV/m, the highest CW field ever measured in a superconducting accelerator cavity. ((orig.))

  14. Incorporating global warming risks in power sector planning: A case study of the New England region

    Krause, F.; Busch, J.; Koomey, J.

    1992-11-01

    Growing international concern over the threat of global climate change has led to proposals to buy insurance against this threat by reducing emissions of carbon (short for carbon dioxide) and other greenhouse gases below current levels. Concern over these and other, non-climatic environmental effects of electricity generation has led a number of states to adopt or explore new mechanisms for incorporating environmental externalities in utility resource planning. For example, the New York and Massachusetts utility commissions have adopted monetized surcharges (or adders) to induce emission reductions of federally regulated air pollutants (notably, SO 2 , NO x , and particulates) beyond federally mandated levels. These regulations also include preliminary estimates of the cost of reducing carbon emissions, for which no federal regulations exist at this time. Within New England, regulators and utilities have also held several workshops and meetings to discuss alternative methods of incorporating externalities as well as the feasibility of regional approaches. This study examines the potential for reduced carbon emissions in the New England power sector as well as the cost and rate impacts of two policy approaches: environmental externality surcharges and a target- based approach. We analyze the following questions: Does New England have sufficient low-carbon resources to achieve significant reductions (10% to 20% below current levels) in fossil carbon emissions in its utility sector? What reductions could be achieved at a maximum? What is the expected cost of carbon reductions as a function of the reduction goal? How would carbon reduction strategies affect electricity rates? How effective are environmental externality cost surcharges as an instrument in bringing about carbon reductions? To what extent could the minimization of total electricity costs alone result in carbon reductions relative to conventional resource plans?

  15. Index extraction for electromagnetic field evaluation of high power wireless charging system.

    Park, SangWook

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the precise dosimetry for highly resonant wireless power transfer (HR-WPT) system using an anatomically realistic human voxel model. The dosimetry for the HR-WPT system designed to operate at 13.56 MHz frequency, which one of the ISM band frequency band, is conducted in the various distances between the human model and the system, and in the condition of alignment and misalignment between transmitting and receiving circuits. The specific absorption rates in the human body are computed by the two-step approach; in the first step, the field generated by the HR-WPT system is calculated and in the second step the specific absorption rates are computed with the scattered field finite-difference time-domain method regarding the fields obtained in the first step as the incident fields. The safety compliance for non-uniform field exposure from the HR-WPT system is discussed with the international safety guidelines. Furthermore, the coupling factor concept is employed to relax the maximum allowable transmitting power. Coupling factors derived from the dosimetry results are presented. In this calculation, the external magnetic field from the HR-WPT system can be relaxed by approximately four times using coupling factor in the worst exposure scenario.

  16. Z a Fast Pulsed Power Generator for Ultra-High Magnetic Field Generation

    Spielman, R. B.; Stygar, W. A.; Struve, K. W.; Asay, J. R.; Hall, C. A.; Bernard, M. A.; Bailey, J. E.; McDaniel, D. H.

    2004-11-01

    Advances in fast, pulsed-power technologies have resulted in the development of very high current drivers that have current rise times ~100 ns. The largest such pulsed power driver today is the new Z accelerator located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Z can deliver more than 20 MA with a time-to-peak of 105 ns to low inductance (~1 nH) loads. Such large drivers are capable of directly generating magnetic fields approaching 3 kT in small, 1 cm3 volumes. In addition to direct field generation, Z can be used to compress an applied, axial seed field with a plasma. Flux compression schemes are not new and are, in fact, the basis of all explosive flux-compression generators, but we propose the use of plasma armatures rather than solid, conducting armatures. We present experimental results from the Z accelerator in which magnetic fields of ~2 kT are generated and measured with several diagnostics. Issues such as energy loss in solid conductors and dynamic response of current-carrying conductors to very large magnetic fields are reviewed in context with Z experiments. We describe planned flux-compression experiments that are expected to create the highest-magnitude uniform-field volumes yet attained in the laboratory.

  17. Electromagnetic Fields Associated with Commercial Solar Photovoltaic Electric Power Generating Facilities.

    Tell, R A; Hooper, H C; Sias, G G; Mezei, G; Hung, P; Kavet, R

    2015-01-01

    The southwest region of the United States is expected to experience an expansion of commercial solar photovoltaic generation facilities over the next 25 years. A solar facility converts direct current generated by the solar panels to three-phase 60-Hz power that is fed to the grid. This conversion involves sequential processing of the direct current through an inverter that produces low-voltage three-phase power, which is stepped up to distribution voltage (∼12 kV) through a transformer. This study characterized magnetic and electric fields between the frequencies of 0 Hz and 3 GHz at two facilities operated by the Southern California Edison Company in Porterville, CA and San Bernardino, CA. Static magnetic fields were very small compared to exposure limits established by IEEE and ICNIRP. The highest 60-Hz magnetic fields were measured adjacent to transformers and inverters, and radiofrequency fields from 5-100 kHz were associated with the inverters. The fields measured complied in every case with IEEE controlled and ICNIRP occupational exposure limits. In all cases, electric fields were negligible compared to IEEE and ICNIRP limits across the spectrum measured and when compared to the FCC limits (≥0.3 MHz).

  18. Soil–structure interaction analyses to locate nuclear power plant free-field seismic instrumentation

    Johnson, James J., E-mail: jasjjoh@aol.com [James J. Johnson and Associates, Alamo, CA (United States); Ake, Jon P. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Maslenikov, Oleg R. [James J. Johnson and Associates, Alamo, CA (United States); Kenneally, Roger M. [Consultant, Seminole, FL (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Determine the location of seismic instrumentation so that recorded motion will be free-field motion. • Certified Designs of nuclear island for AP1000 and EPR; ABWR Reactor Building were analyzed. • Three site conditions and multiple recorded time histories were considered. • Instrumentation located 1-diameter from the edge of structure/foundation is adequate. • Acceptance criteria were probability of non-exceedance of response spectra values. - Abstract: The recorded earthquake ground motion at the nuclear power plant site is needed for several purposes. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.12, Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation for Earthquakes, NRC (1997a), describes acceptable instrumentation to meet the requirements in NRC's regulations pertaining to earthquake engineering criteria for nuclear power plants. The ground motion data recorded by the free-field seismic instrumentation are used to compare the actual earthquake motion at the site with the design input motion. The result of the comparison determines if the Operating Basis Earthquake ground motion (OBE) has been exceeded and plant shutdown is required per the guidance in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.166, Pre-Earthquake Planning and Immediate Nuclear Power Plant Operator Postearthquake Actions, NRC (1979b). The free-field is defined as a location on the ground surface or in the site soil column that is sufficiently distant from the site structures to be essentially unaffected by the vibration of the site structures.

  19. Status of Korean nuclear industry and Romania-Korea cooperation in the field of nuclear power

    Lee, Myung Key

    2005-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol on climate change has urged the world to explore ways of cutting down the greenhouse emissions, and it also boosted a number of nuclear power projects that is so-called the renaissance of nuclear power. Nuclear power has proven to be the cleanest energy source and one of the cheapest types of energies, compared with other energy sources. Korea began developing its nuclear power projects from the early 1970's. Since the first nuclear power plant Kori Unit 1, started commercial operation in 1978, Korea has continuously promoted the development of nuclear power projects, and today it operates 20 nuclear power units (17,716 MW), including 4 units of CANDU plants. Korea ranked No. 6 in the world in terms of installed capacity of nuclear power plants, and 40% of its domestic electricity generation comes from nuclear power plants. The average plant capacity factor was 95.5% in 2005, which is about 16% than the world average of around 79%. All the Korean nuclear power projects are led and implemented by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP) which is the sole state-owned nuclear power project company spun off from Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) in 2001 as part of the government's program for electric industry restructuring. The cooperation between Romania and Korea in the nuclear power field began in March 2001. At industrial level a technical agreement between the Romanian Company Nuclearelectrica S.A. (SNN) and KHNP was signed in July 2003 for cooperation in Cernavoda NPP projects. The joint development of the Cernavoda NPP unit 3 was one of the major topics. Heavy water produced by Romanian Heavy Water plant at Drobeta Turnu Severin was supplied to KHNP (16 tones in 2001 and another 16 tones in 2004). The feasibility study for units 3 and 4 is being performed in two phases under leadership of SNN in cooperation with KHNP, AECL, ANSALDO and Deloitte and Touche as a financial advisor in Phase 2. It is expected that the appropriate securities

  20. Global mean-field phase diagram of the spin-1 Ising ferromagnet in a random crystal field

    Borelli, M. E. S.; Carneiro, C. E. I.

    1996-02-01

    We study the phase diagram of the mean-field spin-1 Ising ferromagnet in a uniform magnetic field H and a random crystal field Δi, with probability distribution P( Δi) = pδ( Δi - Δ) + (1 - p) δ( Δi). We analyse the effects of randomness on the first-order surfaces of the Δ- T- H phase diagram for different values of the concentration p and show how these surfaces are affected by the dilution of the crystal field.

  1. Wireless power transmission to an electromechanical receiver using low-frequency magnetic fields

    Challa, Vinod R; Arnold, David P; Mur-Miranda, Jose Oscar

    2012-01-01

    A near-field, electrodynamically coupled wireless power transmission system is presented that delivers electrical power from a transmitter coil to a compact electromechanical receiver. The system integrates electromechanical energy conversion and mechanical resonance to deliver power over a range of distances using low-amplitude, low-frequency magnetic fields. Two different receiver orientations are investigated that rely on either the force or the torque induced on the receiver magnet at separation distances ranging from 2.2 to 10.2 cm. Theoretical models for each mode compare the predicted performance with the experimental results. For a 7.1 mA pk sinusoidal current supplied to a transmitter coil with a 100 cm diameter, the torque mode receiver orientation has a maximum power transfer of 150 μW (efficiency of 12%) at 2.2 cm at its resonance frequency of 38.4 Hz. For the same input current to the transmitter, the force mode receiver orientation has a maximum power transfer of 37 μW (efficiency of 4.1%) at 3.1 cm at its resonance frequency of 38.9 Hz. (paper)

  2. Experimental determination of radiated internal wave power without pressure field data

    Lee, Frank M.; Paoletti, M. S.; Swinney, Harry L.; Morrison, P. J.

    2014-04-01

    We present a method to determine, using only velocity field data, the time-averaged energy flux left and total radiated power P for two-dimensional internal gravity waves. Both left and P are determined from expressions involving only a scalar function, the stream function ψ. We test the method using data from a direct numerical simulation for tidal flow of a stratified fluid past a knife edge. The results for the radiated internal wave power given by the stream function method agree to within 0.5% with results obtained using pressure and velocity data from the numerical simulation. The results for the radiated power computed from the stream function agree well with power computed from the velocity and pressure if the starting point for the stream function computation is on a solid boundary, but if a boundary point is not available, care must be taken to choose an appropriate starting point. We also test the stream function method by applying it to laboratory data for tidal flow past a knife edge, and the results are found to agree with the direct numerical simulation. The supplementary material includes a Matlab code with a graphical user interface that can be used to compute the energy flux and power from two-dimensional velocity field data.

  3. Controlled soil warming powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.

    Johnstone, Jill F; Henkelman, Jonathan; Allen, Kirsten; Helgason, Warren; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2) plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes.

  4. Controlled soil warming powered by alternative energy for remote field sites.

    Jill F Johnstone

    Full Text Available Experiments using controlled manipulation of climate variables in the field are critical for developing and testing mechanistic models of ecosystem responses to climate change. Despite rapid changes in climate observed in many high latitude and high altitude environments, controlled manipulations in these remote regions have largely been limited to passive experimental methods with variable effects on environmental factors. In this study, we tested a method of controlled soil warming suitable for remote field locations that can be powered using alternative energy sources. The design was tested in high latitude, alpine tundra of southern Yukon Territory, Canada, in 2010 and 2011. Electrical warming probes were inserted vertically in the near-surface soil and powered with photovoltaics attached to a monitoring and control system. The warming manipulation achieved a stable target warming of 1.3 to 2 °C in 1 m(2 plots while minimizing disturbance to soil and vegetation. Active control of power output in the warming plots allowed the treatment to closely match spatial and temporal variations in soil temperature while optimizing system performance during periods of low power supply. Active soil heating with vertical electric probes powered by alternative energy is a viable option for remote sites and presents a low-disturbance option for soil warming experiments. This active heating design provides a valuable tool for examining the impacts of soil warming on ecosystem processes.

  5. A high power cross-field amplifier at X-Band

    Eppley, K.; Feinstein, J.; Ko, K.; Kroll, N.; Lee, T.; Nelson, E.

    1991-05-01

    A high power cross-field amplifier is under development at SLAC with the objective of providing sufficient peak power to feed a section of an X-Band (11.424 GHz) accelerator without the need for pulse compression. The CFA being designed employs a conventional distributed secondary emission cathode but a novel anode structure which consists of an array of vane resonators alternatively coupled to a rectangular waveguide. The waveguide impedance (width) is tapered linearly from input to output so as to provide a constant RF voltage at the vane tips, leading to uniform power generation along the structure. Nominal design for this tube calls for 300 MW output power, 20 dB gain, DC voltage 142 KV, magnetic field 5 KG, anode-cathode gap 3.6 mm and total interaction length of about 60 cm. These specifications have been supported by computer simulations of both the RF slow wave structure as well as the electron space charge wave interaction. We have used ARGUS to model the cold circuit properties and CONDOR to model the electronic power conversion. An efficiency of 60 percent can be expected. We will discuss the details of the design effort. 5 refs., 6 figs

  6. Experimental determination of radiated internal wave power without pressure field data

    Lee, Frank M.; Morrison, P. J.; Paoletti, M. S.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to determine, using only velocity field data, the time-averaged energy flux (J) and total radiated power P for two-dimensional internal gravity waves. Both (J) and P are determined from expressions involving only a scalar function, the stream function ψ. We test the method using data from a direct numerical simulation for tidal flow of a stratified fluid past a knife edge. The results for the radiated internal wave power given by the stream function method agree to within 0.5% with results obtained using pressure and velocity data from the numerical simulation. The results for the radiated power computed from the stream function agree well with power computed from the velocity and pressure if the starting point for the stream function computation is on a solid boundary, but if a boundary point is not available, care must be taken to choose an appropriate starting point. We also test the stream function method by applying it to laboratory data for tidal flow past a knife edge, and the results are found to agree with the direct numerical simulation. The supplementary material includes a Matlab code with a graphical user interface that can be used to compute the energy flux and power from two-dimensional velocity field data

  7. Field tests applying multi-agent technology for distributed control. Virtual power plants and wind energy

    Schaeffer, G.J.; Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kok, J.K. [Energy in the Built Environment and Networks, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    Multi-agent technology is state of the art ICT. It is not yet widely applied in power control systems. However, it has a large potential for bottom-up, distributed control of a network with large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed energy resources (DER) in future power systems. At least two major European R and D projects (MicroGrids and CRISP) have investigated its potential. Both grid-related as well as market-related applications have been studied. This paper will focus on two field tests, performed in the Netherlands, applying multi-agent control by means of the PowerMatcher concept. The first field test focuses on the application of multi-agent technology in a commercial setting, i.e. by reducing the need for balancing power in the case of intermittent energy sources, such as wind energy. In this case the flexibility is used of demand and supply of industrial and residential consumers and producers. Imbalance reduction rates of over 40% have been achieved applying the PowerMatcher, and with a proper portfolio even larger rates are expected. In the second field test the multi-agent technology is used in the design and implementation of a virtual power plant (VPP). This VPP digitally connects a number of micro-CHP units, installed in residential dwellings, into a cluster that is controlled to reduce the local peak demand of the common low-voltage grid segment the micro-CHP units are connected to. In this way the VPP supports the local distribution system operator (DSO) to defer reinforcements in the grid infrastructure (substations and cables)

  8. Field tests applying multi-agent technology for distributed control. Virtual power plants and wind energy

    Schaeffer, G.J.; Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kok, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-agent technology is state of the art ICT. It is not yet widely applied in power control systems. However, it has a large potential for bottom-up, distributed control of a network with large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed energy resources (DER) in future power systems. At least two major European R and D projects (MicroGrids and CRISP) have investigated its potential. Both grid-related as well as market-related applications have been studied. This paper will focus on two field tests, performed in the Netherlands, applying multi-agent control by means of the PowerMatcher concept. The first field test focuses on the application of multi-agent technology in a commercial setting, i.e. by reducing the need for balancing power in the case of intermittent energy sources, such as wind energy. In this case the flexibility is used of demand and supply of industrial and residential consumers and producers. Imbalance reduction rates of over 40% have been achieved applying the PowerMatcher, and with a proper portfolio even larger rates are expected. In the second field test the multi-agent technology is used in the design and implementation of a virtual power plant (VPP). This VPP digitally connects a number of micro-CHP units, installed in residential dwellings, into a cluster that is controlled to reduce the local peak demand of the common low-voltage grid segment the micro-CHP units are connected to. In this way the VPP supports the local distribution system operator (DSO) to defer reinforcements in the grid infrastructure (substations and cables)

  9. Effect of Magnetic Field on Diesel Engine Power Fuelled with Jatropha-Diesel Oil

    Sukarni Sukarni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha oil has characteristics very close to the diesel fuel, so it has good prospects as a substitute or as a mixture of diesel fuel. Previous research showed that jatropha oil usage in diesel engines caused power to decrease. It was probably owing to the higher viscosity of the Jatropha oil compared to that of diesel oil. Installing the magnetic field in the fuel line of a diesel engine fueled with jatropha-diesel oil is expected to reduce the viscosity of jatropha-diesel oil mixture, hence improve the combustion reaction process. This research aims to know the influence of the magnetic field strength in the fuel lines to the power of diesel engines fueled with a mixture of jatropha-diesel oil. The composition of Jatropha oil-diesel was 20% jatropha oil and 80% diesel oil. Magnetic field variations were 0.122, 0.245 and 0.368 Tesla. The results showed that the higher the strength of the magnetic field was, the higher the average diesel engine’s power would be.

  10. Global Earth Structure Recovery from State-of-the-art Models of the Earth's Gravity Field and Additional Geophysical Information

    Hamayun, H.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, a tremendous improvement is observed in the accuracy and spatial resolution of global Earth’s gravity field models. This improvement is achieved due to using various new data, including those from satellite gravimetry missions (CHAMP, GRACE, and GOCE); terrestrial and airborne gravity

  11. Field evaluation of personal digital assistant enabled by global positioning system : impact on quality of activity and diary data

    Bellemans, T.; Kochan, B.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Stopher, P.

    2016-01-01

    Tom Bellemans, Bruno Kochan, Davy Janssens, Geert Wets and Harry Timmermans (2008), ‘Field Evaluation of Personal Digital Assistant Enabled by Global Positioning System: Impact on Quality of Activity and Diary Data’, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No.

  12. A Response to: Global Security, Religion and Education Development--A Crisis for the Field of Comparative and International Education?

    Ozanne, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the author's response to "Global security, religion and education development: a crisis for the field of comparative and international education?" Prof. Lynn Davies's introduction to the Forum is interesting and provocative, and the author advances his response in the spirit of dialogue by looking at Davies's arguments, the…

  13. Realization of toroidal field power supply control system for J-TEXT tokamak

    Qiu Shengshun; Zhuang Ge; Zhang Ming; Feng Jianming

    2009-01-01

    Based on the integrated development environment provided by QNX real-time operation system, the control system of toroidal field power supply is designed and developed. The system is proved to be reliable, stable and in real-time. It can control the power supply successfully to produce a constant current up to 92.5kA lasting for 1s and 1.74T at the magnetic axis. In conclusion, the control system can meet the requirements of the J-TEXT routine operation at present. (authors)

  14. Possibilities of Utilization the Risk – Based Techniques in the Field of Offshore Wind Power Plants

    Przemysław Kacprzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the risk-based concept that may be applicable to offshore wind power plants has been presented. The aim of the concept is to aid designers in the early design and retrofit phases of the project in case of lack or insufficient information in relevant international standards. Moreover the initial classification of components within main system parts of offshore wind power plant has been performed. Such classification is essential in order to apply risk-based concept. However further scientific researches need to be performed in that field to develop detailed concept useful for future practical applications.

  15. Inertia effects in the laminar radial flow of a power law fluid with an electromagnetic field

    Chen, C.-K.; Chen, K.-H.; Wu, C.-Y.

    1984-01-01

    An approximate study of the pressure distribution for the radial flow of a non-newtonian (power law) fluid between two parallel disks in the presence of an axial electrical field is obtained by using the momentum and energy integral methods. For a non-newtonian fluid it is shown that the inertia effect must be considered to be significant for the pressure distribution, especially for the power law fluids with n >= 1. Furthermore, it is seen that the inertia effect will also lower the load capacity of the disks. (Auth.)

  16. From condensed matter to Higgs physics. Solving functional renormalization group equations globally in field space

    Borchardt, Julia

    2017-02-07

    By means of the functional renormalization group (FRG), systems can be described in a nonperturbative way. The derived flow equations are solved via pseudo-spectral methods. As they allow to resolve the full field dependence of the effective potential and provide highly accurate results, these numerical methods are very powerful but have hardly been used in the FRG context. We show their benefits using several examples. Moreover, we apply the pseudo-spectral methods to explore the phase diagram of a bosonic model with two coupled order parameters and to clarify the nature of a possible metastability of the Higgs-Yukawa potential.In the phase diagram of systems with two competing order parameters, fixed points govern multicritical behavior. Such systems are often discussed in the context of condensed matter. Considering the phase diagram of the bosonic model between two and three dimensions, we discover additional fixed points besides the well-known ones from studies in three dimensions. Interestingly, our findings suggest that in certain regions of the phase diagram, two universality classes coexist. To our knowledge, this is the first bosonic model where coexisting (multi-)criticalities are found. Also, the absence of nontrivial fixed points can have a physical meaning, such as in the electroweak sector of the standard model which suffers from the triviality problem. The electroweak transition giving rise to the Higgs mechanism is dominated by the Gaussian fixed point. Due to the low Higgs mass, perturbative calculations suggest a metastable potential. However, the existence of the lower Higgs-mass bound eventually is interrelated with the maximal ultraviolet extension of the standard model. A relaxation of the lower bound would mean that the standard model may be still valid to even higher scales. Within a simple Higgs-Yukawa model, we discuss the origin of metastabilities and mechanisms, which relax the Higgs-mass bound, including higher field operators.

  17. SYNTHESIS OF ACTIVE SCREENING SYSTEM OF MAGNETIC FIELD OF HIGH VOLTAGE POWER LINES OF DIFFERENT DESIGN TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD

    B.I. Kuznetsov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of high voltage power lines with different design allowing and development of recommendations for the design of active screening systems by magnetic field of high voltage power lines. Methodology. Analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of high voltage power lines of different design allowing is made on the basis of Maxwell's equations solutions in the quasi-stationary approximation. Determination of the number, configuration, spatial arrangement and the compensation coil currents is formulated in the form of multiobjective optimization problem that is solved by multi-agent multiswarm stochastic optimization based on Pareto optimal solutions. Results of active screening system for the synthesis of various types of transmission lines with different numbers of windings controlled. The possibility of a significant reduction in the level of the flux density of the magnetic field source within a given region of space. Originality. For the first time an analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field of power lines with different types and based on findings developed recommendations for the design of active screening system by magnetic field of high voltage power lines. Practical value. Practical recommendations on reasonable choice of the number and spatial arrangement of compensating windings of active screening system by magnetic field of high voltage power lines of different design allowing for the spatial and temporal distribution of the magnetic field. Results of active screening system synthesis of the magnetic field of industrial frequency generated by single-circuit 110 kV high voltage power lines with the supports have 330 - 1T «triangle» rotating magnetic field with full polarization in a residential five-storey building, located near the power lines. The system contains three compensating coil and reduces

  18. Development of 3 D Electric Field Analysis Program under Power System Equipment

    Myung, S. H.; Lee, K. C.; Lee, J. B.; Ha, T. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Recently, as the effects of electric fields on animals, human beings and sensitive equipment have been reported, the study on electric fields has become more important. Transmission lines and substation among power facilities are dominant parts related to electrical environment. Electric field analysis of transmission line has been made using image charge method or CSM since 1970`s, however electric field analysis in substation has been rarely studied due to the complexity of three dimensional evaluation of an electric field in substation. For the rather complicated and time-consuming three-dimensional electric field calculation in the vicinity of transmission lines and substations, this study proposes an effective numerical calculation method based on Charge Simulation Method(CSM). In order to represent non-uniform charge distribution on an electrode better, it is subdivided into small segments with linear charge density. Each segment with linear charge density can be easily represented by a generalized finite line type of charge whose expressions for potential and electric field were analytically derived and which was named {sup f}inite slant line charge in this study. As for the arrangement of small segments of a subdivided electrode, it has been found that unequally spaced arrangement method is superior to equally spaced one. In order to arrange segments fast and effectively, effective formulas were derived from multiple regression analysis of many simulations. The proposed method is applied to the electric field calculation around the transmission lines with significant change in direction and substation busbars. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  19. RF power absorption by plasma of low pressure low power inductive discharge located in the external magnetic field

    Kralkina, E. A.; Rukhadze, A. A.; Nekliudova, P. A.; Pavlov, V. B.; Petrov, A. K.; Vavilin, K. V.

    2018-03-01

    Present paper is aimed to reveal experimentally and theoretically the influence of magnetic field strength, antenna shape, pressure, operating frequency and geometrical size of plasma sources on the ability of plasma to absorb the RF power characterized by the equivalent plasma resistance for the case of low pressure RF inductive discharge located in the external magnetic field. The distinguishing feature of the present paper is the consideration of the antennas that generate not only current but charge on the external surface of plasma sources. It is shown that in the limited plasma source two linked waves can be excited. In case of antennas generating only azimuthal current the waves can be attributed as helicon and TG waves. In the case of an antenna with the longitudinal current there is a surface charge on the side surface of the plasma source, which gives rise to a significant increase of the longitudinal and radial components of the RF electric field as compared with the case of the azimuthal antenna current.

  20. Analysis of payload bay magnetic fields due to dc power multipoint and single point ground configurations

    Lawton, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of magnetic fields in the Orbiter Payload Bay resulting from the present grounding configuration (structure return) was presented and the amount of improvement that would result from installing wire returns for the three dc power buses was determined. Ac and dc magnetic fields at five points in a cross-section of the bay are calculated for both grounding configurations. Y and Z components of the field at each point are derived in terms of a constant coefficient and the current amplitude of each bus. The dc loads assumed are 100 Amperes for each bus. The ac noise current used is a spectrum 6 db higher than the Orbiter equipment limit for narrowband conducted emissions. It was concluded that installing return wiring to provide a single point ground for the dc Buses in the Payload Bay would reduce the ac and dc magnetic field intensity by approximately 30 db.

  1. Navigating Between Stealth Advocacy and Unconscious Dogmatism: The Challenge of Researching the Norms, Politics and Power of Global Health.

    Ooms, Gorik

    2015-06-16

    Global health research is essentially a normative undertaking: we use it to propose policies that ought to be implemented. To arrive at a normative conclusion in a logical way requires at least one normative premise, one that cannot be derived from empirical evidence alone. But there is no widely accepted normative premise for global health, and the actors with the power to set policies may use a different normative premise than the scholars that propose policies - which may explain the 'implementation gap' in global health. If global health scholars shy away from the normative debate - because it requires normative premises that cannot be derived from empirical evidence alone - they not only mislead each other, they also prevent and stymie debate on the role of the powerhouses of global health, their normative premises, and the rights and wrongs of these premises. The humanities and social sciences are better equipped - and less reluctant - to approach the normative debate in a scientifically valid manner, and ought to be better integrated in the interdisciplinary research that global health research is, or should be. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  2. The rise of smart customers. How consumer power will change the global power and utilities business. What the sector thinks

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This report is the second in a two-part study, geared to helping power and utilities companies adapt their business strategies and customer handling in a new smart world. It explores the views of power and utilities leaders across 12 countries on how smart might change consumers' needs and behaviors, what new services they plan to offer and where they see the strongest new opportunities and competitors. We also compare these results with those of the first study, which examined the views of consumers and their appetite for new smart services.

  3. Magnetic field strength of a neutron-star-powered ultraluminous X-ray source

    Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Fürst, F.; Middleton, M. J.; Walton, D. J.; Stern, D.; Fabian, A. C.; Heida, M.; Barret, D.; Bachetti, M.

    2018-04-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are bright X-ray sources in nearby galaxies not associated with the central supermassive black hole. Their luminosities imply they are powered by either an extreme accretion rate onto a compact stellar remnant, or an intermediate mass ( 100-105M⊙) black hole1. Recently detected coherent pulsations coming from three bright ULXs2-5 demonstrate that some of these sources are powered by accretion onto a neutron star, implying accretion rates significantly in excess of the Eddington limit, a high degree of geometric beaming, or both. The physical challenges associated with the high implied accretion rates can be mitigated if the neutron star surface field is very high (1014 G)6, since this suppresses the electron scattering cross-section, reducing the radiation pressure that chokes off accretion for high luminosities. Surface magnetic field strengths can be determined through cyclotron resonance scattering features7,8 produced by the transition of charged particles between quantized Landau levels. Here, we present the detection at a significance of 3.8σ of an absorption line at 4.5 keV in the Chandra spectrum of a ULX in M51. This feature is likely to be a cyclotron resonance scattering feature produced by the strong magnetic field of a neutron star. Assuming scattering off electrons, the magnetic field strength is implied to be 1011 G, while protons would imply a magnetic field of B 1015 G.

  4. Scientific output quality of 40 globally top-ranked medical researchers in the field of osteoporosis.

    Pluskiewicz, W; Drozdzowska, B; Adamczyk, P; Noga, K

    2018-03-26

    The study presents the research output of 40 globally top-ranked authors, publishing in the field of osteoporosis. Their h-index is compared with the Scientific Quality Index (SQI), a novel indicator. Using SQI, 92.5% of the authors changed their initial positions in the general ranking. SQI partially depends on bibliometric measures different from those influencing h-index and may be considered as an assessment tool, reflecting more objective, qualitative, rather than quantitative, features of individual scientific output. The study approaches the research output of 40 globally top-ranked authors in the field of osteoporosis. The assessed authors were identified in the Scopus database, using the key word "osteoporosis" and the h-index data, collected during the last decade (2008-2017). The data, concerning the scientific output, expressed by the h-index, were compared with a novel indicator of scientific quality-called the Scientific Quality Index (SQI). SQI is calculated according to the following formula: Parameter No. 1 + Parameter No. 2, where: Parameter No. 1 (the percent of papers cited ≥ 10 times) the number of papers cited ≥ 10 times (excluding self-citations and citations of all co-authors) is divided by the number of all the published papers (including the papers with no citation) × 100%, Parameter No. 2 (the mean number of citations per paper) the total number of citations (excluding self-citations and citations of all co-authors) divided by the number of all published papers (including papers with no citation). The following research output values were obtained: the citation index, 2483.6 ± 1348.7; the total number of papers, 75.1 ± 23.2; the total number of cited papers, 69.3 ± 22.0; the number of papers cited, at least, 10 times, 45.4 ± 17.2; the percent of papers cited, at least, 10 times, 59.9 ± 10.0; and the mean citations per paper, 32.8 ± 15.0. The mean value of Hirsch index was 24.2 ± 6.2 and SQI

  5. Conceptual studies of toroidal field magnets for the tokamak experimental power reactor. Final report

    Buncher, B.R.; Chi, J.W.H.; Fernandez, R.

    1976-01-01

    This report documents the principal results of a Conceptual Design Study for the Superconducting Toroidal Field System for a Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor. Two concepts are described for peak operating fields at the windings of 8 tesla, and 12 tesla, respectively. The design and manufacturing considerations are treated in sufficient detail that cost and schedule estimates could be developed. Major uncertainties in the design are identified and their potential impact discussed, along with recommendations for the necessary research and development programs to minimize these uncertainties. The minimum dimensions of a sub-size test coil for experimental qualification of the full size design are developed and a test program is recommended

  6. Zivilmacht Europa: a critical geopolitics of the European Union as a global power

    Bachmann, V.; Sidaway, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The EU's global role is the focus of much media, political and scholarly commentary. This paper explores how ideas associated with the term ‘civilian power’ became an enduring geopolitical conception for an integrated Europe as a significant global actor. It traces their evolution from the early

  7. Setting the rules: Private power, political underpinnings, and legitimacy in global monetary and financial governance

    Underhill, G.R.D.; Zhang, X.

    2008-01-01

    The role of private market agents in global monetary and financial governance has increased as globalization has proceeded. This shift in both markets and patterns of governance has often been encouraged by states themselves in pursuit of liberalization policies. Much of the literature views these

  8. The rise of smart customers. How consumer power will change the global power and utilities business. What consumers think

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    Smart technology puts unprecedented power in the hands of consumers to manage and control their energy use. In time, this will fundamentally shift the balance of customer relations. It seems the era of a one-way relationship - where a utility delivers energy to domestic consumers, end of story - is over. Most power and utility businesses are currently treating the smart transition as an infrastructure upgrade, focusing chiefly on the technology and on fulfilling regulatory obligations. So far, the customer perspective and need for consumer education have not figured prominently in smart implementation programs. But following customer resistance to implementations in the US and Australia, the sector has been alerted to further challenges. Consumers' newfound power to say 'no' is one that the industry is not used to dealing with. Power and utility businesses must learn from the mistakes made so far. They need customer buy-in before they can exploit the host of new business opportunities that smart technology could provide. To explore the sector's readiness to respond to the present cycle of change, we asked domestic energy consumers how they viewed their relationship with energy providers. We wanted to know if they understood the benefits of smart metering, as well as their appetite for smart energy services.

  9. Premises and solutions regarding a global approach of gaseous pollutants emissions from the fossil fuel power plants in Romania

    Tutuianu, O.; Fulger, E.D.; Vieru, A.; Feher, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the present state of RENEL (Romanian Electricity Authority) - controlled thermal power plants from the point of view of technical aspects, utilized fuels and pollutant emissions. National and international regulations are also analyzed as well as their implications concerning the management of pollutant atmospheric emissions of the plants of RENEL. Starting from these premises the paper points out the advantage of global approach of pollution problems and offers solutions already implemented by RENEL. This global approach will result in an optimization of costs implied in pollutant emission limitations as the most efficient solution were found and applied. Having in view this treatment of the pollution problems, RENEL has submitted to the Ministry of the Industries and to the Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection a 'Convention on the limitation of CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions produced in the thermal power plants of RENEL'. (author)

  10. Sensitivity of self-powered detector probes to electron and gamma-ray fields

    Lone, M A; Wong, P Y [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple, passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPD`s are used in nuclear reactors to monitor neutron and gamma fields. Responses of SPD`s to electrons and {gamma}-rays of various energies were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. Transmission filters were studied for the design of threshold SPD probes used for online monitoring of the energy spectrum of high-power industrial electron accelerator beams. Filters were also investigated for the enhancement of {gamma}-ray sensitivity of an SPD placed in a mixed electron and {gamma}-ray field. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  11. Assessment of power-plant effects on zooplankton in the near field

    Polgar, T.T.; Bongers, L.H.; Krainak, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    With the use of a simple entrainment model that takes into account tidal recirculation, mixing, and once-through kill rate, theoretical expressions are derived for ratios of densities of live organisms at the intake of a power plant to densities in the far field. Experimental data on the abundances of dead and live stages of Eurytemora affinis and Acartia tonsa are used to compare to model results. A study of the entrainment of zooplankton near the intake of the Morgantown power plant and a concurrent study of the distribution of zooplankton in the Potomac River provided the biological data. Physical information was derived from extensive hydrographic measurements. Comparing experimental data with model predictions showed that radical depletions occurred in the naupliar stages near the plant site which cannot be accounted for by cooling-system or delayed entrainment mortalities. These near-field changes are attributed to avoidance reactions and to mortalities in the vicinity of the plant

  12. Normalized noise power spectrum of full field digital mammography detector system

    Norriza Mohd Isa; Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through de trending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality. (author)

  13. Numerical simulation of flow field in shellside of heat exchanger in nuclear power plant

    Wang Xinliang; Qiu Jinrong; Gong Zili

    2010-01-01

    Heat exchanger is the important equipment of nuclear power plant. Numerical simulation can give the detail information inside the heat exchange, and has been an effective research method. The geometric structure of shell-and-tube heat exchanger is very complex and it is difficult to simulate the whole flow field presently. According to the structure characteristics of the heat exchanger, a periodic whole-section calculation model was presented. The numerical simulation of flow field in shellside of heat exchange of a nuclear power plant was done by using this model. The results of simulation show that heat transfer in the periodic section of the heat exchange is uniform, the heat transfer is enhanced by using baffles in heat exchange, and frictional resistance is primary from the effect of segmental baffles. (authors)

  14. The minimization of the extraneous electromagnetic fields of an inductive power transfer system

    McLean, James; Sutton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of inductive wireless power transfer (IPT) systems has been extensively studied. However, the electromagnetic compatibility of such systems is at least as important as the efficiency and has received much less attention. We consider the net magnetic dipole moment of the system as a figure of merit. That is, we seek to minimize the magnitude of the net dipole moment in order to minimize both the near magnetic fields and the radiated power. A 20 kHz, 3.3 kW, IPT system, representative of typical wireless vehicular battery charging systems, is considered and it is seen that one particular value of load impedance minimizes the net dipole moment while another, distinct, value maximizes efficiency. Thus, efficiency must be traded off, at least to some extent, in order to minimize extraneous electromagnetic fields.

  15. Sensitivity of self-powered detector probes to electron and gamma-ray fields

    Lone, M.A.; Wong, P.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple, passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPD's are used in nuclear reactors to monitor neutron and gamma fields. Responses of SPD's to electrons and γ-rays of various energies were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. Transmission filters were studied for the design of threshold SPD probes used for online monitoring of the energy spectrum of high-power industrial electron accelerator beams. Filters were also investigated for the enhancement of γ-ray sensitivity of an SPD placed in a mixed electron and γ-ray field. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  16. Global power production scenarios to 2100 and the dual role of forests: accelerated climate damage or regulating and provisioning ecosystem services?

    Callesen, Ingeborg

    The worlds' electrical power production is depending on the current energy infrastructure, and future investments in new power supply facilities using renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Continued growth in power production in the 21st century will cause global environmental change (GEC......). GEC with climate change as an important driver will affect the environment and the economy in multiple ways that can be summarized as losses of biodiversity and changing ecosystem services (ES), but with very diverse temporal and spatial impacts. In a simple global growth model for power production......, including non-renewable and renewable energy sources, the potential role of forest biomass is investigated. The demands for forest ecosystem services imposed by the global power production are assessed in the present study. Three global power supply scenarios to 2050 with different emphasis...

  17. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process.

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-01-30

    Advocacy coalitions play an increasingly prominent role within the global health landscape, linking actors and institutions to attract political attention and resources. This paper examines how coalitions negotiate among themselves and exercise hidden forms of power to produce policy on the basis of their beliefs and strategic interests. This paper examines the beliefs and behaviours of health advocacy coalitions using Sabatier's Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) as an informal theoretical lens. Coalitions are further explored in relation to the concept of transnational advocacy networks (Keck and Sikkink) and of productive power (Shiffman). The ACF focuses on explaining how policy change takes place when there is conflict concerning goals and technical approaches among different actors. This study uses participant observation methods, self-reported survey results and semi-structured qualitative interviews to trace how a major policy project of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, the Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health, was constructed through negotiations among maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) advocacy coalitions. The Global Strategy represented a new opportunity for high-level political attention. Despite differing policy beliefs, MNCH and SRHR actors collaborated to produce this strategy because of anticipated gains in political attention. While core beliefs did not shift fundamentally and collaboration was primarily a short-term tactical response to a time-bound opportunity, MNCH actors began to focus more on human rights perspectives and SRHR actors adopted greater use of quantifiable indicators and economic argumentation. This shift emphasises the inherent importance of SRHR to maternal and child health survival. As opportunities arise, coalitions respond based on principles and policy beliefs, as well as to perceptions of advantage. Global health policy-making is an arena of

  18. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Background: Advocacy coalitions play an increasingly prominent role within the global health landscape, linking actors and institutions to attract political attention and resources. This paper examines how coalitions negotiate among themselves and exercise hidden forms of power to produce policy on the basis of their beliefs and strategic interests. Methods: This paper examines the beliefs and behaviours of health advocacy coalitions using Sabatier’s Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) as an informal theoretical lens. Coalitions are further explored in relation to the concept of transnational advocacy networks (Keck and Sikkink) and of productive power (Shiffman). The ACF focuses on explaining how policy change takes place when there is conflict concerning goals and technical approaches among different actors. This study uses participant observation methods, self-reported survey results and semi-structured qualitative interviews to trace how a major policy project of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, was constructed through negotiations among maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) advocacy coalitions. Results: The Global Strategy represented a new opportunity for high-level political attention. Despite differing policy beliefs, MNCH and SRHR actors collaborated to produce this strategy because of anticipated gains in political attention. While core beliefs did not shift fundamentally and collaboration was primarily a short-term tactical response to a time-bound opportunity, MNCH actors began to focus more on human rights perspectives and SRHR actors adopted greater use of quantifiable indicators and economic argumentation. This shift emphasises the inherent importance of SRHR to maternal and child health survival. Conclusion: As opportunities arise, coalitions respond based on principles and policy beliefs, as well as to perceptions of

  19. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process

    Lori McDougall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Advocacy coalitions play an increasingly prominent role within the global health landscape, linking actors and institutions to attract political attention and resources. This paper examines how coalitions negotiate among themselves and exercise hidden forms of power to produce policy on the basis of their beliefs and strategic interests. Methods This paper examines the beliefs and behaviours of health advocacy coalitions using Sabatier’s Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF as an informal theoretical lens. Coalitions are further explored in relation to the concept of transnational advocacy networks (Keck and Sikkink and of productive power (Shiffman. The ACF focuses on explaining how policy change takes place when there is conflict concerning goals and technical approaches among different actors. This study uses participant observation methods, self-reported survey results and semistructured qualitative interviews to trace how a major policy project of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG era, the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health, was constructed through negotiations among maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR advocacy coalitions. Results The Global Strategy represented a new opportunity for high-level political attention. Despite differing policy beliefs, MNCH and SRHR actors collaborated to produce this strategy because of anticipated gains in political attention. While core beliefs did not shift fundamentally and collaboration was primarily a short-term tactical response to a time-bound opportunity, MNCH actors began to focus more on human rights perspectives and SRHR actors adopted greater use of quantifiable indicators and economic argumentation. This shift emphasises the inherent importance of SRHR to maternal and child health survival. Conclusion As opportunities arise, coalitions respond based on principles and policy beliefs, as well as to perceptions

  20. Laboratory constraints on chameleon dark energy and power-law fields

    Steffen, Jason H.; Upadhye, Amol; Baumbaugh, Al; Chou, Aaron S.; Mazur, Peter O.; Tomlin, Ray; Weltman, Amanda; Wester, William

    2010-01-01

    We report results from the GammeV Chameleon Afterglow Search---a search for chameleon particles created via photon/chameleon oscillations within a magnetic field. This experiment is sensitive to a wide class of chameleon power-law models and dark energy models not previously explored. These results exclude five orders of magnitude in the coupling of chameleons to photons covering a range of four orders of magnitude in chameleon effective mass and, for individual chameleon models, exclude betw...