WorldWideScience

Sample records for global effector impacting

  1. Global impact of Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA on host cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenal-Muñoz, Elena, E-mail: e_cardenal@us.es; Gutiérrez, Gabriel, E-mail: ggpozo@us.es; Ramos-Morales, Francisco, E-mail: framos@us.es

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • We analyzed HeLa cells transcriptome in response to Salmonella SteA. • Significant differential expression was detected for 58 human genes. • They are involved in ECM organization and regulation of some signaling pathways. • Cell death, cell adhesion and cell migration were decreased in SteA-expressing cells. • These results contribute to understand the role of SteA during infections. - Abstract: Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, bacteremia and typhoid fever in several animal species including humans. Its virulence is greatly dependent on two type III secretion systems, encoded in pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. These systems translocate proteins called effectors into eukaryotic host cell. Effectors interfere with host signal transduction pathways to allow the internalization of pathogens and their survival and proliferation inside vacuoles. SteA is one of the few Salmonella effectors that are substrates of both type III secretion systems. Here, we used gene arrays and bioinformatics analysis to study the genetic response of human epithelial cells to SteA. We found that constitutive synthesis of SteA in HeLa cells leads to induction of genes related to extracellular matrix organization and regulation of cell proliferation and serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways. SteA also causes repression of genes related to immune processes and regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis and pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation. In addition, a cell biology approach revealed that epithelial cells expressing steA show altered cell morphology, and decreased cytotoxicity, cell–cell adhesion and migration.

  2. Impact of end effector technology on telemanipulation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Szakaly, Z.; Ohm, T.

    1990-01-01

    Generic requirements for end effector design are briefly summarized as derived from generic functional and operational requirements. Included is a brief summary of terms and definitions related to end effector technology. The second part contains a brief overview of end effector technology work as JPL during the past ten years, with emphasis on the evolution of new mechanical, sensing and control capabilities of end effectors. The third and major part is devoted to the description of current end effector technology. The ongoing work addresses mechanical, sensing and control details with emphasis on mechanical ruggedness, increased resolution in sensing, and close electronic and control integration with overall telemanipulator control system.

  3. Making a global impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-12

    How can vets, individually and collectively, make an impact on the global stage? Addressing this question at the BVA Congress at the London Vet Show, René Carlson, president of the World Veterinary Association, encouraged the profession to play its part locally, nationally and internationally, in tackling current challenges. Kristy Ebanks reports. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Impacts of globalization in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Andriani; Mechili, Aggelos; Kolokathi, Aikaterini; Diomidous, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture. Globalization describes the interplay of macro-social forces across cultures. The purpose of this study is a systematic review of the bibliography on the impacts of globalization in health. The consequences of globalization on health present a twofold dimension, on the one hand affects the health of the population and on the other hand organization and functioning of health systems. As a result of globalization, there has been an undeniable economic development and technological progress to support the level of health around the world, improving the health status of certain populations with a beneficial increase in life expectancy. In many aspects globalization is good but there are many problems too.

  5. Impact of inflammatory cytokines on effector and memory CD8+ T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eKim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines have long been recognized to produce potent APCs to elicit robust T cell responses for protective immunity. The impact of inflammatory cytokine signaling directly on T cells, however, has only recently been appreciated. Although much remains to be learned, the CD8 T cell field has made considerable strides in understanding the effects of inflammatory cytokines throughout the CD8 T cell response. Key findings first identified IL-12 and type I interferons as ‘signal 3’ cytokines, emphasizing their importance in generating optimal CD8 T cell responses. Separate investigations revealed another inflammatory cytokine, IL-15, to play a critical role in memory CD8 T cell maintenance. These early studies highlighted potential regulators of CD8 T cells, but were unable to provide mechanistic insight into how these inflammatory cytokines enhanced CD8 T cell-mediated immunity. Here, we describe the mechanistic advances that have been made in our lab regarding the role of ‘signal 3’ cytokines and IL-15 in optimizing effector and memory CD8 T cell number and function. Furthermore, we assess initial progress on the role of cytokines, such as TGF-β, in generation of recently described resident memory CD8 T cell populations.

  6. Hydraulic impact end effector final test report. Automation and robotics section, ER/WM-AT Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, S.

    1994-02-18

    One tool being developed for dislodging and fragmenting the hard salt cake waste in the single-shell nuclear waste tanks at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, is the hydraulic impact end effector (HIEE). This total operates by discharging 11-in. slugs of water at ultrahigh pressures. The HIEE was designed, built, and initially tested in 1992. Work in 1993 included advanced developments of the HIEE to further investigate its fragmentation abilities and to determine more effective operating procedures. These tests showed that more fragmentation can be achieved by increasing the charge pressure of 40 kpsi to 55 kpsi and by the use of different operating procedures. The size of the material and the impact energy of the water slug fired from the HIEE are believed to be major factors in material fragmentation. The material`s ability to fracture also appears to depend on the distance a fracture or crack line must travel to a free surface. Thus, larger material is more difficult to fracture than smaller material. Discharge pressures of 40 kpsi resulted in little penetration or fracturing of the material. At 55 kpsi, however, the size and depth of the fractures increased. Nozzle geometry had a significant effect on fragment size and quantity. Fragmentation was about an order of magnitude greater when the HIEE was discharged into drilled holes rather than onto the material surface. Since surface shots tend to create craters, a multi-shot procedure, coupled with an advanced nozzle design, was used to drill (crater) deep holes into large material. With this procedure, a 600-lb block was reduced to smaller pieces without the use of any additional equipment. Through this advanced development program, the HIEE has demonstrated that it can quickly fragment salt cake material into small, easily removable fragments. The HIEE`s material fragmentation ability can be substantially increased through the use of different nozzle geometries and operating procedures.

  7. Hydraulic impact end effector final test report. Automation and robotics section, ER/WM-AT Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, S.

    1994-01-01

    One tool being developed for dislodging and fragmenting the hard salt cake waste in the single-shell nuclear waste tanks at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, is the hydraulic impact end effector (HIEE). This total operates by discharging 11-in. slugs of water at ultrahigh pressures. The HIEE was designed, built, and initially tested in 1992. Work in 1993 included advanced developments of the HIEE to further investigate its fragmentation abilities and to determine more effective operating procedures. These tests showed that more fragmentation can be achieved by increasing the charge pressure of 40 kpsi to 55 kpsi and by the use of different operating procedures. The size of the material and the impact energy of the water slug fired from the HIEE are believed to be major factors in material fragmentation. The material's ability to fracture also appears to depend on the distance a fracture or crack line must travel to a free surface. Thus, larger material is more difficult to fracture than smaller material. Discharge pressures of 40 kpsi resulted in little penetration or fracturing of the material. At 55 kpsi, however, the size and depth of the fractures increased. Nozzle geometry had a significant effect on fragment size and quantity. Fragmentation was about an order of magnitude greater when the HIEE was discharged into drilled holes rather than onto the material surface. Since surface shots tend to create craters, a multi-shot procedure, coupled with an advanced nozzle design, was used to drill (crater) deep holes into large material. With this procedure, a 600-lb block was reduced to smaller pieces without the use of any additional equipment. Through this advanced development program, the HIEE has demonstrated that it can quickly fragment salt cake material into small, easily removable fragments. The HIEE's material fragmentation ability can be substantially increased through the use of different nozzle geometries and operating procedures

  8. Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type Three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: Think Globally, Act Locally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Valois, F.-X.; Pontier, Stéphanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that infect human colonic epithelia and cause bacterial dysentery. These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA), which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease. The T3SA triggers the plasma membrane (PM) engulfment of the bacteria by host cells during the initial entry process. It then enables bacteria to escape the resulting phagocytic-like vacuole. Freed bacteria form actin comets to move in the cytoplasm, which provokes bacterial collision with the inner leaflet of the PM. This phenomenon culminates in T3SA-dependent secondary uptake and vacuolar rupture in neighboring cells in a process akin to what is observed during entry and named cell-to-cell spread. The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. While the T3SA is active when bacteria are in contact with PM-derived compartments, it switches to an inactive state when bacteria are released within the cytosol. These observations indicate that effector proteins transiting through the T3SA are therefore translocated in a highly time and space constrained fashion, likely impacting on their cellular distribution. Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. Specific examples that will be developed include the role of effectors IcsB and VirA in the escape from LC3/ATG8-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread and of IpaJ protease activity against N-miristoylated proteins. The conservation of a similar regulation of T3SA activity in other pathogens such as Salmonella or Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27014638

  9. Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: think globally, act locally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F-X eCampbell-Valois

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that infect human colonic epithelia and cause bacterial dysentery. These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA, which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease. The T3SA triggers the plasma membrane (PM engulfment of the bacteria by host cells during the initial entry process. It then enables bacteria to escape the resulting phagocytic-like vacuole. Freed bacteria form actin comets to move in the cytoplasm, which provokes bacterial collision with the inner leaflet of the PM. This phenomenon culminates in T3SA-dependent secondary uptake and vacuolar rupture in neighboring cells in a process akin to what is observed during entry and named cell-to-cell spread. The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. While the T3SA is active when bacteria are in contact with PM-derived compartments, it switches to an inactive state when bacteria are released within the cytosol. These observations indicate that effector proteins transiting through the T3SA are therefore translocated in a highly time and space constrained fashion, likely impacting on their cellular distribution. Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. Specific examples that will be developed include the role of effectors IcsB and VirA in the escape from LC3/ATG8-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread and of IpaJ protease activity against N-miristoylated proteins. The conservation of a similar regulation of T3SA activity in other pathogens such as Salmonella or Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli will also be briefly discussed.

  10. Impact and prevention on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heon Ryeol

    2003-11-01

    This book deals with impact and prevention on global warming with eight chapters, which introduce the change after the earth was born and natural environment, how is global atmospheric environment under the control of radiant energy? What does global warming look with the earth history like? What's the status of global warming so far? How does climate change happen? What is the impact by global warming and climate change and for preservation of global environment of 21 century with consumption of energy, measure and prospect on global warming. It has reference, index and three appendixes.

  11. Global impact of Danish drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2016-01-01

    In recent years Danish TV series have experienced a global export boom. This article maps the regional and global export patterns over the last fifteen years in order to assess the international impact of Danish TV drama.......In recent years Danish TV series have experienced a global export boom. This article maps the regional and global export patterns over the last fifteen years in order to assess the international impact of Danish TV drama....

  12. Impact of Globalization on Business

    OpenAIRE

    Chindris-Vasioiu Oana; Pana Cristian

    2011-01-01

    The 90s’ represented the first decade through which worldwide national companies started to form a global vision. Still, the present is characterised by the tightening of the global competition. The more the companies fail to adopt the international view, the more increased is the risk of having them excluded from the emerging markets of Western and Eastern Europe, of Far –East Orient or of other world’s regions. Nowadays, the countries, forming the European common market, have abolished the ...

  13. Climate change impacts on global agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzadilla, Alvaro; Rehdanz, Katrin; Betts, Richard; Falloon, Pete; Wiltshire, Andy; Tol, Richard S J

    Based on predicted changes in the magnitude and distribution of global precipitation, temperature and river flow under the IPCC SRES A1B and A2 scenarios, this study assesses the potential impacts of climate change and CO2 fertilization on global agriculture. The analysis uses the new version of the

  14. The Impact of Globalization on Teaching Profession: The Global Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Suzan; Demirtas, Hasan

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine the impact of globalization on the teaching profession based on teacher views. Furthermore, the study aimed to make recommendations for the practitioners and the researchers based on the study findings. In the study, the qualitative phenomenology research method was used and the participants…

  15. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.

    environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global...... warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction....

  16. Global warming impacts of chillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calm, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Most discussion of refrigerant impacts on the environment has focused on protection of stratospheric ozone. The now-familiar Montreal Protocol, as revised last November at a meeting in Copenhagen, provides a clear mandate for transition to alternatives that do not deplete the earth's ozone layer. Coupled with reduction in refrigerant emissions, substitution of fluids with low or zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP) minimize or, for the latter, eliminate damage to the ozone layer. With retirement of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants that once dominated in chillers for air conditioning systems, including r-11, R-12, R-113, R-114, and R-500 (which contains R-12), questions surface on other environmental concerns for the alternatives. The direct effect (chemical action as a greenhouse gas) alone however, is misleading. The thermodynamic properties of a refrigerant limit the efficiency that can be attained in a heat pump or refrigeration machine. Since the efficiency governs the amount of power required for a specific thermal load, the selection refrigerants also impacts the greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide, released in supplying the required power. The warming stemming from combustion emissions to provide power is referred to as the indirect, or energy-related, effect. Atmospheric scientists use the term indirect effect to refer to the impact of greenhouse gases produced in the atmosphere by chemical reactions with an emission. The effect of this secondary chemistry is of much lesser magnitude and is not further discussed in this article

  17. The impacts and costs of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyre, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    There is now a scientific consensus that current rates of accumulation of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere will result in significant global warming and climate change. These changes are likely to have important impacts on a wide range of human activities and the natural environment. There has now been a considerable weight of literature published on the impacts of global warming, much of it very recent. This report seeks to summarise the important results, to analyse the uncertainties and to make a preliminary analysis of the feasibility of monetarising these environmental costs. The impacts of global warming are divided into ten major categories: agriculture, forests and forestry, terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, hydrology and water resources, sea level rise and coastal zones, energy, infrastructure/transport/industry, human health and air quality, oceans, and cryospheric impacts. The results of major summary reports are analysed, notably the report of Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (the IPCC). (author)

  18. Investigating Age-related changes in fine motor control across different effectors and the impact of white matter integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Joseph L; Loucks, Torrey M; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Sutton, Bradley P

    2014-08-01

    Changes in fine motor control that eventually compromise dexterity accompany advanced age; however there is evidence that age-related decline in motor control may not be uniform across effectors. Particularly, the role of central mechanisms in effector-specific decline has not been examined but is relevant for placing age-related motor declines into the growing literature of age-related changes in brain function. We examined sub-maximal force control across three different effectors (fingers, lips, and tongue) in 18 young and 14 older adults. In parallel with the force variability measures we examined changes in white matter structural integrity in effector-specific pathways in the brain with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Motor pathways for each effector were identified by using an fMRI localizer task followed by tractography to identify the fiber tracts propagating to the midbrain. Increases in force control variability were found with age in all three effectors but the effectors showed different degrees of age-related variability. Motor control changes were accompanied by a decline in white matter structural integrity with age shown by measures of fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity. The DTI metrics appear to mediate some of the age-related declines in motor control. Our findings indicate that the structural integrity of descending motor systems may play a significant role in age-related increases in motor performance variability, but that differential age-related declines in oral and manual effectors are not likely due to structural integrity of descending motor pathways in the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. GLOBALIZATION IMPACT ON UKRAINIAN MARKET OF SHARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zotsenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of globalization on the Ukrainian market of shares. Main trends of globalization of world share market are analyzed. The study highlights key elements of the operating share markets of the world leading countries. The research investigates main factors that affect on the level of national market of shares. The findings trace out a number of problems that hinder and distort the role of the Ukrainian share market in capital allocation.

  20. Impact of globalization on the educational reality

    OpenAIRE

    Callalli Pimentel, Aldo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Facultad de Educación

    2014-01-01

    The following article approaches the effects of the impact of globalization on the educational reality in Peru. The analysis begins with a historical approach on globalization; immediately afterwards the repercussions in the educational context are evaluated, then there is a critique of the merchandizing of the educational process and finally there are some ideas for an educational national project in favour of the socioeconomic development of Peru. El siguiente artículo aborda los efectos...

  1. IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON MACROECONOMIC POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina IVAN-UNGUREANU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization – the growing integration of economies and societies around the world – has been one of the most hotly-debated topics in international economics over the past few years. Rapid growth and poverty reduction in some countries that were poor 20 years ago have been positive aspects of globalization. But globalization has also generated significant international opposition to concerns about increased inequality and environmental degradation. There are many definitions of globalization. One of them could be: globalization is an ecosystem in which economic potential is no longer defined or contained by political and geographic boundaries. Economic activity has no bounds in a globalized economy. A globalized world is one where goods, services, financial capital, machinery, money, workers and ideas migrate to wherever they are most valued and can work together most efficiently, flexibly and securely. Where does economic policy come into play in this world? This paper presents some aspects of globalization and the impact on the new strategy of macroeconomics policy.

  2. Climate change impact on global potato production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymundo, Rubí; Asseng, Senthold; Robertson, Richard; Petsakos, Athanasios; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Quiroz, Roberto; Hareau, Guy; Wolf, Joost

    2017-01-01

    Potato is the most important non-grain crop in the world. Therefore, understanding the potential impacts of climate change on potato production is critical for future global food security. The SUBSTOR-Potato model was recently evaluated across a wide range of growing conditions, and improvements

  3. Global Economic Impact of Dental Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listl, S; Galloway, J; Mossey, P A; Marcenes, W

    2015-10-01

    Reporting the economic burden of oral diseases is important to evaluate the societal relevance of preventing and addressing oral diseases. In addition to treatment costs, there are indirect costs to consider, mainly in terms of productivity losses due to absenteeism from work. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the direct and indirect costs of dental diseases worldwide to approximate the global economic impact. Estimation of direct treatment costs was based on a systematic approach. For estimation of indirect costs, an approach suggested by the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health was employed, which factored in 2010 values of gross domestic product per capita as provided by the International Monetary Fund and oral burden of disease estimates from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study. Direct treatment costs due to dental diseases worldwide were estimated at US$298 billion yearly, corresponding to an average of 4.6% of global health expenditure. Indirect costs due to dental diseases worldwide amounted to US$144 billion yearly, corresponding to economic losses within the range of the 10 most frequent global causes of death. Within the limitations of currently available data sources and methodologies, these findings suggest that the global economic impact of dental diseases amounted to US$442 billion in 2010. Improvements in population oral health may imply substantial economic benefits not only in terms of reduced treatment costs but also because of fewer productivity losses in the labor market. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  4. Anthropogenic impacts on global organic river pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. To implement integrated water management for organic river quality at global scale, a crucial step is to develop a spatial analysis of organic river pollution threats. This thesis provides for the first time a quantitative picture of th...

  5. Quantifying the impacts of global disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. M.; Ross, S.; Wilson, R. I.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J. T.; Geist, E. L.; Hansen, R. A.; Johnson, L. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K. M.; Mortensen, C. E.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Thio, H. K.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    The US Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, California Geological Survey, and other entities are developing a Tsunami Scenario, depicting a realistic outcome of a hypothetical but plausible large tsunami originating in the eastern Aleutian Arc, affecting the west coast of the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. The scenario includes earth-science effects, damage and restoration of the built environment, and social and economic impacts. Like the earlier ShakeOut and ARkStorm disaster scenarios, the purpose of the Tsunami Scenario is to apply science to quantify the impacts of natural disasters in a way that can be used by decision makers in the affected sectors to reduce the potential for loss. Most natural disasters are local. A major hurricane can destroy a city or damage a long swath of coastline while mostly sparing inland areas. The largest earthquake on record caused strong shaking along 1500 km of Chile, but left the capital relatively unscathed. Previous scenarios have used the local nature of disasters to focus interaction with the user community. However, the capacity for global disasters is growing with the interdependency of the global economy. Earthquakes have disrupted global computer chip manufacturing and caused stock market downturns. Tsunamis, however, can be global in their extent and direct impact. Moreover, the vulnerability of seaports to tsunami damage can increase the global consequences. The Tsunami Scenario is trying to capture the widespread effects while maintaining the close interaction with users that has been one of the most successful features of the previous scenarios. The scenario tsunami occurs in the eastern Aleutians with a source similar to the 2011 Tohoku event. Geologic similarities support the argument that a Tohoku-like source is plausible in Alaska. It creates a major nearfield tsunami in the Aleutian arc and peninsula, a moderate tsunami in the US Pacific Northwest, large but not the

  6. The cyclic nucleotide monophosphate domain of Xanthomonas campestris global regulator Clp defines a new class of cyclic di-GMP effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Fei; He, Ya-Wen; Wu, Dong-Hui; Swarup, Sanjay; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2010-02-01

    The widely conserved second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) plays a key role in quorum-sensing (QS)-dependent production of virulence factors in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. The detection of QS diffusible signal factor (DSF) by the sensor RpfC leads to the activation of response regulator RpfG, which activates virulence gene expression by degrading c-di-GMP. Here, we show that a global regulator in the X. campestris pv. campestris QS regulatory pathway, Clp, is a c-di-GMP effector. c-di-GMP specifically binds to Clp with high affinity and induces allosteric conformational changes that abolish the interaction between Clp and its target gene promoter. Clp is similar to the cyclic AMP (cAMP) binding proteins Crp and Vfr and contains a conserved cyclic nucleotide monophosphate (cNMP) binding domain. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we found that the cNMP binding domain of Clp contains a glutamic acid residue (E99) that is essential for c-di-GMP binding. Substituting the residue with serine (E99S) resulted in decreased sensitivity to changes in the intracellular c-di-GMP level and attenuated bacterial virulence. These data establish the direct role of Clp in the response to fluctuating c-di-GMP levels and depict a novel mechanism by which QS links the second messenger with the X. campestris pv. campestris virulence regulon.

  7. Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering impacts on global agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Lawrence, P.; Lombardozzi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Stratospheric sulfate geoengineering has been proposed to reduce the impacts of anthropogenic climate change. If it is ever used, it would change agricultural production, and so is one of the future climate scenarios for the third phase of the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison. As an example of those impacts, we use the Community Land Model (CLM-crop 4.5) to simulate how climate changes from the G4 geoengineering scenario from the Geoengineering Modeling Intercomparison Project. The G4 geoengineering scenario specifies, in combination with RCP4.5 forcing, starting in 2020 daily injections of a constant amount of SO2 at a rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year at one point on the Equator into the lower stratosphere. Eight climate modeling groups have completed G4 simulations. We use the crop model to simulate the impacts of climate change (temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation) on the global agriculture system for five crops - rice, maize, soybeans, cotton, and sugarcane. In general, without irrigation, compared with the reference run (RCP4.5), global production of cotton, rice and sugarcane would increase significantly due to the cooling effect. Maize and soybeans show different regional responses. In tropical regions, maize and soybean have a higher yield in G4 compared with RCP4.5, while in the temperate regions they have a lower yield under a geoengineered climate. Impacts on specific countries in terms of different crop production depend on their locations. For example, the United States and Argentina show soybean production reduction of about 15% under G4 compared to RCP4.5, while Brazil increases soybean production by about 10%.

  8. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest GHG emission reduction.

  9. Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael E; Wang, George; Huey, Raymond B

    2010-10-07

    Documented shifts in geographical ranges, seasonal phenology, community interactions, genetics and extinctions have been attributed to recent global warming. Many such biotic shifts have been detected at mid- to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere-a latitudinal pattern that is expected because warming is fastest in these regions. In contrast, shifts in tropical regions are expected to be less marked because warming is less pronounced there. However, biotic impacts of warming are mediated through physiology, and metabolic rate, which is a fundamental measure of physiological activity and ecological impact, increases exponentially rather than linearly with temperature in ectotherms. Therefore, tropical ectotherms (with warm baseline temperatures) should experience larger absolute shifts in metabolic rate than the magnitude of tropical temperature change itself would suggest, but the impact of climate warming on metabolic rate has never been quantified on a global scale. Here we show that estimated changes in terrestrial metabolic rates in the tropics are large, are equivalent in magnitude to those in the north temperate-zone regions, and are in fact far greater than those in the Arctic, even though tropical temperature change has been relatively small. Because of temperature's nonlinear effects on metabolism, tropical organisms, which constitute much of Earth's biodiversity, should be profoundly affected by recent and projected climate warming.

  10. Amazonia: Burning and global climate impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molion, L.C.B.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, humans have been playing a major role in reducing the natural forest cover in the tropics through different forms of slash and burn. The most serious destruction, it is said, is occurring in the Amazon, which is the largest expanse of tropical forest remaining on the planet. This chapter reviews briefly the causes and the extent of Amazonian deforestation and focuses on its global and local climate impacts. In addition, the effects of loss of diversity and need to preserve Indian cultures and societies are briefly discussed

  11. Climate change impacts on global food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tim; von Braun, Joachim

    2013-08-02

    Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. The stability of whole food systems may be at risk under climate change because of short-term variability in supply. However, the potential impact is less clear at regional scales, but it is likely that climate variability and change will exacerbate food insecurity in areas currently vulnerable to hunger and undernutrition. Likewise, it can be anticipated that food access and utilization will be affected indirectly via collateral effects on household and individual incomes, and food utilization could be impaired by loss of access to drinking water and damage to health. The evidence supports the need for considerable investment in adaptation and mitigation actions toward a "climate-smart food system" that is more resilient to climate change influences on food security.

  12. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT ON GLOBAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Sofronov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an important economic activity in most countries around the world. As well as its direct economic impact,the industry has significant indirect and induced impacts. The outlook for the Tourism sector in 2017 remains robust and will continue to be at the forefront of wealth and employment creation in the global economy, despite the emergence of a number of challenging headwinds. In tourism, GDP growth is expected to accelerate to 3.8%, up from 3.1% in 2016. As nations seem to be looking increasingly inward, putting in place barriers to trade and movement of people, the role of Tourism becomes even more significant, as an engine of economic development and as a vehicle for sharing cultures, creating peace, and building mutual understanding.

  13. Global environmental impacts of the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwent, R.; Simmonds, P.; O'Doherty, S.; Manning, A.; Collins, W.; Stevenson, D.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen-based energy systems appear to be an attractive proposition in providing a future replacement for the current fossil-fuel based energy systems. Hydrogen is an important, though little studied, trace component of the atmosphere. It is present at the mixing ratio of about 510 ppb currently and has important man-made and natural sources. Because hydrogen reacts with tropospheric hydroxyl radicals, emissions of hydrogen to the atmosphere perturb the distributions of methane and ozone, the second and third most important greenhouse gases after carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is therefore an indirect greenhouse gas with a global warming potential GWP of 5.8 over a 100-year time horizon. A future hydrogen economy would therefore have greenhouse consequences and would not be free from climate perturbations. If a global hydrogen economy replaced the current fossil fuel-based energy system and exhibited a leakage rate of 1%, then it would produce a climate impact of 0.6% of the current fossil fuel based system. Careful attention must be given to reduce to a minimum the leakage of hydrogen from the synthesis, storage and use of hydrogen in a future global hydrogen economy if the full climate benefits are to be realised. (author)

  14. Global change impacts on mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves are tropical/subtropical communities of primarily tree species that grow in the intertidal zone. These tidal forests are important coastal ecosystems that are valued for a variety of ecological and societal goods and services. Major local threats to mangrove ecosystems worldwide include clearcutting and trimming of forests for urban, agricultural, or industrial expansion; hydrological alterations; toxic chemical spills; and eutrophication. In many countries with mangroves, much of the human population resides in the coastal zone, and their activities often negatively impact the integrity of mangrove forests. In addition, eutrophication, which is the process whereby nutrients build up to higher than normal levels in a natural system, is possibly one of the most serious threats to mangroves and associated ecosystems such as coral reefs. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to more fully understand global impacts on these significant ecosystems.Changes in climate and other factors may also affect mangroves, but in complex ways. Global warming may promote expansion of mangrove forests to higher latitudes and accelerate sea-level rise through melting of polar ice or steric expansion of oceans. Changes in sea level would alter flooding patterns and the structure and areal extent of mangroves. Climate change may also alter rainfall patterns, which would in turn change local salinity regimes and competitive interactions of mangroves with other wetland species. Increases in frequency or intensity of tropical storms and hurricanes in combination with sea-level rise may alter erosion and sedimentation rates in mangrove forests. Another global change factor that may directly affect mangrove growth is increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), caused by burning of fossil fuels and other factors. Elevated CO2 concentration may increase mangrove growth by stimulating photosynthesis or improving water use

  15. Manipulation of Interleukin-1β and Interleukin-18 Production by Yersinia pestis Effectors YopJ and YopM and Redundant Impact on Virulence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Dmitry; Orning, M. Pontus A.; Starheim, Kristian K.; Marty-Roix, Robyn; Proulx, Megan K.; Goguen, Jon D.; Lien, Egil

    2016-01-01

    Innate immunity plays a central role in resolving infections by pathogens. Host survival during plague, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis, is favored by a robust early innate immune response initiated by IL-1β and IL-18. These cytokines are produced by a two-step mechanism involving NF-κB-mediated pro-cytokine production and inflammasome-driven maturation into bioactive inflammatory mediators. Because of the anti-microbial effects induced by IL-1β/IL-18, it may be desirable for pathogens to manipulate their production. Y. pestis type III secretion system effectors YopJ and YopM can interfere with different parts of this process. Both effectors have been reported to influence inflammasome caspase-1 activity; YopJ promotes caspase-8-dependent cell death and caspase-1 cleavage, whereas YopM inhibits caspase-1 activity via an incompletely understood mechanism. However, neither effector appears essential for full virulence in vivo. Here we report that the sum of influences by YopJ and YopM on IL-1β/IL-18 release is suppressive. In the absence of YopM, YopJ minimally affects caspase-1 cleavage but suppresses IL-1β, IL-18, and other cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, we find that Y. pestis containing combined deletions of YopJ and YopM induces elevated levels of IL-1β/IL-18 in vitro and in vivo and is significantly attenuated in a mouse model of bubonic plague. The reduced virulence of the YopJ-YopM mutant is dependent on the presence of IL-1β, IL-18, and caspase-1. Thus, we conclude that Y. pestis YopJ and YopM can both exert a tight control of host IL-1β/IL-18 production to benefit the bacteria, resulting in a redundant impact on virulence. PMID:26884330

  16. Transcriptomic dissection of the horizontally acquired response regulator EsrB reveals its global regulatory roles in the physiological adaptation and activation of T3SS and the cognate effector repertoire in Edwardsiella piscicida during infection toward turbot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhao, Luyao; Yang, Minjun; Yin, Kaiyu; Zhou, Xiaohui; Leung, Ka Yin; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yuanxing; Wang, Qiyao

    2017-10-03

    Edwardsiella piscicida is the leading pathogen threatening worldwide aquaculture industries. The 2-component system (TCS) EsrA-EsrB is essential for the pathogenesis of this bacterium. However, little is known about the regulon and regulatory mechanism of EsrA-EsrB or about the factors that mediate the interaction of TCS with bacterial hosts. Here, our RNA-seq analysis indicated that EsrB strongly induces type III and type VI secretion systems (T3/T6SS) expression and that it modulates the expression of both physiology- and virulence-associated genes in E. piscicida grown in DMEM. EsrB binds directly to a highly conserved 18-bp DNA motif to regulate the expression of T3SS and other genes. EsrB/DMEM-activated genes include 3 known and 6 novel T3SS-dependent effectors. All these effector genes are highly induced by EsrB during the late stage of in vivo infection in fish. Furthermore, although in vivo colonization by the bacterium relies on EsrB and T3/T6SS expression, it does not require the expression of individual effectors other than EseJ. The mutant lacking these 9 effectors showed significant defects in in vivo colonization and virulence toward turbot, and, more importantly, a high level of protection against challenges by wild-type E. piscicida, suggesting that it may represent a promising live attenuated vaccine. Taken together, our data demonstrate that EsrB plays a global regulatory role in controlling physiologic responses and the expression of T3SS and its cognate effector genes. Our findings will facilitate further work on the mechanism of molecular pathogenesis of this bacterium during infection.

  17. Modeling global change impacts on Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicklighter, D. W.; Monier, E.; Sokolov, A. P.; Zhuang, Q.; Melillo, J. M.; Reilly, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Northern Eurasia is a major player in the global carbon budget and includes roughly 70% of the Earth's boreal forest and more than two-thirds of the Earth's permafrost. The region has experienced dramatic climate change (increase in temperature, growing season length, floods and droughts), natural disturbances (wildfires and insect outbreaks), and land-use change (timber harvest, urbanization, expansion and abandonment of agricultural lands) over the past century. These large environmental and socioeconomic impacts have major implications for the carbon cycle in the region. Northern Eurasia is made up of a diverse set of ecosystems that range from deserts to forests, with significant areas of croplands, pastures, and urban areas. As such, it represents a complex system with substantial challenges for the modeling community. We provide an overview of past, ongoing and possible future efforts of the integrated modeling of global change for Northern Eurasia. First, we review the variety of existing modeling approaches to investigate specific components of Earth system dynamics in the region. While there are a limited number of studies that try to integrate various aspects of the Earth system through scale, teleconnections or processes, there are few systematic analyses of the various feedbacks among components within the Earth system. As a result, there is a lack of knowledge of the relative importance of such feedbacks, and it is unclear how relevant current studies, which do not account for these feedbacks, may be for policymaking. Next, we review the role of Earth system models, and their advantages/limitations compared to detailed single component models. We further introduce human activity models (e.g., global trade, economic models, demographic models), and the need for Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs), a suite of models that couple human activity models to Earth System Models. Finally, we examine emerging issues that require a representation of the coupled

  18. Global impact of bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Redondo

    2016-09-01

    To understand variation in the aetiology, microbiology and burden of bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis across different global healthcare systems.; Bronchiectasis is the term used to refer to dilatation of the bronchi that is usually permanent and is associated with a clinical syndrome of cough, sputum production and recurrent respiratory infections. It can be caused by a range of inherited and acquired disorders, or may be idiopathic in nature. The most well recognised inherited disorder in Western countries is cystic fibrosis (CF, an autosomal recessive condition that leads to progressive bronchiectasis, bacterial infection and premature mortality. Both bronchiectasis due to CF and bronchiectasis due to other conditions are placing an increasing burden on healthcare systems internationally. Treatments for CF are becoming more effective leading to more adult patients with complex healthcare needs. Bronchiectasis not due to CF is becoming increasingly recognised, particularly in the elderly population. Recognition is important and can lead to identification of the underlying cause, appropriate treatment and improved quality of life. The disease is highly diverse in its presentation, requiring all respiratory physicians to have knowledge of the different “bronchiectasis syndromes”. The most common aetiologies and presenting syndromes vary depending on geography, with nontuberculous mycobacterial disease predominating in some parts of North America, post-infectious and idiopathic disease predominating in Western Europe, and post-tuberculosis bronchiectasis dominating in South Asia and Eastern Europe. Ongoing global collaborative studies will greatly advance our understanding of the international impact of bronchiectasis and CF.

  19. The Impact of Globalization on the Formation of a Global Political System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, Ilya V.; Rozanov, Alexander Sergeevich

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of globalization on the formation of a global political system. Design/methodology/approach: Taking into account the fact of global political evolution, the authors of the paper point out that the global political structures tend to change. Findings: During the past millennium the global…

  20. Globalization and its Impacts on Women’s Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Galyani Moghaddam, Golnessa

    2003-01-01

    Globalization is a complex economic, political, cultural, and geographic process in which all aspects of our life have been affected. Globalization is one of the most important impacts of the Internet and it is happening itself. This paper begins by defining of globalization and its various aspects. Then it goes on women’s rights through human rights and addresses the proletarianization and professionalization of women in the last thirty years. At the end, the impacts of globalization on wome...

  1. Global change. Impacts on water and food security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringler, Claudia [International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC (United States); Biswas, Asit K. [Third World Centre for Water Management, Los Clubes, Atizapan (Mexico); Cline, Sarah A. (eds.) [United States Department of Agriculture, Riverdale, MD (US). Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)

    2010-07-01

    This volume examines the various drivers of global change, including climate change, and the use of agricultural knowledge, science, and technology, as well as the outcomes of global change processes, including impacts on water quality and human well-being. Several authors examine potential policy and institutional solutions afforded by globalization to the challenges ahead, particularly the role of trade policy. Financing water development in a more globalized world and adapting to global warming are also examined. (orig.)

  2. IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON MACROECONOMIC POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Clementina IVAN-UNGUREANU

    2008-01-01

    Globalization – the growing integration of economies and societies around the world – has been one of the most hotly-debated topics in international economics over the past few years. Rapid growth and poverty reduction in some countries that were poor 20 years ago have been positive aspects of globalization. But globalization has also generated significant international opposition to concerns about increased inequality and environmental degradation. There are many definitions of globalization...

  3. The Impact of Globalization on African Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    informal economy and legal trade is facilitated by contemporary economic and technological globalization , which has led to improved communications...Leone have portrayed. Globalization has both positive and negative effects. In the area of economics, rapid advance of technology , sharp decrease in...political aspects of globalization have led to a shifts of power from sovereign states to technologically advanced global elites and private multinational

  4. THE NONLINEAR IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON CORRUPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Jayoti Das; Cassandra DiRienzo

    2009-01-01

    Some researchers have argued that globalization has increased the opportunity for corrupt practices, while others state that globalization has lead to a decrease in corruption as countries wishing to join the global economy must comply with international anti-corruption rules and regulations. This study empirically explores this paradox using the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) and the Konjunkturforschungsstelle (KOF) globalization Index. The results suggest that a nonlinear relationship e...

  5. The human physiological impact of global deoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel; McKenna, Helen; Livina, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    There has been a clear decline in the volume of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere over the past 20 years. Although the magnitude of this decrease appears small compared to the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere, it is difficult to predict how this process may evolve, due to the brevity of the collected records. A recently proposed model predicts a non-linear decay, which would result in an increasingly rapid fall-off in atmospheric oxygen concentration, with potentially devastating consequences for human health. We discuss the impact that global deoxygenation, over hundreds of generations, might have on human physiology. Exploring the changes between different native high-altitude populations provides a paradigm of how humans might tolerate worsening hypoxia over time. Using this model of atmospheric change, we predict that humans may continue to survive in an unprotected atmosphere for ~3600 years. Accordingly, without dramatic changes to the way in which we interact with our planet, humans may lose their dominance on Earth during the next few millennia.

  6. Impact of global warming on cyclonic disturbances over south Asian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Providing REgional Climates for Impacts Studies) developed by the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, UK is applied over the Indian domain to investigate the impact of global warming on the cyclonic disturbances such as ...

  7. Impact of global warming on cyclonic disturbances over south Asian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Providing REgional Climates for Impacts Studies) developed by the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, UK is applied over the Indian domain to investigate the impact of global warming on the cyclonic disturbances such.

  8. Economic and environmental impacts of a hypothetical global GMO ban

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaffey, Harrison H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the global economic and greenhouse gas emission impacts of GMO crops. This is done by modeling two counterfactual scenarios and evaluating them apart and in combination. The first scenario models the impact of a global GMO ban. The second scenario models the impact of increased GMO penetration. The focus is on the price and welfare impacts, and land use change greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with GMO technologies. Much of the prior work on...

  9. The Impact of Globalization on Teacher Education: The Philippine Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; dela Rosa, Praxedes S. M.; Arcangel, Clotilde N.

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study is an attempt to describe how administrators, teachers and researchers in a select group of teacher education institutions (TEIs) in the capital of the Philippines collectively view globalization. Specifically, concepts of a globalized teacher education, impact of globalization in teacher education, and problems of teacher…

  10. The global nuclear safety regime and its impact in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, C.

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the Global Nuclear Safety Regime that was established worldwide after the accident at the Tchernobyl nuclear power plant. This regime is composed of biding international safety conventions, globally accepted safety standard, and a voluntary peer review system. The impact of this Global Regime in Brazil is also discussed. (Author)

  11. The Impact of Globalization on The Arts in Contemporary Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural diversity has now become a fact of life in today's global village and many people have been experiencing the negative effects of the globalization process. The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of globalization on certain aspects of the arts in the Ghanaian cultural milieu in recent times. The study is ...

  12. The impact of globalization on the industrial growth of developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to investigate the impact of globalization on the industrial growth of developing economies with special reference to Nigeria. Globalization has facilitated the increased flow of ideas; people, goods and services across national frontiers. Some developing countries as a result of globalization have ...

  13. Manipulation of Interleukin-1β and Interleukin-18 Production by Yersinia pestis Effectors YopJ and YopM and Redundant Impact on Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Dmitry; Orning, M Pontus A; Starheim, Kristian K; Marty-Roix, Robyn; Proulx, Megan K; Goguen, Jon D; Lien, Egil

    2016-05-06

    Innate immunity plays a central role in resolving infections by pathogens. Host survival during plague, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis, is favored by a robust early innate immune response initiated by IL-1β and IL-18. These cytokines are produced by a two-step mechanism involving NF-κB-mediated pro-cytokine production and inflammasome-driven maturation into bioactive inflammatory mediators. Because of the anti-microbial effects induced by IL-1β/IL-18, it may be desirable for pathogens to manipulate their production. Y. pestis type III secretion system effectors YopJ and YopM can interfere with different parts of this process. Both effectors have been reported to influence inflammasome caspase-1 activity; YopJ promotes caspase-8-dependent cell death and caspase-1 cleavage, whereas YopM inhibits caspase-1 activity via an incompletely understood mechanism. However, neither effector appears essential for full virulence in vivo Here we report that the sum of influences by YopJ and YopM on IL-1β/IL-18 release is suppressive. In the absence of YopM, YopJ minimally affects caspase-1 cleavage but suppresses IL-1β, IL-18, and other cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, we find that Y. pestis containing combined deletions of YopJ and YopM induces elevated levels of IL-1β/IL-18 in vitro and in vivo and is significantly attenuated in a mouse model of bubonic plague. The reduced virulence of the YopJ-YopM mutant is dependent on the presence of IL-1β, IL-18, and caspase-1. Thus, we conclude that Y. pestis YopJ and YopM can both exert a tight control of host IL-1β/IL-18 production to benefit the bacteria, resulting in a redundant impact on virulence. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Global climate change impacts on forests and markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohui Tian; Brent Sohngen; John B Kim; Sara Ohrel; Jefferson Cole

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an economic analysis of climate change impacts in the global forest sector. It illustrates how potential future climate change impacts can be integrated into a dynamic forestry economics model using data from a global dynamic vegetation model, theMC2model. The results suggest that climate change will cause forest outputs (such as timber) to increase...

  15. Study of the global and regional climatic impacts of ENSO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. 2Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC), Ministry of Climate Change, Islamabad, Pakistan. ... decades resulting in a need to study climatic impacts of ENSO magnitude both at global and regional scales. Hence, to .... observations and to use in prediction but are less complex than coupled ...

  16. Globalization and its Impact on Bangladesh Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Anyone who believes that globalization can be stopped has to tell us how he would envisage stopping economic and technological progress. This is... globalization over the last several decades. One such source has been technological advances that have significantly lowered the costs of transportation and...third source of globalization has been changes in institutions, where organizations have a wider reach, due, in part, to technological changes and to

  17. Global Warming and Its Health Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossati, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients. Direct exposure to natural disasters has also an impact on mental health and, although too complex to be quantified, a link has even been established between climate and civil violence. Over time, climate change can reduce agricultural resources through reduced availability of water, alterations and shrinking arable land, increased pollution, accumulation of toxic substances in the food chain, and creation of habitats suitable to the transmission of human and animal pathogens. People living in low-income countries are particularly vulnerable. Climate change scenarios include a change in distribution of infectious diseases with warming and changes in outbreaks associated with weather extreme events. After floods, increased cases of leptospirosis, campylobacter infections and cryptosporidiosis are reported. Global warming affects water heating, rising the transmission of water-borne pathogens. Pathogens transmitted by vectors are particularly sensitive to climate change because they spend a good part of their life cycle in a cold-blooded host invertebrate whose temperature is similar to the environment. A warmer climate presents more favorable conditions for the survival and the completion of the life cycle of the vector, going as far as to speed it up

  18. Global Warming and Its Health Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Rossati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients. Direct exposure to natural disasters has also an impact on mental health and, although too complex to be quantified, a link has even been established between climate and civil violence. Over time, climate change can reduce agricultural resources through reduced availability of water, alterations and shrinking arable land, increased pollution, accumulation of toxic substances in the food chain, and creation of habitats suitable to the transmission of human and animal pathogens. People living in low-income countries are particularly vulnerable. Climate change scenarios include a change in distribution of infectious diseases with warming and changes in outbreaks associated with weather extreme events. After floods, increased cases of leptospirosis, campylobacter infections and cryptosporidiosis are reported. Global warming affects water heating, rising the transmission of water-borne pathogens. Pathogens transmitted by vectors are particularly sensitive to climate change because they spend a good part of their life cycle in a cold-blooded host invertebrate whose temperature is similar to the environment. A warmer climate presents more favorable conditions for the survival and the completion of the life cycle of the vector, going as far

  19. Impact of solar panels on global climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Aixue; Levis, Samuel; Meehl, Gerald A.; Han, Weiqing; Washington, Warren M.; Oleson, Keith W.; van Ruijven, Bas J.; He, Mingqiong; Strand, Warren G.

    2016-03-01

    Regardless of the harmful effects of burning fossil fuels on global climate, other energy sources will become more important in the future because fossil fuels could run out by the early twenty-second century given the present rate of consumption. This implies that sooner or later humanity will rely heavily on renewable energy sources. Here we model the effects of an idealized large-scale application of renewable energy on global and regional climate relative to a background climate of the representative concentration pathway 2.6 scenario (RCP2.6; ref. ). We find that solar panels alone induce regional cooling by converting incoming solar energy to electricity in comparison to the climate without solar panels. The conversion of this electricity to heat, primarily in urban areas, increases regional and global temperatures which compensate the cooling effect. However, there are consequences involved with these processes that modulate the global atmospheric circulation, resulting in changes in regional precipitation.

  20. The Impact of Globalization on African Conflicts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Addo, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    ... a cauldron of instability and economic deprivation. Globalization, which in simple terms means a worldwide network of interdependence, is a phenomenon, which emerged at the end of the Cold War and the advent of the information revolution...

  1. Globalization and its Impact on Bangladesh Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahman, Faizur

    2005-01-01

    ...), and the World Trade Organization (WTO) in setting the rules under which globalization is played, has placed developing countries in a much disadvantageous position vis-a-vis the developed countries...

  2. IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON RETAILING IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Mrvica MAĐARAC; Višnja BARTOLOVIĆ; Matej GALIĆ

    2017-01-01

    Trade is one of the leading sectors of the Croatian economy, which has undergone significant changes under the influence of globalization over the last decade. According to Central Bureau of Statistics in Croatia about 16 % of all employees work in trade business, and more than a quarter of business entities are registered in this sector. Therefore the trade has a significant share in Croatian GDP creation. Globalization is considered an important factor of economic development around the wor...

  3. IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON RETAILING IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mrvica MAĐARAC

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Trade is one of the leading sectors of the Croatian economy, which has undergone significant changes under the influence of globalization over the last decade. According to Central Bureau of Statistics in Croatia about 16 % of all employees work in trade business, and more than a quarter of business entities are registered in this sector. Therefore the trade has a significant share in Croatian GDP creation. Globalization is considered an important factor of economic development around the world. Through development of communication technology the world has become integrated into the "global village" and a business contact itself can be accomplished in a matter of minutes. The effects of globalization on retailing in Croatia are mostly reflected in the introduction of new retailing forms, development of e-commerce, consumer protection, the introduction of space management, changes in consumer habits and the arrival of multinational trading companies on the market of Croatia. In this way, the Croatian market has become a part of a single system. Globalization has a negative effect on trade in the Republic of Croatia too, because the domestic production and retail sales of small neighborhood stores are threatened in this way. Retailing in Croatia should make an attempt to adapt to the global trends in the world and to new changes taking into account the domestic production by the principle of comparative advantage.

  4. Man's impact on his global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.

    1976-07-01

    The experience and awareness growing from research activities leads to several important concerns for policy makers: there is a need to move towards a policy of conservation of our global air resources in its totality from earth's surface to stratosphere; the technical data base and level of understanding should be systematically improved for the rational implementation of standards for the whole atmosphere; the U.S. should establish a focal point for regional and global environmental assessments responsive to policy-makers' needs and concerns, and interactive with the UN's Global Environmental Monitoring System; and the environmental consequences of increased U.S. dependence on coal should receive greater attention so that optimal choices between control technology, tall stacks, and synthetic fuels may be achieved with conservation of total air resources

  5. Virulence contribution and recognition of homologs of the Verticillium dahliae effector Ave1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshoven, Jordi C.

    2017-01-01

    Disease resistance in crops is an important aspect of securing global food security. Resistant plants carry immune receptors that sense pathogen invasion often through the recognition of important pathogen virulence factors, known as effectors. Thus, identification and characterization of effectors

  6. GLOBALIZATION IMPACTS ON HIGHLIFE MUSIC IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imitch

    In summation, in the context of this paper, globalization influence on Nigerian highlife music has exposed the ... effect and use. Music is a highly profitable, capitalist enterprise controlled and regulated by performance/composers. Musical culture and its glamorous unattainable standards evoke many feelings, old memories, ...

  7. An assessment of the impact of tourism globalization in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tourism sector is one of one of the exemplars of the phenomenon of globalization. This is due to the geographical scale of the industry, increased spatial linkages between places and people from different locations. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the extent to which tourism globalization had impacted on ...

  8. The global financial crisis: origin, contagion and impacts on Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The financial crisis that erupted in September 2008—following more than two years of financial turmoil has become global crisis for the world economy. An attempt is made in this study to assess the possible causes of the origin, contagion and impact of the current global financial crisis with particular emphasis on Africa and ...

  9. Impact of global warming on cyclonic disturbances over south Asian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate change; regional climate model; global warming; cyclonic disturbances; projections. ... Studies) developed by the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, UK is applied over the Indian domain to investigate the impact of global warming on the cyclonic disturbances such as depressions and storms.

  10. Impact of Globalization on the Human Resource Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization has a major impact on the management of human resources in developing countries including Kenya. It has led to homogenization and convergence in organization strategies, structures and processes as well as in consumer choice. With accelerating globalization, organizations have had to change and new ...

  11. Anthropogenic impacts on global organic river pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. To implement integrated water

  12. Ocean Data Impacts in Global HYCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Cen- ter (FNMOC), which includes air temperature at 2m, surface specific humidity, net surface shortwave and...longwave radiation , total (large scale plus convective) precipitation, ground/sea temperature, zonal and me- ridional wind velocities at 10m, mean sea...forecast). The global HYCOM forecast system includes a built-in energy loan thermodynamic ice model. In this nonrheological system, ice grows or melts as a

  13. [The impact of globalization on mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Juan Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Psychosis, dementias, anxiety, depression, suicide and suicide attempts, as well as psychiatric disorders associated to violence and poverty have increased the global burden of disease. Other related problems associated to special diets, body image, compulsive use of computers and mobile phones, and those frequently observed in migrants subjected to intense distress are reviewed as well. Information and communication technologies may have undesirable side effects affecting some individuals in their conduct and social interactions.

  14. The Impact of Global Budgets on Pharmaceutical Spending and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Afendulis PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts implemented a global budget-based payment system, the Alternative Quality Contract (AQC, in which provider groups assumed accountability for spending. We investigate the impact of global budgets on the utilization of prescription drugs and related expenditures. Our analyses indicate no statistically significant evidence that the AQC reduced the use of drugs. Although the impact may change over time, early evidence suggests that it is premature to conclude that global budget systems may reduce access to medications.

  15. Creating Global Citizens : Impact of Volunteer and Work Abroad ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Do they modify volunteers' attitudes, professional choices, consumption patterns and work ethics? What cumulative impact do short-term postings have on host ... 2009, Carleton University, Ottawa. Rapports. Creating global citizens? : the impact of learning/volunteer abroad programs; final report, January 2006 - June 2012 ...

  16. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.

    of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant......Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction...... warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction....

  17. Impact of Global Warming on Coral Reefs

    OpenAIRE

    Sirilak CHUMKIEW; Mullica JAROENSUTASINEE; Krisanadej JAROENSUTASINEE

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we review coral reef responses to climate variability and discuss the possible mechanisms by which climate impacts the coral reef ecosystem. Effects of oceanographic variables such as sea temperature, turbulence, salinity, and nutrients on the coral reef are discussed in terms of their influence on coral growth, reproduction, mortality, acclimation and adaptation. Organisms tend to be limited to specific thermal ranges with experimental findings showing that sufficient oxygen s...

  18. THE IMPACTS OF GLOBAL INFRASTRUCTURE UPON GLOBAL PRODUCTION-TRADE STRUCTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Daming; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Matsushima, Kakuya

    In this paper, a two countries model is formulated to investigate the global production-trade patters emerged by the location behaviors of multi-national enterprises. Two countries are characterized by heterogeneous labor productivities. The multi-national enterprises, heterogeneous in productivities, are supposed to provide the differentiated commodities in the monopolistically competitive global market. The enterprises purchase differentiated knowledge at the fixed cost from the international research organization. They determine production locations in the global economy. The comparative static analysis is carried out to investigate the impacts of global infrastructure arrangement, associated with the decrease of transportation costs, upon the optimal production-trade patterns in the economy.

  19. The Impact of Global Economy upon Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Duret Gabriela

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reason of the more pronounced globalization of the business world, we can nolonger ignore the powerful cultural side of leadership. In other words, there are differences betweenleading styles considered as accepted by a national culture or another. For example, I come fromNetherlands – in Dutch, the word meaning leader is leader. But this word may be written in twoways: either using the short diphthong „ei”, or with the long one ”ij”, although the pronunciation isthe same. When written with „ij” it means „martyr”. This superposition of meanings is sending amessage: any Dutch leader who is trying to put him forward too much, is rapidly „cut”, In the Dutchworld, at work or in other cases, it is not accepted to put you forward – or this is consideredsomething of bad taste.

  20. Pneumatic inflatable end effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K. H.; Johnston, J. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The invention relates to an end effector device for robot or teleoperated type space vehicle which includes an inflatable balloon member carried on the end of tubular member which has a hollow center or conduit through which a suitable pressurized fluid is supplied. The device may be inserted into a variety of shaped openings or truss-type structures for handling in space.

  1. Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    It is clear that globalization is something more than a purely economic phenomenon manifesting itself on a global scale. Among the visible manifestations of globalization are the greater international movement of goods and services, financial capital, information and people. In addition, there are technological developments, more transboundary cultural exchanges, facilitated by the freer trade of more differentiated products as well as by tourism and immigration, changes in the political landscape and ecological consequences. In this paper, we link the Maastricht Globalization Index with health indicators to analyse if more globalized countries are doing better in terms of infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and adult mortality rate. The results indicate a positive association between a high level of globalization and low mortality rates. In view of the arguments that globalization provides winners and losers, and might be seen as a disequalizing process, we should perhaps be careful in interpreting the observed positive association as simple evidence that globalization is mostly good for our health. It is our hope that a further analysis of health impacts of globalization may help in adjusting and optimising the process of globalization on every level in the direction of a sustainable and healthy development for all. PMID:20849605

  2. Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Pim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is clear that globalization is something more than a purely economic phenomenon manifesting itself on a global scale. Among the visible manifestations of globalization are the greater international movement of goods and services, financial capital, information and people. In addition, there are technological developments, more transboundary cultural exchanges, facilitated by the freer trade of more differentiated products as well as by tourism and immigration, changes in the political landscape and ecological consequences. In this paper, we link the Maastricht Globalization Index with health indicators to analyse if more globalized countries are doing better in terms of infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and adult mortality rate. The results indicate a positive association between a high level of globalization and low mortality rates. In view of the arguments that globalization provides winners and losers, and might be seen as a disequalizing process, we should perhaps be careful in interpreting the observed positive association as simple evidence that globalization is mostly good for our health. It is our hope that a further analysis of health impacts of globalization may help in adjusting and optimising the process of globalization on every level in the direction of a sustainable and healthy development for all.

  3. Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Pim; Akin, Su-Mia; Maud, Huynen; Mohsin, Raza

    2010-09-17

    It is clear that globalization is something more than a purely economic phenomenon manifesting itself on a global scale. Among the visible manifestations of globalization are the greater international movement of goods and services, financial capital, information and people. In addition, there are technological developments, more transboundary cultural exchanges, facilitated by the freer trade of more differentiated products as well as by tourism and immigration, changes in the political landscape and ecological consequences. In this paper, we link the Maastricht Globalization Index with health indicators to analyse if more globalized countries are doing better in terms of infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and adult mortality rate. The results indicate a positive association between a high level of globalization and low mortality rates. In view of the arguments that globalization provides winners and losers, and might be seen as a disequalizing process, we should perhaps be careful in interpreting the observed positive association as simple evidence that globalization is mostly good for our health. It is our hope that a further analysis of health impacts of globalization may help in adjusting and optimising the process of globalization on every level in the direction of a sustainable and healthy development for all.

  4. Focus: Assessing the regional impacts of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Mingko

    1992-01-01

    Five studies are presented which assess the impacts of global warming on physical, economic, and social systems in Canada. A study on the use of climatic change scenarios to estimate ecoclimatic impacts was carried out. These scenarios may include synthetic scenarios produced from historical data, global climate model (GCM) simulations, and hybrid scenarios. The advantages and drawbacks of various scenarios are discussed along with the criteria for selecting impact assessment models. An examination of water resources in the Great Lakes and the Saskatchewan River subbasin uses case studies of two areas that have experienced wide hydrological variations due to climatic variability in order to determine the impacts of global warming scenarios on net basin supply. Problems of developing regional models are discussed and results of projected changes in net basin supply are presented for GCM-based simulations and hypothetical warming scenarios. A study of the impacts of climate warming on transportation and the regional economy in northern Canada uses stochastic models to provide examples of how Mackenzie River barge traffic will be affected. The economic impacts of the resultant lengthened shipping season are outlined under three scenarios. The implications of climatic change on Ontario agriculture are assessed according to GCM scenarios. Results are presented for crop yields and production as well as land resource suitability. Finally, sociocultural implications of global warming on the Arctic and the Inuit are summarized, with reference to a past warming episode occurring around the year 1000. 45 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  5. THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION AND GOVERNANCE ON LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Armenia ANDRONICEANU

    2013-01-01

    Globalization and the crises context have influenced the local economic development in Romania and determined the government to adapt its policies according to them. This paper presents part of the results of a specific research on the impact of globalization and the government policies to the local economic development. The sample was composed by small and medium size enterprises from Bucharest. They are specialized in export of products from three main areas. The research methodology includ...

  6. Impact of Global Warming on Flora and Fauna

    OpenAIRE

    , A. Srivastava; , S. Srivastav

    2011-01-01

    The paper, illustrated with graphs, discusses the impact of global warming on şora & fauna, its underlying causes, and attempts to trim down it with the collaboration of all individuals. The paper relates that, as an outcome of global warming, climate changes have reached anomalous levels with rainfall and hurricanes of unusual intensity. Everyday gases such as carbon dioxide are released to warm the earth, allowing it to be a place that can be inhabited by şora & fauna. Howev...

  7. Analyzing the Impact of Globalization on Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Ullah; Abdur Rauf; Nasir Rasool

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is a buzz word that catches significant importance as a reform agenda post 1980. The current study is an attempt to analyze the impact of globalization on economic growth of Pakistan. The sample period for this study ranges from 1980-2009. For empirical analysis of the study, Autoregressive Distributive Lag model is employed while for data analysis Augmented Dicky Fuller test is applied. It is found that all the variables are stationary at first difference. The empirical finding...

  8. IMPACT OF Global Warming on Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasrullah Khan [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Naeem Abas [2Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Norman Mariun [University Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Engineering, UPM Serdang, Serdang (Malaysia)

    2008-09-30

    Trees store CO{sub 2}, drive food chain, produce oxygen and cause cooling effects through the transpiration process. However, increasing forests to cool the planet needs a lot of care regarding locations and types of trees. Initially it was thought that the city trees fight climate change but later it was found that only tropical trees do the best. Ozone absorption in soil affects its natural carbon sequestration capability. Interaction of plants and soil with changing atmosphere and climate is very complex and not yet understood. Some crops like cotton, wheat and rice are more productive in elevated CO{sub 2} but their response at high temperatures needs further studies (GWDTR, 1997-2007; ITGW, 1990-2008). Use of CO{sub 2} as input raw material in fuel cells might be a revolutionary innovation but there is a long way to go ahead. At this moment we can only start energy education to cope up the time to come. On average CO{sub 2} concentration has been increasing at rate of 2.25ppm/yr from 2004 to 2008 but later from 2007 to 2008 it has been found increasing exponentially at rate of 4ppm/yr. It continues to increase at this rate even after oil peaking then it might exceed 500ppm by 2040-2050. CO{sub 2} concentration in atmosphere was 280 ppm before industrial revolution and in last few centuries it has increased to 385 ppm at an average annual rate of 2 ppm. Weeds normally show poor response to high CO{sub 2} concentrations but crops, fruits and vegetables flourish well. Previous draught cycle was only three years long but recent draught cycle is much longer than earlier (IGWT, 1997-2008). However, few trees in the same constellation are still quite healthy and alive. Some trees were seen dead even close to water canals. Based on literature review and observations recorded in this study it is concluded that high CO{sub 2} induced heat wave (global warming) is responsible for helping beetles and wood ants to eat trees roots and stem to kill them by starvation. The

  9. U.S. Natural Gas Exports and their Global Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Vipin Arora; Yiyong Cai

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate potential global impacts of increase in U.S. natural gas exports as a result of the shale gas boom. To our knowledge this is the first such analysis using a global economic model to understand this timely policy issue. Our primary conclusion is that world economic activity is higher through most of the simulation period [2014-2035] when U.S. natural gas exports rise. The overall U.S. results mirror the global ones, but the magnitude of income gains depends upon how the rate of inc...

  10. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  11. Impact of Geological Changes on Regional and Global Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatiana, Skufina; Peter, Skuf'in; Vera, Samarina; Taisiya, Shatalova; Baranov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Periods of geological changes such as super continent cycle (300-500 million years), Wilson's cycles (300-900 million years), magmatic-tectonic cycle (150-200 million years), and cycles with smaller periods (22, 100, 1000 years) lead to a basic contradiction preventing forming methodology of the study of impact of geological changes on the global and regional economies. The reason of this contradiction is the differences of theoretical and methodological aspects of the Earth science and economics such as different time scales and accuracy of geological changes. At the present the geological models cannot provide accurate estimation of time and place where geological changes (strong earthquakes, volcanos) are expected. Places of feature (not next) catastrophic events are the only thing we have known. Thus, it is impossible to use the periodicity to estimate both geological changes and their consequences. Taking into accounts these factors we suggested a collection of concepts for estimating impact of possible geological changes on regional and global economies. We illustrated our approach by example of estimating impact of Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 on regional and global economies. Based on this example we concluded that globalization processes increase an impact of geological changes on regional and global levels. The research is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects No. 16-06-00056, 16-32-00019, 16-05-00263A).

  12. Possible global environmental impacts of solid waste practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.M.; Holter, G.M.; DeForest, T.J.; Stapp, D.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dibari, J.C. [Heritage College, Toppenish, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Pollutants resulting from the management of solid waste have been shown to affect the air, land, oceans, and waterways. In addition, solid wastes have other, more indirect impacts such as reduction in feedstocks of natural resources, because useful materials are disposed of rather than recycled. The objective of this study is to evaluate solid waste management practices that have negative implications on the global environment and develop recommendations for reducing such impacts. Recommendations identifying needed changes are identified that will reduce global impacts of solid waste practices in the future. The scope of this study includes the range of non-hazardous solid wastes produced within our society, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial solid waste (ISW), as well as industry-specific wastes from activities such as construction, demolition, and landclearing. Most solid waste management decisions continue to be made and implemented at very local levels, predominantly with a short-term focus to respond to relatively immediate pressures of landfill shortages, funding problems, political considerations, and the like. In this rush to address immediate local problems, little consideration is being given to potential impacts, either short- or long-term, at the national or global level resulting from solid waste management practices. More and more, the cumulative impacts from local decisions concerning solid waste management are beginning to manifest themselves in broader, longer-term impacts than are being addressed by the decision-makers or, at the very least, are presenting a greater and greater potential for such impacts.

  13. Impact of Global Normalization in fMRI Acupuncture Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbo Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global normalization is often used as a preprocessing step for dispelling the “nuisance effects.” However, it has been shown in cognitive and emotion tasks that this preprocessing step might greatly distort statistical results when the orthogonality assumption of global normalization is violated. The present study examines this issue in fMRI acupuncture studies. Thirty healthy subjects were recruited to evaluate the impacts of the global normalization on the BOLD responses evoked by acupuncture stimulation during De-qi sensation and tactile stimulation during nonpainful sensations. To this end, we compared results by conducting global normalization (PSGS and not conducting global normalization (NO PSGS based on a proportional scaling model. The orthogonality assumption of global normalization was violated, and significant changes between BOLD responses for NO PSGS and PSGS were shown in most subjects. Extensive deactivations of acupuncture in fMRI were the non-specifically pernicious consequences of global normalization. The central responses of acupuncture during De-qi are non-specifically activation-dominant at the somatosensory-related brain network, whose statistical power is specifically enhanced by PSGS. In conclusion, PSGS should be unjustified for acupuncture studies in fMRI. The differences including the global normalization or not may partly contribute to conflicting results and interpretations in previous fMRI acupuncture studies.

  14. Likely impact of global warming on developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topping, J.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last couple of years there has been mounting evidence that the human costs of rapid global warming are likely to be concentrated especially in developing countries and that some countries may be gravely affected. Climate impacts research has until recently been focused principally on a handful of more affluent countries, but studies of climate impacts on developing countries are now under way and preliminary results are likely to be available for many areas of the world within the next year

  15. Globalization: Its Impact on Scientific Research in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Okon E.; Biao, Esohe Patience

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a study which investigated the impact of globalization on scientific research in Nigeria. The research data were collected using a questionnaire survey which was administered to academics in science-based disciplines in four Nigerian universities: University of Calabar, University of Uyo, University of Lagos and University…

  16. Global University Rankings--Impacts and Unintended Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Barbara M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, global and other university rankings are critically assessed with regard to their unintended side effects and their impacts on the European and national landscape of universities, as well as on individual institutions. An emphasis is put on the effects of ranking logics rather than on criticising their methodology. Nevertheless,…

  17. Impact of global warming on the energetics of lower tropospheric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Impact of global warming on the energetics of lower tropospheric ultra-long waves and the Indian summer monsoon. M D Chipade∗. , J R Kulkarni and S M Bawiskar. Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411 008, India. ∗. Corresponding author. e-mail: mukundchipade@yahoo.co.in.

  18. Air Pollution Impacts on Global Crop Productivity and Nitrogen Depositio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, C. L.; Tai, A. P. K.; Val Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The biosphere is undeniably transformed by air pollution. Emissions, climate change, and land use change are all expected to substantially alter future air quality. In this presentation, we discuss near-term projections (2050) of air quality impacts on both crop productivity and nitrogen deposition. First, we contrast the relative impacts of ozone air pollution and a warming climate on global crop yields. To do so, we define statistical crop yield functions to a warming climate based on the historical record. We combine these relationships with ozone-damage estimates and apply these to future air quality and climate projections from a global coupled chemistry-climate model (CESM). We find substantial variability in the response, with certain regions or crops more sensitive to ozone pollution and others more sensitive to warming. This work demonstrates that air quality management is a key element to ensuring global food security. Second, we examine the relative impacts of anthropogenic emissions, climate change, and land use change on global nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen deposition has rapidly increased over the Anthropocene. Excess deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems can lead to eutrophication of waters, and a decrease in biodiversity. We use the CESM to investigate two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP8.5) and focus our analysis on the impacts on diverse ecoregions in North America, Europe, and Asia.

  19. Global climate change impacts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This report summarizes the science of climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. It is largely based on results of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), a and integrates those results wit...

  20. The Global Society and Its Impact on Public Relations Theorizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Kruckeberg, Dean; Starck, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the discussion on societal changes and their impact on communication disciplines by focusing on public relations and its role in contemporary global society. The thesis is that public relations profession has been affected by contemporary societal changes that challenge...... the existing body of knowledge and its underpinning theories. To understand the role of public relations in the 21st Century global societies and pursue future public relations theorizing, the authors argue it is paramount to comprehend which factors at macro, meso, and micro levels lie beneath the substantial...... changes in today’s global society. The article presents and reflects on four major macro trends of contemporary global society and concludes with suggestions for future directions for public relations scholarship and practice that are rooted in the concept of community and the idea of being part...

  1. The Impacts of Internationalization and Globalization on Educational Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Heriansyah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the impacts of internationalization and globalization on educational context. It is undeniable that the presence and existence of globalization have brought and given a great deal of influences within various fields including on education sector. Of course, it will be a problematic if a school or a higher education institution does not comprehensively notice and precisely pay attention towards each effect and development from internationalization and globalization that obviously appear. Hence, it is needed an international curriculum design that has the meticulous content and process as well as assessment. Moreover, the curriculum also has to take account a variety of aspects and components from distinctive perspectives within its plan, array, and implementation in the field in order to meet the demands of global marketplace and be able to answer each of challenges and changes that arise.

  2. The Global Society and Its Impact on Public Relations Theorizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Kruckeberg, Dean; Starck, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the discussion on societal changes and their impact on communication disciplines by focusing on public relations and its role in contemporary global society. The thesis is that public relations profession has been affected by contemporary societal changes that challenge...... changes in today’s global society. The article presents and reflects on four major macro trends of contemporary global society and concludes with suggestions for future directions for public relations scholarship and practice that are rooted in the concept of community and the idea of being part...... the existing body of knowledge and its underpinning theories. To understand the role of public relations in the 21st Century global societies and pursue future public relations theorizing, the authors argue it is paramount to comprehend which factors at macro, meso, and micro levels lie beneath the substantial...

  3. Global Mortality Impact of the 1957-1959 Influenza Pandemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Fuentes, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantitative estimates of the global burden of the 1957 influenza pandemic are lacking. Here we fill this gap by modeling historical mortality statistics. METHODS: We used annual rates of age- and cause-specific deaths to estimate pandemic-related mortality in excess of background...... levels in 39 countries in Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and the Americas. We modeled the relationship between excess mortality and development indicators to extrapolate the global burden of the pandemic. RESULTS: The pandemic-associated excess respiratory mortality rate was 1.9/10,000 population (95...... excess deaths (95% CI, .7 million-1.5 million excess deaths) globally to the 1957-1959 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The global mortality rate of the 1957-1959 influenza pandemic was moderate relative to that of the 1918 pandemic but was approximately 10-fold greater than that of the 2009 pandemic. The impact...

  4. Impacts of climate change on the global forest sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, J.; Joyce, L.A.; McGuire, A.D.; Xiao, X.

    2002-01-01

    The path and magnitude of future anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide will likely influence changes in climate that may impact the global forest sector. These responses in the global forest sector may have implications for international efforts to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. This study takes a step toward including the role of global forest sector in integrated assessments of the global carbon cycle by linking global models of climate dynamics, ecosystem processes and forest economics to assess the potential responses of the global forest sector to different levels of greenhouse gas emissions. We utilize three climate scenarios and two economic scenarios to represent a range of greenhouse gas emissions and economic behavior. At the end of the analysis period (2040), the potential responses in regional forest growing stock simulated by the global ecosystem model range from decreases and increases for the low emissions climate scenario to increases in all regions for the high emissions climate scenario. The changes in vegetation are used to adjust timber supply in the softwood and hardwood sectors of the economic model. In general, the global changes in welfare are positive, but small across all scenarios. At the regional level, the changes in welfare can be large and either negative or positive. Markets and trade in forest products play important roles in whether a region realizes any gains associated with climate change. In general, regions with the lowest wood fiber production cost are able to expand harvests. Trade in forest products leads to lower prices elsewhere. The low-cost regions expand market shares and force higher-cost regions to decrease their harvests. Trade produces different economic gains and losses across the globe even though, globally, economic welfare increases. The results of this study indicate that assumptions within alternative climate scenarios and about trade in forest products are important factors

  5. Global volcanic emissions: budgets, plume chemistry and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades our understanding of global volcanic degassing budgets, plume chemistry and the impacts of volcanic emissions on our atmosphere and environment has been revolutionized. Global volcanic emissions budgets are needed if we are to make effective use of regional and global atmospheric models in order to understand the consequences of volcanic degassing on global environmental evolution. Traditionally volcanic SO2 budgets have been the best constrained but recent efforts have seen improvements in the quantification of the budgets of other environmentally important chemical species such as CO2, the halogens (including Br and I) and trace metals (including measurements relevant to trace metal atmospheric lifetimes and bioavailability). Recent measurements of reactive trace gas species in volcanic plumes have offered intriguing hints at the chemistry occurring in the hot environment at volcanic vents and during electrical discharges in ash-rich volcanic plumes. These reactive trace species have important consequences for gas plume chemistry and impacts, for example, in terms of the global fixed nitrogen budget, volcanically induced ozone destruction and particle fluxes to the atmosphere. Volcanically initiated atmospheric chemistry was likely to have been particularly important before biological (and latterly anthropogenic) processes started to dominate many geochemical cycles, with important consequences in terms of the evolution of the nitrogen cycle and the role of particles in modulating the Earth's climate. There are still many challenges and open questions to be addressed in this fascinating area of science.

  6. Climate impacts on global hot spots of marine biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Francisco; Afán, Isabel; Davis, Lloyd S; Chiaradia, André

    2017-02-01

    Human activities drive environmental changes at scales that could potentially cause ecosystem collapses in the marine environment. We combined information on marine biodiversity with spatial assessments of the impacts of climate change to identify the key areas to prioritize for the conservation of global marine biodiversity. This process identified six marine regions of exceptional biodiversity based on global distributions of 1729 species of fish, 124 marine mammals, and 330 seabirds. Overall, these hot spots of marine biodiversity coincide with areas most severely affected by global warming. In particular, these marine biodiversity hot spots have undergone local to regional increasing water temperatures, slowing current circulation, and decreasing primary productivity. Furthermore, when we overlapped these hot spots with available industrial fishery data, albeit coarser than our estimates of climate impacts, they suggest a worrying coincidence whereby the world's richest areas for marine biodiversity are also those areas mostly affected by both climate change and industrial fishing. In light of these findings, we offer an adaptable framework for determining local to regional areas of special concern for the conservation of marine biodiversity. This has exposed the need for finer-scaled fishery data to assist in the management of global fisheries if the accumulative, but potentially preventable, effect of fishing on climate change impacts is to be minimized within areas prioritized for marine biodiversity conservation.

  7. Global, regional and local health impacts of civil aviation emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Lee, Gideon L.; Lee, In Hwan; Allroggen, Florian; Ashok, Akshay; Caiazzo, Fabio; Eastham, Sebastian D.; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Aviation emissions impact surface air quality at multiple scales—from near-airport pollution peaks associated with airport landing and take off (LTO) emissions, to intercontinental pollution attributable to aircraft cruise emissions. Previous studies have quantified aviation’s air quality impacts around a specific airport, in a specific region, or at the global scale. However, no study has assessed the air quality and human health impacts of aviation, capturing effects on all aforementioned scales. This study uses a multi-scale modeling approach to quantify and monetize the air quality impact of civil aviation emissions, approximating effects of aircraft plume dynamics-related local dispersion (˜1 km), near-airport dispersion (˜10 km), regional (˜1000 km) and global (˜10 000 km) scale chemistry and transport. We use concentration-response functions to estimate premature deaths due to population exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and ozone, finding that aviation emissions cause ˜16 000 (90% CI: 8300-24 000) premature deaths per year. Of these, LTO emissions contribute a quarter. Our estimate shows that premature deaths due to long-term exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and O3 lead to costs of ˜21 bn per year. We compare these costs to other societal costs of aviation and find that they are on the same order of magnitude as global aviation-attributable climate costs, and one order of magnitude larger than aviation-attributable accident and noise costs.

  8. Hydroelectric power and global environmental problems: benefits and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, B.

    1992-01-01

    The risk of global warming is one of the most serious global environmental problems. It is due to the increase of greenhouse gases emissions, mainly because of the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector, particularly for electricity generation. At an international level, experts now agree that measures are to be taken to reduce this risk. In the energy sector, an improvement of energy efficiency and an increase of nuclear electricity generation are often presented as the best available solutions. Renewable energy sources are often presented as a solution with a negligible potential impact, and sometimes, hydro power is even forgotten, or its coasts and its potential impacts on local environment are presented as an obstacle to its positive contribution to the reduction of global warming risk. Without denying the positive impacts of other solutions, this paper explains the possibilities and the benefits of an increased use of hydroelectric power, when implemented with a minimum impact on local environment and with a synergistic effect with the rational use of generated energy, in order to have access to a sustainable development. 19 refs., 6 figs

  9. Education and hypertension: impact on global cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiara, Tiziana; Scaglione, Alessandra; Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Pinto, Antonio; Scaglione, Rosario

    2017-10-01

    Improving cardiovascular risk prediction continues to be a major challenge and effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, several studies have recently reported on the role of cardiovascular risk education. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of education on global cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. The study population consisted of 223 consecutive hypertensive outpatients. Their educational status was categorized according to the number of years of formal education as follows: (1) low education (less than 10 years) and (2) medium-high education (10-15 years). In both groups, cardiometabolic comorbidities, global cardiovascular risk and echocardiographic measurements were analysed. Less educated hypertensive subjects were characterized by a significantly higher prevalence of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (p global cardiovascular risk (p educated hypertensive subjects. In the same subjects, a significant increase in microalbuminuria (MA) (p global cardiovascular risk correlated directly with waist-hip ratio, mean blood pressure, MA, left ventricular mass index, MetS and inversely with education (r = -0.45; p Education was independently (p global CV risk. Our data suggest that education may be considered the best predictor of global cardiovascular risk in hypertensives and thus has to be evaluated in the strategies of hypertension and cardiovascular risk management.

  10. Recent patents in plant biotechnology: impact on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen L

    2012-08-01

    Agricultural biotechnology offers a robust series of tools by which to address global concerns such as food security, crop protection, and fuel/energy requirements. A number of advances made recently in plant molecular biology also have resulted in applications which largely focus on improving global human health. This review describes some of the recent innovations in plant biotechnology that have come to the forefront over the past year. Included are novel techniques by which plants can be improved as platforms for biopharmaceutical protein production, a growing field also referred to as 'molecular pharming'. The metabolic engineering of plants to produce compounds which have additional nutritional benefits is also outlined. The review concludes with a discussion of the future impact that these innovations may have both on global health and on the development of our future intellectual property landscape.

  11. Global Online Entrepreneurship and the Impact of Innovation on Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek Krom

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this paper is to evaluate the significance of innovation driven online entrepreneurship as well as the impact of innovation on brand trust, customer satisfaction and brand loyalty in the extent of service innovations.Global online entrepreneurship was explored on a theoretical basis and correlation and regression analyses were used in order to evaluate the impact of the innovations of Google on brand trust, customer satisfaction and brand loyalty. Furthermore correlation and regression analyses were used in order to find out the relationship between brand loyalty and brand trust and the relationship between brand loyalty and customer relationship in the extent of service industry. The results show a direct and positive relationship between innovation and brand loyalty, a direct and positive relationship between innovation and brand trust and a direct and positive relationship between innovation and customer satisfaction. Furthermore, according to the research findings brand trust and customer satisfaction have a direct and positive relationship with brand loyalty. This research is limited to Google users since it is the most popular search engine worldwide. In this article the impact of innovation on brand trust, customer satisfaction and brand loyalty was evaluated. For future research the impact of innovation on other variables of brand loyalty can be studied.The findings of this study inform the readers about the impact of brand trust, customer satisfaction and brand loyalty on innovation in the extent of service innovations driven by global online entrepreneurship. 

  12. The impact of global warming on Mount Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G W K; Semple, John L

    2009-01-01

    Global warming impacts a wide range of human activities and ecosystems. One unanticipated consequence of the warming is an increase in barometric pressure throughout the troposphere. Mount Everest's extreme height and resulting low barometric pressure places humans near its summit in an extreme state of hypoxia. Here we quantify the degree with which this warming is increasing the barometric pressure near Everest's summit and argue that it is of such a magnitude as to make the mountain, over time, easier to climb.

  13. Global Welfare Impact of China: Trade Integration and Technology Change

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the global welfare impact of China's trade integration and technological change in a multi-country quantitative Ricardian-Heckscher-Ohlin model. We simulate two alternative growth scenarios: a balanced one in which China's productivity grows at the same rate in each sector, and an unbalanced one in which China's comparative disadvantage sectors catch up disproportionately faster to the world productivity frontier. Contrary to a well-known conjecture (Samuelson 2004), the ...

  14. Importing Equality? The Impact of Globalization on Gender Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra E. Black; Elizabeth Brainerd

    2002-01-01

    While researchers have long held that discrimination cannot endure in an increasingly competitive environment, there has been little work testing this dynamic process. This paper tests the hypothesis (based on Becker 1957) that increased competition resulting from globalization in the 1980s forced employers to reduce costly discrimination against women. The empirical strategy exploits differences in market structure across industries to identify the impact of trade on the gender wage gap: bec...

  15. Estimating the Impact of Whaling on Global Whale Watching

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao-I Kuo; Chi-Chung Chen; Michael McAleer

    2010-01-01

    After the commercial whaling moratorium was enacted in 1986, whale watching became one of the fastest growing tourism industries worldwide. As whaling was regarded as an activity that is incompatible with whale watching, the possible resumption of commercial whaling caused an urgent need to investigate the potential negative effects of whaling on the whale-watching industry. We examine the potential impacts of whaling on the global whale-watching tourism industry using an unbalanced panel dat...

  16. Estimating the Impact of Whaling on Global Whale Watching

    OpenAIRE

    McAleer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    After a commercial whaling moratorium was enacted in 1986, whale watching became one of the fastest growing tourism industries worldwide. As whaling is regarded as an activity that is incompatible with whale watching, the possible resumption of commercial whaling has caused an urgent need to investigate the potential negative effects of whaling on the whale-watching industry. We examine the potential impacts of whaling on the global whale-watching tourism industry using an unbalanced panel da...

  17. Impacts of Current Global Economic Crisis on Asia's Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh, Phu; Kapsos, Steven; Kim, Kee Beom; Sziraczki, Gyorgy

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates the labor market and social impacts of the global financial and economic crisis in Asia and the Pacific as well as national policy responses to the crisis. It draws on recent macroeconomic, trade, production, investment, and remittances data to assess the employment and social consequences of the crisis, including falling demand for labor, rising vulnerable and informal employment, and falling incomes and their related pressures on the working poor. The paper provides s...

  18. THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR SAFETY REGIME IN BRAZIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, C.

    2004-01-01

    A turning point of the world nuclear industry with respect to safety occurred due to the accident at Chernobyl, in 1986. A side from the tragic personal losses and the enormous financial damage, the Chernobyl accident has literally demonstrated that ''a nuclear accident anywhere is an accident everywhere''. The impact was felt immediately by the nuclear industry, with plant cancellations (e.g. Austria), elimination of national programs (e.g. Italy) and general construction delays. However, the reaction of the nuclear industry was equally immediate, which led to the proposal and establishment of a Global Nuclear Safety Regime. This regime is composed of biding international safety conventions, globally accepted safety standard, and a voluntary peer review system. In a previous work, the author has presented in detail the components of this Regime, and briefly discussed its impact in the Brazilian nuclear power organizations, including the Regulatory Body. This work, on the opposite, briefly reviews the Global Nuclear Safety Regime, and concentrates in detail in the discussion of its impact in Brazil, showing how it has produced some changes, and where the peer pressure regime has failed to produce real results

  19. Global impact of road traffic emissions on tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matthes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is one of the major anthropogenic emission sectors for NOx, CO and NMHCs (non-methane hydrocarbons. We applied ECHAM4/CBM, a general circulation model coupled to a chemistry module, which includes higher hydrocarbons, to investigate the global impact of 1990 road traffic emissions on the atmosphere. Improving over previous global modelling studies, which concentrated on road traffic NOx and CO emissions only, we assess the impact of NMHC emissions from road traffic. It is revealed that NMHC emissions from road traffic play a key role for the impact on ozone. They are responsible for (indirect long-range transport of NOx from road traffic via the formation of PAN, which is not found in a simulation without NMHC emissions from road traffic. Long-range transport of NMHC-induced PAN impacts on the ozone distribution in Northern Hemisphere regions far away from the sources, especially in arctic and remote maritime regions. In July total road traffic emissions (NOx, CO and NMHCs contribute to the zonally averaged ozone distribution by more than 12% near the surface in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and arctic latitudes. In January road traffic emissions contribute near the surface in northern and southern extratropics more than 8%. Sensitivity studies for regional emission show that effective transport of road traffic emissions occurs mainly in the free troposphere. In tropical latitudes of America up to an altitude of 200 hPa, global road traffic emissions contribute about 8% to the ozone concentration. In arctic latitudes NMHC emissions from road transport are responsible for about 90% of PAN increase from road transport, leading to a contribution to ozone concentrations of up to 15%.

  20. International trade of health services: global trends and local impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautier, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Globalization is a key challenge facing health policy-makers. A significant dimension of this is trade in health services. Traditionally, the flow of health services exports went from North to South, with patients travelling in the opposite direction. This situation is changing and a number of papers have discussed the growth of health services exports from Southern countries in its different dimensions. Less attention has been paid to assess the real scope of this trade at the global level and its potential impact at the local level. Given the rapid development of this area, there are little empirical data. This paper therefore first built an estimate of the global size and of the growth trend of international trade in health services since 1997, which is compared with several country-based studies. The second purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the significant economic impact of this trade at the local level for the exporting country. We consider the case of health providers in the South-Mediterranean region for which the demand potential, the economic effects and the consequence for the health system are presented. These issues lead to the overall conclusion that different policy options would be appropriate, in relation to the nature of the demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Do global change experiments overestimate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Luo, Yiqi; Beier, Claus

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, many climate manipulation experiments have investigated biosphere responses to global change. These experiments typically examined effects of elevated atmospheric CO2, warming or drought (driver variables) on ecosystem processes such as the carbon and water cycle (response...... of the responses to decline with higher-order interactions, longer time periods and larger spatial scales. This means that on average, both positive and negative global change impacts on the biosphere might be dampened more than previously assumed....... variables). Because experiments are inevitably constrained in the number of driver variables tested simultaneously, as well as in time and space, a key question is how results are scaled up to predict net ecosystem responses. In this review, we argue that there might be a general trend for the magnitude...

  2. Biophysical climate impacts of recent changes in global forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkama, Ramdane; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    Changes in forest cover affect the local climate by modulating the land-atmosphere fluxes of energy and water. The magnitude of this biophysical effect is still debated in the scientific community and currently ignored in climate treaties. Here we present an observation-driven assessment of the climate impacts of recent forest losses and gains, based on Earth observations of global forest cover and land surface temperatures. Our results show that forest losses amplify the diurnal temperature variation and increase the mean and maximum air temperature, with the largest signal in arid zones, followed by temperate, tropical, and boreal zones. In the decade 2003-2012, variations of forest cover generated a mean biophysical warming on land corresponding to about 18% of the global biogeochemical signal due to CO2 emission from land-use change.

  3. The global impact of biomass burning on tropospheric reactive nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, H. II; Moxim, W.J.; Kasibhatla, P.S.; Logan, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter the authors first review their current understanding of both the anthropogenic and natural sources of reactive nitrogen compounds in the troposphere. Then the available observations of both surface concentration and wet deposition are summarized for regions with significant sources, for locations downwind of strong sources, and for remote sites. The obvious sparsity of the data leads to the next step: an attempt to develop a more complete global picture of surface concentrations and deposition of NO y with the help of global chemistry transport model (GCTM). The available source data are inserted into the GCTM and the resulting simulations compared with surface observations. The impact of anthropogenic sources, both downwind and at remote locations, is discussed and the particular role of biomass burning is identified

  4. Global impact of 3D cloud-radiation interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Sophia; Hogan, Robin; Fielding, Mark; Chiu, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Clouds have a decisive impact on the Earth's radiation budget and on the temperature of the atmosphere and surface. However, in global weather and climate models, cloud-radiation interaction is treated in only the vertical dimension using several non-realistic assumptions, which contributes to the large uncertainty on the climatic role of clouds. We provide a first systematic investigation into the impact of horizontal radiative transport for both shortwave and longwave radiation on a global, long-term scale. For this purpose, we have developed and validated the SPARTACUS radiation scheme, a method for including three-dimensional radiative transfer effects approximately in a one-dimensional radiation calculation that is numerically efficient enough for global calculations, allowing us to conduct 1D and quasi-3D radiation calculations for a year of global of ERA-Interim re-analysis atmospheric data and compare the results of various radiation treatments. SPARTACUS includes the effects of cloud internal inhomogeneity, horizontal in-region transport and the spatial distribution of in-cloud radiative fluxes.The impact of varying three-dimensional cloud geometry can be described by one parameter, the effective cloud scale, which has a characteristic value for each cloud type. We find that both the 3D effects of cloud-side transport and of horizontal in-cloud radiative transport in the shortwave are significant. Overall, 3D cloud effects warm the Earth by about 4 W m -2 , with warming effects in both the shortwave and the longwave. The dominant 3D cloud effect is the previously rarely investigated in-region horizontal transfer effect in the shortwave, which significantly decreases cloud reflectance and warms the Earth system by 5 W m -2 , partly counteracted by the cooling effect of shortwave 3D cloud-side transport. Longwave heating and cooling at various heights is strengthened by up to 0.2 K d ^{-1} and -0.3 K d ^{-1} respectively. These 3D effects, neglected by

  5. Unexpected Impacts of Global warming on Extreme Warm Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Compo, G. P.; McColl, C.; Penland, C.

    2017-12-01

    It is generally presumed that the likelihood of extreme warm spells around the globe has increased, and will continue to increase, due to global warming. However, we find that this is generally not true in three very different types of global observational datasets and uncoupled atmospheric model simulations of the 1959 to 2012 period with prescribed observed global SSTs, sea ice, and radiative forcing changes. While extreme warm spells indeed became more common in many regions, in many other regions their likelihood remained almost the same or even decreased from the first half to the second half of this period. Such regions of unexpected changes covered nearly 40 percent of the globe in both winter and summer. The basic reason for this was a decrease of temperature variability in such regions that offset or even negated the effect of the mean temperature shift on extreme warm spell probabilities. The possibility of such an impact on extreme value probabilities was highlighted in a recent paper by Sardeshmukh, Compo, and Penland (Journal of Climate 2015). The consistency of the changes in extreme warm spell probabilities among the different observational datasets and model simulations examined suggests that they are robust regional aspects of global warming associated with atmospheric circulation changes. This highlights the need for climate models to represent not just the mean regional temperature signals but also the changes in subseasonal temperature variability associated with global warming. However, current climate models (both CMIP3 and CMIP5) generally underestimate the magnitude of the changes in the atmospheric circulation and associated temperature variability. A likely major cause of this is their continuing underestimation of the magnitude of the spatial variation of tropical SST trends. By generating an overly spatially bland tropical SST warming in response to changes in radiative forcing, the models spuriously mute tropically

  6. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya. Impacts and adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabubo-Mariara, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The Ricardian results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The estimated marginal impacts suggest modest gains from rising temperatures and losses from increased precipitation. The predictions from atmospheric ocean general circulation models suggest that livestock farmers in Kenya are likely to incur heavy losses from global warming. The highest and lowest losses are predicted from the Hadley Centre Coupled model (HADCM) and Parallel Climate Model (PCM) respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The paper concludes that in the long term, climate change is likely to lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and loss of livelihoods. Several policy interventions are recommended to counter this impact. (author)

  7. Global hotspots of water scarcity impacts due to human interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J.; Ward, P.; Satoh, Y.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Masaki, Y.; Doll, P. M.; Ostberg, S.; Oki, T.; Gosling, S.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity is rapidly increasing in many global river basins, due to both local increases in water demand and human interventions affecting stream flow. In a novel multi-model multi-forcing assessment over the period 1971-2010, we examine how several human interventions have affected water scarcity, namely land use change, reservoir operations, and upstream water withdrawals. We show that these human interventions have caused increased water scarcity for 16% of the global population, and decreased water scarcity for 13%, and have contributed to distinct patterns of water scarcity hotspots. We also show that a combination of human interventions and changes in local water demands have led to an increase in the duration of extreme water scarcity events in 30% of the global land area, inhabited by 49% of the global population. Upstream human interventions are the main dominant driver (in 86% of the cases) of negative impacts on downstream fresh water resources and water scarcity. Therefore, adaptation measures should be embedded in integrated river basin management plans, addressing upstream effects on downstream water scarcity.This study is the first in its kind to evaluate how human interventions affected water scarcity conditions as well as the exposure to and persistence of water scarcity events, using an ensemble of five global water impact models (H08, LPJmL, MATSIRO, PCR-GLOBWB, WaterGAP) driven by three global state-of-the art observations-based historical climate data-sets (PGFv2, GSWP3, WFD/WFDEI) and a set of socio-economic proxies (GDP, population density, livestock density, land use and land cover) to model historical demands. A novelty of this research is the use of the HYDE 3.1 - MIRCA dataset for simulating the time-varying effects of changes in irrigation and/or cropland patterns. With the incorporation of a spatially and temporally explicit indicator to describe minimum environmental flow requirements, i.e. the amount of water that ecosystems need

  8. Impact of LEO satellites on global GPS solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacher, M.; Svehla, D.

    2003-04-01

    Already at present quite a few Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites (SAC-C, CHAMP, JASON-1, GRACE-1 and GRACE-2) are equipped with one or more GPS receivers for precise orbit determination or other applications (atmospheric sounding, gravity field recovery, ...). This trend will continue in the near future (e.g., with the GOCE and COSMIC missions) and we will soon have an entire``constellation´´ of LEO satellites tracked by GPS at our disposal. In this contribution we study the impact of LEO GPS measurements (from a single LEO satellite or from a LEO constellation) on global GPS solutions, where GPS satellite orbits and clocks, Earth rotation parameters (ERPs), station coordinates and troposphere zenith delays are determined simultaneously. In order to assess the impact of the LEO GPS data on global IGS results, we perform a combined analysis of the space-borne and the ground-based GPS data. Such a combination may benefit on one hand from the differences between a ground station and a LEO, namely, (1) the different tracking geometry (coverage of isolated geographical areas by LEOs, rapidly changing geometry, ...); (2) that LEOs connect all ground stations within 1-2 hours; (3) that baselines between LEO and ground stations may be longer than station-station baselines; (4) that no tropospheric delays have to be estimated for LEOs; and (5) that LEOs orbit the Earth within the ionosphere and may therefore contribute to global ionosphere models. On the other hand we have to deal with difficult aspects of precise orbit determination for the LEOs: only if we succeed to obtain very accurate dynamic or reduced-dynamic orbits for the LEOs, we will have a chance to improve the global GPS results at all. We present first results concerning the influence of LEO data on GPS orbits, ERPs, site coordinates, and troposphere zenith delays using both, variance-covariance analyses based on simulated data and combined global solutions based on real CHAMP and JASON data and the data

  9. Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Global Hydrological Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, G; Duffy, P; Taylor, K

    2007-12-07

    The rapidly rising CO{sub 2} level in the atmosphere has led to proposals of climate stabilization via 'Geoengineering' schemes that would mitigate climate change by intentionally reducing the solar radiation incident on earth's surface. In this paper, we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on the global hydrological cycle, using equilibrium simulations from an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean model. We show that insolation reductions sufficient to offset global-scale temperature increases lead to a decrease in the intensity of the global hydrologic cycle. This occurs because solar forcing is more effective in driving changes in global mean evaporation than is CO{sub 2} forcing of a similar magnitude. In the model used here, the hydrologic sensitivity, defined as the percentage change in global mean precipitation per degree warming, is 2.4% for solar forcing, but only 1.5% for CO{sub 2} forcing. Although other models and the climate system itself may differ quantitatively from this result, the conclusion can be understood based on simple considerations of the surface energy budget and thus is likely to be robust. Compared to changing temperature by altering greenhouse gas concentrations, changing temperature by varying insolation results in larger changes in net radiative fluxes at the surface; these are compensated by larger changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes. Hence the hydrological cycle is more sensitive to temperature adjustment via changes in insolation than changes in greenhouse gases. This implies that an alteration in solar forcing might offset temperature changes or hydrological changes from greenhouse warming, but could not cancel both at once.

  10. The regions and global warming: Impacts and response strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    To date, much of the attention given to global warming in scientific research as well as in policy development has focused on the global picture. International negotiations and agreements to stabilize, and eventually reduce, greenhouse gas emissions are very important. By themselves, however, they are not sufficient to address global warming. Regional strategies are also needed. They can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and they will be the most effective way to mitigate the consequences of global warming. Adaptive strategies must respond to local and regional conditions. In many countries, subnational jurisdictions such as states and provinces or community organizations can already take effective actions without direction from their national government or waiting for international agreements. An important factor in defining regional approaches is the disparate consequences of climate change for developed and developing areas. Different strategies will also be needed for industrial and agricultural regions. Wealthy industrial regions may be better able to develop capital-intensive, adaptive infrastructure than regions with fewer discretionary resources where people are more vulnerable to the vagaries of weather patterns. On the other hand, regions that rely on indigenous knowledge and local resources may be better equipped to make incremental adaptations and more willing to modify life-styles. Ultimately, all climate change effects are experienced in specific places and effective response depends upon local action. We recognize that individual localities cannot solve a problem of global proportions by acting alone. However, a regional strategy can supplement international and national action and be the focal point for addressing risks in the unique social and economic context of a particular area. These meetings discussions dealt with the impacts and implications of climate change on such things as agriculture, forestry, and policy

  11. Global trends and their impact on city logistics management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Snežana R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in economic and social environments are more dynamic, and survival in the market requires a wide range, increase efficiency and quality of logistics services. The competitiveness of the region and the city, as the leader of economic development, depends on the efficiency of logistics solutions that must be adaptive to new conditions and demands of the market. This paper presents some of the most important global trends in terms of impact on the urban logistics. In order to define sustainable solutions, the analysis of presented social, economic, technological, environmental and other trends should be integral part of the city logistics planning and management.

  12. Overview: Global and Local Impact of Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Richard R; Bonomo, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    The rapid and ongoing spread of antibiotic resistance poses a serious threat to global public health. The indiscriminant use of antibiotics in agriculture and human medicine along with increasingly connected societies has fueled the distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. These factors together have led to rising numbers of infections caused by multidrug-resistant and pan-resistant bacteria, with increases in morbidity and mortality. This article summarizes the trends in antibiotic resistance, discusses the impact of antibiotic resistance on society, and reviews the use of antibiotics in agriculture. Feasible ways to tackle antibiotic resistance to avert a post-antibiotic era are suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of globalization and animal trade on infectious disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Nina; Arguin, Paul M; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2007-12-01

    The articles on rabies and Marburg virus featured in this month's Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) zoonoses issue illustrate common themes. Both discuss zoonotic diseases with serious health implications for humans, and both have a common reservoir, the bat. These articles, and the excitement generated by this year's recognition of World Rabies Day on September 8, also described in this issue, remind us how globalization has had an impact on the worldwide animal trade. This worldwide movement of animals has increased the potential for the translocation of zoonotic diseases, which pose serious risks to human and animal health.

  14. U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    This past year the US Global Change Research Program released a report that summarized the science of climate change and the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. The report underscores the importance of measures to reduce climate change. In the context of impacts, the report identifies examples of actions currently being pursued in various sectors and regions to address climate change as well as other environmental problems that could be exacerbated by climate change. This state-of-knowledge report also identifies areas in which scientific uncertainty limits our ability to estimate future climate changes and its impacts. Key findings of the report include: (1) Global warming is unequivocal and primarily human induced. - This statement is stronger than the IPCC (2007) statement because new attribution studies since that report continue to implicate human caused changes over the past 50 years. (2) Climate Changes are underway in the Unites States and are projected to grow. - These include increases in heavy downpours, rising temperature and sea level, rapidly retreating glaciers, thawing permafrost, lengthening growing seasons lengthening ice-free seasons in the oceans and on lakes and rivers, earlier snowmelt and alteration in river flows. (3) Widespread climate-related impacts are occurring now and are expected to increase. - The impacts vary from region to region, but are already affecting many sectors e.g., water, energy, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, etc. (4) Climate change will stress water resources. - Water is an issue in every region of the US, but the nature of the impacts vary (5) Crop and livestock production will be increasingly challenged. - Warming related to high emission scenarios often negatively affect crop growth and yields levels. Increased pests, water stress, diseases, and weather extremes will pose adaptation challenges for crops and livestock production. (6) Coastal areas are at increased risk from

  15. The impact of possible climate catastrophes on global warming policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranzini, Andrea; Chesney, Marc; Morisset, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies on global warming have introduced the inherent uncertainties associated with the costs and benefits of climate policies and have often shown that abatement policies are likely to be less aggressive or postponed in comparison to those resulting from traditional cost-benefit analyses (CBA). Yet, those studies have failed to include the possibility of sudden climate catastrophes. The aim of this paper is to account simultaneously for possible continuous and discrete damages resulting from global warming, and to analyse their implications on the optimal path of abatement policies. Our approach is related to the new literature on investment under uncertainty, and relies on some recent developments of the real option in which we incorporated negative jumps (climate catastrophes) in the stochastic process corresponding to the net benefits associated with the abatement policies. The impacts of continuous and discrete climatic risks can therefore be considered separately. Our numerical applications lead to two main conclusions: (i) gradual, continuous uncertainty in the global warming process is likely to delay the adoption of abatement policies as found in previous studies, with respect to the standard CBA; however (ii) the possibility of climate catastrophes accelerates the implementation of these policies as their net discounted benefits increase significantly

  16. Estimating impacts of lichens and bryophytes on global biogeochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porada, Philipp; Weber, Bettina; Elbert, Wolfgang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kleidon, Axel

    2014-02-01

    Lichens and bryophytes may significantly affect global biogeochemical cycles by fixation of nitrogen and biotic enhancement of surface weathering rates. Most of the studies suggesting these effects, however, are either conceptual or rely on upscaling of regional estimates to obtain global numbers. Here we use a different method, based on estimates of net carbon uptake, to quantify the impacts of lichens and bryophytes on biogeochemical cycles at the global scale. We focus on three processes, namely, nitrogen fixation, phosphorus uptake, and chemical weathering. Our estimates have the form of potential rates, which means that we quantify the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus needed by the organisms to build up biomass, also accounting for resorption and leaching of nutrients. Subsequently, we use potential phosphorus uptake on bare ground to estimate chemical weathering by the organisms, assuming that they release weathering agents to obtain phosphorus. The predicted requirement for nitrogen ranges from 3.5 to 34 Tgyr-1 and for phosphorus it ranges from 0.46 to 4.6 Tgyr-1. Estimates of chemical weathering are between 0.058 and 1.1 km3 yr-1 of rock. These values seem to have a realistic order of magnitude, and they support the notion that lichens and bryophytes have the potential to play an important role for biogeochemical cycles.

  17. ENSO impacts on flood risk at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip; Dettinger, Michael; Jongman, Brenden; Kummu, Matti; Winsemius, Hessel

    2014-05-01

    We present the impacts of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on society and the economy, via relationships between ENSO and the hydrological cycle. We also discuss ways in which this knowledge can be used in disaster risk management and risk reduction. This contribution provides the most recent results of an ongoing 4-year collaborative research initiative to assess and map the impacts of large scale interannual climate variability on flood hazard and risk at the global scale. We have examined anomalies in flood risk between ENSO phases, whereby flood risk is expressed in terms of indicators such as: annual expected damage; annual expected affected population; annual expected affected Gross Domestic Product (GDP). We show that large anomalies in flood risk occur during El Niño or La Niña years in basins covering large parts of the Earth's surface. These anomalies reach statistical significance river basins covering almost two-thirds of the Earth's surface. Particularly strong anomalies exist in southern Africa, parts of western Africa, Australia, parts of Central Eurasia (especially for El Niño), the western USA (especially La Niña anomalies), and parts of South America. We relate these anomalies to possible causal relationships between ENSO and flood hazard, using both modelled and observed data on flood occurrence and extremity. The implications for flood risk management are many-fold. In those regions where disaster risk is strongly influenced by ENSO, the potential predictably of ENSO could be used to develop probabilistic flood risk projections with lead times up to several seasons. Such data could be used by the insurance industry in managing risk portfolios and by multinational companies for assessing the robustness of their supply chains to potential flood-related interruptions. Seasonal forecasts of ENSO influence of peak flows could also allow for improved flood early warning and regulation by dam operators, which could also reduce overall risks

  18. Urban, Regional and Global Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Rizzo, L. V.; Setzer, A.; Cirino, G.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning is a major regional and global driver for atmospheric composition. Its effects in regional and global climate are very significant, but still difficult to assess. Even in large urban areas in Latin America such as Mexico City, Sao Paulo and Santiago, and in developed areas such as Paris and Californian cities it is possible to observe significant biomass burning effects air quality. The wood burning components as well as inner city and vicinities burning if agricultural residues impact heavily the concentration of organic aerosol, carbon monoxide and ozone in urban areas. Regionally, regions such as Amazonia and Central America show large plumes of smoke that extend their impact over continental areas, with changes in the radiation balance, air quality and climate. The deforestation rate in Amazonia have dropped strongly from 27,000 Km2 in 2004 to 6,200 Km2 in 2011, a very significant reduction, but this reduction was not observed in Africa and Southeast Asia. Health effects of biomass burning emissions are very significant, and observed in several key regions. Remote sensing techniques for fire detection have progressed significantly and long time series (10-15 years) are now feasible. The black carbon associated with biomass burning has important impacts in formation and development of clouds in Amazonia and other regions. The organic component of biomass burning emissions scatter light and increase diffuse radiation that alters carbon uptake in large regions of Amazonia and certainly other forested areas. Increase of up to 30% in carbon uptake associated with biomass burning emissions was observed in Amazonia, as part of the LBA Experiment. New analytical methods that quantify the absorption angstrom exponent of biomass burning and fossil fuel black carbon (BC) can differentiate BC from different burning sources. In addition, the hygroscopic properties of particles with a core shell of BC coated with organic compounds can be measured and shows

  19. Potential impact of global climate change on malaria risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, W.J.M.; Rotmans, J. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)]|[Univ. of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands); Niessen, L.W. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Jetten, T.H. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands); McMichael, A.J. [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    The biological activity and geographic distribution of the malarial parasite and its vector are sensitive to climatic influences, especially temperature and precipitation. We have incorporated General Circulation Model-based scenarios of anthropogenic global climate change in an integrated linked-system model for predicting changes in malaria epidemic potential in the next century. The concept of the disability-adjusted life years is included to arrive at a single measure of the effect of anthropogenic climate change on the health impact of malaria. Assessment of the potential impact of global climate change on the incidence of malaria suggests a widespread increase of risk due to expansion of the areas suitable for malaria transmission. This predicted increase is most pronounced at the borders of endemic malaria areas and at higher altitudes within malarial areas. The incidence of infection is sensitive to climate changes in areas of Southeast Asia, South America, and parts of Africa where the disease is less endemic; in these regions the numbers of years of healthy life lost may increase significantly. However, the simulated changes in malaria risk must be interpreted on the basis of local environmental conditions, the effects of socioeconomic developments, and malaria control programs or capabilities. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Global health and economic impacts of future ozone pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selin, N E; Nam, K M; Reilly, J M; Paltsev, S; Prinn, R G; Webster, M D; Wu, S

    2009-01-01

    We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis - Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model of climate and chemistry effects of projected future emissions. We use EPPA-HE to assess the human health damages (including mortality and morbidity) caused by ozone pollution, and quantify their economic impacts in sixteen world regions. We compare the costs of ozone pollution under scenarios with 2000 and 2050 ozone precursor and greenhouse gas emissions (using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario). We estimate that health costs due to global ozone pollution above pre-industrial levels by 2050 will be $580 billion (year 2000$) and that mortalities from acute exposure will exceed 2 million. We find that previous methodologies underestimate costs of air pollution by more than a third because they do not take into account the long-term, compounding effects of health costs. The economic effects of emissions changes far exceed the influence of climate alone.

  1. Global Mortality Impact of the 1957-1959 Influenza Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Fuentes, Rodrigo; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A; Chowell, Gerardo

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative estimates of the global burden of the 1957 influenza pandemic are lacking. Here we fill this gap by modeling historical mortality statistics. We used annual rates of age- and cause-specific deaths to estimate pandemic-related mortality in excess of background levels in 39 countries in Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and the Americas. We modeled the relationship between excess mortality and development indicators to extrapolate the global burden of the pandemic. The pandemic-associated excess respiratory mortality rate was 1.9/10,000 population (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.6 cases/10,000 population) on average during 1957-1959. Excess mortality rates varied 70-fold across countries; Europe and Latin America experienced the lowest and highest rates, respectively. Excess mortality was delayed by 1-2 years in 18 countries (46%). Increases in the mortality rate relative to baseline were greatest in school-aged children and young adults, with no evidence that elderly population was spared from excess mortality. Development indicators were moderate predictors of excess mortality, explaining 35%-77% of the variance. Overall, we attribute 1.1 million excess deaths (95% CI, .7 million-1.5 million excess deaths) globally to the 1957-1959 pandemic. The global mortality rate of the 1957-1959 influenza pandemic was moderate relative to that of the 1918 pandemic but was approximately 10-fold greater than that of the 2009 pandemic. The impact of the pandemic on mortality was delayed in several countries, pointing to a window of opportunity for vaccination in a future pandemic. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Global Mortality Impact of the 1957–1959 Influenza Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Fuentes, Rodrigo; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A.; Chowell, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Quantitative estimates of the global burden of the 1957 influenza pandemic are lacking. Here we fill this gap by modeling historical mortality statistics. Methods. We used annual rates of age- and cause-specific deaths to estimate pandemic-related mortality in excess of background levels in 39 countries in Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, and the Americas. We modeled the relationship between excess mortality and development indicators to extrapolate the global burden of the pandemic. Results. The pandemic-associated excess respiratory mortality rate was 1.9/10 000 population (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–2.6 cases/10 000 population) on average during 1957–1959. Excess mortality rates varied 70-fold across countries; Europe and Latin America experienced the lowest and highest rates, respectively. Excess mortality was delayed by 1–2 years in 18 countries (46%). Increases in the mortality rate relative to baseline were greatest in school-aged children and young adults, with no evidence that elderly population was spared from excess mortality. Development indicators were moderate predictors of excess mortality, explaining 35%–77% of the variance. Overall, we attribute 1.1 million excess deaths (95% CI, .7 million–1.5 million excess deaths) globally to the 1957–1959 pandemic. Conclusions. The global mortality rate of the 1957–1959 influenza pandemic was moderate relative to that of the 1918 pandemic but was approximately 10-fold greater than that of the 2009 pandemic. The impact of the pandemic on mortality was delayed in several countries, pointing to a window of opportunity for vaccination in a future pandemic. PMID:26908781

  3. [Economic impact of chronic, acute and global malnutrition in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar, Lorena; Ocampo, Diego; Huamán-Espino, Lucio; Pablo Aparco, Juan

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the economic impact of chronic, acute and global malnutrition in Peru. This study, through an econometric model, estimated the economic impact of child malnutrition in two time horizons (incidental retrospective and prospective) during 2011, considering malnutrition-associated costs of health, education and productivity for the Peruvian economy. Information collected is a combination of data coming from the Demographic Survey of Family Health, the National Survey of Homes, the 2007 Census of Population and Housing, and public budget information, as well as estimates of risks a child is exposed to due to malnutrition during their first years of life. Nationwide it was found that in the perspective retrospective, the cost of child malnutrition in 2011 was 10,999 million soles, which was equal to 2.2% of GDP for that same year. Prospective costs nationwide, of those who by 2011 were 0 to 59 months, reached 4,505 million soles and represented 0.9% of GDP in 2011. Most cases stem from losses of productivity in both cases. Moreover, malnutrition affects much more both the Andes and jungle regions. The economic impact of child malnutrition represents a significant percentage of GDP, reason for which it is necessary to continue investing equitably in its prevention through participation with proven efficiency.

  4. EDITORIAL: Global impacts of particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Holloway, Tracey

    2007-10-01

    sulfate aerosol exposure (both domestically and on downwind continents), while presenting a new metric to quantify the impact of distance on health-relevant exposure: the 'influence potential'. Extending the scope of aerosol impacts from health to climate, Bond outlines the barriers to including aerosols in climate agreements, and proposes solutions to facilitate the integration of this key climate species in a policy context. Together, the articles scope out the state-of-the-science with respect to key issues in international air pollution. All four studies advance understanding the human health implications of air pollution, by drawing from worldwide data sources and considering a global perspective on key processes and impacts. To extend exposure estimates, like those of van Vliet and Kinney or Liu and Mauzerall, and to evaluate the induced physiological response of PM exposure, typically existing dose response relationships are applied. Unfortunately, the common practice of applying health response estimates from one location to another is problematic. In addition to potential differences in the chemical composition of particles, the underlying populations may differ with respect to their baseline health status, occupational exposures, age and gender distribution, and behavioral factors such as nutrition and smoking habits. Health response to a given stressor is affected by the quality of and access to health care, which varies widely, and can be almost non-existent in some regions of developing countries. Further, exposure to ambient PM is affected by the relative fraction of time spent in different settings (e.g., work, home, outside, in transit), the activities that affect ventilation rate (e.g., exercising heavily versus sitting still), and housing characteristics that alter the penetration of outdoor particles into indoor environments (e.g., housing materials, windows, air conditioning). To make the most of exposure estimates, the 'missing link' is the

  5. The Impact of Globalization on a Country's Quality of Life: Toward an Integrated Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirgy, M. Joseph; Lee, Dong-Jin; Miller, Chad; Littlefield, James E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to develop a set of theoretical propositions to explain the impact of globalization on a country's quality of life (QOL). In this paper, we describe how globalization impacts the quality of life of residents of a country by first articulating the globalization construct (in terms of inflows and outflows of goods,…

  6. Globalization and Its Impact on Education with Specific Reference to Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloi, K. C.; Gravett, S. J.; Petersen, N. F.

    2009-01-01

    As globalization of the world economy continues unabated, a parallel growth of globalization of knowledge is also taking place. This latter trend is little affected by the boundaries between developed and less developed countries and is having a particular impact on trends in education. This article looks at the impact of globalization within the…

  7. Assessing the impacts of global competition on the Appalachian hardwood industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Mark Barford

    2007-01-01

    The membership of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers, Inc. was surveyed in 2005 to determine the perceived impacts of globalization on large Appalachian sawmills. While much has been written regarding the impacts of globalization on secondary manufacturing, less is known about primary links in the hardwood supply chain. The results suggested that globalization...

  8. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a

  9. Impact of Global Warming on the Euphrates-Tigris Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    Over the last few decades demand for fresh water from the Euphrates-Tigris watershed has increased substantially, approaching (even exceeding in dry years) the total flow of the system. This situation leaves the area vulnerable to future changes in the water cycle. Here I present some preliminary results of a modeling study investigating the impact of global warming on the water cycle of the Euphrates-Tigris watershed. The region is modeled using MM5 run at 27km grid spacing and 23 levels in the vertical. Boundary conditions for the model are obtained from a CCSM 3 'business as usual' run (IPCC scenario A2) simulating the 21st century. MM5 was run for three five year periods starting in 2000, 2048 and 2095.

  10. Impacts on Global Agriculture of Stratospheric Sulfate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.; Xia, L.

    2014-12-01

    Impacts on global food supply are one of the most important concerns in the discussion of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering. Stratospheric sulfate injection could reduce surface temperature, precipitation, and insolation, which could affect agricultural production. We use output from climate model simulations using the two most "realistic" scenarios from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, G3 and G4. G3 posits balancing the increasing radiative forcing from the RCP4.5 business-as-usual scenario with stratospheric sulfate aerosols from 2020 through 2070. The G4 scenario also uses RCP4.5, but models simulate the stratospheric injection of 5 Tg SO2 per year from 2020 to 2070. In total, there are three modeling groups which have completed G3 and four for G4. We use two crop models, the global gridded Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (gDSSAT) crop model and the crop model in the NCAR Community Land Model (CLM-crop), to predict global maize yield changes. Without changing agricultural technology, we find that compared to the reference run forced by the RCP4.5 scenario, maize yields could increase in both G3 and G4 due to both the cooling effect of stratospheric sulfate injection and the CO2 fertilization effect, with the cooling effect contributing more to the increased productivity. However, the maize yield changes are not much larger than natural variability under G3, since the temperature reduction is smaller in G3 than in G4. Both crop models show similar results.

  11. The Global Economic Impact of Manta Ray Watching Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Malley, Mary P.; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B.

    2013-01-01

    As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism. PMID:23741450

  12. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, S.K.; Fairchild, P.D.; Hughes, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are used in a number of applications, and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s. However, in the mid-1980s, it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFSs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of these alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects in the form of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential heating and cooling, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air-conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. The discussion in this paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to refrigeration and air-conditioning. In general the use of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reduction in total equivalent warming impact (TEWI), lifetime equivalent CO 2 emission. Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. The global economic impact of manta ray watching tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Mary P; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B

    2013-01-01

    As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism.

  14. The global economic impact of manta ray watching tourism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary P O'Malley

    Full Text Available As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism.

  15. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme V: The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact. Teacher Strategies. Experimental Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Designed to assist teachers and supervisors in the implementation of the global history course, this bulletin presents learning activities which include the rationale, performance objectives, and teaching strategies related to Theme V entitled, "The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact." This theme has seven subthemes: (1)…

  16. Global farm animal production and global warming: impacting and mitigating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

    2008-05-01

    The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. An analysis of meat, egg, and milk production encompasses not only the direct rearing and slaughtering of animals, but also grain and fertilizer production for animal feed, waste storage and disposal, water use, and energy expenditures on farms and in transporting feed and finished animal products, among other key impacts of the production process as a whole. Immediate and far-reaching changes in current animal agriculture practices and consumption patterns are both critical and timely if GHGs from the farm animal sector are to be mitigated.

  17. Estimated impact of global population growth on future wilderness extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, E.

    2012-06-01

    Wilderness areas in the world are threatened by the environmental impacts of the growing global human population. This study estimates the impact of birth rate on the future surface area of biodiverse wilderness and on the proportion of this area without major extinctions. The following four drivers are considered: human population growth (1), agricultural efficiency (2), groundwater drawdown by irrigation (3), and non-agricultural space used by humans (buildings, gardens, roads, etc.) (4). This study indicates that the surface area of biodiverse unmanaged land will reduce with about 5.4% between 2012 and 2050. Further, it indicates that the biodiverse land without major extinctions will reduce with about 10.5%. These percentages are based on a commonly used population trajectory which assumes that birth rates across the globe will reduce in a similar way as has occurred in the past in many developed countries. Future birth rate is however very uncertain. Plausible future birth rates lower than the expected rates lead to much smaller reductions in surface area of biodiverse unmanaged land (0.7% as opposed to 5.4%), and a reduction in the biodiverse land without major extinctions of about 5.6% (as opposed to 10.5%). This indicates that birth rate is an important factor influencing the quality and quantity of wilderness remaining in the future.

  18. Air pollution and ecology. From local to global impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenger, J. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    Human impact on nature is increasing - not only in magnitude, but also in geographical scale. It has been known for centuries, that vegetation does not thrive near air pollution sources, but it was not before after the Second World War that the importance of long range transport of pollutants was realized - first for sulphur and nitrogen compounds, later for photochemical oxidants. The results have been acidification of rivers and lakes, forest dieback and eutrophication of inner waters. In recent decades the attention has been focused on global effects: Ozone depletion and increased greenhouse effect. Here air pollution threatens to alter the conditions of life on the entire Earth. In the political and public debate - and sometimes in science as well - the problems are treated separately. Since however, the basic phenomena all take place in the same atmosphere, they are more or less interrelated. Also the environmental effects must be considered a result of a complex impact. This complexity should be taken into account in the planning of an effective abatement strategy. (au) 11 refs.

  19. Air pollution and ecology. From local to global impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenger, J.

    1996-01-01

    Human impact on nature is increasing - not only in magnitude, but also in geographical scale. It has been known for centuries, that vegetation does not thrive near air pollution sources, but it was not before after the Second World War that the importance of long range transport of pollutants was realized - first for sulphur and nitrogen compounds, later for photochemical oxidants. The results have been acidification of rivers and lakes, forest dieback and eutrophication of inner waters. In recent decades the attention has been focused on global effects: Ozone depletion and increased greenhouse effect. Here air pollution threatens to alter the conditions of life on the entire Earth. In the political and public debate - and sometimes in science as well - the problems are treated separately. Since however, the basic phenomena all take place in the same atmosphere, they are more or less interrelated. Also the environmental effects must be considered a result of a complex impact. This complexity should be taken into account in the planning of an effective abatement strategy. (au) 11 refs

  20. The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Japan's Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the global financial crisis on Japan's economy, especially on its higher education. The first section provides an overview of Japan's national economy with a focus on the impact of the global financial crisis on the national economy, then the author touches on the impact on the Japanese government's finances,…

  1. The contradictory impact of globalization and migration on gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    Globalization and migration have increased diversities and inequalities within and between nation-states and have created new problems regarding public policies intented to regulate political and socio-economic problems on national and global levels. Globalization and increased migration thus...... represent a thoeretical, normative and political challenge to understanding how gender and diversity at the national level are linked to processes of globalization. This article identifies some of the many issues involved in the Asia-Nordic 'local-global dialectic'....

  2. Climate change impacts on selected global rangeland ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Randall B; Conant, Richard T; Sircely, Jason; Thornton, Philip K; Herrero, Mario

    2018-03-01

    Rangelands are Earth's dominant land cover and are important providers of ecosystem services. Reliance on rangelands is projected to grow, thus understanding the sensitivity of rangelands to future climates is essential. We used a new ecosystem model of moderate complexity that allows, for the first time, to quantify global changes expected in rangelands under future climates. The mean global annual net primary production (NPP) may decline by 10 g C m -2  year -1 in 2050 under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, but herbaceous NPP is projected to increase slightly (i.e., average of 3 g C m -2  year -1 ). Responses vary substantially from place-to-place, with large increases in annual productivity projected in northern regions (e.g., a 21% increase in productivity in the US and Canada) and large declines in western Africa (-46% in sub-Saharan western Africa) and Australia (-17%). Soil organic carbon is projected to increase in Australia (9%), the Middle East (14%), and central Asia (16%) and decline in many African savannas (e.g., -18% in sub-Saharan western Africa). Livestock are projected to decline 7.5 to 9.6%, an economic loss of from $9.7 to $12.6 billion. Our results suggest that forage production in Africa is sensitive to changes in climate, which will have substantial impacts on the livelihoods of the more than 180 million people who raise livestock on those rangelands. Our approach and the simulation tool presented here offer considerable potential for forecasting future conditions, highlight regions of concern, and support analyses where costs and benefits of adaptations and policies may be quantified. Otherwise, the technical options and policy and enabling environment that are needed to facilitate widespread adaptation may be very difficult to elucidate. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluation process of global environmental impact: assessment guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.R.; Mahar, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    In developed and developing countries, the EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) is becoming mandatory for the approval of Industrial projects and projects of Environmental hazards. The approving authority of each country has its own guidelines to get projects approved and make project proponents responsible to submit Environmental Impact Statement for the its detailed assessment. In this paper authors have studied an existing EIA Global guidelines and its evaluation process of altogether 40 countries from four continents, Asia, Pacific/Middle East, Europe, Australia and America/Canada. This evaluation process is recorded in the tabulation form and it has been formulated stage wise in which stage one highlights the inception of EIA guidelines of each country and stage two and three gives implementation process. The inception stage of guidelines gives an idea that when EIA was started and an implementation stages provide all information that when EIA become a part of legislation that provide an opportunity to the reader to understand the decision making process for project approvals. The main objective of writing EIA guidelines is to monitor the sustain ability of various types of the projects under different sectoral guidelines, therefore Projects related with different Sectors have been chosen and a detailed record in tabulation form gives an idea to understand the interaction of these guidelines. To make this paper more comprehensive, authors have gone thorough the sectoral guidelines of altogether 64 countries and studied 21 sector oriented project fields. These are of Agriculture/Irrigation, Biodiversity, Coastal/Marine, Community Participation, Extractive industries, Fisheries, Forestry, Hazard Risk, Health, Human settlement, Industry, Multi sectorial, Ports and Harbors, Power, refugees/resettlement, Social, Strategies/Planning, Tourism/Recreational, transportation, Waste Pollution and Wetlands/Water resources. (author)

  4. Globalization and Its Impact on the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    words) Participation in globalization would be a great contributing factor to obtaining stable economic growth among Middle East states. In fact... globalization and its use in economic development have profound importance both for the region’s stability and the global economy. Middle East...promote international institutions’ support to the region’s economic developmental process, it is important to understand globalization and its

  5. Impact of Globalization on Income Inequality in Selected Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhari, Mahnoor; Munir, Kashif

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between globalization and income inequality in selected Asian economies i.e. Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Singapore, South Korea and Thailand. The specific objectives of this study are to analyze the relationship between trade globalization, financial globalization and technological globalization on income inequality. For attaining these objectives this study used panel d...

  6. The Impact Of Climate Change On Water Resources: Global And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GHGs) is increasing and this has resulted to changing global climate with increasing temperature. The rise in global average temperatures since 1860 now exceeds 0.6OC. The effect of the GHGs concentration on global warming as at 2100 is ...

  7. Impact of the 1815 Tambora Eruption to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djumarma Wirakusumah, Achmad; Rachmat, Heryadi

    2017-06-01

    Tambora volcano is located at Sumbawa island, Indonesia. Geological study shows a successive of geomorphological development of Tambora Volcano. During 190 to 86 K-Years BP, shield-like or effusive volcano were formed; During 86 to 4 K-Years BP, a strato or explosive-volcano was formed; However, during 80 to 4 K-Years BP flank eruptions occurred intermittently and cinders were formed; In April 1815, a paroxysmal destructive eruption occurred which were followed by caldera forming; Since 1815, lava domes and solphataric fields were formed. The 1815 Tambora eruption emitted 60 to 80 megatons of SO2 to the stratosphere (44 km high). The SO2 spread the tropics, circled the world and it was oxidized to form H2SO4 so called sulphate aerosols protecting the sunlight to reach the earth surface causing global change effects. The Year of 1816 as the year without summer in Europe, the depressed situation in Europe, the epidemic disease of Benggal were three of examples of the impacts of the 1815 Tambora paroxysmal eruption. Therefore, characteristics of Tambora activity before paroxysmal should be learned for mitigation purposes.

  8. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Wigeland

    2008-10-01

    Abstract: The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President’s Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle—in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository—to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  9. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President's Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle - in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository - to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  10. Global Invader Impact Network (GIIN): toward standardized evaluation of the ecological impacts of invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Jacob N; Tekiela, Daniel R; Barrios-Garcia, Maria Noelia; Dimarco, Romina D; Hufbauer, Ruth A; Leipzig-Scott, Peter; Nuñez, Martin A; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Vítková, Michaela; Maxwell, Bruce D

    2015-07-01

    Terrestrial invasive plants are a global problem and are becoming ubiquitous components of most ecosystems. They are implicated in altering disturbance regimes, reducing biodiversity, and changing ecosystem function, sometimes in profound and irreversible ways. However, the ecological impacts of most invasive plants have not been studied experimentally, and most research to date focuses on few types of impacts, which can vary greatly among studies. Thus, our knowledge of existing ecological impacts ascribed to invasive plants is surprisingly limited in both breadth and depth. Our aim was to propose a standard methodology for quantifying baseline ecological impact that, in theory, is scalable to any terrestrial plant invader (e.g., annual grasses to trees) and any invaded system (e.g., grassland to forest). The Global Invader Impact Network (GIIN) is a coordinated distributed experiment composed of an observational and manipulative methodology. The protocol consists of a series of plots located in (1) an invaded area; (2) an adjacent removal treatment within the invaded area; and (3) a spatially separate uninvaded area thought to be similar to pre-invasion conditions of the invaded area. A standardized and inexpensive suite of community, soil, and ecosystem metrics are collected allowing broad comparisons among measurements, populations, and species. The method allows for one-time comparisons and for long-term monitoring enabling one to derive information about change due to invasion over time. Invader removal plots will also allow for quantification of legacy effects and their return rates, which will be monitored for several years. GIIN uses a nested hierarchical scale approach encompassing multiple sites, regions, and continents. Currently, GIIN has network members in six countries, with new members encouraged. To date, study species include representatives of annual and perennial grasses; annual and perennial forbs; shrubs; and trees. The goal of the GIIN

  11. The Work of Globalization: How Standardization May Impact the Globalization of Work

    OpenAIRE

    Cochoy, Franck

    2002-01-01

    Does the globalization of product markets entail a globalization of labor? In order to answer this type of question, the paper tries to highlight the link between the impossible globalization of work and the continuous emergence of standardization as a “work of globalization”.

  12. Effector proteins of rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Benjamin; Joly, David L; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi include many species that are devastating crop pathogens. To develop resistant plants, a better understanding of rust virulence factors, or effector proteins, is needed. Thus far, only six rust effector proteins have been described: AvrP123, AvrP4, AvrL567, AvrM, RTP1, and PGTAUSPE-10-1. Although some are well established model proteins used to investigate mechanisms of immune receptor activation (avirulence activities) or entry into plant cells, how they work inside host tissues to promote fungal growth remains unknown. The genome sequences of four rust fungi (two Melampsoraceae and two Pucciniaceae) have been analyzed so far. Genome-wide analyses of these species, as well as transcriptomics performed on a broader range of rust fungi, revealed hundreds of small secreted proteins considered as rust candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs). The rust community now needs high-throughput approaches (effectoromics) to accelerate effector discovery/characterization and to better understand how they function in planta. However, this task is challenging due to the non-amenability of rust pathosystems (obligate biotrophs infecting crop plants) to traditional molecular genetic approaches mainly due to difficulties in culturing these species in vitro. The use of heterologous approaches should be promoted in the future.

  13. Improving a Gripper End Effector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, O Dennis; Smith, Christopher M.; Gervais, Kevin L.

    2001-01-31

    This paper discusses the improvement made to an existing four-bar linkage gripping end effector to adapt it for use in a current project. The actuating linkage was modified to yield higher jaw force overall and particularly in the critical range of jaw displacement

  14. The Impact of Globalization on Career and Technical Education in Taiwan, Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert T. Y.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of globalization on career and technical education in Taiwan, Republic of China. Globalization has been characterized as a fundamental process of change. Especially after our country joined the WTO in 2001, the effects of globalization and the WTO regulations compelled career and technical…

  15. The global impact of ozone on agricultural crop yields under current and future air quality legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingenen, van R.; Dentener, F.J.; Raes, F.; Krol, M.C.; Emberson, L.; Cofala, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the global impact of surface ozone on four types of agricultural crop. The study is based on modelled global hourly ozone fields for the year 2000 and 2030, using the global 1°×1° 2-way nested atmospheric chemical transport model (TM5). Projections for the year 2030 are

  16. impact of climate change on European ecosystems under a 2C global warming

    OpenAIRE

    SAKALLI ABDULLA; DOSIO ALESSANDRO; CESCATTI ALESSANDRO

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate change on European ecosystems under a 2C global warming has been assessed in the framework of the FP7 project IMPACT2C. Results have been published on official IMPACT2C web-atlas, available here: https://www.atlas.impact2c.eu/en/?no_popup=True

  17. Hydrological impacts of global land cover change and human water use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, J.H.C.; van Beek, L.P.H.; Sutanudjaja, E.H.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2017-01-01

    Human impacts on global terrestrial hydrology have been accelerating during the 20th century. These human impacts include the effects of reservoir building and human water use, as well as land cover change. To date, many global studies have focussed on human water use, but only a few focus on or

  18. Geospatial studies of global change impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nüchel, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Global change is affecting a substantial part of the globe and its many impacts, such as deforestation, are the main drivers of ecosystems degradation and loss of biodiversity. This thesis investigates different aspect of how global change has impacted ecosystems and biodiversity in China. China...

  19. Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Beenstock, M.; Reingewertz, Y.; Paldor, N.

    2012-01-01

    We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of global warming (AGW), according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised global temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880–2007) global temperature and solar irradiance are stationary in 1st differences, whereas greenhouse gas and aerosol forcings are st...

  20. Defense Globalization: Impacts on the United States Defense Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    sources. Taking advantage of global competition could also result in benefits to the U.S. military such as better technological innovation, reduction... globalization of the DoD acquisition process and proves the U.S. defense industry is not the end-all answer to achieving technological superiority on...dominance, and even more so now that the defense industry is moving towards globalization . Numerous means of technology transfer exist, including

  1. Global impact of uncertainties in China’s gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xunpeng, Shi; Variam, Hari Malamakkavu Padinjare; Tao, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the uncertainties in Chinese gas markets, analyze the reasons and quantify their impact on the world gas market. A literature review found significant variability among the outlooks on China's gas sector. Further assessment found that uncertainties in economic growth, structural change in markets, environmental regulations, price and institutional changes contribute to the uncertainties. The analysis of China’s demand and supply uncertainties with a world gas-trading model found significant changes in global production, trade patterns and spot prices, with pipeline exporters being most affected. China's domestic production and pipeline imports from Central Asia are the major buffers that can offset much of the uncertainties. The study finds an asymmetric phenomenon. Pipeline imports are responding to China's uncertainties in both low and high demand scenarios while LNG imports are only responding to high demand scenario. The major reasons are higher TOP levels and the current practice of import only up to the minimum TOP levels for LNG, as well as a lack of liberalized gas markets. The study shows that it is necessary to create LNG markets that can respond to market dynamics, through either a reduction of TOP levels or change of pricing mechanisms to hub indexation. - Highlights: • Economic growth, regulations, reforms and shale gas cause the uncertainties. • Pipeline exporters to China and Southeast Asian and Australian LNG exporters affected the most. • China’s domestic production and pipe imports offset much of the uncertainties. • Pipeline imports are responding to China’s uncertainties in both low and high demand. • LNG imports are only responding to high demand scenario.

  2. Implications of a global survey of venusian impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Robert R.; Phillips, Roger J.

    1994-01-01

    We present a global survey of the areal distribution, size-frequency distribution, and morphometric properties of the venusian impact cratering record. We explore the resurfacing history of Venus, crater degradation, ejecta emplacement, and cratering mechanics. The number of volcanically embayed and tectonically deformed craters from 0.5 to 1.0 km above mean planetary radius is disproportionately high for an otherwise crater-deficient elevation range. More resurfacing occurred in this range, an elevation range dominated by volcanic rises, rifts, and coronae, than elsewhere on Venus. Although the majority of craters appear to be relatively undisturbed and have intact ejecta blankets, some craters appear particularly `fresh' because thay have radar-bright floors, a radar-dark halo surrounding the ejecta blanket, and a west facing parabola of low radar return; 20, 35, and 8%, respectively, of craters with diameters greater than 22.6 km have these features. Characteristics of ejecta deposits for venusian craters change substantially with size, particularly at 20 km crater diameter, which marks the transition at which the boundaries of ejecta blankets go from ragged to lobate and the slope of the ejecta distance vs diameter curve steepens. Secondary craters are a ubiquitous part of the ejecta blanket for craters over 50 km but occur infrequently as isolated rays about smaller craters. Comparison of complex craters found on Venus with those of other planets gave results that were consistent with the idea that interplanetary differences in complex crater shape are controlled by interplanetary differences in gravity and crustal strength. The interplanetary comparison indicates that Venus, the Moon, and Mercury appear to have stronger crusts than do Mars and Ganymede/Callisto.

  3. Impact of globalization on productivity of u.s. Manufacturing labor 1988-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Khan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of globalization on some determinants of per worker labor productivity in U.S. manufacturing industries. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs, and trade liberalization are examined as two main drivers of globalization in this study. The estimation result suggests that globalization has negatively impacted per worker productivity across small, medium, and high skill workers in U.S. manufacturing industries.

  4. Similar estimates of temperature impacts on global wheat yield by three independent methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Müller, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The potential impact of global temperature change on global crop yield has recently been assessed with different methods. Here we show that grid-based and point-based simulations and statistical regressions (from historic records), without deliberate adaptation or CO2 fertilization effects, produce......-method ensemble, it was possible to quantify ‘method uncertainty’ in addition to model uncertainty. This significantly improves confidence in estimates of climate impacts on global food security....

  5. Globalization and the Rise of China: Their Impact on Ethnic Chinese Business in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Beoy Kui Ng

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to make attempt to assess the impact of globalization and the rise of China on ethnic Chinese business in Singapore. Globalization poses both threats and opportunities to all businesses. The major threats are the financial crisis and the severe competition on a global scale. The opportunities, among others include a much larger international market which allows the enjoyment of economies of scale and specialization. The existence of a virtual market on global scal...

  6. Human and climate impacts on global water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Over past decades, terrestrial water fluxes have been affected by humans at an unprecedented scale and the fingerprints that humans have left on Earth’s water resources are turning up in a diverse range of records. In this thesis, a state-of-the-art global hydrological model (GHM) and global water

  7. Globalization impacts on highlife music in Nigeria | Okoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent of our success with the entire continual clamour for pop music globalization has remained food for thought. This paper vividly elucidates the following: globalization, highlife music and the nature of Nigerian highlife music. This evaluation aims at averting biased opinions from jumping to further conclusions ...

  8. Studying the Impacts of Globalization on Iranian Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahardahcheriki, Mitra Abdolahi; Shahi, Sakine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the degree of globalization of important indicators of education system in Iran including teaching approaches, educational tools and facilities, curriculums and contents, and education management. Findings suggest that the situation of Iranian education system has some distance with the globalized level and…

  9. Global Crisis: A Local Perspective on the Impacts on Developing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marjorie Alain

    Yet, as the crisis evolved, falling world export demand, foreign direct investment, remittances and, more recently, aid flows inexorably drew these countries into the global slump. Furthermore, weak fiscal situations and lack of access to a severely constrained global credit market denied these countries the most important ...

  10. Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beenstock

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of global warming (AGW, according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised global temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880–2007 global temperature and solar irradiance are stationary in 1st differences, whereas greenhouse gas and aerosol forcings are stationary in 2nd differences. We show that although these anthropogenic forcings share a common stochastic trend, this trend is empirically independent of the stochastic trend in temperature and solar irradiance. Therefore, greenhouse gas forcing, aerosols, solar irradiance and global temperature are not polynomially cointegrated, and the perceived relationship between these variables is a spurious regression phenomenon. On the other hand, we find that greenhouse gas forcings might have had a temporary effect on global temperature.

  11. The Mutual Impact of Global Strategy and Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Lyles, Marjorie A.; Easterby-Smith, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Despite the interest in issues of knowing and learning in the global strategy field, there has been limited mutual engagement and interaction between the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. The purpose of our article is to reflect on and articulate how the mutual exchange...... of ideas between these fields can be encouraged. To this end, we first conduct a review of the intersection of the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. We then present two recommendations regarding how the interaction between the two fields can be enhanced. Our first recommendation...... is for global strategy research to adopt a broader notion of organizational learning. Our second recommendation is for global strategy research to capitalize on its attention to context in order to inform and enhance organizational learning theory. We discuss the use of context in a number of common research...

  12. Diversifying selection in the wheat stem rust fungus acts predominantly on pathogen-associated gene families and reveals candidate effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperschneider, Jana; Ying, Hua; Dodds, Peter N; Gardiner, Donald M; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Singh, Karam B; Manners, John M; Taylor, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Plant pathogens cause severe losses to crop plants and threaten global food production. One striking example is the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, which can rapidly evolve new virulent pathotypes in response to resistant host lines. Like several other filamentous fungal and oomycete plant pathogens, its genome features expanded gene families that have been implicated in host-pathogen interactions, possibly encoding effector proteins that interact directly with target host defense proteins. Previous efforts to understand virulence largely relied on the prediction of secreted, small and cysteine-rich proteins as candidate effectors and thus delivered an overwhelming number of candidates. Here, we implement an alternative analysis strategy that uses the signal of adaptive evolution as a line of evidence for effector function, combined with comparative information and expression data. We demonstrate that in planta up-regulated genes that are rapidly evolving are found almost exclusively in pathogen-associated gene families, affirming the impact of host-pathogen co-evolution on genome structure and the adaptive diversification of specialized gene families. In particular, we predict 42 effector candidates that are conserved only across pathogens, induced during infection and rapidly evolving. One of our top candidates has recently been shown to induce genotype-specific hypersensitive cell death in wheat. This shows that comparative genomics incorporating the evolutionary signal of adaptation is powerful for predicting effector candidates for laboratory verification. Our system can be applied to a wide range of pathogens and will give insight into host-pathogen dynamics, ultimately leading to progress in strategies for disease control.

  13. Diversifying Selection in the Wheat Stem Rust Fungus Acts Predominantly on Pathogen-Associated Gene Families and Reveals Candidate Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eSperschneider

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens cause severe losses to crop plants and threaten global food production. One striking example is the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, which can rapidly evolve new virulent pathotypes in response to resistant host lines. Like several other filamentous fungal and oomycete plant pathogens, its genome features expanded gene families that have been implicated in host-pathogen interactions, possibly encoding effector proteins that interact directly with target host defence proteins. Previous efforts to understand virulence largely relied on the prediction of secreted, small and cysteine-rich proteins as candidate effectors and thus delivered an overwhelming number of candidates. Here, we implement an alternative analysis strategy that uses the signal of adaptive evolution as a line of evidence for effector function, combined with comparative information and expression data. We demonstrate that in planta up-regulated genes that are rapidly evolving are found almost exclusively in pathogen-associated gene families, affirming the impact of host-pathogen co-evolution on genome structure and the adaptive diversification of specialised gene families. In particular, we predict 42 effector candidates that are conserved only across pathogens, induced during infection and rapidly evolving. One of our top candidates has recently been shown to induce genotype-specific hypersensitive cell death in wheat. This shows that comparative genomics incorporating the evolutionary signal of adaptation is powerful for predicting effector candidates for laboratory verification. Our system can be applied to a wide range of pathogens and will give insight into host-pathogen dynamics, ultimately leading to progress in strategies for disease control.

  14. Global Genome and Transcriptome Analyses of Magnaporthe oryzae Epidemic Isolate 98-06 Uncover Novel Effectors and Pathogenicity-Related Genes, Revealing Gene Gain and Lose Dynamics in Genome Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanhan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Miaomiao; Jing, Maofeng; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Muxing; Guo, Xianxian; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Yue; Liu, Yongfeng; Liu, Yanhong; Ye, Wenwu; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Yuanchao; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2015-01-01

    Genome dynamics of pathogenic organisms are driven by pathogen and host co-evolution, in which pathogen genomes are shaped to overcome stresses imposed by hosts with various genetic backgrounds through generation of a variety of isolates. This same principle applies to the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and the rice host; however, genetic variations among different isolates of M. oryzae remain largely unknown, particularly at genome and transcriptome levels. Here, we applied genomic and transcriptomic analytical tools to investigate M. oryzae isolate 98-06 that is the most aggressive in infection of susceptible rice cultivars. A unique 1.4 Mb of genomic sequences was found in isolate 98-06 in comparison to reference strain 70-15. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed the presence of two critical expression patterns of M. oryzae based on 64 known pathogenicity-related (PaR) genes. In addition, 134 candidate effectors with various segregation patterns were identified. Five tested proteins could suppress BAX-mediated programmed cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Characterization of isolate-specific effector candidates Iug6 and Iug9 and PaR candidate Iug18 revealed that they have a role in fungal propagation and pathogenicity. Moreover, Iug6 and Iug9 are located exclusively in the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC) and their overexpression leads to suppression of defense-related gene expression in rice, suggesting that they might participate in biotrophy by inhibiting the SA and ET pathways within the host. Thus, our studies identify novel effector and PaR proteins involved in pathogenicity of the highly aggressive M. oryzae field isolate 98-06, and reveal molecular and genomic dynamics in the evolution of M. oryzae and rice host interactions. PMID:25837042

  15. Clouds and Climate Change. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module introduces the basic features and classifications of clouds and cloud cover, and explains how clouds form, what they are made of, what roles they play in…

  16. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme V: The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact. Student Worksheets. Experimental Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The worksheets contained in this bulletin are designed for use in conjunction with the teaching strategies for Theme V entitled, "The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact." The worksheets correspond to specific strategies with accompanying questions on the appropriate strategy page. Included are activities for the seven subthemes: (1)…

  17. THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS ON ALGERIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyneb GUELLIL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Economic Crisis and 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s , The financial crisis, brewing for a while, really started to show its effects in the middle of 2007 and into 2008. It is a situation where macro indicator like economic growth rate fall in most countries across the world. “Although economists largely failed to predict this global economic seismic shock, they have since made up for their oversight by generating a large and growing literature explaining the crisis.” In this discussion paper explores what happened and what issues arise from the Global Financial Crisis on the global economy and the Algerian economic in particular.

  18. The FTC at 100: The Impact of Globalization and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Yoo

    2014-01-01

    The challenges posed by both globalization and new technologies underscore the importance of adhering to consumer welfare as the guide to antitrust policy. Christopher S. Yoo (University of Pennsylvania Law School)

  19. Impact of the Internet on Globalization : Industrial Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Jukics, Márk

    2016-01-01

    The thesis consists of two main parts. The first part is the theoretical framework, the second part is about assisting in a project of Centria University of Applied Sciences. The theoretical part of the thesis expounds the evolution and the benefits of the industrial internet. It explains the roots of globalization, internet, and industries. Lean manufacturing and management is also involved in the theory, as this way of management is successfully spreading by the help of globalization. I...

  20. Global Guidance On LCIA Indicators: Impacts Of Particulate Matter And Of Land Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter; McKone, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Improving life cycle impact assessment models is crucial. The flagship project of the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative provides global guidance and consensus on environmental LCIA indicators for climate change, particulate matter impacts, land use impact on biodiversity, water scarcity and water ...

  1. China’s impact on the global wind power industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus; Berger, Axel; Schmitz, Hubert

    China’s economic rise has transformed the global economy in a number of manufacturing industries. This paper investigates whether China’s transformative influence extends to the new green economy. Drawing on the debate about how China is driving major economic changes in the world – the ‘Asian...... drivers’ debate – it identifies five corridors of influence and investigates their relevance for the wind energy industries. Starting with the demand side, it suggests that the size and rapid growth of the Chinese market have a major influence on competitive parameters in the global wind power industry....... While Western firms have found ways of participating in the growth of the Chinese market, the government's procurement regimes benefit Chinese firms. The latter have made big investments and learned fast, accumulating production capabilities that have led to changes in the global pecking order of lead...

  2. China’s Impact on the Global Wind Power Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus; Berger, Axel; Schmitz, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    China’s economic rise has transformed the global economy in a number of manufacturing industries. This paper investigates whether China’s transformative influence extends to the new green economy. Drawing on the debate about how China is driving major economic changes in the world – the “Asian...... drivers” debate – it identifies five corridors of influence and investigates their relevance for the wind energy industries. Starting with the demand side, it suggests that the size and rapid growth of the Chinese market have a major influence on competitive parameters in the global wind power industry....... While Western firms have found ways of participating in the growth of the Chinese market, the government’s procurement regimes benefit Chinese firms. The latter have invested heavily and learned fast, accumulating production capabilities that have led to changes in the global pecking order of lead firms...

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL IMPERATIVE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Кozlova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the factors influencing agricultural production towards global market. The study consists basic fundamental imperatives of globalization on the agricultural sector in international economic relations. The article analyzes the strategic priorities of the international agricultural sector, which includes financial and credit support, legal aspects, processes and integration of organizational structures. Technological imperatives require a large structural and institutional turn in the Ukrainian economy on the basis of current trends in the global economy, scientific and technical potential. There is a growing importance of organizing and conducting international level in the field of technological forecasting. This type of prediction is considered as backbone component in strategic forecasting and economic development programming.

  4. The impact of globalization on vaccine development and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstien, Julie B; Kaddar, Miloud; Kieny, Marie Paule

    2006-01-01

    Globalization is likely to affect many aspects of public health, one of which is vaccine-preventable communicable diseases. Important forces include increased funding initiatives supporting immunization at the global level; regulatory harmonization; widespread intellectual property rights provisions through the World Trade Organization agreements; the emergence of developing-country manufacturers as major players in vaccine supply; and the appearance of new communicable disease threats, including those potentially linked to bioterrorism. All of these forces can affect, either positively and negatively, the development and availability of vaccines. Harnessing these will be a challenge for policymakers and immunization stakeholders.

  5. Climate Change and Expected Impacts on the Global Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, David; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    How the elements of the global hydrologic cycle may respond to climate change is reviewed, first from a discussion of the physical sensitivity of these elements to changes in temperature, and then from a comparison of observations of hydrologic changes over the past 100 million years. Observations of current changes in the hydrologic cycle are then compared with projected future changes given the prospect of global warming. It is shown that some of the projections come close to matching the estimated hydrologic changes that occurred long ago when the earth was very warm.

  6. Positive selection and intragenic recombination contribute to high allelic diversity in effector genes of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, causal agent of the black leaf streak disease of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Cordovez, Viviane; Okmen, Bilal; Beenen, Henriek G; Kema, Gert H J; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2014-06-01

    Previously, we have determined the nonhost-mediated recognition of the MfAvr4 and MfEcp2 effector proteins from the banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in tomato, by the cognate Cf-4 and Cf-Ecp2 resistance proteins, respectively. These two resistance proteins could thus mediate resistance against M. fijiensis if genetically transformed into banana (Musa spp.). However, disease resistance controlled by single dominant genes can be overcome by mutated effector alleles, whose products are not recognized by the cognate resistance proteins. Here, we surveyed the allelic variation within the MfAvr4, MfEcp2, MfEcp2-2 and MfEcp2-3 effector genes of M. fijiensis in a global population of the pathogen, and assayed its impact on recognition by the tomato Cf-4 and Cf-Ecp2 resistance proteins, respectively. We identified a large number of polymorphisms that could reflect a co-evolutionary arms race between host and pathogen. The analysis of nucleotide substitution patterns suggests that both positive selection and intragenic recombination have shaped the evolution of M. fijiensis effectors. Clear differences in allelic diversity were observed between strains originating from South-East Asia relative to strains from other banana-producing continents, consistent with the hypothesis that M. fijiensis originated in the Asian-Pacific region. Furthermore, transient co-expression of the MfAvr4 effector alleles and the tomato Cf-4 resistance gene, as well as of MfEcp2, MfEcp2-2 and MfEcp2-3 and the putative Cf-Ecp2 resistance gene, indicated that effector alleles able to overcome these resistance genes are already present in natural populations of the pathogen, thus questioning the durability of resistance that can be provided by these genes in the field. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane eNemri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp. Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimise parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analysed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote

  8. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G O; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J; Jones, David A; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their

  9. Impact of Global Economic Crisis on Technical and Vocational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the relationship between global economic crisis (GEC) and inadequacy of facilities for administration of the Technical and. Vocational Education. The descriptive survey design with a random sample of 100 technical teachers from a population of 139 technical teachers in all six Technical Colleges in ...

  10. Modeling the potential impacts of global climate change in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the hottest issues in the recent environmental research worldwide has become the harmful effects of climate change on the ecosystems and environment due to global warming. Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries not only in the South East Asia but also in the world. It is predicted that a large portion of ...

  11. The Global Recession and its Impact on the Democratisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How will the global financial crisis affect the country's process of democratization that is already low by international standards? The paper argues that the financial crisis will have a negative effect on the democratization process. The reduced incomes to the government, the private sector of the economy and the citizens will ...

  12. The impact of colonial legacies and globalization processes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I postulate that forced migration in modern Africa is largely explained by factors deeply rooted in colonial legacies and the globalization process. For example, among the colonial historical factors someone may identify land alienation that still fuels conflicts in Zimbabwe, the colonial military doctrine based on ...

  13. The Impact of Globalization on Political Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we addressed the questions of political development in Nigeria in the context of ongoing globalization process. This problem is analyzed in view of attenuated democratic institutions, inefficient public service, and rent seeking behaviours, disillusioned citizenry, erratic and conflicting state policies, dysfunctional ...

  14. The Impact of Globalization on The Arts in Contemporary Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mcbee

    in technology today has established closer corre- lation between culture, globalization and devel- opment. Many developing countries like Ghana have witnessed sharp and massive cultural trans- formation from their time of colonization. Ghana has experienced tremendous growth in education, health, commerce, industry ...

  15. Assessing tourism's global environmental impact 1900–2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gössling, Stefan; Peeters, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper pioneers the assessment of tourism's total global resource use, including its fossil fuel consumption, associated CO2 emissions, fresh water, land, and food use. As tourism is a dynamic growth system, characterized by rapidly increasing tourist numbers, understanding its

  16. Impact of global warming on the energetics of lower tropospheric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Global circulation comprises of planetary scale disturbances having wave-like character. Zonal asymmetry between land and ocean in the tropics plays a dominant role in the dynamics of the tropical atmosphere. During northern summer, the lower tropospheric temperature, pressure, wind direction, humidity, and circulation ...

  17. Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roux, S.; Brum, J.R.; Dutilh, B.E.; Sunagawa, S.; Duhaime, M.B.; Loy, A.; Poulos, B.T.; Solonenko, N.; Lara, E.; Poulain, J.; Pesant, S.; Kandels-Lewis, S.; Dimier, C.; Picheral, M.; Searson, S.; Cruaud, C.; Alberti, A.; Duarte, C.M.; Gasol, J.M.; Vaque, D.; Bork, P.; Acinas, S.G.; Wincker, P.; Sullivan, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean microbes drive biogeochemical cycling on a global scale. However, this cycling is constrained by viruses that affect community composition, metabolic activity, and evolutionary trajectories. Owing to challenges with the sampling and cultivation of viruses, genome-level viral diversity remains

  18. Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses

    KAUST Repository

    Roux, Simon

    2016-05-12

    Ocean microbes drive biogeochemical cycling on a global scale. However, this cycling is constrained by viruses that affect community composition, metabolic activity, and evolutionary trajectories. Owing to challenges with the sampling and cultivation of viruses, genome-level viral diversity remains poorly described and grossly understudied, with less than 1% of observed surface-ocean viruses known. Here we assemble complete genomes and large genomic fragments from both surface-and deep-ocean viruses sampled during the Tara Oceans and Malaspina research expeditions, and analyse the resulting â global ocean virome\\' dataset to present a global map of abundant, double-stranded DNA viruses complete with genomic and ecological contexts. A total of 15,222 epipelagic and mesopelagic viral populations were identified, comprising 867 viral clusters (defined as approximately genus-level groups). This roughly triples the number of known ocean viral populations and doubles the number of candidate bacterial and archaeal virus genera, providing a near-complete sampling of epipelagic communities at both the population and viral-cluster level. We found that 38 of the 867 viral clusters were locally or globally abundant, together accounting for nearly half of the viral populations in any global ocean virome sample. While two-thirds of these clusters represent newly described viruses lacking any cultivated representative, most could be computationally linked to dominant, ecologically relevant microbial hosts. Moreover, we identified 243 viral-encoded auxiliary metabolic genes, of which only 95 were previously known. Deeper analyses of four of these auxiliary metabolic genes (dsrC, soxYZ, P-II (also known as glnB) and amoC) revealed that abundant viruses may directly manipulate sulfur and nitrogen cycling throughout the epipelagic ocean. This viral catalog and functional analyses provide a necessary foundation for the meaningful integration of viruses into ecosystem models where

  19. Healthcare hashtag index development: Identifying global impact in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Costa, Luís; Yakubu, Kenneth; Hoedebecke, Kyle; Laranjo, Liliana; Reichel, Christofer Patrick; Colon-Gonzalez, Maria Del C; Neves, Ana Luísa; Errami, Hassna

    2016-10-01

    Create an index of global reach for healthcare hashtags and tweeters therein, filterable by topic of interest. For this proof-of-concept study we focused on the field of Primary Care and Family Medicine. Six hashtags were selected based on their importance, from the ones included in the 'Healthcare Hashtag Project'. Hashtag Global Reach (HGR) was calculated using the additive aggregation of five weighted, normalized indicator variables: number of impressions, tweets, tweeters, user locations, and user languages. Data were obtained for the last quarter of 2014 and first quarter of 2015 using Symplur Signals. Topic-specific HGR were calculated for the top 10 terms and for sets of quotes mapped after a thematic analysis. Individual Global Reach, IGR, was calculated across hashtags as additive indexes of three indicators: replies, retweets and mentions. Using the HGR score we were able to rank six selected hashtags and observe their performance throughout the study period. We found that #PrimaryCare and #FMRevolution had the highest HGR score in both quarters; interestingly, #FMChangeMakers experienced a marked increase in its global visibility during the study period. "Health Policy" was the commonest theme, while "Care", "Family" and "Health" were the most common terms. This is the first study describing an altmetric hashtag index. Assuming analytical soundness, the Index might prove generalizable to other healthcare hashtags. If released as a real-time business intelligence tool with customizable settings, it could aid publishing and strategic decisions by netizens, organizations, and analysts. IGR could also serve to augment academic evaluation and professional development. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using an index on the global reach of healthcare hashtags and tweeters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing the environmental impacts of freshwater thermal pollution from global power generation in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Catherine E; Boucher, Justin M; Pfister, Stephan

    2017-02-15

    Freshwater heat emissions from power plants with once-through cooling systems constitute one of many environmental pressures related to the thermoelectric power industry. The objective of this work was to obtain high resolution, operational characterization factors (CF) for the impact of heat emissions on ecosystem quality, and carry out a comprehensive, spatially, temporally and technologically differentiated damage-based environmental assessment of global freshwater thermal pollution. The aggregation of CFs on a watershed level results in 12.5% lower annual impacts globally and even smaller differences for the most crucial watersheds and months, so watershed level CFs are recommended when the exact emission site within the basin is unknown. Long-range impacts account for almost 90% of the total global impacts. The Great Lakes, several Mississippi subbasins, the Danube, and the Yangtze are among the most thermally impacted watersheds globally, receiving heat emissions from predominantly coal-fuelled and nuclear power plants. Globally, over 80% of the global annual impacts come from power plants constructed during or before the 1980s. While the impact-weighted mean age of the power plants in the Mississippi ranges from 38 to 51years, in Chinese watersheds including the Yangtze, the equivalent range is only 15 to 22years, reflecting a stark contrast in thermal pollution mitigation approaches. With relatively high shares of total capacity from power plants with once-through freshwater cooling, and tracing a large part of the Danube, 1kWh of net electricity mix is the most impactful in Hungary, Bulgaria and Serbia. Monthly CFs are provided on a grid cell level and on a watershed level for use in Life Cycle Assessment. The impacts per generating unit are also provided, as part of our effort to make available a global dataset of thermoelectric power plant emissions and impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Longitudinal observations of globally distributed design teams: The impacts on Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    the success of a globally distributed PD project are mapped across the phases of PD, beginning from the early planning phase and development through to the final testing and refinement. Furthermore, the relationship between the impact factors (IF’s) and key parameters for performance is described.......Factors impacting the success of Product Development (PD) projects are intensified when teams are distributed globally, making it a challenging task for project management to deal with effects on time, cost and quality. It is important for project management to understand when challenges...... studies of globally distributed design teams in PD projects. This paper aims to contribute to the further understanding of the factors impacting the success of PD projects when teams are distributed globally. With the results from a longitudinal observational study over 8 months, the factors impacting...

  2. R&D investment and impact in the global construction industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hampson, Keith

    2014-01-01

    "R&D Investment and Impact in the Global Construction Industry brings together contributions from leading academics in a diverse group of countries to investigate the role of research and development (R&D...

  3. Exploring the Potential Impacts of Historic Volcanic Eruptions on the Contemporary Global Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Michael J.; Chon, S.; Wada, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of volcanic impacts on crops is urgently needed, as volcanic eruptions and the associated climate anomalies can cause unanticipated shocks to food production. Such shocks are a major concern given the fragility of the global food system.

  4. The impact of scatterometer wind data on global weather forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, D.; Baker, W. E.; Kalnay, E.; Halem, M.; Woiceshyn, P. M.; Peteherych, S.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of SEASAT-A scatterometer (SASS) winds on coarse resolution atmospheric model forecasts was assessed. The scatterometer provides high resolution winds, but each wind can have up to four possible directions. One wind direction is correct; the remainder are ambiguous or "aliases'. In general, the effect of objectively dealiased-SASS data was found to be negligible in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, the impact was larger and primarily beneficial when vertical temperature profile radiometer (VTPR) data was excluded. However, the inclusion of VTPR data eliminates the positive impact, indicating some redundancy between the two data sets.

  5. The impact of globalization on the socio-linguistic landscape of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process of globalization, its nature and impact on the linguistic landscape of Nigeria constitute the main concerns of the present study. The thrust of the argument in this study is that globalization is an irreversible process and that the survival of Nigeria's cultural values (including language) is largely based on how the ...

  6. Differential climate impacts for policy-relevant limits to global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleussner, Carl Friedrich; Lissner, Tabea K.; Fischer, Erich M.; Wohland, Jan; Perrette, Mahé; Golly, Antonius; Rogelj, Joeri; Childers, Katelin; Schewe, Jacob; Frieler, Katja; Mengel, Matthias; Hare, William; Schaeffer, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    Robust appraisals of climate impacts at different levels of global-mean temperature increase are vital to guide assessments of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The 2015 Paris Agreement includes a two-headed temperature goal: "holding the increase in the global average

  7. Potential impact of a transatlantic trade and Investment partnership on the global forest sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Paul Rougieux; Ahmed Barkaoui; Shushuai Zhu; Patrice Harou

    2014-01-01

    The effects of a transatlantic trade agreement on the global forest sector were assessed with the Global Forest Products Model, conditional on previous macroeconomic impacts predicted with a general equilibrium model. Comprehensive tariff elimination per se had little effect on the forest sector. However, with deeper reforms and integration consumption would increase...

  8. Similar estimates of temperature impacts on global wheat yield by three independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Müller, Christoph; Ewert, Frank; Elliott, Joshua; Lobell, David B.; Martre, Pierre; Ruane, Alex C.; Wallach, Daniel; Jones, James W.; Supit, Iwan; Wolf, Joost

    2016-01-01

    The potential impact of global temperature change on global crop yield has recently been assessed with different methods. Here we show that grid-based and point-based simulations and statistical regressions (from historic records), without deliberate adaptation or CO 2 fertilization effects,

  9. The Global Economic Crisis: Impact on Sub-Saharan Africa and Global Policy Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    crisis is Botswana , whose economy is highly dependent on diamond exports.80 72 Ibid. 73 Ibid: 3...reported revenue shortfalls due to the fall in global oil prices. Several countries seen as having solid macroeconomic governance, notably Botswana ...an expected rise in mining activity following its collapse in late 2008, combined with recent gains in communications infrastructure and political

  10. Impact of global warming on the typhoon intensities during 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, N. Y.; Yang, S. H.; Elsner, J.; Chun, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The climate of 2015 was characterized by a strong El Nino, global warmth, and record setting tropical cyclone (TC) intensity for western North Pacific typhoons. In this study, the highest TC intensity in 32 years (1984-2015) is shown to be a consequence of above normal TC activity—following natural internal variation—and greater efficiency of intensity. The efficiency of intensity (EINT) is termed the `blasting effect' and refers to typhoon intensification at the expense of occurrence. Statistical models show that the EINT is mostly due to the anomalous warmth in the environment as indicated by global mean sea-surface temperature. In comparison, the EINT due to El Nino is negligibly small. This implies that the record-setting intensity of 2015 might not have occurred without environmental warming and suggests that a year with even greater TC intensity is possible in the near future when above normal activity coincides with another record EINT due to continuous warming.

  11. The impact of global warming on the automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannappel, Ralf

    2017-08-01

    One cause of global warming of the earth's atmosphere is the emission of human made gases (methane, CO2, nitrous oxygen, etc.) into the environment. Of the total global CO2 emissions the transportation sector contributes to about 14%. In order to control the emissions of the automotive sector, in all major countries (USA, Europe, China, Japan) of the world, tough emissions targets were being set to reduce the vehicle traffic's contribution of CO2. These are derived from the global climate conference' target to limit the maximum temperature increase of the earth of 2 degrees Celsius until 2100. In order to achieve these stringent targets the automotive industry will face a major change in its drivetrain. It will move from combustion to electrical engines. The technical realization of these engines will most likely be battery and fuel cell driven propulsion systems. In order to achieve that transition a major effort is required in 4 industrial areas, i.e. growing electrical charging infrastructure, lowering battery cost, increasing the battery-electric vehicle ranges and developing new environmental friendly hydrogen production methods.

  12. Global impacts of the 1980s regime shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Philip C; Hari, Renata E; Beaugrand, Grégory; Livingstone, David M; Marty, Christoph; Straile, Dietmar; Barichivich, Jonathan; Goberville, Eric; Adrian, Rita; Aono, Yasuyuki; Brown, Ross; Foster, James; Groisman, Pavel; Hélaouët, Pierre; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Kirby, Richard; Knight, Jeff; Kraberg, Alexandra; Li, Jianping; Lo, Tzu-Ting; Myneni, Ranga B; North, Ryan P; Pounds, J Alan; Sparks, Tim; Stübi, René; Tian, Yongjun; Wiltshire, Karen H; Xiao, Dong; Zhu, Zaichun

    2016-02-01

    Despite evidence from a number of Earth systems that abrupt temporal changes known as regime shifts are important, their nature, scale and mechanisms remain poorly documented and understood. Applying principal component analysis, change-point analysis and a sequential t-test analysis of regime shifts to 72 time series, we confirm that the 1980s regime shift represented a major change in the Earth's biophysical systems from the upper atmosphere to the depths of the ocean and from the Arctic to the Antarctic, and occurred at slightly different times around the world. Using historical climate model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and statistical modelling of historical temperatures, we then demonstrate that this event was triggered by rapid global warming from anthropogenic plus natural forcing, the latter associated with the recovery from the El Chichón volcanic eruption. The shift in temperature that occurred at this time is hypothesized as the main forcing for a cascade of abrupt environmental changes. Within the context of the last century or more, the 1980s event was unique in terms of its global scope and scale; our observed consequences imply that if unavoidable natural events such as major volcanic eruptions interact with anthropogenic warming unforeseen multiplier effects may occur. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Impact of priming on global soil carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenet, Bertrand; Camino-Serrano, Marta; Ciais, Philippe; Tifafi, Marwa; Maignan, Fabienne; Soong, Jennifer L; Janssens, Ivan A

    2018-01-24

    Fresh carbon input (above and belowground) contributes to soil carbon sequestration, but also accelerates decomposition of soil organic matter through biological priming mechanisms. Currently, poor understanding precludes the incorporation of these priming mechanisms into the global carbon models used for future projections. Here, we show that priming can be incorporated based on a simple equation calibrated from incubation and verified against independent litter manipulation experiments in the global land surface model, ORCHIDEE. When incorporated into ORCHIDEE, priming improved the model's representation of global soil carbon stocks and decreased soil carbon sequestration by 51% (12 ± 3 Pg C) during the period 1901-2010. Future projections with the same model across the range of CO 2 and climate changes defined by the IPCC-RCP scenarios reveal that priming buffers the projected changes in soil carbon stocks - both the increases due to enhanced productivity and new input to the soil, and the decreases due to warming-induced accelerated decomposition. Including priming in Earth system models leads to different projections of soil carbon changes, which are challenging to verify at large spatial scales. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Key environmental impacts of global genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Given the increasing awareness and appreciation of issues such as global warming and the impact of mankind's activities such as agriculture on the global environment, this paper updates previous assessments of the environmental impact of an important and relatively new technology, crop biotechnology has had on global agriculture. It focuses on the environmental impacts associated with changes in pesticide use and greenhouse gas emissions arising from the use of GM crops. The adoption of the technology has reduced pesticide spraying by 474 million kg (-8.9%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops [as measured by the indicator the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)] by 18.1%. The technology has also facilitated a significant reduction in the release of greenhouse gas emissions from this cropping area, which, in 2011, was equivalent to removing 10.22 million cars from the roads.

  15. Type VI Secretion Effectors: Methodologies and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Wei Lien

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system (T6SS is a nanomachine deployed by many Gram-negative bacteria as a weapon against eukaryotic hosts or prokaryotic competitors. It assembles into a bacteriophage tail-like structure that can transport effector proteins into the environment or target cells for competitive survival or pathogenesis. T6SS effectors have been identified by a variety of approaches, including knowledge/hypothesis-dependent and discovery-driven approaches. Here, we review and discuss the methods that have been used to identify T6SS effectors and the biological and biochemical functions of known effectors. On the basis of the nature and transport mechanisms of T6SS effectors, we further propose potential strategies that may be applicable to identify new T6SS effectors.

  16. Lunar impact flux distribution and global asymmetry revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, P.

    1985-10-01

    The author reinvestigates the hypothesis of an early lunar bombardment (≡4 aeons ago) by geocentric projectiles. These projectiles may have originated either as Earth satellites or as heliocentric planetoids later captured by the Earth's gravitational field and possibly fragmented by tidal forces inside the Roche limit. A 3-d numerical simulation is used to compute the trajectories of an initial set of projectiles, under the attraction of Earth and Moon, and to determine the loci of impacts, on the lunar surface, of colliding bodies. The simulation end-product is the local flux of impacts, normalized to the mean total flux over the whole lunar surface. The computed distributions meet main features of the observed lunar distribution of large craters and might give a mechanical explanation to the reported polar impact excess.

  17. Space Station end effector strategy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Jensen, Robert L.; Willshire, Kelli F.; Satterthwaite, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study are presented for terminology definition, identification of functional requirements, technolgy assessment, and proposed end effector development strategies for the Space Station Program. The study is composed of a survey of available or under-developed end effector technology, identification of requirements from baselined Space Station documents, a comparative assessment of the match between technology and requirements, and recommended strategies for end effector development for the Space Station Program.

  18. The Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó Földesi Gyöngyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis is the worst one in decades; it is surely the worst one the world has experienced since the Great Depression in the 1930s. Although it has affected countries with different positions in the global village in different ways and to different degrees, it has had worldwide consequences in most sub-systems of societies, including sport. These are hot issues in management and in everyday practice; still, relatively little attention has been paid to them within the social sciences. The objective of this paper is to close this gap by studying how the recent global economic crisis has affected sport. Two spheres of sport have been selected for analysis: mega sport events and grassroots sports. These two fields were chosen because of their social importance and because there is little scientific evidence about how they face and answer the challenges coming from the economic crisis. The topic is discussed from the theoretical perspective of the nexus of economy, politics, society, and culture. The methodological considerations refer to the lack of reliable sources for economic data related to sport. The results indicate that mega sport events have suffered less from the recession: there might be new actors, but the show goes on. The true loser is grassroots sport. Household impoverishment might lead to a decreased willingness of the individual practitioners to pay for sports goods and services and to a decreased contribution of volunteers working in sport. The funding models vary across countries, but generally both public and private funding has been reduced. In conclusion, it is underlined that no fields of sport have been left untouched by the current global economic crisis, but grassroots sports have suffered the most from it.

  19. Global Impact of Land Use on Soil Carbon Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderman, J.; Hengl, T.; Fiske, G. J.; Cheney, E.

    2016-12-01

    Land use and land cover change has resulted in substantial losses of carbon from soils globally. This historic loss in soil organic carbon now represents a significant climate mitigation opportunity. Current estimates of the potential soil organic carbon (SOC) sink strength generally come from simplistic bookkeeping calculations that have been disaggregated to at best the continental scale. Others have taken a modeling approach whereby agroecosystem models have been run using alternative management practices to estimate SOC sequestration potential. A third approach which is adopted here is to use a data-driven spatial modeling approach whereby measured SOC stocks from minimally distrubed regions are projected across the highly managed regions of the world. The International Soil Reference and Information Center (www.isric.org) curates the largest repository of spatially explicit soil data which now includes data from over 150,000 soil profiles globally. From this dataset, we have masked out data from profiles collected from used parts of the globe. Then SOC stocks were related to factors which are known to control SOC storage using machine learning algorithms. Spatially continuous data layers included climate, topography, lithology and potential vegetation class. The trained machine learning algorithms were then used to project potential SOC stocks across the entire global land surface at a resolution of 1 km. In addition to an assessment of model performance in the development stage, an independent test set of over 400 paired-plot (native v. agricultural) measurements of SOC stocks within major agricultural regions was collected to help validate model output. Land area with the largest carbon debit and thus the greatest potential of SOC storage was revealed by comparison of this potential SOC map with a map of actual SOC values (SoilGrids250m) that was produced using a consistent spatial modeling approach.

  20. Impact of Green Energy on Global Warming - A Changing Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal, Sreeramana; Acharya, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    The climate of the earth is influenced by first six miles above the surface and the gap between the earth's surface and six miles above is considered to be the atmosphere. The atmosphere is maintaining a temperature up to 40 to 45 degree Celsius which is suitable for the living organisms to lead a happy life. Due to increase in the emission of greenhouse gases like CO2 the environmental temperature is gradually increasing. This is called Global warming. The emission of Co2 is increasing day b...

  1. Global Export Patterns and Potential Impacts of Danish TV Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    their television industry including less access to talent, fewer capital resources, higher production costs and a smaller market for advertising and license fee revenue. Therefore, this panel explores the various possibilities and challenges arising for broadcasters and production companies from small nations when...... investment and support on the other. Across all of the papers the role of public service broadcasters' activities in the local and international market is an important feature. Collectively, these papers provide a richer understanding of how local, national and global logics shape the current production...

  2. Globalization and the cultural impact on distance education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, W; Nøhr, C

    2000-09-01

    With the delivery of distance (or flexible) learning in today's society, the changing roles of both the teacher and the learner need to be seriously considered. This is particularly relevant with the use of new technologies to deliver courses in locations with entirely different cultural and academic traditions. International education of this kind currently faces difficulties in facilitating cross-cultural learning. While problems of limited communications technologies, lack of teacher training, inadequate competence of university administration and general cultural differences may be known, global changes call for the development of new pedagogies with new communication technologies in ways, which are sensitive to issues of cultural diversity.

  3. IMPACT OF GLOBAL RETAILERS ON REGIONAL MARKET PARTICIPANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Evtyugina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The given article is focused on a topical subject of global trade networks and the current trends of their development on a regional retail market. The authors believe that deep integration of international networks in the regions significantly increases the competition among network operators in the trade sector and creates a certain challenge for Russian retailers, and require introduction of innovative management techniques, automation of operational processes, expansion of assortment, better service, lower prices, etc. Research and assessment of the parameters given in the article help verifying an effect of international networks on the development process of regional market participants.

  4. TAL effectors: highly adaptable phytobacterial virulence factors and readily engineered DNA targeting proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Erin L.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Voytas, Daniel F.; Bogdanove, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are transcription factors injected into plant cells by pathogenic bacteria in the genus Xanthomonas. They function as virulence factors by activating host genes important for disease, or as avirulence factors by turning on genes that provide resistance. DNA binding specificity is encoded by polymorphic repeats in each protein that correspond one-to-one with different nucleotides. This code has facilitated target identification and opened new avenues for engineering disease resistance. It has also enabled TAL effector customization for targeted gene control, genome editing, and other applications. This article reviews the structural basis for TAL effector-DNA specificity, the impact of the TAL effector-DNA code on plant pathology and engineered resistance, and recent accomplishments and future challenges in TAL effector-based DNA targeting. PMID:23707478

  5. Globalization impacts on local commons: multiscale strategies for socioeconomic and ecological resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy O. Randhir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globalization can have substantial impact on local commons byreducing sustainability of ecosystems and their vital services. Without effectivelocal institutions, these resources are at high risk of exploitation, especially tofeed global markets. This study proposes a multiscale ecosystem framework(MEF that incorporates information on ecosystem components, socioeconomicprocesses, and their interactions. This includes inter and intra commoninteractions and multi-scale processes to evaluate inter and intra scale changesin socioeconomic and ecological processes of commons. Local participationand multi-disciplinary information are critical in achieving sustainability. Usinga global dataset of selected indicators, a general decline is observable in localcommons that face globalization. The need for increasing resilience of commonsthrough multi-scale adaptation strategies can inform decisions at the national,state and local levels. Increased resilience through ecosystem-based approach canminimize impacts of globalization using information on multiattribute processes,equity considerations, development of robust institutions, and effective strategiesfor adaptation.

  6. Impact of Global Climate on Rift Valley Fever Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever is a viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Since the virus was first isolated in Kenya in 1930 it has caused significant impact to animal and human health and national economies, and it is of concern to the internationa...

  7. Global Justice Considerations for a Proposed "Climate Impact Fund"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermann, C.A.; Belt, van den H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most attractive, but nevertheless highly controversial proposals to alleviate the negative effects of today’s international patent regime is the Health Impact Fund (HIF). Although the HIF has been drafted to facilitate access to medicines and boost pharmaceutical research, we have

  8. Impact of Global Financial Crisis on Nigerian Stock Market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    crisis, and foreign investment crisis has a negative significant impact on the Nigerian stock market. Based on ... economic meltdown; the government should implement discriminatory income tax policy for companies .... boom in 2006, direct and portfolio investment recorded a growth rate of 126.6 percent and 11.48 percent ...

  9. Global impacts of aerosols from particular source regions and sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, D; Bond, T.C; Streets, D; Unger, D; van der Werf, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    We study the impacts of present-day aerosols emitted from particular regions and from particular sectors, as predicted by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies GCM, We track the distribution and direct radiative forcing of aerosols, including sulfate and black and organic carbon, emitted from

  10. Biomass burning: Its history, use, and distribution and its impact on environmental quality and global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreae, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the following topics are discussed: global estimates of amounts of biomass burning; kinds and amounts of emissions to the atmosphere; environmental transport and atmospheric chemistry of these emissions; and environmental impacts. These impacts include acid deposition, climate changes, disruption of nutrient cycles, soil degradation, perturbation of stratospheric chemistry and the ozone layer

  11. Quantifying impacts of nitrogen use in European agriculture on global warming potential.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Kros, J.; Reinds, G.J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes current knowledge on the impacts of changes of nitrogen (Nr) use in agriculture on the global warming potential (GWP) by its impact on carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions from agricultural and terrestrial nonagricultural systems and from

  12. Climate change impact on available water resources obtained using multiple global climate and hydrology models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagemann, S.; Chen, Cui; Clark, D.B.; Folwell, S.; Gosling, S.; Haddeland, I.; Hanasaki, N.; Heinke, J.; Ludwig, F.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the hydrological cycle resulting in large-scale impacts on water availability. However, future climate change impact assessments are highly uncertain. For the first time, multiple global climate (three) and hydrological 5 models (eight) were used to systematically

  13. Comment on "A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Michael R

    2008-09-12

    Halpern et al. (Reports, 15 February 2008, p. 948) integrated spatial data on 17 drivers of change in the oceans to map the global distribution of human impact. Although fishery catches are a dominant driver, the data reflect activity while impacts occur at different space and time scales. Failure to account for this spatial disconnection could lead to potentially misleading conclusions.

  14. What do global warming impacts really mean to U.S. industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendel, W.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will explore real-world impacts that global warming could have on US industry. The question of dealing with global warming is, to some extent, an exercise in probability or relative risk management. The difficult part is separating fact from fiction. There is another issue that arises in this intense debate regarding impacts on business and policy. This is the question of whether the impacts are real or only perceived. As the authors have been seen in several environmental situations, the difference between a real or perceived impact can be academic, since a perceived risk often produces real impacts. This paper presents a discussion on what companies can and should do to minimize the perceived risk of global warming on their bottom lines. That is, the basic question is, how can businesses today manage this risk so that objective business decisions can be made? Problems that could be directly or indirectly embedded in the global warming controversy are examined. These include financial, engineering, and international aspects of global climate change. This discussion will include possible impacts on the utility, agricultural, insurance, and financial industries

  15. Impacts of continental arcs on global carbon cycling and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. T.; Jiang, H.; Carter, L.; Dasgupta, R.; Cao, W.; Lackey, J. S.; Lenardic, A.; Barnes, J.; McKenzie, R.

    2017-12-01

    On myr timescales, climatic variability is tied to variations in atmospheric CO2, which in turn is driven by geologic sources of CO2 and modulated by the efficiency of chemical weathering and carbonate precipitation (sinks). Long-term variability in CO2 has largely been attributed to changes in mid-ocean ridge inputs or the efficiency of global weathering. For example, the Cretaceous greenhouse is thought to be related to enhanced oceanic crust production, while the late Cenozoic icehouse is attributed to enhanced chemical weathering associated with the Himalayan orogeny. Here, we show that continental arcs may play a more important role in controlling climate, both in terms of sources and sinks. Continental arcs differ from island arcs and mid-ocean ridges in that the continental plate through which arc magmas pass may contain large amounts of sedimentary carbonate, accumulated over the history of the continent. Interaction of arc magmas with crustal carbonates via assimilation, reaction or heating can significantly add to the mantle-sourced CO2 flux. Detrital zircons and global mapping of basement rocks shows that the length of continental arcs in the Cretaceous was more than twice that in the mid-Cenozoic; maps also show many of these arcs intersected crustal carbonates. The increased length of continental arc magmatism coincided with increased oceanic spreading rates, placing convergent margins into compression, which favors continental arcs. Around 50 Ma, however, nearly all the continental arcs in Eurasia and North America terminated as India collided with Eurasia and the western Pacific rolled back, initiating the Marianas-Tonga-Kermadec intra-oceanic subduction complex and possibly leading to a decrease in global CO2 production. Meanwhile, extinct continental arcs continued to erode, resulting in regionally enhanced chemical weathering unsupported by magmatic fluxes of CO2. Continental arcs, during their magmatic lifetimes, are thus a source of CO2, driving

  16. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  17. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  18. Simulating the global climate impact of aircraft emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausen, R.; Ponater, M.; Brinkop, S.; Dameris, M.; Feneberg, B.; Grewe, V.; Hein, R.; Koehler, I.; Land, C.; Schumann, U.; Stuber, N. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of aircraft impact on the climate are investigated by means of GCM simulations: The direct climate effect of aircraft water vapour emissions is negligible. Contrails have the potential for significant climate modifications. NO{sub x} emissions by aircraft cause an essential enhancement of the background NO{sub x} concentration and an increase of the O{sub 3} concentration. Finally, aircraft induced ozone changes result in a statistically significant tropospheric warming. (orig.) 144 figs., 42 tabs., 497 refs.

  19. The impact of global warming on the Southern Oscillation Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Scott B.; Kociuba, Greg [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) - a measure of air pressure difference across the Pacific Ocean, from Tahiti in the south-east to Darwin in the west - is one of the world's most important climatic indices. The SOI is used to track and predict changes in both the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon, and the Walker Circulation (WC). During El Nino, for example, the WC weakens and the SOI tends to be negative. Climatic variations linked to changes in the WC have a profound influence on climate, ecosystems, agriculture, and societies in many parts of the world. Previous research has shown that (1) the WC and the SOI weakened in recent decades and that (2) the WC in climate models tends to weaken in response to elevated atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Here we examine changes in the SOI and air pressure across the Pacific in the observations and in numerous WCRP/CMIP3 climate model integrations for both the 20th and 21st centuries. The difference in mean-sea level air pressure (MSLP) between the eastern and western equatorial Pacific tends to weaken during the 21st century, consistent with previous research. Here we show that this primarily arises because of an increase in MSLP in the west Pacific and not a decline in the east. We also show, in stark contrast to expectations, that the SOI actually tends to increase during the 21st century, not decrease. Under global warming MSLP tends to increase at both Darwin and Tahiti, but tends to rise more at Tahiti than at Darwin. Tahiti lies in an extensive region where MSLP tends to rise in response to global warming. So while the SOI is an excellent indicator of interannual variability in both the equatorial MSLP gradient and the WC, it is a highly misleading indicator of long-term equatorial changes linked to global warming. Our results also indicate that the observed decline in the SOI in recent decades has been driven by natural, internally generated variability. The externally forced signal in the

  20. The Impact of Tourism on the Global Economic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban-Comanescu Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a true sector of services, tourism remains a branch of consequence, the development ofwhich will be constantly in close correlation with the levels and rhythms of development of theother branches of the national economy (Snak, O., 1976, Economia şi organizarea turismului(Economy and organization of tourism, Sport-Turism Publishing House, Bucharest, p 61. This istrue, but it should not be absolutized: of course, there is a close interdependence between tourismand other branches, but its development as a domain may in some cases be independent from othereconomic sectors. Tourism is the most complex industry on a global scale, the whole society beinginvolved in its service, being considered a barometer in terms of assessing the state of the society.

  1. Impact of global investment processes on ukrainian share market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.К. Zotsenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effects of financial and investment processes on the Ukrainian share market. The research analyzed and estimated investment climate in Ukraine. The study highlights a comparison of the domestic share market with share markets of other countries. In terms of share capitalization of listed companies in the GDP determined that equity is the most developed in the USA and UK. Largest share markets with highest capitalization rate characterized. The regional distribution of the share market capitalization by continents are shown. The study of the dynamics of Ukrainian and global share indexes revealed that the Ukrainian share market indexes show a constant volatility and unpredictability. Correlation Ukrainian stock indexes with indexes in Europe, Russia and America is very weak, which is a very negative trend of the stock market of Ukraine. The key problems and risks of the domestic investments are defined which are consequences of downturn in the Ukrainian share market.

  2. Enhanced marine sulphur emissions offset global warming and impact rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandey, B. S.; Wang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial fertilisation of the ocean has been proposed as a possible geoengineering method for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The associated increase in marine primary productivity may lead to an increase in emissions of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), the primary source of sulphate aerosol over remote ocean regions, potentially causing direct and cloud-related indirect aerosol effects on climate. This pathway from ocean fertilisation to aerosol induced cooling of the climate may provide a basis for solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering. In this study, we investigate the transient climate impacts of two emissions scenarios: an RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5) control; and an idealised scenario, based on RCP4.5, in which DMS emissions are substantially enhanced over ocean areas. We use mini-ensembles of a coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration of CESM1(CAM5) (Community Earth System Model version 1, with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5). We find that the cooling effect associated with enhanced DMS emissions beneficially offsets greenhouse gas induced warming across most of the world. However, the rainfall response may adversely affect water resources, potentially impacting human livelihoods. These results demonstrate that changes in marine phytoplankton activity may lead to a mixture of positive and negative impacts on the climate. PMID:26293204

  3. Impact of Physics Parameterization Ordering in a Global Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Aaron S.; Caldwell, Peter M.

    2018-02-01

    Because weather and climate models must capture a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales, they rely heavily on parameterizations of subgrid-scale processes. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that the assumptions used to couple these parameterizations have an important effect on the climate of version 0 of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) General Circulation Model (GCM), a close relative of version 1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Like most GCMs, parameterizations in E3SM are sequentially split in the sense that parameterizations are called one after another with each subsequent process feeling the effect of the preceding processes. This coupling strategy is noncommutative in the sense that the order in which processes are called impacts the solution. By examining a suite of 24 simulations with deep convection, shallow convection, macrophysics/microphysics, and radiation parameterizations reordered, process order is shown to have a big impact on predicted climate. In particular, reordering of processes induces differences in net climate feedback that are as big as the intermodel spread in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. One reason why process ordering has such a large impact is that the effect of each process is influenced by the processes preceding it. Where output is written is therefore an important control on apparent model behavior. Application of k-means clustering demonstrates that the positioning of macro/microphysics and shallow convection plays a critical role on the model solution.

  4. Enhanced marine sulphur emissions offset global warming and impact rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandey, B S; Wang, C

    2015-08-21

    Artificial fertilisation of the ocean has been proposed as a possible geoengineering method for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The associated increase in marine primary productivity may lead to an increase in emissions of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), the primary source of sulphate aerosol over remote ocean regions, potentially causing direct and cloud-related indirect aerosol effects on climate. This pathway from ocean fertilisation to aerosol induced cooling of the climate may provide a basis for solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering. In this study, we investigate the transient climate impacts of two emissions scenarios: an RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5) control; and an idealised scenario, based on RCP4.5, in which DMS emissions are substantially enhanced over ocean areas. We use mini-ensembles of a coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration of CESM1(CAM5) (Community Earth System Model version 1, with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5). We find that the cooling effect associated with enhanced DMS emissions beneficially offsets greenhouse gas induced warming across most of the world. However, the rainfall response may adversely affect water resources, potentially impacting human livelihoods. These results demonstrate that changes in marine phytoplankton activity may lead to a mixture of positive and negative impacts on the climate.

  5. Impact of Non-Native Birds on Native Ecosystems: A Global Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Albarracin, Valeria L; Amico, Guillermo C; Simberloff, Daniel; Nuñez, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and naturalization of non-native species is one of the most important threats to global biodiversity. Birds have been widely introduced worldwide, but their impacts on populations, communities, and ecosystems have not received as much attention as those of other groups. This work is a global synthesis of the impact of nonnative birds on native ecosystems to determine (1) what groups, impacts, and locations have been best studied; (2) which taxonomic groups and which impacts have greatest effects on ecosystems, (3) how important are bird impacts at the community and ecosystem levels, and (4) what are the known benefits of nonnative birds to natural ecosystems. We conducted an extensive literature search that yielded 148 articles covering 39 species belonging to 18 families -18% of all known naturalized species. Studies were classified according to where they were conducted: Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North America, South America, Islands of the Indian, of the Pacific, and of the Atlantic Ocean. Seven types of impact on native ecosystems were evaluated: competition, disease transmission, chemical, physical, or structural impact on ecosystem, grazing/ herbivory/ browsing, hybridization, predation, and interaction with other non-native species. Hybridization and disease transmission were the most important impacts, affecting the population and community levels. Ecosystem-level impacts, such as structural and chemical impacts were detected. Seven species were found to have positive impacts aside from negative ones. We provide suggestions for future studies focused on mechanisms of impact, regions, and understudied taxonomic groups.

  6. Climate impacts on hydropower and consequences for global electricity supply investment needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Sean W. D.; Hejazi, Mohamad; Kim, Son H.; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, Jae

    2017-12-01

    Recent progress in global scale hydrological and dam modeling has allowed for the study of climate change impacts on global hydropower production. Here we explore the possible consequences of these impacts for the electricity supply sector. Regional hydropower projections are developed for two emissions scenarios by forcing a coupled global hydrological and dam model with downscaled, bias-corrected climate realizations derived from sixteen general circulation models. Consequent impacts on power sector composition and associated emissions and investment costs are explored using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Changes in hydropower generation resulting from climate change can shift power demands onto and away from carbon intensive technologies, resulting in significant impacts on power sector CO2 emissions for certain world regions—primarily those located in Latin America, as well as Canada and parts of Europe. Reduced impacts of climate change on hydropower production under a low emissions scenario coincide with increased costs of marginal power generating capacity—meaning impacts on power sector investment costs are similar for high and low emissions scenarios. Individual countries where impacts on investment costs imply significant risks or opportunities are identified.

  7. Similar Estimates of Temperature Impacts on Global Wheat Yield by Three Independent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Muller, Christoph; Ewart, Frank; Elliott, Joshua; Lobell, David B.; Martre, Pierre; Ruane, Alex C.; Wallach, Daniel; Jones, James W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The potential impact of global temperature change on global crop yield has recently been assessed with different methods. Here we show that grid-based and point-based simulations and statistical regressions (from historic records), without deliberate adaptation or CO2 fertilization effects, produce similar estimates of temperature impact on wheat yields at global and national scales. With a 1 C global temperature increase, global wheat yield is projected to decline between 4.1% and 6.4%. Projected relative temperature impacts from different methods were similar for major wheat-producing countries China, India, USA and France, but less so for Russia. Point-based and grid-based simulations, and to some extent the statistical regressions, were consistent in projecting that warmer regions are likely to suffer more yield loss with increasing temperature than cooler regions. By forming a multi-method ensemble, it was possible to quantify 'method uncertainty' in addition to model uncertainty. This significantly improves confidence in estimates of climate impacts on global food security.

  8. The impact of globalization on public health: implications for the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K

    2000-09-01

    There has been substantial discussion of globalization in the scholarly and popular press yet limited attention so far among public health professionals. This is so despite the many potential impacts of globalization on public health. Defining public health broadly, as focused on the collective health of populations requiring a range of intersectoral activities, globalization can be seen to have particular relevance. Globalization, in turn, can be defined as a process that is changing the nature of human interaction across a wide range of spheres and along at least three dimensions. Understanding public health and globalization in these ways suggests the urgent need for research to better understand the linkages between the two, and effective policy responses by a range of public health institutions, including the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine. The paper is based on a review of secondary literature on globalization that led to the development of a conceptual framework for understanding potential impacts on the determinants of health and public health. The paper then discusses major areas of public health in relation to these potential impacts. It concludes with recommendations on how the UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine might contribute to addressing these impacts through its various activities. Although there is growing attention to the importance of globalization to public health, there has been limited research and policy development in the United Kingdom. The UK Faculty of Public Health Medicine needs to play an active role in bringing relevant issues to the attention of policy makers, and encourage its members to take up research, teaching and policy initiatives. The potential impacts of globalization support a broader understanding and practice of public health that embraces a wide range of health determinants.

  9. Hydrological impacts of global land cover change and human water use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. C. Bosmans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human impacts on global terrestrial hydrology have been accelerating during the 20th century. These human impacts include the effects of reservoir building and human water use, as well as land cover change. To date, many global studies have focussed on human water use, but only a few focus on or include the impact of land cover change. Here we use PCR-GLOBWB, a combined global hydrological and water resources model, to assess the impacts of land cover change as well as human water use globally in different climatic zones. Our results show that land cover change has a strong effect on the global hydrological cycle, on the same order of magnitude as the effect of human water use (applying irrigation, abstracting water, for industrial use for example, including reservoirs, etc.. When globally averaged, changing the land cover from that of 1850 to that of 2000 increases discharge through reduced evapotranspiration. The effect of land cover change shows large spatial variability in magnitude and sign of change depending on, for example, the specific land cover change and climate zone. Overall, land cover effects on evapotranspiration are largest for the transition of tall natural vegetation to crops in energy-limited equatorial and warm temperate regions. In contrast, the inclusion of irrigation, water abstraction and reservoirs reduces global discharge through enhanced evaporation over irrigated areas and reservoirs as well as through water consumption. Hence, in some areas land cover change and water distribution both reduce discharge, while in other areas the effects may partly cancel out. The relative importance of both types of impacts varies spatially across climatic zones. From this study we conclude that land cover change needs to be considered when studying anthropogenic impacts on water resources.

  10. The historical impact of climate extremes on global agricultural production and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, T. J.; Pal, I.; Block, P. J.; Lall, U.

    2011-12-01

    How does climate variability at interannual time scales impact the volume and prices of key agricultural products on the global market? Do concurrent climate shocks in major breadbaskets of the world have serious impacts on global stocks and food prices? To what extent may irrigated agriculture or food storage buffer such impacts? Is there evidence of such impacts and/or buffering in the publicly available historical data? This talk explores these questions through empirical data analysis. During the past two years, we have seen drought in China, Europe, and Russia and floods in the United States and Australia. In this study, we examine the relationship between climate and crop yields, focusing on three main grain staples: wheat, rice, and maize. To do this, we use global production, trade, and stock data from the Food and Agricultural Organization and the United States Department of Agriculture for agriculture information and gridded observations of temperature and precipitation from 1960 through 2008. We focus on the impact of climate shocks (extreme temperatures, drought, and floods) on the agricultural production for the top exporting countries and quantify how these shocks propagate through the country's exports, imports, and grain stocks in order to understand the effect climate variability and extremes have on global food security. The ability to forecast these climate shocks at seasonal to longer lead times would significantly improve our ability to cope with perturbations in the global food supply, and we evaluate the ability of current models to produce skillful seasonal forecasts over the major grain producing regions.

  11. Estimating the Global Agricultural Impact of Solar Radiation Management using Volcanic Eruptions as Natural Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, J.; Hsiang, S. M.; Burney, J. A.; Burke, M.; Schlenker, W.

    2017-12-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM) is increasingly considered an option for managing global temperatures, yet the economic impacts of ameliorating climatic changes by scattering sunlight back to space remain largely unknown. Though SRM may increase crop yields by reducing heat stress, its impacts from concomitant changes in available sunlight have never been empirically estimated. Here we use the volcanic eruptions that inspired modern SRM proposals as natural experiments to provide the first estimates of how the stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SS) created by the eruptions of El Chichon and Pinatubo altered the quantity and quality of global sunlight, how those changes in sunlight impacted global crop yields, and the total effect that SS may have on yields in an SRM scenario when the climatic and sunlight effects are jointly considered. We find that the sunlight-mediated impact of SS on yields is negative for both C4 (maize) and C3 (soy, rice, wheat) crops. Applying our yield model to a geoengineering scenario using SS-based SRM from 2050-2069, we find that SRM damages due to scattering sunlight are roughly equal in magnitude to SRM benefits from cooling. This suggests that SRM - if deployed using SS similar to those emitted by the volcanic eruptions it seeks to mimic - would attenuate little of the damages from climate change to global agriculture on net. Our approach could be extended to study SRM impacts on other global systems, such as human health or ecosystem function.

  12. SPRYSEC effector proteins in Globodera rostochiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehman, S.

    2008-01-01

    Plant pathogens inject so-called effector molecules into the cells of a host plant to promote their growth and reproduction in these hosts. In plant parasitic nematodes, these effector molecules are produced in the salivary glands. The objective of this thesis was to identify and characterize

  13. The impact of the global crisis on transition economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuti Mario D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available All forecasts for transition countries - the 29 EBRD countries of operation - since mid-2008 have been repeatedly downgraded. The latest forecasts (May 2009 envisage an average income decline of 5 per cent in 2009 and only a small recovery of 1.4 per cent in 2010; performance is very diverse. In general, transition countries faced two shocks: a sudden stop and reversal of capital inflows, and an exports collapse due to the global slump. More specific factors include: 1 Home made sub-primes (domestic loans to households, enterprises and governments originally denominated in foreign currency; 2 External imbalances; 3 Worsening terms of trade for primary products exporters; 4 Fall or reversal of FDI and portfolio investment inflows; 5 Funds withdrawal by foreign banks; 6 External demand reduction; 7 Differences in initial positions and policy response. Earlier membership of the Euro by the new member states through a relaxation of Maastricht rules might have been beneficial, but the current crisis is no time for changing or bending rules. By comparison with the transition recession of the 1990s, the current recession is much smaller and shorter, it benefits from more generous assistance from the international community, and from the more enlightened fiscal and monetary policies now uncharacteristically recommended by International Financial Organizations.

  14. THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL AGING ON ASSET PRICES AND RETURNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Dumitru SACALĂ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have tried to model the connection between the structure of population and the financial markets, showing the possibility of a future meltdown in the financial markets, via lower savings and investments given the reaching of the baby-boom cohorts at the age of retirement. In general the research has focused on the case of more industrialized countries, where the aging phenomenon is more felt in the present. The case of Central and Eastern European countries was somehow left aside, although the issue of aging should be an important one, considering also the current state of developing CEE capital markets. Our empirical work, based on the Romanian experience, suggests also that the demographic dynamics have had a detectable impact on the domestic stock market.

  15. Smoke-free legislation: global reach, impact and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruer, L; Tursan d'Espaignet, E; Haw, S; Fernández, E; Mackay, J

    2012-03-01

    Article 8 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (2005) requires all signatory countries to adopt measures to protect people from tobacco smoke in indoor workplaces, indoor public places, public transport and other public places as appropriate. The aims of this symposium were to review progress across the world, to assess the evidence for the impact of legislation on health, and to identify the continuing challenges in making universal protection a reality. There was agreement that even in countries where strict legislation is enforced, many children continue to be dangerously exposed to parental second-hand smoke in the womb, the home and private cars. The importance of using accurate estimates of the burden of disease caused by second-hand smoke was agreed, in order to present an unassailable case for legislation and enforcement. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  17. The Spanish Food Industry on Global Supply Chains and Its Impact on Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the impact of economic activities on natural resources through global supply chains is increasingly demanded in the context of the growing globalization of economies and product fragmentation. Taking Spain as a case study and a sector with significant economic and environmental impacts, the agri-food industry, the objective of this work is two-fold. First, we estimate the associated water impact, both from the production and consumption perspectives, paying special attention to the water embodied in production exchanges among countries and sectors. To that aim, we use an environmentally-extended multiregional input-output model (MRIO. Second, we assess the main driving factors behind changes in direct and embodied water consumption between the years 1995 and 2009 by means of a structural decomposition analysis. The MRIO model provides a comprehensive estimate of the economic linkages among regions and economic sectors and, therefore, allows calculating the environmental impacts over international value chains. The results indicate that the food industry exerts large impacts on global water resources, particularly given the remarkable interactions with the domestic and foreign agricultural sectors, These growing linkages show how consumption patterns, and, therefore, lifestyles, involve large environmental impacts through the whole and global supply chains.

  18. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Diane G O; Win, Joe; Cano, Liliana M; Szabo, Les J; Kamoun, Sophien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i) contain a secretion signal, (ii) are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii) have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv) are small and cysteine rich, (v) contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi) are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii) contain internal repeats, and (viii) do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components.

  19. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane G O Saunders

    Full Text Available Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i contain a secretion signal, (ii are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv are small and cysteine rich, (v contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii contain internal repeats, and (viii do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components.

  20. Using Hierarchical Clustering of Secreted Protein Families to Classify and Rank Candidate Effectors of Rust Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Diane G. O.; Win, Joe; Cano, Liliana M.; Szabo, Les J.; Kamoun, Sophien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i) contain a secretion signal, (ii) are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii) have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv) are small and cysteine rich, (v) contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi) are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii) contain internal repeats, and (viii) do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components. PMID:22238666

  1. The impact of climate change on the global wine industry: Challenges & solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Renée Mozell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of climate change upon the global production of winegrapes and wine. It includes a review of the literature on the cause and effects of climate change, as well as illustrations of the specific challenges global warming may bring to the production of winegrapes and wine. More importantly, this paper provides some practical solutions that industry professionals can take to mitigate and adapt to the coming change in both vineyards and wineries.

  2. Globalization and mental health: The impact of war and armed conflict on families

    OpenAIRE

    Song, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Globalization and armed conflict have created population shifts that displace people and families, bringing critical issues around humanitarian emergencies into our communities. More researchers have taken an interest in the global community, but there remains a paucity of mental health research on the problems of people in war-affected countries as well as countries that eventually house them. In this dissertation, I evaluate the impact of armed conflict in developmental phases across the li...

  3. The impact of climate change on the global wine industry: Challenges & solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mozell, Michelle Renée; Thach, Liz

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of climate change upon the global production of winegrapes and wine. It includes a review of the literature on the cause and effects of climate change, as well as illustrations of the specific challenges global warming may bring to the production of winegrapes and wine. More importantly, this paper provides some practical solutions that industry professionals can take to mitigate and adapt to the coming change in both vineyards and wineries.

  4. View from Silicon Valley: Maximizing the Scientific Impact of Global Brain Initiatives through Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pushkar S; Ghosh, Kunal K

    2016-11-02

    In this era of technology-driven global neuroscience initiatives, the role of the neurotechnology industry remains woefully ambiguous. Here, we explain why industry is essential to the success of these global initiatives, and how it can maximize the scientific impact of these efforts by (1) scaling and ultimately democratizing access to breakthrough neurotechnologies, and (2) commercializing technologies as part of integrated, end-to-end solutions that accelerate neuroscientific discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An alternative to the Global Warming Potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Shine, Keith P.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Stuber, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subject to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design and application, and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here a new metric, which we call the Global Tem...

  6. Longitudinal observations of globally distributed design teams: The impacts on Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Factors impacting the success of Product Development (PD) projects are intensified when teams are distributed globally, making it a challenging task for project management to deal with effects on time, cost and quality. It is important for project management to understand when challenges, such as......Factors impacting the success of Product Development (PD) projects are intensified when teams are distributed globally, making it a challenging task for project management to deal with effects on time, cost and quality. It is important for project management to understand when challenges...... the success of a globally distributed PD project are mapped across the phases of PD, beginning from the early planning phase and development through to the final testing and refinement. Furthermore, the relationship between the impact factors (IF’s) and key parameters for performance is described....

  7. A global assessment of salmon aquaculture impacts on wild salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Ford

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries.

  8. Impacts of El Niño Southern Oscillation on the global yields of major crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Luo, Jing-Jia; Challinor, Andrew J; Sakurai, Gen; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Brown, Molly E; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-05-15

    The monitoring and prediction of climate-induced variations in crop yields, production and export prices in major food-producing regions have become important to enable national governments in import-dependent countries to ensure supplies of affordable food for consumers. Although the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) often affects seasonal temperature and precipitation, and thus crop yields in many regions, the overall impacts of ENSO on global yields are uncertain. Here we present a global map of the impacts of ENSO on the yields of major crops and quantify its impacts on their global-mean yield anomalies. Results show that El Niño likely improves the global-mean soybean yield by 2.1-5.4% but appears to change the yields of maize, rice and wheat by -4.3 to +0.8%. The global-mean yields of all four crops during La Niña years tend to be below normal (-4.5 to 0.0%). Our findings highlight the importance of ENSO to global crop production.

  9. Impacts of El Nino Southern Oscillation on the Global Yields of Major Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Luo, Jing-Jia; Challinor, Andrew J.; Sakurai, Gen; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring and prediction of climate-induced variations in crop yields, production and export prices in major food-producing regions have become important to enable national governments in import-dependent countries to ensure supplies of affordable food for consumers. Although the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) often affects seasonal temperature and precipitation, and thus crop yields in many regions, the overall impacts of ENSO on global yields are uncertain. Here we present a global map of the impacts of ENSO on the yields of major crops and quantify its impacts on their global-mean yield anomalies. Results show that El Nino likely improves the global-mean soybean yield by 2.15.4 but appears to change the yields of maize, rice and wheat by -4.3 to +0.8. The global-mean yields of all four crops during La Nina years tend to be below normal (-4.5 to 0.0).Our findings highlight the importance of ENSO to global crop production.

  10. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIVANI M. RAI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is absorbed by green house gases which results into warming of the earth. These radiations increase temperature on the universe and are one of the most important global problems. The efforts from all the countries of the world are required for reduction of emissions of green house gases.

  11. Climate-change impact potentials as an alternative to global warming potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.

    2014-03-01

    For policy applications, such as for the Kyoto Protocol, the climate-change contributions of different greenhouse gases are usually quantified through their global warming potentials. They are calculated based on the cumulative radiative forcing resulting from a pulse emission of a gas over a specified time period. However, these calculations are not explicitly linked to an assessment of ultimate climate-change impacts. A new metric, the climate-change impact potential (CCIP), is presented here that is based on explicitly defining the climate-change perturbations that lead to three different kinds of climate-change impacts. These kinds of impacts are: (1) those related directly to temperature increases; (2) those related to the rate of warming; and (3) those related to cumulative warming. From those definitions, a quantitative assessment of the importance of pulse emissions of each gas is developed, with each kind of impact assigned equal weight for an overall impact assessment. Total impacts are calculated under the RCP6 concentration pathway as a base case. The relevant climate-change impact potentials are then calculated as the marginal increase of those impacts over 100 years through the emission of an additional unit of each gas in 2010. These calculations are demonstrated for CO2, methane and nitrous oxide. Compared with global warming potentials, climate-change impact potentials would increase the importance of pulse emissions of long-lived nitrous oxide and reduce the importance of short-lived methane.

  12. Regional Climate Impacts of Stabilizing Global Warming at 1.5 K Using Solar Geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anthony C.; Hawcroft, Matthew K.; Haywood, James M.; Jones, Andy; Guo, Xiaoran; Moore, John C.

    2018-02-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement aims to limit global warming to well below 2 K above preindustrial levels, and to pursue efforts to limit global warming to 1.5 K, in order to avert dangerous climate change. However, current greenhouse gas emissions targets are more compatible with scenarios exhibiting end-of-century global warming of 2.6-3.1 K, in clear contradiction to the 1.5 K target. In this study, we use a global climate model to investigate the climatic impacts of using solar geoengineering by stratospheric aerosol injection to stabilize global-mean temperature at 1.5 K for the duration of the 21st century against three scenarios spanning the range of plausible greenhouse gas mitigation pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5). In addition to stabilizing global mean temperature and offsetting both Arctic sea-ice loss and thermosteric sea-level rise, we find that solar geoengineering could effectively counteract enhancements to the frequency of extreme storms in the North Atlantic and heatwaves in Europe, but would be less effective at counteracting hydrological changes in the Amazon basin and North Atlantic storm track displacement. In summary, solar geoengineering may reduce global mean impacts but is an imperfect solution at the regional level, where the effects of climate change are experienced. Our results should galvanize research into the regionality of climate responses to solar geoengineering.

  13. Global Impact Estimation of ISO 50001 Energy Management System for Industrial and Service Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Therkelsen, Peter L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rao, Prakash [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    A methodology has been developed to determine the impacts of ISO 50001 Energy Management System (EnMS) at a region or country level. The impacts of ISO 50001 EnMS include energy, CO2 emissions, and cost savings. This internationally recognized and transparent methodology has been embodied in a user friendly Microsoft Excel® based tool called ISO 50001 Impact Estimator Tool (IET 50001). However, the tool inputs are critical in order to get accurate and defensible results. This report is intended to document the data sources used and assumptions made to calculate the global impact of ISO 50001 EnMS.

  14. Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Loveless, Kolin Joseph

    2012-12-28

    Water is a valuable resource throughout the world, especially in hot, dry climates and regions experiencing significant population growth. Supplies of fresh water are complicated by the economic and political conditions in many of these regions. Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a possible method to alleviate water scarcity issues. Using the results of a climate model that tested data collected from 2000 to 2010, we have identified areas in the world with the greatest collection potential. We gave special consideration to areas with known water scarcities, including the coastal regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We found that the quality of the collected water is an important criterion in determining the potential uses for this water. Condensate water samples were collected from a few locations in Saudi Arabia and detailed characterizations were conducted to determine the quality of this water. We found that the quality of condensate water collected from various locations and types of air conditioners was very high with conductivities reaching as low as 18 μS/cm and turbidities of 0. 041 NTU. The quality of the collected condensate was close to that of distilled water and, with low-cost polishing treatments, such as ion exchange resins and electrochemical processes, the condensate quality could easily reach that of potable water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  15. Impact of Global Climate on Rift Valley Fever and other Vector-borne Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linthicum, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Rift Valley fever is a viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Since the virus was first isolated in Kenya in 1930 it has caused significant impact to animal and human health and national economies, and it is of concern to the international agricultural and public health community. In this presentation we will describe the (1) ecology of disease transmission as it relates to climate, (2) the impact of climate and other environmental conditions on outbreaks, (3) the ability to use global climate information to predict outbreaks, (4) effective response activities, and (4) the potential to mitigate globalization.

  16. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related sub-tasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these sub-tasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these sub-tasks were derived from the original intent

  17. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original

  18. Climate change at the coast: from global to local; Impact du changement climatique sur la cote: de global a local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkinson, A.R. [Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research (United Kingdom); East Anglia Univ., School of East Science, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The IPCC has recently documented substantial changes in the global heat content of the oceans, salinity, sea level, thermal expansion and biogeochemistry. Over the 21. century anticipated climate related changes include: a rise in sea level of up to 0.6 m or more; increases in sea surface temperatures up to 3 deg. C; an intensification of tropical and extra tropical cyclones; larger extreme waves and storm surges; altered precipitation/ run-off; and ocean acidification. The Tyndall Centre has been exploring how to down-scale the global analysis to the local level within the framework of a coastal simulator. The simulator provides information on possible future states of the coast through the 21. Century under a range of climate and socio-economic futures and shoreline management options. It links models within a nested framework, recognizing three scales: (1) global, (2) regional, and (3) local. The linked models describe a range of processes, including marine climate (waves, surges and mean sea level), sand bank morpho-dynamics, wave transformation, shoreline morpho-dynamics, built environment scenarios, ecosystem change, and erosion and flood risk. Analyses from the simulator reinforce conclusions from IPCC WG2: coasts will be exposed to increasing risks over coming decades due to many compounding climate-change factors; the impact of climate change on coasts will be exacerbated by increasing human induced pressures; the unavoidability of sea-level rise even in the longer-term frequently conflicts with present day human development patterns and trends. (author)

  19. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yuichi; Dudgeon, David; Nam, So; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Grudpan, Jarungjit; Magtoon, Wichan; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Praxaysonbath, Bounthob; Sato, Tomoyuki; Shibukawa, Koichi; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Suvarnaraksha, Apinun; Tanaka, Wataru; Thach, Phanara; Tran, Dac Dinh; Yamashita, Tomomi; Utsugi, Kenzo

    2016-01-01

    Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world's largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10-20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased-particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more immediately pressing for

  20. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Kano

    Full Text Available Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world's largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10-20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased-particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more

  1. Impacts of Dams and Global Warming on Fish Biodiversity in the Indo-Burma Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, So; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Grudpan, Jarungjit; Magtoon, Wichan; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Nguyen, Phuong Thanh; Praxaysonbath, Bounthob; Sato, Tomoyuki; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Suvarnaraksha, Apinun; Tanaka, Wataru; Thach, Phanara; Tran, Dac Dinh; Yamashita, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Both hydropower dams and global warming pose threats to freshwater fish diversity. While the extent of global warming may be reduced by a shift towards energy generation by large dams in order to reduce fossil-fuel use, such dams profoundly modify riverine habitats. Furthermore, the threats posed by dams and global warming will interact: for example, dams constrain range adjustments by fishes that might compensate for warming temperatures. Evaluation of their combined or synergistic effects is thus essential for adequate assessment of the consequences of planned water-resource developments. We made projections of the responses of 363 fish species within the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hotspot to the separate and joint impacts of dams and global warming. The hotspot encompasses the Lower Mekong Basin, which is the world’s largest freshwater capture fishery. Projections for 81 dam-building scenarios revealed progressive impacts upon projected species richness, habitable area, and the proportion of threatened species as generating capacity increased. Projections from 126 global-warming scenarios included a rise in species richness, a reduction in habitable area, and an increase in the proportion of threatened species; however, there was substantial variation in the extent of these changes among warming projections. Projections from scenarios that combined the effects of dams and global warming were derived either by simply adding the two threats, or by combining them in a synergistic manner that took account of the likelihood that habitat shifts under global warming would be constrained by river fragmentation. Impacts on fish diversity under the synergistic projections were 10–20% higher than those attributable to additive scenarios, and were exacerbated as generating capacity increased—particularly if CO2 emissions remained high. The impacts of dams, especially those on river mainstreams, are likely to be greater, more predictable and more immediately

  2. Global warming impact assessment of a crop residue gasification project—A dynamic LCA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic LCA is proposed considering time-varying factors. • Dynamic LCA is used to highlight GHG emission hotspots of gasification projects. • Indicators are proposed to reflect GHG emission performance. • Dynamic LCA alters the static LCA results. • Crop residue gasification project has high GHG abatement potential. - Abstract: Bioenergy from crop residues is one of the prevailing sustainable energy sources owing to the abundant reserves worldwide. Amongst a wide variety of energy conversion technologies, crop residue gasification has been regarded as promising owing to its higher energy efficiency than that of direct combustion. However, prior to large-scale application of crop residue gasification, the lifetime environmental performance should be investigated to shed light on sustainable strategies. As traditional static life cycle assessment (LCA) does not include temporal information for dynamic processes, we proposed a dynamic life cycle assessment approach, which improves the static LCA approach by considering time-varying factors, e.g., greenhouse gas characterization factors and energy intensity. As the gasification project can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) discharge compared with traditional direct fuel combustion, trade-offs between the benefits of global warming mitigation and the impact on global warming of crop residue gasification should be considered. Therefore, indicators of net global warming mitigation benefit and global warming impact mitigation period are put forward to justify the feasibility of the crop residue gasification project. The proposed dynamic LCA and indicators were then applied to estimate the life cycle global warming impact of a crop residue gasification system in China. Results show that the crop residue gasification project has high net global warming mitigation benefit and a short global warming impact mitigation period, indicating its prominent potential in alleviating global warming impact. During

  3. Investing for Impact: The Global Fund Approach to Measurement of AIDS Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Suman; Zorzi, Nathalie

    2017-07-01

    The Global Fund raises and invests nearly US$4 billion a year to support programs run in more than 140 countries. The Global Fund strategy 2012-2016 is focused on "Investing for Impact". In order to accomplish this, timely and accurate data are needed to inform strategies and prioritize activities to achieve greater coverage with quality services. Monitoring and evaluation is intrinsic to the Global Fund's system of performance-based funding. The Global Fund invests in strengthening measurement and reporting of results at all stages of the grant cycle. The Global Fund approach to measurement is based on three key principles-(1) simplified reporting: the Global Fund has updated its measurement guidance to focus on impact, coverage and quality with the use of a harmonized set of indicators. (2) Supporting data systems-based on a common framework developed and supported by partners, it promotes investment in five common data systems: routine reporting including HMIS; Surveys-population based and risk group surveys; Analysis, reviews and transparency; Administrative and financial data sources; and, Vital registration systems. (3) Strengthen data use: the Global Fund funding encourages use of data at all levels-national, subnational and site level. Countries do not automatically prioritize M&E but when guidance, tools and investments are available, there is high level utilization of M&E systems in program design, planning, implementation, and results reporting. An in-depth analysis of the available data helps the Global Fund and countries to direct investments towards interventions where impact could be achieved and focus on target population groups and geographic areas that are most affected.

  4. Oxysterols and Their Cellular Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Nissilä

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxysterols are oxidized 27-carbon cholesterol derivatives or by-products of cholesterol biosynthesis, with a spectrum of biologic activities. Several oxysterols have cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities, the ability to interfere with the lateral domain organization, and packing of membrane lipids. These properties may account for their suggested roles in the pathology of diseases such as atherosclerosis, age-onset macular degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Oxysterols also have the capacity to induce inflammatory responses and play roles in cell differentiation processes. The functions of oxysterols as intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones, and as readily transportable forms of sterol, are well established. Furthermore, their actions as endogenous regulators of gene expression in lipid metabolism via liver X receptors and the Insig (insulin-induced gene proteins have been investigated in detail. The cytoplasmic oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP homologues form a group of oxysterol/cholesterol sensors that has recently attracted a lot of attention. However, their mode of action is, as yet, poorly understood. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (ROR α and γ, and Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2 have been identified as novel oxysterol receptors, revealing new physiologic oxysterol effector mechanisms in development, metabolism, and immunity, and evoking enhanced interest in these compounds in the field of biomedicine.

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis effectors interfering host apoptosis signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minqiang; Li, Wu; Xiang, Xiaohong; Xie, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis remains a serious human public health concern. The coevolution between its pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host complicated the way to prevent and cure TB. Apoptosis plays subtle role in this interaction. The pathogen endeavors to manipulate the apoptosis via diverse effectors targeting key signaling nodes. In this paper, we summarized the effectors pathogen used to subvert the apoptosis, such as LpqH, ESAT-6/CFP-10, LAMs. The interplay between different forms of cell deaths, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, is also discussed with a focus on the modes of action of effectors, and implications for better TB control.

  6. Evaluation of environmental impact produced by different economic activities with the global pollution index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Carmen

    2012-07-01

    The paper analyses the environment pollution state in different case studies of economic activities (i.e. co-generation electric and thermal power production, iron profile manufacturing, cement processing, waste landfilling, and wood furniture manufacturing), evaluating mainly the environmental cumulative impacts (e.g. cumulative impact against the health of the environment and different life forms). The status of the environment (air, water resources, soil, and noise) is analysed with respect to discharges such as gaseous discharges in the air, final effluents discharged in natural receiving basins or sewerage system, and discharges onto the soil together with the principal pollutants expressed by different environmental indicators corresponding to each specific productive activity. The alternative methodology of global pollution index (I (GP)*) for quantification of environmental impacts is applied. Environmental data analysis permits the identification of potential impact, prediction of significant impact, and evaluation of cumulative impact on a commensurate scale by evaluation scores (ES(i)) for discharge quality, and global effect to the environment pollution state by calculation of the global pollution index (I (GP)*). The I (GP)* values for each productive unit (i.e. 1.664-2.414) correspond to an 'environment modified by industrial/economic activity within admissible limits, having potential of generating discomfort effects'. The evaluation results are significant in view of future development of each productive unit and sustain the economic production in terms of environment protection with respect to a preventive environment protection scheme and continuous measures of pollution control.

  7. Global scale climate-crop yield relationships and the impacts of recent warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobell, David B; Field, Christopher B

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the global production of major crops are important drivers of food prices, food security and land use decisions. Average global yields for these commodities are determined by the performance of crops in millions of fields distributed across a range of management, soil and climate regimes. Despite the complexity of global food supply, here we show that simple measures of growing season temperatures and precipitation-spatial averages based on the locations of each crop-explain ∼30% or more of year-to-year variations in global average yields for the world's six most widely grown crops. For wheat, maize and barley, there is a clearly negative response of global yields to increased temperatures. Based on these sensitivities and observed climate trends, we estimate that warming since 1981 has resulted in annual combined losses of these three crops representing roughly 40 Mt or $5 billion per year, as of 2002. While these impacts are small relative to the technological yield gains over the same period, the results demonstrate already occurring negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields at the global scale

  8. Assessing the Impact of Globalization on U.S. Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kathy R.; Whillock, Rita Kirk

    1993-01-01

    Surveys American public relations practitioners and finds that the majority of those surveyed said that their practices were not yet affected by globalization. Notes a strong perception that the impact will be realized in the future. Finds also a perceived need to develop a better understanding of the international marketplace and to upgrade…

  9. Evaluating the Impact of Two Globalization Projects on College Students' Cultural Competence and Cultural Intelligence (CQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Murphy, Solange A.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural competence and CQ involve awareness of cultural similarities and differences, knowledge of differences in cultural values, and intercultural encounters. To assess college students' cultural competence and cultural intelligence gains, this experimental study evaluated the impact of two globalization projects on these two constructs. The…

  10. Remapping Englishness--the Impact of Globalization on College English Instruction in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jade Tsui-yu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of globalization upon the college-level instruction of English/American literature in Taiwan. The examination will be centered upon the subject of Englishness as demonstrated in the courses of English/American Literature taught in Taiwan. By focusing on the term "Englishness," the paper…

  11. Long-term costs and health impact of continued global fund support for antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Stover (John); E.L. Korenromp (Eline); M. Blakley (Matthew); R. Komatsu (Ryuichi); K.M. Viisainen (Kirsi); L. Bollinger (Lori); R. Atun (Rifat)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: By the end of 2011 Global Fund investments will be supporting 3.5 million people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 104 low- and middle-income countries. We estimated the cost and health impact of continuing treatment for these patients through 2020. Methods and Findings:

  12. Impacts of +2 °C global warming on winter tourism demand in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, Andrea; Greuell, Wouter; Landgren, Oskar; Prettenthaler, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Increasing temperatures and snow scarce winter seasons challenge the winter tourism industry. In this study the impacts of +2 °C global warming on winter tourism demand in Europe's ski tourism related NUTS-3 regions are quantified. Using time series regression models, the relationship between

  13. Modeling exchange rate volatility in CEEC countries: Impact of global financial and European sovereign debt crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to envisage the impact of global financial (GFC and European sovereign debt crisis (ESDC on foreign exchange markets of emerg- ing countries in Central and Eastern Europe CEEC countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, poland and Serbia. The daily returns of exchange rates on Czech Republic koruna (CZK, Hungarian forint (HuF, Romanian lea (RoL, polish zloty (pLZ and Serbian dinar (RSD, all against the Euro are analyzed during the period from 3rd January 2000 to15th April 2013, in respect. To examine the impact of global financial crisis and European sovereign debt crisis, dummy variables were adopted. overall results imply that global financial crisis has no impact on exchange rate returns in selected CEEC countries, while European sovereign debt crisis inf luencing in depreciation of polish zloty by 8% and Roma- nian lea by 6%. obtained results by our calculation, imply that global financial crisis increased enhanced volatility on exchange rate returns of Czech koruna, Romanian lea and polish zloty. Moreover, results of empirical analysis imply that this impact has the strongest inf luence in volatility on exchange rate returns of polish zloty.

  14. Information Processing and Firm-Internal Environment Contingencies: Performance Impact on Global New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinschmidt, Elko; de Brentani, Ulrike; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Innovation in its essence is an information processing activity. Thus, a major factor impacting the success of new product development (NPD) programs, especially those responding to global markets, is the firm's ability to access, share and apply NPD information, which is often widely dispersed...

  15. China's "energy revolution": measuring the status quo, modelling regional dynamics and assessing global impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischke, Peggy

    in light of changing dynamics in global energy markets” [Xinhua, 2014]. This highlights the strategic importance of China’s energy sector in the country’s national economic planning and its associated global impacts. China furthermore has a growing research and development budget and plays an increasing......, and (iii) benchmarking and visualizing associated global impacts of China’s “energy revolution”. The general framework of investigation was chosen as a cross-disciplinary and highly collaborative approach. Different quantitative-based, economic, technical, and financial planning tools are developed...... energy balance; (ii) a review and benchmarking exercise of 18 Chinese energy modelling tools followed by a discussion of the Chinese perspective towards a low-carbon economy; (iii) an energy system wide mapping of regional energy flows in China to evaluate main disparities; (iv) a coupling of two complex...

  16. The impact of globalization on the characteristics of European countries’ tax systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luković Stevan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the international literature, a great number of studies have sought to determine the relationship between the characteristics of the national tax systems and globalization. Most of the research was conducted to prove the impact of the tax system on the competitiveness of the national economy, in order to give a clear recommendation for how economic and fiscal policy should create a stimulating economic background and enable greater involvement of the national economy in international flows. However, the process can be viewed from the reverse perspective, in the sense that the process of globalization and international competition can shape the characteristics of national tax systems. This paper aims to determine by empirical evidence the impact of the process of globalization and international competition on the characteristics of taxation in observed European countries.

  17. The effector AvrRxo1 phosphorylates NAD in planta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teja Shidore

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of plants and animals employ type III secreted effectors to suppress innate immunity. Most characterized effectors work through modification of host proteins or transcriptional regulators, although a few are known to modify small molecule targets. The Xanthomonas type III secreted avirulence factor AvrRxo1 is a structural homolog of the zeta toxin family of sugar-nucleotide kinases that suppresses bacterial growth. AvrRxo1 was recently reported to phosphorylate the central metabolite and signaling molecule NAD in vitro, suggesting that the effector might enhance bacterial virulence on plants through manipulation of primary metabolic pathways. In this study, we determine that AvrRxo1 phosphorylates NAD in planta, and that its kinase catalytic sites are necessary for its toxic and resistance-triggering phenotypes. A global metabolomics approach was used to independently identify 3'-NADP as the sole detectable product of AvrRxo1 expression in yeast and bacteria, and NAD kinase activity was confirmed in vitro. 3'-NADP accumulated upon transient expression of AvrRxo1 in Nicotiana benthamiana and in rice leaves infected with avrRxo1-expressing strains of X. oryzae. Mutation of the catalytic aspartic acid residue D193 abolished AvrRxo1 kinase activity and several phenotypes of AvrRxo1, including toxicity in yeast, bacteria, and plants, suppression of the flg22-triggered ROS burst, and ability to trigger an R gene-mediated hypersensitive response. A mutation in the Walker A ATP-binding motif abolished the toxicity of AvrRxo1, but did not abolish the 3'-NADP production, virulence enhancement, ROS suppression, or HR-triggering phenotypes of AvrRxo1. These results demonstrate that a type III effector targets the central metabolite and redox carrier NAD in planta, and that this catalytic activity is required for toxicity and suppression of the ROS burst.

  18. The impact of globalization on subjectivities in Cuba: a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Ania Pupo

    2014-10-01

    Globalization has created great transformations, not only in economics, but also in social and cultural relations, and has influenced political practices and governments. If not critically analysed, globalization may at first appear positive, but, in parallel with its development, high levels of poverty and exclusion have occurred and these may affect men and women differently. The objective of this article is to reveal the subjective or individual consequences that derive from globalization and the contexts it creates. This analysis centres on a gender perspective within a Cuban context and tries to challenge the prevailing view of the most poor and excluded groups. Psychiatry and psychology have a long way to go in the search for an understanding of the impact of globalization on human well-being, but critical thinking and the social sciences can offer an alternative to the transformation of this constructed order by giving prominence to people's own subjectivities and experiences.

  19. Functional analysis of Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis RXLR effectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel J C Pel

    Full Text Available The biotrophic plant pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis produces a set of putative effector proteins that contain the conserved RXLR motif. For most of these RXLR proteins the role during infection is unknown. Thirteen RXLR proteins from H. arabidopsidis strain Waco9 were analyzed for sequence similarities and tested for a role in virulence. The thirteen RXLR proteins displayed conserved N-termini and this N-terminal conservation was also found in the 134 predicted RXLR genes from the genome of H. arabidopsidis strain Emoy2. To investigate the effects of single RXLR effector proteins on plant defense responses, thirteen H. arabidopsidis Waco9 RXLR genes were expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Subsequently, these plants were screened for altered susceptibility to the oomycetes H. arabidopsidis and Phytophthora capsici, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Additionally, the effect of the RXLR proteins on flg22-triggered basal immune responses was assessed. Multifactorial analysis of results collated from all experiments revealed that, except for RXLR20, all RXLR effector proteins tested affected plant immunity. For RXLR9 this was confirmed using a P. syringae ΔCEL-mediated effector delivery system. Together, the results show that many H. arabidopsidis RXLR effectors have small effects on the plant immune response, suggesting that suppression of host immunity by this biotrophic pathogen is likely to be caused by the combined actions of effectors.

  20. Assessing Health Impacts within Environmental Impact Assessments: An Opportunity for Public Health Globally Which Must Not Remain Missed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the member states of the United Nations 190 of 193 have regulated Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA which is a systematic process to prevent and mitigate the potential environmental impacts of industry development projects before these occur. However, the routine and comprehensive assessment of health impacts within EIAs remains underdeveloped. Focusing, as an example, on the risks to global health from the global shift in the mining industry towards Low and Middle Income Countries LMIC, this viewpoint details why connecting with EIA is an essential task for the health system. Although existing knowledge is out of date in relation to global practice we identify how health has been included, to some extent, in High Income Country EIAs and the institutional requirements for doing so. Using arguments identified by industry themselves about requiring a ‘social license to operate’, we conclude that EIA regulations provide the best current mechanism to ensure health protection is a core aspect in the decision making process  to approve projects.

  1. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  2. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  3. THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING ON STORMS AND STORM PREPAREDNESS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chew-Hung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, “[w]arming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures” (IPCC, 2007: 5 by about 0.8–1.0°C over the last 160 years. Based on a survey of literature on global warming and precipitation, there is agreement that the frequency of extreme precipitation events in Southeast Asia will increase with global warming. At the regional level, densely populated countries in Southeast Asia are vulnerable to these changes in precipitation events. This article provides a review of the potential changes to storm events in Southeast Asia, based on the understanding of existing scientific discourse. The article also presents two case studies of anomalous storm event in Southeast Asia, Typhoon Vamei and the extreme high rainfall event in December 2006 in Peninsular Malaysia, as indication of the potential impacts of global warming related changes to storm activities, highlighting the need for preparedness in adapting to the impact of global warming.

  4. Increasing crop production in Russia and Ukraine—regional and global impacts from intensification and recultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppermann, Andre; Balkovič, Juraj; Bundle, Sophie-Charlotte; Di Fulvio, Fulvio; Havlik, Petr; Leclère, David; Lesiv, Myroslava; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2018-02-01

    Russia and Ukraine are countries with relatively large untapped agricultural potentials, both in terms of abandoned agricultural land and substantial yield gaps. Here we present a comprehensive assessment of Russian and Ukrainian crop production potentials and we analyze possible impacts of their future utilization, on a regional as well as global scale. To this end, the total amount of available abandoned land and potential yields in Russia and Ukraine are estimated and explicitly implemented in an economic agricultural sector model. We find that cereal (barley, corn, and wheat) production in Russia and Ukraine could increase by up to 64% in 2030 to 267 million tons, compared to a baseline scenario. Oilseeds (rapeseed, soybean, and sunflower) production could increase by 84% to 50 million tons, respectively. In comparison to the baseline, common net exports of Ukraine and Russia could increase by up to 86.3 million tons of cereals and 18.9 million tons of oilseeds in 2030, representing 4% and 3.6% of the global production of these crops, respectively. Furthermore, we find that production potentials due to intensification are ten times larger than potentials due to recultivation of abandoned land. Consequently, we also find stronger impacts from intensification at the global scale. A utilization of crop production potentials in Russia and Ukraine could globally save up to 21 million hectares of cropland and reduce average global crop prices by more than 3%.

  5. Graphical Methodology of Global Pollution Index for the Environmental Impact Assessment Using Two Environmental Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Cojocaru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the applied methods for environmental impact assessment is the index of global pollution (IGP proposed by Rojanschi in 1991. This methodology enables the global estimation for the ecosystem state affected more or less by human activities. Unfortunately, Rojanschi’s method has a limitation; it can be applied only if at least three environmental components are considered. Frequently, many environmental impact assessment applications rely on analysis of only two environmental components. Therefore, this work aimed to develop a new graphical method to extend Rojanschi’s approach for the case of two environmental components. The proposed method avoids the average value of evaluation grades and uses only the graphical correspondence for calculation of the index of global pollution. A right-angle triangle graph methodology was proposed, where bases represented the values of evaluation grades. Thus, for the case of two environmental components, the index of global pollution was calculated as the relation between the ideal and real ecosystem states represented by the ratio between areas of external and enclosed right triangles. The developed graphical method was tested and validated for real case studies: the environmental impact assessment from a refinery located on the Romanian Black Sea Coast considering Air and Water environmental components and from a coal-fired thermoelectric power plant from Eastern Romania regarding Air and Soil environmental components. In this way, it was provided a reliable and faster tool to be used for the pollution characterization of human-derived chemicals for better decisions in risk management.

  6. Corruption Kills: Estimating the Global Impact of Corruption on Children Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Van-Melle, Astrid; Fraisse, Florence; Roger, Amaury; Carme, Bernard; Nacher, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Background Information on the global risk factors of children mortality is crucial to guide global efforts to improve survival. Corruption has been previously shown to significantly impact on child mortality. However no recent quantification of its current impact is available. Methods The impact of corruption was assessed through crude Pearson's correlation, univariate and multivariate linear models coupling national under-five mortality rates in 2008 to the national “perceived level of corruption” (CPI) and a large set of adjustment variables measured during the same period. Findings The final multivariable model (adjusted R2 = 0.89) included the following significant variables: percentage of people with improved sanitation (p.valueCorruption Perception Index (p.valuecorruption) was associated with an increase in the log of national under-five mortality rate of 0.0644. According to this result, it could be roughly hypothesized that more than 140000 annual children deaths could be indirectly attributed to corruption. Interpretations Global response to children mortality must involve a necessary increase in funds available to develop water and sanitation access and purchase new methods for prevention, management, and treatment of major diseases drawing the global pattern of children deaths. However without paying regard to the anti-corruption mechanisms needed to ensure their proper use, it will also provide further opportunity for corruption. Policies and interventions supported by governments and donors must integrate initiatives that recognise how they are inter-related. PMID:22073233

  7. Integrated regional assessment of global climatic change. Lessons from the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Stewart J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines the potential role integrated regional assessments of global climatic change scenarios could play in building better links between science and related policy concerns. The concept is illustrated through description of an ongoing case study from Canada-the Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS). As part of the Government of Canada's Green Plan, the Global Warming Science Program includes a study of regional impacts of global warming scenarios in the Mackenzie Basin, located in northwestern Canada. The MBIS is a six-year program focussing on potential climate-induced changes in the land and water resource base, and the implications of four scenarios of global climatic change on land use and economic policies in this region. These policy issues include interjurisdictional water management, sustainability of native lifestyles, economic development opportunities (agriculture, forestry, tourism, etc.), sustainability of ecosystems and infrastructure maintenance. MBIS is due to be completed in 1997. MBIS represents an attempt to address regional impacts by incorporating a 'family of integrators' into the study framework, and by directly involving stakeholders in planning and research activities. The experience in organizing and carrying out this project may provide some lessons for others interested in organizing regional or country studies

  8. Corruption kills: estimating the global impact of corruption on children deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Van-Melle, Astrid; Fraisse, Florence; Roger, Amaury; Carme, Bernard; Nacher, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Information on the global risk factors of children mortality is crucial to guide global efforts to improve survival. Corruption has been previously shown to significantly impact on child mortality. However no recent quantification of its current impact is available. The impact of corruption was assessed through crude Pearson's correlation, univariate and multivariate linear models coupling national under-five mortality rates in 2008 to the national "perceived level of corruption" (CPI) and a large set of adjustment variables measured during the same period. The final multivariable model (adjusted R(2)= 0.89) included the following significant variables: percentage of people with improved sanitation (p.valueCorruption Perception Index (p.valuecorruption) was associated with an increase in the log of national under-five mortality rate of 0.0644. According to this result, it could be roughly hypothesized that more than 140000 annual children deaths could be indirectly attributed to corruption. Global response to children mortality must involve a necessary increase in funds available to develop water and sanitation access and purchase new methods for prevention, management, and treatment of major diseases drawing the global pattern of children deaths. However without paying regard to the anti-corruption mechanisms needed to ensure their proper use, it will also provide further opportunity for corruption. Policies and interventions supported by governments and donors must integrate initiatives that recognise how they are inter-related.

  9. Assessing climate change impacts, benefits of mitigation, and uncertainties on major global forest regions under multiple socioeconomic and emissions scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B Kim; Erwan Monier; Brent Sohngen; G Stephen Pitts; Ray Drapek; James McFarland; Sara Ohrel; Jefferson Cole

    2016-01-01

    We analyze a set of simulations to assess the impact of climate change on global forests where MC2 dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) was run with climate simulations from the MIT Integrated Global System Model-Community Atmosphere Model (IGSM-CAM) modeling framework. The core study relies on an ensemble of climate simulations under two emissions scenarios: a...

  10. Global-Local Visual Processing Impacts Risk Taking Behaviours, but Only at First

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wee Hun eLim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of early visual processing on decision-making during unpredictable, risky situations. Participants undertook Navon’s (1977 task and attended to either global letters or local letters only, following which they completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART. It was observed that global-focused individuals made more balloon pumps during the BART (i.e., took more risk, whereas local-focused individuals took less risk, albeit only initially. The theory of predictive and reactive control systems (PARCS provides an excellent account of the data. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  11. The Increase of Exotic Zoonotic Helminth Infections: The Impact of Urbanization, Climate Change and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Jones, Malcolm K; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic parasitic diseases are increasingly impacting human populations due to the effects of globalization, urbanization and climate change. Here we review the recent literature on the most important helminth zoonoses, including reports of incidence and prevalence. We discuss those helminth diseases which are increasing in endemic areas and consider their geographical spread into new regions within the framework of globalization, urbanization and climate change to determine the effect these variables are having on disease incidence, transmission and the associated challenges presented for public health initiatives, including control and elimination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Global Invader Impact Network (GIIN): toward standardized evaluation of the ecological impacts of invasive plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barney, J. N.; Tekiela, D. R.; Barrios-Garcia, M. N.; Dimarco, R. D.; Hufbauer, R. A.; Leipzig-Scott, P.; Nunez, M. A.; Pauchard, A.; Pyšek, Petr; Vítková, Michaela; Maxwell, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 14 (2015), s. 2878-2889 ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1112 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasive plants * coordinated distributed experiment * impact assessment Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.537, year: 2015

  13. Mapping the impacts of thermoelectric power generation: a global, spatially explicit database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Catherine; Pfister, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric power generation is associated with environmental pressures resulting from emissions to air and water, as well as water consumption. The need to achieve global coverage in related studies has become pressing in view of climate change. At the same time, the ability to quantify impacts from power production on a high resolution remains pertinent, given their highly regionalized nature, particularly when it comes to water-related impacts. Efforts towards global coverage have increased in recent years, but most work on the impacts of global electricity production presents a coarse geographical differentiation. Over the past few years we have begun a concerted effort to create and make available a global georeferenced inventory of thermoelectric power plant operational characteristics and emissions, by modelling the relevant processes on the highest possible level: that of a generating unit. Our work extends and enhances a commercially available global power plant database, and so far includes: - Georeferencing the generating units and populating the gaps in their steam properties. - Identifying the cooling system for 92% of the global installed thermoelectric power capacity. - Using the completed steam property data, along with local environmental temperature data, to systematically solve the Rankine cycle for each generating unit, involving: i) distinguishing between simple, reheat, and cogenerative cycles, and accounting for particularities in nuclear power cycles; ii) accounting for the effect of different cooling systems (once-through, recirculating (wet tower), dry cooling) on the thermodynamic cycle. One of the direct outcomes of solving the Rankine cycle is the cycle efficiency, an indispensable parameter in any study related to power production, including the quantification of air emissions and water consumption. Another direct output, for those units employing once-through cooling, is the rate of heat rejection to water, which can lead to

  14. Economic impact of GM crops: the global income and production effects 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s.

  15. A Protocol for the Global Sensitivity Analysis of Impact Assessment Models in Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurachi, S; Borgonovo, E; Heijungs, R

    2016-02-01

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) framework has established itself as the leading tool for the assessment of the environmental impact of products. Several works have established the need of integrating the LCA and risk analysis methodologies, due to the several common aspects. One of the ways to reach such integration is through guaranteeing that uncertainties in LCA modeling are carefully treated. It has been claimed that more attention should be paid to quantifying the uncertainties present in the various phases of LCA. Though the topic has been attracting increasing attention of practitioners and experts in LCA, there is still a lack of understanding and a limited use of the available statistical tools. In this work, we introduce a protocol to conduct global sensitivity analysis in LCA. The article focuses on the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and particularly on the relevance of global techniques for the development of trustable impact assessment models. We use a novel characterization model developed for the quantification of the impacts of noise on humans as a test case. We show that global SA is fundamental to guarantee that the modeler has a complete understanding of: (i) the structure of the model and (ii) the importance of uncertain model inputs and the interaction among them. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. A new dataset for systematic assessments of climate change impacts as a function of global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinke, J.; Ostberg, S.; Schaphoff, S.; Frieler, K.; M{ü}ller, C.; Gerten, D.; Meinshausen, M.; Lucht, W.

    2012-11-01

    In the ongoing political debate on climate change, global mean temperature change (ΔTglob) has become the yardstick by which mitigation costs, impacts from unavoided climate change, and adaptation requirements are discussed. For a scientifically informed discourse along these lines systematic assessments of climate change impacts as a function of ΔTglob are required. The current availability of climate change scenarios constrains this type of assessment to a~narrow range of temperature change and/or a reduced ensemble of climate models. Here, a newly composed dataset of climate change scenarios is presented that addresses the specific requirements for global assessments of climate change impacts as a function of ΔTglob. A pattern-scaling approach is applied to extract generalized patterns of spatially explicit change in temperature, precipitation and cloudiness from 19 AOGCMs. The patterns are combined with scenarios of global mean temperature increase obtained from the reduced-complexity climate model MAGICC6 to create climate scenarios covering warming levels from 1.5 to 5 degrees above pre-industrial levels around the year 2100. The patterns are shown to sufficiently maintain the original AOGCMs' climate change properties, even though they, necessarily, utilize a simplified relationships betweenΔTglob and changes in local climate properties. The dataset (made available online upon final publication of this paper) facilitates systematic analyses of climate change impacts as it covers a wider and finer-spaced range of climate change scenarios than the original AOGCM simulations.

  17. THE INSTITUTIONAL INVESTORS’ BEHAVIOUR UNDER THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIRTEA MARILEN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available On the subject of financial globalization a lot of literature has been written, annalyzing all sorts of effects ithad. Still, the changes induced by globalization at the level of the financial markets are not always clear. The veritableflooding of capitals, constantly moving, created a continuous game of investment opportunities, of arbitrationpossibilities and funding sources, made institutional investors adopt various attitudes, the role of institutional investorsin the activation of capital markets being sustained by the financial globalization and the extension of multinationalfinancial groups, on one side, and by the increased performance of the share and bond markets, on the other side.By the present paper, we propose to underline the behaviour of the main institutional investors (mutual funds,pension funds and hedge funds under the impact of the current global financial crisis, the modifications whichintervened in asset assignment and investment relocation, showing that the instability generated in the global financialsystem had immediate effects on all the portfolios of institutional investors, regardless of their classificationcategory.Under conditions of capital flow increase, adjusted by the global financial crisis, the presented analysis andempirical proofs show a tendency of institutional investors’ asset reallocation on developed markets and thewithdrawal from the emergent ones.

  18. Impact of climate forcing uncertainty and human water use on global and continental water balance components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Müller Schmied

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of water balance components using global hydrological models is subject to climate forcing uncertainty as well as to an increasing intensity of human water use within the 20th century. The uncertainty of five state-of-the-art climate forcings and the resulting range of cell runoff that is simulated by the global hydrological model WaterGAP is presented. On the global land surface, about 62 % of precipitation evapotranspires, whereas 38 % discharges into oceans and inland sinks. During 1971–2000, evapotranspiration due to human water use amounted to almost 1 % of precipitation, while this anthropogenic water flow increased by a factor of approximately 5 between 1901 and 2010. Deviation of estimated global discharge from the ensemble mean due to climate forcing uncertainty is approximately 4 %. Precipitation uncertainty is the most important reason for the uncertainty of discharge and evapotranspiration, followed by shortwave downward radiation. At continental levels, deviations of water balance components due to uncertain climate forcing are higher, with the highest discharge deviations occurring for river discharge in Africa (−6 to 11 % from the ensemble mean. Uncertain climate forcings also affect the estimation of irrigation water use and thus the estimated human impact of river discharge. The uncertainty range of global irrigation water consumption amounts to approximately 50 % of the global sum of water consumption in the other water use sector.

  19. Global climate policy impacts on livestock, land use, livelihoods, and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Alla A; Henderson, Benjamin B; Hertel, Thomas W; Gerber, Pierre J; Rose, Steven K; Sohngen, Brent

    2013-12-24

    Recent research has shed light on the cost-effective contribution that agriculture can make to global greenhouse gas abatement; however, the resulting impacts on agricultural production, producer livelihoods, and food security remain largely unexplored. This paper provides an integrated assessment of the linkages between land-based climate policies, development, and food security, with a particular emphasis on abatement opportunities and impacts in the livestock sector. Targeting Annex I countries and exempting non-Annex I countries from land-based carbon policies on equity or food security grounds may result in significant leakage rates for livestock production and agriculture as a whole. We find that such leakage can be eliminated by supplying forest carbon sequestration incentives to non-Annex I countries. Furthermore, substantial additional global agricultural abatement can be attained by extending a greenhouse gas emissions tax to non-Annex I agricultural producers, while compensating them for their additional tax expenses. Because of their relatively large emissions intensities and limited abatement possibilities, ruminant meat producers face the greatest market adjustments to land-based climate policies. We also evaluate the impacts of climate policies on livelihoods and food consumption in developing countries. In the absence of non-Annex I abatement policies, these impacts are modest. However, strong income and food consumption impacts surface because of higher food costs after forest carbon sequestration is promoted at a global scale. Food consumption among unskilled labor households falls but rises for the representative farm households, because global agricultural supplies are restricted and farm prices rise sharply in the face of inelastic food demands.

  20. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA....... It thus explores the systems of reason that educational comparative practices carry through time; focusing on the way configurations are reproduced and transformed, forming the pre-school child as a central curricular variable....

  1. Potential impacts of global warming on the diversity and distribution of stream insects in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqing; Kwon, Yong-Su; Bae, Mi-Jung; Chung, Namil; Kwon, Tae-Sung; Park, Young-Seuk

    2014-04-01

    Globally, the East Asian monsoon region is one of the richest environments in terms of biodiversity. The region is undergoing rapid human development, yet its river ecosystems have not been well studied. Global warming represents a major challenge to the survival of species in this region and makes it necessary to assess and reduce the potential consequences of warming on species of conservation concern. We projected the effects of global warming on stream insect (Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera [EOPT]) diversity and predicted the changes of geographical ranges for 121 species throughout South Korea. Plecoptera was the most sensitive (decrease of 71.4% in number of species from the 2000s through the 2080s) order, whereas Odonata benefited (increase of 66.7% in number of species from the 2000s through the 2080s) from the effects of global warming. The impact of global warming on stream insects was predicted to be minimal prior to the 2060s; however, by the 2080s, species extirpation of up to 20% in the highland areas and 2% in the lowland areas were predicted. The projected responses of stream insects under global warming indicated that species occupying specific habitats could undergo major reductions in habitat. Nevertheless, habitat of 33% of EOPT (including two-thirds of Odonata and one-third of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) was predicted to increase due to global warming. The community compositions predicted by generalized additive models varied over this century, and a large difference in community structure in the highland areas was predicted between the 2000s and the 2080s. However, stream insect communities, especially Odonata, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, were predicted to become more homogenous under global warming. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Environmental governance and new ICTs : the impact of new information and communication technologies on global environmental governance

    OpenAIRE

    Duberry, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    The doctoral dissertation deals with the impact of the use of new information and communication technologies (ICTs) on global environmental governance. The objective of the research is to analyze the influence of these technologies on the legitimacy of global governance tools and on the competences of global non-state actors –as part of global civil society– involved in processes of environmental politics. After defining the context in which new ICTs emerge, the thesis develops two case studi...

  3. Global warming's impact on the performance of GSHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharseh, Mohamad; Altorkmany, Lobna; Nordell, Bo [Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleaa University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    Since heating and cooling systems of buildings consume 30-50% of the global energy consumption, increased efficiency of such systems means a considerable reduction in energy consumption. Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) are likely to play a central role in achieving this goal due to their high energy efficient performance. The efficiency of GSHP depends on the ground temperature, heating and cooling demands, and the distribution of heating and cooling over the year. However, all of these are affected by the ongoing climatic change. Consequently, global warming has direct effects on the GSHP performance. Within the framework of current study, heating and cooling demands of a reference building were calculated for different global warming scenarios in different climates i.e. cold, mild and hot climate. The prime energy required to drive the GSHP system is compared for each scenario and two configurations of ground heat exchangers. Current study shows that the ongoing climatic change has significant impact on GSHP systems. (author)

  4. Impacts of Global Manufacturing Trends on Port Development: The Case of Hong Kong1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Global manufacturing trends may have profound implications for regional port development. This paper studies Hong Kong port (HKP, which has been one of the world's busiest container ports since the 1990s. In recent years, global manufacturers have started to move away from its primary cargo base, the Chinese Pearl River Delta. This study investigates impacts of the emerging global manufacturing trends on HKP development. It is found that relocation of manufacturing to Western Guangdong benefits HKP, while other relocation destinations make HKP less attractive or even irrelevant. Based on the findings, government policies are discussed that may be formulated to support the growth of the port and wider port-related economy.

  5. IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL CRISIS ON THE GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Özkan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis dragged many countries into recession, demonstrated that the internationalfinancial system has structural problems and started discussions about restructuring of the international financialinstitutions. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of the global financial crisis on thegovernance structures of the international financial institutions. To this end, studies made at different internationalplatforms were evaluated. The debates and negotiations among the developed and developing countries aboutgovernance structures of the international financial institutions were analyzed. Developing countries’ demand toreform the decision-making mechanisms of the Bretton Woods institutions, the IMF and the World Bank anddeveloped countries’ reservations were investigated. It was concluded that the new shape of the internationalfinancial architecture and governance structures of international financial institutions will depend on internationalpolitics as well as the evolution of the global crisis and the economic dynamics.

  6. Impact of Environmental Changes and Global Warming on Temperature in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishtiaq Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes and global warming have direct impact on human life. Estimation of these changes in various parameters of hydrologic cycle is necessary for future planning and development of a country. In this paper the impact of environmental changes and global warming on temperatures of Pakistan has been studied. The temperature changes in Pakistan have been extracted from simulations made using EdGCM model developed at Columbia University. Simulation study to the end of 21st century is executed using the model for GHG (Greenhouse Gases scenario with doubled_CO2 and scenario of Modern_Predicted SST (Sea Surface Temperature. The model analysis has been carried out for seasonal and annual changes for an average of last 5 years period from 2096-2100. Maps are generated to depict global temperature variations. The study divides Pakistan into five (05 main areas for twenty six (26 stations. A part-plan of globe focusing Pakistan is generated showing the five divisions for twenty six (26 data stations of Pakistan. This part plan is made compatible with grid-box resolution of EdGCM. Eagle-Point Engineering software has been used to generate isohyets of interval (0.5oC for downscaling GCM (Global Climate Model grid data to data stations. The station values of different seasons and annual changes are then compared with the values of base period data to determine changes in temperature. It is observed that impact of global environmental changes on temperature are higher (i.e. there is an increase in annual temperature for double_CO2 experiment at places near the Arabian Sea than areas located away from this sea. It is also observed that the temperature increase will be more in winter than that in other seasons for Pakistan.

  7. Climate change impacts on US agriculture and forestry: benefits of global climate stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Robert H.; Cai, Yongxia; Thomson, Allison; Zhang, Xuesong; Jones, Russell; McCarl, Bruce A.; Crimmins, Allison; Martinich, Jeremy; Cole, Jefferson; Ohrel, Sara; DeAngelo, Benjamin; McFarland, James; Strzepek, Kenneth; Boehlert, Brent

    2015-09-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, higher temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and other climate change impacts have already begun to affect US agriculture and forestry, with impacts expected to become more substantial in the future. There have been numerous studies of climate change impacts on agriculture or forestry, but relatively little research examining the long-term net impacts of a stabilization scenario relative to a case with unabated climate change. We provide an analysis of the potential benefits of global climate change mitigation for US agriculture and forestry through 2100, accounting for landowner decisions regarding land use, crop mix, and management practices. The analytic approach involves a combination of climate models, a crop process model (EPIC), a dynamic vegetation model used for forests (MC1), and an economic model of the US forestry and agricultural sector (FASOM-GHG). We find substantial impacts on productivity, commodity markets, and consumer and producer welfare for the stabilization scenario relative to unabated climate change, though the magnitude and direction of impacts vary across regions and commodities. Although there is variability in welfare impacts across climate simulations, we find positive net benefits from stabilization in all cases, with cumulative impacts ranging from 32.7 billion to 54.5 billion over the period 2015-2100. Our estimates contribute to the literature on potential benefits of GHG mitigation and can help inform policy decisions weighing alternative mitigation and adaptation actions.

  8. Climate change impacts on US agriculture and forestry: benefits of global climate stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, Robert H.; Cai, Yongxia; Thomson, Allison; Zhang, Xuesong; Jones, Russell; McCarl, Bruce A.; Crimmins, Allison; Martinich, Jeremy; Cole, Jefferson; Ohrel, Sara; DeAngelo, Benjamin; McFarland, James; Strzepek, Kenneth; Boehlert, Brent

    2015-09-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, higher temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and other climate change impacts have already begun to affect US agriculture and forestry, with impacts expected to become more substantial in the future. There have been numerous studies of climate change impacts on agriculture or forestry, but relatively little research examining the long-term net impacts of a stabilization scenario relative to a case with unabated climate change. We provide an analysis of the potential benefits of global climate change mitigation for US agriculture and forestry through 2100, accounting for landowner decisions regarding land use, crop mix, and management practices. The analytic approach involves a combination of climate models, a crop process model (EPIC), a dynamic vegetation model used for forests (MC1), and an economic model of the US forestry and agricultural sector (FASOM-GHG). We find substantial impacts on productivity, commodity markets, and consumer and producer welfare for the stabilization scenario relative to unabated climate change, though the magnitude and direction of impacts vary across regions and commodities. Although there is variability in welfare impacts across climate simulations, we find positive net benefits from stabilization in all cases, with cumulative impacts ranging from $32.7 billion to $54.5 billion over the period 2015-2100. Our estimates contribute to the literature on potential benefits of GHG mitigation and can help inform policy decisions weighing alternative mitigation and adaptation actions.

  9. Impact of Intellectual Property in National and Business Development under the Context of the Current Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalin Ballesteros García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the document is to show the impact of the intellectual property on the national and enterprise development in the globalization context since the early twenty-first century. First, it is a historical telling of the intellectual property and its role in the international society; then outlining the arguments to infer the incidence degree of the intellectual property in the economic development of countries and then discussing the inclusion impact of concepts directly related to the intellectual property in business growth activities. It concludes with a reflection on the Colombian situation, in public and private context, in terms of intellectual property.

  10. The global impact of ozone on agricultural crop yields under current and future air quality legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dingenen, Rita; Dentener, Frank J.; Raes, Frank; Krol, Maarten C.; Emberson, Lisa; Cofala, Janusz

    In this paper we evaluate the global impact of surface ozone on four types of agricultural crop. The study is based on modelled global hourly ozone fields for the year 2000 and 2030, using the global 1°×1° 2-way nested atmospheric chemical transport model (TM5). Projections for the year 2030 are based on the relatively optimistic "current legislation (CLE) scenario", i.e. assuming that currently approved air quality legislation will be fully implemented by the year 2030, without a further development of new abatement policies. For both runs, the relative yield loss due to ozone damage is evaluated based on two different indices (accumulated concentration above a 40 ppbV threshold and seasonal mean daytime ozone concentration respectively) on a global, regional and national scale. The cumulative metric appears to be far less robust than the seasonal mean, while the seasonal mean shows satisfactory agreement with measurements in Europe, the US, China and Southern India and South-East Asia. Present day global relative yield losses are estimated to range between 7% and 12% for wheat, between 6% and 16% for soybean, between 3% and 4% for rice, and between 3% and 5% for maize (range resulting from different metrics used). Taking into account possible biases in our assessment, introduced through the global application of "western" crop exposure-response functions, and through model performance in reproducing ozone-exposure metrics, our estimates may be considered as being conservative. Under the 2030 CLE scenario, the global situation is expected to deteriorate mainly for wheat (additional 2-6% loss globally) and rice (additional 1-2% loss globally). India, for which no mitigation measures have been assumed by 2030, accounts for 50% of these global increase in crop yield loss. On a regional-scale, significant reductions in crop losses by CLE-2030 are only predicted in Europe (soybean) and China (wheat). Translating these assumed yield losses into total global economic

  11. Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Karen C; Güneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R

    2012-10-02

    Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km(2), nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr(-1)), equal to ∼5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses.

  12. The Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS as a tool for animal health applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Franceschini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns expressed by various national and international organisations about global livestock sector development and its consequences on the environment and on human and animal health suggest the need to reinforce efforts to monitor and collect more accurate and detailed statistics on livestock. Modern technologies for the organisation, analysis, dissemination and presentation of data and results enhance the contribution that these statistics can make towards the planning of efficient and sustainable animal production and health interventions. To this end, the Food and Agriculture Organization Animal Production and Health Division (FAO-AGA has developed the Global Livestock Impact Mapping System (GLIMS. GLIMS provides a repository for sub-national data pertaining to the livestock sector and produces and distributes, through various channels and formats, a number of global public products, namely: the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW, mapping the spatial distribution of the main livestock species, the Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas (GLiPHA, disseminating sub-national geo-referenced statistics, and the AGA Livestock Sector Briefs, which are concise national reports on the livestock sector. These products have a variety of applications. The authors focus attention on applications in the field of animal health, both to increase knowledge of the occurrence of livestock diseases and to assess their impact.

  13. Second Global Symposium on Health Systems Research: a conference impact evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Milko, Emily; Wu, Diane; Neves, Justin; Neubecker, Alexander Wolfgang; Lavis, John; Ranson, Michael Kent

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation researchers have confirmed the importance of conference evaluation, but there remains little research on the topic, perhaps in part because evaluation methodology related to conference impact is underdeveloped. We conducted a study evaluating a 4-day long health conference, the Second Global Symposium on Health Systems Research (HSR), which took place in Beijing in November 2012. Using a conference evaluation framework and a mixed-methods approach that involved in-conference survey...

  14. Human impacts on 20th century fire dynamics and implications for global carbon and water trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Lawrence, David M.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben

    2018-03-01

    Fire is a fundamental Earth system process and the primary ecosystem disturbance on the global scale. It affects carbon and water cycles through changing terrestrial ecosystems, and at the same time, is regulated by weather and climate, vegetation characteristics, and, importantly, human ignitions and suppression (i.e., the direct human effect on fire). Here, we utilize the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) to quantify the impacts of changes in human ignition and suppression on fire dynamics and associated carbon and water cycles. We find that the impact is to significantly reduce the 20th century global burned area by a century average of 38 Mha/yr and by 103 Mha/yr at the end of the century. Land carbon gain is weakened by 17% over the 20th century, mainly due to increased human deforestation fires and associated escape fires (i.e., degradation fires) in the tropical humid forests, even though the decrease in burned area in many other regions due to human fire suppression acts to increase land carbon gain. The direct human effect on fire weakens the upward trend in global runoff throughout the century by 6% and enhances the upward trend in global evapotranspiration since 1945 by 7%. In addition, the above impacts in densely populated, highly developed (if population density > 0.1 person/km2), or moderately populated and developed regions are of opposite sign to those in other regions. Our study suggests that particular attention should be paid to human deforestation and degradation fires in the tropical humid forests when reconstructing and projecting fire carbon emissions and net atmosphere-land carbon exchange and estimating resultant impacts of direct human effect on fire.

  15. Global scenarios of urban density and its impacts on building energy use through 2050

    OpenAIRE

    Güneralp, Burak; Zhou, Yuyu; Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana; Gupta, Mukesh; Yu, Sha; Patel, Pralit L.; Fragkias, Michail; Li, Xiaoma; Seto, Karen C.

    2017-01-01

    Urban density significantly impacts urban energy use and the quality of life of urban residents. Here, we provide a global-scale analysis of future urban densities and associated energy use in the built environment under different urbanization scenarios. The relative importance of urban density and energy-efficient technologies varies geographically. In developing regions, urban density tends to be the more critical factor in building energy use. Large-scale retrofitting of building stock lat...

  16. Human impacts on 20th century fire dynamics and implications for global carbon and water trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fang; Lawrence, David M.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben

    2018-03-01

    Fire is a fundamental Earth system process and the primary ecosystem disturbance on the global scale. It affects carbon and water cycles through changing terrestrial ecosystems, and at the same time, is regulated by weather and climate, vegetation characteristics, and, importantly, human ignitions and suppression (i.e., the direct human effect on fire). Here, we utilize the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) to quantify the impacts of changes in human ignition and suppression on fire dynamics and associated carbon and water cycles. We find that the impact is to significantly reduce the 20th century global burned area by a century average of 38 Mha/yr and by 103 Mha/yr at the end of the century. Land carbon gain is weakened by 17% over the 20th century, mainly due to increased human deforestation fires and associated escape fires (i.e., degradation fires) in the tropical humid forests, even though the decrease in burned area in many other regions due to human fire suppression acts to increase land carbon gain. The direct human effect on fire weakens the upward trend in global runoff throughout the century by 6% and enhances the upward trend in global evapotranspiration since ~ 1945 by 7%. In addition, the above impacts in densely populated, highly developed (if population density > 0.1 person/km2), or moderately populated and developed regions are of opposite sign to those in other regions. Our study suggests that particular attention should be paid to human deforestation and degradation fires in the tropical humid forests when reconstructing and projecting fire carbon emissions and net atmosphere-land carbon exchange and estimating resultant impacts of direct human effect on fire.

  17. Structural insight into gene transcriptional regulation and effector binding by the Lrp/AsnC family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thaw, P.; Sedelnikova, S.E.; Muranova, T.; Wiese, S.; Ayora, S.; Alonso, J.C.; Brinkman, A.B.; Akerboom, A.P.; Oost, van der J.; Rafferty, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulatory proteins is found in both archaea and bacteria. Members of the family influence cellular metabolism in both a global (Lrp) and specific (AsnC) manner, often in response to exogenous amino acid effectors. In the present study we have determined both

  18. Global climate impacts of country-level primary carbonaceous aerosol from solid-fuel cookstove emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, Forrest; Henze, Daven

    2015-01-01

    Cookstove use is globally one of the largest unregulated anthropogenic sources of primary carbonaceous aerosol. While reducing cookstove emissions through national-scale mitigation efforts has clear benefits for improving indoor and ambient air quality, and significant climate benefits from reduced green-house gas emissions, climate impacts associated with reductions to co-emitted black (BC) and organic carbonaceous aerosol are not well characterized. Here we attribute direct, indirect, semi-direct, and snow/ice albedo radiative forcing (RF) and associated global surface temperature changes to national-scale carbonaceous aerosol cookstove emissions. These results are made possible through the use of adjoint sensitivity modeling to relate direct RF and BC deposition to emissions. Semi- and indirect effects are included via global scaling factors, and bounds on these estimates are drawn from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. Absolute regional temperature potentials are used to estimate global surface temperature changes. Bounds are placed on these estimates, drawing from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. We estimate a range of 0.16 K warming to 0.28 K cooling with a central estimate of 0.06 K cooling from the removal of cookstove aerosol emissions. At the national emissions scale, countries’ impacts on global climate range from net warming (e.g., Mexico and Brazil) to net cooling, although the range of estimated impacts for all countries span zero given uncertainties in RF estimates and fuel characterization. We identify similarities and differences in the sets of countries with the highest emissions and largest cookstove temperature impacts (China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal), those with the largest temperature impact per carbon emitted (Kazakhstan, Estonia, and Mongolia), and those that would provide the

  19. Global climate impacts of country-level primary carbonaceous aerosol from solid-fuel cookstove emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Forrest; Henze, Daven

    2015-11-01

    Cookstove use is globally one of the largest unregulated anthropogenic sources of primary carbonaceous aerosol. While reducing cookstove emissions through national-scale mitigation efforts has clear benefits for improving indoor and ambient air quality, and significant climate benefits from reduced green-house gas emissions, climate impacts associated with reductions to co-emitted black (BC) and organic carbonaceous aerosol are not well characterized. Here we attribute direct, indirect, semi-direct, and snow/ice albedo radiative forcing (RF) and associated global surface temperature changes to national-scale carbonaceous aerosol cookstove emissions. These results are made possible through the use of adjoint sensitivity modeling to relate direct RF and BC deposition to emissions. Semi- and indirect effects are included via global scaling factors, and bounds on these estimates are drawn from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. Absolute regional temperature potentials are used to estimate global surface temperature changes. Bounds are placed on these estimates, drawing from current literature ranges for aerosol RF along with a range of solid fuel emissions characterizations. We estimate a range of 0.16 K warming to 0.28 K cooling with a central estimate of 0.06 K cooling from the removal of cookstove aerosol emissions. At the national emissions scale, countries’ impacts on global climate range from net warming (e.g., Mexico and Brazil) to net cooling, although the range of estimated impacts for all countries span zero given uncertainties in RF estimates and fuel characterization. We identify similarities and differences in the sets of countries with the highest emissions and largest cookstove temperature impacts (China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal), those with the largest temperature impact per carbon emitted (Kazakhstan, Estonia, and Mongolia), and those that would provide the

  20. The transformation of the global oil industry and its impact on international relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleyard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The transformations of ownership and control in the global oil industry since the first oil shock of 1974 are discussed and the impact of that change on several interconnected issues is explored. It is argued that structural changes in the industry affect interstate relations in ways that are of central concern to the discipline of international relations. Any likely future oil industry scenario will have considerable political and economic repercussions for both producer and consumer states, with a concommitant impact on the relations between those states more generally. There is a danger that interstate conflicts among oil producers will increase with perodic changes in the global supply and demand conditions for oil. Ways are suggested for international relations studies to take into account the change in the global oil industry and its impact on the distribution of power and on international order and justice. It is contended that a growing number of states must be considered as behaving much like firms in a competitive market, and the new international oil order both constrains and provides opportunities for those firm-like states. 20 refs

  1. Assessment of impact of strong earthquakes to the global economy by example of Thoku event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatiana, Skufina; Peter, Skuf'in; Sergey, Baranov; Vera, Samarina; Taisiya, Shatalova

    2016-04-01

    We examine the economic consequences of strong earthquakes by example of M9 Tahoku one that occurred on March 11, 2011 close to the northeast shore of Japanese coast Honshu. This earthquake became the strongest in the whole history of the seismological observations in this part of the planet. The generated tsunami killed more than 15,700 people, damaged 332,395 buildings and 2,126 roads. The total economic loss in Japan was estimated at 309 billion. The catastrophe in Japan also impacted global economy. To estimate its impact, we used regional and global stock indexes, production indexes, stock prices of the main Japanese, European and US companies, import and export dynamics, as well as the data provided by the custom of Japan. We also demonstrated that the catastrophe substantially affected the markets and on the short run in some indicators it even exceeded the effect of the global financial crisis of 2008. The last strong earthquake occurred in Nepal (25.04.2015, M7.8) and Chile (16.09.2015, M8.3), both actualized the research of cost assessments of the overall economic impact of seismic hazard. We concluded that it is necessary to treat strong earthquakes as one very important factor that affects the world economy depending on their location. The research was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project 16-06-00056A).

  2. The first three years of the Journal of Global Health: Assessing the impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Journal of Global Health (JoGH is three years old. To assess its impact, we analysed online access to JoGH’s articles using PubMed Central and Google Analytics tools. Moreover, we tracked citations that JoGH received in 2013 using ISI Web of KnowledgeSM and Google Scholar® tools. The 66 items (articles, viewpoints and editorials published between June 2011 and December 2013 were accessed more than 50 000 times during 2013, from more than 160 countries of the world. Seven among the 13 most accessed papers were focused on global, regional and national epidemiological estimates of important infectious diseases. JoGH articles published in 2011 and 2012 received 77 citations in Journal Citation Reports® (JCR–indexed journals in 2013 to 24 original research articles, setting our first, unofficial impact factor at 3.208. In addition, JoGH received 11 citations during 2013 to its 12 original research papers published during 2013, resulting in an immediacy index of 0.917. The number of external, non–commissioned submissions that we consider to be of high quality is continuously increasing, leading to current JoGH’s rejection rate of about 80%. The current citation analysis raises favourable expectations for the JoGH’s overall impact on the global health community in future years.

  3. Globalization of water and food through international trade: impacts on food security, resilience and justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.; Suweis, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of water resources in general depends on geographic conditions but can be (virtually) modified by humans through mechanisms of globalization, such as trade, that make food commodities available to populations living far from the production regions. While trade is expected to improve access to food and (virtual) water, its impact on the global food system and its vulnerability to shocks remains poorly understood. It is also unclear who benefits from trade and whether it contributes to inequality and justice in resource redistribution. We reconstruct the global patterns of food trade and show with a simple model how the ongoing intensification of imports and exports has eroded the resilience of the global food system. Drawing on human rights theory, we investigate the relationship between inequality and injustice in access to water and food. We assess the fulfillment of positive and negative water and food rights and evaluate the obligations arising from the need to ensure that these rights are met throughout the world. We find that trade enhances the vulnerability to shocks but overall increase the number of people whose water and food rights are met.

  4. Climate change impacts on soil carbon storage in global croplands: 1901-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, W.; Tian, H.

    2015-12-01

    New global data finds 12% of earth's surface in cropland at present. Croplands will take on the responsibility to support approximate 60% increase in food production by 2050 as FAO estimates. In addition to nutrient supply to plants, cropland soils also play a major source and sink of greenhouse gases regulating global climate system. It is a big challenge to understand how soils function under global changes, but it is also a great opportunity for agricultural sector to manage soils to assure sustainability of agroecosystems and mitigate climate change. Previous studies have attempted to investigate the impacts of different land uses and climates on cropland soil carbon storage. However, large uncertainty still exists in magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of global cropland soil organic carbon, due to the lack of reliable environmental databases and relatively poorly understanding of multiple controlling factors involved climate change and land use etc. Here, we use a process-based agroecosystem model (DLEM-Ag) in combination with diverse data sources to quantify magnitude and tempo-spatial patterns of soil carbon storage in global croplands during 1901-2010. We also analyze the relative contributions of major environmental variables (climate change, land use and management etc.). Our results indicate that intensive land use management may hidden the vulnerability of cropland soils to climate change in some regions, which may greatly weaken soil carbon sequestration under future climate change.

  5. Understanding the impact of global trade liberalization on health systems pursuing universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reemerging universalistic approaches to health care, the objective of this article was to contribute to the discussion by highlighting the potential influence of global trade liberalization on the balance between health demand and the capacity of health systems pursuing universal health coverage (UHC) to supply adequate health care. Being identified as a defining feature of globalization affecting health, trade liberalization is analyzed as a complex and multidimensional influence on the implementation of UHC. The analysis adopts a systems-thinking approach and refers to the six building blocks of World Health Organization's current "framework for action," emphasizing their interconnectedness. While offering new opportunities to increase access to health information and care, in the absence of global governance mechanisms ensuring adequate health protection and promotion, global trade tends to have negative effects on health systems' capacity to ensure UHC, both by causing higher demand and by interfering with the interconnected functioning of health systems' building blocks. The prevention of such an impact and the effective implementation of UHC would highly benefit from a more consistent commitment and stronger leadership by the World Health Organization in protecting health in global policymaking fora in all sectors. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Engineering, global health, and inclusive innovation: focus on partnership, system strengthening, and local impact for SDGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Katie L; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2016-01-01

    The recent drafting of the Sustainable Development Goals challenges the research community to rethink the traditional approach to global health and provides the opportunity for science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) disciplines, particularly engineering, to demonstrate their benefit to the field. Higher education offers a platform for engineering to intersect with global health research through interdisciplinary partnerships among international universities that provide excellence in education, attract nontraditional STEM students, and foster a sense of innovation. However, a traditional lack of engineering-global health collaborations, as well as limited faculty and inadequate STEM research funding in low-income countries, has stifled progress. Still, the impact of higher education on development efforts holds great potential. This value will be realized in low-income countries through strengthening local capacity, supporting innovation through educational initiatives, and encouraging the inclusion of women and minorities in STEM programs. Current international university-level partnerships are working towards integrating engineering into global health research and strengthening STEM innovation among universities in low-income countries, but more can be done. Global health research informs sustainable development, and through integrating engineering into research efforts through university partnerships, we can accelerate progress and work towards a healthier future for all.

  7. Engineering, global health, and inclusive innovation: focus on partnership, system strengthening, and local impact for SDGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L. Clifford

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent drafting of the Sustainable Development Goals challenges the research community to rethink the traditional approach to global health and provides the opportunity for science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM disciplines, particularly engineering, to demonstrate their benefit to the field. Higher education offers a platform for engineering to intersect with global health research through interdisciplinary partnerships among international universities that provide excellence in education, attract nontraditional STEM students, and foster a sense of innovation. However, a traditional lack of engineering–global health collaborations, as well as limited faculty and inadequate STEM research funding in low-income countries, has stifled progress. Still, the impact of higher education on development efforts holds great potential. This value will be realized in low-income countries through strengthening local capacity, supporting innovation through educational initiatives, and encouraging the inclusion of women and minorities in STEM programs. Current international university-level partnerships are working towards integrating engineering into global health research and strengthening STEM innovation among universities in low-income countries, but more can be done. Global health research informs sustainable development, and through integrating engineering into research efforts through university partnerships, we can accelerate progress and work towards a healthier future for all.

  8. Global Change and Helminth Infections in Grazing Ruminants in Europe: Impacts, Trends and Sustainable Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubertus Hertzberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Infections with parasitic helminths (nematodes and trematodes represent a significant economic and welfare burden to the global ruminant livestock industry. The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistance means that current control programmes are costly and unsustainable in the long term. Recent changes in the epidemiology, seasonality and geographic distribution of helminth infections have been attributed to climate change. However, other changes in environment (e.g., land use and in livestock farming, such as intensification and altered management practices, will also have an impact on helminth infections. Sustainable control of helminth infections in a changing world requires detailed knowledge of these interactions. In particular, there is a need to devise new, sustainable strategies for the effective control of ruminant helminthoses in the face of global change. In this paper, we consider the impact of helminth infections in grazing ruminants, taking a European perspective, and identify scientific and applied priorities to mitigate these impacts. These include the development and deployment of efficient, high-throughput diagnostic tests to support targeted intervention, modelling of geographic and seasonal trends in infection, more thorough economic data and analysis of the impact of helminth infections and greater translation and involvement of end-users in devising and disseminating best practices. Complex changes in helminth epidemiology will require innovative solutions. By developing and using new technologies and models, the use of anthelmintics can be optimised to limit the development and spread of drug resistance and to reduce the overall economic impact of helminth infections. This will be essential to the continued productivity and profitability of livestock farming in Europe and its contribution to regional and global food security.

  9. Impact of biomass burning on nutrient deposition to the global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakidou, Maria; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Daskalakis, Nikos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nenes, Athanasios

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition of trace constituents, both of natural and anthropogenic origin, can act as a nutrient source into the open ocean and affect marine ecosystem functioning and subsequently the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the global ocean. Dust is known as a major source of nutrients (Fe and P) into the atmosphere, but only a fraction of these nutrients is released in soluble form that can be assimilated by the ecosystems. Dust is also known to enhance N deposition by interacting with anthropogenic pollutants and neutralisation of part of the acidity of the atmosphere by crustal alkaline species. These nutrients have also primary anthropogenic sources including combustion emissions. The global atmospheric N [1], Fe [2] and P [3] cycles have been parameterized in the global 3-D chemical transport model TM4-ECPL, accounting for inorganic and organic forms of these nutrients, for all natural and anthropogenic sources of these nutrients including biomass burning, as well as for the link between the soluble forms of Fe and P atmospheric deposition and atmospheric acidity. The impact of atmospheric acidity on nutrient solubility has been parameterised based on experimental findings and the model results have been evaluated by extensive comparison with available observations. In the present study we isolate the significant impact of biomass burning emissions on these nutrients deposition by comparing global simulations that consider or neglect biomass burning emissions. The investigated impact integrates changes in the emissions of the nutrients as well as in atmospheric oxidants and acidity and thus in atmospheric processing and secondary sources of these nutrients. The results are presented and thoroughly discussed. References [1] Kanakidou M, S. Myriokefalitakis, N. Daskalakis, G. Fanourgakis, A. Nenes, A. Baker, K. Tsigaridis, N. Mihalopoulos, Past, Present and Future Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (JAS-D-15

  10. A global call for action to include gender in research impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Adam, Paula; Grant, Jonathan; Hinrichs-Krapels, Saba; Graham, Kathryn E; Valentine, Pamela A; Sued, Omar; Boukhris, Omar F; Al Olaqi, Nada M; Al Rahbi, Idrees S; Dowd, Anne-Maree; Bice, Sara; Heiden, Tamika L; Fischer, Michael D; Dopson, Sue; Norton, Robyn; Pollitt, Alexandra; Wooding, Steven; Balling, Gert V; Jakobsen, Ulla; Kuhlmann, Ellen; Klinge, Ineke; Pololi, Linda H; Jagsi, Reshma; Smith, Helen Lawton; Etzkowitz, Henry; Nielsen, Mathias W; Carrion, Carme; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Vizcaino, Esther; Naing, Lin; Cheok, Quentin H N; Eckelmann, Baerbel; Simuyemba, Moses C; Msiska, Temwa; Declich, Giovanna; Edmunds, Laurel D; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Buchan, Alison M J; Williamson, Catherine; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Surender, Rebecca; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-07-19

    Global investment in biomedical research has grown significantly over the last decades, reaching approximately a quarter of a trillion US dollars in 2010. However, not all of this investment is distributed evenly by gender. It follows, arguably, that scarce research resources may not be optimally invested (by either not supporting the best science or by failing to investigate topics that benefit women and men equitably). Women across the world tend to be significantly underrepresented in research both as researchers and research participants, receive less research funding, and appear less frequently than men as authors on research publications. There is also some evidence that women are relatively disadvantaged as the beneficiaries of research, in terms of its health, societal and economic impacts. Historical gender biases may have created a path dependency that means that the research system and the impacts of research are biased towards male researchers and male beneficiaries, making it inherently difficult (though not impossible) to eliminate gender bias. In this commentary, we - a group of scholars and practitioners from Africa, America, Asia and Europe - argue that gender-sensitive research impact assessment could become a force for good in moving science policy and practice towards gender equity. Research impact assessment is the multidisciplinary field of scientific inquiry that examines the research process to maximise scientific, societal and economic returns on investment in research. It encompasses many theoretical and methodological approaches that can be used to investigate gender bias and recommend actions for change to maximise research impact. We offer a set of recommendations to research funders, research institutions and research evaluators who conduct impact assessment on how to include and strengthen analysis of gender equity in research impact assessment and issue a global call for action.

  11. People, pollution and pathogens - Global change impacts in mountain freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeller, Dirk S; Loyau, Adeline; Bao, Kunshan; Brack, Werner; Chatzinotas, Antonis; De Vleeschouwer, Francois; Friesen, Jan; Gandois, Laure; Hansson, Sophia V; Haver, Marilen; Le Roux, Gaël; Shen, Ji; Teisserenc, Roman; Vredenburg, Vance T

    2018-05-01

    Mountain catchments provide for the livelihood of more than half of humankind, and have become a key destination for tourist and recreation activities globally. Mountain ecosystems are generally considered to be less complex and less species diverse due to the harsh environmental conditions. As such, they are also more sensitive to the various impacts of the Anthropocene. For this reason, mountain regions may serve as sentinels of change and provide ideal ecosystems for studying climate and global change impacts on biodiversity. We here review different facets of anthropogenic impacts on mountain freshwater ecosystems. We put particular focus on micropollutants and their distribution and redistribution due to hydrological extremes, their direct influence on water quality and their indirect influence on ecosystem health via changes of freshwater species and their interactions. We show that those changes may drive pathogen establishment in new environments with harmful consequences for freshwater species, but also for the human population. Based on the reviewed literature, we recommend reconstructing the recent past of anthropogenic impact through sediment analyses, to focus efforts on small, but highly productive waterbodies, and to collect data on the occurrence and variability of microorganisms, biofilms, plankton species and key species, such as amphibians due to their bioindicator value for ecosystem health and water quality. The newly gained knowledge can then be used to develop a comprehensive framework of indicators to robustly inform policy and decision making on current and future risks for ecosystem health and human well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  13. The Impact of the Global Commodity and Financial Crises on Poverty in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurlow, James; Tarp, Finn; McCoy, Simon

    Economic growth in Vietnam has been fairly resilient to the global commodity and financial crises, but it is unclear why. In addition, the impact of the crises on employment and poverty is in dispute. We develop a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to decompose impacts and estimate dist...... people below the US$2-a-day poverty line, with the vast majority of these being rural dwellers. The net effect of the crises left Vietnam........Economic growth in Vietnam has been fairly resilient to the global commodity and financial crises, but it is unclear why. In addition, the impact of the crises on employment and poverty is in dispute. We develop a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to decompose impacts and estimate...... distributional outcomes. Our results indicate that the 2008 commodity crisis increased employment and reduced poverty by favouring labour-intensive exports, especially in agriculture. The 2009 financial crisis reversed these gains. It pushed more than a million workers into unemployment and about 3 million...

  14. Identifying species at extinction risk using global models of anthropogenic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Howard; O'Leary, Bethan C; Hawkins, Julie P; Roberts, Callum M

    2015-02-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Endangered Species employs a robust, standardized approach to assess extinction threat focussed on taxa approaching an end-point in population decline. Used alone, we argue this enforces a reactive approach to conservation. Species not assessed as threatened but which occur predominantly in areas with high levels of anthropogenic impact may require proactive conservation management to prevent loss. We matched distribution and bathymetric range data from the global Red List assessment of 632 species of marine cone snails with human impacts and projected ocean thermal stress and aragonite saturation (a proxy for ocean acidification). Our results show 67 species categorized as 'Least Concern' have 70% or more of their occupancy in places subject to high and very high levels of human impact with 18 highly restricted species (range human impact, declining aragonite saturation levels and elevated thermal stress. Our approach reinforces Red List threatened status, highlights candidate species for reassessment, contributes important evidential data to minimize data deficiency and identifies regions and species for proactive conservation. © 2014 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Impact of lengthening open water season on food security in Alaska coastal communities: Global impacts may outweigh local "frontline" effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolph, R.; Mahoney, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Using ice concentration data from the Alaska Sea Ice Atlas from 1953-2013 for selected communities in Alaska, we find a consistent trend toward later freeze up and earlier breakup, leading a lengthened open water period. Such changes are often considered to bring a variety of "frontline" local impacts to Arctic coastal communities such as increased rates of coastal erosion. However, direct consequences of these changes to local food security (e.g. through impacts on subsistence activities and marine transport of goods) may be outweighed at least in the short term by the effects of large scale Arctic sea ice change coupled with global oil markets. For example, a later freeze-up might delay local hunters' transition from boats to snow-machines, but whether this trend will affect hunting success, especially in the next few years, is uncertain. Likewise, the magnitude of change in open water season length is unlikely to be sufficient to increase the frequency with which communities are served by barges. However, an expanding open water season throughout the Arctic has implications for the global economy, which can have indirect effects on local communities. In the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, where rapid sea ice change has been accompanied by increased interest in oil and gas development, the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management currently requires drilling operations to cease 38 days prior to freeze up. Taking this into account, the lengthening open water season has effectively extended the drilling season for oil companies by 184% since the 1950s. If oil development goes ahead, local communities will likely experience a range of indirect impacts on food security due to increased vessel traffic and demand on infrastructure coupled with changes in local economies and employment opportunities. Increased likelihood of an oil spill in coastal waters also poses a significant threat to local food security. Thus, while Arctic coastal communities are already experiencing

  16. Measuring the Impact of the Human Rights on Health in Global Health Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sara L M

    2015-12-10

    In response to new scientific developments, UNAIDS, WHO, and global health financing institutions have joined together to promote a "fast-track" global scale-up of testing and treatment programs. They have set ambitious targets toward the goal of ending the three diseases by 2030. These numerical indicators, based on infectious disease modeling, can assist in measuring countries' progressive realization of the right to health. However, they only nominally reference the catastrophic impact that human rights abuses have on access to health services; they also do not measure the positive impact provided by law reform, legal aid, and other health-related human rights programs. Drawing on experience at the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, which has incorporated expanded stakeholder consultation and human rights programming into its grants, the article argues that addressing human rights barriers to access is often an ad hoc activity occurring on the sidelines of a health grantmaking process that has focused on the scale-up of biomedical programs to meet global health indicators. To ensure that these biomedical programs have impact, UN agencies and health financing mechanisms must begin to more systematically and proactively integrate human rights policy and practice into their modeling and measurement tools. Copyright © 2015 Davis. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  17. Corruption kills: estimating the global impact of corruption on children deaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Hanf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on the global risk factors of children mortality is crucial to guide global efforts to improve survival. Corruption has been previously shown to significantly impact on child mortality. However no recent quantification of its current impact is available. METHODS: The impact of corruption was assessed through crude Pearson's correlation, univariate and multivariate linear models coupling national under-five mortality rates in 2008 to the national "perceived level of corruption" (CPI and a large set of adjustment variables measured during the same period. FINDINGS: The final multivariable model (adjusted R(2= 0.89 included the following significant variables: percentage of people with improved sanitation (p.value<0.001, logarithm of total health expenditure (p.value = 0.006, Corruption Perception Index (p.value<0.001, presence of an arid climate on the national territory (p = 0.006, and the dependency ratio (p.value<0.001. A decrease in CPI of one point (i.e. a more important perceived corruption was associated with an increase in the log of national under-five mortality rate of 0.0644. According to this result, it could be roughly hypothesized that more than 140000 annual children deaths could be indirectly attributed to corruption. INTERPRETATIONS: Global response to children mortality must involve a necessary increase in funds available to develop water and sanitation access and purchase new methods for prevention, management, and treatment of major diseases drawing the global pattern of children deaths. However without paying regard to the anti-corruption mechanisms needed to ensure their proper use, it will also provide further opportunity for corruption. Policies and interventions supported by governments and donors must integrate initiatives that recognise how they are inter-related.

  18. Study of the global and regional climatic impacts of ENSO magnitude using SPEEDY AGCM

    KAUST Repository

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar

    2017-03-09

    ENSO is considered as a strong atmospheric teleconnection that has pronounced global and regional circulation effects. It modifies global monsoon system, especially, Asian and African monsoons. Previous studies suggest that both the frequency and magnitude of ENSO events have increased over the last few decades resulting in a need to study climatic impacts of ENSO magnitude both at global and regional scales. Hence, to better understand the impact of ENSO amplitude over the tropical and extratropical regions focussing on the Asian and African domains, ENSO sensitivity experiments are conducted using ICTPAGCM (‘SPEEDY’). It is anticipated that the tropical Pacific SST forcing will be enough to produce ENSO-induced teleconnection patterns; therefore, the model is forced using NINO3.4 regressed SST anomalies over the tropical Pacific only. SPEEDY reproduces the impact of ENSO over the Pacific, North and South America and African regions very well. However, it underestimates ENSO teleconnection patterns and associated changes over South Asia, particularly in the Indian region, which suggests that the tropical Pacific SST forcing is not sufficient to represent ENSO-induced teleconnection patterns over South Asia. Therefore, SST forcing over the tropical Indian Ocean together with air–sea coupling is also required for better representation of ENSO-induced changes in these regions. Moreover, results obtained by this pacemaker experiment show that ENSO impacts are relatively stronger over the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) compared to extratropics and high latitude regions. The positive phase of ENSO causes weakening in rainfall activity over African tropical rain belt, parts of South and Southeast Asia, whereas, the La Niña phase produces more rain over these regions during the summer season. Model results further reveal that ENSO magnitude has a stronger impact over African Sahel and South Asia, especially over the Indian region because of its significant

  19. People, pollution and pathogens - Global change impacts in mountain freshwater ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeller, Dirk S; Loyau, Adeline; Bao, Kunshan

    2018-01-01

    . As such, they are also more sensitive to the various impacts of the Anthropocene. For this reason, mountain regions may serve as sentinels of change and provide ideal ecosystems for studying climate and global change impacts on biodiversity. We here review different facets of anthropogenic impacts...... on mountain freshwater ecosystems. We put particular focus on micropollutants and their distribution and redistribution due to hydrological extremes, their direct influence on water quality and their indirect influence on ecosystem health via changes of freshwater species and their interactions. We show...... on small, but highly productive waterbodies, and to collect data on the occurrence and variability of microorganisms, biofilms, plankton species and key species, such as amphibians due to their bioindicator value for ecosystem health and water quality. The newly gained knowledge can then be used to develop...

  20. Impacts of climate extremes on gross primary production under global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, I N; Torn, M S; Riley, W J; Wehner, M F

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of historical droughts and heat-waves on ecosystems are often considered indicative of future global warming impacts, under the assumption that water stress sets in above a fixed high temperature threshold. Historical and future (RCP8.5) Earth system model (ESM) climate projections were analyzed in this study to illustrate changes in the temperatures for onset of water stress under global warming. The ESMs examined here predict sharp declines in gross primary production (GPP) at warm temperature extremes in historical climates, similar to the observed correlations between GPP and temperature during historical heat-waves and droughts. However, soil moisture increases at the warm end of the temperature range, and the temperature at which soil moisture declines with temperature shifts to a higher temperature. The temperature for onset of water stress thus increases under global warming and is associated with a shift in the temperature for maximum GPP to warmer temperatures. Despite the shift in this local temperature optimum, the impacts of warm extremes on GPP are approximately invariant when extremes are defined relative to the optimal temperature within each climate period. The GPP sensitivity to these relative temperature extremes therefore remains similar between future and present climates, suggesting that the heat- and drought-induced GPP reductions seen recently can be expected to be similar in the future, and may be underestimates of future impacts given model projections of increased frequency and persistence of heat-waves and droughts. The local temperature optimum can be understood as the temperature at which the combination of water stress and light limitations is minimized, and this concept gives insights into how GPP responds to climate extremes in both historical and future climate periods. Both cold (temperature and light-limited) and warm (water-limited) relative temperature extremes become more persistent in future climate projections

  1. The impact of land data assimilation on global river discharge predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsoter, Ervin; Cloke, Hannah; Smith, Paul; Emerton, Rebecca; Muñoz-Sabater, Joaquín; Pappenberger, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Operational probabilistic flood forecasts have become common in supporting decision-making processes and providing a platform to risk reduction. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) is one of the few global scale applications that currently exist. GloFAS is developed by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) with the support of national authorities and research institutions. It couples state-of-the art weather forecasts with a hydrological model to produce daily ensemble forecasts of river discharge with a forecast horizon of 30 days across a global river network. In GloFAS the real time streamflow forecasts are compared with climatological simulations to detect the severity of any high flow situations. In the current configuration, runoff produced "offline", where the ECMWF land-surface model (HTESSEL) is forced with atmospheric conditions from ERA Interim reanalysis, and runoff produced operationally in coupled mode with land data assimilation, are both used. This inhomogeneity of the application of land data assimilation in different parts of the GloFAS system can cause significant differences in river discharge and therefore limit the reliability of the flood severity information determined by comparing the real time forecasts to the historical discharge. In this study we evaluate the potential impact of the land data assimilation on discharge forecasting in the global context. The analysis is based on the new ERA5 climate reanalysis dataset covering the period 1979 to present and developed through the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S). ERA5 is the 5th major global reanalysis produced by ECMWF, following FGGE, ERA-15, ERA-40 and ERA-Interim. This version consists of a high resolution reanalysis dataset (31 km), and additionally includes information on uncertainties based on 10 ensemble members at 62 km horizontal resolution. ERA5 is currently in production and the

  2. Global warming and ocean stratification: A potential result of large extraterrestrial impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manoj; von Glasow, Roland; Smith, Robin S.; Paxton, Charles G. M.; Maycock, Amanda C.; Lunt, Daniel J.; Loptson, Claire; Markwick, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The prevailing paradigm for the climatic effects of large asteroid or comet impacts is a reduction in sunlight and significant short-term cooling caused by atmospheric aerosol loading. Here we show, using global climate model experiments, that the large increases in stratospheric water vapor that can occur upon impact with the ocean cause radiative forcings of over +20 W m-2 in the case of 10 km sized bolides. The result of such a positive forcing is rapid climatic warming, increased upper ocean stratification, and potentially disruption of upper ocean ecosystems. Since two thirds of the world's surface is ocean, we suggest that some bolide impacts may actually warm climate overall. For impacts producing both stratospheric water vapor and aerosol loading, radiative forcing by water vapor can reduce or even cancel out aerosol-induced cooling, potentially causing 1-2 decades of increased temperatures in both the upper ocean and on the land surface. Such a response, which depends on the ratio of aerosol to water vapor radiative forcing, is distinct from many previous scenarios for the climatic effects of large bolide impacts, which mostly account for cooling from aerosol loading. Finally, we discuss how water vapor forcing from bolide impacts may have contributed to two well-known phenomena: extinction across the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary and the deglaciation of the Neoproterozoic snowball Earth.

  3. ICT Impact on Competencies and Innovations: Regional Applicability of Global Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanas Buracas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with the multiple criteria assessment methodology applied for global evaluations of ICT impact on competency, talent potential and innovation, and aims to conclude how suitable it is for the regional assessment of education quality a/o processes determining skills in knowledge economy. Below the attention is given to interdependencies of education and knowledge components with the factors characterizing the ICT impact within multiple criteria evaluations for regional cases (Baltic States, also the factors used for international ratings of academic institutions in Lithuania. The task is to evaluate how much some indicators used by experts for global evaluations and popular ratings of universities could be applied for evaluations of the competencies determining competitive innovativeness of the social activity of countries under review. Also for detailing the intersectorial distributing of limited resources for more rational development of labour & vocational skills. Most of the conclusions emphasize that substantial part of ICT determinants applied for evaluations of global competitiveness help to rank the countries or academic institutions for investment solutions but do not detail the mechanisms determining the professional competencies and innovativeness of business at necessary level.

  4. Globalization and the marginalization of unskilled labor: potential impacts on health in developed nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, Aleck Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the impacts of economic globalization on labor markets and outline potential pathways for these changes to affect health status in industrialized nations. A systematic review of the economic globalization and health literature revealed that, under the impact of globalization and market deregulation, the past 25 years have witnessed de-industrialization, shifts to nontraditional, insecure work arrangements, and relatively high levels of unemployment in most developed nations. This has occurred in the context of hypermobility of capital, relative immobility of labor, and declining market position for unskilled labor. Such structural changes in the labor markets in conjunction with shifts in educational opportunities and requirements have resulted in the increasing marginalization of unskilled workers from the labor market. Aside from direct effects on health due to the threat and experience of unemployment, and given that income inequality within nations is a main driver of national health status, lowered relative wages for the unskilled will probably affect national health status through increased income inequality.

  5. Impact of GPS tracking data of LEO satellites on global GPS solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacher, M.; Svehla, D.

    Already at present quite a few Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites (SAC-C, CHAMP, JASON-1, GRACE-1 and GRACE-2) are equipped with one or more GPS receivers for precise orbit determination or other applications (atmospheric sounding, gravity field recovery, . . . ). This trend will continue in the near future (e.g., with the GOCE and COSMIC missions) and we will soon have an entire "constellation" of LEO satellites tracked by GPS at our disposal. In this contribution we want to study the impact of LEO GPS measurements (from a single LEO satellite or from a LEO constellation) on global GPS solutions, where GPS satellite orbits and clocks, Earth rotation parameters (ERPs), station coordinates and troposphere zenith delays are determined simultaneously using the data of the global network of the International GPS Service (IGS). In order to assess the impact of the LEO GPS data on global IGS results, we have to perform a combined analysis of the space-borne and the ground-based GPS data. Such a combination may benefit on one hand from the differences between a ground station and a LEO, e.g., (1) the different tracking geometry (coverage of isolated geographical areas by LEOs, rapidly changing geometry, . . . ), (2) that LEOs connect all ground stations within 1-2 hours, (3) that baselines between LEO and ground stations may be longer than station-station baselines, (4) that no tropospheric delays have to be estimated for LEOs, and (5) that LEOs orbit the Earth within the ionosphere and may therefore contribute to global ionosphere models. On the other hand we have to deal with difficult aspects of precise orbit determination for the LEOs: only if we succeed to obtain very accurate dynamic or reduced-dynamic orbits for the LEOs, we will have a chance at all to improve the global GPS results. We present first results concerning the influence of LEO data on GPS orbits, ERPs, site coordinates, and troposphere zenith delays using both, variance-covariance analyses based on

  6. Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability to global environmental change: challenges and pathways for an action-oriented research agenda for middle-income and low-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahsen, M.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, R.; Lankao, P.R.; Dube, P.; Leemans, R.; Gaffney, O.; Mirza, M.; Pinho, P.; Osman-Elasha, B.; Smith, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The socio-economic impacts of environmental stresses associated with global environmental change depend to a large extent on how societies organize themselves. Research on climate-related societal impacts, vulnerability and adaptation is currently underdeveloped, prompting international global

  7. Life cycle impact assessment of terrestrial acidification: modeling spatially explicit soil sensitivity at the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pierre-Olivier; Deschênes, Louise; Margni, Manuele

    2012-08-07

    This paper presents a novel life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach to derive spatially explicit soil sensitivity indicators for terrestrial acidification. This global approach is compatible with a subsequent damage assessment, making it possible to consistently link the developed midpoint indicators with a later endpoint assessment along the cause-effect chain-a prerequisite in LCIA. Four different soil chemical indicators were preselected to evaluate sensitivity factors (SFs) for regional receiving environments at the global scale, namely the base cations to aluminum ratio, aluminum to calcium ratio, pH, and aluminum concentration. These chemical indicators were assessed using the PROFILE geochemical steady-state soil model and a global data set of regional soil parameters developed specifically for this study. Results showed that the most sensitive regions (i.e., where SF is maximized) are in Canada, northern Europe, the Amazon, central Africa, and East and Southeast Asia. However, the approach is not bereft of uncertainty. Indeed, a Monte Carlo analysis showed that input parameter variability may induce SF variations of up to over 6 orders of magnitude for certain chemical indicators. These findings improve current practices and enable the development of regional characterization models to assess regional life cycle inventories in a global economy.

  8. Potential impact of global climate change on benthic deep-sea microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Rastelli, Eugenio

    2017-12-15

    Benthic deep-sea environments are the largest ecosystem on Earth, covering ∼65% of the Earth surface. Microbes inhabiting this huge biome at all water depths represent the most abundant biological components and a relevant portion of the biomass of the biosphere, and play a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles. Increasing evidence suggests that global climate changes are affecting also deep-sea ecosystems, both directly (causing shifts in bottom-water temperature, oxygen concentration and pH) and indirectly (through changes in surface oceans' productivity and in the consequent export of organic matter to the seafloor). However, the responses of the benthic deep-sea biota to such shifts remain largely unknown. This applies particularly to deep-sea microbes, which include bacteria, archaea, microeukaryotes and their viruses. Understanding the potential impacts of global change on the benthic deep-sea microbial assemblages and the consequences on the functioning of the ocean interior is a priority to better forecast the potential consequences at global scale. Here we explore the potential changes in the benthic deep-sea microbiology expected in the coming decades using case studies on specific systems used as test models. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. IMPACT OF GLOBAL ADOPTION OF IFRS ON NIGERIAN STOCK MARKET EFFECTIVENESSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Oluku Mukoro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS is a statement of intent to globalize financial standards so as to enable investors move capital and as such enshrine global competitiveness. Nigeria’s case to attract investment through the capital market can be advanced effectively if financial reporting is standardized and adopted. As an impact study, we employed adaptive expectation variant of the autoregressive model and multiple regression technique to study the prospect of Compliance with IFRS and how the Nigerian quoted companies faired in compliance with Nigerian Accounting Standards and its correlation with reporting incentives, idiosyncratic volatilities and stock price informativeness; which more or less indicates their preparedness for global adoption of IFRS in 2012.It is recommended that stiff penalties are required to prepare Nigerian financial environment for the global adoption of IFRS.A clear road map of adoption of IFRS will further drive the much needed foreign investment in-flow and help to brand Nigeria out of the corruption quagmire.

  10. Impact of galactic foreground characterization on a global analysis for the LISA gravitational wave observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Travis; Cornish, Neil

    2017-12-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will explore the source-rich milli-Hertz band of the gravitational wave spectrum. In contrast to ground based detectors, where typical signals are short-lived and discrete, LISA signals are typically long-lived and over-lapping, thus requiring a global data analysis solution that is very different to the source-by-source analysis that has been developed for ground based gravitational wave astronomy. Across the LISA band, gravitational waves are both signals and noise. The dominant contribution to this so-called confusion noise (better termed unresolved signal noise) is expected to come from short period galactic white dwarf binaries, but all sources, including massive black hole binaries and extreme mass ratio captures will also contribute. Previous estimates for the galactic confusion noise have assumed perfect signal subtraction. Here we provide analytic estimates for the signal subtraction residuals and the impact they have on parameter estimation while for the first time incorporating the effects of noise modeling. The analytic estimates are found using a maximum likelihood approximation to the full global Bayesian analysis. We find that while the confusion noise is lowered in the global analysis, the waveform errors for individual sources are increased relative to estimates for isolated signals. We provide estimates for how parameter estimation errors are inflated from various parts of a global analysis.

  11. A global catalogue of Ceres impact craters ≥ 1 km and preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Sheng; Yue, Zongyu; Di, Kaichang; Liu, Zhaoqin

    2018-03-01

    The orbital data products of Ceres, including global LAMO image mosaic and global HAMO DTM with a resolution of 35 m/pixel and 135 m/pixel respectively, are utilized in this research to create a global catalogue of impact craters with diameter ≥ 1 km, and their morphometric parameters are calculated. Statistics shows: (1) There are 29,219 craters in the catalogue, and the craters have a various morphologies, e.g., polygonal crater, floor fractured crater, complex crater with central peak, etc.; (2) The identifiable smallest crater size is extended to 1 km and the crater numbers have been updated when compared with the crater catalogue (D ≥ 20 km) released by the Dawn Science Team; (3) The d/D ratios for fresh simple craters, obviously degraded simple crater and polygonal simple crater are 0.11 ± 0.04, 0.05 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02 respectively. (4) The d/D ratios for non-polygonal complex crater and polygonal complex crater are 0.08 ± 0.04 and 0.09 ± 0.03. The global crater catalogue created in this work can be further applied to many other scientific researches, such as comparing d/D with other bodies, inferring subsurface properties, determining surface age, and estimating average erosion rate.

  12. Did the Chicxulub meteorite impact trigger eruptions at mid-ocean ridges globally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, J. S.; Karlstrom, L.

    2017-12-01

    Are there causal links between the eruption of large igneous provinces, meteorite impacts, and mass extinctions? Recent dating suggests that state shifts in Deccan Traps eruptions, including erupted volumes, feeder dike orientations, and magma chemistry, occurred shortly after the Chicxulub impact. A proposed explanation for this observation is an increase in upper mantle permeability following the Chicxulub impact that accelerated the pace of Deccan volcanism [Richards et al., 2015]. If such triggering occurred, at global distances not associated with the impact antipode, it is reasonable to hypothesize that other reservoirs of stored melt may have been perturbed as well. We present evidence that mid-ocean ridge activity increased globally following the impact. Anomalously concentrated free-air gravity and sea-floor topographic roughness suggest volumes of excess oceanic ridge magmatism in the range of 2 x 105 to 106 km3 within 1 Myrs of the Chicxulub impact. This signal is only clearly observed for half-spreading rates above 35 mm/yr, possibly because crust formed at slower spreading rates is too complex to preserve the signal. Because similar anomalies are observed separately in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and because the timing of the signal does not clearly align with changes in spreading rates, we do not favor plume activity as an explanation. Widespread mobilization of existing mantle melt by post-impact seismic radiation, and subsequent emplacement of melt as crustal intrusions and eruptions, can explain the volume and distribution of anomalous crust without invoking impact-induced melt production. Although the mechanism for increasing permeability is not clear at either Deccan or mid-ocean ridges, these results support the hypothesis that the causes and consequences of the Deccan Traps, Chicxulub impact, and K-Pg mass extinction should not be considered in isolation. We conclude by discussing several enigmatic observations from K-Pg time that heightened

  13. The impact of first-generation biofuels on the depletion of the global phosphorus reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Leemans, Rik

    2012-06-01

    The large majority of biofuels to date is "first-generation" biofuel made from agricultural commodities. All first-generation biofuel production systems require phosphorus (P) fertilization. P is an essential plant nutrient, yet global reserves are finite. We argue that committing scarce P to biofuel production involves a trade-off between climate change mitigation and future food production. We examine biofuel production from seven types of feedstock, and find that biofuels at present consume around 2% of the global inorganic P fertilizer production. For all examined biofuels, with the possible exception of sugarcane, the contribution to P depletion exceeds the contribution to mitigating climate change. The relative benefits of biofuels can be increased through enhanced recycling of P, but high increases in P efficiency are required to balance climate change mitigation and P depletion impacts. We conclude that, with the current production systems, the production of first-generation biofuels compromises food production in the future.

  14. The impact of global nuclear mass model uncertainties on r-process abundance predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumpower M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid neutron capture or ‘r-process’ nucleosynthesis may be responsible for half the production of heavy elements above iron on the periodic table. Masses are one of the most important nuclear physics ingredients that go into calculations of r-process nucleosynthesis as they enter into the calculations of reaction rates, decay rates, branching ratios and Q-values. We explore the impact of uncertainties in three nuclear mass models on r-process abundances by performing global monte carlo simulations. We show that root-mean-square (rms errors of current mass models are large so that current r-process predictions are insufficient in predicting features found in solar residuals and in r-process enhanced metal poor stars. We conclude that the reduction of global rms errors below 100 keV will allow for more robust r-process predictions.

  15. Impact of global financial crisis on stylized facts between energy markets and stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Tan Kim; Cheong, Chin Wen; Hooi, Tan Siow

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the stylized facts is extremely important and has becomes a hot issue nowadays. However, recent global financial crisis that started from United States had spread all over the world and adversely affected the commodities and financial sectors of both developed and developing countries. This paper tends to examine the impact of crisis on stylized facts between energy and stock markets using ARCH-family models based on the experience over 2008 global financial crisis. Empirical results denote that there is long lasting, persists and positively significant the autocorrelation function of absolute returns and their squares in both markets for before and during crisis. Besides that, leverage effects are found in stock markets whereby bad news has a greater impact on volatility than good news for both before and during crisis. However, crisis does not indicate any impact on risk-return tradeoff for both energy and stock markets. For forecasting evaluations, GARCH model and FIAPARCH model indicate superior out of sample forecasts for before and during crisis respectively.

  16. Global income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2015-01-01

    abstract This paper provides an economic assessment of the value of using genetically modified (GM) crop technology in agriculture at the farm level. It follows and updates earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the 4 main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialisation of GM crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate since the mid 1990s, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2013. This annual updated analysis shows that there continues to be very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $20.5 billion in 2013 and $133.4 billion for the 18 years period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. About 70% of the gains have derived from yield and production gains with the remaining 30% coming from cost savings. The technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the 4 main crops, having added 138 million tonnes and 273 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid 1990s. PMID:25738324

  17. Global income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper provides an economic assessment of the value of using genetically modified (GM) crop technology in agriculture at the farm level. It follows and updates earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the 4 main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialisation of GM crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate since the mid 1990s, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2014. This annual updated analysis shows that there continues to be very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $17.7 billion in 2014 and $150.3 billion for the 19-year period 1996–2014 (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. About 65% of the gains have derived from yield and production gains with the remaining 35% coming from cost savings. The technology has also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the 4 main crops, having, for example, added 158 million tonnes and 322 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid 1990s. PMID:27116697

  18. The global threat of Zika virus to pregnancy: epidemiology, clinical perspectives, mechanisms, and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeuf, Phillipe; Drummer, Heidi E; Richards, Jack S; Scoullar, Michelle J L; Beeson, James G

    2016-08-03

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has newly emerged as a significant global threat, especially to pregnancy. Recent major outbreaks in the Pacific and in Central and South America have been associated with an increased incidence of microcephaly and other abnormalities of the central nervous system in neonates. The causal link between ZIKV infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is now strongly supported. Over 2 billion people live in regions conducive to ZIKV transmission, with ~4 million infections in the Americas predicted for 2016. Given the scale of the current pandemic and the serious and long-term consequences of infection during pregnancy, the impact of ZIKV on health services and affected communities could be enormous. This further highlights the need for a rapid global public health and research response to ZIKV to limit and prevent its impact through the development of therapeutics, vaccines, and improved diagnostics. Here we review the epidemiology of ZIKV; the threat to pregnancy; the clinical consequences and broader impact of ZIKV infections; and the virus biology underpinning new interventions, diagnostics, and insights into the mechanisms of disease.

  19. A Budyko approach to assessing catchment deforestation impacts on the water yield to global wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Joshua; Woodward, Craig; Shulmeister, James

    2015-04-01

    Reduced evapotranspiration (ET) through the conversion of forest to grass and the resultant increase in streamflow water yields are well established, however the consequences for the water balance of standing bodies of water within catchments have received comparatively less attention. Evaluating these impacts at the annual time scale, and across the globe is difficult to parametrise using conventional water balance models, however the relative simplicity of the Budyko hypothesis enables such a first order analysis. One widely used Budyko approach allows ET to be differentiated according to a single parameter, and existing data suggests ET can be reduced by ~1/3 following the conversion from forest to grass across a wide range of precipitation inputs. Using global databases of wetlands, aridity index, and current vs original forest cover, we find the water available to wetlands can increase by up to 15% of precipitation in relatively humid climates where complete deforestation has occurred. This is significant since it may convert previously ephemeral systems to permanent wetlands, or create entirely new wetlands. Moreover, a conservative estimate based on our datasets suggests 9-12% of global wetlands are significantly affected by this change in hydrology due to deforestation. Human impact studies in lake and wetland systems rarely test for changes in hydrology, and thus this effect is largely unrecognised. The latitudinal structure of these impacts, sensitivity to degree of deforestation, and sensitivity to the assumption of the 1/3 ET reduction are also explored.

  20. Shrinking of fishes exacerbates impacts of global ocean changes on marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, William W. L.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Dunne, John; Frölicher, Thomas L.; Lam, Vicky W. Y.; Deng Palomares, M. L.; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Changes in temperature, oxygen content and other ocean biogeochemical properties directly affect the ecophysiology of marine water-breathing organisms. Previous studies suggest that the most prominent biological responses are changes in distribution, phenology and productivity. Both theory and empirical observations also support the hypothesis that warming and reduced oxygen will reduce body size of marine fishes. However, the extent to which such changes would exacerbate the impacts of climate and ocean changes on global marine ecosystems remains unexplored. Here, we employ a model to examine the integrated biological responses of over 600 species of marine fishes due to changes in distribution, abundance and body size. The model has an explicit representation of ecophysiology, dispersal, distribution, and population dynamics. We show that assemblage-averaged maximum body weight is expected to shrink by 14-24% globally from 2000 to 2050 under a high-emission scenario. About half of this shrinkage is due to change in distribution and abundance, the remainder to changes in physiology. The tropical and intermediate latitudinal areas will be heavily impacted, with an average reduction of more than 20%. Our results provide a new dimension to understanding the integrated impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems.

  1. Global income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2016-01-02

    This paper provides an economic assessment of the value of using genetically modified (GM) crop technology in agriculture at the farm level. It follows and updates earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the 4 main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialisation of GM crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate since the mid 1990s, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2014. This annual updated analysis shows that there continues to be very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $17.7 billion in 2014 and $150.3 billion for the 19-year period 1996-2014 (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. About 65% of the gains have derived from yield and production gains with the remaining 35% coming from cost savings. The technology has also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the 4 main crops, having, for example, added 158 million tonnes and 322 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid 1990s.

  2. Global income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of the value of using genetically modified (GM) crop technology in agriculture at the farm level. It follows and updates earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the 4 main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialisation of GM crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate since the mid 1990s, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2013. This annual updated analysis shows that there continues to be very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $20.5 billion in 2013 and $133.4 billion for the 18 years period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. About 70% of the gains have derived from yield and production gains with the remaining 30% coming from cost savings. The technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the 4 main crops, having added 138 million tonnes and 273 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid 1990s.

  3. Impact of BRICS' investment in vaccine development on the global vaccine market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddar, Miloud; Milstien, Julie; Schmitt, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--have made considerable progress in vaccine production, regulation and development over the past 20 years. In 1993, all five countries were producing vaccines but the processes used were outdated and non-standardized, there was little relevant research and there was negligible international recognition of the products. By 2014, all five countries had strong initiatives for the development of vaccine technology and had greatly improved their national regulatory capacity. South Africa was then the only BRICS country that was not completely producing vaccines. South Africa is now in the process of re-establishing its own vaccine production and passing beyond the stage of simply importing, formulating and filling vaccine bulks. Changes in the public sector's price per dose of selected vaccines, the global market share represented by products from specific manufacturers, and the attractiveness, for multinational companies, of partnership and investment opportunities in BRICS companies have all been analysed. The results indicate that the BRICS countries have had a major impact on vaccine price and availability, with much of that impact attributable to the output of Indian vaccine manufacturers. China is expected to have a greater impact soon, given the anticipated development of Chinese vaccine manufacturers in the near future. BRICS' accomplishments in the field of vaccine development are expected to reshape the global vaccine market and accelerate access to vaccines in the developing world. The challenge is to turn these expectations into strategic actions and practical outcomes.

  4. Climate change impact on available water resources obtained using multiple global climate and hydrology models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hagemann

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter the hydrological cycle resulting in large-scale impacts on water availability. However, future climate change impact assessments are highly uncertain. For the first time, multiple global climate (three and hydrological models (eight were used to systematically assess the hydrological response to climate change and project the future state of global water resources. This multi-model ensemble allows us to investigate how the hydrology models contribute to the uncertainty in projected hydrological changes compared to the climate models. Due to their systematic biases, GCM outputs cannot be used directly in hydrological impact studies, so a statistical bias correction has been applied. The results show a large spread in projected changes in water resources within the climate–hydrology modelling chain for some regions. They clearly demonstrate that climate models are not the only source of uncertainty for hydrological change, and that the spread resulting from the choice of the hydrology model is larger than the spread originating from the climate models over many areas. But there are also areas showing a robust change signal, such as at high latitudes and in some midlatitude regions, where the models agree on the sign of projected hydrological changes, indicative of higher confidence in this ensemble mean signal. In many catchments an increase of available water resources is expected but there are some severe decreases in Central and Southern Europe, the Middle East, the Mississippi River basin, southern Africa, southern China and south-eastern Australia.

  5. Climate Impacts in Europe Under +1.5°C Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Daniela; Kotova, Lola; Teichmann, Claas; Sobolowski, Stefan P.; Vautard, Robert; Donnelly, Chantal; Koutroulis, Aristeidis G.; Grillakis, Manolis G.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.; Damm, Andrea; Sakalli, Abdulla; van Vliet, Michelle T. H.

    2018-02-01

    The Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change aims not only at avoiding +2°C warming (and even limit the temperature increase further to +1.5°C), but also sets long-term goals to guide mitigation. Therefore, the best available science is required to inform policymakers on the importance of and the adaptation needs in a +1.5°C warmer world. Seven research institutes from Europe and Turkey integrated their competencies to provide a cross-sectoral assessment of the potential impacts at a pan-European scale. The initial findings of this initiative are presented and key messages communicated. The approach is to select periods based on global warming thresholds rather than the more typical approach of selecting time periods (e.g., end of century). The results indicate that the world is likely to pass the +1.5°C threshold in the coming decades. Cross-sectoral dimensions are taken into account to show the impacts of global warming that occur in parallel in more than one sector. Also, impacts differ across sectors and regions. Alongside the negative impacts for certain sectors and regions, some positive impacts are projected. Summer tourism in parts of Western Europe may be favored by climate change; electricity demand decreases outweigh increases over most of Europe and catchment yields in hydropower regions will increase. However, such positive findings should be interpreted carefully as we do not take into account exogenous factors that can and will influence Europe such as migration patterns, food production, and economic and political instability.

  6. Analyzing the greenhouse gas impact potential of smallholder development actions across a global food security program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewer, Uwe; Nash, Julie; Gurwick, Noel; Bockel, Louis; Galford, Gillian; Richards, Meryl; Costa Junior, Ciniro; White, Julianna; Pirolli, Gillian; Wollenberg, Eva

    2018-04-01

    This article analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) impact potential of improved management practices and technologies for smallholder agriculture promoted under a global food security development program. Under ‘business-as-usual’ development, global studies on the future of agriculture to 2050 project considerable increases in total food production and cultivated area. Conventional cropland intensification and conversion of natural vegetation typically result in increased GHG emissions and loss of carbon stocks. There is a strong need to understand the potential greenhouse gas impacts of agricultural development programs intended to achieve large-scale change, and to identify pathways of smallholder agricultural development that can achieve food security and agricultural production growth without drastic increases in GHG emissions. In an analysis of 134 crop and livestock production systems in 15 countries with reported impacts on 4.8 million ha, improved management practices and technologies by smallholder farmers significantly reduce GHG emission intensity of agricultural production, increase yields and reduce post-harvest losses, while either decreasing or only moderately increasing net GHG emissions per area. Investments in both production and post-harvest stages meaningfully reduced GHG emission intensity, contributing to low emission development. We present average impacts on net GHG emissions per hectare and GHG emission intensity, while not providing detailed statistics of GHG impacts at scale that are associated to additional uncertainties. While reported improvements in smallholder systems effectively reduce future GHG emissions compared to business-as-usual development, these contributions are insufficient to significantly reduce net GHG emission in agriculture beyond current levels, particularly if future agricultural production grows at projected rates.

  7. The Environmental Effect of Meteoritic Impacts on Early Mars with a Versatile 3-D Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbet, M.; Forget, F.; Svetsov, V.; Tran, H.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Karatekin, O.; Gillmann, C.; Popova, O.; Head, J.

    2017-10-01

    We simulated the environmental effect of meteoritic impacts with a 3-D Global Climate Model to explore if they could trigger the warm conditions and the precipitation rates required to explain the formation of the Martian valley networks.

  8. Introducing Undergraduates to Global Health Epidemiology, Emerging Infectious Diseases, and Parasitology: A Small Book with a Big Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara L. Wegman-Geedey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases: The Neglected Tropical Diseases and their Impact on Global Health and Development, 2nd Edition; Peter J. Hotez; (2013. ASM Press, Washington, DC. 255 pages.

  9. The Impact of Global Market Environment on the Degree of Cooperation of International Strategic Alliances among Service Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasham, Abdullah Ahmed Nasser; Abdullah, Nik Ab Halim Nik; Ghani, Noor Hasmini Abd

    2016-01-01

    Globalisation of market present more challenges and it requires firms to respond by adopting various strategies. One of the strategies is through involvement in international strategic alliances. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of global market environment factors, which consists of two dimensions namely global market opportunities and global market threats on the degree of cooperation of international strategic alliances. A quantitative study with data collected thr...

  10. Quantifying the impact of early 21st century volcanic eruptions on global-mean surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monerie, Paul-Arthur; Moine, Marie-Pierre; Terray, Laurent; Valcke, Sophie

    2017-05-01

    Despite a continuous increase in well-mixed greenhouse gases, the global-mean surface temperature has shown a quasi-stabilization since 1998. This muted warming has been linked to the combined effects of internal climate variability and external forcing. The latter includes the impact of recent increase in the volcanic activity and of solar irradiance changes. Here we used a high-resolution coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model to assess the impact of the recent volcanic eruptions on the Earth's temperature, compared with the low volcanic activity of the early 2000s. Two sets of simulations are performed, one with realistic aerosol optical depth values, and the other with a fixed value of aerosol optical depth corresponding to a period of weak volcanic activity (1998-2002). We conclude that the observed recent increase in the volcanic activity led to a reduced warming trend (from 2003 to 2012) of 0.08 °C in ten years. The induced cooling is stronger during the last five-year period (2008-2012), with an annual global mean cooling of 0.04 °C (+/- 0.04 °C). The cooling is similar in summer (0.05 °C +/- 0.04 °C cooling) than in winter (0.03 °C +/- 0.04 °C cooling), but stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. Although equatorial and Arctic precipitation decreases in summer, the change in precipitation does not indicate robust changes at a local scale. Global heat content variations are found not to be impacted by the recent increase in volcanic activity.

  11. How will the impact of El Nino and La Nina on Australia change under global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, Scott; Morgan, Adam; Moise, Aurel; Grainger, Simon; Smith, Ian; Reeder, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has a profound influence on Australia. How will this influence change under global warming? Will El Nino droughts become more frequent or more intense? Will La Nina events tend to produce more or less rainfall over Australia than they have in the past? Has ENSO already changed? Has ENSO's impact on Australia already changed? Will global warming be 'El Nino-like'? How well do current models simulate ENSO and how reliable are their projections for ENSO? Here we will provide answers to these questions drawing on the IPCC (2007) report and recent research conducted here in Australia. We will see that: ENSO and its impact on Australia varied substantially on decadal and longer time-scales over the past century; The frequency of El Nino events appeared to increase; The Walker Circulation, which is one of the most prominent and important atmospheric circulations in the world, is centred in the Pacific Ocean and is strongly modulated by ENSO. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) - which is used to track ENSO and the strength of the Walker Circulation -has trended down over the past century. The tropical Pacific - the engine room for ENSO - has warmed to unprecedented levels. The Walker Circulation weakens in some models in response to global warming. The relationship between Australian rainfall, temperature and the SOI has changed. The IPCC WG1 Report (2007) concluded that'... there is no consistent indication at this time of discernable changes in ENSO amplitude or frequency in the 21st century'. Even if ENSO variability in the tropical Pacific does not change, ENSO's impact on Australia might. Evidence supporting this hypothesis will be provided. Finally, we will discuss what this all means for Australia

  12. Modeling the biophysical impacts of global change in mountain biosphere reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugmann, H.K.M.; Bjornsen, F. Ewert; Haeberli, W.; Guisan, Antoine; Fagre, Daniel B.; Kaab, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mountains and mountain societies provide a wide range of goods and services to humanity, but they are particularly sensitive to the effects of global environmental change. Thus, the definition of appropriate management regimes that maintain the multiple functions of mountain regions in a time of greatly changing climatic, economic, and societal drivers constitutes a significant challenge. Management decisions must be based on a sound understanding of the future dynamics of these systems. The present article reviews the elements required for an integrated effort to project the impacts of global change on mountain regions, and recommends tools that can be used at 3 scientific levels (essential, improved, and optimum). The proposed strategy is evaluated with respect to UNESCO's network of Mountain Biosphere Reserves (MBRs), with the intention of implementing it in other mountain regions as well. First, methods for generating scenarios of key drivers of global change are reviewed, including land use/land cover and climate change. This is followed by a brief review of the models available for projecting the impacts of these scenarios on (1) cryospheric systems, (2) ecosystem structure and diversity, and (3) ecosystem functions such as carbon and water relations. Finally, the cross-cutting role of remote sensing techniques is evaluated with respect to both monitoring and modeling efforts. We conclude that a broad range of techniques is available for both scenario generation and impact assessments, many of which can be implemented without much capacity building across many or even most MBRs. However, to foster implementation of the proposed strategy, further efforts are required to establish partnerships between scientists and resource managers in mountain areas.

  13. Projected global ground-level ozone impacts on vegetation under different emission and climate scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sicard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of ground-level ozone (O3 on vegetation is largely under-investigated at the global scale despite large areas worldwide that are exposed to high surface O3 levels. To explore future potential impacts of O3 on vegetation, we compared historical and projected surface O3 concentrations simulated by six global atmospheric chemistry transport models on the basis of three representative concentration pathways emission scenarios (i.e. RCP2.6, 4.5, 8.5. To assess changes in the potential surface O3 threat to vegetation at the global scale, we used the AOT40 metric. Results point out a significant exceedance of AOT40 in comparison with the recommendations of UNECE for the protection of vegetation. In fact, many areas of the Northern Hemisphere show that AOT40-based critical levels will be exceeded by a factor of at least 10 under RCP8.5. Changes in surface O3 by 2100 worldwide range from about +4–5 ppb in the RCP8.5 scenario to reductions of about 2–10 ppb in the most optimistic scenario, RCP2.6. The risk of O3 injury for vegetation, through the potential O3 impact on photosynthetic assimilation, decreased by 61 and 47 % under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5, respectively, and increased by 70 % under RCP8.5. Key biodiversity areas in southern and northern Asia, central Africa and North America were identified as being at risk from high O3 concentrations.

  14. Impact of climatic noise on global estimates of terrestrial water balance components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasonova, Olga; Gusev, Yeugeniy; Semenov, Vladimir; Kovalev, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    Estimates of water balance components performed by different authors in climate impact studies are characterized by a large scatter or uncertainty associated, in particular, with application of different meteorological forcing data (simulated by climate models), different estimates of model parameters, and different hydrological models. In the present work, the objective uncertainty, which cannot be reduced by means of better physical description of the processes under study or by means of improvement of the quality of input data for model simulations, and which is an internal feature of the atmosphere - hydrosphere - land surface system, is considered. This uncertainty is caused by a chaotic character of atmospheric processes (i.e. by so-called climatic noise), their instability with respect to small errors in determination of initial conditions for modeling the evolution of meteorological variables. Our study is devoted to investigating the impact of climatic noise on the estimates of terrestrial water balance components (precipitation, runoff and evapotranspiration) on a global scale. To achieve the effect of climatic noise 45 simulations were performed by the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5 under identical lower boundary conditions (including sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations) and constant external forcing parameters. The only differences between the simulations were initial conditions of the atmosphere. Meteorological fields simulated by ECHAM5 for the period of 1979-2012 were used as forcing data (with 6-hour temporal resolution and one-degree spatial one) by the land surface model Soil Water - Atmosphere - Plants (SWAP) for hydrological simulations on a global scale. As a result, 45-member ensemble of the water balance components for the land surface of the Earth excluding Antarctica was obtained. Analysis of the obtained results allowed us to estimate the lowest level of uncertainty which can be achieved in climate impact

  15. The impact of Indonesian peatland degradation on downstream marine ecosystems and the global carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Jesse F; Hohn, Sönke; Rixen, Tim; Baum, Antje; Merico, Agostino

    2016-01-01

    Tropical peatlands are among the most space-efficient stores of carbon on Earth containing approximately 89 Gt C. Of this, 57 Gt (65%) are stored in Indonesian peatlands. Large-scale exploitation of land, including deforestation and drainage for the establishment of oil palm plantations, is changing the carbon balance of Indonesian peatlands, turning them from a natural sink to a source via outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere and leakage of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the coastal ocean. The impacts of this perturbation to the coastal environment and at the global scale are largely unknown. Here, we evaluate the downstream effects of released Indonesian peat carbon on coastal ecosystems and on the global carbon cycle. We use a biogeochemical box model in combination with novel and literature observations to investigate the impact of different carbon emission scenarios on the combined ocean-atmosphere system. The release of all carbon stored in the Indonesian peat pool, considered as a worst-case scenario, will increase atmospheric pCO2 by 8 ppm to 15 ppm within the next 200 years. The expected impact on the Java Sea ecosystems is most significant on the short term (over a few hundred years) and is characterized by an increase of 3.3% in phytoplankton, 32% in seagrass biomass, and 5% decrease in coral biomass. On the long term, however, the coastal ecosystems will recover to reach near pre-excursion conditions. Our results suggest that the ultimate fate of the peat carbon is in the deep ocean with 69% of it landing in the deep DIC pool after 1000 years, but the effects on the global ocean carbonate chemistry will be marginal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Impact of Globalization on Higher Education: An Empirical Study of Education Policy & Planning of Design Education in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yan Yan

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of globalization in the domain of higher education, particularly, design education. It reviews how globalization may affect educational policy and planning in Hong Kong by drawing on an empirical study involving senior management, a course leader and a design trainer/facilitator. This paper not only illustrates the…

  17. THE GLOBALIZATION OF THE WORLD ECONOMY AND ITS IMPACT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACCOUNTING REPORTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail PRODANCIUK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the impact of the globalization processes in Ukraine's economy on the development of accounting reports systems. Also described is the essence of harmonization and standardization of accounting reports and financial reports. There are four scientific positions known that characterize standardization records worldwide. There are submitted proposals regarding accounting reports regulation in Ukraine in terms of economic globalization.

  18. The nonstationary impact of local temperature changes and ENSO on extreme precipitation at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiaohong; Miao, Chiyuan; Qiao, Yuanyuan; Duan, Qingyun

    2017-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and local temperature are important drivers of extreme precipitation. Understanding the impact of ENSO and temperature on the risk of extreme precipitation over global land will provide a foundation for risk assessment and climate-adaptive design of infrastructure in a changing climate. In this study, nonstationary generalized extreme value distributions were used to model extreme precipitation over global land for the period 1979-2015, with ENSO indicator and temperature as covariates. Risk factors were estimated to quantify the contrast between the influence of different ENSO phases and temperature. The results show that extreme precipitation is dominated by ENSO over 22% of global land and by temperature over 26% of global land. With a warming climate, the risk of high-intensity daily extreme precipitation increases at high latitudes but decreases in tropical regions. For ENSO, large parts of North America, southern South America, and southeastern and northeastern China are shown to suffer greater risk in El Niño years, with more than double the chance of intense extreme precipitation in El Niño years compared with La Niña years. Moreover, regions with more intense precipitation are more sensitive to ENSO. Global climate models were used to investigate the changing relationship between extreme precipitation and the covariates. The risk of extreme, high-intensity precipitation increases across high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere but decreases in middle and lower latitudes under a warming climate scenario, and will likely trigger increases in severe flooding and droughts across the globe. However, there is some uncertainties associated with the influence of ENSO on predictions of future extreme precipitation, with the spatial extent and risk varying among the different models.

  19. Global Distribution of Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides in 2010 Relative to Previous Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Adler, David; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Huffman, George

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides worldwide. While research has evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local or regional scales using in situ data, few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This study uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from TRMM data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurrence of precipitation and landslides globally. Evaluation of the GLC indicates that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This study characterizes the variability of satellite precipitation data and reported landslide activity at the globally scale in order to improve landslide cataloging, forecasting and quantify potential triggering sources at daily, monthly and yearly time scales.

  20. Asymmetric impacts of global risk appetite on the risk premium for an emerging market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlı, İbrahim Burak

    2008-05-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of global risk appetite on the risk premium utilizing high-frequency data. Taking the Turkish economy as our laboratory, we find that the risk premium volatility responds only to a worsening in the risk appetite for the Turkish economy, which is a result that we do not observe for the other emerging markets. Then, we investigate the role of current account dynamics on this asymmetric effect, by focusing also on an economy with similar current account performance. The empirical results find supporting evidence for the role of current account dynamics on the estimated asymmetry.

  1. The PREDICTS database: a global database of how local terrestrial biodiversity responds to human impacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fayle, Tom Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 24 (2014), s. 4701-4735 ISSN 2045-7758 Grant - others:U.K. Natural Environment Research Council(GB) NE/J011193/1; U.K. Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council(GB) BB/F017324/1 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : data sharing * global change * habitat destruction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ece3.1303/epdf

  2. Impact of ADTT concepts on the management of global plutonium inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.W.; Krakowski, R.A.; Arthur, E.D.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of a number of current and future nuclear systems on global plutonium inventories is assessed under realistic forecasts of nuclear power growth. Advanced systems, such as those employing Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT) and liquid metal reactors, show significant promise for meeting future plutonium management needs. These analyses also indicate requirements for a higher level of detail in the nuclear fuel cycle model and for development of a metric to more quantitatively assess the proliferation risk of plutonium arising from the civilian fuel cycle

  3. THE REGIONAL IMPACTS OF THE 2008-2009 GLOBAL CRISIS ON GOVERNANCE

    OpenAIRE

    HALIL DINCER KAYA

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examine the regional impacts of the 2008-2009 Global Crisis on Governance. We use World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators (i.e. WGI) which includes six dimensions of governance. These six dimensions are “Voice and Accountability”, “Political Stability and Absence of Violence”, “Government Effectiveness”, “Regulatory Quality”, “Rule of Law”, and “Control of Corruption”. The regions that we examine are North America, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and ...

  4. Structural Changes of International Trade Flows under the Impact of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes of international trade flows indicate modifications in competitiveness of countries, in terms of production, technological upgrading and exports under the pressure of globalization. The paper aims to point out sources of competitive advantages especially in manufacturing exports of different groups of countries. The focus is on the shifts in the structure of manufacturing in the European Union and their effects on international rankings in export performances. An important issue refers to the opportunities given by the enlargement of the European Union and their impact on EU trade structures.

  5. Introduction of Nuclear Power Plant for Mitigating the Impact of Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Finahari, Ida Nuryatin

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT FOR MITIGATING THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING. Energy utilization for power plants in Indonesia is still highly depending on the burning of fossil fuel like coal, oil, and gas. From the combustion of fossil fuel, greenhouse gases such as CO2 and N2O are produced. An increase of CO2 gas emission to the atmosphere can block the heat loss from the earth surface and will increase the greenhouse effect that results in the temperature increase of the earth surface ...

  6. In silico identification and characterization of effector catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Ronnie

    2012-01-01

    Many characterized fungal effector proteins are small secreted proteins. Effectors are defined as those proteins that alter host cell structure and/or function by facilitating pathogen infection. The identification of effectors by molecular and cell biology techniques is a difficult task. However, with the availability of whole-genome sequences, these proteins can now be predicted in silico. Here, we describe in detail how to identify and characterize effectors from a defined fungal proteome using in silico techniques.

  7. Quantifying the impact of weather extremes on global food security: A spatial bio-economic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sika Gbegbelegbe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a spatial bio-economic modelling framework to estimate the impact of the 2012 weather extreme in the USA on food security in the developing world. The study also quantifies the potential effects of a similar weather extreme occurring in 2050 under climate change. The study results indicate that weather extremes that affect maize productivity in key grain baskets can negatively affect food security in vulnerable countries. The 2012 weather extreme which occurred in the USA reduced US and global maize production by 29% compared to trend; maize consumption in the country decreased by 5% only and this resulted in less surplus maize for exports from the largest maize exporter in the world. Global maize production decreased by 6% compared to trend. The decrease in global maize production coupled with a reduction in the volume of global maize exports worsened food insecurity in eastern Africa, the Caribbean and Central America and India. The effects of the weather extreme on global food security would be worse, if the latter were to occur under climate change in 2050, assuming no climate change adaptation worldwide over the years. In addition, the hardest-hit regions would remain the same, whether the weather extreme occurs in 2012 instead of 2050: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, South Asia and the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC region. However, sustained growth in per capita income across world economies between 2000 and 2050 would allow few countries in SSA and the LAC region to virtually eliminate hunger within their borders. In these countries, per capita income would be high enough by 2050 to completely offset the negative effect of the weather extreme. The study results are also consistent with USDA׳s estimates on US and global maize production and consumption in 2012 after the weather extreme. Some discrepancy is found on the volume of global maize trade; this implies that the bio-economic model likely overestimates the effect of the

  8. Impacts of Tariff and Non-tariff Trade Barriers on Global Forest Products Trade: An Application of the Global Forest Products Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.; Bogdanski, B.; Stennes, B.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Although there has been considerable analysis on the effects of trade measures on forest product markets, these have tended to focus on tariffs. There is growing concern about the impact of non-tariff trade measures on the global forest product sector. The objective of this study is to fill a gap

  9. A global overview of biotech (GM) crops: adoption, impact and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Clive

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, some were skeptical that genetically modified (GM) crops, now referred to as biotech crops, could deliver improved products and make an impact at the farm level. There was even more skepticism that developing countries would adopt biotech crops. The adoption of and commercialization of biotech crops in 2008 is reviewed. The impact of biotech crops are summarized including their contribution to: global food, feed and fiber security; a safer environment; a more sustainable agriculture; and the alleviation of poverty, and hunger in the developing countries of the world. Future prospects are discussed. Notably, Egypt planted Bt maize for the first time in 2008 thereby becoming the first country in the Arab world to commercialize biotech crops.

  10. Distributional impacts of the 2008 global food price spike in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKay, Andy; Tarp, Finn

    Agriculture and food cultivation production remains a key sector in the Vietnamese economy in terms of productive activities, income generation, and national export earnings. Higher world market prices should therefore in principle have a beneficial impact on rural farmers. This is based however...... on the assumption that world prices are transmitted and that farmers have the capacity to respond. In addition, many poorer farm households may be net consumers. Using data from the Vietnam Access to Resources Household Survey (VARHS) and the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) combined with available...... macro-data, this paper investigates how global price changes appear to have impacted on rural welfare in Vietnam during 2006-12. In this paper we study the case of rice in Vietnam, in the context of the 2008 food price spike. We analyse the responses of domestic producer and consumer prices, and discuss...

  11. ALTERNATIVE MODEL CONCEPT OF LAW TO RESPOND THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION OF LIBERAL DEMOCRATION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriati Amarini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Democracy is a universal state order with the concept of sovereignty vested in the people and implemented as an application of human dignity with the value of brotherhood, equality and freedom. The big issue for Indonesia is a communal atmosphere and collective behavior that is fading while the competitive behavior of individuals is increasingly valued. Subsequent impact is the blurring of the benchmark assessment of individual behavior, which in turn trigger the formation of social issues that increasingly complex. There are at least three alternative models of law concept responded impact of globalization of democracy, first: engineering and social control over management model, characterized by results rather than process-oriented; second, the critical model where the law continually refined through process of falsification; third, the law is formulated, implemented and enforced based on the postulate–progressiveresponsive.

  12. The Impact of the Bioeconomy on the Economic Development under the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the idea that bioeconomy represents a real solution to the future sustainable development. The main objectives of the paper consist of an evaluation of the bioeconomy’s impact on the global economy, followed by finding solutions for the Romanian economy. The bioeconomy is a new concept in Romania. As a result, there are just a few theoretical contributions to this topic area. This is why, we realised a pertinent analysis, in order to quantify the impact of the bioeconomy on the EU economy and to find pertinent solutions for the development of this approach in Romania. The main conclusion of the paper is that bioeconomy is a good solution for a sustainable development in Romania.

  13. Considerations on the Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Economies from Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Belașcu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the causes and consequences of the 2007-2008 global financial crisis on five Eastern European countries, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Russia, with the purpose of identifying the common points and the differences between these economies in terms of crisis impact, with an accent on their capital markets. Our findings indicate that although the countries under scrutiny have displayed somehow different paths of economic development before the crisis, they were affected, to a higher or smaller extent, by the financial crisis. Also, the crisis was felt in these countries, at least in terms of impact on capital markets, with different lags: in some of these countries the crisis hit at beginning of 2008, while in others signs of the crisis were visible only towards the end of 2008.

  14. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: Progress and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frischknecht, Rolf; Fantke, Peter; Tschümperlin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) guidance flagship project of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative aims at providing global guidance and building scientific consensus on environmental LCIA......-cutting issues TF agreed upon maintaining disabilityadjusted life years (DALY) as endpoint unit for the safeguard subject "human health". The footprint TF defined main attributes that should characterise all footprint indicators. "Rice cultivation" and "cooking" stages of the rice LCA case study contribute most...... to the environmental impacts assessed. Conclusions The results of the TF will be documented in white papers and some published in scientific journals. These white papers represent the input for the Pellston workshop ™, taking place inValencia, Spain, from24 to 29 January 2016, where best practice, harmonised LCIA...

  15. Introduction to the Unified Synthesis Product (USP), Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, T. R.

    2009-05-01

    The USP provides in plain language a synthesis of our current understanding of global climate change impacts in the United States. It does this by addressing special issues facing a variety of sectors and regions across the United States. In the process of synthesizing this information across a large number of recently completed assessments and new research since, the USP provides some new insights about climate change impacts in the United States. Highlights include: 1. Climate-related changes already have been observed globally and in the United States. These include increases in air and water temperatures, reduced frost days, increased frequency and intensity of heavy downpours, a rise in sea level, and reduced snow cover, glaciers, and sea ice. A longer ice-free period on lakes and rivers, lengthening of the growing season, and increased water vapor in the atmosphere has also been observed. 2. These changes are expected to increase and will impact human health, water supply, agriculture, coastal areas, and many other aspects of society and the natural environment. Some changes are likely for the United States and surrounding coastal waters including more intense hurricanes and related increases in wind, rain, and storm surges (but not necessarily an increase in the number of storms that make landfall), as well as drier conditions in the Southwest and Caribbean. 3. Society and ecosystems are generally adapted to a stable climate. For this reason, the projected rapid rate and large amount of climate change over this century will challenge the ability of society and natural systems to adjust. 4. In projecting future conditions, there is always some level of uncertainty. For example, there is a high degree of confidence in projections of future temperature increases that are greatest nearer the poles and in the middle of continents. For precipitation, there is high confidence in continued increases in the Arctic and sub-Arctic (including Alaska) and decreases in

  16. Assessing the impacts of 1.5 °C global warming – simulation protocol of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP2b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frieler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Paris, France, December 2015, the Conference of the Parties (COP to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC invited the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC to provide a special report in 2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways. In Nairobi, Kenya, April 2016, the IPCC panel accepted the invitation. Here we describe the response devised within the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP to provide tailored, cross-sectorally consistent impact projections to broaden the scientific basis for the report. The simulation protocol is designed to allow for (1 separation of the impacts of historical warming starting from pre-industrial conditions from impacts of other drivers such as historical land-use changes (based on pre-industrial and historical impact model simulations; (2 quantification of the impacts of additional warming up to 1.5 °C, including a potential overshoot and long-term impacts up to 2299, and comparison to higher levels of global mean temperature change (based on the low-emissions Representative Concentration Pathway RCP2.6 and a no-mitigation pathway RCP6.0 with socio-economic conditions fixed at 2005 levels; and (3 assessment of the climate effects based on the same climate scenarios while accounting for simultaneous changes in socio-economic conditions following the middle-of-the-road Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP2, Fricko et al., 2016 and in particular differential bioenergy requirements associated with the transformation of the energy system to comply with RCP2.6 compared to RCP6.0. With the aim of providing the scientific basis for an aggregation of impacts across sectors and analysis of cross-sectoral interactions that may dampen or amplify sectoral impacts, the protocol is designed to facilitate consistent impact projections from a range of impact models across

  17. Assessing the impacts of 1.5 °C global warming - simulation protocol of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP2b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieler, Katja; Lange, Stefan; Piontek, Franziska; Reyer, Christopher P. O.; Schewe, Jacob; Warszawski, Lila; Zhao, Fang; Chini, Louise; Denvil, Sebastien; Emanuel, Kerry; Geiger, Tobias; Halladay, Kate; Hurtt, George; Mengel, Matthias; Murakami, Daisuke; Ostberg, Sebastian; Popp, Alexander; Riva, Riccardo; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Suzuki, Tatsuo; Volkholz, Jan; Burke, Eleanor; Ciais, Philippe; Ebi, Kristie; Eddy, Tyler D.; Elliott, Joshua; Galbraith, Eric; Gosling, Simon N.; Hattermann, Fred; Hickler, Thomas; Hinkel, Jochen; Hof, Christian; Huber, Veronika; Jägermeyr, Jonas; Krysanova, Valentina; Marcé, Rafael; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Pierson, Don; Tittensor, Derek P.; Vautard, Robert; van Vliet, Michelle; Biber, Matthias F.; Betts, Richard A.; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Deryng, Delphine; Frolking, Steve; Jones, Chris D.; Lotze, Heike K.; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Thonicke, Kirsten; Tian, Hanqin; Yamagata, Yoshiki

    2017-11-01

    In Paris, France, December 2015, the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) invited the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to provide a special report in 2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways. In Nairobi, Kenya, April 2016, the IPCC panel accepted the invitation. Here we describe the response devised within the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) to provide tailored, cross-sectorally consistent impact projections to broaden the scientific basis for the report. The simulation protocol is designed to allow for (1) separation of the impacts of historical warming starting from pre-industrial conditions from impacts of other drivers such as historical land-use changes (based on pre-industrial and historical impact model simulations); (2) quantification of the impacts of additional warming up to 1.5 °C, including a potential overshoot and long-term impacts up to 2299, and comparison to higher levels of global mean temperature change (based on the low-emissions Representative Concentration Pathway RCP2.6 and a no-mitigation pathway RCP6.0) with socio-economic conditions fixed at 2005 levels; and (3) assessment of the climate effects based on the same climate scenarios while accounting for simultaneous changes in socio-economic conditions following the middle-of-the-road Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP2, Fricko et al., 2016) and in particular differential bioenergy requirements associated with the transformation of the energy system to comply with RCP2.6 compared to RCP6.0. With the aim of providing the scientific basis for an aggregation of impacts across sectors and analysis of cross-sectoral interactions that may dampen or amplify sectoral impacts, the protocol is designed to facilitate consistent impact projections from a range of impact models across different sectors (global

  18. Regional and urban down scaling of global climate scenarios for health impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Perez, L.; Gonzalez, R. M.; Pecci, J.; Garzon, A.; Palacios, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this contribution we have used global climate RCP IPCC scenarios to produce climate and air pollution maps at regional (25 km resolution) and urban scale with 200 m spatial resolution over Europe and five European cities in order to investigate the impact on meteorological variables and pollutant concentrations . We have used the very well known mesoscale meteorological model WRF-Chem (NOAA, US). We have used 2011 as control past year and two RCP scenarios from CCSM global climate model with 4.5 W/m2 and 8.5 W/m2 for 2030, 2050 and 2100 years. After running WRF-Chem model, using the boundary conditions provided by RCP scenarios with the emissions of 2011, we have performed a detailed down scaling process using CALMET diagnostic model to obtain a full 200 m spatial resolution map of five European cities (London, Antwerp, Madrid, Milan, and Helsinki). We will show the results and the health impacts for future RCP IPCC climate scenarios in comparison with the 2011 control year information for climate and health indicators. Finally, we have also investigated the impact of the aerosol effects in the short wave radiation mean value. Two simulations with the WRF-Chem model have been performed over Europe in 2010. A baseline simulation without any feedback effects and a second simulation including the direct effects affecting the solar radiation reaching the surface as well as the indirect aerosol effect with potential impacts on increasing or decreasing the precipitation rates. Aerosol effects produce an increase of incoming radiation over Atlantic Ocean (up to 70%) because the prescribed aerosol concentrations in the WRF-Chem without feedbacks is substantially higher than the aerosol concentrations produced when we activate the feedback effects. The decrease in solar radiation in the Sahara area (10%) is found to be produced because the prescribed aerosol concentration in the no feedback simulation is lower than when we activate the feedback effects. (Author)

  19. Regional and urban downscaling of global climate scenarios for health impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J.L.; Perez, L.; Gonzalez, R.M.; Pecci, J.; Garzon, A.; Palacios, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this contribution we have used global climate RCP IPCC scenarios to produce climate and air pollution maps at regional (25 km resolution) and urban scale with 200 m spatial resolution over Europe and five European cities in order to investigate the impact on meteorological variables and pollutant concentrations . We have used the very well known mesoscale meeorological model WRF-Chem (NOAA, US). We have used 2011 as control past year and two RCP scenarios from CCSM global climate model with 4.5 W/m2 and 8.5 W/m2 for 2030, 2050 and 2100 years. After running WRF-Chem model, using the boundary conditions provided by RCP scenarios with the emissions of 2011, we have performed a detailed downscaling process using CALMET diagnostic model to obtain a full 200 m spatial resolution map of five European cities (London, Antwerp, Madrid, Milan, and Helsinki). We will show the results and the health impacts for future RCP IPCC climate scenarios in comparison with the 2011 control year information for climate and health indicators. Finnally, we have also investigated the impact of the aerosol effects in the short wave radiation mean value. Two simulations with the WRF-Chem model have been performed over Europe in 2010. A baseline simulation without any feedback effects and a second simulation including the direct effects affecting the solar radiation reaching the surface as well as the indirect aerosol effect with potential impacts on increasing or decreasing the precipitation rates. Aerosol effects produce an increase of incoming radiation over Atlantic Ocean (up to 70%) because the prescribed aerosol concentrations in the WRF-Chem without feedbacks is substantially higher than the aerosol concentrations produced when we activate the feedback effects. The decrease in solar radiation in the Sahara area (10%) is found to be produced because the prescribed aerosol concentration in the {sup n}o feedback{sup s}imulation is lower than when we activate the feedback effects. (Author)

  20. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B; Smith, Ward N; Desjardins, Raymond L; Worth, Devon E; Zentner, Robert; Malhi, Sukhdev S

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha(-1) decreased on average the emissions of N2O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO2 emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional and urban down scaling of global climate scenarios for health impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Perez, L.; Gonzalez, R. M.; Pecci, J.; Garzon, A.; Palacios, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we have used global climate RCP IPCC scenarios to produce climate and air pollution maps at regional (25 km resolution) and urban scale with 200 m spatial resolution over Europe and five European cities in order to investigate the impact on meteorological variables and pollutant concentrations . We have used the very well known mesoscale meteorological model WRF-Chem (NOAA, US). We have used 2011 as control past year and two RCP scenarios from CCSM global climate model with 4.5 W/m2 and 8.5 W/m2 for 2030, 2050 and 2100 years. After running WRF-Chem model, using the boundary conditions provided by RCP scenarios with the emissions of 2011, we have performed a detailed down scaling process using CALMET diagnostic model to obtain a full 200 m spatial resolution map of five European cities (London, Antwerp, Madrid, Milan, and Helsinki). We will show the results and the health impacts for future RCP IPCC climate scenarios in comparison with the 2011 control year information for climate and health indicators. Finally, we have also investigated the impact of the aerosol effects in the short wave radiation mean value. Two simulations with the WRF-Chem model have been performed over Europe in 2010. A baseline simulation without any feedback effects and a second simulation including the direct effects affecting the solar radiation reaching the surface as well as the indirect aerosol effect with potential impacts on increasing or decreasing the precipitation rates. Aerosol effects produce an increase of incoming radiation over Atlantic Ocean (up to 70%) because the prescribed aerosol concentrations in the WRF-Chem without feedbacks is substantially higher than the aerosol concentrations produced when we activate the feedback effects. The decrease in solar radiation in the Sahara area (10%) is found to be produced because the prescribed aerosol concentration in the no feedback simulation is lower than when we activate the feedback effects. (Author)

  2. In silico identification and characterization of effector catalogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.

    2012-01-01

    Many characterized fungal effector proteins are small secreted proteins. Effectors are defined as those proteins that alter host cell structure and/or function by facilitating pathogen infection. The identification of effectors by molecular and cell biology techniques is a difficult task. However,

  3. Innovation in Hungary - The Impact of EU Accession and Integration into Global Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szalavetz Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that EU accession has brought about minimal changes in the patterns of innovation in Hungary. The reason why is not that the ‘EU factor’ is of minor importance; rather, it is Hungary's inability to use EU resources effectively, so as to fully benefit from EU membership. The Hungarian story also demonstrates that the EU cannot block member states from reversing reform or abusing the opportunities EU membership offers to them. We contend that globalization (global value chain integration has more effectively contributed to Hungary's knowledge-based upgrading than Europeanization (in the sense of policy transfer; access to EU Structural & Cohesion Funds, and integration in the European Research Area. This argument is substantiated with a case study on innovation strategy design and implementation, which illustrates the ambiguous impact of Europeanization, which is contrasted with our investigation of integration in global value chains, conducted through interviews of foreign-owned manufacturing companies about their R&D-based upgrading experience.

  4. Global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies: Combining fluorocarbon and CO2 effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, P.D.; Fischer, S.K.; Hughes, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are on their way out, due to their role in stratospheric ozone depletion and the related international Montreal Protocol agreement and various national phaseout timetables. As the research, engineering development, and manufacturing investment decisions have ensued to prepare for this transition away from CFCs, the climate change issue has emerged and there has recently been increased attention on the direct global warming potential (GWP) of the fluorocarbon alternatives as greenhouse gases. However, there has been less focus on the indirect global warming effect arising from end-use energy changes and associated CO 2 emissions. A study was undertaken to address these combined global warming effects. A concept of Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) was developed for combining the direct and indirect effects and was used for evaluating CFC-replacement options available in the required CFC transition time frame. Analyses of industry technology surveys indicate that CFC-user industries have made substantial progress toward near-equal energy efficiency with many HCFC/HFC alternatives. The findings also bring into question the relative importance of the direct effect in many applications and stress energy efficiency when searching for suitable CFC alternatives. For chillers, household refrigerators, and unitary air-conditioning or heat pump equipment, changes in efficiency of only 2--5% would have a greater effect on future TEWI than completely eliminating the direct effect

  5. Tropes of Fear: the Impact of Globalization on Batek Religious Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tacey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Batek are a forest and forest-fringe dwelling population numbering around 1,500 located in Peninsular Malaysia. Most Batek groups were mobile forest-dwelling foragers and collectors until the recent past. The Batek imbue the forest with religious significance that they inscribe onto the landscape through movement, everyday activities, storytelling, trancing and shamanic journeying. However, as processes of globalization transform Malaysian landscapes, many Batek groups have been deterritorialized and relocated to the forest fringes where they are often pressured into converting to world religions, particularly Islam. Batek religious beliefs and practices have been re-shaped by their increasing encounters with global flows of ideologies, technologies, objects, capital and people, as landscapes are opened up to development. This article analyzes the ways these encounters are incorporated into the fabric of the Batek’s religious world and how new objects and ideas have been figuratively and literally assimilated into their taboo systems and cosmology. Particular attention is paid to the impacts of globalization as expressed through tropes of fear.

  6. Future global SLR network evolution and its impact on the terrestrial reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Alexander; Bloßfeld, Mathis; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Seitz, Florian

    2017-11-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) is an important technique that contributes to the determination of terrestrial geodetic reference frames, especially to the realization of the origin and the scale of global networks. One of the major limiting factors of SLR-derived reference frame realizations is the datum accuracy which significantly suffers from the current global SLR station distribution. In this paper, the impact of a potential future development of the SLR network on the estimated datum parameters is investigated. The current status of the SLR network is compared to a simulated potential future network featuring additional stations improving the global network geometry. In addition, possible technical advancements resulting in a higher amount of observations are taken into account as well. As a result, we find that the network improvement causes a decrease in the scatter of the network translation parameters of up to 24%, and up to 20% for the scale, whereas the technological improvement causes a reduction in the scatter of up to 27% for the translations and up to 49% for the scale. The Earth orientation parameters benefit by up to 15% from both effects.

  7. Extent of alcohol prohibition in civil policy in Muslim majority countries: the impact of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Basma; Thow, Anne-Marie; Day, Carolyn A; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2016-10-01

    Many policies have been introduced to reduce alcohol harm in different countries. However, Muslim majority countries (MMCs), where the major religion (Islam) prohibits alcohol consumption, have less well-developed civil alcohol policies. Overall, MMCs have low prevalence of alcohol consumption, although recently most MMCs have been undergoing transition, which has sometimes increased pressure for alcohol availability and impacted on social practices, alcohol policies and broader public health. Globalization, the influence of the global alcohol industry, recent governmental transition or political instability and the presence of immigrants from non-Muslim countries can all affect civil alcohol policy. In this context, consumption overall has increased compared with two decades ago. This paper presents an overview of current civil alcohol policy, with regard to the presence or absence of alcohol prohibition, and provides an insight into the legal availability of alcohol in MMCs and the challenges facing policymakers. English, Arabic and Persian language sources were examined, using PubMed, government websites for each country and the World Health Organization (WHO). Some of the challenges MMCs may face in developing alcohol policies are explored, including the need to interact with the global economy and the potential influence of the alcohol industry. Muslim majority countries have adopted a range of civil alcohol policies in recent decades. There is a pressing need for better data and to support Muslim majority countries in alcohol policy development. Lessons from Muslim majority countries can help to inform other parts of the world. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Introduction of nuclear power plant for mitigating the impact of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida Nuryatin Finahari

    2008-01-01

    Energy utilization for power plants in Indonesia is still highly depending on the burning of fossil fuel like coal, oil, and gas. From the combustion of fossil fuel, greenhouse gases such as CO 2 and N 2 O are produced. An increase of CO 2 gas emission to the atmosphere can block the heat loss from the earth surface and will increase the greenhouse effect that results in the temperature increase of the earth surface (global warming). Global warming can cause a very extreme climate change on earth. One of the solutions to reduce CO 2 gas emission produced by fossil fuel power plants is to utilize the plants with flue gas treatment facility. At such facility, CO 2 gas is reacted with certain mineral based substances thus can be used as base material in food-, pharmaceutical-, construction-, and cosmetic industry. Another alternative to reduce CO 2 gas emission is by replacing fossil fuel power plants with nuclear power plants. Considering the environmental and economic aspects, the nuclear power plant does not emit CO 2 gas, so that the use of nuclear power plant can mitigate the impact of global warming. Based on the operational experience of nuclear power plants in advanced countries, the cost of generating electricity from nuclear power plants is more competitive than that of fossil fuel power plant. (author)

  9. Structure of the effector-binding domain of deoxyribonucleoside regulator DeoR from Bacillus subtilis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škerlová, Jana; Fábry, Milan; Hubálek, Martin; Otwinowski, Z.; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 18 (2014), s. 4280-4292 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : dimeric interface * effector binding * Schiff base * transcription repressor * X-ray crystallography Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2014

  10. A global economic assessment of city policies to reduce climate change impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Francisco; Botzen, W. J. Wouter; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2017-06-01

    Climate change impacts can be especially large in cities. Several large cities are taking climate change into account in long-term strategies, for which it is important to have information on the costs and benefits of adaptation. Studies on climate change impacts in cities mostly focus on a limited set of countries and risks, for example sea-level rise, health and water resources. Most of these studies are qualitative, except for the costs of sea-level rise in cities. These impact estimates do not take into account that large cities will experience additional warming due to the urban heat island effect, that is, the change of local climate patterns caused by urbanization. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of the economic costs of the joint impacts of local and global climate change for all main cities around the world. Cost-benefit analyses are presented of urban heat island mitigation options, including green and cool roofs and cool pavements. It is shown that local actions can be a climate risk-reduction instrument. Furthermore, limiting the urban heat island through city adaptation plans can significantly amplify the benefits of international mitigation efforts.

  11. Educational impact of using smartphones for clinical communication on general medicine: more global, less local.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert C; Tzanetos, Katina; Morra, Dante; Quan, Sherman; Lo, Vivian; Wong, Brian M

    2013-07-01

    Medical trainees increasingly use smartphones in their clinical work. Similar to other information technology implementations, smartphone use can result in unintended consequences. This study aimed to examine the impact of smartphone use for clinical communication on medical trainees' educational experiences. Qualitative research methodology using interview data, ethnographic data, and analysis of e-mail messages. We analyzed the interview transcripts, ethnographic data, and e-mails by applying a conceptual framework consisting of 5 educational domains. Smartphone use increased connectedness and resulted in a high level of interruptions. These 2 factors impacted 3 discrete educational domains: supervision, teaching, and professionalism. Smartphone use increased connectedness to supervisors and may improve supervision, making it easier for supervisors to take over but can limit autonomy by reducing learner decision making. Teaching activities may be easier to coordinate, but smartphone use interrupted learners and reduced teaching effectiveness during these sessions. Finally, there may be professionalism issues in relation to how residents use smartphones during encounters with patients and health professionals and in teaching sessions. We summarized the impact of a rapidly emerging information technology-smartphones-on the educational experience of medical trainees. Smartphone use increase connectedness and allow trainees to be more globally available for patient care but creates interruptions that cause trainees to be less present in their local interactions with staff during teaching sessions. Educators should be aware of these findings and need to develop curriculum to address the negative impacts of smartphone use in the clinical training environment. © 2013 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  12. What is the impact of professional nursing on patients' outcomes globally? An overview of research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Samantha; Watkins, Mary; Norman, Ian J

    2017-10-19

    Nursing is an integral part of all healthcare services, and has the potential of having a wide and enduring impact on health outcomes for a global ageing population. Over time nurses have developed new roles and assumed greater responsibilities. It is increasingly important to demonstrate the safety and overall impact of nurses' practice through research, to support the case for greater investment and development of nursing services around the world. To provide an overview of existing research evidence on the impact of nursing on patient outcomes, identify gaps in evidence, and point to future priorities for global research. Specifically to address two questions: what is the evidence that nursing contributes to improving the health and well-being of populations?; and where should research activity be focused to strengthen the evidence base for the impact of nursing? A search of the literature from 1996 using CINAHL, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and the NICE evidence databases using the key words: nursing, nurse led, nursing interventions and patient outcomes. Initial analysis of the retrieved citations to reveal clusters of evidence of nursing impact in clinical areas which had been subject to systematic/integrative reviews or meta-analyses. Further analysis of these reviews to provide an overview of the research evidence for nurses' contributions to healthcare to inform discussion on future research agendas. We use the terms low, moderate and high quality evidence to reflect the assessments made by the review authors whose work is presented throughout. Analysis of 61 reviews, including ten Cochrane reviews and two scoping/selective reviews to provide a summary of the research evidence for nurses' contributions to healthcare in the following areas of practice: nursing in acute care settings; nurses' involvement in public health; the contribution of specialist nurse and nurse-led services to the management of chronic disease; comparison of care

  13. Impact of Evidence Type and Judicial Warning on Juror Perceptions of Global and Specific Witness Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M; Keogan, Hannah

    2017-04-03

    The Court of Appeal in England and Wales held (R. v. Sardar, 2012) there had been no exceptional circumstances that justified a jury retiring with a transcript of the complainant's interview. This paper reports an investigation into the impact multiple evidence forms and use of a judicial warning has on juror evaluations of a witness. The warning focuses juror attention on placing disproportionate weight on the evidence as opposed to their general impression of it. Sixty jury-eligible participants were presented with witness evidence in transcript, video, or transcript plus video format. Half the participants in each condition received the warning. All mock jurors completed a questionnaire which assessed perceptions of witness and task. Outcomes showed that transcript plus video evidence, when accompanied by a warning, did impact on mock jurors' global assessments of the witness. The warning made the task less clear for jurors and, in the video condition, led to higher ratings of how satisfactory and reliable the witness was. Findings support the provision of a judicial warning to jurors and show some initial support for judiciary opposition to the provision of an additional transcript only when jurors are asked to make the more usual global witness assessments.

  14. A methodology for the evaluation of global warming impact on soil moisture and runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes, J.B.; Seoane, R.S.; North, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the intensity of the global hydrologic cycle. Precipitation and temperature patterns, soil moisture requirements, and the physical structure of the vegetation canopy play important roles in the hydrologic system of drainage basins. Changes in these phenomena, because of a buildup Of CO 2 and other trace gases, have the potential to affect the quantity, quality, timing, and spatial distribution of water available to satisfy the many demands placed on the resource by society. In this work a methodology for the evaluation of impact on soil moisture concentration and direct surface runoff is presented. The methodology integrates stochastic models of hydroclimatic input variables with a model of water balance in the soil. This allows the derivation of the probability distribution of soil moisture concentration and direct surface runoff for different combinations of climate and soil characteristics, ranging from humid to semi-arid and arid. These PDFs asses, in a comprehensive manner, the impact that climate change have on soil moisture and runoff and allow the water resources planner to make more educated decisions in the planning and design of water resources systems. The methodology was applied to three sites in Texas. To continue in the line of research suggested by Delworth and Manabe the authors computed the autocorrelation function (ACF) and the spectra of both precipitation inputs and soil moisture concentration outputs for all scenarios of climate change

  15. The Impact Of Regionalism On Regional Development Under The Conditions Of A Globalized Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Cihelkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explain the difference between regionalism and regional development concepts that are often used interchangeably, to investigate the fundamental aspects of two phenomena: regionalism in the sense of “new regionalism” and in the sense of “regional development” at the background of the globalized economy; to check a hypothesis that these two phenomena may be linked together and to study the impact of regionalism on regional integration. The article deepens the concept of “regional development.” At the same time, peculiarities of the current stage of the world economy development under the conditions of globalization are considered. The paper is theoretical (verbal rather than statistical analysis of the nature, diversity and fundamental aspects of regionalism and regional development in general. The article deals with the impact of regionalism on the location of production, and the growth of competition and market expansion systematizes the main effects of regionalism on market expansion and the location of production.

  16. Estimating the impact of +2 degrees of global warming on European Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanis, Ioannis; Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Grillakis, Manolis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Jacob, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    The impact of a potential global temperature rise by 2oC on tourism is examined, within the framework of IMPACT2C FP7 project. The period of the specific increase was defined according to the global mean temperature projections from two GCM, BCM and HadCM3Q3. Simulations from two RCMs, driven by the aforementioned GCMs, in the frame of ENSEMBLES FP6 under A1B emission scenario were used to estimate the Tourism Climatic Index (TCI) which is a measure of climate favorability for outdoor leisure and recreational activities. Climate favorability related to summer tourism is expected to increase in most European countries moving from south to north. In the opposite, countries that traditionally attract "sun and sand" tourists like Italy, Spain, Greece, France, Portugal, Cyprus are projected to become uncomfortably hot for the months of the peak summer season. Both of the examined models provide consistent information about the direction of change, however SMHI shows a greater change in future TCI. The TCI between 1960 and 2000 was associated to bednights data, to reveal the correlation of the empirical index with a real tourism indicator. The resulted correlation function was then applied to the 2oC period, estimating the effect of the specific temperature rise to future tourism activity expressed in terms of projected bednights.

  17. An alternative to the global warming potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, Keith P.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Stuber, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    The global warming potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climate impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GQP has been subject at many criticism because of its formulation but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of this design and application and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here a new metric which we call the Global Temperature Change Potential (GTP) is proposed which is based on a simple analytical climate model that represents the temperature change as a given time due to either a pulse emission of a gas or a sustained emission change relative to a similar emission change of carbon dioxide. The GTP for a pulse emission illustrates that the GWP does not represent well the relative temperature response; however, the GWP is shown to be very close to the GTP for a sustained emission change for time horizons of 100 years or more. The new metric retains the advantage of the GWP in terms of transparency and the relatively small number of input parameters required for calculation. However, it has an enhanced relevance as it is further down the cause-effect chain of the impacts of greenhouse gases emissions. The GTP for a sustained emission appears to be robust to a number of uncertainties and simplifications in its derivation and may be an attractive alternative to the GWP. (Author)

  18. Mitigation potential and global health impacts from emissions pricing of food commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, Marco; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Robinson, Sherman; Wiebe, Keith; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The projected rise in food-related greenhouse gas emissions could seriously impede efforts to limit global warming to acceptable levels. Despite that, food production and consumption have long been excluded from climate policies, in part due to concerns about the potential impact on food security. Using a coupled agriculture and health modelling framework, we show that the global climate change mitigation potential of emissions pricing of food commodities could be substantial, and that levying greenhouse gas taxes on food commodities could, if appropriately designed, be a health-promoting climate policy in high-income countries, as well as in most low- and middle-income countries. Sparing food groups known to be beneficial for health from taxation, selectively compensating for income losses associated with tax-related price increases, and using a portion of tax revenues for health promotion are potential policy options that could help avert most of the negative health impacts experienced by vulnerable groups, whilst still promoting changes towards diets which are more environmentally sustainable.

  19. Host Cell Targeting by Enteropathogenic Bacteria T3SS Effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaud, Laurie; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Phalipon, Armelle

    2018-04-01

    Microbial pathogens possess a diversity of weapons that disrupt host homeostasis and immune defenses, thus resulting in the establishment of infection. The best-characterized system mediating bacterial protein delivery into target eukaryotic cells is the type III secretion system (T3SS) expressed by Gram-negative bacteria, including the human enteric pathogens Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic/enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EPEC/EHEC). The emerging global view is that these T3SS-bearing pathogens share similarities in their ability to target key cellular pathways such as the cell cytoskeleton, trafficking, cell death/survival, and the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. In particular, multiple host proteins are targeted in a given pathway, and different T3SS effectors from various pathogens share functional similarities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D.; Zhang, Q.; Jiang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  1. Climate impact of biofuels in shipping: global model studies of the aerosol indirect effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Mattia; Klinger, Carolin; Eyring, Veronika; Hendricks, Johannes; Lauer, Axel; Petzold, Andreas

    2011-04-15

    Aerosol emissions from international shipping are recognized to have a large impact on the Earth's radiation budget, directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and indirectly by altering cloud properties. New regulations have recently been approved by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) aiming at progressive reductions of the maximum sulfur content allowed in marine fuels from current 4.5% by mass down to 0.5% in 2020, with more restrictive limits already applied in some coastal regions. In this context, we use a global bottom-up algorithm to calculate geographically resolved emission inventories of gaseous (NO(x), CO, SO(2)) and aerosol (black carbon, organic matter, sulfate) species for different kinds of low-sulfur fuels in shipping. We apply these inventories to study the resulting changes in radiative forcing, attributed to particles from shipping, with the global aerosol-climate model EMAC-MADE. The emission factors for the different fuels are based on measurements at a test bed of a large diesel engine. We consider both fossil fuel (marine gas oil) and biofuels (palm and soy bean oil) as a substitute for heavy fuel oil in the current (2006) fleet and compare their climate impact to that resulting from heavy fuel oil use. Our simulations suggest that ship-induced surface level concentrations of sulfate aerosol are strongly reduced, up to about 40-60% in the high-traffic regions. This clearly has positive consequences for pollution reduction in the vicinity of major harbors. Additionally, such reductions in the aerosol loading lead to a decrease of a factor of 3-4 in the indirect global aerosol effect induced by emissions from international shipping.

  2. Global impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy: A general equilibrium perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Samuel Garner

    The conversion of biomass to energy represents a promising pathway forward in efforts to reduce fossil fuel use in the transportation and electricity sectors. In addition to potential benefits, such as greenhouse gas reductions and increased energy security, bioenergy production also presents a unique set of challenges. These challenges include tradeoffs between food and fuel production, distortions in energy markets, and terrestrial emissions associated with changing land-use patterns. Each of these challenges arises from market-mediated responses to bioenergy production, and are therefore largely economic in nature. This dissertation directly addresses these opportunities and challenges by evaluating the economic impacts of U.S. bioenergy production and policy, focusing on both existing and future biomass-to-energy pathways. The analysis approaches the issue from a global, economy-wide perspective, reflecting two important facts. First, that large-scale bioenergy production connects multiple sectors of the economy due to the use of agricultural land resources for biomass production, and competition with fossil fuels in energy markets. Second, markets for both agricultural and energy commodities are highly integrated globally, causing domestic policies to have international effects. The reader can think of this work as being comprised of three parts. Part I provides context through an extensive review of the literature on the market-mediated effects of conventional biofuel production (Chapter 2) and develops a general equilibrium modeling framework for assessing the extent to which these phenomenon present a challenge for future bioenergy pathways (Chapter 3). Part II (Chapter 4) explores the economic impacts of the lignocellulosic biofuel production targets set in the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard on global agricultural and energy commodity markets. Part III (Chapter 5) extends the analysis to consider potential inefficiencies associated with policy

  3. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM 2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM 2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM 2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  4. Environmental and socio-economic impacts of global climate change: An overview on mitigation approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to bring about major change in freshwater availability, the productive capacity of soils, and in patterns of human settlement. Likewise, climate change is intimately linked to human health either directly or indirectly. However, considerable uncertainties exist with regard to the extent and geographical distribution of these changes. Predicting scenarios for how climate-related environmental change may influence human societies and political systems necessarily involves an even higher degree of uncertainty. Societies have a long record of adapting to climate risks and, climate changes. Household asset portfolios and livelihood choices are shaped by the need to manage climatic risks, especially in rural areas and for lowincome households. Likewise, disaggregated analysis revealed that demographic and environmental variables have a very profound effect on the risk of civil conflict and hence peace. In nutshell, we can say that there may be multifaceted impact of climate change in its totality. Further, different views, issues and mitigation measures are discussed particularly in Indian scenario. In this direction, The "National Action Plan on Climate Change" was set by Indian Prime Minister which encompasses a broad and extensive range of measures, and focuses on eight missions, which will be pursued as key components of the strategy for sustainable development. These include missions on solar energy, enhanced energy efficiency, sustainable habitat, conserving water, sustaining the Himalayan ecosystem, creating a "Green India," sustainable agriculture and, finally, establishing a strategic knowledge platform for climate change. Finally, different steps/approaches pertaining to green, eco-friendly and sustainable technology has been discussed in order to mitigate the impact of global environmental damage originating from increased industrialization and hence appropriately address this global disaster which is being the

  5. The impacts of the global economic crisis on selected segments of the world trade in commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Horská

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impacts of the economic crisis on the world trade in order to highlight the mutual interdependence of the development of the world output and trade. The paper observes mutual correlation in development of the world trade and output. The results of the analysis indicate that changes in the value of world GDP and world trade are correlated by more than 90%. It is important to mention that in the years 2000–2009, the value of world trade and world output increased significantly (although in 2009, a significant decline in both value and volume of global production and trade was recorded due to the crisis. In relation to the world trade, it should be noted that its commodity structure is dominated by trade in manufactures. The crisis that occurred in the period 2008–2009 greatly affected the world economy and trade in particular. In this respect it should be pointed out that the crisis mainly affected trade in manufactures and then trade in fuels and mining outputs in terms of both absolute and relative indicators. Agrarian trade dealt with the crisis the best and the impact of the crisis on development of its values and volume was the least significant. This verifies the fact that agrarian and food products tend to be the most resistant to the crisis (on contrary, in times of global economic growth or reconstruction, the trade in agrarian and food products shows lower degree of elasticity in relation to the global GDP growth in comparison to other segments of commodities trade.

  6. IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPANY: THE CASE OF COMPANIES FROM BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mahmutović

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The discourse of globalization and its effects have been the most current topic in the field of economics in recent times. However, empirical research on the impact of globalization on companies, especially in transition countries, is very scarce. This paper focuses on the study of the impact of globalization on the performance of companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina by analyzing their interrelationships. The findings, in the case of companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina, have confirmed earlier findings about the double impact of globalization by showing, on the one hand, its positive effects and, on the other hand, the negative effects on the performance of the companies. Additionally, the research results have shown that negative effects are felt more strongly in the case of small and medium-sized companies than in the case of large companies.

  7. Effects of Global Change on U.S. Urban Areas: Vulnerabilities, Impacts, and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.; Kirshen, Paul; Romero-Lnkao, Patricia; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruth, Matthias; Solecki, William; Tarr, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Human settlements, both large and small, are where the vast majority of people on the Earth live. Expansion of cities both in population and areal extent, is a relentless process that will accelerate in the 21st century. As a consequence of urban growth both in the United States and around the globe, it is important to develop an understanding of how urbanization will affect the local and regional environment. Of equal importance, however, is the assessment of how cities will be impacted by the looming prospects of global climate change and climate variability. The potential impacts of climate change and variability has recently been annunciated by the IPCC's "Climate Change 2007" report. Moreover, the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is preparing a series of "Synthesis and Assessment Products" (SAPs) reports to support informed discussion and decision making regarding climate change and variability by policy matters, resource managers, stakeholders, the media, and the general public. We are authors on a SAP describing the effects of global climate change on human settlements. This paper will present the elements of our SAP report that relate to what vulnerabilities and impacts will occur, what adaptation responses may take place, and what possible effects on settlement patterns and characteristics will potentially arise, on human settlements in the U.S. as a result of climate change and climate variability. We will also present some recommendations about what should be done to further research on how climate change and variability will impact human settlements in the U.S., as well as how to engage government officials, policy and decision makers, and the general public in understanding the implications of climate change and variability on the local and regional levels. Additionally, we wish to explore how technology such as remote sensing data coupled with modeling, can be employed as synthesis tools for deriving insight across a spectrum of impacts (e

  8. The impact of future sea-level rise on the global tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, M. D.; Horsburgh, K. J.; Blundell, J. R.; Hirschi, J. J.-M.; Nicholls, R. J.; Verlaan, M.; Wells, N. C.

    2017-06-01

    Tides are a key component in coastal extreme water levels. Possible changes in the tides caused by mean sea-level rise (SLR) are therefore of importance in the analysis of coastal flooding, as well as many other applications. We investigate the effect of future SLR on the tides globally using a fully global forward tidal model: OTISmpi. Statistical comparisons of the modelled and observed tidal solutions demonstrate the skill of the refined model setup with no reliance on data assimilation. We simulate the response of the four primary tidal constituents to various SLR scenarios. Particular attention is paid to future changes at the largest 136 coastal cities, where changes in water level would have the greatest impact. Spatially uniform SLR scenarios ranging from 0.5 to 10 m with fixed coastlines show that the tidal amplitudes in shelf seas globally respond strongly to SLR with spatially coherent areas of increase and decrease. Changes in the M2 and S2 constituents occur globally in most shelf seas, whereas changes in K1 and O1 are confined to Asian shelves. With higher SLR tidal changes are often not proportional to the SLR imposed and larger portions of mean high water (MHW) changes are above proportional. Changes in MHW exceed ±10% of the SLR at 10% of coastal cities. SLR scenarios allowing for coastal recession tend increasingly to result in a reduction in tidal range. The fact that the fixed and recession shoreline scenarios result mainly in changes of opposing sign is explained by the effect of the perturbations on the natural period of oscillation of the basin. Our results suggest that coastal management strategies could influence the sign of the tidal amplitude change. The effect of a spatially varying SLR, in this case fingerprints of the initial elastic response to ice mass loss, modestly alters the tidal response with the largest differences at high latitudes.

  9. The impact of endurance exercise on global and AMPK gene-specific DNA methylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King-Himmelreich, Tanya S.; Schramm, Stefanie; Wolters, Miriam C.; Schmetzer, Julia; Möser, Christine V.; Knothe, Claudia [pharmazentrum frankfurt/ZAFES, Institut für Klinische Pharmakologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Resch, Eduard [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Project Group for Translational Medicine & Pharmacology (TMP), 60596, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Peil, Johannes [Sports Clinic, Bad Nauheim, MCI GmbH, In der Aue 30-32, 61231, Bad Nauheim (Germany); Geisslinger, Gerd [pharmazentrum frankfurt/ZAFES, Institut für Klinische Pharmakologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Project Group for Translational Medicine & Pharmacology (TMP), 60596, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Niederberger, Ellen, E-mail: e.niederberger@em.uni-frankfurt.de [pharmazentrum frankfurt/ZAFES, Institut für Klinische Pharmakologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-05-27

    Alterations in gene expression as a consequence of physical exercise are frequently described. The mechanism of these regulations might depend on epigenetic changes in global or gene-specific DNA methylation levels. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in maintenance of energy homeostasis and is activated by increases in the AMP/ATP ratio as occurring in skeletal muscles after sporting activity. To analyze whether exercise has an impact on the methylation status of the AMPK promoter, we determined the AMPK methylation status in human blood samples from patients before and after sporting activity in the context of rehabilitation as well as in skeletal muscles of trained and untrained mice. Further, we examined long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) as indicator of global DNA methylation changes. Our results revealed that light sporting activity in mice and humans does not alter global DNA methylation but has an effect on methylation of specific CpG sites in the AMPKα2 gene. These regulations were associated with a reduced AMPKα2 mRNA and protein expression in muscle tissue, pointing at a contribution of the methylation status to AMPK expression. Taken together, these results suggest that exercise influences AMPKα2 gene methylation in human blood and eminently in the skeletal muscle of mice and therefore might repress AMPKα2 gene expression. -- Highlights: •AMPK gene methylation increases after moderate endurance exercise in humans and mice. •AMPKα mRNA and protein decrease after moderate endurance exercise in mice. •Global DNA methylation is not affected under the same conditions.

  10. Global and Domestic Spheres: Impact on The Traditional Settlement of Penglipuran in Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suartika, G. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    The issue addressed is how to situate the ‘life-world’ of a traditional Balinese village in the context of global tourism which is now worth USD 7.61 trillion, This problem has been brought sharply into focus, indeed amplified, by the recently adopted policy of local government in Bali to designate specific villages as tourist sites. Such action appears to be taking place in the absence of any prior studies of the social, environmental and other impacts on local communities. The following paper represents an initial attempt to sketch out the breadth of the problem from the global to the local. The paper first proceeds by examining the conceptual framework of globalisation - fundamentally an economic process, - from which global cultural identities merge. It proceeds to give an overview of policy at a global level starting with the idea of designated United Nations World Heritage sites and the inevitable commodification of ‘place.’ Then the issues and problems that flow from these first sections are discussed. Next, the situation in Indonesia as a whole is brought into sharp relief, focussing on policy and legislation that affect the internationally celebrated island of Bali. Finally, a case study of Penglipuran, a traditional Bali Aga village is discussed taking into account the preceding context. In conclusion, suggestions are made as to the significant research and policy issues that need to be addressed concurrently with the development of the settlement. The study documented in this paper was conducted using phenomenological approaches. It was grounded by researcher's experiences, gained from her deep involvement in community life as well as physical and site observation activities during data collection period.

  11. The impact of endurance exercise on global and AMPK gene-specific DNA methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King-Himmelreich, Tanya S.; Schramm, Stefanie; Wolters, Miriam C.; Schmetzer, Julia; Möser, Christine V.; Knothe, Claudia; Resch, Eduard; Peil, Johannes; Geisslinger, Gerd; Niederberger, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in gene expression as a consequence of physical exercise are frequently described. The mechanism of these regulations might depend on epigenetic changes in global or gene-specific DNA methylation levels. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in maintenance of energy homeostasis and is activated by increases in the AMP/ATP ratio as occurring in skeletal muscles after sporting activity. To analyze whether exercise has an impact on the methylation status of the AMPK promoter, we determined the AMPK methylation status in human blood samples from patients before and after sporting activity in the context of rehabilitation as well as in skeletal muscles of trained and untrained mice. Further, we examined long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) as indicator of global DNA methylation changes. Our results revealed that light sporting activity in mice and humans does not alter global DNA methylation but has an effect on methylation of specific CpG sites in the AMPKα2 gene. These regulations were associated with a reduced AMPKα2 mRNA and protein expression in muscle tissue, pointing at a contribution of the methylation status to AMPK expression. Taken together, these results suggest that exercise influences AMPKα2 gene methylation in human blood and eminently in the skeletal muscle of mice and therefore might repress AMPKα2 gene expression. -- Highlights: •AMPK gene methylation increases after moderate endurance exercise in humans and mice. •AMPKα mRNA and protein decrease after moderate endurance exercise in mice. •Global DNA methylation is not affected under the same conditions.

  12. Impacts of Climate Change on the Global Invasion Potential of the African Clawed Frog Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlow, Flora; Courant, Julien; Secondi, Jean; Herrel, Anthony; Rebelo, Rui; Measey, G John; Lillo, Francesco; De Villiers, F André; Vogt, Solveig; De Busschere, Charlotte; Backeljau, Thierry; Rödder, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    By altering or eliminating delicate ecological relationships, non-indigenous species are considered a major threat to biodiversity, as well as a driver of environmental change. Global climate change affects ecosystems and ecological communities, leading to changes in the phenology, geographic ranges, or population abundance of several species. Thus, predicting the impacts of global climate change on the current and future distribution of invasive species is an important subject in macroecological studies. The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), native to South Africa, possesses a strong invasion potential and populations have become established in numerous countries across four continents. The global invasion potential of X. laevis was assessed using correlative species distribution models (SDMs). SDMs were computed based on a comprehensive set of occurrence records covering South Africa, North America, South America and Europe and a set of nine environmental predictors. Models were built using both a maximum entropy model and an ensemble approach integrating eight algorithms. The future occurrence probabilities for X. laevis were subsequently computed using bioclimatic variables for 2070 following four different IPCC scenarios. Despite minor differences between the statistical approaches, both SDMs predict the future potential distribution of X. laevis, on a global scale, to decrease across all climate change scenarios. On a continental scale, both SDMs predict decreasing potential distributions in the species' native range in South Africa, as well as in the invaded areas in North and South America, and in Australia where the species has not been introduced. In contrast, both SDMs predict the potential range size to expand in Europe. Our results suggest that all probability classes will be equally affected by climate change. New regional conditions may promote new invasions or the spread of established invasive populations, especially in France and Great Britain.

  13. 3D Global Climate Modelling of the environmental effect of meteoritic impacts on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbet, Martin; Forget, Francois; Gillmann, Cedric; Karatekin, Ozgur; Svetsov, Vladimir; Popova, Olga; Wallemacq, Quentin

    2016-10-01

    There are now robust evidences that liquid water flowed on ancient Mars: dry river beds and lakes, hydrated sedimentary minerals and high erosion rates. Climate models that consider only CO2/H2O as greenhouse gases have been unable yet to produce warm climates suitable for liquid water on Early Mars, given the lower solar luminosity at that time. It has been suggested that the warm conditions required to explain the formation of the 3.8 Gyrs old valley networks could have been transient and produced in response to the meteoritic impacts that occured during the contemporaneous Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB). This scenario is appealing because, in a predominately cold climate, the ice tends to accumulate preferentially in the regions where the rivers were sculpted ('Icy Highlands' scenario). This would be a very efficient mechanism of recharge of the valley network water sources between two impact-induced melting events.Using the LMD Global Climate Model (LMD-GCM) designed for flexible (from cold & dry to warm & wet) conditions, we explored the environmental effect of LHB impact events of various sizes on Early Mars. Our main result is that, whatever the initial impact-induced temperatures and water vapor content injected, warm climates cannot be stable and are in fact short-lived (lifetime of ~ 5 martian years/bar of H2O injected). Moreover, we will give preliminar estimates of the amount of rainfall/snowmelt that can be produced after impact events depending on their size, following three different approaches:1) For large impact events (Dimpactor warm/moist conditions prescribed with simple scaling laws and assuming energy conservation.2) For moderate-size events (5km < Dimpactor < 50km, N ~ 3x103) we use the SOVA hydrocode for short-term modelling of impact cratering. It provides us with post-impact temperature fields, injection of volatiles, ejecta and dust distribution that serve as input for the LMD-GCM.3) Simultaneously, we derive the cumulated long-term effect

  14. Novel Control Effectors for Truss Braced Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Edward V.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Joshi, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    At cruise flight conditions very high aspect ratio/low sweep truss braced wings (TBW) may be subject to design requirements that distinguish them from more highly swept cantilevered wings. High aspect ratio, short chord length and relative thinness of the airfoil sections all contribute to relatively low wing torsional stiffness. This may lead to aeroelastic issues such as aileron reversal and low flutter margins. In order to counteract these issues, high aspect ratio/low sweep wings may need to carry additional high speed control effectors to operate when outboard ailerons are in reversal and/or must carry additional structural weight to enhance torsional stiffness. The novel control effector evaluated in this study is a variable sweep raked wing tip with an aileron control surface. Forward sweep of the tip allows the aileron to align closely with the torsional axis of the wing and operate in a conventional fashion. Aft sweep of the tip creates a large moment arm from the aileron to the wing torsional axis greatly enhancing aileron reversal. The novelty comes from using this enhanced and controllable aileron reversal effect to provide roll control authority by acting as a servo tab and providing roll control through intentional twist of the wing. In this case the reduced torsional stiffness of the wing becomes an advantage to be exploited. The study results show that the novel control effector concept does provide roll control as described, but only for a restricted class of TBW aircraft configurations. For the configuration studied (long range, dual aisle, Mach 0.85 cruise) the novel control effector provides significant benefits including up to 12% reduction in fuel burn.

  15. Impacts and responses to sea-level rise: A global analysis of the SRES scenarios over the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolls, R.J.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Taking the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) climate and socio-economic scenarios (A1FI, A2, B1and B2 'future worlds'), the potential impacts of sea-level rise through the twenty-first century are explored using complementary impact and economic analysis methods at the global scale. These

  16. Global estimates of the impact of a collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet: An application of FUND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, R.J.; Tol, R.S.J.; Vafeidis, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    The threat of an abrupt and extreme rise in sea level is widely discussed in the media, but little understood in practise, especially the likely impacts of such a rise including a potential adaptation response. This paper explores for the first time the global impacts of extreme sea-level rise,

  17. Subversion of trafficking, apoptosis, and innate immunity by type III secretion system effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Benoit; Young, Joanna C; Pallett, Mitchell; Endres, Robert G; Clements, Abigail; Frankel, Gad

    2013-08-01

    Injection of effector proteins by a type III secretion system (T3SS) is a common infection strategy employed by many important human pathogens, including enteric Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Yersinia, and Shigella, to subvert cell signaling and host responses. In recent years, great advances have been made in understanding how the T3SS effectors function and execute the diverse infection strategies employed by these pathogens. In this review, we focus on effectors that subvert signaling pathways that impact on endosomal trafficking, cell survival, and innate immunity, particularly phagocytosis, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways and the inflammasome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of accelerated future global mean sea level rise on hypoxia in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, H. E. M.; Höglund, A.; Eilola, K.; Almroth-Rosell, E.

    2017-07-01

    Expanding hypoxia is today a major threat for many coastal seas around the world and disentangling its drivers is a large challenge for interdisciplinary research. Using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model we estimate the impact of past and accelerated future global mean sea level rise (GSLR) upon water exchange and oxygen conditions in a semi-enclosed, shallow sea. As a study site, the Baltic Sea was chosen that suffers today from eutrophication and from dead bottom zones due to (1) excessive nutrient loads from land, (2) limited water exchange with the world ocean and (3) perhaps other drivers like global warming. We show from model simulations for the period 1850-2008 that the impacts of past GSLR on the marine ecosystem were relatively small. If we assume for the end of the twenty-first century a GSLR of +0.5 m relative to today's mean sea level, the impact on the marine ecosystem may still be small. Such a GSLR corresponds approximately to the projected ensemble-mean value reported by the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. However, we conclude that GSLR should be considered in future high-end projections (>+1 m) for the Baltic Sea and other coastal seas with similar hydrographical conditions as in the Baltic because GSLR may lead to reinforced saltwater inflows causing higher salinity and increased vertical stratification compared to present-day conditions. Contrary to intuition, reinforced ventilation of the deep water does not lead to overall improved oxygen conditions but causes instead expanded dead bottom areas accompanied with increased internal phosphorus loads from the sediments and increased risk for cyanobacteria blooms.

  19. Impact of BRICS’ investment in vaccine development on the global vaccine market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstien, Julie; Schmitt, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa – the countries known as BRICS – have made considerable progress in vaccine production, regulation and development over the past 20 years. In 1993, all five countries were producing vaccines but the processes used were outdated and non-standardized, there was little relevant research and there was negligible international recognition of the products. By 2014, all five countries had strong initiatives for the development of vaccine technology and had greatly improved their national regulatory capacity. South Africa was then the only BRICS country that was not completely producing vaccines. South Africa is now in the process of re-establishing its own vaccine production and passing beyond the stage of simply importing, formulating and filling vaccine bulks. Changes in the public sector’s price per dose of selected vaccines, the global market share represented by products from specific manufacturers, and the attractiveness, for multinational companies, of partnership and investment opportunities in BRICS companies have all been analysed. The results indicate that the BRICS countries have had a major impact on vaccine price and availability, with much of that impact attributable to the output of Indian vaccine manufacturers. China is expected to have a greater impact soon, given the anticipated development of Chinese vaccine manufacturers in the near future. BRICS’ accomplishments in the field of vaccine development are expected to reshape the global vaccine market and accelerate access to vaccines in the developing world. The challenge is to turn these expectations into strategic actions and practical outcomes. PMID:24940018

  20. The environmental roots of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and the epigenetic impacts of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineis, Paolo; Stringhini, Silvia; Porta, Miquel

    2014-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing worldwide. We hypothesize that environmental factors (including social adversity, diet, lack of physical activity and pollution) can become "embedded" in the biology of humans. We also hypothesize that the "embedding" partly occurs because of epigenetic changes, i.e., durable changes in gene expression patterns. Our concern is that once such factors have a foundation in human biology, they can affect human health (including NCDs) over a long period of time and across generations. To analyze how worldwide changes in movements of goods, persons and lifestyles (globalization) may affect the "epigenetic landscape" of populations and through this have an impact on NCDs. We provide examples of such changes and effects by discussing the potential epigenetic impact of socio-economic status, migration, and diet, as well as the impact of environmental factors influencing trends in age at puberty. The study of durable changes in epigenetic patterns has the potential to influence policy and practice; for example, by enabling stratification of populations into those who could particularly benefit from early interventions to prevent NCDs, or by demonstrating mechanisms through which environmental factors influence disease risk, thus providing compelling evidence for policy makers, companies and the civil society at large. The current debate on the '25 × 25 strategy', a goal of 25% reduction in relative mortality from NCDs by 2025, makes the proposed approach even more timely. Epigenetic modifications related to globalization may crucially contribute to explain current and future patterns of NCDs, and thus deserve attention from environmental researchers, public health experts, policy makers, and concerned citizens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. U.S. Global Climate Change Impacts Report, Overview of Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuebbles, D.

    2009-12-01

    The assessment of the Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States includes analyses of the potential climate change impacts by sector, including water resources, energy supply and use, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, human health and society. The resulting findings for the climate change impacts on these sectors are discussed in this presentation, with the effects on water resources discussed separately. Major findings include: Widespread climate-related impacts are occurring now and are expected to increase. Climate changes are already affecting water, energy, transportation, agriculture, ecosystems, and health. These impacts are different from region to region and will grow under projected climate change. Crop and livestock production will be increasingly challenged. Agriculture is considered one of the sectors most adaptable to changes in climate. However, increased heat, pests, water stress, diseases, and weather extremes will pose adaptation challenges for crop and livestock production. Coastal areas are at increasing risk from sea-level rise and storm surge. Sea-level rise and storm surge place many U.S. coastal areas at increasing risk. Energy and transportation infrastructure and other property in coastal areas are very likely to be adversely affected. Threats to human health will increase. Health impacts of climate change are related to heat stress, waterborne diseases, poor air quality, extreme weather events, and diseases transmitted by insects and rodents. Robust public health infrastructure can reduce the potential for negative impacts. Climate change will interact with many social and environmental stresses. Climate change will combine with pollution, population growth, overuse of resources, urbanization, and other social, economic, and environmental stresses to create larger impacts than from any of these factors alone. Thresholds will be crossed, leading to large changes in climate and ecosystems. There are a variety of thresholds in

  2. Ozone impacts of gas-aerosol uptake in global chemistry transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadtler, Scarlet; Simpson, David; Schröder, Sabine; Taraborrelli, Domenico; Bott, Andreas; Schultz, Martin

    2018-03-01

    The impact of six heterogeneous gas-aerosol uptake reactions on tropospheric ozone and nitrogen species was studied using two chemical transport models, the Meteorological Synthesizing Centre-West of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP MSC-W) and the European Centre Hamburg general circulation model combined with versions of the Hamburg Aerosol Model and Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (ECHAM-HAMMOZ). Species undergoing heterogeneous reactions in both models include N2O5, NO3, NO2, O3, HNO3, and HO2. Since heterogeneous reactions take place at the aerosol surface area, the modelled surface area density (Sa) of both models was compared to a satellite product retrieving the surface area. This comparison shows a good agreement in global pattern and especially the capability of both models to capture the extreme aerosol loadings in east Asia. The impact of the heterogeneous reactions was evaluated by the simulation of a reference run containing all heterogeneous reactions and several sensitivity runs. One reaction was turned off in each sensitivity run to compare it with the reference run. The analysis of the sensitivity runs confirms that the globally most important heterogeneous reaction is the one of N2O5. Nevertheless, NO2, HNO3, and HO2 heterogeneous reactions gain relevance particularly in east Asia due to the presence of high NOx concentrations and high Sa in the same region. The heterogeneous reaction of O3 itself on dust is of minor relevance compared to the other heterogeneous reactions. The impacts of the N2O5 reactions show strong seasonal variations, with the biggest impacts on O3 in springtime when photochemical reactions are active and N2O5 levels still high. Evaluation of the models with northern hemispheric ozone surface observations yields a better agreement of the models with observations in terms of concentration levels, variability, and temporal correlations at most sites when the heterogeneous reactions are

  3. Impact of management strategies on the global warming potential at the cropping system level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goglio, Pietro; Grant, Brian B.; Smith, Ward N. [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Desjardins, Raymond L., E-mail: ray.desjardins@agr.gc.ca [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Worth, Devon E. [Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, K.W. Neatby Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6 (Canada); Zentner, Robert [Swift Current Research Station, Swift Current, Saskatchewan S0E 1A0 (Canada); Malhi, Sukhdev S. [Melfort Research Farm, PO Box 1240, Melfort, Saskatchewan S0E 1A0 (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural systems is important in order to assess the impact of agriculture on climate change. In this study experimental data supplemented with results from a biophysical model (DNDC) were combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the impact of management strategies on global warming potential of long-term cropping systems at two locations (Breton and Ellerslie) in Alberta, Canada. The aim was to estimate the difference in global warming potential (GWP) of cropping systems due to N fertilizer reduction and residue removal. Reducing the nitrogen fertilizer rate from 75 to 50 kg N ha{sup −1} decreased on average the emissions of N{sub 2}O by 39%, NO by 59% and ammonia volatilisation by 57%. No clear trend for soil CO{sub 2} emissions was determined among cropping systems. When evaluated on a per hectare basis, cropping systems with residue removal required 6% more energy and had a little change in GWP. Conversely, when evaluated on the basis of gigajoules of harvestable biomass, residue removal resulted in 28% less energy requirement and 33% lower GWP. Reducing nitrogen fertilizer rate resulted in 18% less GWP on average for both functional units at Breton and 39% less GWP at Ellerslie. Nitrous oxide emissions contributed on average 67% to the overall GWP per ha. This study demonstrated that small changes in N fertilizer have a minimal impact on the productivity of the cropping systems but can still have a substantial environmental impact. - Highlights: • LCA was combined with DNDC model to estimate the GWP of a cropping system. • N{sub 2}O, NO and NH{sub 3} flux increased by 39% under the higher fertilizer rate. • A change from 75 to 50 kg N ha{sup −1} reduced the GWP per ha and GJ basis by 18%. • N{sub 2}O emissions contributed 67% to the overall GWP of the cropping system. • Small changes in N fertilizer can have a substantial environmental impact.

  4. Proceedings of the 2015 international summit on fibropapillomatosis: Global status, trends, and population impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Stacy A.; Work, Thierry M.; Brunson, Shandell; Foley, Allen M.; Balazs, George H.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 International Summit on Fibropapillomatosis (FP) was convened in Honolulu, Hawaii June 11-14, 2015. Scientists from around the world were invited to present results from sea turtle monitoring and research programs as they relate to the global status, trends, and population impacts of FP on green turtles. The participants engaged in discussions that resulted in the following conclusions: 1.Globally, FP has long been present in wild sea turtle populations the earliest mention was in the late 1800s in the Florida Keys. 2.FP primarily affects medium-sized immature turtles in coastal foraging pastures. 3.Expression of FP differs across ocean basins and to some degree within basins. Turtles in the Southeast US, Caribbean, Brazil, and Australia rarely have oral tumors (inside the mouth cavity), whereas they are common and often severe in Hawaii. Internal tumors (on vital organs) occur in the Atlantic and Hawaii, but only rarely in Australia. Liver tumors are common in Florida but not in Hawaii. 4.Recovery from FP through natural processes, when the affliction is not severe, has been documented in wild populations globally. 5.FP causes reduced survivorship, but documented mortality rates in Australia and Hawaii are low. The mortality impact of FP is not currently exceeding population growth rates in some intensively monitored populations (e.g., Florida, Hawaii) as evidenced by increasing nesting trends despite the incidence of FP in immature foraging populations. 6.Pathogens, hosts, and potential disease and environmental cofactors have the capacity to change; while we are having success now, there needs to be continued monitoring to detect changes in the distribution, occurrence, and severity of the disease. 7.While we do not have clear evidence to provide the direct link, globally, the preponderance of sites with a high frequency of FP tumors are areas with some degree of degradation resulting from altered watersheds. Watershed management and responsible coastal

  5. Evaluating inter-continental transport of fine aerosols:(2) Global health impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Horowitz, Larry W.

    In this second of two companion papers, we quantify for the first time the global impact on premature mortality of the inter-continental transport of fine aerosols (including sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, and mineral dust) using the global modeling results of (Liu et al., 2009). Our objective is to estimate the number of premature mortalities in each of ten selected continental regions resulting from fine aerosols transported from foreign regions in approximately year 2000. Our simulated annual mean population-weighted (P-W) concentrations of total PM2.5 (aerosols with diameter less than 2.5 μm) are highest in East Asia (EA, 30 μg m -3) and lowest in Australia (3.6 μg m -3). Dust is the dominant component of PM2.5 transported between continents. We estimate global annual premature mortalities (for adults age 30 and up) due to inter-continental transport of PM2.5 to be nearly 380 thousand (K) in 2000. Approximately half of these deaths occur in the Indian subcontinent (IN), mostly due to aerosols transported from Africa and the Middle East (ME). Approximately 90K deaths globally are associated with exposure to foreign (i.e., originating outside a receptor region) non-dust PM2.5. More than half of the premature mortalities associated with foreign non-dust aerosols are due to aerosols originating from Europe (20K), ME (18K) and EA (15K); and nearly 60% of the 90K deaths occur in EA (21K), IN (19K) and Southeast Asia (16K). The lower and higher bounds of our estimated 95% confidence interval (considering uncertainties from the concentration-response relationship and simulated aerosol concentrations) are 18% and 240% of the estimated deaths, respectively, and could be larger if additional uncertainties were quantified. We find that in 2000 nearly 6.6K premature deaths in North America (NA) were associated with foreign PM2.5 exposure (5.5K from dust PM2.5). NA is least impacted by foreign PM2.5 compared to receptors on the Eurasian continent. However, the

  6. The nature and the scope of the global economic crisis’ impact on employment trends and policies in South East Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Qerim Qerimi; Bruno S. Sergi

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the global economic downturn, its nature and impacts on the state of employment in the region of South East Europe. As the financial crisis spilled over into the real sector, its effects, with varying magnitude, ranging from relatively consequential to devastating, were such that inescapably impacted lives across the planet, with the poorest as the most vulnerable and marginalized bearing a particularly heavy burden. The crisis has had disproportionate im...

  7. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crippa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The EDGARv4.3.1 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research global anthropogenic emissions inventory of gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds and NH3 and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon air pollutants for the period 1970–2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emissions scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in energy consumption and efficiency, technology progress and end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields at European and global scale. The reference EDGARv4.3.1 emissions include observed and reported changes in activity data, fuel consumption and air pollution abatement technologies over the past 4 decades, combined with Tier 1 and region-specific Tier 2 emission factors. Two further retrospective scenarios assess the interplay of policy and industry. The highest emission STAG_TECH scenario assesses the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe reduction measures in the European Union, by considering historical fuel consumption, along with a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors since 1970, and assuming no further abatement measures and improvement imposed by European emission standards. The lowest emission STAG_ENERGY scenario evaluates the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy consumption since the year 1970, but assuming the technological development, end-of-pipe reductions, fuel mix and energy efficiency of 2010. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, manufacturing industry and road transport, which are subject to multi-pollutant European Union Air Quality regulations. Stagnation of technology and air pollution reduction measures at 1970 levels would have led to 129 % (or factor 2.3 higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions in Europe (EU27, demonstrating the large

  8. Impact of Forest Management on Species Richness: Global Meta-Analysis and Economic Trade-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Abhishek; Burivalova, Zuzana; Koh, Lian Pin; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2016-04-01

    Forests managed for timber have an important role to play in conserving global biodiversity. We evaluated the most common timber production systems worldwide in terms of their impact on local species richness by conducting a categorical meta-analysis. We reviewed 287 published studies containing 1008 comparisons of species richness in managed and unmanaged forests and derived management, taxon, and continent specific effect sizes. We show that in terms of local species richness loss, forest management types can be ranked, from best to worse, as follows: selection and retention systems, reduced impact logging, conventional selective logging, clear-cutting, agroforestry, timber plantations, fuelwood plantations. Next, we calculated the economic profitability in terms of the net present value of timber harvesting from 10 hypothetical wood-producing Forest Management Units (FMU) from around the globe. The ranking of management types is altered when the species loss per unit profit generated from the FMU is considered. This is due to differences in yield, timber species prices, rotation cycle length and production costs. We thus conclude that it would be erroneous to dismiss or prioritize timber production regimes, based solely on their ranking of alpha diversity impacts.

  9. Comparison of global warming impacts of automobile air-conditioning concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The global warming impacts of conventional vapor compression automobile air conditioning using HFC-134a are compared with the potential impacts of four alternative concepts. Comparisons are made on the basis of total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) which accounts for the effects of refrigerant emissions, energy use to provide comfort cooling, and fuel consumed to transport the weight of the air conditioning system. Under the most favorable assumptions on efficiency and weight, transcritical compression using CO{sub 2} as the refrigerant and adsorption cooling with water and zeolite beds could reduce TEWI by up to 18%rlative to HFC-134a compression air conditioning. Other assumptions on weight and efficiency lead to significant increases in TEWI relative to HFC-134a, and it is impossible to determine which set of assumptios is valid from existing data, Neither Stirling cycle or thermoelectric cooling will reduce TEWI relative to EFC-134a. Brief comments are also made concerning technical barriers that must be overcome for succesful development of the new technologies.

  10. Impacts of Soil-aquifer Heat and Water Fluxes on Simulated Global Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, N.Y.; Puma, Michael J.; Cook, B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Climate models have traditionally only represented heat and water fluxes within relatively shallow soil layers, but there is increasing interest in the possible role of heat and water exchanges with the deeper subsurface. Here, we integrate an idealized 50m deep aquifer into the land surface module of the GISS ModelE general circulation model to test the influence of aquifer-soil moisture and heat exchanges on climate variables. We evaluate the impact on the modeled climate of aquifer-soil heat and water fluxes separately, as well as in combination. The addition of the aquifer to ModelE has limited impact on annual-mean climate, with little change in global mean land temperature, precipitation, or evaporation. The seasonal amplitude of deep soil temperature is strongly damped by the soil-aquifer heat flux. This not only improves the model representation of permafrost area but propagates to the surface, resulting in an increase in the seasonal amplitude of surface air temperature of >1K in the Arctic. The soil-aquifer water and heat fluxes both slightly decrease interannual variability in soil moisture and in landsurface temperature, and decrease the soil moisture memory of the land surface on seasonal to annual timescales. The results of this experiment suggest that deepening the modeled land surface, compared to modeling only a shallower soil column with a no-flux bottom boundary condition, has limited impact on mean climate but does affect seasonality and interannual persistence.

  11. Local Social and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: Global Comparative Assessment and Implications for Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura German

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2000s witnessed the rapid expansion of biofuel plantations in the global South in the context of a growing trend of crop plantation expansion. This trend has been spurred by policies in the European Union, United States, Brazil, and other countries favoring the use of biofuels in the transport sector to enhance energy security and reduce carbon emissions, as well as by the desire of governments in developing countries to harness the stimulus that new commercial investments provide to the agricultural sector and to national economies. Despite these potential benefits, a number of concerns have been raised about the local social and environmental impacts of biofuel feedstock expansion. We shed light on this debate through a synthesis of findings from case studies in six biofuel producer countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, and a seventh paper exploring the implications of the land-use changes observed in these case studies for the climate mitigation potential of biofuels. We also explore the implications for governing the environmental impacts of biofuel feedstock production, protecting the rights of customary land users, and enabling smallholder-inclusive business models. Our analysis suggests that better governance of the sector's impacts is not the exclusive preserve of unitary sets of actors, but instead requires concerted and coordinated efforts by governments of producer and consumer countries, investors, civil society, and the financial sector to better capture the sector's potential while minimizing its social and environmental costs.

  12. Impacts of soil–aquifer heat and water fluxes on simulated global climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Krakauer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate models have traditionally only represented heat and water fluxes within relatively shallow soil layers, but there is increasing interest in the possible role of heat and water exchanges with the deeper subsurface. Here, we integrate an idealized 50 m deep aquifer into the land surface module of the GISS ModelE general circulation model to test the influence of aquifer–soil moisture and heat exchanges on climate variables. We evaluate the impact on the modeled climate of aquifer–soil heat and water fluxes separately, as well as in combination. The addition of the aquifer to ModelE has limited impact on annual-mean climate, with little change in global mean land temperature, precipitation, or evaporation. The seasonal amplitude of deep soil temperature is strongly damped by the soil–aquifer heat flux. This not only improves the model representation of permafrost area but propagates to the surface, resulting in an increase in the seasonal amplitude of surface air temperature of > 1 K in the Arctic. The soil–aquifer water and heat fluxes both slightly decrease interannual variability in soil moisture and in land-surface temperature, and decrease the soil moisture memory of the land surface on seasonal to annual timescales. The results of this experiment suggest that deepening the modeled land surface, compared to modeling only a shallower soil column with a no-flux bottom boundary condition, has limited impact on mean climate but does affect seasonality and interannual persistence.

  13. The Global Meningococcal Initiative: global epidemiology, the impact of vaccines on meningococcal disease and the importance of herd protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, Ray; Alarcón, Pedro; Carlos, Josefina; Caugant, Dominique A; Christensen, Hannah; Debbag, Roberto; De Wals, Philippe; Echániz-Aviles, Gabriela; Findlow, Jamie; Head, Chris; Holt, Daphne; Kamiya, Hajime; Saha, Samir K; Sidorenko, Sergey; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Trotter, Caroline; Vázquez Moreno, Julio A; von Gottberg, Anne; Sáfadi, Marco A P

    2017-04-01

    The 2015 Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) meeting discussed the global importance of meningococcal disease (MD) and its continually changing epidemiology. Areas covered: Although recent vaccination programs have been successful in reducing incidence in many countries (e.g. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup [Men]C in Brazil, MenA in the African meningitis belt), new clones have emerged, causing outbreaks (e.g. MenW in South America, MenC in Nigeria and Niger). The importance of herd protection was highlighted, emphasizing the need for high vaccination uptake among those with the highest carriage rates, as was the need for boosters to maintain individual and herd protection following decline of immune response after primary immunization. Expert commentary: The GMI Global Recommendations for Meningococcal Disease were updated to include a recommendation to enable access to whole-genome sequencing as for surveillance, guidance on strain typing to guide use of subcapsular vaccines, and recognition of the importance of advocacy and awareness campaigns.

  14. Impact of transport model errors on the global and regional methane emissions estimated by inverse modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, R.; Bousquet, P.; Chevallier, F.; Fortems-Cheney, A.; Szopa, S.; Saunois, M.; Agusti-Panareda, A.; Bergmann, D.; Bian, H.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Gloor, E.; Houweling, S.; Kawa, S. R.; Krol, M.; Patra, P. K.; Prinn, R. G.; Rigby, M.; Saito, R.; Wilson, C.

    2013-10-01

    A modelling experiment has been conceived to assess the impact of transport model errors on methane emissions estimated in an atmospheric inversion system. Synthetic methane observations, obtained from 10 different model outputs from the international TransCom-CH4 model inter-comparison exercise, are combined with a prior scenario of methane emissions and sinks, and integrated into the three-component PYVAR-LMDZ-SACS (PYthon VARiational-Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique model with Zooming capability-Simplified Atmospheric Chemistry System) inversion system to produce 10 different methane emission estimates at the global scale for the year 2005. The same methane sinks, emissions and initial conditions have been applied to produce the 10 synthetic observation datasets. The same inversion set-up (statistical errors, prior emissions, inverse procedure) is then applied to derive flux estimates by inverse modelling. Consequently, only differences in the modelling of atmospheric transport may cause differences in the estimated fluxes. In our framework, we show that transport model errors lead to a discrepancy of 27 Tg yr-1 at the global scale, representing 5% of total methane emissions. At continental and annual scales, transport model errors are proportionally larger than at the global scale, with errors ranging from 36 Tg yr-1 in North America to 7 Tg yr-1 in Boreal Eurasia (from 23 to 48%, respectively). At the model grid-scale, the spread of inverse estimates can reach 150% of the prior flux. Therefore, transport model errors contribute significantly to overall uncertainties in emission estimates by inverse modelling, especially when small spatial scales are examined. Sensitivity tests have been carried out to estimate the impact of the measurement network and the advantage of higher horizontal resolution in transport models. The large differences found between methane flux estimates inferred in these different configurations highly question the consistency of

  15. Impact of transport model errors on the global and regional methane emissions estimated by inverse modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Locatelli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A modelling experiment has been conceived to assess the impact of transport model errors on methane emissions estimated in an atmospheric inversion system. Synthetic methane observations, obtained from 10 different model outputs from the international TransCom-CH4 model inter-comparison exercise, are combined with a prior scenario of methane emissions and sinks, and integrated into the three-component PYVAR-LMDZ-SACS (PYthon VARiational-Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique model with Zooming capability-Simplified Atmospheric Chemistry System inversion system to produce 10 different methane emission estimates at the global scale for the year 2005. The same methane sinks, emissions and initial conditions have been applied to produce the 10 synthetic observation datasets. The same inversion set-up (statistical errors, prior emissions, inverse procedure is then applied to derive flux estimates by inverse modelling. Consequently, only differences in the modelling of atmospheric transport may cause differences in the estimated fluxes. In our framework, we show that transport model errors lead to a discrepancy of 27 Tg yr−1 at the global scale, representing 5% of total methane emissions. At continental and annual scales, transport model errors are proportionally larger than at the global scale, with errors ranging from 36 Tg yr−1 in North America to 7 Tg yr−1 in Boreal Eurasia (from 23 to 48%, respectively. At the model grid-scale, the spread of inverse estimates can reach 150% of the prior flux. Therefore, transport model errors contribute significantly to overall uncertainties in emission estimates by inverse modelling, especially when small spatial scales are examined. Sensitivity tests have been carried out to estimate the impact of the measurement network and the advantage of higher horizontal resolution in transport models. The large differences found between methane flux estimates inferred in these different configurations highly

  16. Global impacts of hydrological and climatic extremes on vegetation (SAT-EX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eck, Christel Melissa; Waegeman, Willem; Papagiannopoulou, Christina; Verhoest, Niko; Depoorter, Mathieu; Regnier, Pierre; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Dolman, A. Johannes; de Jeu, Richard; Dorigo, Wouter; Miralles, Diego G.

    2015-04-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and severity of droughts, extreme precipitation events and heatwaves. Recent studies have underlined the critical impacts of these extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle, particularly on the dynamics of vegetation. Yet, the latest IPCC report reveals large uncertainties in extremes trends and biomass impacts. Conversely, new advances in satellite Earth observation have led to the recent development of consistent global historical records of crucial environmental and climatic variables - like surface soil moisture, soil water storage, terrestrial evaporation or vegetation water content. These datasets provide alternative means to unravel the processes driving past climate extremes, uncover the spatiotemporal scales at which these extremes operate and understand their impact on terrestrial biomass. The SAT-EX project (funded by BELSPO) recently raised with the purpose of exploring the potential of the state-of-art remote sensing datasets to study the causes and consequences of the spatiotemporal changes in wet, dry and warm spells over the past three decades. Core methodologies involve the analysis of satellite-based climate extreme indices and vegetation characteristics through a novel combination of machine learning methods, fingerprint identification approaches, and spatio-temporal clustering. First results will show how droughts, heatwaves and extreme rain events have changed in frequency and intensity since the '80s, and attribute these changes to on-going processes like the widening of the tropical belt, ocean-atmospheric teleconnections, the intensification of land-atmospheric feedbacks or the overall rise in greenhouse gasses (and expected acceleration of the hydrological cycle). A specific focus will be given on large-scale vegetation response to climate extremes throughout our analyses. Further phases in the project will involve the evaluation of IPCC Earth System Models on the basis of their skill to

  17. Inferential monitoring of global change impact on biodiversity through remote sensing and species distribution modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangermano, Florencia

    2009-12-01

    The world is suffering from rapid changes in both climate and land cover which are the main factors affecting global biodiversity. These changes may affect ecosystems by altering species distributions, population sizes, and community compositions, which emphasizes the need for a rapid assessment of biodiversity status for conservation and management purposes. Current approaches on monitoring biodiversity rely mainly on long term observations of predetermined sites, which require large amounts of time, money and personnel to be executed. In order to overcome problems associated with current field monitoring methods, the main objective of this dissertation is the development of framework for inferential monitoring of the impact of global change on biodiversity based on remotely sensed data coupled with species distribution modeling techniques. Several research pieces were performed independently in order to fulfill this goal. First, species distribution modeling was used to identify the ranges of 6362 birds, mammals and amphibians in South America. Chapter 1 compares the power of different presence-only species distribution methods for modeling distributions of species with different response curves to environmental gradients and sample sizes. It was found that there is large variability in the power of the methods for modeling habitat suitability and species ranges, showing the importance of performing, when possible, a preliminary gradient analysis of the species distribution before selecting the method to be used. Chapter 2 presents a new methodology for the redefinition of species range polygons. Using a method capable of establishing the uncertainty in the definition of existing range polygons, the automated procedure identifies the relative importance of bioclimatic variables for the species, predicts their ranges and generates a quality assessment report to explore prediction errors. Analysis using independent validation data shows the power of this

  18. The global impact of non-communicable diseases on households and impoverishment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Colpani, Veronica; Chaker, Layal; van der Lee, Sven J; Muka, Taulant; Imo, David; Mendis, Shanthi; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Bramer, Wichor M; Falla, Abby; Pazoki, Raha; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-03-01

    The global economic impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on household expenditures and poverty indicators remains less well understood. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature evaluating the global economic impact of six NCDs [including coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer (lung, colon, cervical and breast), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)] on households and impoverishment. Medline, Embase and Google Scholar databases were searched from inception to November 6th 2014. To identify additional publications, reference lists of retrieved studies were searched. Randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, cohorts, case-control, cross-sectional, modeling and ecological studies carried out in adults and assessing the economic consequences of NCDs on households and impoverishment. No language restrictions. All abstract and full text selection was done by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers and checked by a third independent reviewer. Studies were included evaluating the impact of at least one of the selected NCDs and on at least one of the following measures: expenditure on medication, transport, co-morbidities, out-of-pocket (OOP) payments or other indirect costs; impoverishment, poverty line and catastrophic spending; household or individual financial cost. From 3,241 references, 64 studies met the inclusion criteria, 75% of which originated from the Americas and Western Pacific WHO region. Breast cancer and DM were the most studied NCDs (42 in total); CKD and COPD were the least represented (five and three studies respectively). OOP payments and financial catastrophe, mostly defined as OOP exceeding a certain proportion of household income, were the most studied outcomes. OOP expenditure as a proportion of family income, ranged between 2 and 158% across the different NCDs and countries. Financial catastrophe due to

  19. Engineering Barriers to Infection by Undermining Pathogen Effector Function or by Gaining Effector Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim; Mclellan, Hazel; Aguilar, Geziel Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews potential disease control strategies by employing the current understanding of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) and their receptors, as well as effectors and their targets. It discusses how effectoromics, i.e. surveying which, and to what level, effectors......-LRR transcript regulation that involves small RNAs is currently emerging and could potentially be explored in the search for more durable and/or broad-spectrum pathogen resistance. The chapter suggests ways that can be used to undermine effector function and be exploited to engineer resistant plants...... in the future. It further illustrates how a mechanistic understanding of a pathogen's stealth strategies may allow new approaches to engineer resistance....

  20. Impact of hadronic and nuclear corrections on global analysis of spin-dependent parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Accardi, Alberto [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Melnitchouk, Wally [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We present the first results of a new global next-to-leading order analysis of spin-dependent parton distribution functions from the most recent world data on inclusive polarized deep-inelastic scattering, focusing in particular on the large-x and low-Q^2 regions. By directly fitting polarization asymmetries we eliminate biases introduced by using polarized structure function data extracted under nonuniform assumptions for the unpolarized structure functions. For analysis of the large-x data we implement nuclear smearing corrections for deuterium and 3He nuclei, and systematically include target mass and higher twist corrections to the g_1 and g_2 structure functions at low Q^2. We also explore the effects of Q^2 and W^2 cuts in the data sets, and the potential impact of future data on the behavior of the spin-dependent parton distributions at large x.